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Sample records for twelve talkers read

  1. Talker-specific auditory imagery during reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Lynne C.; Duke, Jessica; Kawar, Kathleen; Queen, Jennifer S.

    2004-05-01

    The present experiment was designed to determine if auditory imagery during reading includes talker-specific characteristics such as speaking rate. Following Kosslyn and Matt (1977), participants were familiarized with two talkers during a brief prerecorded conversation. One talker spoke at a fast speaking rate and one spoke at a slow speaking rate. During familiarization, participants were taught to identify each talker by name. At test, participants were asked to read two passages and told that either the slow or fast talker wrote each passage. In one condition, participants were asked to read each passage aloud, and in a second condition, they were asked to read each passage silently. Participants pressed a key when they had completed reading the passage, and reading times were collected. Reading times were significantly slower when participants thought they were reading a passage written by the slow talker than when reading a passage written by the fast talker. However, the effects of speaking rate were only present in the reading-aloud condition. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the role of attention to talker's voice during familiarization. These results suggest that readers may engage in auditory imagery while reading that preserves perceptual details of an author's voice.

  2. Attention and Word Learning in Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Montemarano, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine attention allocation in toddlers who were late talkers and toddlers with typical language development while they were engaged in a word-learning task in order to determine if differences exist. Two-year-olds who were late talkers (11) and typically developing toddlers (11) were taught twelve novel…

  3. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.

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    Davis, Oliver S P; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J; Hanscombe, Ken B; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J C; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A Z; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S; Petrill, Stephen A; Schalkwyk, Leonard S; Craig, Ian W; Lewis, Cathryn M; Price, Thomas S; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C A

    2014-07-08

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve.

  4. Exploring Content Schemata Influence on L2 Reading: The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid

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    Amizura Hanadi Mohd Radzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the aspects of content schemata in second language reading among diploma level students who were taking a reading course in Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis. In this qualitative case study, the researcher had selected two short stories that are categorized as content-familiar texts, i.e. The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid. Six participants were asked to write a 150-word entry response on the short story and a grading criteria was used to assess the participants’ level of comprehension. An in-depth interview was also conducted on each participant. The entry responses and the interview patterns were analyzed to determine whether content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text. This study discovered that content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text because the learners’ comprehension was facilitated by their background knowledge on the content-familiar texts.

  5. Interlanguage intelligibility benefit as a function of talker and listener language background and L2 proficiency

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    Bent, Tessa; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2002-05-01

    For non-native listeners, intelligibility of non-native speakers (NNS) can surpass intelligibility of native speakers [T. Bent, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2472 (2001)]. The present study further investigated how language background and L2 proficiency of talker and listener affect L2 intelligibility. Two Chinese NNS, two Korean NNS, and one English monolingual were recorded reading simple English sentences. Listeners were English monolinguals, Chinese NNS, Korean NNS, and NNS with other L1s. For native English listeners, the native English talker was most intelligible. For non-native listeners, intelligibility of non-native talkers with high degrees of L2 proficiency was better than or equal to native talker intelligibility. This pattern held regardless of whether non-native talkers and listeners matched in L1. Additionally, the interlanguage benefit (i.e., the intelligibility difference between non-native and native talkers) decreased as the listeners' proficiency in English increased. This interlanguage benefit can be accounted for by a combination of a shared systematic interlanguage (when talker and listener match in L1) and the influence of interlanguage universals (when talker and listener do not match in L1). However, both of these factors become less influential as listeners L2 proficiency develops causing a decrease in the interlanguage benefit. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD Grant DC 03762.

  6. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

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    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Honoring Native American Code Talkers: The Road to the Code Talkers Recognition Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-420)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in North American Indian code talkers continues to increase. In addition to numerous works about the Navajo code talkers, several publications on other groups of Native American code talkers--including the Choctaw, Comanche, Hopi, Meskwaki, Canadian Cree--and about code talkers in general have appeared. This article chronicles recent…

  8. The Effect of Talker and Intonation Variability on Speech Perception in Noise in Children with Dyslexia

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    Hazan, Valerie; Messaoud-Galusi, Souhila; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine whether children with dyslexia (hereafter referred to as "DYS children") are more affected than children with average reading ability (hereafter referred to as "AR children") by talker and intonation variability when perceiving speech in noise. Method: Thirty-four DYS and 25 AR children were…

  9. Speech perception and talker segregation : effects of level, pitch, and tactile support with multiple simultaneous talkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drullman, R.; Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    Speech intelligibility was investigated by varying the number of interfering talkers, level, and mean pitch differences between target and interfering speech, and the presence of tactile support. In a first experiment the speech-reception threshold (SRT) for sentences was measured for a male talker

  10. Language-independent talker-specificity in first-language and second-language speech production by bilingual talkers: L1 speaking rate predicts L2 speaking rate.

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    Bradlow, Ann R; Kim, Midam; Blasingame, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Second-language (L2) speech is consistently slower than first-language (L1) speech, and L1 speaking rate varies within- and across-talkers depending on many individual, situational, linguistic, and sociolinguistic factors. It is asked whether speaking rate is also determined by a language-independent talker-specific trait such that, across a group of bilinguals, L1 speaking rate significantly predicts L2 speaking rate. Two measurements of speaking rate were automatically extracted from recordings of read and spontaneous speech by English monolinguals (n = 27) and bilinguals from ten L1 backgrounds (n = 86): speech rate (syllables/second), and articulation rate (syllables/second excluding silent pauses). Replicating prior work, L2 speaking rates were significantly slower than L1 speaking rates both across-groups (monolinguals' L1 English vs bilinguals' L2 English), and across L1 and L2 within bilinguals. Critically, within the bilingual group, L1 speaking rate significantly predicted L2 speaking rate, suggesting that a significant portion of inter-talker variation in L2 speech is derived from inter-talker variation in L1 speech, and that individual variability in L2 spoken language production may be best understood within the context of individual variability in L1 spoken language production.

  11. Methodological Variables in Choral Reading

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    Poore, Meredith A.; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study explored changes in prosodic variability during choral reading and investigated whether these changes are affected by the method of eliciting choral reading. Ten typical adult talkers recorded three reading materials (poetry, fiction and textbook) in three reading conditions: solo (reading aloud alone), track (reading aloud…

  12. Speech perception and talker segregation: Effects of level, pitch, and tactile support with multiple simultaneous talkers

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    Drullman, Rob; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2004-11-01

    Speech intelligibility was investigated by varying the number of interfering talkers, level, and mean pitch differences between target and interfering speech, and the presence of tactile support. In a first experiment the speech-reception threshold (SRT) for sentences was measured for a male talker against a background of one to eight interfering male talkers or speech noise. Speech was presented diotically and vibro-tactile support was given by presenting the low-pass-filtered signal (0-200 Hz) to the index finger. The benefit in the SRT resulting from tactile support ranged from 0 to 2.4 dB and was largest for one or two interfering talkers. A second experiment focused on masking effects of one interfering talker. The interference was the target talker's own voice with an increased mean pitch by 2, 4, 8, or 12 semitones. Level differences between target and interfering speech ranged from -16 to +4 dB. Results from measurements of correctly perceived words in sentences show an intelligibility increase of up to 27% due to tactile support. Performance gradually improves with increasing pitch difference. Louder target speech generally helps perception, but results for level differences are considerably dependent on pitch differences. Differences in performance between noise and speech maskers and between speech maskers with various mean pitches are explained by the effect of informational masking. .

  13. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

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    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  14. Talker identification from analysis of raw complex waveforms

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    Stokes, Michael A.

    2002-05-01

    Stokes (1996) demonstrated that visual inspection of raw complex waveforms can be used to identify a vowel produced by a talker. This research resulted in the MAS Model of Vowel Perception and Production (Stokes, 1998; http://home.indy.net/~masmodel/). More recently, another experiment extended this work to female talkers as well as male talkers (Stokes, 2001). Together, this research represents the only ongoing comprehensive research involving visual inspection of raw complex waveforms for identifying vowels produced by any talker. As an extension of the work, the present study involves identifying a talker from a waveform display. Unique voice signatures identified from waveform displays are used to identify a talker from a set of 10 talkers in the same way as one would identify a person from fingerprints. In two trials (the word who'd in trial 1 and heed in trial 2), a talker was correctly identified from a set of 10 unique talkers per trial using small visual samples of waveforms and matching it to a waveform sample of the talkers to be identified.

  15. The Distribution of Talker Variability Impacts Infants’ Word Learning

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    Carolyn Quam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants struggle to apply earlier-demonstrated sound-discrimination abilities to later word learning, attending to non-constrastive acoustic dimensions (e.g., Hay et al., 2015, and not always to contrastive dimensions (e.g., Stager & Werker, 1997. One hint about the nature of infants’ difficulties comes from the observation that input from multiple talkers can improve word learning (Rost & McMurray, 2009. This may be because, when a single talker says both of the to-be-learned words, consistent talker’s-voice characteristics make the acoustics of the two words more overlapping (Apfelbaum & McMurray, 2011. Here, we test that notion. We taught 14-month-old infants two similar-sounding words in the Switch habituation paradigm. The same amount of overall talker variability was present as in prior multiple-talker experiments, but male and female talkers said different words, creating a gender-word correlation. Under an acoustic-similarity account, correlated talker gender should help to separate words acoustically and facilitate learning. Instead, we found that correlated talker gender impaired learning of word-object pairings compared with uncorrelated talker gender—even when gender-word pairings were always maintained in test—casting doubt on one account of the beneficial effects of talker variability. We discuss several alternate potential explanations for this effect.

  16. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

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    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  17. Words Get in the Way: Linguistic Effects on Talker Discrimination.

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    Narayan, Chandan R; Mak, Lorinda; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-07-22

    A speech perception experiment provides evidence that the linguistic relationship between words affects the discrimination of their talkers. Listeners discriminated two talkers' voices with various linguistic relationships between their spoken words. Listeners were asked whether two words were spoken by the same person or not. Word pairs varied with respect to the linguistic relationship between the component words, forming either: phonological rhymes, lexical compounds, reversed compounds, or unrelated pairs. The degree of linguistic relationship between the words affected talker discrimination in a graded fashion, revealing biases listeners have regarding the nature of words and the talkers that speak them. These results indicate that listeners expect a talker's words to be linguistically related, and more generally, indexical processing is affected by linguistic information in a top-down fashion even when listeners are not told to attend to it.

  18. The effect of exposure to a single vowel on talker normalization for vowels.

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    Morton, John R; Sommers, Mitchell S; Lulich, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    The current work investigated the role of single vowels in talker normalization. Following initial training to identify six talkers from the isolated vowel /i/, participants were asked to identify vowels in three different conditions. In the blocked-talker conditions, the vowels were blocked by talker. In the mixed-talker conditions, vowels from all six talkers were presented in random order. The precursor mixed-talker conditions were identical to the mixed-talker conditions except that participants were provided with either a sample vowel or just the written name of a talker before target-vowel presentation. In experiment 1, the precursor vowel was always spoken by the same talker as the target vowel. Identification accuracy did not differ significantly for the blocked and precursor mixed-talker conditions and both were better than the pure mixed-talker condition. In experiment 2, half of the trials had a precursor spoken by the same talker as the target and half had a different talker. For the same-talker precursor condition, the results replicated those in experiment 1. In the different-talker precursor, no benefit was observed relative to the pure-mixed condition. In experiment 3, only the written name was presented as a precursor and no benefits were observed relative to the pure-mixed condition.

  19. Perceptual learning of a talker resolves lexical ambiguity

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    Piorkowski, Rebecca L.; Badecker, William

    2005-09-01

    Recent evidence [Allen and Miller, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 3171 (2004)] suggests that listeners are sensitive to talker-specific acoustic-phonetic properties. The present study examines whether experience with a particular talker's realization of place of articulation can eliminate the ambiguity that arises when a word like ``hen'' assimilates in place of articulation to ``hem'' in a labial context (hen best). Using a cross-modal priming paradigm, the priming effect of words that assimilate to other words was measured in two conditions. In the first condition, listeners heard examples of the talker's assimilation style in the form of words that assimilate to nonwords in a labial context (green beer) before the critical trials were heard. In the second condition, listeners did not hear any examples of the talker's assimilation style before the critical trials were heard. Evidence will be presented showing that, without previous experience with the talker's assimilation style, words that assimilate to other words create a lexical ambiguity for the listener. Additionally, evidence will be presented showing that experience with the talker's assimilation style eliminates this lexical ambiguity and allows the listener to perceive the talker's intended lexical form.

  20. Unsterblicher Robin Hood--Eine literaturdidaktische Betrachtung und Wertung von zwoelf Lektueretexten (Immortal Robin Hood--A Pedagogical Consideration and Evaluation of Twelve Reading Texts).

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    Hoegel, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    Examines 12 reading texts about Robin Hood, with regard to their content, suitability for various age levels, and language difficulty. The texts are found to be best suited for grades 5 and 6. An evaluation of each text is included. (IFS/WGA)

  1. Unsterblicher Robin Hood--Eine literaturdidaktische Betrachtung und Wertung von zwoelf Lektueretexten (Immortal Robin Hood--A Pedagogical Consideration and Evaluation of Twelve Reading Texts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegel, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    Examines 12 reading texts about Robin Hood, with regard to their content, suitability for various age levels, and language difficulty. The texts are found to be best suited for grades 5 and 6. An evaluation of each text is included. (IFS/WGA)

  2. Intelligibility of normal speech I: Global and fine-grained acoustic-phonetic talker characteristics1,2

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    Bradlow, Ann R.; Torretta, Gina M.; Pisoni, David B.

    1996-01-01

    This study used a multi-talker database containing intelligibility scores for 2000 sentences (20 talkers, 100 sentences), to identify talker-related correlates of speech intelligibility. We first investigated “global” talker characteristics (e.g., gender, F0 and speaking rate). Findings showed female talkers to be more intelligible as a group than male talkers. Additionally, we found a tendency for F0 range to correlate positively with higher speech intelligibility scores. However, F0 mean an...

  3. Tuned with a tune: Talker normalization via general auditory processes

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    Erika J C Laing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Voices have unique acoustic signatures, contributing to the acoustic variability listeners must contend with in perceiving speech, and it has long been proposed that listeners normalize speech perception to information extracted from a talker’s speech. Initial attempts to explain talker normalization relied on extraction of articulatory referents, but recent studies of context-dependent auditory perception suggest that general auditory referents such as the long-term average spectrum (LTAS of a talker’s speech similarly affect speech perception. The present study aimed to differentiate the contributions of articulatory/linguistic versus auditory referents for context-driven talker normalization effects and, more specifically, to identify the specific constraints under which such contexts impact speech perception. Synthesized sentences manipulated to sound like different talkers influenced categorization of a subsequent speech target only when differences in the sentences’ LTAS were in the frequency range of the acoustic cues relevant for the target phonemic contrast. This effect was true both for speech targets preceded by spoken sentence contexts and for targets preceded by nonspeech tone sequences that were LTAS-matched to the spoken sentence contexts. Specific LTAS characteristics, rather than perceived talker, predicted the results suggesting that general auditory mechanisms play an important role in effects considered to be instances of perceptual talker normalization.

  4. Overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in the identification of nonnative speech sounds.

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    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    This investigation explored the generalization of phonetic learning across talkers following training on a nonnative (Hindi dental and retroflex) contrast. Participants were trained in two groups, either in the morning or in the evening. Discrimination and identification performance was assessed in the trained talker and an untrained talker three times over 24 h following training. Results suggest that overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in identification, but not necessarily discrimination, of nonnative speech sounds.

  5. Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Talkers with Dysarthria: A First Analysis

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    Mefferd, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the strength of interspeaker and intraspeaker articulatory-to-acoustic relations of vowel contrast produced by talkers with dysarthria and controls. Methods: Six talkers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), six talkers with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 12 controls repeated a…

  6. Late Talkers: A Population-Based Study of Risk Factors and School Readiness Consequences

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    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Morgan, Paul; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne; Bitetti, Dana; Maczuga, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to (a) identify sociodemographic, pregnancy and birth, family health, and parenting and child care risk factors for being a late talker at 24 months of age; (b) determine whether late talkers continue to have low vocabulary at 48 months; and (c) investigate whether being a late talker plays a unique role in…

  7. Pragmatic Functions of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

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    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Kaufman, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    Toddlers who are "late talkers" demonstrate reduced expressive vocabulary in the absence of physical, social, cognitive, or sensory impairment; they are usually identified at age 2, when they produce fewer than 50 words and do not combine words (Rescorla, 1989). This study analyzed spontaneous language samples of 10 late talking toddlers and 11…

  8. The impact of musical training and tone language experience on talker identification

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    Xie, Xin; Myers, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Listeners can use pitch changes in speech to identify talkers. Individuals exhibit large variability in sensitivity to pitch and in accuracy perceiving talker identity. In particular, people who have musical training or long-term tone language use are found to have enhanced pitch perception. In the present study, the influence of pitch experience on talker identification was investigated as listeners identified talkers in native language as well as non-native languages. Experiment 1 was designed to explore the influence of pitch experience on talker identification in two groups of individuals with potential advantages for pitch processing: musicians and tone language speakers. Experiment 2 further investigated individual differences in pitch processing and the contribution to talker identification by testing a mediation model. Cumulatively, the results suggested that (a) musical training confers an advantage for talker identification, supporting a shared resources hypothesis regarding music and language and (b) linguistic use of lexical tones also increases accuracy in hearing talker identity. Importantly, these two types of hearing experience enhance talker identification by sharpening pitch perception skills in a domain-general manner. PMID:25618071

  9. The Effects of Listener's Familiarity about a Talker on the Free Recall Task of Spoken Words

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    Chikako Oda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have examined an interaction between talker's acoustic characteristics and spoken word recognition in speech perception and have shown that listener's familiarity about a talker influences an easiness of spoken word processing. The present study examined the effect of listener's familiarity about talkers on the free recall task of words spoken by two talkers. Subjects participated in three conditions of the task: the listener has (1 explicit knowledge, (2 implicit knowledge, and (3 no knowledge of the talker. In condition (1, subjects were familiar with talker's voices and were initially informed whose voices they would hear. In condition (2, subjects were familiar with talkers' voices but were not informed whose voices they would hear. In condition (3, subjects were entirely unfamiliar with talker's voices and were not informed whose voices they would hear. We analyzed the percentage of correct answers and compared these results across three conditions. We will discuss the possibility of whether a listener's knowledge about the individual talker's acoustic characteristics stored in long term memory could reduce the quantity of the cognitive resources required in the verbal information processing.

  10. Reading.

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    Gee, James Paul

    1992-01-01

    Explores what is meant by reading, noting that to read is to respond appropriately to a specific consensus centered on certain values and that the consensus is achieved among persons whose paths through life have come together with members of dominant discourses in society. (SLD)

  11. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

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    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  12. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

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    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  13. Otitis Media and Speech/Language Development in Late-Talkers.

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    Paul, Rhea; And Others

    This study examines otitis media as a possible factor associated with increased risk for communicative handicap in a group of children with a possible vulnerability for language delay: "late-talkers." Speech and language outcomes at ages 3 and 4 were examined in 28 late talkers and 24 children with normal language development. Late…

  14. Influence of Phonotactic Probability/Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Learning in Late Talkers

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    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Marton, Klara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Toddlers who are late talkers demonstrate delays in phonological and lexical skills. However, the influence of phonological factors on lexical acquisition in toddlers who are late talkers has not been examined directly. Aims: To examine the influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on word learning in toddlers who were…

  15. Functionally integrated neural processing of linguistic and talker information: An event-related fMRI and ERP study.

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    Zhang, Caicai; Pugh, Kenneth R; Mencl, W Einar; Molfese, Peter J; Frost, Stephen J; Magnuson, James S; Peng, Gang; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-01-01

    Speech signals contain information of both linguistic content and a talker's voice. Conventionally, linguistic and talker processing are thought to be mediated by distinct neural systems in the left and right hemispheres respectively, but there is growing evidence that linguistic and talker processing interact in many ways. Previous studies suggest that talker-related vocal tract changes are processed integrally with phonetic changes in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS), because the vocal tract parameter influences the perception of phonetic information. It is yet unclear whether the bilateral STG is also activated by the integral processing of another parameter - pitch, which influences the perception of lexical tone information and is related to talker differences in tone languages. In this study, we conducted separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) experiments to examine the spatial and temporal loci of interactions of lexical tone and talker-related pitch processing in Cantonese. We found that the STG was activated bilaterally during the processing of talker changes when listeners attended to lexical tone changes in the stimuli and during the processing of lexical tone changes when listeners attended to talker changes, suggesting that lexical tone and talker processing are functionally integrated in the bilateral STG. It extends the previous study, providing evidence for a general neural mechanism of integral phonetic and talker processing in the bilateral STG. The ERP results show interactions of lexical tone and talker processing 500-800ms after auditory word onset (a simultaneous posterior P3b and a frontal negativity). Moreover, there is some asymmetry in the interaction, such that unattended talker changes affect linguistic processing more than vice versa, which may be related to the ambiguity that talker changes cause in speech perception and/or attention bias

  16. Ubiquitous Talker Spoken Language Interaction with Real World Objects

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    Nagao, K; Nagao, Katashi; Rekimoto, Jun

    1995-01-01

    Augmented reality is a research area that tries to embody an electronic information space within the real world, through computational devices. A crucial issue within this area, is the recognition of real world objects or situations. In natural language processing, it is much easier to determine interpretations of utterances, even if they are ill-formed, when the context or situation is fixed. We therefore introduce robust, natural language processing into a system of augmented reality with situation awareness. Based on this idea, we have developed a portable system, called the Ubiquitous Talker. This consists of an LCD display that reflects the scene at which a user is looking as if it is a transparent glass, a CCD camera for recognizing real world objects with color-bar ID codes, a microphone for recognizing a human voice and a speaker which outputs a synthesized voice. The Ubiquitous Talker provides its user with some information related to a recognized object, by using the display and voice. It also accep...

  17. Phoneme contrasts with two, same-talker speakers

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    Ericson, Mark; Mishler, Pamela

    2003-04-01

    People often have difficulty hearing speech in the presence of concurrent conversations. This well-known cocktail-party effect can be parsed into energetic and informational masking effects. The purpose of this study was to measure and model the effects of energetic and informational masking that occur when two words, spoken by the same talker are heard at the same time. The word identification test used in the experiments was the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). The MRT was used as both the stimulus and the masker, which afforded a multitude of consonant contrasts. The phrases were presented monaurally at 75 dB SPL over Sennheiser HD-520 headphones to four normal hearing listeners. The independent variables included 30 pairs of MRT word lists spoken by three male and three female talkers. The dependent variable was the percent correct identifications of the two consonants. Listeners performed at 94% correct for the first word choice and 72% correct for the second word choice. The distribution of errors was analyzed by place of articulation, manner of articulation, and speech-to-speech-ratio of the phoneme pairs and compared to articulation index predictions for speech intelligibility.

  18. Intelligibility of normal speech I: Global and fine-grained acoustic-phonetic talker characteristics1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Torretta, Gina M.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a multi-talker database containing intelligibility scores for 2000 sentences (20 talkers, 100 sentences), to identify talker-related correlates of speech intelligibility. We first investigated “global” talker characteristics (e.g., gender, F0 and speaking rate). Findings showed female talkers to be more intelligible as a group than male talkers. Additionally, we found a tendency for F0 range to correlate positively with higher speech intelligibility scores. However, F0 mean and speaking rate did not correlate with intelligibility. We then examined several fine-grained acoustic-phonetic talker-characteristics as correlates of overall intelligibility. We found that talkers with larger vowel spaces were generally more intelligible than talkers with reduced spaces. In investigating two cases of consistent listener errors (segment deletion and syllable affiliation), we found that these perceptual errors could be traced directly to detailed timing characteristics in the speech signal. Results suggest that a substantial portion of variability in normal speech intelligibility is traceable to specific acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the talker. Knowledge about these factors may be valuable for improving speech synthesis and recognition strategies, and for special populations (e.g., the hearing-impaired and second-language learners) who are particularly sensitive to intelligibility differences among talkers. PMID:21461127

  19. Across-talker effects on non-native listeners' vowel perception in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Kewley-Port, Diane; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2010-11-01

    This study explored how across-talker differences influence non-native vowel perception. American English (AE) and Korean listeners were presented with recordings of 10 AE vowels in /bVd/ context. The stimuli were mixed with noise and presented for identification in a 10-alternative forced-choice task. The two listener groups heard recordings of the vowels produced by 10 talkers at three signal-to-noise ratios. Overall the AE listeners identified the vowels 22% more accurately than the Korean listeners. There was a wide range of identification accuracy scores across talkers for both AE and Korean listeners. At each signal-to-noise ratio, the across-talker intelligibility scores were highly correlated for AE and Korean listeners. Acoustic analysis was conducted for 2 vowel pairs that exhibited variable accuracy across talkers for Korean listeners but high identification accuracy for AE listeners. Results demonstrated that Korean listeners' error patterns for these four vowels were strongly influenced by variability in vowel production that was within the normal range for AE talkers. These results suggest that non-native listeners are strongly influenced by across-talker variability perhaps because of the difficulty they have forming native-like vowel categories.

  20. Mandarin Tone and Vowel Recognition in Cochlear Implant Users: Effects of Talker Variability and Bimodal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Ping; Chang, Ronald Y; Lin, Chun-Yi; Luo, Xin

    2016-01-01

    For cochlear implant (CI) users with residual low-frequency acoustic hearing in the nonimplanted ear, bimodal hearing combining the use of a CI and a contralateral hearing aid (HA) may provide more salient talker voice cues than CI alone to handle the variability of talker identity across trials. This study tested the effects of talker variability, bimodal hearing, and their interaction on response accuracy and time of CI users' Mandarin tone, vowel, and syllable recognition (i.e., combined Mandarin tone and vowel recognition in this study). Fifteen prelingually deafened native Mandarin-speaking CI users (at age 20 or lower) participated in this study. Four talkers each produced six Mandarin single-vowel syllables in four lexical tones. The stimuli were presented in quiet via a single loudspeaker. To study the effects of talker variability, Mandarin tone, vowel, and syllable recognition was tested in two presentation conditions: with stimuli blocked according to talker (blocked-talker condition) or mixed across talkers from trial to trial (mixed-talker condition). To explore the effects of bimodal hearing, two processor conditions were tested: CI alone or CI + HA. The cumulative response time was recorded as an indirect indicator of the cognitive load or listening effort in each condition. The correlations were computed between demographic/hearing factors (e.g., hearing thresholds in the nonimplanted ear) and bimodal performance/benefits (where bimodal benefits refer to the performance differences between CI alone and CI + HA). Mandarin tone recognition with both CI alone and CI + HA was significantly poorer in the mixed-talker condition than in the blocked-talker condition, while vowel recognition was comparable in the two presentation conditions. Bimodal hearing significantly improved Mandarin tone recognition but not vowel recognition. Mandarin syllable recognition was significantly affected by both talker variability and bimodal hearing. The cumulative response

  1. The Twelve Hotel, Barna : Video

    OpenAIRE

    Irish Food Channel

    2014-01-01

    Fergus O'Halloran, Managing Director of The Twelve Hotel in Barna in County Galway, talks about his philosophy in running this unique boutique hotel. Reproduced with kind permission from John & Sally McKenna. 3.35 mins

  2. Speech understanding in noise with the Roger Pen, Naida CI Q70 processor, and integrated Roger 17 receiver in a multi-talker network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceulaer, Geert; Bestel, Julie; Mülder, Hans E; Goldbeck, Felix; de Varebeke, Sebastien Pierre Janssens; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-05-01

    Roger is a digital adaptive multi-channel remote microphone technology that wirelessly transmits a speaker's voice directly to a hearing instrument or cochlear implant sound processor. Frequency hopping between channels, in combination with repeated broadcast, avoids interference issues that have limited earlier generation FM systems. This study evaluated the benefit of the Roger Pen transmitter microphone in a multiple talker network (MTN) for cochlear implant users in a simulated noisy conversation setting. Twelve post-lingually deafened adult Advanced Bionics CII/HiRes 90K recipients were recruited. Subjects used a Naida CI Q70 processor with integrated Roger 17 receiver. The test environment simulated four people having a meal in a noisy restaurant, one the CI user (listener), and three companions (talkers) talking non-simultaneously in a diffuse field of multi-talker babble. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were determined without the Roger Pen, with one Roger Pen, and with three Roger Pens in an MTN. Using three Roger Pens in an MTN improved the SRT by 14.8 dB over using no Roger Pen, and by 13.1 dB over using a single Roger Pen (p < 0.0001). The Roger Pen in an MTN provided statistically and clinically significant improvement in speech perception in noise for Advanced Bionics cochlear implant recipients. The integrated Roger 17 receiver made it easy for users of the Naida CI Q70 processor to take advantage of the Roger system. The listening advantage and ease of use should encourage more clinicians to recommend and fit Roger in adult cochlear implant patients.

  3. Language exposure facilitates talker learning prior to language comprehension, even in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bibliography of Spanish Materials for Students, Grades Seven through Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This annotated bibliography of Spanish materials for students in grades seven through twelve is divided into the following categories: (1) Art, Drama, Music, and Poetry; (2) Books in Series; (3) Culture; (4) Dictionaries and Encyclopedias; (5) Literature; (6) Mathematics; (7) Physical Education, Health, and Recreation; (8) Reading and Language…

  5. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E; Macdonald, Ewen N; Falk, Tiago H; Voix, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Speech production in noise with varying talker-to-listener distance has been well studied for the open ear condition. However, occluding the ear canal can affect the auditory feedback and cause deviations from the models presented for the open-ear condition. Communication is a main concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded quiet condition. This implies that a model can be developed to better understand speech production for the occluded ear.

  6. Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: Talker-, listener-, and item-related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.

    1999-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the ...

