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Sample records for twelve phenolics studied

  1. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

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    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  2. Commercializing Government-sponsored Innovations: Twelve Successful Buildings Case Studies

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    Brown, M. A.; Berry, L. G.; Goel, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies.

  3. Commercializing government-sponsored innovations: Twelve successful buildings case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Goel, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies. 27 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Phenolic Compounds, Volatiles, and Sensory Characteristics of Twelve Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars Grown in Turkey.

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    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the phenolic, anthocyanin, and volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of 12 cultivars of sweet cherries including cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat. Eight individual phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. Among these cherries, cvs. Bing, Durona di Cesena, and Lambert contained higher levels of total individual phenolic compounds than the other cultivars. Six anthocyanins were detected in cherries and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was principal and it was the highest level in cv. Bing. The major volatiles found were 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzylalcohol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde. Sensory evaluation of the cherries showed that cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, and Summit have higher textural and flavor scores than others. It was concluded that the same compounds for phenolic or volatiles profiles of sweet cherries were similar in qualitative; however, quantitative differences were observed in these cultivars.

  5. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking

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    Maria Neve Ombra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical by 50% (EC50. The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  6. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking.

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    Ombra, Maria Neve; d'Acierno, Antonio; Nazzaro, Filomena; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pane, Catello; Maione, Mena; Fratianni, Florinda

    2016-01-01

    Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA) ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by 50% (EC50). The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  7. Anatomical studies on twelve clones of Camellia species with reference to their taxonomic significance

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    Rajanna L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies of leaf and stem of twelve clones of Camellia were investigated. Cross sections of the stem of all the clones exhibited a typical pattern of arrangement of tissues characteristics of woody plants. Two types of idioblastic sclereids were found in the medullary parenchyma of the taxa studied. While astrosclereids werepresent in 10 of the twelve clones, the vesciculose sclereids were found only in the four clones belonging to C. sinensis. Leaves of the clones show variations in the number of palisade layers. Astro sclereids, brachy sclereids, and dendritic forms were observed in the leaves, their distribution varying in the different clones. A few other micromorphological features are also recorded. Our study forms a basis for answering uncertainties in taxonomic revision in the genus Camellia.

  8. Studies of the Formation of Smoke Phenols

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    Dyakonov AJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes involving or forming phenols during combustion of tobacco were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry (TG, mass-spectrometry (MS, X-band electron spin resonance (ESR, and thermocouple (TCT and infrared thermography (IRT methods. Thermochemical properties of polyhydroxybenzenes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and carbohydrates were investigated both individually and when the compounds were embedded in combustible or non-combustible matrices; the compounds were studied in an O2/He atmosphere at temperatures up to 800 °C, with a heating rate up to 60 °C/min. ESR of the mainstream smoke ‘tar’ was performed at temperatures down to -253 °C. The radicals found differed in their magnetic behavior depending on the material studied; this difference was attributed to the presence of relatively unstable isolated semiquinone and/or PAH-type molecules and the more stable quinone-hydroquinone-semiquinone redox complex.

  9. Kinetic study for aerobic treatment of phenolic wastewater

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    Athar Hussain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional physico-chemical treatment of industrial wastewater containing compounds such as phenol encounters difficulties due to low substrate level, additional use of chemicals, and generation of hazardous by products along with increased process cost. Biological treatment appears to be a solution for treatment of such industrial wastewater. In the present study an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR has been used for treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol. The effects of increasing phenol concentrations on the sludge characteristic have been also investigated. It was observed that, activity of activated sludge for acclimatization of phenol decreases at concentrations above 2000 mg L−1. It may be attributed to toxicity of phenol to active biomass at higher concentrations. Kinetics of phenol degradation has also been studied using Haldane model.

  10. Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study.

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    Bergström, Jessica; Miller, Michael; Horneij, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A workplace's design can have various positive or negative effects on the employees and since the 1970s the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices have been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived health, work environment and self-estimated productivity one month before and at three, six and twelve months after relocation from individual offices to an open-plan office environment. Employees from three departments within the same company group and who worked with relatively similar tasks and who were planned to be relocated from private offices to open-plan offices were invited to participate. Questionnaires comprising items from The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale, The Work Experience Measurement Scale, the questionnaire by Brennan et al. about perceived performance and one question from the Work Ability Index were sent to participants one month before relocation (baseline) to open-plan offices and then at three, six and twelve months after relocation. At baseline, 82 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 85%. At the follow-ups 77-79 questionnaires were sent out and the response-rate was 70%-81%. At follow-ups, perceived health, job satisfaction and performance had generally deteriorated. The results of the study indicate that employees' perception of health, work environment and performance decreased during a 12 month period following relocation from individual offices to open-plan offices.

  11. Degradation study of phenol on pillared clay catalyst

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    Julio Andrés Cardona Castaño

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The pillaring of a Colombian natural clay (bentonite with the Al-Fe systems and the application for catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO using phenol as target compound at 291,15 K has been studied. The solid was characterized by DRX and specific surface area using the BET model. The experiments were conducted at temperature of 291,15 K, atmospheric pressure, phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, catalyst concentration of  0,5 and  2,75 g/L and hydrogen peroxide concentration of  0,0265 and 0,053 M in semibatch and 7,4x10-3 and 0,0148 M in batch, equivalent to 50 and 100% of the stoichiometric amount needed for complete phenol degradation, respectively.Both processes were compared in terms of degradation of phenol, degradation of H2O2 and aromatic intermediates and short chain acids. It was determined that the rate of degradation of phenol and aromatic intermediates is slower in the semibatch process. However, more efficient hydrogen peroxide in the semibatch process was presented use favoring reaction with organic species and reducing competitive reactions.

  12. Risk factors for chronic noncontiguous diseases: Twelve-week prospective study

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    Lapčević Mirjana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors (RF of chronic noncontiguous diseases (CND are mutual and cannot be observed individually since there is an inter-reaction (interaction of RF in various combinations, what makes so-called personality risk profile for development of particular disease. Almost all CND belong to the group of preventable diseases, because their course may be influenced and changed through RF modification and reduction. Bad habits also contribute to CND incidence. CND prevention is the first priority of primary health care physicians. The main objective of our study was to detect RF in patients during everyday activities of general practitioner, to estimate the risk of CND within the existing RF combination, to show the results of 12-week active monitoring of population with RF of CND, and with already present CND; while the secondary goal was to assess how much population is interested in active collaboration as well as to evaluate the qualification of general medicine teams for work based on defined methodology. The study was multicentric, prospective and interventional. The study included 2086 subjects, aged from 25-64 years, and it was carried out in 17 health centers throughout Serbia in the period January-April 2002. The subjects were selected by method of open clinical experiment. Thereafter, 12-week medical intervention was initiated involving non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment. The first control was scheduled after 8, and the second after 12 months of intervention. Congruence χ2 test, ANOVA for repeated measurements and Logistic regression were used for statistical data processing. Out of a total of 2086 subjects, the following proportion of them reported specific diagnosis in their medical histories: 77% of them reported arterial hypertension (HTA, 68% - increased body mass (BMI>27Kg/m2, 66% - hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP, 34% - diabetes mellitus (DM, 56% - inadequate physical activity (PA, and 23% - cigarette smoking (CS. On the

  13. Experiencing a constructivist museum exhibit: A case study of twelve children and their families

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    Hill, Martha Anne Leech

    2002-04-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Research Council have called for the creation of a scientifically literate populace and introduced science standards and guidelines to direct this process. Science education in traditional school settings plays a key role in reaching this goal, but individuals over their lifetimes will have more exposure to science ideas through informal science experiences such as visits to museums and through diverse media sources. The purpose of this study was to explore the role museums play in this journey to science literacy. This qualitative collective case study examined the experience of 12 children and their families in a children's museum as they interacted with an exhibit designed along the tenets of constructivist theory to introduce children to ideas of science. Twelve children and their families were videotaped interacting with a model of a watershed that included the stream, surrounding land, gravel, and dam building and erosion abatement manipulatives. Children were interviewed to ascertain their stream-related ideas and conceptual understanding prior to and after using the exhibit. Parents completed demographic and post-exhibit experience questionnaires. Two museum staff members who played key roles in the development of the exhibit and surrounding gallery were also interviewed. Individual and cross-case analyses were done to describe the experience of each child and family, and to elucidate the commonalities of these experiences to describe the phenomenon of using a constructivist-based science exhibit. Results of the study indicate (1) the type of experience children and families had at the exhibit depended on child and parent interactions and roles each assumed, and (2) experience with the exhibit encouraged children to think more deeply about water topics, past experiences, and ideas they had previously constructed. Implications of this research include (1) parents should engage children

  14. [Risk factors for chronic noncontiguous diseases: twelve-week prospective study].

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    Lapcević, Mirjana; Vuković, Mira

    2004-01-01

    Risk factors (RF) of chronic noncontiguous diseases (CND) are mutual and cannot be observed individually since there is an inter-reaction (interaction of RF in various combinations), what makes so-called personality risk profile for development of particular disease. Almost all CND belong to the group of preventable diseases, because their course may be influenced and changed through RF modification and reduction. Bad habits also contribute to CND incidence. CND prevention is the first priority of primary health care physicians. The main objective of our study was to detect RF in patients during everyday activities of general practitioner, to estimate the risk of CND within the existing RF combination, to show the results of 12-week active monitoring of population with RF of CND, and with already present CND; while the secondary goal was to assess how much population is interested in active collaboration as well as to evaluate the qualification of general medicine teams for work based on defined methodology. The study was multicentric, prospective and interventional. The study included 2086 subjects, aged from 25-64 years, and it was carried out in 17 health centers throughout Serbia in the period January-April 2002. The subjects were selected by method of open clinical experiment. Thereafter, 12-week medical intervention was initiated involving non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment. The first control was scheduled after 8, and the second after 12 months of intervention. Congruence chi2 test, ANOVA for repeated measurements and Logistic regression were used for statistical data processing. Out of a total of 2086 subjects, the following proportion of them reported specific diagnosis in their medical histories: 77% of them reported arterial hypertension (HTA), 68%--increased body mass (BMI > or = 27Kg/m2), 66%--hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP), 34%--diabetes mellitus (DM), 56%--inadequate physical activity (PA), and 23%--cigarette smoking (CS). On the basis of

  15. Computational study of the structural and vibrational properties of ten and twelve vertex closo-carboranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, A.; Deleuze, M.S.; Francois, J.-P

    2003-01-01

    Calculations using ab initio Hartree-Fock and Density Functional theories, the latter employing the B3LYP functional, in combination with a number of large standard basis sets ranging from 6-31G** to cc-pVDZ, have been performed on a series of ten and twelve vertex closo-carborane isomer species. Results obtained for optimized structural parameters and molecular properties are presented for 1,2-, 1,6- and 1,10-C{sub 2}B{sub 8}H{sub 10} and 1,2-, 1,7- and 1,12-C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12} and compared, where possible, with both earlier theoretical data and experiment. Irrespective of the model chemistry chosen, the para-isomer in each class of carborane cluster is found to be the most stable species, corresponding to a structure in which the cage carbon atoms are positioned at diametrically opposed ends of the respective polyhedron. Boron-hydrogen and carbon-hydrogen bond lengths are found to change little on going from isomers of one particular cage size to another, supporting analogous conclusions previously established for small closo-carborane cages possessing five, six and seven vertices. The calculated vibrational spectra of the isomers of both decacarborane and dodecacarborane are seen to be similar to each other and reflect a high degree of rigidity within each cluster. Key polyhedral skeletal breathing modes along with characteristic boron-hydrogen and carbon-hydrogen stretching frequencies are identified in the spectra and compared with experiment. Thermochemical data relating to each species are also analyzed.

  16. Reaction of formaldehyde with phenols: a computational chemistry study.

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    Tohru Mitsunaga; Anthony H. Conner; Charles G. Hill

    2001-01-01

    Phenolic resins are important adhesives used by the forest products industry. The phenolic compounds in these resins are derived primarily from petrochemical sources. Alternate sources of phenolic compounds include tannins, lignins, biomass pyrolysis products, and coal gasification products. Because of variations in their chemical structures, the reactivities of these...

  17. Preparation of a porous clay heterostructure and study of its adsorption capacity of phenol and chlorinated phenols from aqueous solutions.

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    Arellano-Cárdenas, Sofía; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; López-Cortez, Ma del Socorro

    2008-01-01

    A porous clay heterostructure (PCH) from a Mexican clay was prepared and characterized, and its aqueous phenol and dichlorophenols (DCPs) adsorption capacities were studied using a batch equilibrium technique. The PCH displayed a surface area of 305.5 m2/g, 37.2 A average porous diameter, and a basal space of 23.2 A. The adsorption capacity shown by the PCH for both phenol and DCPs from water (14.5 mg/g for phenol; 48.7 mg/g for 3,4-DCP; and 45.5 mg/g for 2,5-DCP) suggests that the PCH has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics, as a result of the presence of silanol and siloxane groups formed during the pillaring and calcination of the PCH. The values of maximal adsorption capacity for dichlorophenols were higher than those reported for aluminum pillared clays and some inorgano-organo clays and comparable with some ionic exchange resins.

  18. QSBR study of substituted phenols and benzoic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The biodegradability of 30 substituted phenols and benzoic acids was determined by BOD technique. The molecular weight (MW), heat of formation (Hf) and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO) of the studied compounds were calculated by the quantum chemical method MOPAC6.0-AM1. The quantitative structure-biodegradability relationships (QSBRs) were developed by the linear regression method and neural network approach, respectively. It has been shown that the neural network method is able to provide a superior fit to the training set data and test se t data and produce a lower prediction error than the linear regression method.

  19. STUDY OF COMPOSITION, ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT OF HERBAL PRODUCTS

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    Tanuja Srivastava

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was focused on the formation of novel herbal product from wild herbs and various dry fruits. Herbs are of high medicinal value and dry fruits have antioxidant activities. The ingredients used in were Withania somnifera, Piper longum, Asparagus racemosus, Pueraria tuberose, Elettaria cardamomum, Pistacia vera, Citrullus vulagaris, Cucumis melo and Prunus dulcis. These ingredients were tested for proximate analysis for moisture, ash, fat, fiber, proteins and carbohydrates. Apart from these they were also tested individually for their antioxidant activity DPPH method and total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Phenolic contentwas found to be highest in Piper lognum and antioxidant activity in Citrullus vulgaris. These tests were also done on the final product from these compounds. The total fat content and moisture were found to be higher in the product. The final product can be effective as antioxidant, fertility enhancer, anticancer, providing immunityin children and control of cardiovascular problems. The product is of high and effective food value. However, physiochemical studies are required to establish the nature and type of compounds responsible for the bioactivity of the herbal product.

  20. Stage of Ego Development and Leadership Capacity: A Study of Twelve Illinois School District Superintendents

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    Nolan, Christina Kay

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods research study investigated stage of ego development and "leadership capacity" in a purposeful, stratified sample of 12 Illinois school district superintendents. The purpose of this study was to determine the following: 1) are postconventional stages of ego development evidenced in school superintendents; 2) do the…

  1. Cytogenetic studies in twelve patients with primary myelofibrosis and myeloid metaplasia.

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    Smadja, N; Krulik, M; de Gramont, A; Sirinelli, A; Brissaud, P; Dray, C; Audebert, A A; Debray, J

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome studies on bone marrow and/or peripheral blood cells without phytohemagglutinin were performed on 12 patients with primary myelofibrosis with myeloid meta-plasia (PMMM) between 1980 and 1984. Abnormal clones were found in six patients (50%). In five cases the abnormal clone involved the long arm of chromosome #7, two of which also had partial trisomy of chromosome #1 and trisomy of 9. Additional abnormalities involving chromosomes #3, #5, #11, #13, #15, and #21 were each found once. Review of the literature showed few studies on the cytogenetics of PMMM. No specific chromosomal pattern can be established; however, abnormalities described are nonrandom.

  2. Twelve Factors Leading to Fundamental Pedagogical Change in a Primary School: A Case-Study

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    Norris, Cathleen; Soloway, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    A school can change. In this case study, the authors describe the 12 factors they have identified as being key in the transformation of the core pedagogical practices at Nan Chiau Primary School, Singapore, from direct instruction to inquiry, from a 20th to a 21st century school. While the adoption of 1:1 mobile devices played a catalytic role in…

  3. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Portugal: a multicentric retrospective study in twelve Portuguese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jorge; Alves, Carlos C; Neto, Rosa; Arroja, Bruno; Vidal, Rosário; Macedo, Guilherme; Nunes, Ana A; Rego, Ana; Carvalho, Joao; Banhudo, António; Curado, António; Lima, Paula N; Baranda, Joao; Ribeiro, Filipe

    2012-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is associated with important mortality. More information is needed in order to improve NVUGIB management. The aims of this study were: (a) characterizing Portuguese patients and clinical approaches used in NVUGIB, (b) comparing management used in Portugal with management globally used in European countries, (c) identify factors associated with management options, and (d) identify factors associated with adverse outcome. ENERGiB was an observational, retrospective cohort study, on NVUGIB with endoscopic evaluation, carried across Europe. This study focuses on Portuguese patients of the ENERGiB study. Patients were managed according to routine care. Later, data were collected from files. Multivariate/univariate analyses were conducted on predictive factors of poor outcome and clinical decisions. Patients (n=404) were mostly men (66.8%), mean age 68, with co-morbidities (72%), frequently on NSAIDs/aspirin. Most were assisted by general medical (57.8%) or surgical team (20.6%), only 19.4% by gastroenterology/GI-bleeding team. PPI was largely used. Gastric/duodenal ulcers, erosive gastritis and esophagitis were the main bleeding causes. 10% had bleeding persistence/recurrence. Death occurred in 24 patients, 20 from a non-bleeding related cause. Poor outcomes were related with age >65, co-morbidities, fresh blood haematemesis, shock/syncope, bleeding through previous nasogastric tube, massive fluid replacement or transfusions besides erythrocytes. This study contributed to characterization of Portuguese patients and NVUGIB episodes in real clinical setting and identified factors associated with a poor outcome. It also identified differences, especially in the organization of GI bleeding teams, which might help us to improve the management of these patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  4. Introducing medical educators to qualitative study design: Twelve tips from inception to completion.

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    Ramani, Subha; Mann, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Many research questions posed by medical educators could be answered more effectively by the application of carefully selected qualitative research design than traditional quantitative research methods. Indeed, in many cases using mixed methods research would expand the scope of a study and yield meaningful qualitative data in addition to quantitative data. Qualitative research seeks to understand people's experiences, the meanings they assign to those experiences, the psychosocial aspects of and language used in interpersonal interactions, and the factors that influence perspectives and interactions. This understanding is vital in exploring learning and teaching styles, learners' experiences and perceptions, implementing and studying the impact of educational interventions and faculty development. This article aims to advance medical educators' understanding and application of qualitative research principles in educational scholarship by summarising and consolidating the fundamental principles of research in medical education described in recent AMEE guides. The 12 tips below offer a systematic, yet practical approach to designing a qualitative research study, particularly targeting educators new to this arena.

  5. Phenol Removal by a Novel Non-Photo-Dependent Semiconductor Catalyst in a Pilot-Scaled Study: Effects of Initial Phenol Concentration, Light, and Catalyst Loading

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    Xiao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-photo-dependent semiconductor catalyst (CT was employed to degrade phenol in the present pilot-scaled study. Effect of operational parameters such as phenol initial concentration, light area, and catalyst loading on phenol degradation, was compared between CT catalyst and the conventional photocatalyst titanium dioxide. CT catalyst excelled titanium dioxide in treating and mineralizing low-level phenol, under both mild UV radiation and thunder conditions of nonphoton. The result suggested that CT catalyst could be applied in circumstances when light is not easily accessible in pollutant-carrying media (e.g., particles, cloudy water, and colored water.

  6. Twelve automated thresholding methods for segmentation of PET images: a phantom study.

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    Prieto, Elena; Lecumberri, Pablo; Pagola, Miguel; Gómez, Marisol; Bilbao, Izaskun; Ecay, Margarita; Peñuelas, Iván; Martí-Climent, Josep M

    2012-06-21

    Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical (18)F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools.

  7. Twelve possible strategies for enhancing interprofessional socialisation in higher education: Findings from an interpretive phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Karen; Dixon, Kathryn; Warner, Paul; Stanley, David

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interprofessional socialisation experiences of health professional educators (HPEs) across five health science faculties in Perth, Australia. Evidence supported the importance of educators teaching and learning together, although there was minimal evidence with regard to the type of support HPEs received or required in order to socialise interprofessionally within higher education. Interview participants comprised 26 HPEs from various health-related professions across Western Australia. An interpretive phenomenological framework was used to discover the phenomena of interprofessional socialisation. The examination of the data was undertaken via qualitative content analysis with the aid of NVivo 10 software. Content coding led to the development of categories, sub-categories, and then themes. Five themes were identified; however, only one of these themes, "interprofessional socialisation strategies within higher education," is explored within this article. Based on the data within this theme, 12 possible socialisation strategies (formal and informal) were identified for HPEs, which could be implemented within health science faculties, taking into account the organisation's culture and strategic intent towards interprofessional collaboration and education.

  8. Study of solar photo-Fenton system applied to removal of phenol from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Layla F A; da Fonseca, Fabiana Valéria; Yokoyama, Lidia; Teixeira, Luiz Alberto Cesar

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of a Fenton's reaction in a falling film solar reactor (FFR), as a possible advanced oxidation process for the mineralization of the organic compound phenol in water. Preliminary tests were carried out to evaluate phenol degradation by photolysis and to select the optimal residence time in which to carry out the process using a solar photo-Fenton system. The variables studied were the initial phenol concentration (100 to 300 mg L(-1)), the [Phenol]:[H2O2] mass ratio (1.0 to 2.0) and the [H2O2]/[Fe2+] molar ratio (5 to 10). Phenol degradation of 99% and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of 97% were obtained under the following reaction conditions: phenol concentration=200 mg L(-1), mass ratio [Phenol]:[H2O2]=1.5 and molar ratio [H2O2]/[Fe2+]=7.5. Overall mineralization was achieved using the solar photo-Fenton process to destroy phenol and COD. The solar photo-Fenton process using a FFR appears to be a viable method for removing phenols in wastewaters on an industrial scale.

  9. Etodolac, aspirin, and placebo in patients with degenerative joint disease: a twelve-week study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andelman, S Y

    1983-01-01

    Thirty patients from a private practice were enrolled in an investigation designed to compare the efficacy and safety of a new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, etodolac, with those of aspirin and placebo in ameliorating pain, inflammation, and functional deficits associated with degenerative joint disease. The 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group study was divided into drug-titration and maintenance periods and was preceded by a washout period of up to two weeks. There were ten patients in each of the three treatment groups. The mean daily maintenance dosages of etodolac and aspirin were 384 mg and 4,322 mg, respectively. Etodolac was significantly (less than or equal to 0.05) more effective than placebo according to 11 of 15 clinical indexes of efficacy: three assessments of the range of motion of the knee joint, and one each of pain while standing, pain while walking, pain while climbing stairs, the average of pains while bearing weight, pain at night, joint tenderness, patient's self-evaluation, and the time required to walk 50 feet. Aspirin was significantly more effective than placebo in only three assessments: two of the range of motion of the knee joint and one of pain while standing. One patient taking etodolac, three patients taking aspirin, and six patients taking placebo withdrew from the trial because of insufficient therapeutic response. There were four withdrawals due to adverse effects, two in the aspirin group and two in the placebo group. Adverse effects (tinnitus and hearing loss) leading to withdrawal of one of the two aspirin patients were probably due to drug administration. No significant side effects were reported by patients in the etodolac group.