  7. Multitalker Speech Perception with Ideal Time-Frequency Segregation: Effects of Voice Characteristics and Number of Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-23

    consider the case of a target talker who is masked either by a similar- sounding talker of the same sex or a very different sounding talker of the opposite...competing stimuli the “ binaural interaction” effect. Thus, to the extent that spatial separation eliminates the informational component of speech-on...the overall presenta- tion level of the stimulus was kept approximately constant roughly 65 dB sound pressure level across all LC values by scaling

  8. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.;

    2016-01-01

    concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise...... while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. Design: This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes...... in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  9. Quantifying the intelligibility of speech in noise for non-native talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, Sander J.; Steeneken, Herman J. M.; Houtgast, Tammo

    2002-12-01

    The intelligibility of speech pronounced by non-native talkers is generally lower than speech pronounced by native talkers, especially under adverse conditions, such as high levels of background noise. The effect of foreign accent on speech intelligibility was investigated quantitatively through a series of experiments involving voices of 15 talkers, differing in language background, age of second-language (L2) acquisition and experience with the target language (Dutch). Overall speech intelligibility of L2 talkers in noise is predicted with a reasonable accuracy from accent ratings by native listeners, as well as from the self-ratings for proficiency of L2 talkers. For non-native speech, unlike native speech, the intelligibility of short messages (sentences) cannot be fully predicted by phoneme-based intelligibility tests. Although incorrect recognition of specific phonemes certainly occurs as a result of foreign accent, the effect of reduced phoneme recognition on the intelligibility of sentences may range from severe to virtually absent, depending on (for instance) the speech-to-noise ratio. Objective acoustic-phonetic analyses of accented speech were also carried out, but satisfactory overall predictions of speech intelligibility could not be obtained with relatively simple acoustic-phonetic measures.

  10. Contributions of Fundamental Frequency, Formant Spacing, and Glottal Waveform to Talker Identification. Research on Speech Perception. Technical Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Thomas D.

    This study investigated the contributions of fundamental frequency, formant spacing, and glottal waveform to talker identification. The first two experiments focused on the effect of glottal waveform in the perception of talker identity. Subjects in the first experiment, 30 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course,…

  11. Effect of talker and speaking style on the Speech Transmission Index (L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, Sander J.; Houtgast, Tammo

    2004-01-01

    The Speech Transmission Index (STI) is routinely applied for predicting the intelligibility of messages (sentences) in noise and reverberation. Despite clear evidence that the STI is capable of doing so accurately, recent results indicate that the STI sometimes underestimates the effect of reverberation on sentence intelligibility. To investigate the influence of talker and speaking style, the Speech Reception Threshold in noise and reverberation was measured for three talkers, differing in clarity of articulation and speaking style. For very clear speech, the standard STI yields accurate results. For more conversational speech by an untrained talker, the effect of reverberation is underestimated. Measurements of the envelope spectrum reveal that conversational speech has relatively stronger contributions by higher (> 12.5 Hz) modulation frequencies. By modifying the STI calculation procedure to include modulations in the range 12.5-31.5 Hz, better results are obtained for conversational speech. A speaking-style-dependent choice for the STI modulation frequency range is proposed.

  12. Across-talker effects on non-native listeners’ vowel perception in noise1

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, Tessa; Kewley-Port, Diane; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how across-talker differences influence non-native vowel perception. American English (AE) and Korean listeners were presented with recordings of 10 AE vowels in ∕bVd∕ context. The stimuli were mixed with noise and presented for identification in a 10-alternative forced-choice task. The two listener groups heard recordings of the vowels produced by 10 talkers at three signal-to-noise ratios. Overall the AE listeners identified the vowels 22% more accurately than the Korean...

  13. Pragmatic Functions in Late Talkers: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Kliment, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed spontaneous language samples of three-year-olds with a history of expressive language delay (late talkers) and age-matched controls using Dore's Conversational Acts analysis (1978) and Mean Length of Utterance (MLU; Brown, 1973). Differences were observed between groups in utterances classified as organizational device and…

  14. Selective Attention to a Talker's Mouth in Infancy: Role of Audiovisual Temporal Synchrony and Linguistic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Tift, Amy H.; Minar, Nicholas J.; Lewkowicz, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that infants shift their attention from the eyes to the mouth of a talker when they enter the canonical babbling phase after 6 months of age. Here, we investigated whether this increased attentional focus on the mouth is mediated by audio-visual synchrony and linguistic experience. To do so, we tracked eye gaze in 4-,…

  15. Oral Narrative Skills of Late Talkers at Ages 8 and 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhardt, Joan; Rescorla, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    Compared the oral narrative skills of 31 school-aged children diagnosed at 24 to 31 months with expressive language delay with those of 23 typically-developing peers. Suggests that the use of narrative structure may be a specific area of underachievement for late talkers, in addition to their continuing weakness in syntactic and lexical abilities,…

  16. Auditory Training with Multiple Talkers and Passage-Based Semantic Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casserly, Elizabeth D.; Barney, Erin C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Current auditory training methods typically result in improvements to speech recognition abilities in quiet, but learner gains may not extend to other domains in speech (e.g., recognition in noise) or self-assessed benefit. This study examined the potential of training involving multiple talkers and training emphasizing discourse-level…

  17. Influence of Stuttering Variation on Talker Group Classification in Preschool Children: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…

  18. Perception of Talker Age by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

    2013-01-01

    People with high-functioning Autism (HFA) can accurately identify social categories from speech, but they have more difficulty connecting linguistic variation in the speech signal to social stereotypes associated with those categories. In the current study, the perception and evaluation of talker age by young adults with HFA was examined. The…

  19. Auditory Training with Multiple Talkers and Passage-Based Semantic Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casserly, Elizabeth D.; Barney, Erin C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Current auditory training methods typically result in improvements to speech recognition abilities in quiet, but learner gains may not extend to other domains in speech (e.g., recognition in noise) or self-assessed benefit. This study examined the potential of training involving multiple talkers and training emphasizing discourse-level…

  20. Comparison of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant users on speech recognition with competing talker, music perception, affective prosody discrimination, and talker identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, Helen E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-02-01

    Despite excellent performance in speech recognition in quiet, most cochlear implant users have great difficulty with speech recognition in noise, music perception, identifying tone of voice, and discriminating different talkers. This may be partly due to the pitch coding in cochlear implant speech processing. Most current speech processing strategies use only the envelope information; the temporal fine structure is discarded. One way to improve electric pitch perception is to use residual acoustic hearing via a hearing aid on the nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that bimodal users would perform better than bilateral cochlear implant users on tasks requiring good pitch perception. Four pitch-related tasks were used. 1. Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentences spoken by a male talker with a competing female, male, or child talker. 2. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia. This is a music test with six subtests examining pitch, rhythm and timing perception, and musical memory. 3. Aprosodia Battery. This has five subtests evaluating aspects of affective prosody and recognition of sarcasm. 4. Talker identification using vowels spoken by 10 different talkers (three men, three women, two boys, and two girls). Bilateral cochlear implant users were chosen as the comparison group. Thirteen bimodal and 13 bilateral adult cochlear implant users were recruited; all had good speech perception in quiet. There were no significant differences between the mean scores of the bimodal and bilateral groups on any of the tests, although the bimodal group did perform better than the bilateral group on almost all tests. Performance on the different pitch-related tasks was not correlated, meaning that if a subject performed one task well they would not necessarily perform well on another. The correlation between the bimodal users' hearing threshold levels in the aided ear and their performance on these tasks was weak. Although the bimodal cochlear

  1. Effects of talker, rate, and amplitude variation on recognition memory for spoken words

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRADLOW, ANN R.; NYGAARD, LYNNE C.; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the encoding of the surface form of spoken words using a continuous recognition memory task. The purpose was to compare and contrast three sources of stimulus variability—talker, speaking rate, and overall amplitude—to determine the extent to which each source of variability is retained in episodic memory. In Experiment 1, listeners judged whether each word in a list of spoken words was “old” (had occurred previously in the list) or “new.” Listeners were more accurate at recognizing a word as old if it was repeated by the same talker and at the same speaking rate; however, there was no recognition advantage for words repeated at the same overall amplitude. In Experiment 2, listeners were first asked to judge whether each word was old or new, as before, and then they had to explicitly judge whether it was repeated by the same talker, at the same rate, or at the same amplitude. On the first task, listeners again showed an advantage in recognition memory for words repeated by the same talker and at same speaking rate, but no advantage occurred for the amplitude condition. However, in all three conditions, listeners were able to explicitly detect whether an old word was repeated by the same talker, at the same rate, or at the same amplitude. These data suggest that although information about all three properties of spoken words is encoded and retained in memory, each source of stimulus variation differs in the extent to which it affects episodic memory for spoken words. PMID:10089756

  2. Audio-visual speech intelligibility benefits with bilateral cochlear implants when talker location varies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoesel, Richard J M

    2015-04-01

    One of the key benefits of using cochlear implants (CIs) in both ears rather than just one is improved localization. It is likely that in complex listening scenes, improved localization allows bilateral CI users to orient toward talkers to improve signal-to-noise ratios and gain access to visual cues, but to date, that conjecture has not been tested. To obtain an objective measure of that benefit, seven bilateral CI users were assessed for both auditory-only and audio-visual speech intelligibility in noise using a novel dynamic spatial audio-visual test paradigm. For each trial conducted in spatially distributed noise, first, an auditory-only cueing phrase that was spoken by one of four talkers was selected and presented from one of four locations. Shortly afterward, a target sentence was presented that was either audio-visual or, in another test configuration, audio-only and was spoken by the same talker and from the same location as the cueing phrase. During the target presentation, visual distractors were added at other spatial locations. Results showed that in terms of speech reception thresholds (SRTs), the average improvement for bilateral listening over the better performing ear alone was 9 dB for the audio-visual mode, and 3 dB for audition-alone. Comparison of bilateral performance for audio-visual and audition-alone showed that inclusion of visual cues led to an average SRT improvement of 5 dB. For unilateral device use, no such benefit arose, presumably due to the greatly reduced ability to localize the target talker to acquire visual information. The bilateral CI speech intelligibility advantage over the better ear in the present study is much larger than that previously reported for static talker locations and indicates greater everyday speech benefits and improved cost-benefit than estimated to date.

  3. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  4. Development and evaluation of a mixed gender, multi-talker matrix sentence test in Australian English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heather; Lin, Gaven; Sankaran, Narayan; Xia, Jing; Kalluri, Sridhar; Carlile, Simon

    2017-02-01

    To develop, in Australian English, the first mixed-gender, multi-talker matrix sentence test. Speech material consisted of a 50-word base matrix whose elements can be combined to form sentences of identical syntax but unpredictable content. Ten voices (five female and five male) were recorded for editing and preliminary level equalization. Elements were presented as single-talker sentences-in-noise during two perceptual tests: an optimization phase that provided the basis for further level correction, and an evaluation phase that perceptually validated those changes. Ten listeners participated in the optimization phase; these and an additional 32 naïve listeners completed the evaluation test. All were fluent in English and all but one had lived in Australia for >2 years. Optimization reduced the standard deviation (SD) and speech reception threshold (SRT) range across all speech material (grand mean SRT = -10.6 dB signal-to-noise ratio, median = -10.8, SD =1.4, range =13.7, slope =19.3%/dB), yielding data consistent with cross-validated matrix tests in other languages. Intelligibility differences between experienced and naïve listeners were minimal. The Australian matrix corpus provides a robust set of test materials suitable for both clinical assessment and research into the dynamics of active listening in multi-talker environments.

  5. Talker-identification training using simulations of binaurally combined electric and acoustic hearing: generalization to speech and emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Vidya; Luo, Xin; Iler Kirk, Karen

    2012-04-01

    Understanding speech in background noise, talker identification, and vocal emotion recognition are challenging for cochlear implant (CI) users due to poor spectral resolution and limited pitch cues with the CI. Recent studies have shown that bimodal CI users, that is, those CI users who wear a hearing aid (HA) in their non-implanted ear, receive benefit for understanding speech both in quiet and in noise. This study compared the efficacy of talker-identification training in two groups of young normal-hearing adults, listening to either acoustic simulations of unilateral CI or bimodal (CI+HA) hearing. Training resulted in improved identification of talkers for both groups with better overall performance for simulated bimodal hearing. Generalization of learning to sentence and emotion recognition also was assessed in both subject groups. Sentence recognition in quiet and in noise improved for both groups, no matter if the talkers had been heard during training or not. Generalization to improvements in emotion recognition for two unfamiliar talkers also was noted for both groups with the simulated bimodal-hearing group showing better overall emotion-recognition performance. Improvements in sentence recognition were retained a month after training in both groups. These results have potential implications for aural rehabilitation of conventional and bimodal CI users.

  6. Transnational Debts: The Cultural Memory of Navajo Code Talkers in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Däwes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Even 70 years after it ended, World War II continues to endure in the global imagination. In the United States, images of the “Good War” prevail, and memories of the soldiers have been widely translated into displays of national heroism and glorification. At the same time, the celebratory narrative of national unity and democratic triumph is undercut by the counter-histories and experiences of the 44,000 Native American soldiers who served in this war. Their experiences and memories—in oral histories, interviews, as well as in fiction and film—challenge the narrative of a glorious nation in unison, especially in light of the historical conflicts between American nationalism and Native American political sovereignty. This paper investigates the specific memorial debt owed to the Navajo Code Talkers of World War II. Focusing on John Woo’s film Windtalkers (2002, Joseph Bruchac’s novel Code Talker (2005, and Chester Nez’s memoir Code Talker (2011, I will inquire into the field of tension between tribal, national, and transnational identities and explore the ways in which these tensions are negotiated at different sites of commemoration, especially in contrast to the distorted, consumer-oriented memory produced by the Hollywood industry. Through codes of orality, communal identity, and historicity, I argue, counter-strategies of narrating and remembering World War II not only decisively shape a revisionist writing of recent history and enrich the multicultural narrative of ‘America’ by Indigenous voices, but they also substantially contribute to current debates about transnational American identities.

  7. Influence of stuttering variation on talker group classification in preschool children: Preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of 17 3- to 5-year-old CWS and 9 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no statistically significant between-group difference in chronological age (CWS: M = 45.53 months, SD = 8.32; CWNS: M = 47.67 months, SD = 6.69). All participants had speech, language, and hearing development within normal limits, with the exception of stuttering for CWS. Both talker groups participated in a series of speaking samples that varied by: (a) conversational partner [parent and clinician], (b) location [home and clinic], and (c) context [conversation and narrative]. The primary dependent measures for this study were the number of stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD) per total number of spoken words [%SLD] and the ratio of SLD to total disfluencies (TD) [SLD/TD]. Results indicated that significant variability of stuttering did not exist as a result of conversational partner or location. Changes in context, however, did impact the CWS, who demonstrated higher SLD/TD in the conversation sample versus a narrative sample. Consistent with hypotheses, CWS and CWNS were accurately identified as stutterers and nonstutterers, respectively, regardless of changes to conversational partner, location or context for the overall participant sample. Present findings were taken to suggest that during assessment, variations in stuttering frequency resulting from changes in conversational partner, location or context do not significantly influence the diagnosis of stuttering, especially for children not on the talker group classification borderline between CWS and CWNS. PMID:19167719

  8. Effects of talker, rate, and amplitude variation on recognition memory for spoken words

    OpenAIRE

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Nygaard, Lynne C.; Pisoni, David B.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the encoding of the surface form of spoken words using a continuous recognition memory task. The purpose was to compare and contrast three sources of stimulus variability—talker, speaking rate, and overall amplitude—to determine the extent to which each source of variability is retained in episodic memory. In Experiment 1, listeners judged whether each word in a list of spoken words was “old” (had occurred previously in the list) or “new.” Listeners were more accurate ...

  9. Informational interference from a competing talker: a thought-provoking but elusive construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdés-Laribi, Huarda; Wendt, Dorothea; MacDonald, Ewen

    , and across SNRs. Moreover, individual differences in working memory were not related to differences in the speeded-selection task, regardless of the mask. Eye-tracking and pupillometric versions of this experiment also yielded similar results. Thus, contrary to prior research, we found no evidence...... that a competing talker requires greater processing resources than energetic masking alone. To address this discrepancy, an ongoing study aims to determine whether the semantic content of the competing talker’s utterances modulates attention to the target....

  10. Mythematics Solving the Twelve Labors of Hercules

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    How might Hercules, the most famous of the Greek heroes, have used mathematics to complete his astonishing Twelve Labors? From conquering the Nemean Lion and cleaning out the Augean Stables, to capturing the Erymanthean Boar and entering the Underworld to defeat the three-headed dog Cerberus, Hercules and his legend are the inspiration for this book of fun and original math puzzles. While Hercules relied on superhuman strength to accomplish the Twelve Labors, Mythematics shows how math could have helped during his quest. How does Hercules defeat the Lernean Hydra and stop its heads from multip

  11. Better-ear glimpsing efficiency with symmetrically-placed interfering talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungart, Douglas S; Iyer, Nandini

    2012-10-01

    In listening tasks where a target speech signal is spatially separated from a masking voice, listeners can often gain a substantial advantage in performance by attending to the ear with the better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, this better-ear strategy becomes much more complicated when a target talker located in front of the listener is masked by interfering talkers positioned at symmetric locations to the left and right of the target. When this happens, there are no long-term SNR advantages at either ear and the only binaural SNR advantages available are the result of complicated better-ear glimpses that vary as a function of frequency and rapidly switch back and forth between the two ears according to the natural fluctuations in the relative levels of the two masking voices. In this study, a signal processing technique was used to take the better-ear glimpses that would ordinarily be randomly distributed across the two ears in a binaural speech signal and move them all into the same ear. This resulted in a monaural signal that contained all the information available to an ideal listener using an optimal binaural glimpsing strategy. Speech intelligibility was measured with these optimized monaural stimuli and compared to performance with unprocessed binaural speech stimuli. Performance was similar in these two conditions, suggesting that listeners with normal hearing are able to efficiently extract information from better-ear glimpses that fluctuate rapidly across frequency and across the two ears.

  12. Cognitive resources related to speech recognition with a competing talker in young and older listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, H; Schreitmüller, S; Grugel, L; Ortmann, M; Beutner, D; Walger, M; Meister, I G

    2013-03-01

    Speech recognition in a multi-talker situation poses high demands on attentional and other central resources. This study examines the relationship between age, cognition and speech recognition in tasks that require selective or divided attention in a multi-talker setting. Two groups of normal-hearing adults (one younger and one older group) were asked to repeat utterances from either one or two concurrent speakers. Cognitive abilities were then inspected by neuropsychological tests. Speech recognition scores approached its ceiling and did not significantly differ between age groups for tasks that demanded selective attention. However, when divided attention was required, performance in older listeners was reduced as compared to the younger group. When selective attention was required, speech recognition was strongly related to working memory skills, as determined by a regression model. In comparison, speech recognition for tests requiring divided attention could be more strongly determined by neuropsychological probes of fluid intelligence. The findings of this study indicate that - apart from hearing impairment - cognitive aspects account for the typical difficulties of older listeners in a multi-speaker setting. Our results are discussed in the context of evidence showing that frontal lobe functions in terms of working memory and fluid intelligence generally decline with age.

  13. Small worlds and semantic network growth in typical and late talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckage, Nicole; Smith, Linda; Hills, Thomas

    2011-05-11

    Network analysis has demonstrated that systems ranging from social networks to electric power grids often involve a small world structure-with local clustering but global ac cess. Critically, small world structure has also been shown to characterize adult human semantic networks. Moreover, the connectivity pattern of these mature networks is consistent with lexical growth processes in which children add new words to their vocabulary based on the structure of the language-learning environment. However, thus far, there is no direct evidence that a child's individual semantic network structure is associated with their early language learning. Here we show that, while typically developing children's early networks show small world structure as early as 15 months and with as few as 55 words, children with language delay (late talkers) have this structure to a smaller degree. This implicates a maladaptive bias in word acquisition for late talkers, potentially indicating a preference for "oddball" words. The findings provide the first evidence of a link between small-world connectivity and lexical development in individual children.

  14. Small worlds and semantic network growth in typical and late talkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Beckage

    Full Text Available Network analysis has demonstrated that systems ranging from social networks to electric power grids often involve a small world structure-with local clustering but global ac cess. Critically, small world structure has also been shown to characterize adult human semantic networks. Moreover, the connectivity pattern of these mature networks is consistent with lexical growth processes in which children add new words to their vocabulary based on the structure of the language-learning environment. However, thus far, there is no direct evidence that a child's individual semantic network structure is associated with their early language learning. Here we show that, while typically developing children's early networks show small world structure as early as 15 months and with as few as 55 words, children with language delay (late talkers have this structure to a smaller degree. This implicates a maladaptive bias in word acquisition for late talkers, potentially indicating a preference for "oddball" words. The findings provide the first evidence of a link between small-world connectivity and lexical development in individual children.

  15. Age 13 language and reading outcomes in late-talking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie

    2005-04-01

    Language and reading outcomes at 13 years of age were examined in 28 children identified at 24 to 31 months as late talkers, all of whom came from middle- to upper-class socioeconomic status (SES) families and had normal nonverbal ability and age-adequate receptive language at intake. Late talkers were compared with a group of 25 typically developing children matched at intake on age, SES, and nonverbal ability. As a group, late talkers performed in the average range on all standardized language and reading tasks at age 13. However, they scored significantly lower than SES-matched peers on aggregate measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal memory, as well as on reading comprehension. They were similar to comparison peers in reading mechanics and writing aggregates. Intercorrelations between outcome measures were moderately high, suggesting considerable shared variance. Regression analyses indicated that age 2 Language Development Survey vocabulary score was a significant predictor of age 13 vocabulary, grammar, verbal memory, and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that slow language development at age 2-2 1/2 is associated with a weakness in language-related skills into adolescence relative to typically developing peers.

  16. Suprasegmental Characteristics of Spontaneous Speech Produced in Good and Challenging Communicative Conditions by Talkers Aged 9-14 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan, Valerie; Tuomainen, Outi; Pettinato, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the acoustic characteristics of spontaneous speech by talkers aged 9-14 years and their ability to adapt these characteristics to maintain effective communication when intelligibility was artificially degraded for their interlocutor. Method: Recordings were made for 96 children (50 female participants, 46 male…

  17. Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Dorothy VM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average. The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29% met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI at 4 years of age, and a further two (8% had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14% met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8% had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay.

  18. Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: Talker-, listener-, and item-related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically “hard” (wordswords with many phonetically similar sounding “neighbors”). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken

  19. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  20. Twelve tips for peer observation of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zarrin Seema; Jonas-Dwyer, Diana; Carr, Sandra E

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines twelve tips for undertaking peer observation of teaching in medical education, using the peer review model and the experiences of the authors. An accurate understanding of teaching effectiveness is required by individuals, medical schools, and universities to evaluate the learning environment and to substantiate academic and institutional performance. Peer Observation of Teaching is one tool that provides rich, qualitative evidence for teachers, quite different from closed-ended student evaluations. When Peer Observation of Teaching is incorporated into university practice and culture, and is conducted in a mutually respectful and supportive way, it has the potential to facilitate reflective change and growth for teachers.

  1. Student Reading Practices in Print and Electronic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foasberg, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a diary-based qualitative study on college students' reading habits with regard to print and electronic media. Students used a form to record information about their reading practices for twelve days, including length of reading event, location, format used, and the purpose of reading. Students tended to use print for academic…

  2. Student Reading Practices in Print and Electronic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foasberg, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a diary-based qualitative study on college students' reading habits with regard to print and electronic media. Students used a form to record information about their reading practices for twelve days, including length of reading event, location, format used, and the purpose of reading. Students tended to use print for academic…

  3. Second-language experience and speech-in-noise recognition: effects of talker-listener accent similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Melanie; Iverson, Paul; Huckvale, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Previous work has shown that the intelligibility of speech in noise is degraded if the speaker and listener differ in accent, in particular when there is a disparity between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) accents. This study investigated how this talker-listener interaction is modulated by L2 experience and accent similarity. L1 Southern British English, L1 French listeners with varying L2 English experience, and French-English bilinguals were tested on the recognition of English sentences mixed in speech-shaped noise that was spoken with a range of accents (French, Korean, Northern Irish, and Southern British English). The results demonstrated clear interactions of accent and experience, with the least experienced French speakers being most accurate with French-accented English, but more experienced listeners being most accurate with L1 Southern British English accents. An acoustic similarity metric was applied to the speech productions of the talkers and the listeners, and significant correlations were obtained between accent similarity and sentence intelligibility for pairs of individuals. Overall, the results suggest that L2 experience affects talker-listener accent interactions, altering both the intelligibility of different accents and the selectivity of accent processing. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  4. Acoustic differences among casual, conversational, and read speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnow, DeAnna

    Speech is a complex behavior that allows speakers to use many variations to satisfy the demands connected with multiple speaking environments. Speech research typically obtains speech samples in a controlled laboratory setting using read material, yet anecdotal observations of such speech, particularly from talkers with a speech and language impairment, have identified a "performance" effect in the produced speech which masks the characteristics of impaired speech outside of the lab (Goberman, Recker, & Parveen, 2010). The aim of the current study was to investigate acoustic differences among laboratory read, laboratory conversational, and casual speech through well-defined speech tasks in the laboratory and in talkers' natural environments. Eleven healthy research participants performed lab recording tasks (19 read sentences and a dialogue about their life) and collected natural-environment recordings of themselves over 3-day periods using portable recorders. Segments were analyzed for articulatory, voice, and prosodic acoustic characteristics using computer software and hand counting. The current study results indicate that lab-read speech was significantly different from casual speech: greater articulation range, improved voice quality measures, lower speech rate, and lower mean pitch. One implication of the results is that different laboratory techniques may be beneficial in obtaining speech samples that are more like casual speech, thus making it easier to correctly analyze abnormal speech characteristics with fewer errors.

  5. Combining ability of twelve maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacaro Elton

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic progress depends on germplasm quality and breeding methods. Twelve maize populations and their crosses were evaluated to estimate combining ability and potential to be included as source populations in breeding programs. Plant height, point of insertion of the first ear, number of ears per plant, number of grains per ear, root and stalk lodging and grain yield were studied in two locations in Brazil, during the 1997/98 season. Genotype sum of squares was divided into general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability. Results indicated the existence of genetic divergence for all traits analyzed, where additive effects were predominant. The high heterosis levels observed, mainly in Xanxerê, suggested the environmental influence on the manifestation of this genetic phenomenon. Populations revealed potential to be used in breeding programs; however, those more intensively submitted to selection could provide larger genetic progress, showing the importance of population improvement for the increment of the heterosis in maize.

  6. Twelve tips for getting your manuscript published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A

    2016-01-01

    The author shares twelve practical tips on how to navigate the process of getting a manuscript published. These tips, which apply to all fields of academic writing, advise that during the initial preparation phase authors should: (1) plan early to get it out the door; (2) address authorship and writing group expectations up front; (3) maintain control of the writing; (4) ensure complete reporting; (5) use electronic reference management software; (6) polish carefully before they submit; (7) select the right journal; and (8) follow journal instructions precisely. Rejection after the first submission is likely, and when this occurs authors should (9) get it back out the door quickly, but first (10) take seriously all reviewer and editor suggestions. Finally, when the invitation comes to revise and resubmit, authors should (11) respond carefully to every reviewer suggestion, even if they disagree, and (12) get input from others as they revise. The author also shares detailed suggestions on the creation of effective tables and figures, and on how to respond to reviewer critiques.

  7. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  8. Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou

    2004-01-01

    Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.

  9. About Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    独行墨客

    2004-01-01

    As for reading and for learning, reading rate (that is, words per minute, WPM) is important, especially for students who have to pass some reading test. How to compute your reading rate? You may know it after reading the following. Reading Rate (WPM) = Total number of words + reading time.

  10. Hepatic Angiosarcoma: a Review of Twelve Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li; Xishan Hao

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS), a lethal disease, is the most common sarcoma arising in the liver. Little information about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and management of HAS has been reported. Increased familiarity with this disease will facilitate correct diagnosis and help to improve management of this condition in the future.The objective of this study was to describe cases of hepatic angiosarcoma and to discuss the etiologic, diagnostic, therapeutic features and prognosis of this tumor. This report not only serves to give more evidence of the relationship between hepatic angiosarcoma and carcinogenic exposure, but also demonstrates the key points in different methods of diagnosis and the optimal treatment of hepatic angiosarcoma.METHODS Twelve cases of hepatic angiosareoma were analyzed retrospectively, representing the different character in clinical presentations and laboratory computed tomographical scans; pathological data and treatment are described. Clinical and biologic follow-up was carried out for two years after surgical treatment.RESULTS There were nine men and three women varying in ages from 57 to 71 years with an average of 64.3 years. Ten patientshad a history of exposure to vinyl chloride or thorotrast. Mild or moderate abdominal pain and bloating, abdominal mass and fever were the common clinical presentations. Tumors were visualized by ultrasonography and CT scans in all patients. Biochemical profiles yielded variable results and proved to be of little value in detection or diagnosis. Surgical resection was feasible for each patient who was treated as follows: two wedge resections, six segementectomies and four bisegmentectomies. Five patients received Neoadjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively. The survival rate of those cases was poor. The maximum survival time was fourteen months. The mean survival time for this chemotherapeutic group was 11 months. The difference between the survival time of those treated with an operation

  11. The Effects of the Sustained Silent Reading Program on Cultivating Students' Habits and Attitudes in Reading Books for Leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siah Poh

    2008-01-01

    The author examines the effects of the sustained silent reading program on cultivating students' habits and attitudes in reading books for leisure. The author used a time-series design and measured students' reading habits and attitudes three times in twelve months. It was expected that if the program created positive effects on cultivating…

  12. A collection of pseudo-words to study multi-talker speech intelligibility without shifts of spatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachina eAllen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new collection of pseudo-words was recorded from a single female speaker of American English for use in multi-talker speech intelligibility research. The pseudo-words (known as the PARG collection consist of three groups of single syllable pseudo-words varying only by the initial phoneme. The PARG method allows speech intelligibility to be studied free of the influence of shifts of spatial attention from one loudspeaker location to another in multi-talker contexts. To achieve this, all PARG pseudo-words share the same concluding rimes, with only the first phoneme serving as a distinguishing identifier. This ensures that listeners are unable to correctly identify the target pseudo-word without hearing the initial phoneme. As the duration of all the initial phonemes are brief, much shorter than the time required to spatially shift attention, the PARG method assesses speech intelligibility without the confound of shifting spatial attention. The PARG collection is available free for research purposes.

  13. The influence of lexical characteristics and talker accent on the recognition of English words by speakers of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kiyoko; Munson, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Whether or not the influence of listeners' language proficiency on L2 speech recognition was affected by the structure of the lexicon was examined. This specific experiment examined the effect of word frequency (WF) and phonological neighborhood density (PND) on word recognition in native speakers of English and second-language (L2) speakers of English whose first language was Japanese. The stimuli included English words produced by a native speaker of English and English words produced by a native speaker of Japanese (i.e., with Japanese-accented English). The experiment was inspired by the finding of Imai, Flege, and Walley [(2005). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 896-907] that the influence of talker accent on speech intelligibility for L2 learners of English whose L1 is Spanish varies as a function of words' PND. In the currently study, significant interactions between stimulus accentedness and listener group on the accuracy and speed of spoken word recognition were found, as were significant effects of PND and WF on word-recognition accuracy. However, no significant three-way interaction among stimulus talker, listener group, and PND on either measure was found. Results are discussed in light of recent findings on cross-linguistic differences in the nature of the effects of PND on L2 phonological and lexical processing.

  14. Reading faster

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Nation

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  15. Reading faster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nation

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  16. Early and late talkers: school-age language, literacy and neurolinguistic differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Jonathan L; Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, William Einar; Fulbright, Robert K; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena; Jacobsen, Leslie; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, 174 elementary school-age children whose parents reported that they started forming sentences 'early', 'on-time' or 'late' were evaluated with standardized measures of language, reading and spelling...

  17. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  18. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  19. A Context-Based Talker%一种基于语境的对话模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红阁

    2003-01-01

    In order to make computer understand human languages mucn better and achieve certain tasks according to human intentions, it is required to carefully model the elementary concepts and the underlying theoretical principles for driving a conversation generating and developing. Under the given linguistic circumstances, to some extent, it might be hopeful to build up a computational model which cart predict and control the sustaining development of conversational activity. This paper is going to make a formalized primary discussion on contextual features which influence conversational activity, design an algorithm processing ellipses, and build a Context-Based Talker (CBT). The empirical analysis shows, to some extent, CBT can control and guarantee the coherence and natural development of conversational activity.

  20. Effects of Within-Talker Variability on Speech Intelligibility in Mandarin-Speaking Adult and Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiaotong; Galvin, John J; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Yongxin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2016-06-30

    Cochlear implant (CI) speech performance is typically evaluated using well-enunciated speech produced at a normal rate by a single talker. CI users often have greater difficulty with variations in speech production encountered in everyday listening. Within a single talker, speaking rate, amplitude, duration, and voice pitch information may be quite variable, depending on the production context. The coarse spectral resolution afforded by the CI limits perception of voice pitch, which is an important cue for speech prosody and for tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. In this study, sentence recognition from the Mandarin speech perception database was measured in adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI listeners for a variety of speaking styles: voiced speech produced at slow, normal, and fast speaking rates; whispered speech; voiced emotional speech; and voiced shouted speech. Recognition of Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test sentences was also measured. Results showed that performance was significantly poorer with whispered speech relative to the other speaking styles and that performance was significantly better with slow speech than with fast or emotional speech. Results also showed that adult and pediatric performance was significantly poorer with Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test than with Mandarin speech perception sentences at the normal rate. The results suggest that adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI patients are highly susceptible to whispered speech, due to the lack of lexically important voice pitch cues and perhaps other qualities associated with whispered speech. The results also suggest that test materials may contribute to differences in performance observed between adult and pediatric CI users.

  1. Moving-Talker, Speaker-Independent Feature Study, and Baseline Results Using the CUAVE Multimodal Speech Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Eric K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Strides in computer technology and the search for deeper, more powerful techniques in signal processing have brought multimodal research to the forefront in recent years. Audio-visual speech processing has become an important part of this research because it holds great potential for overcoming certain problems of traditional audio-only methods. Difficulties, due to background noise and multiple speakers in an application environment, are significantly reduced by the additional information provided by visual features. This paper presents information on a new audio-visual database, a feature study on moving speakers, and on baseline results for the whole speaker group. Although a few databases have been collected in this area, none has emerged as a standard for comparison. Also, efforts to date have often been limited, focusing on cropped video or stationary speakers. This paper seeks to introduce a challenging audio-visual database that is flexible and fairly comprehensive, yet easily available to researchers on one DVD. The Clemson University Audio-Visual Experiments (CUAVE database is a speaker-independent corpus of both connected and continuous digit strings totaling over 7000 utterances. It contains a wide variety of speakers and is designed to meet several goals discussed in this paper. One of these goals is to allow testing of adverse conditions such as moving talkers and speaker pairs. A feature study of connected digit strings is also discussed. It compares stationary and moving talkers in a speaker-independent grouping. An image-processing-based contour technique, an image transform method, and a deformable template scheme are used in this comparison to obtain visual features. This paper also presents methods and results in an attempt to make these techniques more robust to speaker movement. Finally, initial baseline speaker-independent results are included using all speakers, and conclusions as well as suggested areas of research are

  2. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  3. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  4. The twelve dimensional super (2+2)-brane

    CERN Document Server

    Hewson, S F

    1996-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in twelve dimensions and present a covariant supersymmetric action for a brane with worldsheet signature (2,2), called a super (2+2)-brane, propagating in the osp(64,12) superspace. This superspace is explicitly constructed, and is trivial in the sense that the spinorial part is a trivial bundle over spacetime, unlike the twisted superspace of usual Poincare supersymmetry. For consistency, it is necessary to take a projection of the superspace. This is the same as the projection required for worldvolume supersymmetry. Upon compactification of this superspace, a torsion is naturally introduced and we produce the membrane and type IIB string actions in 11 and 10 dimensional Minkowski spacetimes. In addition, the compactification of the twelve dimensional supersymmetry algebra produces the correct algebras for these theories, including central charges. These considerations thus give the type IIB string and M-theory a single twelve dimensional origin.

  5. Alcoholics anonymous and other twelve-step programs in recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detar, D Todd

    2011-03-01

    Recovery is a new way of life for many patients; a life without substances to alter their moods but with a major change improving the physical, psychological, and emotional stability with improved overall health outcomes. The Twelve Steps of the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) are the foundation of the AA, describing both the necessary actions and the spiritual basis for the recovery program of the AA. The Twelve Steps of the AA provide a structure for which a patient with alcoholism may turn for an answer to their problem of alcohol use, abuse, or dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Life-Wide Learning and Early Reading Development in Twelve African and Asian Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Amy Jo; Friedlander, Elliott; Jonason, Christine; Leer, Jane; Sorensen, Lisa Zook; D'Sa, Nikhit; Guajardo, Jarret; Pava, Clara; Pisani, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    For decades, the international education community has focused on schools as the primary vehicle of learning. However, learning assessments in dozens of developing nations show that repeated attempts to affect student learning in schools have largely failed. Because students with perfect attendance in low-resource settings spend less than 25…

  7. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Tiago Nunes da; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoret

  8. EFFORTS Technical annex for the twelve month progress report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Eriksen, Morten; Thomas christensen, Thomas Vennick;

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU during the second year of project activity. The report describes the work completed by DTU in general as well as on the active sub-tasks within materials properties, friction modelling and physical modelling, over the last twelve...

  9. Human Evolution in Science Textbooks from Twelve Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre; Oerke, Britta; Valente, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    What kinds of images of human beings illustrate human evolution in school textbooks? A comparison between the textbooks of eighteen different countries (twelve European countries and six non-European countries) was attempted. In six countries (Algeria, Malta, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, and Tunisia), we did not find any chapter on the topic of…

  10. Twelve tips for developing and delivering a massive open online course in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D; Henningsohn, Lars; DeRuiter, Marco C; de Jong, Peter G M; Reinders, Marlies E J

    2017-07-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are a novel mode of online learning. They are typically based on higher education courses and can attract a high number of learners, often in the thousands. They are distinct from on-campus education and deliver the learning objectives through a series of short videos, recommended readings and discussion fora, alongside automated assessments. Within medical education the role of MOOCs remains unclear, with recent proposals including continuing professional development, interprofessional education or integration into campus-based blended learning curricula. In this twelve tips article, we aim to provide a framework for readers to use when developing, delivering and evaluating a MOOC within medical education based on the literature and our own experience. Practical advice is provided on how to design the appropriate curriculum, engage with learners on the platform, select suitable assessments, and comprehensively evaluate the impact of your course.

  11. Multicultural Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltze, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

  12. Similarity and familiarity: Second language sentence recognition in first- and second-language multi-talker babble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J

    2010-12-30

    The intelligibility of speech in noisy environments depends not only on the functionality of listeners' peripheral auditory systems, but also on cognitive factors such as their language learning experience. Previous studies have shown, for example, that normal-hearing listeners attending to a non-native language have more difficulty identifying speech targets in noisy conditions than do native listeners. Furthermore, native listeners have more difficulty understanding speech targets in the presence of speech noise in their native language versus a foreign language. The present study addresses the role of listener language experience with both the target and noise languages by examining second-language sentence recognition in first- and second-language noise. Native English speakers and non-native English speakers whose native language is Mandarin were tested on English sentence recognition in English and Mandarin 2-talker babble. Results show that both listener groups experienced greater difficulty in English versus Mandarin babble, but that native Mandarin listeners experienced a smaller release from masking in Mandarin babble relative to English babble. These results indicate that both the similarity between the target and noise and the language experience of the listeners contribute to the amount of interference listeners experience when listening to speech in the presence of speech noise.

  13. The Psychologist Said Quickly, “Dialogue Descriptions Modulate Reading Speed!”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Mallory C.; Luke, Steven G.; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates whether the semantic content of a dialogue description can affect reading times on an embedded quote to determine if the speed at which a character is described as saying a quote influences how quickly it is read. Yao and Scheepers (2011) previously found that readers were faster to read direct quotes when the preceding context implied that the talker generally spoke quickly, an effect attributed to perceptual simulation of talker speed. The current study manipulated the speed of a physical action performed by the speaker independently from character talking rate to determine if these sources have separable effects on perceptual simulation of a direct quote. Results showed that readers spent less time reading direct quotes described as being said quickly compared to slowly (e.g., John walked/bolted into the room and said energetically/nonchalantly, “I finally found my car keys”), an effect that was not present when a nearly identical phrase was presented as an indirect quote (e.g., John…said energetically that he finally found his car keys). The speed of the character’s movement did not affect direct quote reading times. Furthermore, fast adverbs were themselves read significantly faster than slow adverbs, an effect we attribute to implicit effects on the eye movement program stemming from automatically activated semantic features of the adverbs. Our findings add to the literature on perceptual simulation by showing that these effects can be instantiated with only a single adverb, and are strong enough to override effects of global sentence speed. PMID:22927027

  14. Twelve Theses on Reactive Rules for the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Reactivity, the ability to detect and react to events, is an essential functionality in many information systems. In particular, Web systems such as online marketplaces, adaptive (e.g., recommender) sys- tems, and Web services, react to events such as Web page updates or data posted to a server. This article investigates issues of relevance in designing high-level programming languages dedicated to reactivity on the Web. It presents twelve theses on features desira...

  15. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  16. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  17. Teaching Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  18. Reading Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…

  19. Reading Remixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  20. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses ...... these aspects by drawing on typography history, designers’ ideas, and available scientific data concerning the reading process....

  1. The twelve theses: a call to a new reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Shelby Spong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With every discovery emerging from the world of science over the last 500 years concerning the origins of the universe and of life itself, the traditional explanations offered by the Christian Church appeared to be more and more dated and irrelevant.  Christian leaders, unable to embrace the knowledge revolution seemed to believe  that the only way to save Christianity was not to disturb the old patterns either by listening to, much less by entertaining the new knowledge. I tried to articulate this challenge in a book entitled: Why Christianity Must Change or Die, published in 1998.  In that book I examined in detail the issues that I was convinced Christianity must address. Shortly after that book was published I reduced its content to twelve theses, which I attached in Luther-like fashion to the great doors on the Chapel of Mansfield College at Oxford University in the United Kingdom. I then mailed copies of those Twelve Theses to every acknowledged Christian leader of the world. It was an attempt to call them into a debate on the real issues that I was certain the Christian Church now faced.  I framed my twelve theses in the boldest, most provocative language possible, designed primarily to elicit response and debate. I welcome responses from Christians everywhere.  I claim no expertise or certainty in developing answers, but I am quite confident that I do understand the problems we are facing as Christians who are seeking to relate to the 21st century.

  2. Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhao Ellen

    The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non

  3. "Twelve Apostles" and a Few Heretics. Historical Paper 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Jesse H.

    2015-01-01

    There is much more to learn from reading the biographical and philosophical writings of leaders in higher education about what education for librarianship was and should be than from the literature of library education itself. This article contains an alphabetical list with annotations of 23 books on exploring the issues and problems of higher…

  4. Scarcity and Survival in El Salvador. Grades Six to Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, designed for use with students in grades 6-12, has two purposes: (1) to inform teachers and students about social and economic conditions in rural El Salvador; and (2) to teach students how to analyze the indicators of such social and economic conditions. The six included lessons incorporate reading, graphing, and critical thinking…

  5. Twelve tips for teaching medical students with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sebastian Charles Keith; Anderson, John Leeds

    2017-07-01

    Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty. As a result of SS' own experiences as a medical student with dyslexia, we have been researching and teaching on this topic for the past two years. Here, we present twelve tips for teaching medical students with dyslexia. These are gathered from our personal experiences and research, discussions with other educators, and wider literature on the topic. This article aims to shed some light on dyslexia, and also to make practical suggestions. Teaching students with dyslexia should not be a daunting experience. Small changes to existing methods, at minor effort, can make a difference - for example, adding pastel colors to slide backgrounds or avoiding Serif fonts. These tips can help educators gain more insight into dyslexia and incorporate small, beneficial adaptations into their teaching.

  6. Antibacterial activities of extracts from twelve Centaurea species from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeli Yener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Centaurea (Asteraceae have been used in traditional plant-based medicine. The methanol extracts of twelve Centaurea species, of which five are endemic to Turkey flora, were screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the microdilution method and the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC of the extracts were determined. C. cariensis subsp. microlepis exhibited an antimicrobial effect on all tested microorganisms. The extracts from eight Centaurea species (C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis, C. kotschyi var. kotschyi, C. solstitialis subsp. solstitialis, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei and C. virgata possessed antibacterial activity against several of the tested microorganisms.

  7. Twelve tips on how to compile a medical educator's portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Claudia Lucy; Wilson, Anthony; Agius, Steven

    2017-09-17

    Medical education is an expanding area of specialist interest for medical professionals. Whilst most doctors will be familiar with the compilation of clinical portfolios for scrutiny of their clinical practice and provision of public accountability, teaching portfolios used specifically to gather and demonstrate medical education activity remain uncommon in many non-academic settings. For aspiring and early career medical educators in particular, their value should not be underestimated. Such a medical educator's portfolio (MEP) is a unique compendium of evidence that is invaluable for appraisal, revalidation, and promotion. It can stimulate and provide direction for professional development, and is a rich source for personal reflection and learning. We recommend that all new and aspiring medical educators prepare an MEP, and suggest twelve tips on how to skillfully compile one.

  8. Spectroscopy of twelve Type Ia supernovae at intermediate redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Pain, R; Walton, N A; Amanullah, R; Astier, Pierre; Ellis, Richard S; Fabbro, S; Goobar, A; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Irwin, M J; McMahon, R M; Mendez, J M; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Sainton, G; Schahmaneche, K; Stanishev, V

    2005-01-01

    We present spectra of twelve Type Ia supernovae obtained in 1999 at the William Herschel Telescope and the Nordic Optical Telescope during a search for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) at intermediate redshift. The spectra range from z=0.178 to z=0.493, including five high signal-to-noise ratio SN Ia spectra in the still largely unexplored range 0.15 < z < 0.3. Most of the spectra were obtained before or around restframe B-band maximum light. None of them shows the peculiar spectral features found in low-redshift over- or under-luminous SN Ia. Expansion velocities of characteristic spectral absorption features such as SiII at 6355 angs., SII at 5640 angs. and CaII at 3945 angs. are found consistent with their low-z SN Ia counterparts.

  9. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  10. Twelve tips for using blogs and wikis in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John

    2006-12-01

    Blogs and wikis are an emerging area in medical education but are widely used by the general public. These easily accessed websites can be used for a variety of purposes. They can provide a learning resource that can be read by learners, they can be written by learners as a portfolio, and they can be used as a collaborative learning space. The exact use will depend on the requirements of the learner and the educator.

  11. Reading Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Coutts, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Reading Columns are twin permanent public sculptures commissioned as part of a £245m scheme for the redevelopment of the Chatham Place area in Reading. Dimensions: 3.5m high x 1.3m diameter each Field of knowledge: The work consists of twin bespoke columns of stainless steel and glass over digital colour transparencies. The piece revisits and reworks the idea of the Morris Column, a 19th C feature characteristic of major European metropolitan centres. A wraparound image on each of ...

  12. Proficiency as a Variable in Gulf EFL Students' Employment of Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endley, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the reading strategies used by twelve Arabic-speaking undergraduates at a major Gulf university when reading texts in English. The procedure employed was a think-aloud protocol followed by a semi-structured interview. Three research questions were addressed: (a) What are the primary comprehension problems encountered…

  13. Segregated Groups or Inclusive Education? An Interview Study with Students Experiencing Failure in Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Roll-Pettersson, Lise

    2007-01-01

    In this study a group of students with reading and writing difficulties relate their experiences of school to their expressed opinions concerning the possibilities of participation and influence in this setting. Twelve students at upper-level compulsory school or upper secondary school were interviewed. Mostly their reading and writing…

  14. Cochannel Talker Interference Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-26

    session. Each sentence was presented through Telephonics TDH -39P headphones at an average level of 80 dB SPL. Listeners heard each sentence...Int. Conf. Record on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Albuquerque, New Mexico , pp. 293-296 (April 1990). 50. E. H. Rothauser, W. D. Chapman, N

  15. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  16. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  17. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…

  18. WHAT IS READING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Reading is enjoying,entertaining and ent ightening Reading is listening,speaking and writingReading is talking and discussing,with yourself with the author and with the others Reading is exploring,investigating and guessing. Reading is traveling backward and forward,historically and geographically. Reading is thinking in your own language,and/or in the other language. Reading is encoding and decoding. Reading is civilizing,rationalizing and intellectualizing. Reading is assimilating,associating,accumula...

  19. Twelve novel Atm mutations identified in Chinese ataxia telangiectasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Yang, Lu; Wang, Jianchun; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Ying; Xia, Rongjun; Yuan, Xianhou; Yan, Mingshan

    2013-09-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized mainly by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, and immunodeficiency. This disease is caused by mutations of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) gene. More than 500 Atm mutations that are responsible for A-T have been identified so far. However, there have been very few A-T cases reported in China, and only two Chinese A-T patients have undergone Atm gene analysis. In order to systemically investigate A-T in China and map their Atm mutation spectrum, we recruited eight Chinese A-T patients from six unrelated families nationwide. Using direct sequencing of genomic DNA and the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, we identified twelve pathogenic Atm mutations, including one missense, four nonsense, five frameshift, one splicing, and one large genomic deletion. All the Atm mutations we identified were novel, and no homozygous mutation and founder-effect mutation were found. These results suggest that Atm mutations in Chinese populations are diverse and distinct largely from those in other ethnic areas.

  20. Oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma in twelve dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, A; Murphy, B G; Jordan, R C; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-01-01

    Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a distinct histological subtype of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), described in both dogs and man. In dogs, PSCC has long been considered a malignant oral tumour of very young animals, but it has recently been reported to occur in adult dogs as well. The aim of this study was to describe the major clinicopathological characteristics of canine oral PSCC (COPSCC). Twelve dogs diagnosed with COPSCC were included in this retrospective study (1990-2012). The majority (75%) of the dogs were >6 years of age (median age 9 years). All tumours were derived from the gingiva of dentate jaws, with 66.7% affecting the rostral aspects of the jaws. The gross appearance of the lesions varied, with one having an intraosseous component only. The majority (91.7%) of the tumours were advanced lesions (T2 and T3), but no local or distant metastases were noted. Microscopically, two patterns were seen: (1) invasion of bone forming a cup-shaped indentation in the bone or a deeply cavitating cyst within the bone (cavitating pattern), (2) histologically malignant growth, but lack of apparent bone invasion (non-cavitating pattern). The microscopical appearance corresponded to imaging findings in a majority of cases, with cavitating forms presenting with a cyst-like pattern of bone loss or an expansile mass on imaging and non-cavitating forms showing an infiltrative pattern of bone destruction on imaging. These features suggest two distinct biological behaviours of COPSCC.

  1. Sensitivity and growth of twelve Elatior begonia cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, R.A.; Nelson, P.V.

    1979-12-01

    Twelve cultivars of Elatior begonia (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.) were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 25 and 50 pphM. The 'Schwabenland' group, 'Whisper 'O' Pink', and 'Improved Krefeld Orange' were the most sensitive, whereas 'Ballerina', 'Mikkell Limelight', and 'Turo' were the least sensitive. 'Rennaisance', 'Heirloom' 'Nixe', and 'Fantasy' were intermediate in sensitivity. The dry weight of foliage (stems plus leaves) of 9 cultivars exposed to O/sub 3/ was significantly less than that of control plants. Ozone at 25 and 50 pphM inhibited flower growth (including peduncles) and development in 4 and 8 of the 12 cultivars, respectively. Differences in flower weight ranged from 43 to 105% of the control at 25 pphM and from 25 to 98% of the control at 50 pphM, depending on cultivar. 1 table.

  2. Twelve tips for designing and running longitudinal integrated clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel; Graves, Lisa; Berry, Sue; Myhre, Doug; Cummings, Beth-Ann; Konkin, Jill

    2013-12-01

    Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) involve learners spending an extended time in a clinical setting (or a variety of interlinked clinical settings) where their clinical learning opportunities are interwoven through continuities of patient contact and care, continuities of assessment and supervision, and continuities of clinical and cultural learning. Our twelve tips are grounded in the lived experiences of designing, implementing, maintaining, and evaluating LICs, and in the extant literature on LICs. We consider: general issues (anticipated benefits and challenges associated with starting and running an LIC); logistical issues (how long each longitudinal experience should last, where it will take place, the number of learners who can be accommodated); and integration issues (how the LIC interfaces with the rest of the program, and the need for evaluation that aligns with the dynamics of the LIC model). Although this paper is primarily aimed at those who are considering setting up an LIC in their own institutions or who are already running an LIC we also offer our recommendations as a reflection on the broader dynamics of medical education and on the priorities and issues we all face in designing and running educational programs.

  3. Commercializing Government-sponsored Innovations: Twelve Successful Buildings Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. A.; Berry, L. G.; Goel, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies.

  4. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Tiago Nunes

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoretical discussion. In particular, we study the nature of the bulk transition that separates a chirally broken phase at strong coupling from a chirally restored phase at weak coupling. When a non-improved action is used, a rapid crossover is observed at small bare quark masses. Our results confirm a first order nature for this transition, in agreement with previous results we obtained using an improved action. As shown in Ref.[1], when improvement of the action is used, the transition is preceded by a second rapid crossover at weaker coupling and an exotic phase emerges, where chiral symmetry is not yet broken. This can be explained [1] by the non hermiticity of the improved lattice Transfer matrix, arising from the c...

  5. Reading Hygiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿一铭

    2006-01-01

    Here are some good points for good eye health that everyone can follow: 1.Rest your eyes before they get tired. Just close your eyes from time to time or look offat some distant object. 2.Do not read in either too dark a light or

  6. English sentence recognition in speech-shaped noise and multi-talker babble for English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate English sentence recognition in quiet and two types of maskers, multi-talker babble (MTB) and long-term speech-shaped noise (LTSSN), with varied signal-to-noise ratios, for English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native listeners. Results showed that first, sentence recognition for non-native listeners was affected more by background noise than that for native listeners; second, the masking effects of LTSSN were similar between Chinese and Korean listeners, but the masking effects of MTB were greater for Chinese than for Korean listeners, suggesting possible interaction effects between the non-native listener's native language and speech-like competing noise in sentence recognition.

  7. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers h...

  8. The Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Twelve Galloyl Glucosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve galloyl glucosides 1–12, showing diverse substitution patterns with two or three galloyl groups, were synthesized using commercially available, low-cost D-glucose and gallic acid as starting materials. Among them, three compounds, methyl 3,6-di-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (9, ethyl 2,3-di-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (11 and ethyl 2,3-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (12, are new compounds and other six, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (1, 1,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2, 1,2-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (3, 1,3-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (4, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranose (6 and methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (10, were synthesized for the first time in the present study. In in vitro MTT assay, 1–12 inhibited human cancer K562, HL-60 and HeLa cells with inhibition rates ranging from 64.2% to 92.9% at 100 μg/mL, and their IC50 values were determined to be varied in 17.2–124.7 μM on the tested three human cancer cell lines. In addition, compounds 1–12 inhibited murine sarcoma S180 cells with inhibition rates ranging from 38.7% to 52.8% at 100 μg/mL in the in vitro MTT assay, and in vivo antitumor activity of 1 and 2 was also detected in murine sarcoma S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice using taxol as positive control.

  9. [Twelve years of working of Brazzaville cancer registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsondé Malanda, Judith; Nkoua Mbon, Jean Bernard; Bambara, Augustin Tozoula; Ibara, Gérard; Minga, Benoît; Nkoua Epala, Brice; Gombé Mbalawa, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The Brazzaville cancer registry was created in 1996 with the support of the International Agency Research against Cancer (IARC) which is located in Lyon, France. The Brazzaville cancer registry is a registry which is based on population which records new cancer cases occurring in Brazzaville by using Canreg 4.0 Software. Its aim is to supply useful information to fight against cancer to physicians and to decision makers. We conducted this study whose target was to determine the incidence of cancer in Brazzaville during twelve years, from January 1st, 1998 to December 31, 2009. During that period 6,048 new cancer cases were recorded: 3,377 women (55.8%), 2,384 men (39.4%), and 287 children (4.8%) from 0 to 14 years old with an annual average of 504 cases. Middle age to the patient's diagnosis was 49.5 years in female sex and 505.5 years old for male sex. The incidence rate of cancers in Brazzaville was 39.8 or 100.000 inhabitants per year and by sex we observed 49 to female sex and 35.2 for male sex. The first cancers localizations observed to women were in order of frequency: breast, cervix uterine, liver ovaries, hematopoietic system, to men : liver, prostate, hematopoietic system, colon and stomach; to children : retina, kidney, hematopoietic system, liver and bones. These rates are the basis to know the burden of cancer among all pathologies of Brazzaville and the achievement of a national cancer control program.

  10. Hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome: report of twelve unrelated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lonlay, P; Benelli, C; Fouque, F; Ganguly, A; Aral, B; Dionisi-Vici, C; Touati, G; Heinrichs, C; Rabier, D; Kamoun, P; Robert, J J; Stanley, C; Saudubray, J M

    2001-09-01

    Hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome has been reported as a cause of moderately severe hyperinsulinism with diffuse involvement of the pancreas. The disorder is caused by gain of function mutations in the GLUD1 gene, resulting in a decreased inhibitory effect of guanosine triphosphate on the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzyme. Twelve unrelated patients (six males, six females) with hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome have been investigated. The phenotypes were clinically heterogeneous, with neonatal and infancy-onset hypoglycemia and variable responsiveness to medical (diazoxide) and dietary (leucine-restricted diet) treatment. Hyperammonemia (90-200 micromol/L, normal carbamylglutamate administration. The patients had mean basal GDH activity (18.3 +/- 0.9 nmol/min/mg protein) not different from controls (17.9 +/- 1.8 nmol/min/mg protein) in cultured lymphoblasts. The sensitivity of GDH activity to inhibition by guanosine triphosphate was reduced in all patient lymphoblast cultures (IC(50), or concentrations required for 50% inhibition of GDH activity, ranging from 140 to 580 nM, compared with control IC(50) value of 83 +/- 1.0 nmol/L). The allosteric effect of ADP was within the normal range. The activating effect of leucine on GDH activity varied among the patients, with a significant decrease of sensitivity that was correlated with the negative clinical response to a leucine-restricted diet in plasma glucose levels in four patients. Molecular studies were performed in 11 patients. Heterozygous mutations were localized in the antenna region (four patients in exon 11, two patients in exon 12) as well as in the guanosine triphosphate binding site (two patients in exon 6, two patients in exon 7) of the GLUD1 gene. No mutation has been found in one patient after sequencing the exons 5-13 of the gene.

  11. Commercializing government-sponsored innovations: Twelve successful buildings case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Goel, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies. 27 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Twelve Ways to Build CMS Crossings from ROOT Files

    CERN Document Server

    Chamont, D

    2003-01-01

    The simulation of CMS raw data requires the random selection of one hundred and fifty pileup events from a very large set of files, to be superimposed in memory to the signal event. The use of ROOT I/O for that purpose is quite unusual: the events are not read sequentially but pseudo-randomly, they are not processed one by one in memory but by bunches, and they do not contain orthodox ROOT objects but many foreign objects and templates. In this context, we have compared the performance of ROOT containers versus the STL vectors, and the use of trees versus a direct storage of containers. The strategy with best performances is by far the one using clones within trees, but it stays hard to tune and very dependant on the exact use-case. The use of STL vectors could bring more easily similar performances in a future ROOT release.