  10. Comparative Studies on Simultaneous Biodegradation of Phenol and Cyanide Using Different Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Removal of pollutants like phenol and cyanide is a serious environmental concern. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of phenol and cyanide have been carried out to overcome the environmental problems. This study provides an overview on the biological degradation of phenol and cyanide by isolated strain S.odorifera. For comparison three strains namely, A. chroococuum, E. coli and P. putida were also used for the degradation of phenol and cyanide. In this study, the effect of initial concentration of phenol and cyanide on their removal and biomass concentration was studied. It was observed that amongst these four bacteria percentage removal of phenol and cyanide, was found to be maximum for S. odorifera. The maximum tolerance level of phenol and cyanide for S. odorifera was found to be 1500 mg/l and 150 mg/l respectively. It was also concluded from this study that, the bacteria S. odorifera was capable simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide i.e., 88.26% and 99.85% respectively.

  11. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel. The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v. The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively.

  12. Olive oil and health effects: from epidemiological studies to the molecular mechanisms of phenolic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Marie Josèphe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the Mediterranean diet which is recognized to contribute to its health benefits. Recent prospective studies point towards a protective effect from an olive oil-rich diet in relation to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and an improvement of cardiometabolic markers such as blood pressure, glycaemia and dyslipidemia, notably by reducing LDL cholesterol and LDL oxidation. The role of minor phenolic fraction was evidenced in intervention trials where lipid profiles showed greater improvement in participants receiving olive oil with higher phenolic content. The phenolic fraction of olive oil is composed of simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, phenolic secoiridoids (oleuropein aglycone, lignans (pinoresinol, flavonoids and hydroxyisochromans. All these compounds have diverse biological activities that are described in the present review, supporting the protective effects of olive oil against degenerative diseases found in large cohorts monitored in Southern European countries.

  13. Improving Comparability Of Survey Results Through Ex-Post Harmonisation A Case Study With Twelve European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli

    that reflect behavioural differences rather than methodological ones, in the context of the COST Action SHANTI (Survey Harmonisation with New Technologies Improvement, TUD0804) an ex-post harmonisation approach was developed using microdata from twelve European NTS’s. The paper presents both concept and basic...

  14. 'Moringa oleifera: study of phenolics and glucosinolates by mass spectrometry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Maksoud, Salwa A; Natella, Fausta; Montoro, Paola; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Foddai, Marzia; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Chessa, Mario; Pintore, Giorgio

    2014-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is a medicinal plant and an excellent dietary source of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and health-promoting phytochemicals (phenolic compounds, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates). Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates are known to possess anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant effects and have attracted great interest from both toxicological and pharmacological points of view, as they are able to induce phase 2 detoxification enzymes and to inhibit phase 1 activation enzymes. Phenolic compounds possess antioxidant properties and may exert a preventative effect in regards to the development of chronic degenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to assess the profile and the level of bioactive compounds in all parts of M. oleifera seedlings, by using different MS approaches. First, flow injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) fingerprinting techniques and chemometrics (PCA) were used to achieve the characterization of the different plant's organs in terms of profile of phenolic compounds and glucosinolates. Second, LC-MS and LC-MS/MS qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the identification and/or determination of phenolics and glucosinolates in M. oleifera.

  15. Electron Transfer Studies of Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Biologically Important Phenolic Acids and Tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, Angusamy; Ramdass, Arumugam; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-03-01

    The ruthenium(II) complexes having 2,2'-bipyridine and phenanthroline derivatives are synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of these complexes at pH 12.5 are studied. The electron transfer reaction of biologically important phenolic acids and tyrosine are studied using absorption, emission and transient absorption spectral techniques. Semiclassical theory is applied to calculate the rate of electron transfer between ruthenium(II) complexes and biologically important phenolic acids.

  16. Behavior of hydrophobic ionic liquids as liquid membranes on phenol removal: Experimental study and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

    2014-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapor pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. Three ionic liquids with high hydrophobicity were used and their phenol removal efficiency, membrane stability and membrane loss were studied. Besides that, the effects of several parameters, namely feed phase pH, feed concentration, NaOH concentration and stirring speeds on the performance of best ionic liquid membrane were also evaluated. Lastly, an optimization study on bulk ionic liquid membrane was conducted and the maximum phenol removal efficiency was compared with the organic liquid membranes. The preliminary study shows that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 96.21% and 98.10%, respectively can be achieved by ionic liquid memb...

  17. Study of Quantitative Structure-retention Relationship for Substituted Phenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Quantum chemistry parameters of 20 substituted phenols were computed at the 631G* level using DFT method. Based on theoretical linear solvation energy theory, the correlation equation that can predict the retention index (RI) was developed using structural parameters of 15 substituted phenols with experimental data as theoretical descriptors, and the conventional correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.9885. The correlation degree of each independent variable in the model was validated by variance inflation factors (VIF) and t-test. Cross-validation indicates that the model possesses high predicting ability. The correlation and predicting ability of the RI equation are both more advantageous than those based on orientating group index, connectivity index, and topological index method. In addition, RI values of 5 compounds without experimental data were predicted with the model.

  18. Highly concentrated phenolic wastewater treatment by heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysis: mechanism study by FTIR-ATR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araña, J; Tello-Rendón, E; Doña-Rodríguez, J M; Campo, C V; Herrera-Melidán, J A; González-Díaz; Pérez-Peña, J

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of high phenol concentrations (1 g/L) in water solutions by TiO2 photocatalysis and the photo-Fenton reaction has been studied. From the obtained data it may be suggested that degradation of phenol by TiO2-UV takes place onto the catalyst surface by means of peroxo-compounds formation. At low phenol concentrations other mechanism, the insertion of OH. radicals, may be favored. On the other hand, highly concentrated phenol aqueous solutions treatment by the photo-Fenton reaction gives rise to the formation of polyphenolic polymers. These seem to reduce the process rate. Degradation intermediates have been identified by HPLC and FTIR. The FTIR study of the catalyst surface has shown infrared bands attributable to different chemisorbed peroxo-compounds, formates, ortho-formates and carboxylates that can inactivate the catalyst.

  19. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  20. Phenol oxidation by mushroom waste extracts: a kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatto, Gisele; Lodi, Alessandra; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Converti, Attilio; da Silva, Regildo Marcio Gonçalves; Palma, Mauri Sérgio Alves

    2013-09-01

    Tyrosinase activity of mushroom extracts was checked for their ability to degrade phenol. Phenol oxidation kinetics was investigated varying temperature from 10 to 60 °C and the initial values of pH, enzyme activity and phenol concentration in the ranges 4.5-8.5, 1.43-9.54 U/mL and 50-600 mg/L, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters of phenol oxidation and tyrosinase reversible inactivation were estimated. Tyrosinase thermostability was also investigated through residual activity tests after extracts exposition at 20-50 °C, whose results allowed exploring the thermodynamics of enzyme irreversible thermoinactivation. This study is the first attempt to separate the effects of reversible unfolding and irreversible denaturation of tyrosinase on its activity. Extracts were finally tested on a real oil mill wastewater.

  1. Determination of some phenolic compounds in Crocus sativus L. corms and its antioxidant activities study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Esmaeili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that phenolic compounds are constituents of many plants. In this study, the total phenolics content in Crocus sativus L. corms in dormancy and waking stages were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS after silylation by N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl trifluroacetamide (MSTFA + %1 trimethyl iodosilane (TMIS. Numerous compounds were detected and 11 compounds were identified. The highest phenolics content in waking corms was observed for gentisic acid (5.693 ± 0.057 μg/g and the lowest for gallic acid (0.416 ± 0.006 μg/g; also these two phenolic compounds are the highest (0.929 ± 0.015 μg/g and lowest (0.017 ± 0.001 μg/g phenolics in dormant corms, respectively. The results from quantization and GC-MS analysis showed a high concentration of phenolic compounds in waking corms than the dormant stage. Furthermore, the radical scavenging activities of saffron corms were studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH test and EC 50 values were determined about 2055 ppm and 8274 ppm for waking and dormant corms, respectively.

  2. Behind the reactivity of lactones: a computational and spectroscopic study of phenol·γ-butyrolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Iker; González, Jorge; Millán, Judith; Castaño, Fernando; Fernández, José A

    2014-04-10

    In this work, the intermolecular interaction between phenol and γ-butyrolactone (GBL) has been studied by a combination of spectroscopic and computational techniques. The electronic and vibrational transitions of phenol · GBL were measured in a supersonic jet expansion by resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) and ion dip IR (IDIR) spectroscopy. The results obtained were compared with calculations carried out with both M06-2X and MP2 molecular orbital methods in order to characterize the intermolecular interactions. The singly detected conformer is stabilized by a relatively strong hydrogen bond in which phenol acts as a proton donor to the carbonyl group of GBL. The phenol · GBL2 cluster has also been studied, finding up to three populated conformers. Nevertheless, in the three species, the main interaction between the phenolic hydroxyl group and the GBL's carbonyl group remains similar to that of phenol · GBL. Furthermore, the C ═ O · · · H interaction is reinforced.

  3. A Comparative Study of the Phenolic and Technological Maturities of Red Grapes Grown in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajha, Hiba N.; El Darra, Nada; El Kantar, Sally; Hobaika, Zeina; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Grape harvest date is determined according to the technological and phenolic maturities. These parameters were calculated for different red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Franc) over four years (2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011) (642 samples). Titratable acidity and sugar content of the grapes were used to determine the technological maturity, whereas Glories (1 and 2) and ITV (Institut Technique de la Vigne et du Vin) methods were used to monitor their phenolic maturity. The ITV method allows the monitoring of phenolic maturity by the quantification of total polyphenol index and anthocyanins, while the Glories method enables the quantitative evolution of extractable anthocyanins and tannins of the grapes. A correlation was shown between the harvest dates obtained by both ITV and Glories (R2 = 0.7 – 0.93). Phenolic maturity of grapes can, therefore, be optimized by the application of both ITV and Glories. Similarly, a correlation was observed between technological and phenolic harvest dates. The effect of climate on the phenolic content of grapes was also studied. The highest temperatures (up to 25 °C) accompanied by the lowest rainfall (null value), induced the maximal concentration of polyphenols in grapes. Thermal and water stresses were also shown to enhance the grapes’ polyphenolic production. PMID:28134785

  4. Adsorption Studies of Phenol Using Thermally and Chemically Modified Rice Husk as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *M. M. Yousaf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Phenols are hazardous substances and some are supposed to have carcinogenic activity. Thus it is necessary to remove Phenolics and other aromatics from the aqueous ecosystem. Traditional processes for the removal of Phenolics compounds are extraction, adsorption on granulated activated carbon, steam distillation, chemical and bacterial techniques. Literature survey show a number of methods like oxidation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical oxidation and adsorption. Phenol removal by process like, adsorption is the best method of choice as it can remove most of phenols in simple and easy way. In recent past; agricultural by-products such as, maize cob, date stone, apricot Stones, rice bran, and bagass pith have been extensively studied and used as adsorbents for the adsorption of hazardous substances from wastewater. In the present study we tried modified rice husks as potential adsorbents for the removal of Phenol from aqueous system. Batch mode studies were carried out. Isotherm data was generated and fitted in Freundlich and Langmuir equation to explain the phenomenon of adsorption. The adsorption capacities based on Langmuir model (Qm of the 3 adsorbents were found to be 0.81 for raw husk (RH, 0.395 for the Grafted (G and 2.306 mg/g for the Charred (C. The R2 values were 0.92 for raw husk, 0.97 for grafted and 0.91 for charred husk. Based on Freundlich model the adsorption capacities (K were 2.94, 2.29 and 1.25mg/g for Raw husk, grafted husk and charred husk. The R2 values were found to be 0.72, 0.95 and 0.83 for the raw husk, grafted husk and charred husk respectively. Our result showed that modified rice husks could be used as potential adsorbents for Phenol removal from aqueous system.

  5. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Compounds of Twelve Selected Potato Landrace Clones Grown in Southern Chile Capacidad Antioxidante y Compuestos Fenólicos totales de una Selección de Doce Variedades Tradicionales de Papa Cultivadas en la Región Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Ah-Hen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. provide a natural source of phytochemicals that help reduce the risk of diseases. However, there is a lack of information on the degree of variation of the antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of these native potatoes. Thus, the antioxidant activity (AA and total phenolic content (TPC of native Chilean potatoes were determined. Twelve potato landrace clones collected from established cultivations on Chiloe Island and Valdivia were selected. Total phenolic content and AA were compared with two commercial varieties, Shepody and Desirée. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and β-carotene bleaching was used to compare AA. The TPC varied in the peeled potato samples from 191 to 1864 mg 100 g-1 DM meanwhile these parameters varied from 345 to 2852 mg 100 g-1 DM in unpeeled samples. Antioxidant activity was higher in unpeeled potatoes, and was the highest in the unpeeled NG-6 or 'Bruja' native potato. The commercial var. Shepody showed pro-oxidant activity and had a relatively lower TPC. Results also indicated a higher concentration of total phenolics in the periderm of the colored native Chilean potatoes.Las papas (Solanum tuberosum L. coloreadas son una fuent natural de fitoquímicos que ayudan a reducir el riesgo de enfermedades. Sin embargo, existe una falta de información sobre el grado de variación de la actividad antioxidante y el contenido de polifenoles en estas papas nativas. Es así como la actividad antioxidante (AA y contenido de fenoles totales (TPC se determinaron en papas nativas chilenas. Doce genotipos de papa recogidos de cultivos establecidos en la Isla de Chiloé y en Valdivia fueron seleccionados, y se compararon TPC y AA con dos variedades comerciales, Shepody y Desirée. El TPC se determinó por el método de Folin-Ciocalteu, y el blanqueamiento de p-caroteno se utilizó para comparar la AA. El TPC varió en las muestras de papas sin piel desde

  6. Triply differential (e,2e) studies of phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT 78600-000 (Brazil); Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Câmpus Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, MG (Brazil); Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Ali, E.; Madison, D. H. [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Ning, C. G. [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Nixon, K. L.; Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, MG (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-09-28

    We have measured (e,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the electron-impact ionisation of phenol with coplanar asymmetrical kinematics for an incident electron energy of 250 eV. Experimental measurements of the angular distribution of the slow outgoing electrons at 20 eV are obtained when the incident electron scatters through angles of −5°, −10°, and −15°, respectively. The TDCS data are compared with calculations performed within the molecular 3-body distorted wave model. In this case, a mixed level of agreement, that was dependent on the kinematical condition being probed, was observed between the theoretical and experimental results in the binary peak region. The experimental intensity of the recoil features under all kinematical conditions was relatively small, but was still largely underestimated by the theoretical calculations.

  7. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of phenol degradation by a non-catalytic wet air oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Sébastien; Boutin, Olivier; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry; Malleret, Laure; Faucherand, Rémy; Viand, Alain

    2011-08-01

    This work is dedicated to an accurate evaluation of thermodynamic and kinetics aspects of phenol degradation using wet air oxidation process. Phenol is a well known polluting molecule and therefore it is important having data of its behaviour during this process. A view cell is used for the experimental study, with an internal volume of 150 mL, able to reach pressures up to 30 MPa and temperatures up to 350°C. Concerning the thermodynamic phase equilibria, experimental and modelling results are obtained for different binary systems (water/nitrogen, water/air) and ternary system (water/nitrogen/phenol). The best model is the Predictive Soave Redlich Kwong one. This information is necessary to predict the composition of the gas phase during the process. It is also important for an implementation in a process simulation. The second part is dedicated to kinetics evaluation of the degradation of phenol. Different compounds have been detected using GC coupled with a MS. A kinetic scheme is deduced, taking into account the evolution of phenol, hydroquinones, catechol, resorcinol and acetic acid. The kinetic parameters are calculated for this scheme. These data are important to evaluate the evolution of the concentration of the different polluting molecules during the process. A simplified kinetic scheme, which can be easily implemented in a process simulation, is also determined for the direct degradation of phenol into H(2)O and CO(2). The Arrhenius law data obtained for the phenol disappearance are the following: k=1.8×10(6)±3.9×10(5)M(-1)s(-1) (pre-exponential factor) and E(a)=77±8 kJ mol(-1) (activation energy).

  8. Strengthening organizational performance through accreditation research-a framework for twelve interrelated studies: the ACCREDIT project study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Service accreditation is a structured process of recognising and promoting performance and adherence to standards. Typically, accreditation agencies either receive standards from an authorized body or develop new and upgrade existing standards through research and expert views. They then apply standards, criteria and performance indicators, testing their effects, and monitoring compliance with them. The accreditation process has been widely adopted. The international investments in accreditation are considerable. However, reliable evidence of its efficiency or effectiveness in achieving organizational improvements is sparse and the value of accreditation in cost-benefit terms has yet to be demonstrated. Although some evidence suggests that accreditation promotes the improvement and standardization of care, there have been calls to strengthen its research base. In response, the ACCREDIT (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork project has been established to evaluate the effectiveness of Australian accreditation in achieving its goals. ACCREDIT is a partnership of key researchers, policymakers and agencies. Findings We present the framework for our studies in accreditation. Four specific aims of the ACCREDIT project, which will direct our findings, are to: (i evaluate current accreditation processes; (ii analyse the costs and benefits of accreditation; (iii improve future accreditation via evidence; and (iv develop and apply new standards of consumer involvement in accreditation. These will be addressed through 12 interrelated studies designed to examine specific issues identified as a high priority. Novel techniques, a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, and randomized designs relevant for health-care research have been developed. These methods allow us to circumvent the fragmented and incommensurate findings that can be generated in small

  9. Strengthening organizational performance through accreditation research-a framework for twelve interrelated studies: the ACCREDIT project study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Westbrook, Johanna; Johnston, Brian; Clark, Stephen; Brandon, Mark; Banks, Margaret; Hughes, Clifford; Greenfield, David; Pawsey, Marjorie; Corbett, Angus; Georgiou, Andrew; Callen, Joanne; Ovretveit, John; Pope, Catherine; Suñol, Rosa; Shaw, Charles; Debono, Deborah; Westbrook, Mary; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max

    2011-10-09

    Service accreditation is a structured process of recognising and promoting performance and adherence to standards. Typically, accreditation agencies either receive standards from an authorized body or develop new and upgrade existing standards through research and expert views. They then apply standards, criteria and performance indicators, testing their effects, and monitoring compliance with them. The accreditation process has been widely adopted. The international investments in accreditation are considerable. However, reliable evidence of its efficiency or effectiveness in achieving organizational improvements is sparse and the value of accreditation in cost-benefit terms has yet to be demonstrated. Although some evidence suggests that accreditation promotes the improvement and standardization of care, there have been calls to strengthen its research base.In response, the ACCREDIT (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) project has been established to evaluate the effectiveness of Australian accreditation in achieving its goals. ACCREDIT is a partnership of key researchers, policymakers and agencies. We present the framework for our studies in accreditation. Four specific aims of the ACCREDIT project, which will direct our findings, are to: (i) evaluate current accreditation processes; (ii) analyse the costs and benefits of accreditation; (iii) improve future accreditation via evidence; and (iv) develop and apply new standards of consumer involvement in accreditation. These will be addressed through 12 interrelated studies designed to examine specific issues identified as a high priority. Novel techniques, a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, and randomized designs relevant for health-care research have been developed. These methods allow us to circumvent the fragmented and incommensurate findings that can be generated in small-scale, project-based studies. The overall

  10. Biodegradation of phenol: a comparative study with and without applying magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J; Sanji, B; Godbole, S; Sofer, S

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of magnetic fields on the rate of phenol biodegradation using immobilized activated sludge. A recirculation flow bioreactor employing immobilized bacterial beads was used with phenol as the substrate to study the biodegradation process. This study was conducted by applying separately the north pole and the south pole magnetic fields to the bioreactor. Rate of dissolved oxygen consumption, phenol concentration and extracellular protein concentration were the parameters monitored during the process. It was observed that by applying a magnetic south pole to the process, biodegradation in the form of biological oxidation was enhanced. A 30% increase in biodegradation rate was obtained by applying a magnetic south pole of strength of 0.45 Tesla to the bioreactor with immobilized microbial beads as compared to the control. Magnetic north pole irradiation inhibited this type of biooxidation. This process has potential for biological treatment of organic wastes.

  11. Comparative QSAR studies on toxicity of phenol derivatives using quantum topological molecular similarity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Mehdipour, Ahmad R; Miri, Ramin; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analyses using a novel type of electronic descriptors called quantum topological molecular similarity (QTMS) indices were operated to describe and compare the mechanisms of toxicity of phenols toward five different strains (i.e., Tetrahymena pyriformis, L1210 Leukemia, Pseudomonas putida, Raja japonica and Cucumis sativus). The appropriate QSAR models for the toxicity data were obtained separately employing partial least squares (PLS) regression combined with genetic algorithms (GA), as a variable selection method. The resulting QSAR models were used to identify molecular fragments of phenol derivatives whose electronic properties contribute significantly to the observed toxicities. Using this information, it was feasible to discriminate between the mechanisms of action of phenol toxicity to the studied strains. It was found that toxicities of phenols to all strains, except with L1210 Leukemia, are significantly affected by electronic features of the phenolic hydroxyl group (C-O-H). Meanwhile, the resulting models can describe the inductive and resonance effects of substituents on various toxicities.

  12. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion study of pomegranate juice phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vicente, Antonio; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2002-04-10

    Pomegranate is an important source of bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, other phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid. In the present work an in vitro availability method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine. This method enables the study of the release of anthocyanins, vitamin C, and total phenols from the pomegranate juice and their transformations during gastrointestinal digestion. Results have shown that pomegranate phenolic compounds are available during the digestion in a quite high amount (29%). Nevertheless, due to pH, anthocyanins are largely transformed into non-red forms and/or degraded (97%), and similar results are obtained for vitamin C (>95% degradation).

  13. A comparative study on 100% tca versus 88% phenol for the treatment of vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are various medical and surgical modalities for the treatment of vitiligo. Surgical modalities are used in the patients who fail to respond to medical therapy. We selected thirty patients of stable vitiligo from the department of dermatology for the study. The patients were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. In Group I patients application of 100% TCA was done on the vitiliginous sites and in Group II patients 88% phenol was applied on the affected sites. Comparing the results of repigmentation in both the groups it was seen that marked pigmentation was seen in 66.6% patients in the TCA group and 80% in the Phenol group. Moderate pigmentation was seen in 13.3% patients in both the groups and mild pigmentation was seen in 20% patients in the TCA group and 6.6% in the Phenol group.

  14. Advances in Study on Catalysts for Phenol Synthesis via Catalytic Hydroxylation of Benzene in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhaohui

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of phenol via direct hydroxylation of benzene as a typical reaction of atomic economy has attracted extensive attention worldwide and has also become an actively investigated domain in China. This article refers to the recent domestic advances in study on phenol synthesis via hydroxylation of benzene from the viewpoint of catalysts, and considers the TS-1/H2O2 and FeZSM-5/N2O catalytic systems to be promising ones with good prospects for commercialization along with some suggestions on future research work.

  15. An ab initio study on single electron transfer between ClO2 and phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔崇威; 黄君礼

    2004-01-01

    The SET mechanism between chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) and phenol was studied by using ab initio method at 4-31G* level. Geometries of the reactants, intermediate and products of the reaction were optimized and the single point energy calculations of the species were performed. The relative structure data of the reactants, intermediate and products are given. The SET mechanism between ClO2 and phenol was confirmed by ab initio calculations. The reaction is exothermic about 200. 88 k J/mol.

  16. Removal of phenol and chlorophenols from water by coir pith carbon: equilibrium and rate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Kavitha, D

    2004-07-01

    Batch mode studies were conducted to study the removal of phenol, 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (TCP) and Pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solution on coir pith carbon by adsorption process under varying experimental conditions such as agitation time, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. Kinetics of adsorption obeyed second order rate equation and the rate constant was found to be in the range 0.0098-0.0672, 0.0949-0.8801 and 0.172-0.305 g/mg/min for phenol, TCP and PCP respectively. Equilibrium adsorption data follow Langmuir isotherm for phenol and PCP and the adsorption capacities were found to be 48.3 mg and 3.7 mg/g, respectively. For TCP, adsorption followed Freundlich isotherm only. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of all the chlorophenols. Studies on pH effect and desorption show that chemisorption seems to play a major rule in the adsorption process. The positive values of H0 24.99, 18.69, and 8.907 kJ/mol for phenol, TCP and PCP respectively, confirm the endothermic nature of adsorption.