  13. Automatic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪

    2007-01-01

    <正>Reading is the key to school success and,like any skill,it takes practice.A child learns to walk by practising until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other.The great athlete practises until he can play quickly,accurately and without thinking.Ed- ucators call it automaticity.

  14. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  15. An Experiment in Humanistic Management within Community College District Twelve, Centralia/Olympia, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dale A.; Hurley, John A.

    Community College District Twelve, a multi-college district serving a two-county area in southwestern Washington, has attempted to incorporate at administrative levels many of the humanistic, process-oriented principles of management discussed by Maslow and Maccoby. A concept of the ideal leadership style for District Twelve guides the selection…

  16. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-09-01

    The authors review research on children's reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children's reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children's reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students' reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  17. Deathly silence and apocalyptic noise: Observations on the soundscape of the Book of the Twelve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Schart

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a reading of the Book of the Twelve (used interchangeably with �Twelve� and �Book� for convenience that concentrates on the sound that is included in the description of the world of the text. Three onomatopoeic devices are singled out. First, the mourning cry h�y is considered. This interjection is used differently in several of the writings: in Amos (5:18; 6:1 the prophet cries out in compassion with the addressees. By contrast, in Nahum 3:1 and Habakkuk 2:6�19, h�y is uttered in a mood of mockery. In Zechariah 2:10 a third, joyful h�y is used. It appears that the different usages cohere nicely with the overall structure of the Book of the Twelve. Secondly, the interjection has likewise shows different usages. In Amos 6:10 and 8:3, it simulates the last breath of Israelites dying when the land is devastated. By contrast, in Habakkuk 2:20, Zephaniah 1:7 and Zechariah 2:17, the addressees are directed to be silent before YHWH. This command should be perceived as an act of reverence. Again, the sequence of the occurrences coheres with the overall structure of the Book of the Twelve. Of special relevance is that the last three instances build a frame around the Babylonian exile, which lies between Zephaniah and Haggai. The third example is the phrase ham�n�m, ham�n�m in Joel 4:14. The author employs an irregular double plural to construe this place as the loudest spot (�apocalyptic noise� within the Twelve.Setu sa go tiba le modumo wa aphokhaliptiki: Ditemogo ka medumo ya Puku ya ba LesomepediPampiri ye e �i�inya go balwa ga Puku ya ba Lesomepedi (yeo e ka nogo bit�wa �Lesomepedi� goba �Puku� go bebofat�a ditaba ka go gatelela modumo wo o lego ka gare ga tlhaloso ya lefase la go tswala dingwalo t�e. Ditsela t�e tharo t�a onomathopoiki di bewa pepeneng. La mathomo, go �et�wa sello sa mahloko sa h?y. Lelahlelwa le le �omi�wa ka go fapana mo dingwalong t�e mmalwa: go Amosi

  18. The impact of alcoholics anonymous on other substance abuse-related twelve-step programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre B

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores the influence of the AA model on self-help fellowships addressing problems of drug dependence. Fellowships that have adapted the twelve-step recovery model to other substances of abuse are reviewed; next similarities and differences between AA and drug-recovery twelve-step organizations are examined; finally, we present empirical findings on patterns of attendance and perceptions of AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) among polydrug-dependent populations, many of whom are cross-addicted to alcohol. Future directions in twelve-step research are noted in closing.

  19. Reading Instruction Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna

    1979-01-01

    Describes current achievement in the areas of reading theory and reading instruction. Reviews reading research in the fields of educational and cognitive psychology. Considers the overall role of formal education in the development of literacy. (GC)

  20. Reading(s) in the Writing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David

    1997-01-01

    Interrogates the reading/writing connection by evaluating how three essays by published writers affected the attitude and writing practices of university students in a course on the personal essay. Describes the course. Suggests what findings imply for current rationales about the reading/writing connection and for the use of anthology readings in…

  1. Teaching Adults to Read with Reading Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmeister, Michele Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Many adult students have basic reading skills, but they are inexperienced readers who need to learn skills beyond the basics to equip them for success in college and career. How do educators face such adults with optimism and an eagerness to help improve specific reading skills so that these students can read and understand a variety of materials?…

  2. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  3. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  4. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation. The strategy was evolved in the continuity of reading. Students were encouraged to read extensively in and outside class. The findings indicated that the implementation could improve students’ reading readability.This attainment demonstrated that students’ reading readabilityis frosted through the continuity of reading. Other facts showed that students enjoyed reading. Students’ curiosity was also a significant factor. Their high curiosity explained why students continued reading though they realized that materials they read were difficult enough. Students’ self-confidence was also built as they were required to write a retelling story and to share their previous reading. Instead of their retelling and summarizing, students felt to be appreciated as readers. This appreciation indirectly helped students to improve the reading fondness.

  5. Talker-listener accent interactions in speech-in-noise recognition: effects of prosodic manipulation as a function of language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Melanie; Iverson, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Previous work has shown that accents affect speech recognition accuracy in noise, with intelligibility being modulated by the similarity between the talkers' and listeners' accents, particularly in the case where they have different L1s. The present study examined the contribution of prosody to recognizing native (L1) and non-native (L2) speech in noise, and how this is affected by the listener's L2 experience. A group of monolingual English listeners and two groups of French listeners with varying L2 English experience were presented with English sentences produced by L1 and L2 (French) speakers. The stimuli were digitally processed to exchange the pitch and segment durations between recordings of the same sentences produced by different speakers (e.g., imposing a French-accented prosody onto recordings made from English speakers). The results revealed that English listeners were more accurate at recognizing L1 English with English prosody, the French inexperienced listeners were more accurate at recognizing French-accented speech with French prosody, and the French experienced listeners varied in the cues that they used depending on the noise level, showing more flexibility of processing. The use of prosodic cues in noise thus appears to be modulated by language experience and varies according to listening context.

  6. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF “TWELVE WELL-POINTS” IN EMERGENCY TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段功保

    2000-01-01

    In many years' clinical practice, I used blood-letting method of “Twelve Well-points” to treat emergencies as coma, syncope, acute infantile convulsion, wind-stroke syndrome, hysteria, epilepsy, etc. and have achieved immediate results.

  7. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  8. On Efficient Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟平

    2003-01-01

    Time is limited for each reader,but many readers waste a lot oftime on unimportant things, and they read everything at the same speed and in the same way. As a result, they often fail to understand the word and the sentence; they don't know how one sentence relates to another, and how the whole text fixes together. They are not reading efficiently. It is high time that we held a discussion on efficient reading. The author states that efficient reading involves adequate comprehension with appropriate reading rate. Pointing out the factors that influence reading rate and comprehension, this article put forward some suggestions on efficient reading.

  9. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  10. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  11. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  12. Chapter Twelve

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    dissemination in Nigeria· Some local jingles from Radio Nigeria Purity F.M. .... Indigenous Language in Advertisement: Problems and Prospects – Thecla ... the rural newspapers from performing their role of rural development· The ..... Sharma Raman, M· and, S (2004), Technical Communication Principle and Practice· India:.

  13. Cultural Factors in Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔敏

    2005-01-01

    Reading is a basic ability in learning English and reading comprehension exercise is a common way to assess this ability.Since reading is a communicative activity between author and reader in written form,there are some different rules and regulations of this communication in different countries.Therefore,cultural factors,existing in reading,decide,help,and influence the percentage of the right answers.This article attempts to analyze the effects of cultural differences in reading and the barriers in comprehension,and aims to improve students awareness of cultural differences in reading.

  14. English Reading Instruction in China: Chinese Teachers' Perspectives and Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ran; Baumann, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe teachers' perspectives and comments about their reading curriculum and instruction at different school levels. A brief historical examination of the English instruction and the contemporary education policies in China was provided. Twelve Chinese teachers of English at different schools levels…

  15. Comparing Hypertext Reading in L1 and L2: The Case of Filipino Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruspe, Michael Angelo M.; Marinas, Christian Joshua L.; Villasin, Marren Nicole F.; Villanueva, Ariel Josephe Therese R.; Vizconde, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    This research probed into the reading experiences of adult readers in their first language (L1) and second language (L2). Qualitative in nature, the investigation focused on twelve (12) adult readers , six (6) males and six (6) females, whose first language is Filipino. Data were gathered through interviews and focus-group discussions. Based on…

  16. The Development and Validation of a Reading Attitude Measure for Elementary School Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Gertrude F.

    Validity and reliability studies of the Bullen Reading Attitude Measure (BRAM) were conducted on 291 white children in twelve classes in two schools, grades one through six, in Fall River, Massachusetts. The instrument's validity was obtained by measuring the correspondence between respondents' answers given on the attitude subtests and their…

  17. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

  18. To read or not to read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

  19. Teaching Reading Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒

    2014-01-01

    Reading skills are very important part in language teaching and learning. This paper is written after attending lectures given by an Australian teacher named Rod Ellis focusing on how to teach reading skills using authentic materials.

  20. On English Reading Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱芬

    2008-01-01

    Reading is one of the four important skills in English learning.It is also a skill that the students need to possess to support independent and self-directed learning.With the development of society,science and technology develop at hish speed and the competition in the society become sharp.Reading is a way for students to be more knowledgeable and successful.So,it becomes more and more important to speed up their reading in order to acquire as much information as possible.Thus,fostering a good English reading habit is essential,and being able to adopt different reading skills for different reading materials and purposes will also help to read more effectively.The paper mainly concenls some basic English reading skills.

  1. Remote Control Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Helen

    1995-01-01

    Explains how students who have difficulty remembering what they have read may be taught how to reread sections of text by suggesting to them that reading is analogous to watching a video with the remote control in hand. (TB)

  2. Can Reading Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  3. Tactics for Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥航; 张艳荣

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, reading comprehension is taking up a larger and larger part in almost every international test or domestic examination. Knowing the basic knowledge and grasping the test - taking tactics are key factors of good reading comprehension. In this thesis, I will dwell on nine commonly used tactics for reading comprehension. This will help you to deal with the problems with reading comprehension efficiently.

  4. Discussion on college students' English Reading Skills —intensive reading and extensive reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖登

    2016-01-01

    Students are exposed to a growing amount of vocabularies and knowledge as they step into higher grades, while seem to have little improvement in their reading ability and no alternative means to realize their reading goals. Improving the English reading skills is very important for students as reading enjoys a huge ratio in an English exam paper. Talking about reading, we can not ignore these facts: reading materials, reading speed and reading skills. The followings analyzed are some common skills applied to reading-intensive reading and extensive reading as well as the obstacles that may be met while reading.

  5. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  6. Voiced Reading and Rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹艳萍

    2007-01-01

    Since voiced reading is an important way in learning English,rhythm is the most critical factor that enables to read beautifully.This article illustrates the relationship between rhythm and voiced reading,the importance of rhythm,and the methods to develop the sense of rhythm.

  7. Monster Moose Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Frank

    Monster Moose (MM) Reading is a program specifically aimed at improving children's language, beginning reading, and self-concept development through the creation and utilization of student-authored reading materials which feature a series of wordless picture books about a magical moose. The MM Program is based on the following general principles…

  8. Rapid Reading, Yes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Harvey

    1971-01-01

    Recommends instruction in rapid reading fo high school and college students and asserts that flexibility of speed and reasoning provide the foundation for effective rapid reading. Describes the components of rapid reading as orientation, selection, clarification, arrangement, review, and study. (RW)

  9. Reading/Writing Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie

    In the past, students and teachers alike viewed reading and writing instruction as two separate entities. Reading and writing instruction was often characterized by linear and behaviorist theories and methods, with students rarely coming away from their schooling experience with confidence in and respect for their own writing. To both read and…

  10. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  11. Dutch for Reading Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baalen, C.; Blom, F.R.E.; Hollander, I.

    2012-01-01

    This first Dutch for Reading Knowledge book on the market promotes a high level of reading and translation competency by drawing from Dutch grammar, vocabulary and reading strategies, and providing many translation "shortcuts" and tips when tackling complex texts in Dutch. Aimed at students, researc

  12. Prose reading in neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  13. Family Reading Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  14. Reading difficulties in Albanian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years old were tested. They had to read 120 stimuli varied in lexicality, frequency, and length. The results in terms of reading accuracy as well as in reading times show that both groups were affected by lexicality and length effects. In both groups, length and lexicality effects were significantly modulated by school year being greater in early grades and later diminish in length and just the opposite in lexicality. However, the reading difficulties group was less accurate and slower than the control group across all school grades. Analyses of the error patterns showed that phonological errors, when the letter replacement leading to new nonwords, are the most common error type in both groups, although as grade rises, visual errors and lexicalizations increased more in the control group than the reading difficulties group. These findings suggest that Albanian normal children use both routes (lexical and sublexical) from the beginning of reading despite of the complete regularity of Albanian, while children with reading difficulties start using sublexical reading and the lexical reading takes more time to acquire, but finally both routes are functional.

  15. Reading: United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rose-Marie

    1983-01-01

    An exploration of the increasingly important role of linguistics in literacy research and instruction reviews literature on reading comprehension, written language, orthography, metalinguistics, classroom language use, reading disabilities, native tongues, nonstandard dialects, bilingual education, adult literacy, and second-language reading. (86…

  16. The Future of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

  17. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  18. Bullen Reading Attitude Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Gertrude F.

    The Bullen Reading Attitude Measure (BRAM) is an instrument that was developed to serve as a diagnostic aid in assessing reading attitudes of elementary school children in grades one through six. The objectives of the test are to measure the subject's attitude toward reading at home or school, visiting the library, owning and buying books,…

  19. Isolation and characterization of twelve microsatellite loci for the Japanese Devilray (Mobula japanica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, Marloes; Galvan-Magana, Felipe; Bernardi, Giacomo; Croll, Donald A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellites loci were characterized for Mobula japanica (Japanese Devilray) using an enrichment protocol. All but two loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium or null-alleles for a sample of 40 individuals from two populations. The num

  20. 17 CFR 210.3-06 - Financial statements covering a period of nine to twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975... to twelve months. Except with respect to registered investment companies, the filing of...

  1. Twelve new species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira Da; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-05-09

    Twelve species of Triplocania, seven based on male and female specimens and five based on male specimens, are here described and illustrated; nine species are Brazilian, three are Ecuadorian, and one of the latter is shared with Peru. Comments on sexes known and distribution of the species are included.

  2. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  3. Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among students of ... Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. ... having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use ...

  4. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  5. A novel double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel proposal of double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding ac converter. Modular power units are developed from reconfigured eight classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs). Each VSI has one additional bi-directional switching ...

  6. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor t

  7. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor t

  8. To Read or Not to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    until the students are exposed to reading material above the mid- fifth grade level. The emphasis in these courses is upon improving comprehension...completing the material in the course books, students work at improving their reading speed through the use of controlled reading, pacers, and timed tests. As...FjN7 1473 EDITION OF INOV 𔄀 IS OBSOLETE Unclassified S/N 0102 tF-01t.6e0d) SECURITY CLASS•IFICATION OF THIS PAGE (147-m Do!& Entered) SECURITY

  9. Amblyopic reading is crowded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M; Song, Shuang; Pelli, Denis G

    2007-10-26

    We measure acuity, crowding, and reading in amblyopic observers to answer four questions. (1) Is reading with the amblyopic eye impaired because of larger required letter size (i.e., worse acuity) or larger required spacing (i.e., worse crowding)? The size or spacing required to read at top speed is called "critical". For each eye of seven amblyopic observers and the preferred eyes of two normal observers, we measure reading rate as a function of the center-to-center spacing of the letters in central and peripheral vision. From these results, we estimate the critical spacing for reading. We also measured traditional acuity for an isolated letter and the critical spacing for identifying a letter among other letters, which is the classic measure of crowding. For both normals and amblyopes, in both central and peripheral vision, we find that the critical spacing for reading equals the critical spacing for crowding. The identical critical spacings, and very different critical sizes, show that crowding, not acuity, limits reading. (2) Does amblyopia affect peripheral reading? No. We find that amblyopes read normally with their amblyopic eye except that abnormal crowding in the fovea prevents them from reading fine print. (3) Is the normal periphery a good model for the amblyopic fovea? No. Reading centrally, the amblyopic eye has an abnormally large critical spacing but reads all larger spacings at normal rates. This is unlike the normal periphery, in which both critical spacing and maximum reading rate are severely impaired relative to the normal fovea. (4) Can the uncrowded-span theory of reading rate explain amblyopic reading? Yes. The case of amblyopia shows that crowding limits reading solely by determining the uncrowded span: the number of characters that are not crowded. Characters are uncrowded if and only if their spacing is more than critical. The text spacing may be uniform, but the observer's critical spacing increases with distance from fixation, so the

  10. Impact of the Reading Buddies Program on Reading Level and Attitude Towards Reading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayley Dolman; Serena Boyte-Hawryluk

    2013-01-01

    ... children’s reading levels and attitudes towards reading.Methods – During the first and last sessions of the Reading Buddies program, the participants completed the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (ERAS...

  11. Confronting the Crisis: Federal Investments in State Birth-through-Grade-Twelve Literacy Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Literacy is one of the most critical components of academic success, but the majority of students are leaving high school without the reading and writing skills needed to succeed in college and a career. According to ACT, fewer than 40 percent of black and Latino students are ready for college-level reading when they graduate from high school.…

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  14. Anatomical studies on twelve clones of Camellia species with reference to their taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanna L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies of leaf and stem of twelve clones of Camellia were investigated. Cross sections of the stem of all the clones exhibited a typical pattern of arrangement of tissues characteristics of woody plants. Two types of idioblastic sclereids were found in the medullary parenchyma of the taxa studied. While astrosclereids werepresent in 10 of the twelve clones, the vesciculose sclereids were found only in the four clones belonging to C. sinensis. Leaves of the clones show variations in the number of palisade layers. Astro sclereids, brachy sclereids, and dendritic forms were observed in the leaves, their distribution varying in the different clones. A few other micromorphological features are also recorded. Our study forms a basis for answering uncertainties in taxonomic revision in the genus Camellia.

  15. Descriptions of twelve new species of ochyroceratids (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae) from mainland Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupérré, Nadine

    2015-05-12

    Twelve new species in three different genera from the spider family Ochyroceratidae are described from mainland Ecuador: Speocera bioforestae sp. n., Speocera violacea sp. n., Speocera musgo sp. n., Ochyrocera rinocerotos sp. n., Ochyrocera callaina sp. n., Ochyrocera italoi sp. n., Ochyrocera minotaure sp. n., Ochyrocera losrios sp. n., Ochyrocera zabaleta sp. n., Ochyrocera otonga sp. n., Ochyrocera cashcatotoras sp. n. and Psiloochyrocera tortilis sp. n. Speocera machadoi Gertsch 1977 is transferred to Ochyrocera.

  16. A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2003-12-13

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  17. Premarital Sex in the Last Twelve Months and Its Predictors among Students of Wollega University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Tesfaye; Chala, Dereje; Adeba, Emiru

    2016-07-01

    Premarital sex increases the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV if unprotected and contraception is not used. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among regular undergraduate students of Wollega University. A cross-sectional survey using pretested, structured questionnaire was conducted on a total of 704 regular undergraduate students of Wollega University from February to March, 2014. We used multistage sampling technique to recruit study participants. Binary and multivariable logistic regressions were performed using SPSS version 20 to assess predictors of premarital sex. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Wollega University youths who had premarital sex in the last twelve months were 28.4%; 55.5% of them did not use condom during last sex while 31.3% engaged in multiple sex. Being male [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)(95% Confidence Interval(CI))=2.7(1.58-4.75)], age 20-24 years [AOR(95%CI)=2.8(1.13-7.20)], training on how to use condom [AOR(95%CI)=1.7(1.17-2.46)], being tested for HIV [AOR(95%CI)=2.3(1.48-3.53)], using social media frequently [AOR(95%CI)=1.8(1.14-2.88)], having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use [AOR (95%CI)=2.2(1.31-3.56)] were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the last twelve months. Nearly one-third of regular undergraduate students of the university were engaged in premarital sex in the last twelve months. Being male, using social media frequently and alcohol use were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the stated period. Thus, higher institutions have to deliver abstinence messages alongside information about self-protection.

  18. Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincaré symmetry in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak; Pasqua, A; Zumino, B; Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  19. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  20. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  1. On Reading Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健

    2005-01-01

    There has been a long discussion over the construct validity of reading tests. In china's reading tests, multiple choice is the main test method in view of the4 long controversy over the validity of multiple choice, construct validation is called for to empirically test the hypothesized relationships between test scores and abilities. The national CET committee conducted a comprehensive validation study. As part of the project, the specialists studied the reading comprehension test's validity by qualitative means, namely "introspective verbal reports". The analysis revealed that an overwhelming majority of the questions items were handled through "expected reading operations".

  2. Reading disorders and dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Recent findings Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. Summary There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed. PMID:27496059

  3. The Reading Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Kassuba, Tanja; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Do you enjoy reading books? Reading is one of the unique activities that only humans do, and we have not been doing it for that long! Humans have talked to each other using a language system with grammatical rules for at least 100,000 years, but we have been reading and writing only for a few thousand years! What happens in our brain when we read? Our brain has developed a region that is specialized in knowing what written words look like. It closely works together with other parts of the bra...

  4. How to Develop Reading Strategies in Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈腊梅

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading demands readers to read in quantity for general, overall meaning, and for information. Learners are supposed to know how to choose appropriate reading tactics in accordance with different reading purposes. This paper mainly proposes some effective strategies to develop learners' reading skills and competency.

  5. Reading Strategy: Tackling Reading through Topic and Main Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Bharathi; Briewin, Marshal; Embi, Mohamed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the four skills essential in learning English. In a reading class, students tend to read all the information provided in reading materials, but how much do they actually retain? This study explores whether learners use identification of the topic and main ideas as a reading strategy to assist in reading…

  6. Developmental Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Swart, Nicole M.; Steenbeek-Planting, Esther G.; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural…

  7. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  8. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  9. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  10. Recovering Innocence: Growing Up Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Patricia Sylvester

    1991-01-01

    Offers a plan for changing the perception among teenagers that reading for pleasure is an activity of their childhood past. Suggests an elective Reading Workshop that allows students to share favorite books and authors, to read aloud and listen to others read aloud, and to discuss their reading processes and decisions. (PRA)

  11. Cerebral Laterality and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackworth, Jane F.

    Recent research has confirmed that hemispheric patterns of dominance are related to reading skills. Reading is more complex than speech because it includes a visuo-spatial element. In the great majority of people, the left hemisphere deals with speech and sequencing skills. Visual matching of printed words requires the spatial skills of the right…

  12. Anything but Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Both the popular media and professional literature are filled with suggestions on how to improve reading, but the one approach that always works is rarely mentioned: provide readers with a supply of interesting and comprehensible books. Instead, people are given advice that is dead wrong as a means of improving reading (e.g., roller skating and…

  13. LINGUISTICS AND JAPANESE READING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CROWLEY, DALE P.

    THE PRINCIPLES OF STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF JAPANESE ORTHOGRAPHY, AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING ARE USED AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A LINGUISTICALLY ORIENTED COURSE IN JAPANESE READING. THE FIRST PART OF THE TEXT IS DEVOTED TO THE RELATION BETWEEN READING AND LINGUISTICS. THE SECOND PART GIVES BACKGROUND MATERIAL ON JAPANESE…

  14. Little Herder Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The Little Herder Reading Series is comprised of 4 volumes based on the life of a Navajo Indian girl. The books are written in English blank verse and describe many facets of Indian life. The volumes contain illustrations by Hoke Denetsosie which give a pictorial representation of the printed verse. The reading level is for the middle and upper…

  15. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…

  16. Teaching Reading in Homeschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambo, Idalia

    This paper discusses the home-schooling trend and identifies reading instructional methods used by home-schooling parents. Interviews were conducted with 5 home-schooling families of children ranging in age from 1 to 14 years. Parents reported that they began reading instruction with their child at about age 5 and agreed that instruction in…

  17. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  18. Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Rick

    A study investigated the effect Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) has had on literacy at Estancia High School in California which recently implemented an SSR program. It also examined the role SSR has on language development, comprehension, vocabulary, student attitudes, and its corollary consequence on the development of reading habits. A survey of…

  19. Reading Where It Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teachers are reminded that their content subject areas require acquainting children with special words or symbols related to that subject area (e.g. mathematics or social studies). Because children can read well does not mean they would be understanding of any special reading skill required in a content subject area; that the…

  20. Reading and Perestroika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Sergei N.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a short historical and sociological analysis of reading in the Soviet Union from the beginning of the twentieth century to perestroika. Discusses some sociocultural problems associated with reading, including the prevailing social, economic and political crises in all spheres of life, particularly the cultural. (RS)

  1. Reading Patterns Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Modern life is changing the way people read April 23 was the 16th World Book and Copyright Day,also known as the World Book Day.Reading-related problems have once again attracted people’s attention.Today,living a life with an increasingly rapid pace,most people are

  2. Toddler Reading Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toddler Reading Time KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddler Reading Time A A A What's in this article? Reasons ... Kids make big leaps in vocabulary during this time, and learn about letters, shapes, colors, weather, animals, ...

  3. Improving Attitudes Toward Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Stephanie J.; Trent, Jane A.

    This report describes a program for improving students' attitudes toward reading. The targeted population consisted of second and third grade students in a growing middle class community. The problem of the lack of interest in reading and the poor quality of classroom work were evident in parent and student surveys, and teacher observations.…

  4. Online Reading Test Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣

    2011-01-01

    Language test has been used as a scientific assessment tool in providing valuable information for teaching and learning. In fact,lots of online reading tests are not designed with validity. This paper analyzes those online reading tests from the aspects o

  5. Assistive Technologies for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  6. Reading: Seven to Eleven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, John E.

    This paper focuses on ways of improving reading by developing the intermediate skills and the higher order comprehension skills in reading. The paper consists of four sections: "Intermediate Skills and Context Cues" discusses the use of the cloze procedure for improving comprehension skills and for analyzing words in terms of class membership,…

  7. MORE ABOUT READING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RASMUSSEN, MARGARET

    FOUR ARTICLES ON INDIVIDUALIZED READING AND SELF-SELECTION REPRINTED FROM "CHILDHOOD EDUCATION" AND "READING," THE JOURNAL AND BULLETIN OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR CHILDHOOD EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL (ACEI), ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST ARTICLE IS A DISCUSSION OF SELF-SELECTION, OF THE TEACHER'S ROLE IN PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR…

  8. Reading Rate and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the most important signs of language proficiency both for native and foreign language speakers (Grabe, 2010; Macalister, 2010; Winston, 2010; Hasbrouck, 2008; Rasinski, 2004; Oakley, 2003; Waldman, 1985; Cited in: Sayenko, 2010, Introduction Para 1). This paper is in the area of reading fluency and tries to investigate…

  9. Extending Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    The April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language" featured a discussion forum on extensive reading (ER). Most of the authors, recognized authorities on ER, discussed their views of the principles of ER, particularly in establishing and conducting ER programs. The purpose of this discussion is to review developments in the practice…

  10. Read Like a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawyer, Kirsten K. N.; Johnson, Heather J.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists read, and so should students. Unfortunately, many high school teachers overlook science texts as a way to engage students in the work of scientists. This article addresses how to help students develop literacy skills by strategically reading a variety of science texts. Unfortunately, most science teachers aren't trained to teach…

  11. EXTENSIVE READING IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionMost teachers and students in China are quite familiar with the term‘extensive reading’,but how itshould be taught still remains a problem.This paper covers the aims of extensive reading and the methodsand materials used in the course.Then some practical suggestions will be given to make the course moreinteresting and efficient.According to Dzao(1990).extensive reading is‘the course where other reading skills-speed,predictionand making inference-can be developed,’and‘where there is practice in geting the gist,in summarisingmain ideas,in understanding the author’s purpose and theme...’.So the aims of this course are todevelop general reading skills,the ability,to read quickly and to grasp the main ideas of the text.Toachieve these,students must enlarge their vocabulary,so this is also regarded as one of the aims.

  12. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  13. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  14. Grasp Reading Skills to Improve Reading Ability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaoJingt

    2004-01-01

    Reading is a kind of communication, and for most people in most situations it is more important than speaking. For college students today, it is more important for them to obtain the newest information on their own fields through English,rather than showing their English certificates. However, the most common problem students have nowadays, including

  15. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  16. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  17. Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

  18. The Relationships between Korean University Students' Reading Attitude, Reading Strategy Use, and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyangil

    2016-01-01

    This present study investigated the relationships among L2 readers' reading attitude, reading strategy use, and reading proficiency in order to identify patterns caused by individuals' differences. For this study, 153 Korean university students replied to a reading attitude and reading strategy questionnaire. An ANOVA and frequency analysis were…

  19. Student-Centered Reading Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, James; Wagner, Betty Jane

    1991-01-01

    Offers student-centered reading activities designed to bring students to reading maturity and involvement in literature. Discusses partner reading, dramatizing and performing texts, transforming texts, journal writing, discussion, and writing. (PRA)

  20. Discourse Awareness and Teaching Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Jun

    2014-01-01

    Reading is an interactive process and discourse knowldege facilitates interpretation of the text. This paper discusses the thoery of reading from a discouse apporach, explores the interactive approach of teaching reading and discusses pedagogical impi-cations with contexts concerned.