  17. Correlation Study of Toxicity of Substituted Phenols to River Bacteria and Their Biodegradability in River Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING YUAN; GUAN-GHUA LU; LI-MIN SU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation of toxicity with biodegradability (BODT) in order to promote QSBR development and understand the degradation mechanism. Methods Toxicity of substituted phenols to river bacteria was determined by the turbidities that were measured using a spectrophotometer (UV-190) at 530 nm against a blank control. The biodegradability of substituted phenols was expressed as BODT and the DO concentrations were determined by the iodometric titration method. Results The BODT and toxicity(log 1/IC50) of 12 substituted phenols to bacteria from the Songhua River were determined respectively. The correlation of biodegradability with toxicity was developed: BODT=8.21 (±2.22) pKa -32.44 (±8.28) log 1/IC50 +89.04 (±38.20), n=12, R2=0.791, R2(adj)=0.745, SE=9.134, F=17.066, P=0.001. Conclusion The BODT of substituted phenols was influenced by their toxicity and the ionization constant pKa. The stronger the toxicity, the less readily the compound was degraded by river bacteria.

  18. Breads enriched with guava flour as a tool for studying the incorporation of phenolic compounds in bread melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Genilton; Perrone, Daniel

    2015-10-15

    In the present study we aimed at studying, for the first time, the incorporation of phenolic compounds into bread melanoidins. Fermentation significantly affected the phenolics profile of bread doughs. Melanoidins contents continuously increased from 24.1 mg/g to 71.9 mg/g during baking, but their molecular weight decreased at the beginning of the process and increased thereafter. Enrichment of white wheat bread with guava flour increased the incorporation of phenolic compounds up to 2.4-fold. Most phenolic compounds showed higher incorporation than release rates during baking, leading to increases from 3.3- to 13.3-fold in total melanoidin-bound phenolics. Incorporation patterns suggested that phenolic hydroxyls, but not glycosidic bonds of melanoidin-bound phenolics are cleaved during thermal processing. Antioxidant capacity of bread melanoidins increased due to enrichment with guava flour and increasing baking periods and was partially attributed to bound phenolics. Moreover, FRAP assay was more sensitive to measure this parameter than TEAC assay.

  19. Study on the preparation of straw activated carbon and its phenol adsorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Using sunflower straw as raw materials to manufacture straw activated carbon-modified by phosphoric acidand adsorption isotherm of phenol on straw activated carbon was studied in a batch reactor. The physical properties of the prepared straw activated carbons were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The effect of various parameters, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature, were studied on optimum conditions. The results have shown that the absorbent was efficient, the removal ratio of phenol up to 99.36% with an adsorbent dosage of 16 g·L-1, a pH of 6.0-8.0, at 25 °C. The experimental adsorption data fitted reasonably well to the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity was 109.89 mg/g. The process of adsorption is a exothermic process.

  20. Genetic variation in LINGO-1 (rs9652490) and risk of Parkinson's disease: twelve studies and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiwen; Wang, Xinyi; Xu, Wei; Liu, Wenyan; Fang, Fang; Ding, Jianqing; Song, Yanyan; Chen, Shengdi

    2012-07-26

    Studies of the relationship between Parkinson's disease (PD) and rs9652490 SNP in LINGO1 gene have reported inconsistent results. To assess the association between the variant and PD risk, a meta-analysis from 12 case-control studies was performed. A total of 6053 PD cases and 5997 controls in 4 studies among Asians and 8 studies among non-Asians were included. The overall and geographic subgroups analysis was conducted, and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated in the fixed-effects or random-effects model. The combined results of overall analysis showed a lack of association of rs9652490 and PD (fixed-effects model, OR 1.00, 95%CI 0.94-1.06), no matter what genetic model of rs9652490. The separate analysis in patients of Asian origin or non-Asian origin also failed to show any ethnic-dependent association. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis does not support the notion that LINGO1 rs9652490 SNP is a major genetic risk factor for PD.

  1. Twelve months of implementation of health care performance-based financing in Burkina Faso: A qualitative multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Yaogo, Maurice; Zongo, Sylvie; Somé, Paul-André; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie

    2017-07-03

    To improve health services' quantity and quality, African countries are increasingly engaging in performance-based financing (PBF) interventions. Studies to understand their implementation in francophone West Africa are rare. This study analysed PBF implementation in Burkina Faso 12 months post-launch in late 2014. The design was a multiple and contrasted case study involving 18 cases (health centres). Empirical data were collected from observations, informal (n = 224) and formal (n = 459) interviews, and documents. Outside the circle of persons trained in PBF, few in the community had knowledge of it. In some health centres, the fact that staff were receiving bonuses was intentionally not announced to populations and community leaders. Most local actors thought PBF was just another project, but the majority appreciated it. There were significant delays in setting up agencies for performance monitoring, auditing, and contracting, as well as in the payment. The first audits led rapidly to coping strategies among health workers and occasionally to some staging beforehand. No community-based audits had yet been done. Distribution of bonuses varied from one centre to another. This study shows the importance of understanding the implementation of public health interventions in Africa and of uncovering coping strategies. © 2017 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Extent of Bilingualism Among the Crow and the Northern Cheyenne Indian School Populations, Grades One Through Twelve. A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracon, John

    The research was conducted in the schools on or near the Crow and the Northern Cheyenne Indian reservations in Montana during October of 1969. All the students, both Indian and white, grades 1 through 12, were involved in the study. Some 2020 Indian students, out of a combined student enrollment of 3626, were assessed as to their bilingual…

  3. Pneumatic retinopexy: the evolution of case selection and surgical technique. A twelve-year study of 302 eyes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tornambe, P E

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic retinopexy is an operation for reattaching the retina by injecting an expanding gas bubble and using laser and/or cryopexy. The procedure is controversial because the literature reports a variable initial success rate, sometimes less than conventional scleral buckling surgery. PR is done in an office setting and may be the most cost-effective means of retinal reattachment. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to decide which eyes are most successfully treated with pneuma...

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF DRYING ON PHENOLICS CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME EDIBLE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzeloo Moghadam et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have important role in prevention and treatment of disorders and plants are considered as rich sources of radical scavenging compounds. Nowadays, many herbs are used in dried form which is possible to affect their antioxidant activity. In the present investigation, the effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content of some culinary plant species have been studied. Leaves of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolense were dried in sun, shade, oven and microwave and extracted with methanol. Antioxidant activity of each extract was determined by DPPH free radicals and total phenolics content was measured by folin cio-calteus reagent. The results revealed that drying process reduced the antioxidant activity of Anethum graveolense whereas sun-drying and shade-drying increased the antioxidant activity of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae. During sun-drying and shade-drying, total phenolics content increased for the three plants of Lamiaceae while oven- and microwave-drying reduced the phenolics content. Drying also declined the phenolics content of Anethum graveolense which gives the conclusion that some kind of correlation could be established between total phenolics content and antioxidant behavior for the three Lamiaceae and Anethum graveolense. Our study brought the view that diversity in the methods of drying could lead to different phenolics content and antioxidant behavior, suggesting that each plant needs a special drying method.

  5. The Twelve Hotel, Barna : Video

    OpenAIRE

    Irish Food Channel

    2014-01-01

    Fergus O'Halloran, Managing Director of The Twelve Hotel in Barna in County Galway, talks about his philosophy in running this unique boutique hotel. Reproduced with kind permission from John & Sally McKenna. 3.35 mins

  6. Screening and docking studies of natural phenolic inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Huo-Qiang; PAN Xu-Lin; JI Chang-Jiu; ZENG Guang-Zhi; JIANG Li-Hua; FU Xiang; LIU Ji-Kai; HAO Xiao-Jiang; ZHANG Ying-Jun; TAN Ning-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ (CAⅡ) is an Important enzyme complex with Zn2+, which is involved in many physiological and pathological processes, such as calcification, glaucoma and tumorigenicity. In order to search for novel inhibitors of CA Ⅱ, inhibition assay of carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ was performed, by which seven natural phenolic compounds, including four phenolics (grifolln, 4-O-methyl-grifolic acid, grifolic acid, and isovanillic acid) and three flavones (eriodictyol, quercetin and puerin A), showed in-hibitory activities against CAⅡ with IC50s in the range of 6.37-71.73 μmol/L. Grifolic acid is the most active one with IC50 of 6.37 μmol/L. These seven phenolic compounds were proved to be novel natural carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ inhibitors, which were obtained in flexible docking study with GOLD 3.0 soft-ware. Results indicated that the aliphatic chain and polar groups of hydroxyl and carboxyl are impor-tant to their inhibitory activities, providing a new insight into study on CA Ⅱ potent inhibitors.

  7. Screening and docking studies of natural phenolic inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ (CAⅡ) is an important enzyme complex with Zn2+,which is involved in many physiological and pathological processes, such as calcification, glaucoma and tumorigenicity. In order to search for novel inhibitors of CAⅡ, inhibition assay of carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ was performed, by which seven natural phenolic compounds, including four phenolics (grifolin, 4-O-methyl-grifolic acid, grifolic acid, and isovanillic acid) and three flavones (eriodictyol, quercetin and puerin A), showed in-hibitory activities against CAⅡ with IC50s in the range of 6.37-71.73 μmol/L. Grifolic acid is the most active one with IC50 of 6.37 μmol/L. These seven phenolic compounds were proved to be novel natural carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ inhibitors, which were obtained in flexible docking study with GOLD 3.0 soft-ware. Results indicated that the aliphatic chain and polar groups of hydroxyl and carboxyl are impor-tant to their inhibitory activities, providing a new insight into study on CA Ⅱ potent inhibitors.

  8. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Twelve Years After the Implementation of Toddlers' Vaccination: A Population-Based Study in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassal, Ravit; Weil, Merav; Cohen, Daniel; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella; Shohat, Tamy

    2017-10-01

    In 1999, Israel became the first country to introduce an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine into its national childhood vaccination program. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies in the Israeli population before and after the introduction of the program. A cross-sectional serosurvey using the National Serum Bank was conducted on 1883 and 2027 serum samples collected before and after introduction of the vaccine, respectively. Serologic tests for the presence of hepatitis A IgG antibodies were performed using an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent assay. The age-adjusted seroprevalence rates of hepatitis A virus antibodies before implementation of hepatitis A vaccination program were 47.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 44.7%-49.5%] among Jews and 82.8% (95% CI: 79.6%-85.9%) among Arabs, increasing 12 years after to 67.4% (95% CI: 64.7%-70.0%) and 88.2% (95% CI: 86.1%-90.2%), respectively. The seropositivity rate among Jews and Arabs increased significantly among the cohorts included in the program. However, among Jews, a significant increase in seropositivity was also detected among age groups not included in the vaccination program. The decrease in the incidence of hepatitis A in Israel is a consequence of high vaccine uptake, persistent seropositivity rates after vaccination and the considerable number of people vaccinated beyond the program.

  9. Neural network model and isotherm study for removal of phenol from aqueous solution by orange peel ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Naba Kumar; Bhaumik, Ria; Das, Biswajit; Roy, Palas; Datta, Jayanta Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Bhattacharjee, Siddhartha

    2015-09-01

    Artificial Neural Network model and isotherm study were done to predict the removal efficiency of phenol. An inexpensive adsorbent was developed from orange peel ash (OPA) for effective uptake of phenol from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters (initial concentration, pH, adsorbents dose, contact time, stirring rate and temperature) on phenol uptake efficiency was evaluated. Phenol was adsorbed by the OPA up to maximum of 97.34 %. Adsorption of phenol on OPA correlated well with the Langmuir isotherm model, implying monolayer coverage of phenol onto the surface of the adsorbent. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 3.55 mg g-1 at 303 K. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data. Moreover, the activation energy of the adsorption process ( E a) was found to be -18.001 kJ mol-1 indicating physorption nature of phenol onto OPA. A negative enthalpy (∆ H°) value indicated that the adsorption process was exothermic. Again multi-layer Neural Network model was in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. A DFT study of phenol adsorption on a low doping Mn-Ce composite oxide model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D´Alessandro, Oriana; Pintos, Delfina García; Juan, Alfredo; Irigoyen, Beatriz; Sambeth, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Density functional theory calculations (DFT + U) were performed on a low doping Mn-Ce composite oxide prepared from experimental data, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). We considered a 12.5% Mn-doped CeO2 solid solution with fluorite-type structure, where Mn replaces Ce4+ leading to an oxygen-deficient bulk structure. Then, we modeled the adsorption of phenol on the bare Ce0.875Mn0.125O1.9375(1 1 1) surface. We also studied the effect of water adsorption and dissociation on phenol adsorption on this surface, and compared the predictions of DFT + U calculations with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) measurements. The experimental results allowed us to both build a realistic model of the low doping Mn-Ce composite oxide and support the prediction that phenol is adsorbed as a phenoxy group with a tilt angle of about 70° with respect to the surface.

  11. DFT study of IR and Raman spectra of phosphotrihydrazone dendrimer with terminal phenolic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandyukov, A. E.; Majoral, J. P.; Caminade, A. M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2017-09-01

    FT Raman and infrared spectra of phosphotrihydrazone (S)P[N(CH3)Ndbnd CHsbnd C6H4sbnd OH]3 (G0) were recorded. This compound is a zero generation phosphorus dendrimer with terminal phenolic groups. Optimal geometry and vibrational frequencies were calculated for G0 using the density functional theory (DFT). The molecule studied has C3 symmetry. In the molecule G0, each sbnd C6H4sbnd CHdbnd Nsbnd N(CH3)sbnd P arm is flat. Optimized geometric parameters correspond to experimental data. The core of the dendrimer manifests itself as a band at 647 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of G0 related to Pdbnd S stretching. Phenolic end functions exhibit a well-defined band at 3374 cm-1 in the experimental IR spectrum of G0. The observed frequency of the OH stretching vibrations of the phenolic groups is lower than the theoretical value due to the intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond. This hydrogen bond is also responsible for the higher intensity of this band in the experimental IR spectrum compared with the theoretical value. DFT calculations suggest full assignment of normal modes. Global and local descriptors characterize the reactivity of the core and end groups.

  12. Study on direct-chain diacid modified phenolic resin for Al-alloy casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundong JI

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Resin coated sand (RCS with phenolic resin matrix can hardly be collapsed when it is used in Al-alloy casting. Adding collapsing agent and reducing the concentration of resin are solutions adopted by workers, but these methods tend to reduce the initial strength of RCS. Synthesis of modified phenolic resin with direct-chain diacid DAn (/JS=6, where n means carbon amount was studied here. The effects of the addition of modifying agent on molecular weight, gel time and softening point were investigated. Optimal addition of DAn (10% phenol was obtained by testing the initial and retained flexural strengths of the modified resin. FT-IR spectra showed that carbonyl shifts to higher wave number. With the use of TG, SEM and strength loss curves, the relation between initial and retained strengths was analysed. Tests on the heated deformation curve, before and after resin modification, show that PF-DA10 has the characteristic of higher initial and retained strengths together.

  13. Theoretical studies on the anionic association of phenol and its derivatives in acetonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Marta; Makowski, Mariusz

    2014-11-01

    The potentials of mean force (PMF) were determined for homoconjugated systems of anionic complexes composed of phenol and its derivatives with their conjugate anionic bases in acetonitrile (ACN). For each acid-base pair studied, a series of umbrella-sampling molecular dynamics simulations using the AMBER force field with explicit solvent was carried out; the respective PMF was calculated using the Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM). Subsequently, association equilibrium constants were calculated by numerical integration of the PMF profiles. The PMF curves had a typical shape, i.e., a very deep and narrow contact-minimum, a desolvation maximum, and a shallow solvent-separated minimum. All pairs formed complexes in solution, which was confirmed by the presence of contact minima corresponding to the existence of hydrogen bonds in the PMF curves. The calculated association constants in acetonitrile were subsequently compared with experimentally obtained values for the same solvent. Ab initio methods at the RHF level (utilizing the Gaussian 6-31++G** basis set) enabled the in vacuo calculation of energies and Gibbs free energies of interaction for each phenol derivative and anionic base pair along with a molecule of acetonitrile; this allowed the contribution of the solvent molecule to the PMF to be assessed. It was found that the interaction energies of anionic bases in acetonitrile are stronger than their related neutral phenol derivatives.

  14. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY STUDIES OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hassan Kawsar et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of methanol extract of whole plant of Synedrella nodiflora as well as its petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, dichloro-methane and aqueous soluble partitionates were evaluated by DPPH of (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and phosphomolybdenum total antioxidant assay and compared with standard antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and ascorbic acid (ASA. The total phenolic content was also determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent (mg of GAE/g of sample. A great variance was observed for polyphenol content as well as antioxidant activity (1.574-9.4136 mg GAE/g and DPPH IC50 10.52-31.25 μg/ml depending on the nature of solvent used to fractionate the crude extract. The result demonstrated that dichloromethane soluble fraction revealed the highest amount of phenolic compounds (9.4136 mg GAE/g and also had significant free radical scavenging activity (IC50 10.52 μg/ml. A positive correlation was observed between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity of S. nodiflora having correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.9270. The general toxicity of the extractive was studied by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and from the results (LC50 0.023-0.122 μg/ml, it can be well predicted that the crude extract and the partitionate fractions contain cytotoxic principles and have considerable toxic potencies which supported the insecticidal uses of plant by the indigenous people.

  15. EPFR Formation from Phenol adsorption on Al2O3 and TiO2: EPR and EELS studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Matthew C.; Keilbart, Nathan D.; Kiruri, Lucy W.; Thibodeaux, Chad A.; Lomnicki, Slawo; Kurtz, Richard L.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Dellinger, Barry; Sprunger, Phillip T.

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the formation of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) from phenol over alumina and titania using both powder and single-crystal samples. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of phenol adsorbed on metal oxide powders indicates radical formation on both titania and alumina, with both oxides forming one faster-decaying species (lifetime on the order of 50-100 hours) and one slower-decayng species (lifetimes on the order of 1000 hours or more). Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements comparing physisorbed phenol on single-crystal TiO2(110) to phenoxyl radicals on the same substrate indicate distinct changes in the π-π* transitions from phenol after radical formation. The identical shifts are observed from EELS studies of phenoxyl radicals on ultrathin alumina grown on NiAl(110), indicating that this shift in the π-π* transition may be taken as a general hallmark of phenoxyl radical formation. PMID:24443627

  16. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: a twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Keeling, A; Paice, E

    2004-08-18

    The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five). Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire) and personality. Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style.

  17. Assessing wines based on total phenols, phenolic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIDIL

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile of some red wines produced from native. Turkish grape ... Phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, flavonols, .... performed as a joining type (tree cluster) by using raw data with.

  18. Predicting the reactivity of phenolic compounds with formaldehyde. II, continuation of an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohru Mitsunaga; Anthony H. Conner; Charles G. Jr. Hill

    2002-01-01

    Phenol–formaldehyde resins are important adhesives used by the forest products industry. The phenolic compounds in these resins are derived primarily from petrochemical sources. Alternate sources of phenolic compounds include tannins, lignins, biomass pyrolysis products, and coal gasification products. Because of variations in their chemical structures, the...

  19. Surface-modified TiO2 powders with phenol derivatives: A comparative DFT and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredojević, Dušan N.; Kovač, Tijana; Džunuzović, Enis; Ðorđević, Vesna; Grgur, Branimir N.; Nedeljković, Jovan M.

    2017-10-01

    The charge transfer complex formation between TiO2 powder and variety of phenol derivatives (phenol, 4-nitrophenol, 4-bromophenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, hydroquinone) was achieved. The red-shift of optical absorption was observed upon surface modification of TiO2 powders with phenol derivatives. The influence of substituent functional groups in para position on the optical band gap and conduction band edge of inorganic/organic hybrids was studied using reflection spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The experimental findings were supported by density functional theory calculations. The measured reflection spectra of surface-modified TiO2 powders with phenol derivatives were compared with calculated electronic excitation spectra of corresponding model systems.

  20. Natural Amino Acid Based Phenolic Derivatives for Synthesizing Silver Nanoparticles with Tunable Morphology and Antibacterial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinod Kumar, V.; Nithya, S.; Shyam, Aswin; Sai Subramanian, N. [SASTRA Univ., Tamil Nadu (India); Philip Anthony, Savarimuthu [M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-09-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with spherical and prism morphologies were formed at room temperature depend on the amino acid attached with phenolic unit. Absorption studies showed 410-420 nm surface plasmon resonance absorption for spherical nanoparticles whereas prism morphology showed three absorption peaks (382, 452 and 523 nm). The formation of spherical and prism morphology was confirmed by scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial studies of both the morphologies did not show any significant differences in the inhibition of bacterial growth.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  2. Experimental and kinetic study on the cometabolic biodegradation of phenol and 4-chlorophenol by psychrotrophic Pseudomonas putida LY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Li, Yi; Li, Jing; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the kinetics of phenol and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) biodegradation by a cold-adapted bacteria, Pseudomonas putida LY1, isolated from Songhua River sediment. The results showed that P. putida LY1 cannot grow on 4-CP as a sole carbon source. P. putida LY1 had the potential to cometabolic biodegrade phenol and 4-CP in a wide range of temperature (varying from 5 to 35 °C) with the optimal temperature around 25 °C. Mixture of phenol and 4-CP were completely removed at two 4-CP concentrations (15 and 40 mg/L) over a wide range of phenol (20-400 mg/L) concentrations, whereby the ratio of 4-CP/biomass (S 2/X) was lower than 0.03. The kinetic models of cometabolic biodegradation of phenol and 4-CP were proposed, considering the growth and nongrowth substrate inhibition. These models successfully simulate the processes of cometabolic degradation of phenol and 4-CP.

  3. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Mary E., E-mail: MMortensen@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wright, David J. [Westat, Inc. Rockville, MD (United States); Pirkle, James L. [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Merrill, Lori S. [Westat, Inc. Rockville, MD (United States); Moye, John [NCS Program Office, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes for Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction–isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. - Highlights: • Limited biomonitoring data are available in pregnant women. • Seven urinary phenols were measured in 506 third trimester women enrolled in the NCS. • Urine benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol differed by race/ethnicity. • Urinary concentrations of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol were

  4. The clinical efficacy of Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste containing a special grade of silica and Colgate Total Toothpaste for controlling breath odor twelve hours after toothbrushing: a single-use clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naresh C; Galustians, H Jack; Qaqish, Jimmy; Galustians, Ana; Petrone, Margaret E; Rustogi, Kedar N; Zhang, Yun Po; DeVizio, William; Volpe, Anthony R

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind clinical study, conducted in harmony with American Dental Association guidelines, was to compare a new dentifrice formulation variant of Colgate Total Toothpaste containing a special grade of silica (Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste) to the commercially available, ADA-Accepted and clinically proven Colgate Total Toothpaste for controlling breath odor twelve hours after brushing the teeth. Breath odor was evaluated by a panel of three examiners using a nine-point hedonic scale. Following a baseline evaluation of breath odor, prospective study subjects who scored above the threshold value for unpleasant breath odor were stratified by score and randomized into two treatment groups. Subjects were provided with a soft-bristled toothbrush, and brushed their teeth thoroughly in their regular and customary manner with their assigned dentifrice. Subjects refrained from dental hygiene, breath mints or mounthrinses for the next twelve hours, after which they were again evaluated for breath odor. Eighty-three (83) adult male and female subjects from the Mississauga, Ontario, Canada area participated in the study. At twelve hours after brushing their teeth, subjects in both dentifrice treatment groups presented mean breath odor scores which were statistically significantly lower than the mean scores observed at baseline. Importantly, there was no statistical difference between the two dentifrices of the mean twelve-hour breath odor scores. The mean twelve-hour breath scores for the Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste group and the Colgate Total Toothpaste group were 4.89 and 4.67, respectively, which are within the range of values corresponding to pleasant breath odor. Thus, the results of this double-blind clinical study, conducted according to a protocol which had been approved by the Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Dental Association, support the conclusion that Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste and Colgate

  5. Photoreaction of thioxanthone with indolic and phenolic derivatives of biological relevance: magnetic field effect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Doyel; Nath, Deb Narayan

    2008-11-20

    The photoinduced reaction of thioxanthone (TX) with various indolic and phenolic derivatives and amino acids like tryptophan and tyrosine has been monitored in sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar medium. Laser flash photolysis and magnetic field effect (MFE) experiments have been used to study the dynamics of the radical pairs. The quenching rate constant with different quenchers in SDS micellar solution has been measured. For indoles the electron-transfer reaction has been found to be followed by proton transfer from the donor molecule, which gives rise to the TX ketyl radical. On the other hand, the electron-transfer reaction in the case of phenols is preceded with formation of a hydrogen-bonded exciplex. The extent of the MFE and magnitude of the magnetic field corresponding to one-half of the saturation value of MFE ( B 1/2) support the fact that hyperfine mechanism plays the primary role. Quenching of MFE in the presence of gadolinium ions confirms that the radical pair is located near the micellar interface. MFE study has been further extended to protein-like bovine serum albumin in micellar solution. The results indicate loss in mobililty of radical pairs in the protein surfactant complex.