  1. Definition of a Twelve-Point Polygonal SAA Boundaryfor the GLAST Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; /UC, Santa Cruz /SLAC

    2007-08-29

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), set to launch in early 2008, detects gamma rays within a huge energy range of 100 MeV - 300 GeV. Background cosmic radiation interferes with such detection resulting in confusion over distinguishing cosmic from gamma rays encountered. This quandary is resolved by encasing GLAST's Large Area Telescope (LAT) with an Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD), a device which identifies and vetoes charged particles. The ACD accomplishes this through plastic scintillator tiles; when cosmic rays strike, photons produced induce currents in Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) attached to these tiles. However, as GLAST orbits Earth at altitudes {approx}550km and latitudes between -26 degree and 26 degree, it will confront the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), a region of high particle flux caused by trapped radiation in the geomagnetic field. Since the SAA flux would degrade the sensitivity of the ACD's PMTs over time, a determined boundary enclosing this region need be attained, signaling when to lower the voltage on the PMTs as a protective measure. The operational constraints on such a boundary require a convex SAA polygon with twelve edges, whose area is minimal ensuring GLAST has maximum observation time. The AP8 and PSB97 models describing the behavior of trapped radiation were used in analyzing the SAA and defining a convex SAA boundary of twelve sides. The smallest possible boundary was found to cover 14.58% of GLAST's observation time. Further analysis of defining a boundary safety margin to account for inaccuracies in the models reveals if the total SAA hull area is increased by {approx}20%, the loss of total observational area is < 5%. These twelve coordinates defining the SAA flux region are ready for implementation by the GLAST satellite.

  2. New Eyes on the Universe Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    "New Eyes on the Universe -- Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them" gives an up-to-date broad overview of some of the key issues in modern astronomy and cosmology. It describes the vast amount of observational data that the new generation of observatories and telescopes are currently producing, and how that data might solve some of the outstanding puzzles inherent in our emerging world view. Included are questions such as: What is causing the Universe to blow itself apart? What could be powering the luminous gamma-ray bursters? Where is all the matter in the Uni

  3. DETECTION OF CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS IN TWELVE PRIMARY GASTRIC CANCERS BY DIRECT CHROMOSOME ANALYSIS AND FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Direct chromosome analysis and FISH were performed on twelve primary gastric carcinomas. Two of them had simple chromosome changes: 48,XX, +8, +20, and 49, XY, +2, +8, +9, and the others had complicated chromosome changes, which includes much more numerical and structural chromosome aberrations. Frequent structural changes in the complicated types involved chromosome 7, 3, 1, 5 and 12 etc. The del 7q was noted in eight cases. The del (3p) and del (1p) were noted in six and five cases, respectively. The results provide some important clues for isolation of the genes related to gastric cancer.

  4. Developing a learning culture: twelve tips for individuals, teams and organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Lynn; Pearson, David; Lucas, Beverley

    2006-06-01

    A culture of learning in providing health services and education for health professionals is a constant challenge for individuals, team and organizations. The importance of such a culture was highlighted by the findings of the Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry (2001). This was discussed in the context of the literature on the Learning Organization (Senge, 1990) at the 2004 Association of Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) conference, and reviewed a year later at the 2005 AMEE conference. This paper outlines twelve tips for educational and health service organizations in facilitating a culture of learning for their members and also offers specific advice to individual students and professionals.

  5. Correlations between reading, phonological awareness and auditory temporal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Schochat, Eliane

    2009-01-01

    Auditory temporal processing and reading. To analyse the potential correlations between reading acquisition, phonological awareness, and auditory temporal processing in Brazilian children with dyslexia. This study evaluated sixty children, nine to twelve years of age, divided into two groups: a control group of twenty seven children without dyslexia and a study group of thirty three children with dyslexia. The children in both groups were submitted to tests designed to assess reading skills, phonological awareness, and auditory temporal processing. In the results of all three tests, significant differences were found between the dyslexic children and those in the control group, with poorer results for the dyslexic group. However, for both groups, correlations were found only between the performance on the reading test and the performance on the phonological awareness test. Dyslexic children demonstrated poorer results in all tests when compared to their controls. However, there was no definitive evidence that their poor performance on the auditory temporal processing tests was directly related to their phonological awareness skills, or even to their reading skills.

  6. Metacognition and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecilia Chang

    2000-01-01

    @@ Introduction Reading is a mysterious process that has attracted attention from psychologists, reading researchers and educators alike for decades. Currently, reading is viewed as a meaningconstructing process where the reader interacts with the text by simultaneously using information from a variety of sources ranging from one's background knowledge of the content and about the world to the knowledge about the language in which the text is written (Mulling, 1994). Moreover, reading comprehension is achieved only after skillful orchestration of all the resources the reader possess when engaged in the act of reading. Among the various kinds of strategies a reader needs during the reading process are the monitoring strategies. In order to fully utilize the strategies, the reader needs to possess good metacognition. Metacognition refers to one's deliberate conscious control of one's cognition actions (Brown, 1980). Since it is crucial for success that we know what we know and what we don't know and, consequently what to do about what we know and don't know, it is not surprising to find the notion of metacognition being stressed in almost every situation of learning. Given the importance of metacognition in successful learning, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role metacognition plays in reading comprehension, and consequently, identify future research directions.

  7. Reading between eye saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  8. Newspaper Reading and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍丽蓉

    2014-01-01

    Reading is not only the most effective way to get the knowledge of the language but also the only way to improve the language skills of English learners. However, the vast majority of students' reading ability are far apart from the curriculum stan⁃dards in reality. Reading English newspaper helps to mobilize the enthusiasm of students' reading, and improve their reading abili⁃ty. It forms a bridge between learning and real life. It extends the English reading from the teaching materials and guides students to a lot of extracurricular reading, creating a new reading space for students.

  9. I read, you read, we read: the history of reading in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Dular

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The aim of the article is to research reading habits in Slovenia in the period between 16th and 19th century and to find similarities with Austria and other European countries of that time.Methodology/approach: For the purpose of the analysis different resources were used – study books, catechisms, prayer books and manuals. We were focused on introductions in which readers are advised how to read, explaining to whom the work is intended and emphasizing the importance of meditation on the texts.Results: Historically the laud reading was prefered, as to continue the folk tradition. However, the 16th century texts were transmitted by women while the folk tradition was narrated by males. In the 18th century the higher level of literacy and greater book production and availability caused that the books were not a privilege of a few. At that time more texts were intended for silent, individual reading. Interestingly, the authors emphasized the importance of meditation on the texts, too. It was also advised when to read – it wasrecommedend to read in leisure time on Sundays, and on holidays. The role of books was also to breakaway with the reality and to forget everyday problems. Due to the overproduction of books in the 17th centrury it was concerned that books are misleading the crowds. The church considered the reading of books as inappropriate, and criticized fiction, novels and adventure stories mostly read by women.Research limitation: The study is based on Slovenian texts only, although the foreign literature, especially in German, was generally available, too.Originality/practical implications: The study is fullfiling the gap in the history of reading in Slovenia.

  10. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jessica; Miller, Michael; Horneij, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A workplace's design can have various positive or negative effects on the employees and since the 1970s the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices have been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived health, work environment and self-estimated productivity one month before and at three, six and twelve months after relocation from individual offices to an open-plan office environment. Employees from three departments within the same company group and who worked with relatively similar tasks and who were planned to be relocated from private offices to open-plan offices were invited to participate. Questionnaires comprising items from The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale, The Work Experience Measurement Scale, the questionnaire by Brennan et al. about perceived performance and one question from the Work Ability Index were sent to participants one month before relocation (baseline) to open-plan offices and then at three, six and twelve months after relocation. At baseline, 82 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 85%. At the follow-ups 77-79 questionnaires were sent out and the response-rate was 70%-81%. At follow-ups, perceived health, job satisfaction and performance had generally deteriorated. The results of the study indicate that employees' perception of health, work environment and performance decreased during a 12 month period following relocation from individual offices to open-plan offices.

  12. Approximate analytic method for high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashkovyaka, M. A.; Zaslavskii, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an approach to the study of the evolution of high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites. We describe parameters of the motion model used for the artificial Earth's satellite such that the principal gravitational perturbations of the Moon and Sun, nonsphericity of the Earth, and perturbations from the light pressure force are approximately taken into account. To solve the system of averaged equations describing the evolution of the orbit parameters of an artificial satellite, we use both numeric and analytic methods. To select initial parameters of the twelve-hour orbit, we assume that the path of the satellite along the surface of the Earth is stable. Results obtained by the analytic method and by the numerical integration of the evolving system are compared. For intervals of several years, we obtain estimates of oscillation periods and amplitudes for orbital elements. To verify the results and estimate the precision of the method, we use the numerical integration of rigorous (not averaged) equations of motion of the artificial satellite: they take into account forces acting on the satellite substantially more completely and precisely. The described method can be applied not only to the investigation of orbit evolutions of artificial satellites of the Earth; it can be applied to the investigation of the orbit evolution for other planets of the Solar system provided that the corresponding research problem will arise in the future and the considered special class of resonance orbits of satellites will be used for that purpose.

  13. Global surface temperature change analysis based on MODIS data in recent twelve years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K. B.; Ma, Y.; Tan, X. L.; Shen, X. Y.; Liu, G.; Li, Z. L.; Chen, J. M.; Xia, L.

    2017-01-01

    Global surface temperature change is one of the most important aspects in global climate change research. In this study, in order to overcome shortcomings of traditional observation methods in meteorology, a new method is proposed to calculate global mean surface temperature based on remote sensing data. We found that (1) the global mean surface temperature was close to 14.35 °C from 2001 to 2012, and the warmest and coldest surface temperatures of the global in the recent twelve years occurred in 2005 and 2008, respectively; (2) the warmest and coldest surface temperatures on the global land surface occurred in 2005 and 2001, respectively, and on the global ocean surface in 2010 and 2008, respectively; and (3) in recent twelve years, although most regions (especially the Southern Hemisphere) are warming, global warming is yet controversial because it is cooling in the central and eastern regions of Pacific Ocean, northern regions of the Atlantic Ocean, northern regions of China, Mongolia, southern regions of Russia, western regions of Canada and America, the eastern and northern regions of Australia, and the southern tip of Africa. The analysis of daily and seasonal temperature change indicates that the temperature change is mainly caused by the variation of orbit of celestial body. A big data model based on orbit position and gravitational-magmatic change of celestial body with the solar or the galactic system should be built and taken into account for climate and ecosystems change at a large spatial-temporal scale.

  14. Comparative assay of fluorescent antibody test results among twelve European National Reference Laboratories using various anti-rabies conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robardet, E.; Andrieu, S.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Twelve National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for rabies have undertaken a comparative assay to assess the comparison of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) results using five coded commercial anti-rabies conjugates (Biorad, Bioveta, Fujirebio, Millipore, and SIFIN conjugates). Homogenized positive...

  15. How to read efficiently%How to read Efficiently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖平

    2007-01-01

    At present, the university graduates have mountains of books to read. For this phenomenon, this paper first indicates why the students must read extensively and then tentatively suggests three measures establish new concept in reading, practise reading pragmatically, review and exchange.

  16. FIRST Reading: Focussed Instruction in Reading for Successful Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.; Metz, Elizabeth

    This book describes FIRST (Focussed Instruction in Reading for Successful Teaching) Reading, a computer program that takes answers to 20 questions about a learner and matches this profile against profiles in the database. FIRST Reading, formerly called "Consult Reading," can recommend the most-likely-to-succeed teaching focus(es) for…

  17. Reading Acts: An Inquiry into Reading and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    This text performs reading for teaching in an audit culture. Two teachers, myself and Steven, read the memoir "Hole in My Life" by Jack Gantos and, while reading, recorded our experiences as readers and planned to teach the book to Steven's English class. This study is an inquiry into the phenomenon of "reading to teach,"…

  18. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  19. Teen Summer Reading Program, 1999. Read around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Library, Richmond.

    This guide for the 1999 Virginia teen summer reading program for public libraries, "Read around the World," includes the following chapters: (1) "Reading and Teens," including serving the underserved, tips for teens, and a recipe for choosing a book to read for fun; (2) "Programming and Teens," including "The Why…

  20. Reading Motivation and Reading Engagement: Clarifying Commingled Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrau, Norman J.; Quirk, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The constructs of motivation for reading and reading engagement have frequently become blurred and ambiguous in both research and discussions of practice. To address this commingling of constructs, the authors provide a concise review of the literature on motivation for reading and reading engagement and illustrate the blurring of those concepts…

  1. "Read the Text, as if!"The Reading Retention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoll, Kent; Browning, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Students do not always read what is expected in college courses (Berry, Cook, Hill, & Stevens, 2010; Phillips & Phillips, 2007; Sikorski et al., 2002) or they read to cram for an exam or quiz (Clump, Bauer, & Bradley, 2004). The Reading Retention Strategy (RRS) is designed to motivate students to read and assist students in…

  2. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple strategies. This intervention is child-centered and includes visual aids, talking, dictating, reading and writing stages. The study was performed in 35 sessions consisting of stages of a single sentence (5 sessions, two sentences (5 sessions, three sentences (20 sessions and the text stage (5 sessions. The intervention sessions were audio-taped. These recordings and the written responses to the reading comprehension questions provided the data for analysis. The findings on the reading intervention revealed positive outcomes. The student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate and reading comprehension. These results were discussed in the literature and the findings suggest that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.

  3. Improving EFL Learners' Reading Levels through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2014-01-01

    Today there is an increasing amount of research promoting the effectiveness of extensive reading (ER) towards increasing learners' vocabulary, comprehension, reading speed, and motivation towards reading. However, little has been done to measure the effects of ER on learners' reading levels. This quantitative study examined the effects of ER on…

  4. Experiences in Reading Instruction as the Road to Teaching Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Donna Jean

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model self-improvement reading course for teachers incorporating the communications model, the skills model, and the sustained silent reading model. Concludes that basic reading skills instruction led to improvement in reading skills and that lesson plans incorporating course objectives were produced. (RS)

  5. Exploring Students' Reading Profiles to Guide a Reading Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Naomi A. N. Y.

    2017-01-01

    There have been a number of studies on reading interventions to improve students' reading proficiency, yet the majority of these interventions are undertaken with the assumption that students' reading challenges are obvious and generic in nature. The interventions do not take into consideration the diversity in students' reading backgrounds and…

  6. Reading the Tourist Guidebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Anette; Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates tourists’ ways of reading their guidebooks on the basis of qualitative interviews with tourists visiting Copenhagen, Denmark. Tourist guidebooks have only been dealt with sporadically by tourism scholars. The relatively few studies that focus on guidebooks either present...... a historical perspective on the guidebook or centre on content analyses of place representation, whereas virtually no research exists on the way in which tourists read and use their guidebooks. This study reveals that tourists read the same guidebooks in a number of different ways regarding types...... of information sought, amount of information read and level of involvement displayed, indicating a three-pronged typology of guidebook readers. The guidebook reader typology thus constructed may be regarded as a first step in understanding the effect of guidebooks on tourists’ behaviour and their experience...

  7. Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani HABIB

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on the concept of assessment as an essential pedagogical practice for the improvement of the teaching-learning process. Particularly, it stresses the strategies and the techniques that should be used in assessing reading comprehension with reference to EFL classrooms. It describes the kinds of tasks that actually reveal students’ reading comprehension abilities and needs. Moreover, this paper aims to illustrate the types and the advantages of assessment for both teachers and learners. More importantly, this study tries to bring equitable evidence of how reading comprehension can be adequately assessed. The findings showed that assessment of reading comprehension is central to English language teaching as it provides teachers with essential information about students’ weaknesses, needs, obstacles, and deficits. Thus, teachers can implement the appropriate techniques and use the assessment results to amend their classroom instruction and enhance the learning abilities.

  8. Art Criticism and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edmund Burke; Woods, Don

    1981-01-01

    The authors review a body of theory and accumulating evidence which suggests that critical study of the arts facilitates the development of cognitive skills, including those essential to reading. (Author/SJL)

  9. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  10. Adult Basic Education: Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.

    This book is designed to provide practical suggestions and teaching approaches for both administrators and instructors involved in teaching reading to adults. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Overview"; (2) "Diagnosing Learner Characteristics"; (3) "Goals and Objectives"; (4) "Planning…

  11. The cold reading technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, D L

    1988-04-15

    For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities.

  12. Reading-Boxing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Richard; Shapiro, Marvin

    1969-01-01

    The physical education department of the Pennsylvania Advancement School of Philadelphia has established a reading and communication skill project that uses the appeal of sports to help students improve their basic skills. (Author)

  13. Reading-Boxing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Richard; Shapiro, Marvin

    1969-01-01

    The physical education department of the Pennsylvania Advancement School of Philadelphia has established a reading and communication skill project that uses the appeal of sports to help students improve their basic skills. (Author)

  14. STUDENTS’ READING PRACTICES AND ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiza Johari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture

  15. Metacognition in Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Eda; Harputlu, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition is defined basically as thinking about thinking. It is a significant factor that affects many activities related to language use. Reading comprehension, which is an indispensable part of daily life and language classrooms, is affected by metacognition, too. Hence, this paper aims to present an overview of the recent theoretical and empirical studies about metacognition and reading comprehension. Firstly, it provides the definitions and the importance of metacognition. Secondly, ...

  16. Mappability and Read Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentian eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Power-law distributions are the main functional form forthe distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size offragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeatsequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome canbe as long as $10^4$ bases, or $10^5-10^6$ bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of $10^3$ bases.With the read length of exactly 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of theassembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1kbreads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the humangenome (8% in GRCh37. The slow decay (long tail ofthe power-law function implies a diminishing return in convertingunmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of theread length, with the understanding that increasing read length willalways move towards the direction of 100% mappability.

  17. extendFromReads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-03

    This package assists in genome assembly. extendFromReads takes as input a set of Illumina (eg, MiSeq) DNA sequencing reads, a query seed sequence and a direction to extend the seed. The algorithm collects all seed--]matching reads (flipping reverse--]orientation hits), trims off the seed and additional sequence in the other direction, sorts the remaining sequences alphabetically, and prints them aligned without gaps from the point of seed trimming. This produces a visual display distinguishing the flanks of multi-]copy seeds. A companion script hitMates.pl collects the mates of seed--]hi]ng reads, whose alignment reveals longer extensions from the seed. The collect/trim/sort strategy was made iterative and scaled up in the script denovo.pl, for de novo contig assembly. An index is pre--]built using indexReads.pl that for each unique 21--]mer found in all the reads, records its gfateh of extension (whether extendable, blocked by low coverage, or blocked by branching after a duplicated sequence) and other characteristics. Importantly, denovo.pl records all branchings that follow a branching contig endpoint, providing contig-]extension information

  18. When Do Children Read Books?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ours, Jan C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read fiction…

  19. In Defense of Reading Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Many students fail to read the assigned material before class. A failure to read is detrimental to both student learning and course engagement. This paper considers the often-neglected teaching technique of giving frequent quizzes on the reading. Drawing on the author's experiences assigning reading quizzes, together with student opinions…

  20. How to Improve Reading Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仲亮

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is well known that reading plays an important role not only in our daily life but also in learning a foreign language.And,of course,reading depends on reading speed to some degree.So it is natural that it is important to improve reading speed.

  1. Obstacles to Effective Fast Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振国

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a visual as well as a mental understanding process. Reading process can be divided into visual input process and mental understanding information process. Based on experts’ researches and theories, the author has analyzed the two reading processes and discover the main factors influencing the Chinese English learners’ reading rate are visual input with low speed and understanding information with low efficiency.

  2. Dyslexia: Problems of Reading Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Herman K.; Schiffman, Gilbert B.

    The purpose of this book is to provide an understanding of both the educational and medical aspects of reading and to show how they are interrelated in reading disabilities. The various aspects of reading disabilities are presented in the following chapters: Introduction to the Reading Problem; Early Predictive Studies; Psychological Evaluation;…

  3. Literature in the Reading Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy J.; Giorgis, Cyndi

    2003-01-01

    Presents annotations of 32 works of children's literature that invite consideration of the wondrous possibilities of literature in the reading curriculum--from reading aloud to time set aside for independent reading, from focused instruction using paired and shared reading to engagement through book discussions, and from using literature to learn…

  4. Peer Tutors Improve Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction," published by the National Reading Panel in 2000, presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,…

  5. Focus on Reading. New Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Susan; Solomon, Nicky; Burns, Anne

    The handbook is designed as an introductory text on reading instruction for teachers of English as a Second Language. The first chapter explores the nature of reading through a series of activities that help identify the kind of knowledge one draws on and the strategies one uses in reading. Chapter 2 reviews key theories of reading that have…

  6. Development and characterization of twelve microsatellite markers for Porphyra linearis Greville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena; Paulino, Cristina; Serrão, Ester A

    2017-02-01

    The genus Porphyra (and its sister genus Pyropia) contains important red algal species that are cultivated and/or harvested for human consumption, sustaining a billion-dollar aquaculture industry. A vast amount of research has been focused on species of this genus, including studies on genetics and genomics among other areas. Twelve novel microsatellite markers were developed here for Porphyra linearis. Markers were characterized using 32 individuals collected from four natural populations of P. linearis with total heterozygosity varying from 0.098 to 0.916. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 18. All markers showed cross amplification with Porphyra umbilicalis and/or Porphyra dioica. These polymorphic microsatellite markers are useful for investigating population genetic diversity and differentiation in P. linearis and may become useful for other genetic research on the reproductive biology of this important species.

  7. Proteomic characterization of human milk whey proteins during a twelve-month lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-04-01

    Human milk is a rich source of bioactive proteins that support the early growth and development of the newborn. Although the major components of the protein fraction in human milk have been studied, the expression and relative abundance of minor components have received limited attention. We examined the expression of low-abundance proteins in the whey fraction of human milk and their dynamic changes over a twelve-month lactation period. The low-abundance proteins were enriched by ProteoMiner beads, and protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred and fifteen proteins were identified, thirty-eight of which have not been previously reported in human colostrum or milk. We also for the first time described differences in protein patterns among the low-abundance proteins during lactation. These results enhance our knowledge about the complexity of the human milk proteome, which constitutes part of the advantages to the breast-fed infant.

  8. Fate of the conformal fixed point with twelve massless fermions and SU(3) gauge group

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Zoltan; Kuti, Julius; Mondal, Santanu; Nogradi, Daniel; Wong, Chik Him

    2016-01-01

    We report new results on the conformal properties of an important strongly coupled gauge theory, a building block of composite Higgs models beyond the Standard Model. With twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group, an infrared fixed point of the $\\beta$-function was recently reported in the theory (Cheng:2014jba) with uncertainty in the location of the critical gauge coupling inside the narrow $[ 6.0

  9. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Cominsky, Lynn; Simonnet, Aurore; Education, the Fermi

    2013-01-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission's science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: Higher Education; Elementary and Secondary Education; Informal Education and Public Outreach.

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides from Arctii Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Feng, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2014-09-17

    Twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides (1-12), including two benzofuran-type neolignans, two 8-O-4' neolignans, two dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, and six tetrahydrofuranoid lignans, together with six known lignan glucosides (13-18), were isolated from the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), commonly known as Arctii Fructus. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopy (1D and 2D NMR, MS, IR, ORD, and UV) and on the basis of chemical evidence. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-12 were confirmed using rotating frame nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), the circular dichroic (CD) exciton chirality method, and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD spectrum analysis. All of the isolated compounds were tested for hepatoprotective effects against D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in HL-7702 hepatic cells. Compounds 1, 2, 7-12, and 17 showed significantly stronger hepatoprotective activity than the positive control bicyclol at a concentration of 1 × 10(-5) M.

  11. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.

  12. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Peter WM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. Results The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH, which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. Conclusions M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens.

  13. Reading Laboratories: The Conversion of the Speed Reading Lab into an ESL Reading Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Sigrid Scholtz

    It is proposed that the reading-machine laboratory provides a means for the classroom ESL instructor to continue using his present method in the classroom (intensive, theoretical-grammatical instruction) while providing additional extensive reading and learning practice with the machines in the reading laboratory. Two speed reading systems…

  14. What Are Teenagers Reading? Adolescent Fiction Reading Habits and Reading Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    What are adolescents choosing to read? This is an important question because of potential divergence between school students' reading interests and reading expectations in school. This article considers the findings from a study of the reading over one week in May 2002 of 707 school students aged between 11 and 15, undertaken in 30 schools in the…

  15. The psychophysiology of reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe A; Di Pietro, Sara F; Casarotto, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    Early identification of dyslexia would be fundamental to prevent the negative consequences of delayed treatment in the social, psychological and occupational domains. Movement-related potentials of dyslexic children are characterized by inadequate ability to program movements and reduced capacity to evaluate their performance and to correct their errors. Reading-related potentials recorded during different reading conditions elicit a series of positive and negative components with specific functional meaning and with a characteristic spatial-temporal pattern. These reading-related potentials, when analyzed with sLORETA, show significantly different patterns of activation when comparing self-paced reading aloud to passive viewing of single letters. Comparison of fMRI and sLORETA during both tasks showed that the cortical region with the widest inter-modality similarities is the middle-superior temporal lobe during self-paced reading aloud. Neuropsychological studies have shown the existence of clinical subtypes of dyslexia; these studies have been confirmed by the results of ICA applied to the EEG. Dyslexia can be defined as a disorder of programming and integrating ideokinetic elements, associated with a deficiency in the fast processing and integration of sensory information, with reduced efficiency of error systems analysis. Each of these phenomena occurs at different levels of the central nervous system and at different times.

  16. Reading through Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Gayathri Raman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play and audio-visual texts (Shawshank Redemption, and Life is Beautiful, A Few Good Men and Lion King drawn from popular culture in the classroom as an effective teaching medium. Students were gradually introduced to films based on novels with extracts from the original texts (Schindler’s List, Beautiful Mind for extended reading and writing practice. We found that students began to pay more attention to aspects such as pronunciation, intonational variations, discourse markers and vocabulary items (phrasal verbs, synonyms, homophones, and puns. Keywords: Reading, films, popular culture, ESL classroom, language skills

  17. [Reading research articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Yolanda; Zaat, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Keeping up with the latest developments is not easy, but neither is reading articles on research. There are too many medical journals that contain information that is irrelevant to clinical practice. From this mass of articles you have to decide which are important for your own clinical practice and which are not. Most articles naturally fall into the latter category as spectacular findings with important consequences for medical practice do not occur every week. The most important thing in a research article is the research question. If you begin with this, then you can put aside much scientific literature. The methodology section is essential; reading this can save you a lot of time. In this article we take you step-by-step through the process of reading research articles. The articles in our Methodology series can be used as background information. These articles have been combined in a tablet app, which is available via www.ntvg.nl/methodologie.

  18. READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.

  19. Going beyond intensive reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George Murdoch

    2010-01-01

    @@ For ELT teachers worldwide,the most convenient way to teach reading is to use the materials provided in the course books selected for the classes they teach.However,these published texts and materials rarely satisfy the motivational and reading development needs of our students.One common problem is that texts in global textbooks often lack relevance to local contexts.They may also seem rather bland because of the writers' concern to make them culturally acceptable in a wide range of countries.

  20. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  1. A Read-Aloud for Science (Read It Aloud).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Judy S.; Breen, Margaret

    1996-01-01

    Recommends a young adult read-aloud selection for science classes on endangered species. Describes listening, writing, discussing, investigating, and debating activities capitalizing on this read-aloud. (SR)

  2. A Special Chinese Reading Acceleration Training Paradigm: To Enhance the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Chinese Children with Reading Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training paradigm is divided into a non-accelerated reading paradigm, a Character-accelerated reading paradigm and a Words-accelerated reading paradigm. The results of training Chinese children with reading disabilities indicate that the acceleration reading paradigm applies to children with Chinese-reading disabilities. In addition, compared with other reading acceleration paradigms, Words- accelerated reading training is more effective in helping children with reading disabilities read at a high speed while maintaining superior comprehension levels.

  3. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  4. Applications of the Buckeye GTA Corpus for L2 teaching and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardman, Jocelyn; McCullough, Elizabeth

    The Buckeye GTA Corpus contains 9,664 L1 and L2 sentence productions by 89 talkers (27 American English, 19 Hindi, 23 Mandarin, & 20 Korean). A total of 5,696 sentences were read in English, with each talker contributing 64 sentences. Hindi, Mandarin, and Korean talkers also read 64 sentences each...

  5. Applications of the Buckeye GTA Corpus for L2 teaching and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardman, Jocelyn; McCullough, Elizabeth

    The Buckeye GTA Corpus contains 9,664 L1 and L2 sentence productions by 89 talkers (27 American English, 19 Hindi, 23 Mandarin, & 20 Korean). A total of 5,696 sentences were read in English, with each talker contributing 64 sentences. Hindi, Mandarin, and Korean talkers also read 64 sentences each...

  6. A follow-up study on word and non-word reading skills in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Maja; Jarrold, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to trace changes in the relationship between non-word reading and irregular word reading on the one hand, and between phonological awareness and non-word reading on the other, through a follow-up study of a group of individuals with Down syndrome. Twelve individuals with Down syndrome, whose data were originally reported in Roch and Jarrold (2008), were seen four years later, and were given the same tasks as in the previous study evaluating phonological awareness, non-word reading and irregular word reading. After four years, an improvement was observed in all the skills of interest. Furthermore, the pattern of relationships among the three skills was observed to change considerably across the four year period. At the first time point, a weak association between non-word and irregular word reading was found, but there was a strong association between these two measures at the second time point. In contrast, a strong relationship was found at Time 1 between non-word reading and phonological awareness, which became weaker at Time 2. Longitudinal associations between the three skills were also examined in order to explain this changing pattern of associations. The results indicated that the ability to decode non-words plays a marginal role on later irregular word reading. In contrast, irregular word reading is a longitudinal predictor of later non-word reading. Phonological awareness was not longitudinally related to non-word reading. The results indicate that developing word knowledge can facilitate later non-word reading in Down syndrome, perhaps by a process of reading by visual analogy to known lexical items. Readers will be able to (a) explain the development of word reading, non-word reading and phonological awareness in Down syndrome; (b) explain the longitudinal changes in the relationships among the three skills; (c) explain the relevance for education of the influence of word reading for the improvement in non-word reading.

  7. Twelve-year cyclic surging episode at Donjek Glacier in Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, M.; Abe, T.; Sakakibara, D.