  6. Kinetics study on catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol by several metal oxide catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Jia-feng; FENG Yu-jie; CAI Wei-min; YANG Shao-xia; SUN Xiao-jun

    2004-01-01

    Four metal oxide catalysts composed of copper (Cu), stannum (Sn), copper-stannum (Cu-Sn) and copper-cerium(Cu-Ce) respectively were prepared by the co-impregnation method, and γ-alumina(γ-Al2O3) is selected as support. A first-order kinetics model was established to study the catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol at different temperature when these catalysts were used. The model simulations are good agreement with present experimental data. Results showed that the reaction rate constants can be significantly increased when catalysts were used, and the catalyst of 6% Cu-10%Ce/γ-Al2O3 showed the best catalytic activity. This is consistent with the result of catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol and the COD removal can be arrived at 98.2% at temperature 210℃, oxygen partial pressure 3 MPa and reaction time 30 min. The activation energies of each reaction with different catalysts are nearly equal, which is found to be about 42 kJ/mol and the reaction in this study is proved to be kinetics control.

  7. Secondary formation of nitrated phenols: insights from observations during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Liggio, John; Wentzell, Jeremy; Li, Shao-Meng; Stark, Harald; Roberts, James M.; Gilman, Jessica; Lerner, Brian; Warneke, Carsten; Li, Rui; Leithead, Amy; Osthoff, Hans D.; Wild, Robert; Brown, Steven S.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2016-02-01

    We describe the results from online measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) with acetate as reagent ion in an oil and gas production region in January and February of 2014. Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Based on known markers (CH4, NOx, CO2), primary emissions of nitrated phenols were not important in this study. A box model was used to simulate secondary formation of phenol, nitrophenol (NP), and dinitrophenols (DNP). The box model results indicate that oxidation of aromatics in the gas phase can explain the observed concentrations of NP and DNP in this study. Photolysis was the most efficient loss pathway for NP in the gas phase. We show that aqueous-phase reactions and heterogeneous reactions were minor sources of nitrated phenols in our study. This study demonstrates that the emergence of new ToF-CIMS (including PTR-TOF) techniques allows for the measurement of intermediate oxygenates at low levels and these measurements improve our understanding on the evolution of primary VOCs in the atmosphere.

  8. Studies on Changes of Phenolics in the Apple Fruit Peel in Response to Light Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-yan; HUANG Wei-dong; ZHANG Wen-he

    2004-01-01

    Fruits from 9-year-old apple trees (Malus domestic Borkh. cv. Fuji) were wrappedby two-layer bag in middle of June, and bags were removed in middle of September. The bag-removed treatment was performed in following three ways: once-removing all inner and outer bags; twice-removing bag (removing inner bag 3 d after removing outer bag); dipping 5 s in 1 mM salicylic acid (SA)after once-removing all bags. Changes of phenolic compounds in fruit peel in response to light environment were studied before or after removing bag. The results showed that the bagged treatment could significantly decrease the contents of UV (ultraviolet) absorbing compounds,rutin and anthocyanins of the fruit peel, but increased chlorogenic acid level. After removal of bag, the level of SA and quercetin in the fruit peel appeared peak 1 d after bag-removed,except that quercetin was decreased in SA-treated fruits. UVabsorbing compounds, anthocyanins and rutin were kept increasing all along after the removal of bag, except that chlorogenic acid was decreased during being retained inner bag in the treatment of twice removing bag. The positive correlations existed between changes of UV absorbing compounds and changes of anthocyanins or rutin. It was suggested that light played an important role in phenolics metabolism.

  9. Study on the Soy Protein-Based Wood Adhesive Modified by Hydroxymethyl Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To explain the reason why using phenol-formaldehyde (PF resin improves the water resistance of soy-based adhesive, the performance of soy-based adhesive cross-linked with hydroxymethyl phenol (HPF and the reaction between HPF and a common dipeptide N-(2-l-alanyl-l-glutamine (AG being used as a model compound were studied in this paper. The DSC and DMA results indicated the reaction between HPF and soy-based adhesive. The soy-based adhesive cross-linked with HPF cured at a lower temperature than the adhesive without HPF. The former showed better mechanical performance and heat resistance than the latter. The ESI-MS, FT-IR and 13C-NMR results proved the reaction between HPF and AG. Because of the existence of branched ether groups in the 13C-NMR results of HPF/AG, the reaction between HPF and AG might mainly happened between hydroxymethyl groups and amino groups under a basic condition.

  10. Study on Nitrogen Forms in Phenolic Polymers Incorporating Protien by 15N CP—MAS NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGLILI; WENQIXIAO; 等

    1996-01-01

    Phenolic polymers synthesized by reactions by reactions of p-benzoquinone with 15N-labelled protein or (15NH4)2SO4 were studied by using 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results showed that more than 80% of nitrogen in quinone-protein polymers was in the form of amide with some present as aromatic and /or aliphatic amine and less than 10% of nitrogen occurred as heterocyclic N.The nitrogen distribution in the non-hydrolyzable residue of the quinone-protein polymers was basically similar to that of soil humic acid reported in literature with the exception that a higher proportion of N as heterocyclic N and aromatic amine and a lower proportion of N as amide and aliphatic amine were found in the former than in the latter,More than 70% of total nitrogen in quinone-(NH4)2OS4 polymer was acid resistant ,of which about 53% occurred as pyrrole,nitrile and imion type N.The possible roles of the reactions of phenols or quinones with proteins in the formation of humic acid.especially the non-hydrolyzable nitrogen in humicacid,are discussed.

  11. The interaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III) in the presence of citrate as studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Senpei; Bai, Guangling; Chen, Lingli; Shen, Qun; Diao, Xianmin; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-08-15

    Under physiological conditions, exogenous chelators such as polyphenols might interact with non-protein bound ferric complexes, such as Fe(III)-citrate. Additionally, Fe(III) and citrate are widely distributed in various fruits and vegetables which are also rich in phenolic acids. In this study, we focus on the interaction between phenolic acids (gallic acid, methyl gallate and protocatechuic acid) and Fe(III) in the presence of excessive citrate by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for thermodynamic studies, and stopped-flow absorption spectrometry for fast kinetic studies. Results reveal that all of these three phenolic acids can bind to the Fe(III) with the same stoichiometry (3:1). Moreover, the binding constants of these three compounds with Fe(III) are greatly dependent on ligand structure, and are much higher than that of Fe(III)-citrate. Based on their stoichiometry and superhigh binding constants, it is most likely that these three phenolic acids can displace the citrate to bind with one iron(III) ion to form a stable octahedral geometric structure, albeit at different rates. These findings shed light on the interaction between phenolic acids and Fe(III) in the presence of citrate under either physiological conditions or in a food system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenol-formaldehyde resins: A quantitative NMR study of molecular structure and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbourgs, Benjamin Tony

    Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins have been the subject of this work. 13C liquid-state and solid-state NMR has been used to investigate the molecular structure of mainly novolak and partially of resole resins. 1H wideline in combination with 13C solid-state NMR relaxometry has been applied to study the curing and the molecular dynamics of phenolic resins. It was the intention to provide an insight in the relationship between resin composition, resin structure and subsequent resin properties (by means of the molecular dynamics). An improved 13C liquid-state NMR quantification technique of novolaks in THF-CDCl3 solutions is demonstrated. Full quantitative 13C liquid-state spectra of phenol-formaldehyde resins with high signal- to-noise ratio were obtained by using chromium acetylacetonate under optimized spectral conditions within a few hours spectrometer time. Attached proton test (APT) spectra enabled proper peak assignments in the region with significant overlap. For several novolaks, prepared under different catalytic conditions, the degree of polymerization, degree of branching, number average molecular weight, isomeric distribution, and the number of unreacted ortho and para phenol ring positions was determined with a reduced margin of error, by analyzing and integrating the 13C spectra. The power of 13C solid-state NMR in the analysis of cured PF resins is shown. Particular importance was ascribed to the question of the quantifiability of the experiments when it was desired to measure the degree of conversion by means of a 13C CP/MAS contact time study. The network structure present, and thus also the mechanical properties, is critically dependent upon the final degree of conversion obtained after curing. The degree of conversion, which depended on the cure conditions (cure temperature, cure pressure and cure time), was limited by vitrification as was demonstrated by DSC experiments. Changes in the spin-lattice relaxation time T 1H were observed, providing

  13. Phenolic metabolites in carnivorous plants: Inter-specific comparison and physiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Repčáková, Klára

    2012-03-01

    Despite intensive phytochemical research, data related to the accumulation of phenols in carnivorous plants include mainly qualitative reports. We have quantified phenolic metabolites in three species: Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula and Nepenthes anamensis in the "leaf" (assimilatory part) and the "trap" (digestive part). For comparison, commercial green tea was analysed. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities in Dionaea and Nepenthes were higher in the trap than in the leaf while the opposite was found in Drosera. Soluble phenols and majority of phenolic acids were mainly accumulated in the trap among species. Flavonoids were abundant in Drosera and Dionaea traps but not in Nepenthes. Phenolic acids were preferentially accumulated in a glycosidically-bound form and gallic acid was the main metabolite. Green tea contained more soluble phenols and phenolic acids but less quercetin. In vitro experiments with Drosera spathulata revealed that nitrogen deficiency enhances PAL activity, accumulation of phenols and sugars while PAL inhibitor (2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid) depleted phenols and some amino acids (but free phenylalanine and sugars were elevated). Possible explanations in physiological, biochemical and ecological context are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  15. Mass Transfer Studies on Adsorption of Phenol from Wastewater Using Lantana camara, Forest Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Girish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is one of the important treatment methods for the removal of pollutants from wastewater. The determination of rate controlling step in the process is important in the design of the process. Therefore, in the present work, mass transfer studies were done to evaluate the rate-limiting step in the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution onto Lantana camara. Different mass transfer models were used to find the rate-limiting step and also to find the values of external mass transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficient. The Biot number was found to investigate the importance of external mass transfer to intraparticle diffusion. From the various models studied and the Biot numbers obtained, it was found that the adsorption on Lantana camara was controlled by film diffusion. The sensitivity analysis was performed to study the significance of the model parameters on the adsorption process.

  16. Thermodynamic Study of Adsorption of Phenol, 4-Chlorophenol, and 4-Nitrophenol on Activated Carbon Obtained from Eucalyptus Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Giovanny Rincón-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons from shell eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus were prepared by chemical activation through impregnation with solutions of two activators: sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, the surface areas for activated carbons with base were 780 and 670 m2 g−1 and the solids activated with acid were 150 and 80 m2 g−1. These were applying in adsorption of priority pollutants: phenol, 4-nitrophenol, and 4-chlorophenol from aqueous solution. Activated carbon with the highest adsorption capacity has values of 2.12, 2.57, and 3.89 on phenol, 4-nitrophenol, and 4-chlorophenol, respectively, and was activated with base. In general, all carbons adsorption capacity was given in the following order: 4-chlorophenol > 4-nitrophenol > phenol. Adsorption isotherms of phenols on activated carbons were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radusckevisch-Kanager models, finding great association between them and experimental data. A thermodynamic study was performed, the exothermic nature and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process were confirmed, and the favorability of adsorption on activated carbons with NaOH was confirmed by energy relations and concluded that the adsorption process of phenolic compounds from the activated carbon obtained is physical. The pH of solutions and pH at point of zero charge of the solid play an important role in the adsorption process.

  17. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.

  18. Steam reforming of phenol over Ni-based catalysts - A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matas Güell, B.; Babych, Igor V.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the support in the steam reforming of phenol at 700 °C has been examined over Ni/K-La-ZrO2 and Ni/Ce-ZrO2. Both catalysts exhibited high activity and good stability in terms of phenol conversion. However, Ni/K-La-ZrO2 showed a pronounced change in product distribution with TOS,

  19. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenor, Sandro [COVACHIMM, EA 3592 Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France); LAQUE, Universite Quisqueya d' Haiti, Port-au-Prince (Haiti); Carene, Betty [COVACHIMM, EA 3592 Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France); Emmanuel, Evens [LAQUE, Universite Quisqueya d' Haiti, Port-au-Prince (Haiti); Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, UMR 7564 CNRS-Nancy Universities, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F 54600 Villers-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Gaspard, Sarra, E-mail: sgaspard@univ-ag.fr [COVACHIMM, EA 3592 Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France)

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X{sub P} (g H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m{sup 2}/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm{sup 3}/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) and the normalized standard deviation {Delta}q (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse

  20. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  1. Phytochemical study of phenolic compounds of labrador tea (Lédum palústre L.

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    Валентина Петровна Гапоненко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This work is devoted a phytochemical study of biologically active substances in herb of Labrador Tea (Lédum palústre L., as well as investigation of the possibility of complex use of raw materials in order to create on its basis new herbal medicines.Methods. The object of the study served as the herb Labrador Tea. Separation of isolated substances was performed by adsorption and partition chromatography on various adsorbents. The structure of the isolated compounds was determined based on physicochemical methods: paper (PC and the thin layer (TLC chromatography, UV, IR and NMR spectroscopy in comparison with the original valid standards of flavonoids. Acid hydrolys was used for the determination of the flavonoid aglycone composition. The content of total flavonoids was determined by differential spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 412 nm from the reaction with aluminum chloride based on the hyperoside-standard (Ukrainian scientific Pharmacopoeial center for quality of medicines (Pharmacopoeial center, Kharkоv.Results. During this study we found more than 40 of phenolic compounds and identified 31compounds. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonols (11 compounds, catechins (5. Hydroxycinnamic acids represented by caffeic, ferulic, chlorogenic acids. Besides that, it were found phenolic glycoside arbutin, coumarins - coumarin, umbelliferon, scopoletin, esculetin and esculin, tannins – metyl gallate, pyrogallol.Conclusions. The following biologically active substances were defined for the first time: flavonoids – 5-methyl-kaempferol, avicularin, polistahozid, quercitrin; coumarins – esculetin, esculin; as well as hydroxycinnamic acids – ferulic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic of Labrador Tea. The obtained data justify the prospectivefor creation of new and effective herbal medicines from Labrador Tea

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L

    OpenAIRE

    K. Arab; O. Bouchenak; K. Yahiaoui

    2014-01-01

    This work aims for the phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils of medicinal plant Pistacia lentiscus L. quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the results obtained, it appears that the leaves and fruits are rich in substances with a high antioxidant power. The yield of the phenolic compounds obtained from 10g  to powder of plant  is for leaves 116.49 %  and 61.34 % for fruit . For essential oils, it is 0.253 ± 0.131 % for 100 ...

  3. Studies on Thermodynamic Properties of Adsorption of Theophylline by Phenolic Resin Adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong; SHI Zuo-qing; SHI Rong-fu; FAN Yun-ge; YAN Yi-Zhong

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, the equilibrium adsorption of theophylline was studied by phenolic resin adsorbents: JDW-2(made by ourselves) and Duolite S-761 within a temperature range of 303-323 K. The experimental results show that the Freundlich adsorption law is applicable to the adsorption of theophylline on the two adsorbents, the exponents n>1 indicate that they are favorable to the adsorptions; the negative values of all the isosteric adsorption enthalpies for the theophylline indicate the exothermic process of the adsorption, while the range(10-40 kJ/mol) of their magnitudes manifests the physisorption process; other thermodynamic properties, the free energy changes and the entropy change associated with adsorption have been calculated from the Gibbs adsorption equation and the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation.

  4. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and childhood fat mass in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P; Herring, Amy H; Wolff, Mary S; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several studies have evaluated the association of prenatal bisphenol A exposure with childhood body size but only one study of male infants has examined other environmental phenols. Therefore, we assessed associations between prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and fat mass in a prospective birth cohort. We quantified four phenol biomarkers in third trimester maternal spot urine samples in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 and evaluated fat mass in their children using a Tanita scale between ages 4 and 9years (173 children with 351 total observations). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences in natural log creatinine-standardized phenol biomarker concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed effects regression models. We did not observe associations of bisphenol A or triclosan with childhood percent fat mass. In unadjusted models, maternal urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol were associated with greater percent fat mass and benzophenone-3 was associated with lower percent fat mass among children. After adjustment, phenol biomarkers were not associated with percent fat mass. However, the association between benzophenone-3 and percent fat mass was modified by child's sex: benzophenone-3 concentrations were inversely associated with percent fat mass in girls (beta=-1.51, 95% CI=-3.06, 0.01) but not boys (beta=-0.20, 95% CI=-1.69, 1.26). Although we did not observe strong evidence that prenatal environmental phenols exposures influence the development of childhood adiposity, the potential antiadipogenic effect of benzophenone-3 in girls may warrant further investigation.

  5. Study of enzymatic properties of phenol oxidase from nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter chroococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Susanne; Schmidt, Marlen; Thompson, Mark L; Mikolasch, Annett; Schauer, Frieder

    2011-06-24

    Azotobacter chroococcum is a widespread free-living soil bacterium within the genus of Azotobacter known for assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen and subsequent conversion into nitrogenous compounds, which henceforth enrich the nitrogen content of soils. A. chroococcum SBUG 1484, isolated from composted earth, exhibits phenol oxidase (PO) activity when growing under nitrogen-fixing conditions. In the present study we provide incipient analysis of the crude PO activity expressed by A. chroococcum SBUG 1484 within comparative analysis to fungal crude PO from the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus SBUG-M 1044 and tyrosinase (PPO) from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus in an attempt to reveal desirable properties for exploitation with future recombinant expression of this enzyme. Catalytic activity increased with pre-incubation at 35°C; however 70% of activity remained after pre-treatment at 50°C. Native A. chroococcum crude PO exhibited not only strong preference for 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, but also towards related methoxy-activated substrates as well as substituted ortho-benzenediols from over 40 substrates tested. Presence of CuSO4 enhanced crude phenol oxidase activity up to 30%, whereas NaN3 (0.1 mM) was identified as the most inhibiting substance of all inhibitors tested. Lowest inhibition of crude PO activity occurred after 60 minutes of incubation in presence of 15% methanol and ethanol with 63% and 77% remaining activities respectively, and presence of DMSO even led to increasing oxidizing activities. Substrate scope and inhibitor spectrum strongly differentiated A. chroococcum PO activity comprised in crude extracts from those of PPO and confirmed distinct similarities to fungal PO.

  6. STUDY OF MACROMOLECULAR CONSTITUENTS, VOLATILE EXTRACTIVES AND PHENOLICS FROM CANDEIA WOOD - Moquinia polymorpha (LESS. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina de Lima

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the main chemical components of Moquinia polymorpha (LESS. DC. (candeia or cambará wood were investigated. This wood is native in the Southern region of Minas Gerais - Brazil.  The chemical composition was:  47.5% of α-cellulose, 25.4% of A and B hemicelluloses, 24.0% of lignin, 73.2% of holocellulose, 3.82% of ethanol:cyclohexane  (1:1, v v-1 extractives, 3.21% of ethanol extractives and 4.04%  of hot water extractives.  The volatile composition was mainly: α-curcumene, α-dihydroturmerone, β-dihydroturmerone, cedranol, 1-cyclopentyl-3-[2,4-dimethylphenyl]propane. The total phenols analysis was carried out on methanol:water (MW and acetone:water (AW extracts. The last one presented better yield. The total phenols were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and the modified Prussian blue assays.  Folin-Ciocalteau yielded 0.93 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 1.56 for AW extract; modified Prussian blue yielded 2.74 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 4.42 for AW extract. Proanthocyanidins were determined by n-buthanol-acid and vanillin assays. The n-buthanol acid yielded 0.012 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 0.017 for AW extract; vanillin: 0.29 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 0.58 for AW extract. 3-deoxy-proanthocyanidins were not detected.

  7. Study of the effect of plant growth regulators, size, and cultivar of the grape inflorescence explant on production of phenolic compounds in an in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighi Azam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds are a large number of secondary metabolites that have useful and desirable effects in the field of agriculture, medicine, and food. This research was aimed to achieve methods of in vitro propagation of grapevine in order to apply biotechnologies for correction, growth, and optimization of products and compounds of the cultivated plant in relation to phenol ratio. Methods: In this interventional study, the effects of cultivar and size of the inflorescence explant and the gibberellin hormone in two levels, benzylaminopurine, and auxin hormones in three levels with three replicates per treatment were evaluated in relation to phenol ratio, in order to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators, the type and size of the grape inflorescence explant on the phenol production. Results: The type of plant growth regulators affected phenolic substances production. The production of phenolic substances decreased in a medium with the highest concentration of growth regulators, 4 and 2.5 μM concentration of benzylaminopurine, and 4.9 μM of auxin. Production of phenolic substances increased in the free-plant hormone medium. In smaller samples tendency to turn brown was more regarding high amount of the sugar. Conclusion: The plant sample and the cultivar as important factors in producing phenol environment are induced by environmental stimuli like sugar, light, temperature, stress, ozone, and wound and can be actually applied to increase phenol production.

  8. In vitro study of antioxidant and scavenger properties of phenolic compounds from Lychnophora species

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    Cristiane F. F. Grael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the antioxidant effects of thirteen phenolic compounds isolated from plants of the genus Lychnophora. Two assays were performed to evaluate these effects: a cellular test that measured the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence produced by neutrophils stimulated with opsonized zymosan and a cell-free test involving horseradish peroxidase-H2O2-luminol. In both assays, the antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds was dependent on their concentration and chemical structure. Our results suggest that the ability of phenolic compounds from Lychnophora species to scavenge and inhibit the generation of ROS may be a mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Lychnophora spp.