    2015-12-01

    Surge-type glaciers exhibit several-fold to orders-of-magnitude speed-up during the short active phase, resulting in km-scale terminus advance. Although there are many surge-type glaciers near the border of Alaska and the Yukon, the generation mechanisms remain uncertain because of limited and few continuous observations. To better understand the surge dynamics and predict the next event, it is essential to examine the entire surge cycles. Here we use Landsat optical imageries to reveal the long-term evolutions, and report three surging episodes at Donjek Glacier in Yukon, Canada. Using the Landsat images, we found three surging events in 1989, 2001, and 2013. In the 2001 event, the surface speed significantly increased by up to 4.5 m/d; during the quiescent phases it was ~0.5 m/d at the terminus. While the duration of active phase is about 4~5 and 2~3 year in the 2001 and 2013 events, the period in the 1989 event is unclear because of the lack of high temporal resolution data. Remarkably, the surging area is limited to the ~20-km section from the terminus instead of the entire glacier. Moreover, we examined the terminus area changes from 1975 to 2014. Although the area has been secularly decreasing probably due to the tread of global warming, it has also revealed four significant fluctuations during the nearly forty years. Comparing the speed and the area changes, the three speed-up events correspond to the terminus area fluctuations with a few time lags. It turns out that the surge event has been quite regularly repeating every twelve years. Although the behavior is rather similar to that in Svalbard glaciers in terms of maximum speed and unclear initiation season, the recurrence interval is much shorter than other nearby surges. Considering that the surge events seem to have initiated around significantly narrower area than upstream, the strong valley constriction may control the regularity as well as the twelve-year recurrence time.

  8. TEACHERS’ BELIEFS ABOUT READING AND USE OF READING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to place the focus on teachers’ beliefs about reading and reading strategies to the purpose of emphasizing the im portance of reading strategies in the reading process. The method of study is analytic analysis of teachers’ beliefs obtained through ques tionnaires delivered to 18 English language teachers of elementary, secondary and high level education in the region of Saranda in lbania. The results of the study pointed to a great concordance between teach ers’ bel...

  9. Reading the Right Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Bill

    1997-01-01

    Extensive research and practical experience demonstrate that learning to read comes less naturally than learning to speak. Although half of all children intuit the alphabetic system from exposure to print and context-driven activities, many (particularly dyslexic, low-socioeconomic, and second-language kids) need an organized program that teaches…

  10. Rules or Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruefle, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that an important step in the development of readers is having access to books. Steven Krashen, in "The Power of Reading," cites multiple studies that demonstrate access to books is crucial in developing strong readers: "the richer the print environment, the better the literacy development." Limiting access runs counter to research…

  11. Personal Achievement Reading: Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinton, Janet R.

    Exercises are provided in this set of four workbooks designed to aid students in business programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from business terminology to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on developing the ability to determine…

  12. Teaching reading comprehension strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Lika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The academic debate nowadays is focused on producing an applied science of learning, aiming to teach students how to learn and be strategic in their acquisition. The aim of the study is to identify and discuss the reading comprehension instruction approach applied in the Albanian system of education. Findings from 10 classes of Albanian language and literature with students of third grade were directly observed and analyzed, in order to gather evidence based on indicators and instruments that assess the way of reading comprehension. Findings were categorized according to strategy use; the frequency of their application in different classes was counted and represented in percentages. In this paper we will try to respond to questions like: What are students' main barriers of comprehending? Does the instructional approach respond to students’ needs and level of comprehension? Are teachers prepared to teach comprehension strategies? Furthermore, examples of procedures on how to deliver instruction of comprehension strategies in natural contexts will be represented. Results from teacher practices during lessons of reading comprehension confirmed that teachers use limited teaching strategies to deliver lessons. They mainly use strategies to test comprehension; while the approach of teaching students to read independently and strategically is an unknown practice.

  13. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  14. Readings in Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jerome I.

    Twenty-three journal articles on cooperative education were selected in a review of the literature by two Temple University graduate classes in the fall of 1975 and the spring of 1976 for those interested in the role of coordinating cooperative education programs. The journal readings consist of articles on theory/planning (6), implementation…

  15. Speaking of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Nadine

    Written in the tradition of Studs Terkel, this book presents oral histories of 77 diverse readers (from avid to infrequent readers) about how reading affects their lives. Sprinkled throughout the book are narratives of nationally recognized personalities, such as Maxine Hong-Kingston, Robert MacNeil, Gloria Steinem, Linus Pauling, Julie Harris,…

  16. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…

  17. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  18. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Recommends leisurely reading for teachers: biographies on St. Augustine and Charles Lindbergh; novels by Edwidge Danticat, Kate Chopin, and Velma Allis; Edward Tufte's three volumes on the visual presentation of information; Jean Vanier's "Becoming Human;" the Harry Potter series, and Michael Tolkin's novel "The Player." (MLH)

  19. Developing Critical Reading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Romy J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of dominant notions of background knowledge (BGK) as neutral information and objective knowledge and of the reading techniques that accompany these notions. The article argues that the notion of BGK should be broadened to include awareness of the social processes of production and interpretation of text. (26 references)…

  20. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Recommends many books for summer reading enjoyment, concentrating on historical and contemporary fiction. Different cultures clash in William T. Vollman's "Fathers and Crows" and John Demos's adventuresome "Unredeemed Captive." Other suggestions: "Snow Falling on Cedar Mountain" (David Gutterman) and "Foxfire" (Joyce Carol Oates). For professional…

  1. Literature and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael P., Ed.; Elford, Shirley J., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The articles in this themed issue focus on the use of real literature in reading instruction. Following a comment from the editor, the titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Understanding Poetry: Questions to Consider" (Nancy Wiseman Seminoff); (2) "Experiencing a Novel: The Short and Long of It" (David M. Bishop and…

  2. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Recommends fine fiction for summer reading, including Nadine Gordimer's "My Son's Story" (1991), Lillian Smith's "Strange Fruit" (1944), Josephine Hart's "Damage" (1991), Jane Smiley's "A Thousand Acres" (1991), and George Eliot's "Middlemarch" (1874). Nonfiction suggestions include Harlan Lane's "Mask of Benevolence" (1992), Diane Ackerman's "A…

  3. Time for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…

  4. Time for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…

  5. Teaching Reading through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Marjatta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a teaching method called reading through writing (RtW), based on the use of computers rather than handwriting. The pupils use the computers in pairs and decide themselves what they will write about. The use of this method is studied via a questionnaire to 22 teachers and via seven Master's and two Bachelor's theses,…

  6. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Editors

    2001-01-01

    Teachers and education professors suggest various nonfiction and fiction books for summer reading enjoyment, from Robert Putnam's "Bowling Alone," C.A. Bowers's "Let Them Eat Data," and Larry McMurtry's "Roads: Driving America's Great Highways" to Kent Hauf's "Plainsong, J.M. Coetzee's "Disgrace," and Michael Cunningham's "The Hours." (MLH)

  7. Impact of the Reading Buddies Program on Reading Level and Attitude Towards Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Dolman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This research examines the Reading Buddies program at the Grande Prairie Public Library, which took place in July and August of 2011 and 2012. The Reading Buddies program pairs lower elementary students with teen volunteers for reading practice over the summer. The aim of the study was to discover how much impact the program would have on participating children’s reading levels and attitudes towards reading.Methods – During the first and last sessions of the Reading Buddies program, the participants completed the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (ERAS and the Graded Word Recognition Lists from the Bader Reading and Language Inventory (6th ed., 2008.Participants were also asked for their grade and sex, and the program coordinator kept track of attendance. Results – There were 37 Reading Buddies participants who completed both the pre- and post-tests for the study. On average, the program had a small positive effect on participants’ reading levels and a small negative effect on their attitudes towards reading. There was a larger range of changes to the ERAS scores than to the reading test scores, but most participants’ scores did not change dramatically on either measure.Conclusions – Although findings are limited by the small size of the data-set, results indicate that many of the Reading Buddies participants maintained their reading level over the summer and had a similar attitude towards reading at the end of the program. On average, reading levels increased slightly and attitudes towards reading were slightly more negative. Many factors could not be taken into account during the study (e.g., the amount of reading done at home. A study with a control group that did not participate in the program could help to assess whether the program helped to combat summer learning loss.

  8. Verbal Coding Efficiency, Conceptually Guided Reading, and Reading Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.

    Word recognition and reading failure are examined in this report using an interactive framework of the reading process based on the premise that reading is both a top-down and a bottom-up process, both conceptually guided and graphically based. Experiments are discussed that show that less-skilled readers are affected by anomalous contexts and…

  9. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  10. Early reading intervention by means of a multicomponent reading game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.A.M. van de; Leeuw, L.C. de; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a

  11. The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2013-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

  12. How do children read words? A focus on reading processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Boer

    2014-01-01

    Being able to read is very important in our literate society. Many studies, therefore, have examined children’s reading skills to improve our understanding of reading development. In general, there have been two types of studies. On the one hand, there is a line of research that focuses on the devel

  13. The Effects of Oral and Silent Reading on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Naomi; Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reading mode (oral and silent) and text genre (narrative and expository) on fourth graders' reading comprehension. While controlling for prior reading ability of 48 participants, we measured comprehension. Using a repeated measured design, data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, paired t-tests, and…

  14. Fluency and reading comprehension in students with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Tânia Augusto; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Kida, Adriana de Souza Batista; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the performance of students with reading difficulties in decoding and reading comprehension tasks as well as to investigate the possible correlations between them. Sixty students (29 girls) from 3rd to 5th grades of public Elementary Schools were evaluated. Thirty students (Research Group - RG), ten from each grade, were nominated by their teachers as presenting evidences of learning disabilities. The other thirty students were indicated as good readers, and were matched by gender, age and grade to the RG, composing the Comparison Group (CG). All subjects were assessed regarding the parameters of reading fluency (rate and accuracy in words, pseudowords and text reading) and reading comprehension (reading level, number and type of ideas identified, and correct responses on multiple choice questions). The RG presented significantly lower scores than the CG in fluency and reading comprehension. Different patterns of positive and negative correlations, from weak to excellent, among the decoding and comprehension parameters were found in both groups. In the RG, low values of reading rate and accuracy were observed, which were correlated to low scores in comprehension and improvement in decoding, but not in comprehension, with grade increase. In CG, correlation was found between different fluency parameters, but none of them was correlated to the reading comprehension variables. Students with reading and writing difficulties show lower values of reading fluency and comprehension than good readers. Fluency and comprehension are correlated in the group with difficulties, showing that deficits in decoding influence reading comprehension, which does not improve with age increase.

  15. Clarifying Differences between Reading Skills and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter; Pearson, P. David; Paris, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    The terms "reading skill" and "reading strategy" are central to how we conceptualize and teach reading. Despite their importance and widespread use, the terms are not consistently used or understood. This article examines the current and historical uses of the terms, defines them, and describes their differences, similarities, and relationships.…

  16. Reading Proficiency and a Psycholinguistic Approach to Second Language Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woytak, Lidia

    1984-01-01

    Presents psycholinguistic views of second language reading which see reading comprehension as a result of an interaction among three factors: higher-level conceptual abilities, background knowledge, and process strategies. Discusses kinds of reading to teach and kinds of texts and materials to select for different proficiency levels and given…

  17. Does Early Reading Failure Decrease Children's Reading Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Cordray, David S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure…

  18. College-Adult Reading Instruction. Perspectives in Reading , No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedy, Paul D., Ed.

    Papers dealing with topics relating to college and adult reading instruction and discussions of these papers by reading authorities who offer differing viewpoints are presented. Subjects treated include humanistic aspects of reading; materials and methods in use; current and future programs; programs operated by business and industry; illiteracy;…

  19. Read-Alouds: Do They Enhance Students' Ability To Read?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, Leezill

    Teachers can greatly extend a child's literacy development through the use of interactive read-alouds. When a story is read aloud to children a number of opportunities arise for extended activities that are related to the story and further literacy support. Children are able to learn about literacy through an adult modeling good reading behavior.…

  20. Pleasure Reading Cures Readicide and Facilitates Academic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, J. Mary; Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Pleasure reading is an absolute choice to eradicate readicide, a systematic killing of the love for reading. This paper encompasses the different forms and consequences of readicide which will have negative impact not only on comprehension but also on the prior knowledge of a reader. Reading to score well on tests impedes the desire for reading…

  1. Reading by Design: Two Case Studies of Digital Reading Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Burke, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The digital reading practices of two middle school students in US and Canadian contexts are examined. Using a multimodal discourse framework, the authors contemplate what digital reading practice is and distinctive practices of reading texts online compared with printed, school-based literacy practices. By focusing on two different genres of…

  2. Predicting FCAT Reading Scores Using the Reading-Level Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel

    2011-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis indicates that the Reading-Level Indicator, a paper-and-pencil test, is a moderately strong predictor for the high-stakes standardized test, the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test in Reading. Classroom teachers can administer the inexpensive Reading-Level Indicator in a short period of time and use the results as a…

  3. Reading for Real: Our Year with Reading Buddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    When Patricia Ross' high school students at the Phoenix Day School for the Deaf buddied up with elementary school students to improve their reading skills, amazing things happened. As they read to them, Ross' students, who were part of the 2012-2013 Integrated Language Arts and Social Studies program, increased their reading scores and forged…

  4. How do children read words? A focus on reading processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Being able to read is very important in our literate society. Many studies, therefore, have examined children’s reading skills to improve our understanding of reading development. In general, there have been two types of studies. On the one hand, there is a line of research that focuses on the

  5. Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TanFuhong

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the examination of the role of cultural schema in readinghow the cultural schemacomprehension, in particular,helps or impedes reading comprehension; most important of all, the implications for teaching reading in China.

  6. General ideas on English reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝文瑛

    2015-01-01

    This paper is talking about some general ideas on English reading in order to help teachers and learners foster some reading skills by seeing through its natures aiming at effective and productive English teaching and learning.

  7. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

    1973-01-01

    Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

  8. Reading: Tired of Round Robin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrisano, Roselmina

    1975-01-01

    "Oral reading is a process abundant in potential for teacher and learner" says the author, in response to a reader's question. Here she sets down some strategies to help you with a more effective reading program. (Editor/RK)

  9. Margalef revisited: A new phytoplankton mandala incorporating twelve dimensions, including nutritional physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glibert, Patricia M

    2016-05-01

    Building on the classic depiction of the progression from a diatom to a dinoflagellate bloom as a function of nutrients and turbulence, known as the "Margalef mandala", a new conceptual model or mandala is presented here. The new mandala maps twelve response or effects traits, or environmental characteristics, related to different phytoplankton functional types: (1) relative preference for chemically reduced vs chemically oxidized forms of nitrogen; (2) relative availability of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus; (3) adaptation to high vs low light and the tendency to be autotrophic vs mixotrophic; (4) cell motility; (5) environmental turbulence; (6) pigmentation quality; (7) temperature; (8) cell size; (9) relative growth rate; (10) relative production of bioactive compounds such as toxins or reactive oxygen species (ROS); (11) r vs K strategy; and (12) fate of the production in terms of grazing. The new mandala serves to highlight the differences and trade-offs between traits and/or environmental conditions, and illustrates some traits tend to track each other, a concept that may be helpful in trait-based modeling approaches and in understanding environmental factors associated with harmful algal blooms. It is hoped that this new mandala captures some of our recent insight into phytoplankton physiology and functional traits, and has contemporary relevance in light of anthropogenic changes in nutrient form and ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Margalef revisited: A new phytoplankton mandala incorporating twelve dimensions, including nutrient ratios and forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glibert, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    Building on the classic depiction of the progression from a diatom to a dinoflagellate bloom as a function of nutrients and turbulence, known as the "Margalef mandala", a new conceptual model or mandala is presented here. The new mandala maps twelve traits or environmental characteristics related to different phytoplankton functional types: (1) relative preference for chemically reduced vs chemically oxidized forms of nitrogen; (2) relative availability of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus; (3) adaptation to high vs low light and the tendency to be autotrophic vs mixotrophic; (4) cell motility; (5) environmental turbulence; (6) pigmentation quality; (7) temperature; (8) cell size; (9) relative growth rate; (10) relative production of bioactive compounds such as toxins or reactive oxygen species (ROS); (11) r vs K strategy; and (12) fate of the production in terms of grazing. The new mandala serves to highlight the differences and trade-offs between traits and/or environmental conditions, and illustrates some traits tend to track each other, a concept that may be helpful in trait-based modeling approaches. It is hoped that this new mandala captures some of our recent insight into phytoplankton physiology and functional traits, and has contemporary relevance in light of anthropogenic changes in nutrient form and ratio.

  11. Evolution and potential function of fibrinogen-like domains across twelve Drosophila species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middha Sumit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibrinogen-like (FBG domain consists of approximately 200 amino acid residues, which has high sequence similarity to the C-terminal halves of fibrinogen β and γ chains. Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs containing one or more FBG domains are found universally in vertebrates and invertebrates. In invertebrates, FREPs are involved in immune responses and other aspects of physiology. To understand the complexity of this gene family in Drosophila, we analyzed FREPs in twelve Drosophila species. Results Using the genome data from 12 Drosophila species, we identified FBG domains in each species. The results show that the gene numbers in each species vary from 14 genes up to 43 genes. Using sequence profile analysis, we found that FBG domains have high sequence similarity and are highly conserved throughout. By comparison of structure and sequence conservation, some of the FBG domains in Drosophila melanogaster are predicted to function in recognition of carbohydrates and their derivatives on the surface of microorganisms in innate immunity. Conclusion Sequence and structural analyses show that FREP family across 12 Drosophila species contains conserved FBG domains. Expansion of the FREP families in Drosophila is mainly accounted by a major expansion of FBG domains.

  12. Twelve-Year Trends of PM10 and Visibility in the Hefei Metropolitan Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has been experiencing severe air pollution and previous studies have mostly focused on megacities and a few hot spot regions. Hefei, the provincial capital city of Anhui province, has a population of near 5 million in its metropolitan area, but its air quality has not been reported in literature. In this study, daily PM10 and visibility data in 2001–2012 were analyzed to investigate the air quality status as well as the twelve-year pollution trends in Hefei. The results reveal that Hefei has been suffering high PM10 pollution and low visibility during the study period. The annual average PM10 concentrations are 2~3 times of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM10 shows fluctuating variation in 2001–2007 and has a slightly decreasing trend after 2008. The annual average visibility range is generally lower than 7 km and shows a worsening trend from 2001 to 2006 followed by an improving trend from 2007 to 2012. Wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity have negative effects on PM10 concentrations in Hefei, while temperature could positively or negatively affect PM10. The results provide a general understanding of the status and long-term trends of PM10 pollution and visibility in a typical second-tier city in China.

  13. Validation of Twelve Small Kepler Transiting Planets in the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Caldwell, Douglas A; Twicken, Joseph D; Ballard, Sarah; Batalha, Natalie M; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Henze, Christopher E; Howell, Steve B; Isaacson, Howard T; Jenkins, Jon M; Muirhead, Philip S; Newton, Elisabeth R; Petigura, Erik A; Barclay, Thomas; Borucki, William J; Crepp, Justin R; Everett, Mark E; Horch, Elliott P; Howard, Andrew W; Kolbl, Rea; Marcy, Geoffrey W; McCauliff, Sean; Quintana, Elisa V

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of twelve candidate transiting planets from Kepler with orbital periods ranging from 34 to 207 days, selected from initial indications that they are small and potentially in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent stars. The expected Doppler signals are too small to confirm them by demonstrating that their masses are in the planetary regime. Here we verify their planetary nature by validating them statistically using the BLENDER technique, which simulates large numbers of false positives and compares the resulting light curves with the Kepler photometry. This analysis was supplemented with new follow-up observations (high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and speckle interferometry), as well as an analysis of the flux centroids. For eleven of them (KOI-0571.05, 1422.04, 1422.05, 2529.02, 3255.01, 3284.01, 4005.01, 4087.01, 4622.01, 4742.01, and 4745.01) we show that the likelihood they are true planets is far greater than that of a false po...

  14. Measurement and analysis of angular velocity variations of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatović, Ž. M.; Štavljanin, M. S.; Tomić, M. V.; Knežević, D. M.; Biočanin, S. Lj.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the procedures for measuring and analyzing the angular velocity variation of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft on its free end and on the power-output end. In addition, the paper deals with important aspects of the measurement of crankshaft torsional oscillations. The method is based on digital encoders placed at two distances, and one of them is a sensor not inserted directly on the shaft, i.e. a non-contact method with a toothed disc is used. The principle based on toothed disc is also used to measure the actual camshaft angular velocity of in-line compact high-pressure pump the engine is equipped with, and this paper aims to demonstrate the possibility of measuring the actual angular velocity of any rotating shaft in the engine, on which it is physically possible to mount a toothed disc. The method was created completely independently during long-range development and research tests of V46 family engines. This method is specific for its particular adaptability for use on larger engines with extensive vibrations and torsional oscillations. The main purpose of this paper is a practical contribution to all the more interesting research of the use of engine crankshaft angular velocity as a diagnostic tool for identifying the engine irregular running.

  15. Access to oral health services in children under twelve years of age in Peru, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hernández-Vásquez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the patterns of dental health services access in children under twelve years of age in Peru. Data from 25,285 children under 12 years who participated in the Demographic and Family Health Survey of 2014 were reviewed. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed to project the proportions of children with access to dental health services, according to national regions, type of health service and urban or rural place of residence. The results show that of the total sample, 26.7% had access to dental health services in the last six months, 39.6% belonged to the age group 0-4 years, 40.6% lived in the Andean region and 58.3% lived in urban areas. The regions of Huancavelica, Apurimac, Ayacucho, Lima and Pasco had the highest percentages of access nationwide. In conclusion, there is low access to dental health services in the population under 12 years of age in Peru. The spatial distribution of access to dental health services allows regions to be identified and grouped according to similar access patterns, in order to better focus public health actions.

  16. Synergy between Seeking Safety and Twelve-Step Affiliation on Substance Use Outcomes for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Saavedra, Lissette M.; Hien, Denise A.; Campbell, Aimee N.; Wu, Elwin; Ruglass, Lesia

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Recovery Management paradigm provides a conceptual framework for the examination of joint impact of a focal treatment and post-treatment service utilization on substance abuse treatment outcomes. We test this framework by examining the interactive effects of a treatment for comorbid PTSD and substance use, Seeking Safety, and post-treatment Twelve-Step Affiliation (TSA) on alcohol and cocaine use. Method Data from 353 women in a six-site, randomized controlled effectiveness trial within the NIDA Clinical Trials Network were analyzed under latent class pattern mixture modeling. LCPMM was used to model variation in Seeking Safety by TSA interaction effects on alcohol and cocaine use. Results Significant reductions in alcohol use among women in Seeking Safety (compared to Health Education) were observed; women in the Seeking Safety condition who followed up with TSA had the greatest reductions over time in alcohol use. Reductions in cocaine use over time were also observed but did not differ between treatment conditions nor were there interactions with post-treatment TSA. Conclusions Findings advance understanding of the complexities for treatment and continuing recovery processes for women with PTSD and SUDs, and further support the chronic disease model of addiction. PMID:23558158

  17. Coréia aguda na gravidez Acute chorea in pregnancy: comments on twelve consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados doze casos de coréia aguda observados entre 150.000 gestantes (1/12.500. A maioria dos surtos ocorreu no segundo trimestre da primeira gravidez. A duração média dos sintomas foi de três meses, não tendo sido registrado caso algum de óbito materno. Todos os partos foram espontâneos e normais. Houve apenas um óbito fetal conseqüente a choque hemorrágico. São tecidas considerações a propósito dos aspectos clínico, laboratorial e prognóstico da coréia gravídica, sendo focalizado mais pormenorizadamente o problema fisiopatogênico dessa afecção.Twelve consecutive cases of acute chorea occurring among 150.000 pregnant women (1/12.500 are reported. Most of the cases occurred from the fourth do the sixth month of the first pregnancy. The average duration of the symptoms was of three months and no one case of maternal death was verified in the group. The deliveries were spontaneous and normal in all the patients. Only one case of fetal death occurred in consequence of a hemorragic shock. Comments are made on the clinical, laboratorial and prognostic features of chorea gravidarum, being particulary focused the physiopathogenic problem of this condtion.

  18. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. VIII. CATALOG OF TRANSIT TIMING MEASUREMENTS OF THE FIRST TWELVE QUARTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazeh, Tsevi; Nachmani, Gil; Holczer, Tomer; Sokol, Gil [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Ragozzine, Darin [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Zucker, Shay [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Carter, Joshua A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Quintana, Elisa V. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Steffen, Jason H. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, P.O. Box 500, MS 127, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Welsh, William [Astronomy Department, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Following the works of Ford et al. and Steffen et al. we derived the transit timing of 1960 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) using the pre-search data conditioning light curves of the first twelve quarters of the Kepler data. For 721 KOIs with large enough signal-to-noise ratios, we obtained also the duration and depth of each transit. The results are presented as a catalog for the community to use. We derived a few statistics of our results that could be used to indicate significant variations. Including systems found by previous works, we have found 130 KOIs that showed highly significant times of transit variations (TTVs) and 13 that had short-period TTV modulations with small amplitudes. We consider two effects that could cause apparent periodic TTV—the finite sampling of the observations and the interference with the stellar activity, stellar spots in particular. We briefly discuss some statistical aspects of our detected TTVs. We show that the TTV period is correlated with the orbital period of the planet and with the TTV amplitude.

  19. Peer teaching in medical education: twelve reasons to move from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Olle; Durning, Steven

    2007-09-01

    To provide an estimation of how often peer teaching is applied in medical education, based on reports in the literature and to summarize reasons that support the use of this form of teaching. We surveyed the 2006 medical education literature and categorised reports of peer teaching according to educational distance between students teaching and students taught, group size, and level of formality of the teaching. Subsequently, we analysed the rationales for applying peer teaching. Most reports were published abstracts in either Medical Education's annual feature 'Really Good Stuff' or the AMEE's annual conference proceedings. We identified twelve distinct reasons to apply peer teaching, including 'alleviating faculty teaching burden', 'providing role models for junior students', 'enhancing intrinsic motivation' and 'preparing physicians for their future role as educators'. Peer teaching appears to be practiced often, but many peer teaching reports do not become full length journal articles. We conclude that specifically 'near-peer teaching' appears beneficial for student teachers and learners as well as for the organisation. The analogy of the 'journeyman', as intermediate between 'apprentice' and 'master', with both learning and teaching tasks, is a valuable but yet under-recognized source of education in the medical education continuum.

  20. Heterochromatic banding patterns on chromosomes of twelve weevil species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Curculionoidea: Apionidae, Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecová, Milada; Rozek, Maria; Lachowska, Dorota

    2002-01-01

    The C-banding patterns of twelve weevil species are presented. The obtained results confirm the existence of two groups of species: with a small or large amount of heterochromatin in the karyotype. The first group comprises seven species (Apionidae: Holotrichapion pisi; Curculionidae: Phyllobius urticae, Ph. pyri, Ph. maculicornis, Tanymecus palliatus, Larinodontes turbinatus, Cionus tuberculosus). In weevils with a small amount of heterochromatin, tiny grains on the nucleus in interphase are visible, afterwards in mitotic and meiotic prophase appearing as dark dots. The absence of C-bands does not indicate a lack of heterochromatin but heterochromatic regions are sometimes so small that the condensation is not visible during the cell cycle. The second group comprises five species (Otiorhynchus niger, O. morio, Polydrusus corruscus, Barypeithes chevrolati, Nedyus quadrimaculatus) which possess much larger heteropicnotic parts of chromosomes visible during all nuclear divisions. The species examined have paracentromeric C-bands on autosomes and the sex chromosome X, except for Otiorhynchus niger, which also has an intercalary bands on one pair of autososomes. All the species examined differ in the size of segments of constitutive heterochromatin. The y heterochromosome is dot-like and wholly euchromatic in all the studied species.

  1. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities in methanolic extracts of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. Methods: The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested against two Grampositive bacteria, viz. Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, and two Gram-negative bacteria, viz. Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922 and Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264 using the disk diffusion assay. The antifungal activity was similarly tested against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of promising sponges extracts were determined by the microdilution technique. Results: All the sponge species in this study showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test strains. Antibacterial activities were observed in 66.7% of the sponges extracts, while 30.0% of the extracts exhibited antifungal activities. Among them, the extracts of the sponges Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. were the most active against four tested bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. The sponge Theonella swinhoei and two species of Xestospongia also displayed significant activities against two fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities were demonstrated in extracts from various marine sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. The most promising sponges among them were Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. This is the first report of antimicrobial activity in extracts of marine sponges from the Indonesian Anambas Islands.

  2. The SLUGGS Survey: Kinematics for over 2500 Globular Clusters in Twelve Early-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Vincenzo; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Brodie, Jean P; Spitler, Lee R; Strader, Jay; Foster, Caroline; Arnold, Jacob A; Benson, Andrew; Blom, Christina; Hargis, Jonathan R; Rhode, Katherine L; Usher, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We present a spectro-photometric survey of 2522 extragalactic globular clusters (GCs) around twelve early-type galaxies, nine of which have not been published previously. Combining space-based and multi-colour wide field ground-based imaging, with spectra from the Keck DEIMOS instrument, we obtain an average of 160 GC radial velocities per galaxy, with a high velocity precision of 15 km/s per GC. After studying the photometric properties of the GC systems, such as their spatial and colour distributions, we focus on the kinematics of metal-poor (blue) and metal-rich (red) GC subpopulations to an average distance of ~8 effective radii from the galaxy centre. Our results show that for some systems the bimodality in GC colour is also present in GC kinematics. The kinematics of the red GC subpopulations are strongly coupled with the host galaxy stellar kinematics. The blue GC subpopulations are more dominated by random motions, especially in the outer regions, and decoupled from the red GCs. Peculiar GC kinematic ...