  9. Effectiveness of Rice Husk Ash in Removal of Phenolic Compounds from Aqueous Solutions, Equilibrium and Kinetics Studies

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    Majid Kermani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Phenols in trace quantities are usually present in the treated effluent of many wastewater-treatment plants. Phenol compounds even at low concentration can cause toxicity, health and significant taste and odor problem in drinking waters. This research focuses on understanding the sorption process and developing a cost-effective technology for the treatment of water contaminated with phenolic compounds, which are discharged into the aquatic environment from a variety of sources. In order to remove phenolic compounds from water, a new natural sorbent, rice husk ash, was developed.Materials and Methods: Removal of phenol, 2-chlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol were characterized by spectrophotometric technique at wavelengths of 269.5, 274 and 280 nm, respectively, under batch equilibrium conditions and via changing the parameters of contact time, initial pH, and initial concentration of adsorbates and dosages of sorbent. Finally, the results were analyzed by the kinetic and isotherm models.Results: in this study, the equilibrium time was found to be 240 min for full equilibration of adsorbates. Removal percent of 2-chlorophenol was lower than two others. The maximum removal of phenol, 2-CP and 4-CP was observed at an initial pH of 5. The percentage removal of these phenolic compounds increased with increasing adsorbent dose and decreasing initial concentration. In kinetics studies, correlation coefficient and ARE factor showed that the sorption of phenol (R2=0.9999, 2-chlorophenol (R2=0.9992 and 4-chlorophenol (R2=1 fitted by pseudo second order model. Isotherm studies also revealed that, Langmuirmodel for phenol (R2=0.9499, Freundlich model for 2-chlorophenol (R2=0.9659 and 4-chlorophenol (R2=0.9542 were the best choices to describe the sorption behaviors.Conclusion: Sorption process is highly dependent on the pH and it affects adsorbent surface

  10. STUDY ON THE ADSORPTION OF PHENOL BY CHITOSAN FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-long Yan

    2006-01-01

    The effects of pH, initial concentration and temperature on the adsorption of phenol by chitosan were investigated in this paper. The isothermal data was applied to Langmuir linear and the Freundlich linear isotherm equation, and the thermodynamic parameters (△H, △G, △S) were calculated according to the values of binding Langmuir constant, KL. Results indicated that the adsorption between chitosan and phenol was significantly physical in nature, the negative △H constant at lower temperature confirmed that more phenol was adsorbed by chitosan at lower temperature. The kinetics of the sorption process of phenol on chitosan was investigated using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetics, and results showed that the second order equation model provided the best correlation with the experimental results.

  11. Chromatographic Study of Phenolic Compounds in Medicinal Plants Alchemilla subcrenata Buser and Veronica chamaedrys L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhivetev M.A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objects of investigation were leaves and inflorescences of Alchemilla subcrenata and Veronica chamaedry, growing on the left bank at 700 m from the edge of Lake Baikal. Some small differences in the quantity and quality of phenolic compounds in the leaves of one species even selected at one time were found. At the same time, differences in the quantity and quality of phenolic compounds in the different times of the day were even more pronounced. In the inflorescences of Alchemilla subcrenata the dynamics of flavonoids has been characterized by more stable composition than in its leaves. For Veronica's tissues and organs more variety of seasonal cocktail of phenolic compounds than in the Alchemilla subcrenata was detected. Expect a variety of phenolic compounds in inflorescences of Veronica seasonal cocktail was higher than in the leaves.

  12. Increased strength of the scapular stabilizer and lumbar muscles after twelve weeks of Pilates training using the Reformer machine: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Núbia Tomain Otoni; Raimundo, Karoline Cipriano; da Silva, Sheila Aparecida; Souza, Lara Andrade; Ferreira, Karoline Carregal; Borges Santo Urbano, Zuleika Ferreira; Gasparini, Andréa Licre Pessina; Bertoncello, Dernival

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze muscle strength in Pilates novices who used the Reformer equipment during twelve training sessions. Twenty-four healthy young female volunteers, who were non-smokers and did not exercise regularly, were split into a control group (mean age 28 ± 4 years and BMI 24.55 ± 3.21 kg/m(2)) and a training group (mean age 29 ± 4 years and BMI 22.69 ± 2.87 kgm(2)). The data were checked for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and were then analyzed using the t-test (p Pilates group). The corresponding values for the lumbar muscles were 53.83 ± 11.66/53.28 ± 11.14 (control group) and 54.75 ± 10.27/64.80 ± 10.20 (Pilates group). After twelve sessions of Pilates with the Reformer equipment, there were improvements in lumbar extensor and scapular stabilizer strength. Several benefits are reported by practitioners of Pilates, but until now, there has been limited scientific evidence of the improvement of strength in the trunk and limbs after application of the technique. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Study on binder system of CO2-cured phenol-formaldehyde resin used in foundry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weihua; Li Yingmin; Qu Xueliang; Liu Xiuling

    2008-01-01

    A new aqueous alkaline resol phenol-formaldehyde resin has been prepared from phenol and formaldehyde using NaOH as catalyst;the optimum synthetic process has been determined.With addition of some cross-linking agents,after passing carbon dioxide gas through the resin bonded sand,high as-gassed strength and 24 h strength are achieved.The bonding bridge of the resin bonded sand fracture has been analyzed by using SEM.

  14. A kinetic study of the copper-catalysed oxidative coupling of 2,6-dimethylphenol. The role of copper, base and phenol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baesjou, PJ; Driessen, WL; Challa, G; Reedijk, J

    1998-01-01

    The influence of varying concentrations and ratios of phenol, base and copper on the copper/N-methylimidazole catalysed oxidative coupling of 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP) has been studied. The reaction obeys simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to the phenol. The amount of DPQ formed during the

  15. 焦木素对苯酚吸附性能的研究%STUDY ABOUT ADSORPTION PROPERTIES OF PYROXYLIN FOR PHENOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽敏; 彭学伟; 焦为成

    2001-01-01

    With pyroxy as an adsorbent,the adsorption of pyroxylin for phenol in sewage,the rate of adsorption,the capacity of adsorption and the effect of pH on the adsorption of phenol were studied.The resullts indicated that the pyroxylin had well properties of adsorption,the adsorption isotherms were conformed to Freundlich equation.

  16. A kinetic study of the copper-catalysed oxidative coupling of 2,6-dimethylphenol. The role of copper, base and phenol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baesjou, PJ; Driessen, WL; Challa, G; Reedijk, J

    1998-01-01

    The influence of varying concentrations and ratios of phenol, base and copper on the copper/N-methylimidazole catalysed oxidative coupling of 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP) has been studied. The reaction obeys simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to the phenol. The amount of DPQ formed during the

  17. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Khulood Ahmed Salim AL-Raqmi; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. Methods:The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Results: Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. Conclusions:The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  18. Inconel 718十二角头螺栓制造工艺技术研究%Study on Manufacturing Technology for Inconel 718 Twelve-Point Bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉凤; 刘风雷; 庄宝潼

    2015-01-01

    The material and structure features of Inconel 718 twelve-point bolt are introduced, and key manufacturing technologies, such as hot heading, heat treatment, warm rolling, etc. are analyzed, and optimal technological parameters are obtained. Dimensional in-spection and qualiifcation tests are carried out. The results show that technology designing is rational..%介绍了Inconel 718十二角头螺栓的材料和结构特点,分析了关键制造加工技术,如热镦锻、热处理、滚压螺纹等,确定了合理的工艺参数,并对研制件的尺寸和性能进行了评估,结果表明工艺技术设计合理。

  19. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although  the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao L., polifenol, embrio somatik, kalus, flavonoid, katekin, in vitro recalcitance

  20. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30-60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0-30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard.

  1. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  2. Quantitative structure–reactivity study on sulfonation of amines, alcohols and phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Beheshti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–reactivity relationship (QSRR can be considered as a variant of quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR studies, where the chemical reactivity of reactants in a specified chemical reaction is related to chemical structure. As follows, the sulfonation reaction yield of 24 amines, alcohols and phenols with sulfonyl chloride was studied by QSRR. Quantum chemical calculations (b3lyp/6-31+g (d were carried out to obtain the optimized geometry. The suitable set of molecular descriptors was calculated to represent the molecular structures of compounds, such as constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic and quantum-chemical descriptors. The genetic algorithm (GA was applied to select the variables that resulted in the best-fitted models. After the variable selection, multiple linear regression (MLR was utilized to construct linear QSRR models. The maximum relative error in prediction (5.26 showed that the predictive ability of the model was satisfactory and it can be used for designing similar reactants with efficient sulfonation reaction.

  3. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  4. Column operation studies for the removal of dyes and phenols using a low cost adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer plant waste carbon slurry has been investigated after some processing as an adsorbent for the removal of dyes and phenols using columns. The results show that the carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from carbon slurry being porous and having appreciable surface area (380 m2/g can remove dyes both cationic (meldola blue, methylene blue, chrysoidine G, crystal violet as well as anionic (ethyl orange, metanil yellow, acid blue 113, and phenols (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol fruitfully from water. The column type continuous flow operations were used to obtain the breakthrough curves. The breakthrough capacity, exhaustion capacity and degree of column utilization were evaluated from the plots. The results shows that the degree of column utilization for dyes lies in the range 60 to 76% while for phenols was in the range 53-58%. The exhaustion capacities were quite high as compared to the breakthrough capacities and were found to be 217, 211, 104, 126, 233, 248, 267 mg/g for meldola blue, crystal violet, chrysoidine G, methylene blue, ethyl orange, metanil yellow, acid blue 113, respectively and 25.6, 72.2, 82.2 and 197.3 mg/g for  phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively

  5. Spiral Wound Reverse Osmosis Membranes for the Recovery of Phenol Compounds-Experimental and Parameter Estimation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinivasan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Reverse osmosis is increasingly used as a separation technique in chemical and environmental engineering for the removal of organics and organic pollutants present in waste water. The removal of an organic compound, namely phenol, using a polyamide membrane was investigated in this study. Waste water containing phenol present a serious environmental problem and increasing attention is being given for its removal using RO membranes. Objective of this study is to (i generate experimental data related to the removal of phenol using a spiral wound polyamide membrane (ii analyze the performance of the membrane using solution-diffusion model and validate the model with the experimental data. Approach: Experiments were conducted on a laboratory scale spiral wound polyamide RO module. The permeate concentrations and rejection coefficient values were measured for various feed inlet pressures and feed concentrations. The total feed flow rate, 3.33×10-4 m3 sec-1 (20 LPM was not varied. The transport of solvent and solute through the membranes were analyzed using solution-diffusion model taking concentration polarization into account. Results: By varying inlet pressures from 4-14 kgf cm-2 and feed concentrations of phenol from 200-1100 ppm, the rejection coefficients of the membrane were measured and found to vary from 64-91%. The solvent and solute transport parameters were determined by a graphical procedure using the experimental data and its values were 5.9×10-7 (m atm-1 and 6.54×10-7 (m sec-1 respectively. Conclusion: The model and the estimated parameter values were validated with the experimental data. The model was able to predict the rejection within 10% error. In view of the fact that not much information is available on the usage of spiral wound polyamide RO membrane modules for the removal of phenolic compounds, it may be concluded that the experimental results reported in this study is very significant in the scale up and

  6. A twelve year follow-up study on osteoarthritis of the knee in the general population : an epidemiological study of classification criteria, risk factors and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S.A.G. Schouten (Jan S.A.G.)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractCriteria to diagnose the disease or assess the outcome need to be considered in every epidemiological study . The criteria are needed to classify participants as those having the disease or outcome and those who have not. Classification criteria are not always uniformly accepted and comm

  7. Kinetic and Thermodynamics Studies the Adsorption of Phenol on Activated Carbon from Rice Husk Activated by ZnCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Muhammad Anshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption ability of activated carbon from rice husk in adsorbing phenol. Activated carbon used was in this studies burning risk husk at 300 and 400oC and then activated by 10% of ZnCl2. The from activated carbon was characterized using an Infrared Spectrometer, an X-ray diffraction, an Scanning Electron Microscope, and a gas sorption analyzer. The best activated carbon for adsorbing phenol was the activated carbon that prodused from the burning of rice husk at a temperature 400oC and activated with 10% of ZnCl2 for 24 hours. Adsorption capacity of the best activated carbon was 3.9370 mg/g adsorbent with Gibbs free energy of -25.493 kJ/mol.

  8. A Comparison Study on the Removal of Phenol From Aqueous Solution Using Organomodified Bentonite and Commercial Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Leili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of bentonite modified with cationic surfactant (CTAB-Bent and commercial Activated Carbon (AC for the removal of phenol removal was assessed. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of contact time (t, phenol initial concentration (C0, adsorbent dose (Cads, and pH of the solutions. Kinetics and isotherm of the adsorption were also determined using the most frequent models. The results of the study showed that increasing C0 could result in the increase of adsorption capacity of both types of adsorbents. The optimum pHs for CTAB-Bent and AC were determined as 10 and 8, respectively. The equilibrium data of the phenol adsorption from the aqueous solutions was well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm models. The kinetics study revealed that pseudo-second-order kinetics gives better description of adsorption process. The adsorption capacities, as deduced from the adsorption isotherm were 22.68 and 112.36 mg/g for CTAB-Bent and activated carbon, respectively. However, considering the market price of these adsorbents, low-cost modified bentonite can be a promising adsorption technology and an alternative adsorbent to commercial activated carbon in the future.

  9. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tuncay Agar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC, A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC, antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract and TAC (2.080 UAE, the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL, the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  10. Comparative study of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in different species of cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Xinyan; Zhong, Fei; Tian, Rongrong; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Tianhong

    2011-05-01

    A new spectrometric method ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with high precision and rapid analysis was developed to separate 17 phenolic compounds. Different species of cherries, including 10 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, a tart cherry (P. cerasus L.) rootstock (CAB), and a hybrid rootstock 'Colt' (P. avium × P. pseudocerasus), were analyzed for phenolics contents by this method. The results showed that significant differences were observed among the phenolic compound contents in different cherry species. In 10 sweet cherry cultivars, the contents of neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3O-rutinoside were much higher in red-colored fruits (for example, 64.60 and 44.50 mg/100 g fresh weight in Burlat, respectively) than those in bicolored ones. Principal component analysis revealed that cyanidin-3O-rutinoside was an effective index for grouping the cultivars with similar species and fruit colors. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between phenolics content and antioxidant activity, which was higher in red-colored cherries.

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims for the phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils of medicinal plant Pistacia lentiscus L. quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the results obtained, it appears that the leaves and fruits are rich in substances with a high antioxidant power. The yield of the phenolic compounds obtained from 10g  to powder of plant  is for leaves 116.49 %  and 61.34 % for fruit . For essential oils, it is 0.253 ± 0.131 % for 100 g of plant material. The chromatographic profile of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. shows that monoterpenes are the major compound (9.675 % of identified molecules. The strong antioxidant activity of extracts obtained only confirms the traditional use of this plant by the local population.

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims for the phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils of medicinal plant Pistacia lentiscus L. quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the results obtained, it appears that the leaves and fruits are rich in substances with a high antioxidant power. The yield of the phenolic compounds obtained from 10g to powder of plant is for leaves 116.49 % and 61.34 % for fruit . For essential oils, it is 0.253 ± 0.131 % for 100 g of plant material. The chromatographic profile of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. shows that monoterpenes are the major compound (9.675 % of identified molecules. The strong antioxidant activity of extracts obtained only confirms the traditional use of this plant by the local population.

  13. Electrochemical Study of Iodide in the Presence of Phenol and o-Cresol: Application to the Catalytic Determination of Phenol and o-Cresol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Nematollahi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The electrochemical oxidation of iodide in the presence of phenol and o-cresol was investigated at a glassy carbon electrode in buffered media by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and controlled–potential coulometry. The experimental results indicate that the phenol and o-cresol convert to their derivatives after participating in a halogenation coupled reaction (quasi-catalytic reaction following the oxidation of iodide to iodine. The concentrations of phenol and o-cresol have been determined in aqueous solutions according to the linear dependence of quasi-catalytic peak currents with the concentration. The calibration graphs show two linear sections of 0.0 to 1.0×10-4 M and 2.0×10-4 to 1.0 ×10-3 M for phenol and 4.2×10-5 to 1.0×10-4 M and 2.0×10-4 to 1.0×10-3 M for o-cresol. The theoretical detection limits and the relative standard deviations for ten measurements of phenol and o-cresol are 1.125×10-5 M, 1.06% and 4.201×10-5 M, 1.44%, respectively.

  14. Wild Roman chamomile extracts and phenolic compounds: enzymatic assays and molecular modelling studies with VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Froufe, Hugo J C; Abreu, Rui M V; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process by which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing vasculature, and it is a key process that leads to tumour development. Some studies have recognized phenolic compounds as chemopreventive agents; flavonoids, in particular, seem to suppress the growth of tumor cells modifying the cell cycle. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.) extracts (methanolic extract and infusion) and the main phenolic compounds present (apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside) was evaluated through enzymatic assays using the tyrosine kinase intracellular domain of the Vascular Endothelium Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), which is a transmembrane receptor expressed fundamentally in endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis, and molecular modelling studies. The methanolic extract showed a lower IC50 value (concentration that provided 50% of VEGFR-2 inhibition) than the infusion, 269 and 301 μg mL(-1), respectively. Regarding phenolic compounds, luteolin and apigenin showed the highest capacity to inhibit the phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, leading us to believe that these compounds are involved in the activity revealed by the methanolic extract.

  15. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This study evaluates phenolic composition of commercial and experimental ... white wines, some contained large number of phenolic compounds while the others showed smaller number of ..... Synthesis, Properties, and Significance. Plenum ...

  16. Antioxidant activity, phenolic-flavonoid content and high-performance liquid chromatography profiling of three different variants of Syzygium cumini seeds: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Syama Hari; Prakasan, Nisha; Purushothaman, Jayamurthy

    2017-01-01

    Background: The medicinally important phytochemicals present in Syzygium cumini seeds probably accounts for its wide use in traditional systems of medicines in India, like Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant potential of three different geographical variants of S. cumini seeds and to compare the phenolic profiling to know the effect of geographical variation in phenolic composition. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid content of S. cumini seeds were analyzed. Antioxidant activities in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging assays were performed. The most active fractions were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiling to identify the phenolic composition. Results: Among all the fractions, 70% methanol fraction of S. cumini seed showed significant antioxidant potential. There existed a linear correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. HPLC profiling of 70% methanol (ME) fractions of all the variants revealed the presence of phenolic compounds with high concentrations of ellagic acid and gallic acid. The differences in phenolic concentration due to geographical changes might be the reason for higher antioxidant potential showed by 70% ME of Trivandrum variant. Conclusion: 70% methanolic fraction of S. cumini can act as a novel source of natural antioxidant. PMID:28163968

  17. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance.

  18. Study of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of date fruit as a function of ripening stages and drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdadi, F; Mirzaei, H O; Daraei Garmakhany, A

    2015-03-01

    Edible parts of two varieties of date palm (Mazfati and Kalute varieties) (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits (DPF) from Iran were analyzed to determine their phenolic compound and antioxidant activities (AA). Antioxidant activity evaluated using typical methods such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and total antioxidant method. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the DPF was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau method. The samples used in this study included samples were gathered at three stages of khalaal, rutab, tamr and dried date from Bam and Jiroft date. The TPC ranged from 2.89 to 4.82, 1074 to 856.4 and 782.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 gdw sample) for khalal, rutab and tamr stage of Mozafati variety, respectively. This work demonstrates the potential of Iranian dates as good sources of antioxidant which can be used as functional food ingredients. The influence of sun drying process and oven drying at temperature ranged 50-80 °C on phenolic compounds and AA of date palm fruits were investigated. Result of drying process showed that TPC and AA varied with temperature and decreased by increase of drying temperature (from 667.3 to 610.5 mg galic acid in sun dried dates of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively to 314.2 and 210.4 in dried dates (80 °C) of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively).

  19. Comparative Study of Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Color-composition Relation of Roselle Cultivars with Contrasting Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Jara-Palacios, M José; Escudero-Gilete, M Luisa; Gordillo, Belén; Hernanz, Dolores; Paredes-López, Octavio; Vanegas-Espinoza, Pablo E; Del Villar-Martínez, Alma A; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-03-01

    Roselle is a plant that accumulates anthocyanins significantly, hence its importance as food coloring and as a source of antioxidant compounds for human health. This study was aimed to determine phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts, and beverages obtained from native roselle cultivars in Mexico (Negra, Sudan, Rosa and Blanca) with different degrees of pigmentation, and to establish the color-composition relationship. Chromatographic methods were used to determine phenolic compounds: flavanols, flavonols, benzoic, hibiscus and phenolic acids as well as two main anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by ABTS and FRAP assays. Tristimulus colorimetry showed to be a useful technique to determine the color-composition relationship, leading to equations that allowed to predict anthocyanin content of roselle (R > 0.84). Also, a stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was developed in order to classify roselle cultivars. The obtained mathematical model could be an important tool to be used in colorimetric characterization of functional compounds used in food processing.

  20. 定心藤中酚性成分的研究%Study of phenolic compounds from Mappianthus iodoies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾立; 尹文清

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Study the phenolic compounds from Mappianthus iodoies. Methods: The column of silica gel was employed for the isolation and purification of the phenolic compounds,the structures of the compounds were identified by physiochemical properties and spectral analysis. Results: Six phenolic compounds were isolated from Mappianthus iodoies,Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis to be vanillin sinomenine(Ⅰ), Vanillin(Ⅱ), chrysin(Ⅲ), vanillic acid (Ⅳ),quercetin(Ⅴ), gallic acid(Ⅵ). Conclusion: All compounds were first reported from this plant.%目的:研究定心藤中酚性成分.方法:用色谱技术进行分离,波谱法进行鉴定.结果:从定心藤中分离得到6个酚性化合物,依次鉴定为青藤碱(I)、香草醛(Ⅱ)、白杨素(Ⅲ)、香草酸(Ⅳ)、槲皮素(Ⅴ)、没食子酸(Ⅵ).结论:所有化合物均首次从该植物中分离得到.

  1. Phenolic acids enzymatic lipophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria-Cruz; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2005-04-20

    Lipophilization is the esterification of a lipophilic moiety (fatty acid or fatty alcohol) on different substrates (phenolic acid, sugar, protein, ...), resulting in new molecules with modified hydrophilic/lipophilic balance. This reaction can be obtained chemically or enzymatically using different enzymes. Phenolic acids possess interesting biological properties (antioxidant, chelator, free radical scavenger, UV filter, antimicrobial, ...), but because of their relatively low solubility in aprotic media, their application in oil-based products is limited. Therefore, the esterification of their carboxylic acid function with a fatty alcohol enhances their hydrophobicity and results in a multifunctional amphiphilic molecule. Enzymatic lipophilization of phenolic acids is nowadays studied for potential industrial applications. Different systems have been proposed to perform the reaction yield [free or immobilized enzymes (lipase, feruloyl esterase, tannase, etc.), free or added organic solvent, addition of surfactant, microemulsion system, etc.]. Some of the functional properties of these esters have been demonstrated. This review presents a panorama of the advances in this field.

  2. Aquatic Pathways Model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds. Appendixes A through D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.L.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. We have developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for the distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. The model was developed to estimate the fate of liquids derived from coal. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation of a spill of solvent-refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor. Results of a simulated spill of a coal liquid (SRC-II) into a pond show that APM predicted the allocation of 12 phenolic components among six compartments at 30 hours after a small spill. The simulation indicated that most of the introduced phenolic compounds were biodegraded. The phenolics remaining in the aquatic system partitioned according to their molecular weight and structure. A substantial amount was predicted to remain in the water, with less than 0.01% distributed in sediment or fish.

  3. Combining ability of twelve maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacaro Elton

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic progress depends on germplasm quality and breeding methods. Twelve maize populations and their crosses were evaluated to estimate combining ability and potential to be included as source populations in breeding programs. Plant height, point of insertion of the first ear, number of ears per plant, number of grains per ear, root and stalk lodging and grain yield were studied in two locations in Brazil, during the 1997/98 season. Genotype sum of squares was divided into general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability. Results indicated the existence of genetic divergence for all traits analyzed, where additive effects were predominant. The high heterosis levels observed, mainly in Xanxerê, suggested the environmental influence on the manifestation of this genetic phenomenon. Populations revealed potential to be used in breeding programs; however, those more intensively submitted to selection could provide larger genetic progress, showing the importance of population improvement for the increment of the heterosis in maize.

  4. Rate-capability study for a four-gap phenolic RPC with a Cs-137 source

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyong Sei

    2014-01-01

    We report test results of a prototype four-gap phenolic resistive plate chamber (RPC) with high-rate gamma rays irradiated from a 200-mCi 137Cs source. The detector signals of the prototype four-gap RPC were digitized at charge thresholds of 80, 130, and 170 fC by using a 32-channel front-end-electronics board, previously developed for the current double-gap RPCs in CMS. We confirmed from the test that the cosmic muons were reliably measured with efficiencies higher than 95pct up to a gamma-background rate of 5.3 kHz cm-2. We concluded from the present R and D that use of the current four-gap phenolic RPCs is advantageous to the high-η triggers in CMS in virtue of the high rate capability.