  3. Whole-Proteome Analysis of Twelve Species of Alphaproteobacteria Links Four Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Zhou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of whole-genome and whole-proteome sequences have been made available through advances in sequencing technology, and sequences of millions more organisms will become available in the coming years. This wealth of genetic information will provide numerous opportunities to enhance our understanding of these organisms including a greater understanding of relationships among species. Researchers have used 16S rRNA and other gene sequences to study the evolutionary origins of bacteria, but these strategies do not provide insight into the sharing of genes among bacteria via horizontal transfer. In this work we use an open source software program called pClust to cluster proteins from the complete proteomes of twelve species of Alphaproteobacteria and generate a dendrogram from the resulting orthologous protein clusters. We compare the results with dendrograms constructed using the 16S rRNA gene and multiple sequence alignment of seven housekeeping genes. Analysis of the whole proteomes of these pathogens grouped Rickettsia typhi with three other animal pathogens whereas conventional sequence analysis failed to group these pathogens together. We conclude that whole-proteome analysis can give insight into relationships among species beyond their phylogeny, perhaps reflecting the effects of horizontal gene transfer and potentially providing insight into the functions of shared genes by means of shared phenotypes.

  4. INCIDENCE AND SURVIVAL OF LIPOLYTIC ORGANISMS MONITORED FOR TWELVE MONTHS IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER AND RECEIVING STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale Odeyemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and survival of lipolytic organisms in domestic wastewater and receiving stream were monitored over 12 months. The average total bacterial count in the wastewater samples reduced in April and November by 24.2% and 41.6% respectively. There was also a reduction of 42.3% and 60.1% in the load in the receiving stream in August and July. Subsequently, at 5m downstream from the entry of the wastewater the microbial load reduced in March (19.2% and June (19.2%. However, the occurrence of coliforms was more affected in the months of May (53% to July (87.2%. At 5m and 10m downstream the coliform population reduced by 27.9% and 30.1% respectively. Of the twelve (12 bacterial isolates obtained at the exit of the wastewater into the receiving stream, only four (4 were found to possess lipolytic activity. These include the species of Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus. There was no significant difference in the amount of nutrients found in the domestic wastewater and receiving stream during the months. This paper also discusses the implication of disposing large amounts of wastewater effluents into the receiving water and the need to remedy and minimize the overall impact of such pollution on the environment.

  5. Interaction and cooperative effort among scientific societies. Twelve years of COSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Nazario; Andradas, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of knowledge and technology in recent decades has brought profound changes in science policy, not only in the countries but also in the supranational organizations. It has been necessary, therefore, to adapt the scientific institutions to new models in order to achieve a greater and better communication between them and the political counterparts responsible for defining the general framework of relations between science and society. The Federationon of Scientific Societies of Spain (COSCE, Confederación de Sociedades Científicas de España) was founded in October 2003 to respond to the urgent need to interact with the political institutions and foster a better orientation in the process of making decisions about the science policy. Currently COSCE consists of over 70 Spanish scientific societies and more than 40,000 scientists. During its twelve years of active life, COSCE has developed an intense work of awareness of the real situation of science in Spain by launching several initiatives (some of which have joined other organizations) or by joining initiatives proposed from other groups related to science both at the Spanish level and at the European and non-European scenarios. [Int Microbiol 18(4): 245-251 (2015)].

  6. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  7. Differences in antimicrobial activity of chlorine against twelve most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan C; Sullivan, Tarah S; Shah, Devendra H

    2017-06-01

    Chlorine is the most widely used carcass sanitizer in poultry processing in the USA. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of organic matter on the susceptibility of twelve most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes (MPPSTs) to chlorine. To mimic the microenvironment of the water used for immersion chilling, we manipulated organic matter contamination levels in pre-chilled (pH∼6, T∼4 °C) chlorinated (50 ppm) water using varying concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) of chicken-meat-extract (CME) produced from frozen chicken carcasses. This CME-based in vitro model was challenged with ∼1 × 10(5) CFUs of each MPPST isolate and the bacterial survival was tested at 5, 30, 60 and 90 min post-challenge. In this model, the decimal reduction time (D90-values) of each MPPST was linearly correlated with the concentration of CME. Significant inter-serotype differences in the D90-values were observed. The results show that the pH, concentration of total- and free-chlorine were also linearly correlated with the presence of CME in a concentration-dependent manner. The findings of this study indicate that the serotype and the levels of organic matter contamination significantly influence Salmonella survival and that both variables should be included in models that predict effectiveness of chlorine treatment in immersion chilling.

  8. Alcoholics Anonymous and twelve-step recovery: a model based on social and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the course of achieving abstinence from alcohol, longstanding members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) typically experience a change in their addiction-related attitudes and behaviors. These changes are reflective of physiologically grounded mechanisms which can be investigated within the disciplines of social and cognitive neuroscience. This article is designed to examine recent findings associated with these disciplines that may shed light on the mechanisms underlying this change. Literature review and hypothesis development. Pertinent aspects of the neural impact of drugs of abuse are summarized. After this, research regarding specific brain sites, elucidated primarily by imaging techniques, is reviewed relative to the following: Mirroring and mentalizing are described in relation to experimentally modeled studies on empathy and mutuality, which may parallel the experiences of social interaction and influence on AA members. Integration and retrieval of memories acquired in a setting like AA are described, and are related to studies on storytelling, models of self-schema development, and value formation. A model for ascription to a Higher Power is presented. The phenomena associated with AA reflect greater complexity than the empirical studies on which this article is based, and certainly require further elucidation. Despite this substantial limitation in currently available findings, there is heuristic value in considering the relationship between the brain-based and clinical phenomena described here. There are opportunities for the study of neuroscientific correlates of Twelve-Step-based recovery, and these can potentially enhance our understanding of related clinical phenomena. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Fate of the conformal fixed point with twelve massless fermions and SU(3) gauge group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Zoltan; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Mondal, Santanu; Nogradi, Daniel; Wong, Chik Him

    2016-11-01

    We report new results on the conformal properties of an important strongly coupled gauge theory, a building block of composite Higgs models beyond the Standard Model. With twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group, an infrared fixed point (IRFP) of the β -function was recently reported in the theory [A. Cheng, A. Hasenfratz, Y. Liu, G. Petropoulos, and D. Schaich, J. High Energy Phys. 05 (2014) 137] with uncertainty in the location of the critical gauge coupling inside the narrow [6.0 fixed point and scale invariance in the theory with model-building implications. Using the exact same renormalization scheme as the previous study, we show that no fixed point of the β -function exists in the reported interval. Our findings eliminate the only seemingly credible evidence for conformal fixed point and scale invariance in the Nf=12 model whose infrared properties remain unresolved. The implications of the recently completed 5-loop QCD β -function for arbitrary flavor number are discussed with respect to our work.

  10. Twelve tips for creating trigger images for problem-based learning cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2007-03-01

    A trigger is the starting point of problem-based learning (PBL) cases. It is usually in the form of 5-6 text lines that provide the key information about the main character (usually the patient), including 3-4 of patient's presenting problems. In addition to the trigger text, most programs using PBL include a visual trigger. This might be in the form of a single image, a series of images, a video clip, a cartoon, or even one of the patient's investigation results (e.g. chest X-ray, pathology report, or urine sample analysis). The main educational objectives of the trigger image are as follows: (1) to introduce the patient to the students; (2) to enhance students' observation skills; (3) to provide them with new information to add to the cues obtained from the trigger text; and (4) to stimulate students to ask questions as they develop their enquiry plan. When planned and delivered effectively, trigger images should be engaging and stimulate group discussion. Understanding the educational objectives of using trigger images and choosing appropriate images are the keys for constructing successful PBL cases. These twelve tips highlight the key steps in the successful creation of trigger images.

  11. Reading Speed as a Constraint of Accuracy of Self-Perception of Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…

  12. Reading Speed as a Constraint of Accuracy of Self-Perception of Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…

  13. So Much to Read, So Little Time: How Do We Read, and Can Speed Reading Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Schotter, Elizabeth R; Masson, Michael E J; Potter, Mary C; Treiman, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    The prospect of speed reading--reading at an increased speed without any loss of comprehension--has undeniable appeal. Speed reading has been an intriguing concept for decades, at least since Evelyn Wood introduced her Reading Dynamics training program in 1959. It has recently increased in popularity, with speed-reading apps and technologies being introduced for smartphones and digital devices. The current article reviews what the scientific community knows about the reading process--a great deal--and discusses the implications of the research findings for potential students of speed-reading training programs or purchasers of speed-reading apps. The research shows that there is a trade-off between speed and accuracy. It is unlikely that readers will be able to double or triple their reading speeds (e.g., from around 250 to 500-750 words per minute) while still being able to understand the text as well as if they read at normal speed. If a thorough understanding of the text is not the reader's goal, then speed reading or skimming the text will allow the reader to get through it faster with moderate comprehension. The way to maintain high comprehension and get through text faster is to practice reading and to become a more skilled language user (e.g., through increased vocabulary). This is because language skill is at the heart of reading speed.

  14. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA and Guided Reading (GR on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. The instruction lasted for ten weeks. This study utilized a pretest posttest control group in quantitative quasi- experimental design. The same reading comprehension test was administered as pre-test and post-test. The results were twofold: First, the instruction of learning strategies could foster reading comprehension skill. Second, while the explicit instruction of both strategies could improve the students' reading comprehension skill, Directed Reading Thinking Activity had a more significant positive effect than Guided Reading. Keywords: reading strategy, explicit, directed reading thinking activity (DRTA, guided reading (GR

  15. Improving Students' English Reading Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段士爱

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to help students who study English as a second language improve reading skills.Based on the reading theoretical foundation.some problems which often encountered during the process of reading will be discussed.Finally,a conclusion as to how to solve these problems will be made.

  16. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…

  17. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…

  18. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  19. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  20. Neurological Implications of Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Edith G.

    1981-01-01

    A review of studies into the neurological aspects of reading disabilities indicates that two positions have been taken with regard to the brain and reading: (1) language skills are generally considered to be the function of the left hemisphere of the brain; and (2) very poor reading may be related to bilateral spatial processing for both boys and…

  1. Content Schemata and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiKe

    2004-01-01

    For students of non-English majors in China, reading ability has been considered as one of the most important skills that they should acquire. However, teachers of English often complain that students reading in English seem to read with less comprehension and slower speed than expected. It is true that their failure is due to inadequate knowledge of vocabulary and

  2. Teaching Reading: Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalister, John

    2014-01-01

    In pre-service and in-service language teacher education, and in curriculum-related projects in second and foreign language settings, a recurrent issue is the failure to relate the teaching of reading to reading as a meaning-making activity. In this paper, I will consider what current research on second language (L2) reading has actually succeeded…

  3. Awareness Development for Online Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenotz, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which online reading is becoming increasingly common and, as a consequence, online literacy more and more necessary, this paper focuses on possibility of training L2 (second language) readers to bridge the gap between paper reading and online reading. Many researchers believe metacognitive awareness to be the most important ability…

  4. The Unexplained Nature of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.; Marquis, Suzanne J.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G.; Estes, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    The effects of properties of words on their reading aloud response times (RTs) are 1 major source of evidence about the reading process. The precision with which such RTs could potentially be predicted by word properties is critical to evaluate our understanding of reading but is often underestimated due to contamination from individual…

  5. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  6. Neurological Aspects of Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Louis R.

    The author, a neurologist, looks at the nature of reading disabilities. He suggests that many reading disabilities are the result of normal constitutional differences and that the term "minimal brain dysfunction" is rarely appropriate and does not help the remediation process. Noted are various theories which relate neurology and reading ability.…

  7. The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

  8. Relations Among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. Kim; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models (SEM) with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (1) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency; (2) silent reading fluency predicted reading comprehension better for skilled readers than for average readers; (3) list reading fluency predicted reading compr...

  9. Reading, Perceptual Strategies and Contrastive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J. Ronayne

    1976-01-01

    Analyzes syntactic processes in three learning situations, Japanese reading English, Persians reading English and English speakers reading Hindi; discussed in terms of reading process and second language learning models. (Author/RM)

  10. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students at Risk of Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.

    2014-01-01

    For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…

  11. ReadDB Provides Efficient Storage for Mapped Short Reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifford David K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high-throughput sequencing has enabled sequencing based measurements of cellular function, with an individual measurement potentially consisting of more than 108 reads. While tools are available for aligning sets of reads to genomes and interpreting the results, fewer tools have been developed to address the storage and retrieval requirements of large collections of aligned datasets. We present ReadDB, a network accessible column store database system for aligned high-throughput read datasets. Results ReadDB stores collections of aligned read positions and provides a client interface to support visualization and analysis. ReadDB is implemented as a network server that responds to queries on genomic intervals in an experiment with either the set of contained reads or a histogram based interval summary. Tests on datasets ranging from 105 to 108 reads demonstrate that ReadDB performance is generally within a factor of two of local-storage based methods and often three to five times better than other network-based methods. Conclusions ReadDB is a high-performance foundation for ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analysis. The client-server model provides convenient access to compute cluster nodes or desktop visualization software without requiring a shared network filesystem or large amounts of local storage. The client code provides a simple interface for fast data access to visualization or analysis. ReadDB provides a new way to store genome-aligned reads for use in applications where read sequence and alignment mismatches are not needed.

  12. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  13. Read again or read anew? Children’s reading practices in a public library

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses repeated reading as a recurring reading practice in childhood. Why do children so often wish to read stories already known to them? What is the meaning and the importance of reading again? We present the results of a master’s research project conducted in a public library with children aged 4 to 10 years. Our methodological strategies consisted of participant observations, photographic records, semi-structured interviews and informal conversation with children who regular...

  14. Improving Comparability Of Survey Results Through Ex-Post Harmonisation A Case Study With Twelve European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli

    that reflect behavioural differences rather than methodological ones, in the context of the COST Action SHANTI (Survey Harmonisation with New Technologies Improvement, TUD0804) an ex-post harmonisation approach was developed using microdata from twelve European NTS’s. The paper presents both concept and basic...

  15. Ideogram reading in alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamadori, A

    1975-06-01

    A case of alexia with agraphia in a Japanese patient is presented. Reading difficulty was severe in words composed of phonograms (Kana), while reading of words composed of Ideograms (Kanji) was better preserved. Writing was severely impaired in both types of characters. Occlusion of the angular branch of the left middle cerebral artery was demonstrated by carotid arteriography and was considered responsible for the symptoms. Two additional cases of alexia with agraphia from the Japanese literature are reviewed. Their linguistic features were similar to the present case. A hypothesis of a functional disconnexion between visual and auditory-oral systems is proposed to explain why Kana processing was more severly affected than Kanji processing.

  16. Reading and My Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娟

    2005-01-01

    @@ Reading has accompanied me for many years, from1 a pupil to an undergraduate. It enriches my life, and the most significant2 is that it teaches me how to live. Reading instructs me to treat life unperturbedly(泰然自若地). There is such a story.3 An angler(钓鱼者) went fishing in the early morning and came back at dusk without any fish, He spent the whole day but gained nothing. However, he was blissful(有福的). To the angler, it's none of his business for fish doesn't bite the baits4, but5 what he has angled is happiness. We live calmly and confidently, so we can get delightful experiences.

  17. Quantum reading capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2011-11-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

  18. Tired of Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China has a long tradition of highlighting reading for children, but many of today's youngsters seem not to have developed a love of books Shoved into Cheng Qidi's room is a bulky bookcase, all three of its shelves full of books sorted by their subjects. Dozens of books occupy most of the desk that's beside the bookcase, while on the wall is a poster of U.S. basketball star Allen Iverson.

  19. Reading Heidegger after Derrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Strawser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to broach the complex difference between Martin Heidegger and Jacques Derrida, It focuses on the fundamental assumptions involved in the reading of Heidegger's Being and Time and Derrida's early "noted" attention to this text. Is Heidegger's early work essentially tainted by "the metaphysics of presence," as Derrida wishes to suggest? After sketching Derrida's interpretation, the author attempts to show how readers of Being and Time need not succumb to Derrida's criticism.

  20. Reading to Learn or Learning to Read? Engaging College Students in Course Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Mary Margaret; Frese, Kristen M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite instructors' belief that class readings are integral to the learning process, only 20-30% of undergraduate students complete required readings. Failure to complete course reading has been associated with declines in exam and research performance. This article first offers a brief review of the literature on why students do not complete…

  1. Program Evaluation of the Direct Instruction Reading Interventions: Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nita M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to evaluate the Direct Instruction programs, Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading, from SRA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, which were being used as a school-wide reading intervention. These programs were implemented at a small elementary school in the Piedmont area of North Carolina beginning in the…

  2. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  3. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  4. Repeated Reading for Developing Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: The Case of EFL Learners in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Reading in a foreign or second language is often a laborious process, often caused by underdeveloped word recognition skills, among other things, of second and foreign language readers. Developing fluency in L2/FL reading has become an important pedagogical issue in L2 settings and one major component of reading fluency is fast and accurate word…

  5. The Effects of Extensive Reading on Reading Comprehension, Reading Rate, and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Namhee

    2017-01-01

    Several empirical studies and syntheses of extensive reading have concluded that extensive reading has positive impacts on language learning in second- and foreign-language settings. However, many of the studies contained methodological or curricular limitations, raising questions about the asserted positive effects of extensive reading. The…

  6. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.; McLin, K. M.; Simonnet, A.; Fermi E/PO Team

    2013-04-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission’s science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: ● Higher Education: Fermi E/PO promotes STEM careers through the use of NASA data including research experiences for students and teachers (Global Telescope Network), education through STEM curriculum development projects (Cosmology curriculum) and through enrichment activities (Large Area Telescope simulator). ● Elementary and Secondary education: Fermi E/PO links the science objectives of the Fermi mission to well-tested, customer-focused and NASA-approved standards-aligned classroom materials (Black Hole Resources, Active Galaxy Education Unit and Pop-up book, TOPS guides, Supernova Education Unit). These materials have been distributed through (Educator Ambassador and on-line) teacher training workshops and through programs involving under-represented students (after-school clubs and Astro 4 Girls). ● Informal education and public outreach: Fermi E/PO engages the public in sharing the experience of exploration and discovery through high-leverage multi-media experiences (Black Holes planetarium and PBS NOVA shows), through popular websites (Gamma-ray Burst Skymap, Epo's Chronicles), social media (Facebook, MySpace), interactive web-based activities (Space Mysteries, Einstein@Home) and activities by

  7. Relative peripheral refraction in children: twelve-month changes in eyes with different ametropias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsui-Tsui; Cho, Pauline

    2013-05-01

    To determine the peripheral refraction of children with different types of ametropias and to evaluate the relationship between central refractive changes, baseline relative peripheral refraction (RPR) and changes in RPR over a 12-month monitoring period. Cycloplegic central and peripheral refraction were performed biannually on the right eyes of children aged 6-9 for 12 months, using an open-view autorefractor. Peripheral refraction were measured along 10°, 20° and 30° from central fixation in both nasal and temporal fields. Refractive data were transposed into M, J0 and J45 vectors for analyses. RPR was determined by subtracting the central measurement from each peripheral measurement. Hyperopic eyes showed relative peripheral myopia while myopic eyes had relative hyperopia across the central 60° horizontal field at baseline. Emmetropic eyes had relative myopia within but showed relative hyperopia beyond the central 30° field. However, there was no significant correlation between central refractive changes and baseline RPR or between changes in central refraction and RPR over twelve months in any refractive groups. Correlations between changes in PR and central myopic shift were found mainly in the nasal field in different groups. In the subgroup analysis on the initially emmetropic and the initially myopic groups, the subgroups with faster myopic progression did not have significantly different RPR from the subgroups with slower progression. The RPR pattern of the initially emmetropic and the initially myopic groups became more asymmetric at the end of the study period with a larger increase in relative hyperopia in the temporal field. RPR patterns were different among hyperopic, emmetropic and myopic eyes. However, baseline RPR and changes in RPR cannot predict changes in central refraction over time. Our results did not provide evidence to support the hypothesis of RPR as a causative factor for myopic central refractive changes in children. Ophthalmic

  8. Computational study of the structural and vibrational properties of ten and twelve vertex closo-carboranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, A.; Deleuze, M.S.; Francois, J.-P

    2003-01-01

    Calculations using ab initio Hartree-Fock and Density Functional theories, the latter employing the B3LYP functional, in combination with a number of large standard basis sets ranging from 6-31G** to cc-pVDZ, have been performed on a series of ten and twelve vertex closo-carborane isomer species. Results obtained for optimized structural parameters and molecular properties are presented for 1,2-, 1,6- and 1,10-C{sub 2}B{sub 8}H{sub 10} and 1,2-, 1,7- and 1,12-C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12} and compared, where possible, with both earlier theoretical data and experiment. Irrespective of the model chemistry chosen, the para-isomer in each class of carborane cluster is found to be the most stable species, corresponding to a structure in which the cage carbon atoms are positioned at diametrically opposed ends of the respective polyhedron. Boron-hydrogen and carbon-hydrogen bond lengths are found to change little on going from isomers of one particular cage size to another, supporting analogous conclusions previously established for small closo-carborane cages possessing five, six and seven vertices. The calculated vibrational spectra of the isomers of both decacarborane and dodecacarborane are seen to be similar to each other and reflect a high degree of rigidity within each cluster. Key polyhedral skeletal breathing modes along with characteristic boron-hydrogen and carbon-hydrogen stretching frequencies are identified in the spectra and compared with experiment. Thermochemical data relating to each species are also analyzed.

  9. Indifference to pain syndrome in a twelve-year-old boy (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdadi T

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: People vary greatly in their response to painful stimuli, from those with a low pain threshold to those with indifference to pain. However, insensitivity to pain is a rare disorder, characterized by the lack of usual subjective and objective responses to noxious stimuli. Patients who have congenital indifference to pain sustain painless injuries beginning in infancy, but have sensory responses that are otherwise normal on examination. Perception of passive movement, joint position, and vibration is normal in these patients, as are tactile thresholds and light touch perception. Case report: A twelve-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital for a painless deformity, degeneration in both knees and a neglected femoral neck fracture that was inappropriately painless. Further examination revealed normal sensory responses, perception of passive movement, joint position, vibration tactile thresholds and light touch perception. Spinal cord and brain MRI were normal as was the electromyography and nerve conduction velocity (EMG/NCV examination. There was no positive family history for this disorder. Conclusion: The deficits present in the different pain insensitivity syndromes provide insight into the complex anatomical and physiological nature of pain perception. Reports on pain asymbolia, in which pain is perceived but does not cause suffering, and related cortical conditions illustrate that there can be losses that independently involve either the sensory-discriminative component or the affective-motivational component of pain perception, thus highlighting their different anatomical localization. The paucity of experience with this entity and the resultant diagnostic problems, the severity of the associated disabling arthropathy and underscore the importance of this case report of indifference to pain.

  10. Removal of trace level amounts of twelve sulfonamides from drinking water by UV-activated peroxymonosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changzheng; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Lei; Han, Qi; Lin, Kuangfei; Lu, Shuguang; Zhang, Dong; Cao, Guomin

    2016-12-01

    Trace levels of residual antibiotics in drinking water may threaten public health and become a serious problem in modern society. In this work, we investigated the degradation of twelve sulfonamides (SAs) at environmentally relevant trace level concentrations by three different methods: ultraviolet (UV) photolysis, peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation, and UV-activated PMS (UV/PMS). Sulfaguanidine, sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxydiazine, and sulfadimethoxine were be effectively removed by direct UV photolysis and PMS oxidation. However, sulfanilamide, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, and sulfachloropyridazine were not completely degraded, despite prolonging the UV irradiation time to 30min or increasing the PMS concentration to 5.0mg·L(-1). UV/PMS provided more thorough elimination of SAs, as demonstrated by the complete removal of 200ng·L(-1) of all SAs within 5min at an initial PMS concentration of 1.0mg·L(-1). UV/PMS promoted SA decomposition more efficiently than UV photolysis or PMS oxidation alone. Bicarbonate concentration and pH had a negligible effect on SA degradation by UV/PMS. However, humic acid retarded the process. Removal of 200ng·L(-1) of each SA from a sample of sand-filtered effluent from a drinking water treatment plant (DWTPs) was quickly and completely achieved by UV/PMS. Meanwhile, about 41% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was eliminated. Scavenging experiments showed that sulfate radical (SO4(-)) was the predominant species involved in the degradation. It is concluded that UV/PMS is a rapid and efficient method for removing trace-level SAs from drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A survey of innovation through duplication in the reduced genomes of twelve parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D DeBarry

    Full Text Available We characterize the prevalence, distribution, divergence, and putative functions of detectable two-copy paralogs and segmental duplications in the Apicomplexa, a phylum of parasitic protists. Apicomplexans are mostly obligate intracellular parasites responsible for human and animal diseases (e.g. malaria and toxoplasmosis. Gene loss is a major force in the phylum. Genomes are small and protein-encoding gene repertoires are reduced. Despite this genomic streamlining, duplications and gene family amplifications are present. The potential for innovation introduced by duplications is of particular interest. We compared genomes of twelve apicomplexans across four lineages and used orthology and genome cartography to map distributions of duplications against genome architectures. Segmental duplications appear limited to five species. Where present, they correspond to regions enriched for multi-copy and species-specific genes, pointing toward roles in adaptation and innovation. We found a phylum-wide association of duplications with dynamic chromosome regions and syntenic breakpoints. Trends in the distribution of duplicated genes indicate that recent, species-specific duplicates are often tandem while most others have been dispersed by genome rearrangements. These trends show a relationship between genome architecture and gene duplication. Functional analysis reveals: proteases, which are vital to a parasitic lifecycle, to be prominent in putative recent duplications; a pair of paralogous genes in Toxoplasma gondii previously shown to produce the rate-limiting step in dopamine synthesis in mammalian cells, a possible link to the modification of host behavior; and phylum-wide differences in expression and subcellular localization, indicative of modes of divergence. We have uncovered trends in multiple modes of duplicate divergence including sequence, intron content, expression, subcellular localization, and functions of putative recent duplicates that

  12. Characterizing gene-gene interactions in a statistical epistasis network of twelve candidate genes for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Rishika; Hu, Ting; Moore, Jason H; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have reemphasized the importance of epistasis, or gene-gene interactions, as a contributing factor to the unexplained heritability of obesity. Network-based methods such as statistical epistasis networks (SEN), present an intuitive framework to address the computational challenge of studying pairwise interactions between thousands of genetic variants. In this study, we aimed to analyze pairwise interactions that are associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) between SNPs from twelve genes robustly associated with obesity (BDNF, ETV5, FAIM2, FTO, GNPDA2, KCTD15, MC4R, MTCH2, NEGR1, SEC16B, SH2B1, and TMEM18). We used information gain measures to identify all SNP-SNP interactions among and between these genes that were related to obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) within the Framingham Heart Study Cohort; interactions exceeding a certain threshold were used to build an SEN. We also quantified whether interactions tend to occur more between SNPs from the same gene (dyadicity) or between SNPs from different genes (heterophilicity). We identified a highly connected SEN of 709 SNPs and 1241 SNP-SNP interactions. Combining the SEN framework with dyadicity and heterophilicity analyses, we found 1 dyadic gene (TMEM18, P-value = 0.047) and 3 heterophilic genes (KCTD15, P-value = 0.045; SH2B1, P-value = 0.003; and TMEM18, P-value = 0.001). We also identified a lncRNA SNP (rs4358154) as a key node within the SEN using multiple network measures. This study presents an analytical framework to characterize the global landscape of genetic interactions from genome-wide arrays and also to discover nodes of potential biological significance within the identified network.

  13. Thermal environment in eight low-energy and twelve conventional Finnish houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, Erkki; Salmi, Kari; Holopainen, Rauno; Pasanen, Pertti; Reijula, Kari

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the thermal environment of eight recently built low-energy houses and twelve conventional Finnish houses. We monitored living room, bedroom and outdoor air temperatures and room air relative humidity from June 2012 to September 2013. Perceived thermal environment was evaluated using a questionnaire survey during the heating, cooling and interim seasons. We compared the measured and perceived thermal environments of the low-energy and conventional houses. The mean air temperature was 22.8 °C (21.9-23.8 °C) in the low-energy houses, and 23.3 °C (21.4-26.5 °C) in the conventional houses during the summer (1. June 2013-31. August 2013). In the winter (1. December 2012-28. February 2013), the mean air temperature was 21.3 °C (19.8-22.5 °C) in the low-energy houses, and 21.6 °C (18.1-26.4 °C) in the conventional houses. The variation of the air temperature was less in the low-energy houses than that in the conventional houses. In addition, the occupants were on average slightly more satisfied with the indoor environment in the low-energy houses. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean air temperature and relative humidity of the low-energy and conventional houses. Our measurements and surveys showed that a good thermal environment can be achieved in both types of houses.

  14. Phytochemical screening of twelve species of phytoplankton isolated from Arabian Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanth Vishwanath Rai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the phytochemicals in twelve species of marine phytoplankton. Methods: Total phenolic content of methanol extract was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content of the methanol extarct was determined by aluminium chloride method. Chlorophylls, β-carotene and astaxanthin were estimated by acetone extraction method. Vitamin C was determined by dinitrophenyl-hydrazine method. Phycobiliproteins such as allophycocyanin, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin in the aqueous extracts were determined. Results: Total phenolics varied from 5.41 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW in Phormidium corium (P. corium to 17.37 mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW in Oscillatoria fremyii (O. fremyii. Total flavonoids ranged between 0.74 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW in P. corium and 9.87 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW in Nannochloropsis oceanica. Chlorophyll-a pigment was high in Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans (15.51 mg/g DW and low in P. corium (1.08 mg/g DW. Chlorophyll-c ranged between 0.07 mg/g DW in Nannochloropsis oceanica and 4.62 mg/g DW in C. calcitrans. High contents of β-carotene and astaxanthin were found in C. calcitrans and low in P. corium which ranged from 0.33 to 10.03 mg/g DW and 0.18 to 3.85 mg/g DW, respectively. Vitamin C content varied from 0.50 mg/g DW in C. calcitrans to 1.51 mg/g DW in Phormidium tenue. O. fremyii showed highest total phycobiliproteins of 317.05 mg/g DW. High contents of allophycocyanin and phycocyanin were found in O. fremyii, whereas high contents of phycoerythrin were found in Oscillatoria sancta. All the three phycobiliproteins were low in Chroococcus turgidus. Conclusions: Marine phytoplankton are one of the natural sources providing novel biologically active compounds with potential for pharmaceutical applications.

  15. XII Elkonin Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugrimenko E.A.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the reader the main content of report presented at the XII Elkonin Readings (4th March, 2016. Elkonin Readings takes place each 2 years in Psychological Institute, Russian Academy of education. This year they are focused on the problem of “Mediation and development”. Speakers from different institutions presented their approaches to solving these problems. The theoretical foundation of the new understanding of the relationship of functional genesis and ontogenesis, buildings mediation activities, proximal development areas have been disclosed in the articles of V.V. Rubtsov, D.B. Elkonin, P.G. Nezhnov. The new conditions for mediation were created on the basis of the different materials (games, reading, and spatial image of “self” according to an experimental practice of teaching and correction of self- development. Developing of creative ways of mediation were mentioned in the articles of L.I. Elkoninov, E.O. Smirnov, E.A. Abdulaeva, E.A. Bugrimenko, N.U. Mangutov, that meet actual problems for modern children.

  16. On the Practice Teaching of English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    The main task of practice teaching of English Reading is to train students' independent reading ability and good reading habits. Extra-curricular reading of English literature and English newspapers and magazines plays an active role in improving English reading ability. The principle of selecting reading materials, the scope of selection and the…

  17. Why Reading Fluency Should Be Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores problems that have surfaced in the teaching of reading fluency and how teachers and reading coaches can resolve those problems. Specific issues addressed include reading fluency being defined as reading fast and instruction that is focused on having students read fast, reading fluency viewed as solely and oral reading…

  18. Effective Ways of Extensive Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳

    2012-01-01

    COmpared with intensive reading; extenSiVe reading Can arouse Students' interest in reading, and enrich their back- ground knowledge about western COuntries. Therefore, we Should improve both and pay Special attention tO the extensive reading So that students' reading ability can be enhanced: The following points Should be noticed when teaching extensive reading.

  19. Reading Disability and the Elementary School Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, David H.; Phelps, R. Neal

    1980-01-01

    Provides the elementary school counselor with a knowledge base in the reading and reading disability areas. The discussion on reading highlights four major areas with which the elementary school counselor should be familiar: definition of reading, proliferation of terms, reading skills assessment, and reading disability. (Author)

  20. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.; van Bergen, E.; de Jong, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in d

  1. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  2. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Digital reading:An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziming; LIU

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Digital reading is an important research topic in contemporary information science research. This paper aims to provide a snapshot of major studies on digital reading over the past few years.Design/methodology/approach: This paper begins by introducing the background in digital reading, then outlines major research findings.Findings: The paper demonstrates the growth of interest in information science and other disciplines in digital reading behavior. Five areas are highlighted: Digital reading behavior,print vs. digital, preference for reading medium, multi-tasking and learning, and technological advancement and traditional attachment.Research limitations: Only major studies in the North American and European countries are covered.Practical implications: Understanding reading behavior in the digital environment would help develop more effective reading devices and empower readers in the online environment.Originality/value: The paper represents a first attempt to compare, evaluate, and synthesize recent studies on digital reading. Implications for the changes in reading behavior are discussed, and directions for future research are suggested.

  4. Phytochemical screening of twelve species of phytoplankton isolated from Arabian Sea coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushanth Vishwanath Rai; Madaiah Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the phytochemicals in twelve species of marine phytoplankton. Methods: Total phenolic content of methanol extract was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content of the methanol extarct was determined by aluminium chloride method. Chlorophylls,β-carotene and astaxanthin were estimated by acetone extraction method. Vitamin C was determined by dinitrophenyl-hydrazine method. Phycobiliproteins such as allophycocyanin, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin in the aqueous extracts were determined. Results: Total phenolics varied from 5.41 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) in Phormidium corium (P. corium) to 17.37 mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW inOscillatoria fremyii(O. fremyii). Total flavonoids ranged between 0.74 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW inP. corium and 9.87 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW inNannochloropsis oceanica. Chlorophyll-a pigment was high inChaetoceros calcitrans(C. calcitrans)(15.51 mg/g DW) and low inP. corium (1.08 mg/g DW). Chlorophyll-c ranged between 0.07 mg/g DW inNannochloropsis oceanica and 4.62 mg/g DW inC. calcitrans. High contents ofβ-carotene and astaxanthin were found inC. calcitrans and low inP. corium which ranged from 0.33 to 10.03 mg/g DW and 0.18 to 3.85 mg/g DW, respectively. Vitamin C content varied from 0.50 mg/g DW inC. calcitrans to 1.51 mg/g DW inPhormidium tenue.O. fremyii showed highest total phycobiliproteins of 317.05 mg/g DW. High contents of allophycocyanin and phycocyanin were found inO. fremyii, whereas high contents of phycoerythrin were found inOscillatoria sancta. All the three phycobiliproteins were low inChroococcus turgidus. Conclusions: Marine phytoplankton are one of the natural sources providing novel biologically active compounds with potential for pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Nutrient Contents per Serving of Twelve Varieties of Cooked Rice Marketed in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar M. El-Qudah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jordan imports rice from different countries without any quality preferences. Twelve varieties of cooked rice marketed in Jordan were analyzed. The content per serving of these varieties were computed for energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, copper, iron and phosphorous. The protein content per serving found to range from 0.49 g for La Cigala rice to 6.2 g for Harvest rice. The fat content for all rice brands was less than 0.37 g per serving. The energy content ranged from 172.12 g/serving for Basmati rice to 212.25 g/serving for Sun White rice. Generally, all rice varieties contain significant amounts of minerals per serving. Ruzzana found to contain the highest level of calcium (38.2 mg/serving and Amber the lowest calcium content (6.7 mg/serving. Magnesium content found to range from 5.7 mg/serving for Royal Umberella rice to 16.3 mg/serving for Ruzzana rice. Consumption of one serving of Harvest cooked rice will cover 13.5% of the daily requirement of protein for females and 11.1% for males. Manganese content of one serving of Harvest, Sun White, Abu bent and La Cigala will cover 22.2% of the daily requirements for females and 14.7% for males, while consumption of one of Basmati, Sos rice or Amber will cover only 11.1% and 8.75 of requirement for females and males respectively. Planning a healthful diet is not a simple task. Dietary Reference Intake planning and assessing the diets of individuals or groups of healthy individuals according to their stage of life and sex. Food choice is a function of many factors, including personal preferences, habits, ethnic heritage and tradition. Dietary guidelines for Americans, consider whole grain products like rice are among the food groups that form the basis of a healthy diet. Including rice as part of a healthy, balanced diet can be linked to overall healthier eating patterns. Rice eaters are more likely to eat a diet consistent with the 2005 Dietary

  6. Risk factors for chronic noncontiguous diseases: Twelve-week prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapčević Mirjana

    2004-01-01

    basis of RF number and combination for genesis and development of CND in our sample, 74.7% of variability (development or risk may be accounted for angina pectoris (AP, 74.2% for DM+HTA, 70.0% for DM, 79.9% for HTA, 80.8% for myocardial infarction (Ml, and 85.8% of variability (development or risk for cerebrovascular insult (CVI. Twelve-week intervention resulted in reduction of HTA, HLP, glucose, and PC (p<0.001 levels as well as lower BMI and PA (p<0.5. To accomplish the aforementioned goals, continuous mutual activity of an individual, his/her family, health service and community is required, along with occasional evaluation of the obtained results.

  7. Experiencing a constructivist museum exhibit: A case study of twelve children and their families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Martha Anne Leech

    2002-04-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Research Council have called for the creation of a scientifically literate populace and introduced science standards and guidelines to direct this process. Science education in traditional school settings plays a key role in reaching this goal, but individuals over their lifetimes will have more exposure to science ideas through informal science experiences such as visits to museums and through diverse media sources. The purpose of this study was to explore the role museums play in this journey to science literacy. This qualitative collective case study examined the experience of 12 children and their families in a children's museum as they interacted with an exhibit designed along the tenets of constructivist theory to introduce children to ideas of science. Twelve children and their families were videotaped interacting with a model of a watershed that included the stream, surrounding land, gravel, and dam building and erosion abatement manipulatives. Children were interviewed to ascertain their stream-related ideas and conceptual understanding prior to and after using the exhibit. Parents completed demographic and post-exhibit experience questionnaires. Two museum staff members who played key roles in the development of the exhibit and surrounding gallery were also interviewed. Individual and cross-case analyses were done to describe the experience of each child and family, and to elucidate the commonalities of these experiences to describe the phenomenon of using a constructivist-based science exhibit. Results of the study indicate (1) the type of experience children and families had at the exhibit depended on child and parent interactions and roles each assumed, and (2) experience with the exhibit encouraged children to think more deeply about water topics, past experiences, and ideas they had previously constructed. Implications of this research include (1) parents should engage children

  8. [Risk factors for chronic noncontiguous diseases: twelve-week prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapcević, Mirjana; Vuković, Mira

    2004-01-01

    RF number and combination for genesis and development of CND in our sample, 74.7% of variability (development or risk) may be accounted for angina pectoris (AP), 74.2% for DM+HTA, 70.0% for DM, 79.9% for HTA, 80.8% for myocardial infarction (MI), and 85.8% of variability (development or risk) for cerebrovascular insult (CVI). Twelve-week intervention resulted in reduction of HTA, HLP, glucose, and PC (p<0.001) levels as well as lower BMI and PA (p<0.5). To accomplish the aforementioned goals, continuous mutual activity of an individual, his/her family, health service and community is required, along with occasional evaluation of the obtained results.

  9. The Three Stages of Teaching Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝禹

    2005-01-01

    If we want to improve our way of teaching, one way is to teach reading in three stages: Pre- reading stage, while-reading stage, and post- reading stage. Each stage has a different goal and deals with different reading strategies. Prereading means before the text is read. In while reading stage, we have looked at the main reading skills: skimming, scanning , reading for detail , drawing inferences about the author's purpose and intention. Post - reading stage mainly focuses on the exploitation of the text. It aims to help the reader understand the content and structure of the text, as well as the author's purpose in writing it.

  10. The Role of Speech Prosody and Text Reading Prosody in Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody--which is independent from reading skills--in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could…

  11. The Role of Speech Prosody and Text Reading Prosody in Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody--which is independent from reading skills--in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could…

  12. Direct reading inductance meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  13. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Carreteiro, Rui; Justo, João; Figueira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children’s language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent–child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the ef...

  14. How To Improve English Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.INTRODUCTION The necessity of reading improving Reading is a pleasure of your mind,which means that it is like a sport: your eagerness and knowledge and quickness make you a good reader.Reading is fun,not because the writer is telling you something,but because it makes your mind work.Your own imagination works along with the author's or even goes beyond his.

  15. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Content of Twelve Bestselling US Principles of Economics Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2013-01-01

    How have authors of twelve bestselling introductory US textbooks in economics responded to the traumatizing financial crisis? In general the financial crisis is described with a couple of lines here and there or it is dealt with in boxes, separate sections, or specific isolated chapters. Some...... of the textbooks distinguish themselves by also having made some modest qualitative changes of content as a reaction to the financial crisis (especially Colander 2010 and Krugman and Wells 2013). Applying my general analysis of the changes being made already in the twelve textbooks seen as a whole, I discuss how...... any introductory textbook could integrate the financial crisis more adequately into the general presentation, thereby hopefully contributing to enhancing the interest of the students....

  16. Quantum Reading Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory [S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090504 (2011)]. In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e., a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of "parallel" channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of an infinite block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantify...

  17. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development. PMID:26435550

  18. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)-how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development.

  19. Twelve tips for academic role and institutional change in distance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgaty, Laura

    2015-01-01

    With the uptake of distance learning (DL), which has been marginal for most clinical academics, teaching contexts, traditional power structures and relationships have changed, leaving lecturers potentially disenfranchised. DL has caused a distinct change in academic roles, but academic and institutional routines have remained unchanged. Information surrounding the changes is confusing and lacks clear guidance. To provide a pragmatic outline of roles, responsibilities, obstacles and solutions for clinical academics involved in DL. A two-year action research project was carried out examining the academic role when developing and delivering a 20 credit post graduate DL module in Clinical Education at Newcastle University. It entailed three strands which were "active" for two weeks at a time in which all activities had to be completed. Sixteen students participated in the module consisting of independent activities, facilitated discussion forums, wikis, required reading, individual and group tasks. Pedagogically, it was based on heavily on Garrison's (2012) and Salmon's (2008) work on constructivism and online communities. Institutions need a clear plan and a change of culture. Roles have emerged including: administrator, manager, team leader knowledge expert, moderator and facilitator. Universities struggle to engage staff with DL due to its unrecognised and (many academics believe) unsustainable workload. These 12 tips provide academics and managers involved in clinical education with clear guidance surrounding strategies that inform practice. New roles have emerged, work habits must be revolutionised and changes in routine must be addressed.

  20. "Twelve Angry Men". The Group and the Individual: From Objectiveness to Subjectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Torre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Screened fiction stirs people’s psyches through emotions, which refer to a virtual world and therefore have the potential to help the individual grow in self-awareness while feeling relatively “safe”. An innovative method to work on movies for education and training purposes was developed by Eugenio Torre, and is proposed here for the film 12 Angry Men. This movie may be used in training settings focused on helping relationships to reflect upon the meaning of being an individual in a group, being a group, responsibility and choice. A key to the reading of the movie is proposed at two different but complementary levels. From an “extra-psychical” standpoint, movie characters may represent a working group of 12 very different people sharing a task, while from an “intra-psychical” one, each character may represent an embodiment or symbol of an individual’s part and/or complex. According to the movie suggestion, we describe a path from objectiveness to subjectiveness and the final accomplishment of an ethical choice.

  1. RUGBY GAME-RELATED STATISTICS THAT DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN WINNING AND LOSING TEAMS IN IRB AND SUPER TWELVE CLOSE GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vaz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to identify the Rugby game- related statistics that discriminated between winning and losing teams in IRB and S12 close games. Archival data reported to game-related statistics from 120 IRB games and 204 Super Twelve games played between 2003 and 2006. Afterwards, a cluster analysis was conducted to establish, according to game final score differences, three different match groups. Only the close games group was selected for further analysis (IRB n = 64 under 15 points difference and Super Twelve n = 95 under 11 points difference. An analysis to the structure coefficients (SC obtained through a discriminant analysis allowed to identify the most powerful game-related statistics in discriminating between winning and losing teams. The discriminant functions were statistically significant for Super Twelve games (Chi-square = 33.8, p < 0.01, but not for IRB games (Chi- square = 9.4, p = n.s.. In the first case, winners and losers were discriminated by possessions kicked (SC = 0.48, tackles made (SC = 0.45, rucks and pass (SC = -0.40, passes completed (SC = 0. 39, mauls won (SC = -0.36, turnovers won (SC = -0.33, kicks to touch (SC = 0.32 and errors made (SC = -0.32. The minus sign denotes higher values in losing teams. Rugby game-related statistics were able to discriminate between winners and losers in Super Twelve close games and suggest that a kicking based game supported by an effective defensive structure is more likely to win matches than a possession based one

  2. SPECIALISED READING AT ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tim; Francis

    1997-01-01

    This report is based on a questionnaire survey of teachers of specialised reading in Zhejiang University.Fifteen questionnaires out of twenty have been returned from teachers from thirteen departments.They have been involved in the teaching of specialised reading for between one and seven years(onaverage three years).Generally the specialised reading courses run for two hours per week over onesemester(4,5,6.or 7 and more often towards the end of the undergraduate programmes).Howeverthe Philosophy Department and Electrical Engineering spread the course over two semesters(one hourper week).Most teachers teach specialised reading for two hours per week for half the year.

  3. Gender ratios for reading difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analyzed data from 1,133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had a school-history of reading problems and from 684 twin pairs from a comparison sample with no reading difficulties. Although the difference between...

  4. A Case for Slow Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ostercamp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay makes a case for the value of slow or deep reading.  Inspired by the Slow Food movement it seeks to apply their principles to reading.  It begins by exploring the meaning of information and how like food, information has come to be regarded as a commodity.  Drawing upon the philosophy of Albert Borgmann, it counters the prevalent commodity view of information by offering an alternative paradigm that connects careful reading to human flourishing.  It argues that by connecting information to pleasure and community, slow reading advocates can have comparable success to that enjoyed by the slow food movement.

  5. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency. PMID:22726256

  6. Radicular anatomy of twelve representatives of the Catasetinae subtribe (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root structure of the Brazilian genera belonging to the Catasetinae subtribe is poorly known, we describe the roots of twelve representatives from this subtribe. For anatomical analysis, the roots were fixed in FAA 50, preserved in ethanol 70% and sectioned at its medium region using razor blades. The sections were stained with 0.05% astra blue and safranin and mounted in glycerin. For the identification of starch we used Lugol's solution; for lignin, floroglucin chloridric; for lipids, Sudan III, and for flavanoids, potassium hydroxide. The relevant aspects were registered using a digital camera joined with an Olympus microspope (BX51 model. The structural similarities of all roots support the placement of the subtribe Catasetinae into the monophyletic tribe Cymbidieae. Some root features are restricted to one or two taxa and can be useful in the systematics of the subtribe. For example, the occurrence of flavonoidic crystals characterizes the genera Catasetum and Cychnodes, and the number of the velamen layers and the shape of the epivelamen cells are useful to confirm the taxonomic position of Clowesia amazonica. The presence of velamen and flavonoidic crystals was interpreted as an adaptation to the epiphytic habit.Considerando que a estrutura das raízes de gêneros brasileiros pertencentes à subtribo Catasetinae é pouco conhecida, descrevemos as raízes de doze representantes desta subtribo. Para análise anatômica, as raízes foram fixadas em FAA 50, preservadas em álcool 70% e seccionadas na sua região média usando lâminas de barbear. Os cortes foram corados com astra blue e Safrablau 0,05% e montados em glicerina. Para a identificação do amido, utilizou-se a solução de Lugol; da lignina, floroglucina clorídrica, dos lipídios, Sudan III e dos flavonóides, hidróxido de potássio. Os aspectos relevantes foram registrados usando câmera digital acoplada a um microscópio Olympus (modelo BX51. As semelhan

  7. The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide Reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to examine the efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice interventions for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Effects on comprehension, fluency, and word reading were evaluated. Participants were 96 students with reading disabilities in grades 9-12. Students were paired within…

  8. Write to read: the brain's universal reading and writing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A; Tan, Li-Hai

    2013-02-01

    Do differences in writing systems translate into differences in the brain's reading network? Or is this network universal, relatively impervious to variation in writing systems? A new study adds intriguing evidence to these questions by showing that reading handwritten words activates a pre-motor area across writing systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between children's reading motivation and reading competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晴雪

    2016-01-01

    It has been found that motivation is very important to children's reading competence. This paper intended to study intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and find their relationship with children's reading competence. In order to do so, previous investigations about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were critically reviewed, and their results were discussed in this paper.

  10. Reading Cooperatively or Independently? Study on ELL Student Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siping; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cooperative reading teaching activities and independent reading activities for English language learner (ELL) students at 4th grade level. Based on simple linear regression and correlational analyses of data collected from two large data bases, PIRLS and NAEP, the study found that cooperative reading…

  11. Compensatory Reading among ESL Learners: A Reading Strategy Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Petras, Yusof Ede; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to gain an insight to the relationship of two different concepts about reading comprehension, namely, the linear model of comprehension and the interactive compensatory theory. Drawing on both the above concepts, a heuristic was constructed about three different reading strategies determined by the specific ways the literal,…

  12. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

  13. Rewards for Reading: Their Effects on Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Hwa; Wu, Jen-Rung

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many Taiwanese elementary schools have implemented extensive reading activities in their respective campuses. In order to motivate pupils to read, teachers and parents would offer pupils contingent rewards. As we know, the use of rewards in educational settings as a way to improve motivation is a controversial issue. Previous…

  14. How to read a text with reading comprehension skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; zhao

    2015-01-01

    Reading is a process in which the reader must be actively involved.You must use what knowledge you can gain from the text and what you knows about the world in general in order to infer meanings and other sorts of information.This paper will puts forward some skills for reading comprehension.

  15. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

  16. How to read a text with reading comprehension skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Reading is a process in which the reader must be actively involved. You must use what knowledge you can gain fromthe text and what you knows about the world in general in order to infer meanings and other sorts of information. This paper willputs forward some skills for reading comprehension.

  17. Word Reading and Reading Comprehension: Stability, Overlap and Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Defries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal twin data were analyzed to investigate the etiology of the stability of genetic and environmental influences on word reading and reading comprehension, as well as the stability of those influences on their relationship. Participating twin pairs were initially tested at a mean age of 10.3 years, and retested approximately five years…

  18. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  19. Elementary Students' Motivation to Read. Reading Research Report No. 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    This study explored 330 third- and fifth-grade Maryland students' motivation to read using the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP). The first part of the MRP, a Likert-type, self-report, group-administered questionnaire, was completed by all students. The second part of the MRP, the Conversational Interview, was individually administered to a random…

  20. GUIDING STUDENTS TO READ ACTIVELY THROUGH INTENSIVE READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi; Guangming

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the background and problems in theteaching of intensive reading (IR) to the students with non-English majors and proposes some activities for improving theteaching and learning process of the IR classroom. It is expectedthat with some applicable and effective activities, the teachercan help students read actively and grow into effective andindependent readers.

  1. Reading the Web: Internet Guided Reading with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, David

    2015-01-01

    Online reading requires traditional and new comprehension skills and strategies, and these skills and strategies will have to be taught and supported, especially for young beginning readers. But how do elementary teachers go about doing this? Much of the research regarding teaching and supporting online reading comprehension has focused on older…

  2. Idea units in notes and summaries for read texts by keyboard and pencil in middle childhood students with specific learning disabilities: Cognitive and brain findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Todd; Peverly, Stephen; Wolf, Amie; Abbott, Robert; Tanimoto, Steven; Thompson, Rob; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia

    2016-09-01

    Seven children with dyslexia and/or dysgraphia (2 girls, 5 boys, M=11 years) completed fMRI connectivity scans before and after twelve weekly computerized lessons in strategies for reading source material, taking notes, and writing summaries by touch typing or groovy pencils. During brain scanning they completed two reading comprehension tasks-one involving single sentences and one involving multiple sentences. From before to after intervention, fMRI connectivity magnitude changed significantly during sentence level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→right Broca's) and during text level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→cingulate). Proportions of ideas units in children's writing compared to idea units in source texts did not differ across combinations of reading-writing tasks and modes. Yet, for handwriting/notes, correlations insignificant before the lessons became significant after the strategy instruction between proportion of idea units and brain connectivity at all levels of language in reading comprehension (word-, sentence-, and text) during scanning; but for handwriting/summaries, touch typing/notes, and touch typing/summaries changes in those correlations from insignificant to significant after strategy instruction occurred only at text level reading comprehension during scanning. Thus, handwriting during note-taking may benefit all levels of language during reading comprehension, whereas all other combinations of modes and writing tasks in this exploratory study appear to benefit only the text level of reading comprehension. Neurological and educational significance of the interdisciplinary research findings for integrating reading and writing and future research directions are discussed.

  3. Verbal protocols of reading the nature of constructively responsive reading

    CERN Document Server

    Pressley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from a variety of disciplines have collected verbal protocols of reading as a window on conscious reading processes. Because such work has occurred in different disciplines, many who have conducted verbal protocol analyses have been unaware of the research of others. This volume brings together the existing literature from the various fields in which verbal protocols of reading have been generated. In so doing, the authors provide an organized catalog of all conscious verbal processes reported in studies to date -- the most complete analysis of conscious reading now available in the literature. When the results of all of the studies are considered, there is clear support for a number of models of reading comprehension including reader response theories, schema perspectives, executive processing models, and bottom-up approaches such as the one proposed by van Dijk and Kintsch. The summary of results also demonstrates that none of the existing models goes far enough. Thus, a new framework -- constru...

  4. Understanding Reading A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Reading revolutionized reading research and theory when the first edition appeared in 1971 and continues to be a leader in the field. In the sixth edition of this classic text Smith's purpose remains the same: to shed light on fundamental aspects of the complex human act of reading -- linguistic, physiological, psychological, and social -- and of what is involved in learning to read. The text critically examines current theories, instructional practices, and controversies, covering a wide range of disciplines but always remains accessible. Careful attention is given to the ideolo

  5. Learning to read is much more than learning to read: a neuropsychologically based reading program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Mendoza, V U

    2000-11-01

    Departing from the observation that illiterates significantly underscore in some neuropsychological tests, a learning-to-read method named NEUROALFA was developed. NEUROALFA is directed to reinforce these underscored abilities during the learning-to-read process. It was administered to a sample of 21 adult illiterates in Colima (Mexico). Results were compared with 2 control groups using more traditional procedures in learning to read. The NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery was administered to all the participants before and after completing the learning-to-read training program. All 3 groups presented some improvement in the test scores. Gains, however, were significantly higher in the experimental group in Orientation in Time, Digits Backward, Visual Detection, Verbal Memory, Copy of a Semi-Complex Figure, Language Comprehension, Phonological Verbal Fluency, Similarities, Calculation Abilities, Sequences, and all the recall subtests, excluding Recognition. Performance in standard reading tests was also significantly higher in the experimental group. Correlations between pretest NEUROPSI scores and reading ability were low. However, correlations between posttest NEUROPSI scores and reading scores were higher and significant for several subtests. Results are interpreting as supporting the assumption that reinforcement of those abilities in which illiterates significantly underscore results in a significant improvement in neuropsychological test scores and strongly facilitates the learning-to-read process. The NEUROALFA method of teaching reading to adult illiterates is beginning to be used extensively in Mexico. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply neuropsychological principles to social problems.

  6. Factors Affecting Reading Achievement in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Cecilia; Pinzas, Juana

    Two exploratory studies examined Peru's elementary reading programs. The first looked at reading curriculum, texts, and teachers; the second, at students' reading ability. In Peru performance goals are not specified for each grade by the reading curriculum nor are specific instructional materials recommended (reading is not considered a separate…

  7. 32 CFR 518.9 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reading room. 518.9 Section 518.9 National... RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM FOIA Reading Rooms § 518.9 Reading room. (a) Reading room... the records described, DA may elect to place other records in their reading room, and also make...

  8. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  9. How to Improve English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓珊

    2013-01-01

      Comprehension is the base of reading and also the purpose of reading. Improving reading comprehension is one of the most important tasks in English study. Only mastering English basic knowledge, accumulating rich vocabulary and using proper reading strategies and techniques can reading comprehension be improved effectively.

  10. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  11. How to Teach English Reading Effectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Mozhu

    2016-01-01

    The level of the reading comprehension has a direct impact on one's ability about listening, speaking, reading and writing. Therefore, English reading plays a vital role in today's English teaching. This paper mainly introduces the reason why reading is important and some strategies for reading comprehension.

  12. The Effects of Reading Fluency on Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugel, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine the effects reading fluency has on reading comprehension. The analysis was done through a synthesis of recent literature on the topic. Research shows improvement in reading fluency does improve reading comprehension and suggests reading development similarities for all readers. This consistency in…

  13. Extra Stimulation in Intermediate Grade Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, George E.

    Three types of extra stimulation in reading are discussed: extra teacher time devoted to teaching reading, extra student time devoted to practice in reading, and extra motivation and reinforcement leading to greater amounts of student reading outside the school. Problems are created (1) when teaching time spent on reading is increased in the…

  14. Accelerated Reader and Young People's Reading in 2013: Findings from the National Literacy Trust's 2013 Annual Literacy Survey on Reading Enjoyment, Reading Behaviour outside Class and Reading Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated Reader (AR) is a tool for monitoring and managing independent reading practice. Although a wealth of data is routinely collected about children's reading skills as part of the AR tool, no information is collected on the "softer" reading outcomes, such as reading enjoyment and attitudes towards reading. The National Literacy…

  15. Readings in Formal Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ‘Formal epistemology’ is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy,the roots of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science, and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty......, rationality, deliberation, decision, strategy, action and agent interaction – and it does so using methods from logic, probability, computability, decision, and game theory. This volume presents 42 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy...... and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five basic subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory, Interactive Epistemology and Logics of Knowledge and Belief. The volume also includes a thorough index and suggestions for further reading...

  16. READING, COMPUTER AND HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Baranov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide use of computer information media in education process and children and teenagers' leisure activities set new tasks for hygienists and physiologists in assessment of the influence of computer lessons on health, as well as in substantiation and development of ways of formatting and presenting materials from the viewpoint of legibility and regulation of teaching modes. In this work, data related to the study of response of students' optical system depending on the ways of presenting the information (on a screen or on a paper medium, assessment of functional status of children and teenagers after computer classes, are presented, analysis and assessment of modern electronic tutorials are given.Key words: children, reading, computers, electronic tutorials, health.

  17. How my brain stopped reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Due to a medical condition I temporarily lost the ability to read and write. As an academic researcher specialised in understanding the reading process, I can benefit from this terrible experience by explaining – on a scientific level – what happened to me, and hence draw the lines to existing re...

  18. The Case for Slow Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To truly comprehend and appreciate texts, we need to read more slowly. Schools should provide a counterbalance to our increasingly hectic digital environment, where so many of us read and write in abbreviated messages and through clicks of the mouse. To help students reclaim the acoustical properties of written language and appreciate the passages…

  19. Analyzing Classroom Instruction in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, William L.

    A method for analyzing instructional techniques employed during reading group instruction is reported, and the characteristics of the effective reading teacher are discussed. Teaching effectiveness is divided into two categories: (1) how the teacher acts and interacts with children on a personal level and (2) how the teacher performs his…

  20. Implicit Speech in Reading, Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Stuart T.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    When Ss read single words or 2-digit numbers aloud, the latency from stimulus onset until the beginning of overt vocalization increases as the number of syllables to be pronounced is increased. Two interpretations of this reading pronounciation latency effect are considered. (Author)