  5. Studies of phenolic and aromatic profile of Busuioacă de Bohotin wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colibaba Lucia Cintia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Busuioacă de Bohotin grapes were harvested from Pietroasa vineyard, in Dealu Mare viticultural area, in 2013. The wines were obtained by applying modern technologies: cryomaceration, microwave maceration, ultrasound maceration, rotative-tanks maceration, etc, after which the normal technological process was followed. These samples are characterised by specific volatile compounds (terpenic compounds, esters, alcohols and some fatty acids and polyphenols (anthocyans, flavanols, favonols, stilbens and other phenolic compounds which were evaluated in order to understand the influence of the applied tech- nologies upon wine making strategies. The wine phenolic compounds were carried out with high-performance liquid chromato- graph (HPLC Shimadzu equipped with two chromatographic columns Merck Chromolith Performance RP-18. The wine aroma compounds were analysed by a Shimadzu GC-2010, coupled with a QP2010 Plus spectrophotometer.

  6. Comparative study of microbial-derived phenolic metabolites in human feces after intake of gin, red wine, and dealcoholized red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel; Boto-Ordóñez, Maria; Muñoz-González, Irene; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Monagas, Maria; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Murri, Mora; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2013-04-24

    The analysis of microbial phenolic metabolites in fecal samples from in vivo studies is crucial to understanding the potential modulatory effects derived from polyphenol consumption and its overall health effects, particularly at the gut level. In this study, the composition of microbial phenolic metabolites in human feces collected after regular consumption of either red wine, dealcoholized red wine, or gin was analyzed by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Red wine interventions produce a change in the content of eight phenolic acids, which are probably derived from the catabolism of flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins, the main flavonoids in red wine. Moreover, alcohol seemed not to influence the formation of phenolic metabolites by the gut microbiota. A principal component analysis revealed large interindividual differences in the formation of microbial metabolites after each red wine polyphenol intervention, but not after the gin intervention, indicating differences in the gut microbial composition among subjects.

  7. Preparation of phenol formaldehyde resin from phenolated wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIGai-yun; QINTe-fu; TohmuraShin-ichiro; IkedaAtsushi

    2004-01-01

    The technique for preparing phenol formaldehyde resin from phenolated wood (PWF) and its characters were studied and analyzed. Poplar (Populus spp.) wood meal was liquefied by phenol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. After the liquefied products were cooled, alkaline catalyst and formaldehyde were added. The mixture was kept at (60±2)℃ for lh and then was heated to (85±2)℃ for lh. The influence of molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol (F/P) was investigated. The results showed when the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol was over 1.8, the PWF adhesives had high bond quality, bond durability and extremely low aldehydes emissions.

  8. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva; Dulce Libna Ambriz-Pérez; Nayely Leyva-López; Ramón Ignacio Castillo-López; José Basilio Heredia

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowled...

  9. Identification and characterization of the phenolic glycosides of Lagenaria siceraria Stand. (bottle gourd) fruit by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-02-12

    Bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria Stand. (Cucurbitaceae), fruit is used in folk medicines and for culinary purposes in Asia. The phenolics of bottle gourd fruit were investigated qualitatively by LC-MS(n). Twenty-two phenolic glycosides were detected and characterized on the basis of their unique fragmentation pattern in the negative ion mode tandem MS spectra. Twenty of them were extracted for the first time from this source, and twelve of them have not been reported previously in nature. It was also possible to distinguish between the individual classes of isobaric phenolic glycosides by tandem and high-resolution mass spectrometry. In this study we also discuss the mass spectrometric fragmentation mechanism of 6-(hydroxycinnamoyl)glucoses. This is the first report of the full characterization of phenolic glycosides of bottle gourd fruit by LC-MS²⁻⁴.

  10. EPFR formation from phenol adsorption on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}: EPR and EELS studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Matthew C., E-mail: mpatt15@tigers.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Keilbart, Nathan D., E-mail: kei07001@byui.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University-Idaho, Rexburg, ID 83460 (United States); Kiruri, Lucy W., E-mail: lkirur1@tigers.lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Thibodeaux, Chad A., E-mail: cthib19@tigers.lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Lomnicki, Slawo, E-mail: slomni1@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Kurtz, Richard L., E-mail: rlkurtz@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Poliakoff, E.D., E-mail: epoliak@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dellinger, Barry, E-mail: barryd@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sprunger, Phillip T., E-mail: phils@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► EPR studies of phenol adsorption on titania and alumina show radical formation at 505 K. ► EELS of phenol/TiO{sub 2}(1 1 0) at 90 K show π–π{sup ∗} transitions from intact molecule. ► EELS of phenol/TiO{sub 2}(1 1 0) and phenol/alumina adsorbed at 525 K show shift in π–π{sup ∗}. ► Shifted π–π{sup ∗} on single crystal corresponds to radical formation conditions in EPR. - Abstract: We have examined the formation of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) from phenol over alumina and titania using both powder and single-crystal samples. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of phenol adsorbed on metal oxide powders indicates radical formation on both titania and alumina, with both oxides forming one faster-decaying species (lifetime on the order of 50–100 h) and one slower-decaying species (lifetimes on the order of 1000 h or more). Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements comparing physisorbed phenol on single-crystal TiO{sub 2}(1 1 0) to phenoxyl radicals on the same substrate indicate distinct changes in the π–π{sup ∗} transitions from phenol after radical formation. The identical shifts are observed from EELS studies of phenoxyl radicals on ultrathin alumina grown on NiAl(1 1 0), indicating that this shift in the π–π{sup ∗} transition may be taken as a general hallmark of phenoxyl radical formation.

  11. Control of occupational exposure to phenol in industrial wastewater treatment plant of a petroleum refinery in Alexandria, Egypt: An intervention application case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; Ramadan, Alaa El-Din K; Issa, Ahmed I; Nofal, Faten H

    2016-11-01

    Phenol exposure is one of the hazards in the industrial wastewater treatment basin of any refinery. It additively interacts with hydrogen sulfide emitted from the wastewater basin. Consequently, its concentration should be greatly lower than its threshold limit value. The present study aimed at controlling occupational exposure to phenol in the work environment of wastewater treatment plant in a refinery by reducing phenolic compounds in the industrial wastewater basin. This study was conducted on both laboratory and refinery scales. The first was completed by dividing each wastewater sample from the outlets of different refinery units into three portions; the first was analyzed for phenolic compounds. The second and third were for laboratory scale charcoal and bacterial treatments. The two methods were compared regarding their simplicities, design, and removal efficiencies. Accordingly, bacterial treatment by continuous flow of sewage water containing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa was used for refinery scale treatment. Laboratory scale treatment of phenolic compounds revealed higher removal efficiency of charcoal [100.0(0.0) %] than of bacteria [99.9(0.013) %]. The refinery scale bacterial treatment was [99.8(0.013) %] efficient. Consequently, level of phenol in the work environment after refinery-scale treatment [0.069(0.802) mg/m(3)] was much lower than that before [5.700(26.050) mg/m(3)], with removal efficiency of [99.125(2.335) %]. From the present study, we can conclude that bacterial treatment of phenolic compounds in industrial wastewater of the wastewater treatment plant using continuous flow of sewage water containing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa reduces the workers' exposure to phenol.

  12. A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2014-07-01

    Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices.

  13. Performance Study of Chromium (VI Removal in Presence of Phenol in a Continuous Packed Bed Reactor by Escherichia coli Isolated from East Calcutta Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaswati Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic pollutants, like phenol, along with heavy metals, like chromium, are present in various industrial effluents that pose serious health hazard to humans. The present study looked at removal of chromium (VI in presence of phenol in a counter-current continuous packed bed reactor packed with E. coli cells immobilized on clay chips. The cells removed 85% of 500 mg/L of chromium (VI from MS media containing glucose. Glucose was then replaced by 500 mg/L phenol. Temperature and pH of the MS media prior to addition of phenol were 30°C and 7, respectively. Hydraulic retention times of phenol- and chromium (VI-containing synthetic media and air flow rates were varied to study the removal efficiency of the reactor system. Then temperature conditions of the reactor system were varied from 10°C to 50°C, the optimum being 30°C. The pH of the media was varied from pH 1 to pH 12, and the optimum pH was found to be 7. The maximum removal efficiency of 77.7% was achieved for synthetic media containing phenol and chromium (VI in the continuous reactor system at optimized conditions, namely, hydraulic retention time at 4.44 hr, air flow rate at 2.5 lpm, temperature at 30°C, and pH at 7.

  14. Family Textbooks Twelve Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.

    2009-01-01

    In 1996 the author conducted an intensive study of twenty current family textbooks published in the United States, the results of which appeared in an academic journal article and a nonacademic report in 1997. The study included practical "functionalist" marriage and family textbooks and more academic sociology of the family books; these…

  15. A study of catalytic behaviour of aromatic additives on the photo-Fenton degradation of phenol red

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhilasha Jain; Savitri Lodha; P B Punjabi; V K Sharma; Suresh C Ameta

    2009-11-01

    The present study describes the photochemical degradation of phenol-red using photo-Fenton reaction. The progress of the reaction has been monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of various organic additives e.g. hydroquinone, resorcinol and catechol on the rate of photodegradation has been observed. The effect of variation of various parameters such as pH, concentration of dye, Fe3+ ion and additives, amount of H2O2, and light intensity on the rate of photodegradation was also observed. A tentative mechanism of the reaction has been proposed.

  16. Simultaneous determination of metoprolol, propranolol and phenol red in samples from rat in situ intestinal perfusion studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zakeri-Milani

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Single-pass intestinal perfusion technique (SPIP is the most used classic technique employed in the study of intestinal absorption of compounds in which a non-absorbable marker such as phenol red is used to correct the water flux. A simple and rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 227 nm was developed for simultaneous quantitation of propranolol and metoprolol along with phenol red for in-situ permeability studies. The mobile phase was a mixture of 55% methanol, 45% of 0.05 M KH2PO4 aqueous solution (adjusted to pH 6 and 0.2 % (v/v triethylamine. Analysis was run at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with a 9 min run time. The calibration curves were linear for all three compounds (r > 0.999 across the concentration range of 7.5-125 μg/ml with a limit of detection of 4.24, 2.18 and 8.57 ng/ml and limit of quantification of 14, 7.2 and 28.3 ng/ml for metoprolol, propranolol and phenol red respectively. The coefficient of variation for intra-assay and inter-assay precision was less than 8% and the accuracy was between 93.6-107%. Using the SPIP technique and the suggested HPLC method for sample analysis, the mean values of 0.49 e-4 (±0.19 cm/sec and 0.32 e-4 (± 0.09 cm/sec were obtained for propranolol and metoprolol intestinal permeability coefficients respectively.

  17. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring phenolic and related compounds: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Fang, Shih-Hua; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2007-09-01

    The antioxidant (DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities), and cytotoxic (in tumor, Jurkat, PC-3, Colon 205, HepG2, and normal PBMCs cells) activities of 16 plant phenolic or related compounds were evaluated in vitro. Different categories compounds corresponding to 10 flavonoids, three lignans, two phenolic acids, and a catechin showed significant mean differences in antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Particularly, the flavonols, quercetin (3) and tiliroside (11) possess significant antioxidant activity, as well as cytotoxic activity against Jurkat; and Jurkat and HepG2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the flavanone, 5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavanone (7), and homoisoflavonoid, isobonducellin (10) shown to have no significant antioxidant activity, but exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in Jurkat and HepG2 cells, while moderate growth inhibition against Colon205 cells. Interestingly, none of these derivatives shown to have toxicity toward normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, over the concentration range tested (5-200 microM). Cytotoxic activities of some natural flavonoids identified in the medicinal plants were evaluated for the first time.

  18. Comparative study of phenol and cyanide containing wastewater in CSTR and SBR activated sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, C A; Samaras, P; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this work were the examination of the performance of two bench scale activated sludge systems, a conventional Continuous Stirring Tank Reactor (CSTR) and a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR), for the treatment of wastewaters containing phenol and cyanides and the assessment of the toxicity reduction potential by bioassays. The operation of the reactors was monitored by physicochemical analyses, while detoxification potential of the systems was monitored by two bioassays, the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The reactors influent was highly toxic to both organisms, while activated sludge treatment resulted in the reduction of toxicity of the influent. An increased toxicity removal was observed in the SBR; however CSTR system presented a lower ability for toxicity reduction of influent. The performance of both systems was enhanced by the addition of powdered activated carbon in the aeration tank; activated carbon upgraded the performance of the systems due to the simultaneous biological removal of pollutants and to carbon adsorption process; almost negligible values of phenol and cyanides were measured in the effluents, while further toxicity reduction was observed in both systems.

  19. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  20. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of the interaction between oleuropein, the major bio-phenol in olives, and salmon sperm DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Maryam; Afzali, Daryoush; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Mostafavi, Ali; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud

    2015-09-01

    Interaction of oleuropein, the major bio-phenol in olive leaf and fruit, with salmon sperm double-stranded DNA was investigated by employing electronic absorption titrations, fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, competitive fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal denaturation and voltammetric studies. Titration of oleuropein with the DNA caused a hypochromism accompanied with a red shift indicating an intercalative mode of interaction. Binding constant of 1.4 × 104 M-1 was obtained for this interaction. From the curves of fluorescence titration of oleuropein with the DNA, binding constant and binding sites were calculated to be 8.61 × 103 M-1 and 1.05, respectively. Competitive studies with ethidium bromide (a well-known DNA intercalator) showed that the bio-phenol could take the place of ethidium bromide in the DNA intercalation sites. The interaction of oleuropein with DNA was also studied electrochemically. In the presence of the DNA, the anodic and cathodic peak currents of oleuropein decreased accompanied with increases in peak-to-peak potential separation and formal potential, indicating the intercalation of oleuropein into the DNA double helix. Moreover, melting temperature of the DNA was found to increase in the presence of oleuropein, indicating the stabilization of the DNA double helix due to an intercalative interaction.

  1. Computational and experimental studies of 2-[(E)-hydrazinylidenemethyl]-6-methoxy-4-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]phenol and its tautomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Koray; Kurtoglu, Nurcan; Kose, Muhammet; Karakas, Duran; Kurtoglu, Mukerrem

    2016-09-01

    A new azo-chromophore group containing a hydrazine-Schiff base compound, 2-[(E)-hydrazinylidenemethyl]-6-methoxy-4-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]phenol, was synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The compound was found to crystallise in orthorhombic crystal system with Pca2(1) space group. In the structure, the molecule exhibits a phenol-imine intramolecular hydrogen bond and the sbnd NH2 group also involves in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with one of the nitrogen atom of the azo group (-Ndbnd N-) forming a 1D zigzag chain. Computational studies were performed on the titled compound and its tautomers. As computationally, this compound and its tautomers were optimized by using M062X/6-311G(d,p) level. According to thermodynamic parameters, the most stable tautomer was found to be azo-enol form. This result was then taken into account and spectral studies, which are IR, UV-Vis and NMR spectra, of this compound were performed and examined in detail. All calculations were performed at gas phase (ε = 1.000), 2-propanol (ε = 19.264), 1,2-ethanediol (ε = 40.245), water (ε = 78.355), formamide (ε = 108.940) and N-methylformamide-mixture (ε = 181.560).

  2. Poland, assuring and strengthening the quality of (private) higher education : One of twelve case studies produced as part of the project on structural reform in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwiek, Marek; Antonowicz, Dominik; Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses how different types of system-level (or ‘landscape’) structural reforms in higher education have been designed and implemented in selected higher education systems. In the 12 case studies that form the core of the project, the researchers examine reforms aimed at:• Increasing

  3. France, initiatives for excellence in higher education: One of twelve case studies produced as part of the project on structural reform in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudard, Emmanuel; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses how different types of system-level (or ‘landscape’) structural reforms in higher education have been designed and implemented in selected higher education systems. In the 12 case studies that form the core of the project, the researchers examine reforms aimed at:• Increasing hor

  4. A Comparative Study of the Academic Performance of Secondary School Pupils at Grade Twelve Level in English, French and Zambian Languages (1998-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishiba, G. M.; Mukuka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the performance of pupils at grade 12 level in Zambian languages, French and English during a period of ten years (1998-2008). Grade 12 is the final year of Secondary School Education in Zambia. This exercise was aimed at establishing the language with the best performance during the aforementioned period. The study, which was…

  5. Biodegradation Study of Nanocomposites of Phenol Novolac Epoxy/Unsaturated Polyester Resin/Egg Shell Nanoparticles Using Natural Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials refer to those materials whose reinforcing phase has dimensions on a scale from one to one hundred nanometers. In this study, the nanocomposite biodegradation of the phenol Novolac epoxy and the unsaturated polyester resins was investigated using the egg shell nanoparticle as bioceramic as well as starch and glycerin as natural polymers to modify their properties. The phenol Novolac epoxy resin has a good compatibility with the unsaturated polyester resin. The prepared samples with different composition of materials for specified time were buried under soil and their biodegradation was studied using FTIR and SEM. The FTIR results before and after degradation showed that the presence of the hydroxyl group increased the samples degradation. Also adding the egg shell nanoparticle to samples had a positive effect on its degradation. The SEM results with and without the egg shell nanoparticle also showed that use of the egg shell nanoparticle increases the samples degradation. Additionally, increasing the amount of starch, and glycerol and the presence of egg shell nanoparticles can increase water adsorption.

  6. Validation of phenol red versus gravimetric method for water reabsorption correction and study of gender differences in Doluisio's absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğcu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a method for water flux reabsorption measurement in Doluisio's Perfusion Technique based on the use of phenol red as a non-absorbable marker and to validate it by comparison with gravimetric procedure. The compounds selected for the study were metoprolol, atenolol, cimetidine and cefadroxil in order to include low, intermediate and high permeability drugs absorbed by passive diffusion and by carrier mediated mechanism. The intestinal permeabilities (Peff) of the drugs were obtained in male and female Wistar rats and calculated using both methods of water flux correction. The absorption rate coefficients of all the assayed compounds did not show statistically significant differences between male and female rats consequently all the individual values were combined to compare between reabsorption methods. The absorption rate coefficients and permeability values did not show statistically significant differences between the two strategies of concentration correction. The apparent zero order water absorption coefficients were also similar in both correction procedures. In conclusion gravimetric and phenol red method for water reabsorption correction are accurate and interchangeable for permeability estimation in closed loop perfusion method.

  7. Study on Interactions between Three Kinds of Microalgae and Phenol%三种微藻与苯酚的相互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任佳; 麻晓霞; 马玉龙; 马彩虹; 张新沙

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the interactions between Chlorella sp. .Spirulina sp. and Scenedesmus obliqnus three kinds of Microalgae and phenol. [Method] Chlorella sp. ^Spirulina sp. and Scenedesmus obliqnus were used to research on the interaction between microalgae and phenol in simulation wastewater containing various concentrations of phenol. [ Result ] Phenol promoted the growth of Chlorella sp. However , the phenol had an inhibitory effect to Spirulina sp. and Scenedesmus obliqnus. Among the tested algae species, Spirulina sp. had the lowest re-sistant ability to phenol. Spirulina sp. died in the tested waste water containing phenol with more than 200 mg/L. Both Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus obliqnus had some remove abilities to phenol, but removal rate decreased with the increase of phenol concentration. [ Conclusion ] Dealing with low concentration of phenol wastewater with microalgae has certain application value.%[目的]研究小球藻、螺旋藻和斜生栅藻3种微藻与苯酚的相互作用.[方法]以小球藻、螺旋藻和斜生栅藻为藻种,人工模拟配置不同浓度苯酚的废水为受试水样,进行微藻与苯酚的相互作用研究.[结果]苯酚对小球藻的生长具有促进作用,而对螺旋藻和斜生栅藻均有一定的抑制作用,其中螺旋藻表现得更为敏感,当苯酚浓度高于200 mg/L时,螺旋藻死亡;小球藻、斜生栅藻对低浓度苯酚均有一定的去除能力,并随苯酚浓度增加其去除苯酚能力减弱.[结论]利用微藻处理低浓度含酚废水具有一定的应用价值.

  8. Fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis enhance total phenolics and antioxidant activity of aqueous solution from rice bran pretreated by steaming with α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Ruifen; Deng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Juan; Huang, Fei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-04-15

    In this study, rice bran was successively steamed with α-amylase, fermented with lactic acid bacteria, and hydrolyzed with complex enzymes. The changes in phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the corresponding aqueous solutions from three stages were investigated. Compared to the first stage, fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the total phenolics, total flavonoids, total FRAP and ORAC values by 59.2%, 56.6%, 73.6% and 45.4%, respectively. Twelve individual phenolics present in free or soluble conjugate forms were also analyzed during the processing. Ferulic acid was released in the highest amount among different phenolics followed by protocatechuic acid. Moreover, a major proportion of phenolics existed as soluble conjugates. The results showed that fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis enhanced total phenolics and antioxidant activities of aqueous solution from rice bran pretreated by steaming with α-amylase. This research could provide basis for the processing of rice bran beverage rich in phenolics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detoxification of tar water by anaerobic treatment in an UASB reactor - A study of the degradation of phenolic compounds in a combined denitrifying and anaerobic UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibsted Mogensen, A.; Schmidt, J.E.; Ahring, B.K. [Technical Univ., Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1998-08-01

    The digestion of pyrolysis condensate (PC) in two combined anaerobic and denitrifying upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors was studied. A COD removal of 80% was achieved with an influent concentration of 1.43% PC{sub pH}. When the reactor was fed with 100% PC during a period of 10 days good reactor operation was observed. Despite less than one retention time of operation, the results indicated clearly, that PC could be used as substrate in the biogas process, even in very high concentrations. A combined anaerobic and denitrifying UASB reactor was successfully digesting 5.5% of wet oxidised PC, but further loading increments deteriorated the anaerobic digestion process. The detoxification of PC was studied by determining the degradation of phenols during reactor operation and the toxicity of PC was decreased more than 77 times witnessed through decreased inhibition of the nitrification process. Phenol, methyl and dimethyl phenols along with methoxyphenols were shown to be degraded within the reactor systems. Degradation rates for phenol and substituted phenols were determined by the reactor experiment indicating that the biomass was selective towards the substrates. Maximum growth rates and half saturation constants for phenol, 4-Methylphenol and 2-Methoxy-4-methylphenol were determined in batch experiments. The degradation rates of phenols determined in batches were significantly higher compared to degradation rates observed in the reactor systems digesting pyrolysis condensate. Determination of the population of methanogens revealed, that Methanosarcina was found only in one reactor, while Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta were found in reactors and inoculum. A UASB reactor was designed for the treatment of pyrolysis condensate at the gasification plant at Harbooere, Denmark. (au) 35 refs.

  10. Studies on Acetone Powder and Purified Rhus Laccase Immobilized on Zirconium Chloride for Oxidation of Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ammonium chloride solution, and the kinetic properties of free and immobilized Rhus laccase, such as activity, molecular weight, optimum pH, and thermostability, were examined. In addition, the behaviors on catalytic oxidation of phenols also were conducted.

  11. Development of Polymer Network of Phenolic and Epoxies Resins Mixed with Linseed Oil: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, H.; Cardona, F.; Rogers, D.; Munoz, J.-C.

    2010-08-01

    Epoxy resin was mixed with phenolic resins in different percentages by weight. Composite 40/60 means the proportion by weight of epoxy resin is 40%. It was found that only composites 50/50 and 40/60 could be cured in ambient conditions. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that only these two composites form interpenetrating polymer network. The addition of linseed oil to the two resins results also in the formation of interpenetrating network irrespective of proportion by weight of the resins; the mechanical properties will only be better when the percentage by weight of epoxy resin is higher; the aim of reducing cost and at the same time maintaining the mechanical properties cannot be fully achieved because epoxy resin is much more expensive than its counterpart.

  12. Study on the microstructure evolution of phenol-formaldehyde resin modified by ceramic additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Haiyun; WANG Jigang; DUAN Zhichao; LI Fan

    2007-01-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) was selected as the additive for the modification of a phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin, and the micro-structural evolution of the modified resin at high temperature was investigated.Results showed that the distribution of B4C particles became uniform at elevated temperatures.The primary oxidation of B4C started to occur at 450℃,and lots of B2O3 was formed above 650℃.By the modification reactions of B,C,the volatiles including CO was converted into amorphous carbon and remained in the resin matrix,which was responsible for maintaining the stability of the resin at high temperatures.

  13. Regeneration of phenolic antioxidants from phenoxyl radicals: An ESR and electrochemical study of antioxidant hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars V.; Madsen, Helle L.; Thomsen, Marianne K.

    1999-01-01

    -trapping by 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). Simulations of the ESR spectrum based on estimated coupling constants of the spin-trapped quercetin radical, confirmed that this antioxidant radical is oxygen-centered. The complex mixture of radicals, quinoid intermediates and stable two-electron oxidation...... products, were for each antioxidant allowed to react with each of the four other antioxidants, and the progression of reaction followed by ESR after addition of DMPO, and the product solution further analysed by HPLC. All-rac-alpha-tocopherol was found to be most efficient in regenerating each of the other...... antioxidants from their oxidation products with a regeneration index (defined as moles regenerated of the oxidised phenolic antioxidant divided with moles of all-rac-alpha-tucopherol consumed) of 0.90 +/- 0.16 for quercetin, 0.48 +/- 0.11 for (+)-catechin, 0.48 +/- 0.06 for (+/-)-taxifolin and 0.50 +/- 0...

  14. STUDIES ON SELF-VULCANIZING FLUOROELASTOMER/PHENOL HYDROXY SILICONE RUBBER BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ming Wang; Lan Liu; Yuan-fang Luo; De-min Jia

    2009-01-01

    Self-vulcanizing blends of phenol hydroxy silicone rubber (PHSR) and fluoroelastomer (FPM) were prepared. Vulcanized rubbers with lower glass transition temperature (Tg) were successfully obtained. The results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) show that the vulcanized FPM/PHSR (10 phr) blend has only one Tg temperature, demonstrating the well compatibility between FPM and PHSR. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrates that the PHSR do little damage to the thermal stability of FPM. The vulcanization characteristics of the FPM/PHSR blends were analyzed by using oscillating disc rheometer (ODR). The results show that FPM/PHSR blends have smaller Smin values and longer scorch time than that of FPM with the same level of bisphenol AF curing agent. It means that FPM/PHSR blends have better processability and curing security. Better mechanical properties can be gained for FPM/PHSR blends at appropriate level of PHSR.

  15. Adsorption of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions by Carbon Nanomaterials of One and Two Dimensions: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Luz-Asunción

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials have a great potential in environmental studies; they are considered as superior adsorbents of pollutants due to their physical and chemical properties. Functionalization and dimension play an important role in many functions of these nanomaterials including adsorption. In this research, adsorption process was achieved with one-dimension nanomaterials: single walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used as received and after oxidation treatment also two-dimensional nanomaterials were used: graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Carbon nanotubes were modified by hydrogen peroxide under microwave irradiation. The reduction of graphene oxide was achieved by using ascorbic acid. R2 values obtained with the pseudo-second-order model are higher than 0.99. The results demonstrate that Freundlich isotherm provides the best fit for the equilibrium data (R2>0.94. RL values are between 0 and 1; this represents favorable adsorption between carbon nanomaterials and phenol. The adsorption process occurs by π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding and not by electrostatic interactions. The results indicate that the adsorption of phenol on carbon nanomaterials depends on the adsorbents’ surface area, and it is negatively influenced by the presence of oxygenated groups.

  16. Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic studies for the simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide by use of S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) immobilized on coconut shell activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2016-09-01

    In this study, simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide by a microorganism S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) immobilized onto coconut shell activated carbon surface (CSAC) was studied in batch reactor from mono and binary component aqueous solution. Activated carbon was derived from coconut shell by chemical activation method. Ferric chloride (Fecl3), used as surface modification agents was applied to biomass. Optimum biosorption conditions were obtained as a function of biosorbent dosage, pH, temperature, contact time and initial phenol and cyanide concentration. To define the equilibrium isotherms, experimental data were analyzed by five mono component isotherm and six binary component isotherm models. The higher uptake capacity of phenol and cyanide onto CSAC biosorbent surface was 450.02 and 2.58 mg/g, respectively. Nonlinear regression analysis was used for determining the best fit model on the basis of error functions and also for calculating the parameters involved in kinetic and isotherm models. The kinetic study results revealed that Fractal-like mixed first second order model and Brouser-Weron-Sototlongo models for phenol and cyanide were capable to offer accurate explanation of biosorption kinetic. According to the experimental data results, CSAC with immobilization of bacterium S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) seems to be an alternative and effective biosorbent for the elimination of phenol and cyanide from binary component aqueous solution.

  17. A Comprehensive Study on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for Phenol Degradation and its Potential Applicability as Biodiesel Feedstock and Animal Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhaskar; Mandal, Tapas K; Patra, Sanjukta

    2015-07-01

    The present work evaluates the phenol degradative performance of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that C. pyrenoidosa degrades phenol completely up to 200 mg/l. It could also metabolize phenol in refinery wastewater. Biokinetic parameters obtained are the following: growth kinetics, μ max (media) > μ max (refinery wastewater), K s(media)  K I(refinery wastewater); degradation kinetics, q max (media) > q max (refinery wastewater), K s(media)  K I(refinery wastewater). The microalgae could cometabolize the alkane components present in refinery wastewater. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fingerprinting of biomass indicates intercellular phenol uptake and breakdown into its intermediates. Phenol was metabolized as an organic carbon source leading to higher specific growth rate of biomass. Phenol degradation pathway was elucidated using HPLC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometry. It involved both ortho- and meta-pathway with prominence of ortho-pathway. SEM analysis shows that cell membrane gets wrinkled on phenol exposure. Phenol degradation was growth and photodependent. Infrared analysis shows increased intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids opening possibility for utilization of spent biomass as biodiesel feedstock. The biomass after lipid extraction could be used as protein supplement in animal feed owing to enhanced protein content. The phenol remediation ability coupled with potential applicability of the spent biomass as biofuel feedstock and animal feed makes it a potential candidate for an environmentally sustainable process.

  18. Papilomatosis in dogs: literature review and study of twelve cases/ Papilomatose oral em cães: revisão da literatura e estudo de doze casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine papillomatosis is an infectious viral disease characterized by oral, cutaneous or ocular papillomas, usually benign. The treatment is indicated in animals, with multiple tumors that produce pharyngeal obstruction, and problems of eating or for aesthetic reasons. Different treatment protocols have been proposed, including surgical excision, cryosurgery, electro surgery, autogenous or recombinant vaccines, imunomodulators drugs, systemic and intralesional chemotherapy. In this study were reviewed the more important aspects of canine oral papillomatosis. In the 12 studied animals, the papillomas were observed predominantly in mouth, gum and palate regions, in puppies until 12 months, presenting combined infection with ehrlichiosis. The treatment using Propionibacterium acnes and/or autogenous vaccine showed efficacy in eight dogs (66.7%.Papilomatose canina é uma enfermidade infecto-contagiosa viral caracterizada pela formação de papilomas orais, cutâneos ou oculares, geralmente benignos. O tratamento é indicado quando ocorre persistência dos tumores, lesões múltiplas causando obstrução faringeana, disfagia ou por razões estéticas. Diferentes protocolos de tratamento são descritos incluindo excisão cirúrgica, criocirurgia, eletrocirurgia, vacinas autógenas ou recombinantes, drogas imunomoduladoras, quimioterapia sistêmica ou intralesional. Foram revisados os principais aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos da papilomatose oral canina. Nos 12 animais estudados foram observados papilomas predominantemente em região de língua, gengiva e palato, com até 12 meses de idade e infecção combinada com erliquiose. O tratamento com Propionibacterium acnes e/ou vacina autócne surtiu efeito em oito animais (66,7%.

  19. Measurement of total and free urinary phenol and paraben concentrations over the course of pregnancy: assessing reliability and contamination of specimens in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guidry, Virginia T.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Aase, Heidi; Eggesbø, Merete Åse; Zeiner, Pål; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen,Gun Peggy; Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Engel, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposures to environmental phenols and parabens may be harmful, especially in utero. Prior studies have demonstrated high within-person variability of urinary concentrations across pregnancy. Objectives We sought to measure phenol and paraben biomarker concentrations for the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study, assess within-person variability, and investigate any possible external phenol or paraben contamination of specimens. Methods We collected three spot urine sample...

  20. Mythematics Solving the Twelve Labors of Hercules

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    How might Hercules, the most famous of the Greek heroes, have used mathematics to complete his astonishing Twelve Labors? From conquering the Nemean Lion and cleaning out the Augean Stables, to capturing the Erymanthean Boar and entering the Underworld to defeat the three-headed dog Cerberus, Hercules and his legend are the inspiration for this book of fun and original math puzzles. While Hercules relied on superhuman strength to accomplish the Twelve Labors, Mythematics shows how math could have helped during his quest. How does Hercules defeat the Lernean Hydra and stop its heads from multip

  1. Use of Pentamidine As Secondary Prophylaxis to Prevent Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in HIV Infected Patients, the First Twelve Months of a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermias Diro

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has become an important opportunistic infection in persons with HIV-infection in VL-endemic areas. The co-infection leads to profound immunosuppression and high rate of annual VL recurrence. This study assessed the effectiveness, safety and feasibility of monthly pentamidine infusions to prevent recurrence of VL in HIV co-infected patients.A single-arm, open-label trial was conducted at two leishmaniasis treatment centers in northwest Ethiopia. HIV-infected patients with a VL episode were included after parasitological cure. Monthly infusions of 4 mg/kg pentamidine-isethionate diluted in normal-saline were started for 12 months. All received antiretroviral therapy (ART. Time-to-relapse or death was the primary end point.Seventy-four patients were included. The probability of relapse-free survival at 6 months and at 12 months was 79% and 71% respectively. Renal failure, a possible drug-related serious adverse event, occurred in two patients with severe pneumonia. Forty-one patients completed the regimen taking at least 11 of the 12 doses. Main reasons to discontinue were: 15 relapsed, five died and seven became lost to follow-up. More patients failed among those with a CD4+cell count ≤ 50 cells/μl, 5/7 (71.4% than those with counts above 200 cells/μl, 2/12 (16.7%, (p = 0.005.Pentamidine secondary prophylaxis led to a 29% failure rate within one year, much lower than reported in historical controls (50%-100%. Patients with low CD4+cell counts are at increased risk of relapse despite effective initial VL treatment, ART and secondary prophylaxis. VL should be detected and treated early enough in patients with HIV infection before profound immune deficiency installs.

  2. Family Practitioners’ Advice about Taking Time Off Work for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections: A Prospective Study in Twelve European Primary Care Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Nocun, Marek; Butler, Christopher C.; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Hood, Kerenza; Fleten, Nils; Kowalczyk, Anna; Melbye, Hasse

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute cough and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are one of the most important causes of lost working hours. Aim to explore variation and predictors in family practitioners (FPs) advice to patients with LRTIs about taking time off work in different European countries. Methods Prospective observational study in primary care networks in 12 countries, with multilevel mixed-effects binomial logistic regression. Results 324 FPs recruited 1616 employed adults who presented to primary care with LRTIs. The proportion of patients advised to take time off work varied from 7.6% in the Netherlands to 89.2% in Slovakia, and of these, 88.2% overall were advised to stay off work for seven days or less. None of Finnish or Dutch patients were advised to take more than 7 days off, in contrast to 35.5% of Polish and 27.0% of Slovak patients. The strongest predictors of FPs’ advice about time off work were: patient symptoms interfering with normal activities (OR 4.43; P<0.001), fever (2.49; P<0.001), patients feeling generally unwell (2.21; P<0.001), antibiotic prescribing (1.51; P = 0.025) and auscultation abnormality (1.50; P = 0.029). Advice to take time off was not associated with patient reported recovery. Conclusions There is large variation in FPs’ advice given to patients with LRTIs in Europe about taking time off work, which is not explained by differences in patients’ reported illness duration, but might be explained by differences in regulations around certification and sick pay. Evidence based guidance for advising patients about taking time off work for this common condition is needed. PMID:27760225

  3. Comparative Kinetic Studies and Performance Evaluation of Biofilm and Biomass Characteristics of Pseudomonas fluorescens in Degrading Synthetic Phenolic Effluent in Inverse Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S Sabarunisha; Radha, K V

    2016-05-01

    The bioremediation potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied in an Inverse Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor under batch recirculation conditions using synthetic phenolic effluent of various concentrations (400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 mg/l). The performance of the reactor was investigated and the characteristics of biomass and biofilm were determined by evaluating biofilm dry density and thickness, bioparticle density, suspended and attached biomass concentration, chemical oxygen demand and phenol removal efficiency. Biodegradation kinetics had been studied for suspended biomass culture and biofilm systems with respect to its specific growth and substrate consumption rates. Suspended biomass followed substrate inhibition kinetics and the experimental data fitted well with the Haldane model. The degradation kinetic behavior of biofilm revealed that a well adapted biofilm system with effective control of biofilm thickness in an inverse fluidized bed biofilm reactor overcomes substrate inhibition effects by tolerating higher phenol concentration and fitted well to the Monod model.

  4. Toughening of phenolic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongbin

    2003-06-01

    Phenolic foam has excellent FST performance with relatively low cost, and thus is an attractive material for many applications. However, it is extremely brittle and fragile, precluding it from load-bearing applications. In order to make it tougher and more viable for structural purposes, an effective approach has been proposed and investigated in this study. Composite phenolic foam with short fiber reinforcements resulted in significant improvement in mechanical performance while retaining FST properties comparable to conventional phenolic foam. For example, composite phenolic foam with aramid fibers exhibited a seven-fold increase in peel resistance together with a five-fold reduction in friability. In shear tests, aramid composite foam endured prolonged loading to high levels of strain, indicating the potential for use in structural applications. On the other hand, glass fiber-reinforced phenolic foam produced substantial improvement in the stiffness and strength relative to the unreinforced counterpart. In particular, the Young's modulus of the glass fiber composite foam was increased by as much as 100% relative to the plain phenolic foam in the foam rise direction. In addition, different mechanical behavior was observed for aramid and glass fiber-reinforced foams. In an attempt to understand the mechanical behavior of composite foam, a novel NDT technique, micro-CT, was used to acquire information on fiber length distribution (FLD) and fiber orientation distribution (FOD). Results from micro-CT measurements were compared with theoretical distribution models, achieving various degrees of agreement. Despite some limitations of current micro-CT technology, the realistic observation and measurement of cellular morphology and fiber distribution within composite foams portend future advances in modeling of reinforced polymer foam. To explain the discrepancy observed in shear stiffness between traditional shear test results and those by the short sandwich beam test, a

  5. Removal of phenol from aqueous solution by Mahua seed activated carbon: Kinetic, isotherm, mass transfer and isosteric heat of adsorption studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Yadav Lallan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mahua (Madhuca longifolia seed activated carbon (MSAC has been developed as an effective adsorbent for the removal of phenol from contaminated wastewaters. Prepared MSAC was characterized for various physico-chemical properties, Fourier transform infra- red (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Laboratory batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of MSAC dosage (w, pH, contact time (t, and initial phenol concentrations (Co on sorption efficiency at optimal conditions. The maximum adsorption capacity of phenol was obtained at pH=6, t=5 h and MSAC dosage=1.2 g/l. The kinetics data of phenol adsorption was very well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The average effective diffusion coefficient 6.4×10-13 m2/s was calculated from the experimental data. Thermodynamic studies confirmed the sorption process to be spontaneous and exothermic. The isosteric heat of adsorption of phenol was found to increase with an increase in the surface loading indicating that MSAC have more homogeneous surface.

  6. Biological removal of phenol from wastewaters: a mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, N. V.; Anupama, S.; Navya, K.; Shalini, H. N.; Idris, M.; Hampannavar, U. S.

    2015-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives are common water pollutants and include wide variety of organic chemicals. Phenol poisoning can occur by skin absorption, inhalation, ingestion and various other methods which can result in health effects. High exposures to phenol may be fatal to human beings. Accumulation of phenol creates toxicity both for flora and fauna. Therefore, removal of phenol is crucial to perpetuate the environment and individual. Among various treatment methods available for removal of phenols, biodegradation is environmental friendly. Biological methods are gaining importance as they convert the wastes into harmless end products. The present work focuses on assessment of biological removal (biodegradation) of phenol. Various factors influence the efficiency of biodegradation of phenol such as ability of the microorganism, enzymes involved, the mechanism of degradation and influencing factors. This study describes about the sources of phenol, adverse effects on the environment, microorganisms involved in the biodegradation (aerobic and anaerobic) and enzymes that polymerize phenol.

  7. An FT-IR and DFT study of the free and solvated 4-(imidazol-1-yl)phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakul, Şenay; Badoğlu, Serdar

    2015-11-05

    In this study, FT-IR spectrum of 4-(imidazol-1-yl)phenol was recorded. Its vibrational frequencies and modes were determined. Vibrational assignments were proposed with the help of B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of calculations. Three possible dimeric forms of the molecule were investigated theoretically. Besides, solvent effects on the structure, vibrational frequencies, and atomic charges were studied theoretically. Water, dimethyl sulfoxide, and ethanol were the solvents considered. Experimental FT-IR spectrum in DMSO solution was recorded and compared with solid phase experimental data. DFT B3LYP combined with polarized continuum model (PCM) was employed to characterize the solvent effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University

  9. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University Hos

  10. Bioavailability of phenols from a phenol-enriched olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P phenols are highly dependent on the individual.

  11. Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erben-Russ, M.; Bors, W.; Saran, M.

    1987-09-01

    Linoleic acid peroxyl radicals (LOO) can be viewed as model intermediates occurring during lipid peroxidation processes. Formation and reactions of these species were investigated in aqueous alkaline solution using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. Irradiation of linoleic acid in N/sub 2/O/O/sub 2/-saturated solutions leads to a mixture of peroxyl radical isomers; reaction of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (13-LOOH) with azide radicals in N/sub 2/O-saturated solution produces 13-LOO radicals specifically. These peroxyl radicals cannot be observed directly, but their reactions with kaempferol and quercetin, acting as radical-scavenging antioxidants, produced strongly absorbing aroxyl radicals (ArO). The same aroxyl radicals were generated by OH and N/sub 3/ with rate constants exceeding 10/sup 9/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. Applying a reaction scheme that includes competing generation and decay reactions of both LOO and ArO radicals, individual rate constants were derived for LOO reactions with the phenols (> 10/sup 7/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s-./sup 1/), with aroxyl radicals to form covalent adducts (> 10/sup 8/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/), as well as for their bimilecular decay (3.0 x 10/sup 8/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/). These results demonstrate high reactivity of fatty acid peroxyl radicals and flavone antioxidants in aqueous solution.

  12. Oxidation Degradation Study And Use Of Phenol And Amina Antioxidant Compounds In Natural Rubber Cyclical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arofah Megasari Siregar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted research into the use of commercial antioxidants Irganox 1010 wingstay to inhibit the oxidative degradation of cyclic polymers of natural rubber and polypropylene nanocomposite with commercial montmorillonite PP MMT-Clay. Proces mixing nanocomposit PPMMT using commercial compatibiliser PP-g-MA PB3200 made in an internal mixer at a temperature of 180 C for 10 minutes and 65 rpm rotor speed. Hyndered phenol antioxidant effectiveness was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infra Red FTIR. Analysis of infrared is done by measuring the broad index absorption of the carbonyl group CO at a wavelength of 1700 cm-1 and a broad index uptake hydroxyl group at a wavelength of 3400 cm-1 before and after heated in an oven temperature of 125oC with variations in exposure time. The results indicate the use of antioxidant Irganox 1010 in nanocomposite PP MMT with a stabilizing factor of 5.5. Further commercial antioxidants will be used to restrain the rate of oxidation degradation of the natural rubber products cyclical CNR.

  13. N-辛酰吡咯烷萃取法处理高浓度含酚废水%Studies of the Extraction of Phenol by N-Octanoylpyrrolidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍; 包伯荣; 吴明红; 向群

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of phenol of wastewater extraction by N-octanoylpyrrolidine (OPOD) in kerosene was studied. The dependence of the extraction distribution ratios on the concentrations of extractant, phenol, acidity and temperature was investigated. By means of the slope method, the composition of the extracted complex was deduced to be C6H5 · OPOD , and the related thermodynamic functions were also calculated. The IR and NMR spectra showed the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between phenol and OPOD. The experimental results indicated that OPOD could extract phenol effectively.

  14. N-辛酰吡咯烷萃取法处理高浓度含酚废水%Studies of the Extraction of Phenol by N-Octanoylpyrrolidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍; 包伯荣; 吴明红; 向群

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of phenol of wastewater extraction by N-octanoylpyrrolidine (OPOD) in kerosene was studied. The dependence of the extraction distribution ratios on the concentrations of extractant, phenol, acidity and temperature was investigated. By means of the slope method, the composition of the extracted complex was deduced to be C6H5 · OPOD , and the related thermodynamic functions were also calculated. The IR and NMR spectra showed the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between phenol and OPOD. The experimental results indicated that OPOD could extract phenol effectively.

  15. Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis of Phenolic Ester by Increasing Solubility of Phenolic Acids in Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    reactions, and it had been widely used for esterification of various phenolic acids with fatty alcohol or triglycerides. However, the conversion of phenolic acids is low due to low solubility in hydrophobic solvents and hindrance effect of unsaturated side chain towards the enzyme. Our studies show...... these barriers can be overcome by increase the solubility of phenolic acids. Ionic liquid Methyltrioctylammonium Trifluoroacetate can dissolve different phenolic acids in very high concentration. This ionic liquid was therefore applied for esterification of phenolic acids with fatty alcohol or triglyceride....

  16. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF ADSORPTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY A WATER-COMPATIBLE HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERIC ADSORBENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-min Li; Hai-suo Wu; Quan-xing Zhang; Gen-cheng Zhang; Chao Long; Zheng-hao Fei; Fu-qiang Liu; Jin-long Chen

    2004-01-01

    Equilibrium data for the adsorption of phenolic compounds, i.e., phenol, p-cresol, p-chlorophenol and pnitrophenol from aqueous solutions by a water-compatible hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent (NJ-8) within temperature range of 283-323 K were obtained and correlated with a Freundlich-type of isotherm equation, so that equilibrium constants KF and n were obtained. The capacities of equilibrium adsorption for all the four phenolic compounds on the NJ-8 from aqueous solutions are around 2 times as high as those of Amberlite XAD-4, which may be attributed to the unusual micropore structure and the partial polarity on the network. The values of the enthalpy (always negative) are indicative of an exothermic process, which manifests the adsorption of all the four phenolic compounds on the two polymeric adsorbents to be a process of physical adsorption. The negative values of free energy change show that the solute is more concentrated on the adsorbent than in the bulk solution. The absolute free energy values of adsorption for NJ-8 are always higher than those for Amberlite XAD-4, which indicates that phenolic compounds are preferentially adsorbed on NJ-8. The negative values of the adsorption entropy are consistent with the restricted mobilities of adsorbed molecules of phenolic compounds as compared with the molecules in solution. The adsorption entropy values of phenolic compounds for NJ-8 are lower than those for Amberlite XAD-4, which means the micropores of NJ-8 require more orderly arranged adsorbate.

  17. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  18. Thermodynamic study of adsorption of phenolic compounds onto Amberlite XAD-4 polymeric adsorbents and its acetylized derivative MX-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption equilibrium isotherms of phenolic compounds,phenol, p-cresol, p-chlorophenol and p-nitrophenol, from aqueoussolutions by Amberlite XAD-4 polymeric adsorbent and its acetylizedderivative MX-4 within temperature range of 283-323K were obtainedand fitted to the Freundlich isotherms. The capacities ofequilibrium adsorption for all four phenolic compounds from theiraqueous solutions increased around 20% on the acetylized resin,which may be contributed to the specific surface area and thepartial polarity on the network. Estimations of the isosteric enthalpy, free energy , and entropy for the adsorption process arereported.

  19. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  20. Phenolic acids bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The daily intake of phenolic compounds does not necessarily reflect the dose at which they reach the physiological targets in the organisms. The biological activity of phenolic compounds metabolites found in blood, organs and target tissues, as a result of digestive and hepatic activity, may differ from those of the native forms of the substances. This review discusses the absorption and metabolism of phenolic acids, a class of phenolic compounds abundant in food, and the methodologies used f...

  1. Effect of phenol and halogenated phenols on energy transfer reactions of rat liver mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izushi,Fumio

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro effects of phenol and p-halogenated phenols on mitochondrial energy transfer reactions were examined using isolated rat liver mitochondria. The relationship between physiochemical properties of phenolic compounds and their effects on mitochondria were studied. Phenol and p-halogenated phenols induced the release of K+ ions from mitochondria, suggesting a change in permeability to K+ ions. A decrease in the respiratory control index, an increase in K+ release and stimulation of latent ATPase activity were observed with these compounds in the descending order of p-iodophenol, p-bromophenol, p-chlorophenol, p-fluorophenol and phenol. The concentrations of the phenolic compounds resulting in fifty percent inhibition of the respiratory control index and those resulting in fifty percent release of K+ ions significantly correlated with Hammett's substituent constant (sigma and the hydrophobic binding constant (pi of the compounds.

  2. Toxicity of Phenol and Salt on the Phenol-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Phenolic compounds, phenol and phenol derivatives are environmental contaminants in some industrial effluents. Entrance of such substances into the environment causes severe environmental pollution, especially pollution of water resources. Biological treatment is a method that uses the potential of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments. Among microorganisms, bacteria play an important role in treating wastewater contaminated with phenol. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on degradation of phenol in wastewater contaminated with this pollutant. Methods In this method, the growth rate of P. aeruginosa bacteria was investigated using different concentrations of salt and phenol. This is an experimental study conducted as a pilot in a batch reactor with different concentrations of phenol (25, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 600 mg L-1 and salt (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5% and 5% during 9, 12 and 15 hours. During three days, from 5 experimental and 3 control samples, 18 samples were taken a day forming a sample size of 54 samples for each phenol concentration. Given the number of phenol concentrations (n = 6, a total of 324 samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 600 nm. Results The phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1 was toxic for P. aeruginosa. However, at a certain concentration, it acts as a carbon source for P. aeruginosa. During investigations, it was found that increasing the concentration of phenol increases the rate of bacteria growth. The highest bacteria growth rate occurred was at the salt concentration of zero and phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1. Conclusions The findings of the current study indicate that at high concentrations of salt, the growth of bacteria reduces so that it stops at a concentration of 50 mg L-1 (5%. Thus, the bacterium is halotolerant or halophilic. With an increase in phenol concentration, the growth rate increased. Phenol toxicity appears

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies of phenol oxidation by ruthenium complex with N,N,N-tris(benzimidazol-2yl-methyl)amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J Guadalupe; Silva, Antonio Romero; Thangarasu, Pandiyan; Najera, Rafael Herrera; Moreno, Alfonso Duran; Ledesma, M Teresa Orta; Cruz-Borbolla, Julian; Singh, Narinder

    2015-09-01

    The ruthenium complex with (N,N,N-tris(benzimidazol-2yl-methyl)amine, L(1)) was prepared, and characterized. Fukui data were used to localize the reactive sites on the ligand. The structural and electronic properties of the complex were analyzed by DFT in different oxidation states in order to evaluate its oxidant properties for phenol oxidation. The results show that the hard Ru(IV) cation bonds preferentially with a hard base (Namine = amine nitrogen, or axial chloride ion), and soft Ru(II) with a soft base (Nbzim = benzimidazole nitrogen or axial triphenyl phosphine). Furthermore, the Jahn-Teller effect causes an elongation of the axial bond in the octahedral structure. The bonding nature and the orbital contribution to the electronic transitions of the complex were studied. The experimental UV-visible bands were interpreted by using TD-DFT studies. The complex oxidizes phenol to benzoquinone in the presence of H2O2 and the intermediate was detected by HPLC and (13)C NMR. A possible mechanism and rate law are proposed for the oxidation. The adduct formation of phenol with [Ru(O)L(1)](2+) or [Ru(OH)L(1)](+) is theoretically analyzed to show that [Ru(OH)L(1)-OPh](+) could produce the phenol radical.

  4. Is Gamma Radiation Suitable to Preserve Phenolic Compounds and to Decontaminate Mycotoxins in Aromatic Plants? A Case-Study with Aloysia citrodora Paláu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Rodrigues, Paula

    2017-02-23

    This study aimed to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the preservation of phenolic compounds and on decontamination of dry herbs in terms of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), using Aloysia citrodora Paláu as a case study. For this purpose, artificially contaminated dry leaves were submitted to gamma radiation at different doses (1, 5, and 10 kGy; at dose rate of 1.7 kGy/h). Phenolic compounds were analysed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS and mycotoxin levels were determined by HPLC-fluorescence. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified in the samples and despite the apparent degradation of some compounds (namely verbasoside), 1 and 10 kGy doses point to a preservation of the majority of the compounds. The mean mycotoxin reduction varied between 5.3% and 9.6% for OTA and from 4.9% to 5.2% for AFB1. It was not observed a significant effect of the irradiation treatments on mycotoxin levels, and a slight degradation of the phenolic compounds in the irradiated samples was observed.

  5. Is Gamma Radiation Suitable to Preserve Phenolic Compounds and to Decontaminate Mycotoxins in Aromatic Plants? A Case-Study with Aloysia citrodora Paláu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Pereira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the preservation of phenolic compounds and on decontamination of dry herbs in terms of ochratoxin A (OTA and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, using Aloysia citrodora Paláu as a case study. For this purpose, artificially contaminated dry leaves were submitted to gamma radiation at different doses (1, 5, and 10 kGy; at dose rate of 1.7 kGy/h. Phenolic compounds were analysed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS and mycotoxin levels were determined by HPLC-fluorescence. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified in the samples and despite the apparent degradation of some compounds (namely verbasoside, 1 and 10 kGy doses point to a preservation of the majority of the compounds. The mean mycotoxin reduction varied between 5.3% and 9.6% for OTA and from 4.9% to 5.2% for AFB1. It was not observed a significant effect of the irradiation treatments on mycotoxin levels, and a slight degradation of the phenolic compounds in the irradiated samples was observed.

  6. Hepatic Angiosarcoma: a Review of Twelve Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li; Xishan Hao

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS), a lethal disease, is the most common sarcoma arising in the liver. Little information about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and management of HAS has been reported. Increased familiarity with this disease will facilitate correct diagnosis and help to improve management of this condition in the future.The objective of this study was to describe cases of hepatic angiosarcoma and to discuss the etiologic, diagnostic, therapeutic features and prognosis of this tumor. This report not only serves to give more evidence of the relationship between hepatic angiosarcoma and carcinogenic exposure, but also demonstrates the key points in different methods of diagnosis and the optimal treatment of hepatic angiosarcoma.METHODS Twelve cases of hepatic angiosareoma were analyzed retrospectively, representing the different character in clinical presentations and laboratory computed tomographical scans; pathological data and treatment are described. Clinical and biologic follow-up was carried out for two years after surgical treatment.RESULTS There were nine men and three women varying in ages from 57 to 71 years with an average of 64.3 years. Ten patientshad a history of exposure to vinyl chloride or thorotrast. Mild or moderate abdominal pain and bloating, abdominal mass and fever were the common clinical presentations. Tumors were visualized by ultrasonography and CT scans in all patients. Biochemical profiles yielded variable results and proved to be of little value in detection or diagnosis. Surgical resection was feasible for each patient who was treated as follows: two wedge resections, six segementectomies and four bisegmentectomies. Five patients received Neoadjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively. The survival rate of those cases was poor. The maximum survival time was fourteen months. The mean survival time for this chemotherapeutic group was 11 months. The difference between the survival time of those treated with an operation

  7. PROCESS STUDY ON DEPHENOLIZATION OF BPA-PHENOL ADDUCT BY SOLID DECOMPOSITION REACTION%双酚A-苯酚加合物固相分解反应脱酚的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗章; 张敏华; 李传兆; 钱胜华; 谈遒

    1999-01-01

    The process condition of dephenolization of bisphenol A-phenol adduct is studied,by using the solid decomposition reaction on the basis of thermodynamic property of bisphenol A-phenol and the kinetics of solid decomposition reaction.The process condition is proposed with high quality bisphenol A product.A new method of dephenolization in the production of bisphenol A is developed.

  8. Influence of the acetification process on phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, W; Stumpf, C; Fürst, P

    2000-08-01

    Little is known about the change of phenolic compounds and total phenolic content by the acetification process. The aim of this study was to assess the contents of selected phenolic compounds of cider and red and white wines in comparison to phenolic profiles in corresponding vinegars by using a new HPLC method for the simultaneous separation and quantification of polar phenolic acids and less polar flavonoids. Identifications were made by retention times and by means of mass spectra. Additionally, total phenolic contents of wines and vinegars were determined photometrically. The decrease in total phenol content by the acetification process was highest for cider vinegars (40%) and lower for red and white wine vinegars (13 and 8%, respectively). A decrease in the contents of individual phenolic compounds of vinegars from white white and ciders was not observed. In contrast, the contents of individual phenolic compounds in red wine vinegar decreased approximately 50%.

  9. Synthesis, structures, spectral properties and DFT quantum chemical calculations of (E)-4-(((4-propylphenyl)imino)methyl)phenol and (E)-4-((2-tolylimino)methyl)phenol; their corrosion inhibition studies of mild steel in aqueous HCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemike, Elias E.; Nwankwo, Henry U.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Hosten, Eric C.

    2017-08-01

    Two Schiff base compounds with similar backbone, but different positions and lengths of alkyl groups, (E)-4-(((4-propylphenyl)imino)methyl)phenol (PMP) and (E)-4-((2-tolylimino)methyl)phenol (TMP) have been synthesized. Their structures were established by spectroscopic techniques which include FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, relative molecular mass (mass spect.), and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The spectroscopic methods revealed the characteristic imine functional groups and the exact molecular masses of the compounds. Single crystal analysis revealed an orthorhombic crystal system with Pca21 space group for the two compounds; and the structure of PMP reveal that the propyl group is disordered over two positions in 0.79:0.21 ratio. The corrosion inhibition behaviour of the two Schiff bases were studied by electrochemical measurements. The results suggest that the two derivatives adsorbed onto the mild steel surface and formed hydrophobic films, which to an appreciable extent, protected the surface of the mild steel. Potentiodynamic polarization results strongly suggested that the investigated Schiff bases behave as mixed-type inhibitors with a more pronounced cathodic nature, and the adsorption isotherm basically obeys the Langmuir isotherm. Quantum chemical computations were also employed to provide further explanations on the adsorption mode, and the theoretical predictions conformed to the experimental results.

  10. 高固体分酚醛环氧涂料的研究和设计%Study and Design on High-Solid Phenol Aldehyde- Epoxy Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新征; 吴权; 郭军力

    2012-01-01

    Based on the binders of phenol aldehyde-epoxy resin and fatty acid modified epoxy resin, and on the hardener of modified aromatic amine, modified aliphatic cyclic amine and oil of cashew nut shell modified phenolic aldehyde amine, we prepared high-solid phenol aldehyde-epoxy coatings. This product can be applied in severe corrosion environment. This paper studies the relationships between ratio of curing agent in formulation and chemical and physical performances of phenol aldehyde-epoxy coatings. The potential application prospects also have been discussed.%以液体酚醛环氧树脂为主基料树脂,脂肪酸改性环氧树脂为辅助基料树脂;以改性芳香胺、改性脂环胺、腰果壳油改性酚醛胺为固化剂制备了高固体分酚醛环氧涂料,该产品能够适用于更苛刻的腐蚀环境。还研究了不同固化剂及当量比对涂层物理化学性能的影响,并展望了该产品的应用前景。

  11. 含酚废水的臭氧氧化处理研究%The study of ozone oxidation of phenol wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢飞

    2012-01-01

    This paper to reduce ozone oxidation process with a high concentration of phenol in waste the characteristics of phenol through the study of phenol concentration in the waste water control, waste water variables, ozone variables, oxidation factors such as time and catalyst, finding out all kinds of conditions of ozone in addition to the influence law of phenol efficiency, and then shows better treatment scheme, experimental results show that reach the expected goal.%通过臭氧氧化处理,降低含有较高苯酚浓度废水中的苯酚浓度。对不同苯酚浓度的废水,用自制的设备控制废水的流量、臭氧量、氧化时间和催化剂用量,找出各种条件对臭氧除酚效率的影响规律,得出较佳处理方案。实验结果达到了预期目标。

  12. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  13. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those p

  14. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  15. Twelve tips for peer observation of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zarrin Seema; Jonas-Dwyer, Diana; Carr, Sandra E

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines twelve tips for undertaking peer observation of teaching in medical education, using the peer review model and the experiences of the authors. An accurate understanding of teaching effectiveness is required by individuals, medical schools, and universities to evaluate the learning environment and to substantiate academic and institutional performance. Peer Observation of Teaching is one tool that provides rich, qualitative evidence for teachers, quite different from closed-ended student evaluations. When Peer Observation of Teaching is incorporated into university practice and culture, and is conducted in a mutually respectful and supportive way, it has the potential to facilitate reflective change and growth for teachers.

  16. Influence of exchange group of modified glycidyl methacrylate polymer on phenol removal: A study by batch and continuous flow processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Thiago Muza; da Silva, Carla Michele Frota; da Rocha, Paulo Cristiano Silva; Lucas, Elizabete Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of water by phenol is potentially a serious problem due to its high toxicity and its acid character. In this way some treatment process to remove or reduce the phenol concentration before contaminated water disposal on the environment is required. Currently, phenol can be removed by charcoal adsorption, but this process does not allow easy regeneration of the adsorbent. In contrast, polymeric resins are easily regenerated and can be reused in others cycles of adsorption process. In this work, the interaction of phenol with two polymeric resins was investigated, one of them containing a weakly basic anionic exchange group (GD-DEA) and the other, a strongly basic group (GD-QUAT). Both ion exchange resins were obtained through chemical modifications from a base porous resin composed of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinyl benzene (DVB). Evaluation tests with resins were carried out with 30 mg/L of phenol in water solution, at pH 6 and 10, employing two distinct processes: (i) batch, to evaluate the effect of temperature, and (ii) continuous flow, to assess the breakthrough of the resins. Batch tests revealed that the systems did not follow the model proposed by Langmuir due to the negative values obtained for the constant b and for the maximum adsorption capacity, Q0. However, satisfactory results for the constants KF and n allowed assuming that the behavior of systems followed the Freundlich model, leading to the conclusion that resin GD-DEA had the best interaction with the phenol when in a solution having pH 10 (phenoxide ions). The continuous flow tests corroborated this conclusion since the performance of GD-DEA in removing phenol was also best at pH 10, indicating that the greater availability of the electron pair in the resin with the weakly basic donor group contributed to enhance the resin's interaction with the phenoxide ions.

  17. 萘酚改性酚醛树脂复合材料的研究%Study on Naphthol Modified Phenolic Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江涛; 齐暑华; 李春华; 李美玲

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic resin was modified with naphthol forming an environmentally friendly material.The structure and heat resistance of naphthol midified phenolic resin were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry, and the kinetic parameters of thermal degradation were calculated with Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. The thermal degradation of naphthol modified phenolic resin could be divided into two stages. The modification with naphthol improved the heat resistance of phenolic resin. When the mass fraction of naphthol was 10 %, the tensile, flexural and impact strengths increased by 2.46, 1.62 and 1.34 times based on neat phenolic resin, respectively. Meanwhile, the volume and surface resistances reached orders of 1014.%采用萘酚对酚醛树脂进行改性,成功合成了环保型萘酚改性酚醛树脂.采用傅里叶红外光谱、热失重等方法对萘酚改性酚醛树脂的结构和耐热性进行了研究,并通过Kissinger法和Flynn-Wall-Ozawa法对其热分解动力学参数进行了计算.结果表明.萘酚改性酚醛树脂的热分解过程分为2个阶段,萘酚改性后酚醛树脂的耐热性提高;当萘酚的质量分数为10%时,萘酚改性酚醛树脂的综合性能最好,拉伸强度、弯曲强度和冲击强度分别提高了2.46倍、1.62倍和1.34倍,体积电阻率和表面电阻率均达到1014数量级.

  18. Tyloses and phenolic deposits in xylem vessels impede water transport in low-lignin transgenic poplars: a study by cryo-fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitin, Peter; Voelker, Steven L; Meinzer, Frederick C; Beeckman, Hans; Strauss, Steven H; Lachenbruch, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Of 14 transgenic poplar genotypes (Populus tremula × Populus alba) with antisense 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase that were grown in the field for 2 years, five that had substantial lignin reductions also had greatly reduced xylem-specific conductivity compared with that of control trees and those transgenic events with small reductions in lignin. For the two events with the lowest xylem lignin contents (greater than 40% reduction), we used light microscopy methods and acid fuchsin dye ascent studies to clarify what caused their reduced transport efficiency. A novel protocol involving dye stabilization and cryo-fluorescence microscopy enabled us to visualize the dye at the cellular level and to identify water-conducting pathways in the xylem. Cryo-fixed branch segments were planed in the frozen state on a sliding cryo-microtome and observed with an epifluorescence microscope equipped with a cryo-stage. We could then distinguish clearly between phenolic-occluded vessels, conductive (stain-filled) vessels, and nonconductive (water- or gas-filled) vessels. Low-lignin trees contained areas of nonconductive, brown xylem with patches of collapsed cells and patches of noncollapsed cells filled with phenolics. In contrast, phenolics and nonconductive vessels were rarely observed in normal colored wood of the low-lignin events. The results of cryo-fluorescence light microscopy were supported by observations with a confocal microscope after freeze drying of cryo-planed samples. Moreover, after extraction of the phenolics, confocal microscopy revealed that many of the vessels in the nonconductive xylem were blocked with tyloses. We conclude that reduced transport efficiency of the transgenic low-lignin xylem was largely caused by blockages from tyloses and phenolic deposits within vessels rather than by xylem collapse.

  19. In-Depth Two-Year Study of Phenolic Profile Variability among Olive Oils from Autochthonous and Mediterranean Varieties in Morocco, as Revealed by a LC-MS Chemometric Profiling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoub, Aadil; Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Olmo-García, Lucía; Ajal, El Amine; Monasterio, Romina P.; Hanine, Hafida; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-01-01

    Olive oil phenolic fraction considerably contributes to the sensory quality and nutritional value of this foodstuff. Herein, the phenolic fraction of 203 olive oil samples extracted from fruits of four autochthonous Moroccan cultivars (“Picholine Marocaine”, “Dahbia”, “Haouzia” and “Menara”), and nine Mediterranean varieties recently introduced in Morocco (“Arbequina”, “Arbosana”, “Cornicabra”, “Frantoio”, “Hojiblanca”, “Koroneiki”, “Manzanilla”, “Picholine de Languedoc” and “Picual”), were explored over two consecutive crop seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014) by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 32 phenolic compounds (and quinic acid), belonging to five chemical classes (secoiridoids, simple phenols, flavonoids, lignans and phenolic acids) were identified and quantified. Phenolic profiling revealed that the determined phenolic compounds showed variety-dependent levels, being, at the same time, significantly affected by the crop season. Moreover, based on the obtained phenolic composition and chemometric linear discriminant analysis, statistical models were obtained allowing a very satisfactory classification and prediction of the varietal origin of the studied oils. PMID:28036024

  20. In-Depth Two-Year Study of Phenolic Profile Variability among Olive Oils from Autochthonous and Mediterranean Varieties in Morocco, as Revealed by a LC-MS Chemometric Profiling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Bajoub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil phenolic fraction considerably contributes to the sensory quality and nutritional value of this foodstuff. Herein, the phenolic fraction of 203 olive oil samples extracted from fruits of four autochthonous Moroccan cultivars (“Picholine Marocaine”, “Dahbia”, “Haouzia” and “Menara”, and nine Mediterranean varieties recently introduced in Morocco (“Arbequina”, “Arbosana”, “Cornicabra”, “Frantoio”, “Hojiblanca”, “Koroneiki”, “Manzanilla”, “Picholine de Languedoc” and “Picual”, were explored over two consecutive crop seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014 by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 32 phenolic compounds (and quinic acid, belonging to five chemical classes (secoiridoids, simple phenols, flavonoids, lignans and phenolic acids were identified and quantified. Phenolic profiling revealed that the determined phenolic compounds showed variety-dependent levels, being, at the same time, significantly affected by the crop season. Moreover, based on the obtained phenolic composition and chemometric linear discriminant analysis, statistical models were obtained allowing a very satisfactory classification and prediction of the varietal origin of the studied oils.

  1. Bioavailability of dietary (poly)phenols: a study with ileostomists to discriminate between absorption in small and large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gina; Lean, Michael E J; Roberts, Susan A; Crozier, Alan

    2013-04-30

    A feeding study was carried out in which six healthy ileostomists ingested a juice drink containing a diversity of dietary (poly)phenols derived from green tea, apples, grapes and citrus fruit. Ileal fluid and urine collected at intervals over the ensuing 24 h period were then analysed by HPLC-MS. Urinary excretions were compared with results obtained in an earlier study in which the juice drink was ingested by ten healthy control subjects with an intact colon. Some polyphenol components, such as (epi)catechins and (epi)gallocatechin(s), were excreted in urine in similar amounts in ileostomists and subjects with an intact colon, demonstrating that absorption took place principally in the small intestine. In the urine of ileostomists, there were reduced levels of other constituents, including hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and dihydrochalcones, indicating their absorption in both the small and large intestine. Ileal fluid analysis revealed that even when absorption occurred in the small intestine, in subjects with a functioning colon a substantial proportion of the ingested components still pass from the small into the large intestine, where they may be either absorbed before or after catabolism by colonic bacteria.

  2. A chemometric approach to determine the phenolic compounds in different barley samples by two different stationary phases: a comparison between C18 and pentafluorophenyl core shell columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Berardinelli, Annachiara; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal crop that has been cultivated since ancient times. However, its interest as nutritional food and as food ingredient is relatively new. Thus, in this study, the phenolic compounds of eighteen different varieties of barley (4 waxy and 14 non-waxy) grown under the same agronomic conditions in the same experimental field have been determined by HPLC-DAD-MS. Two new methodologies were developed using new generation superficially porous HPLC columns with different stationary phases: C18 and pentafluorophenyl (PFP). Twelve free phenolic compounds and eight bound phenolic compounds could be identified in barley samples in less than 22min. The study of different method parameters showed that C18 column was more suitable for the analysis of phenolic compounds of barley. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was conducted in order to assess the different ability of the two different core shell HPLC columns in the discrimination between "waxy" and "non-waxy" varieties, and only HCA of C18 column could separate waxy and non-waxy genotypes. Significant differences in the content of phenolic compounds between waxy and non-waxy samples were found, being waxy barley samples the ones which presented higher content of free and bound phenolic compounds. Once the best discriminant HPLC column was established, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied and it was able to discriminate between "waxy" and "non-waxy" varieties; however it discriminated the barley samples based only in free phenolic compounds. Because of that, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were carried out. PLS-DA and ANN permitted the classification of waxy and non-waxy genotypes from both free and bound phenolic compounds.

  3. Enantioselective HPLC-DAD method for the determination of etodolac enantiomers in tablets, human plasma and application to comparative pharmacokinetic study of both enantiomers after a single oral dose to twelve healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewala, Ismail I; Moneeb, Marwa S; Elmongy, Hatem A; Wahbi, Abdel-Aziz M

    2014-12-01

    An enantioselective high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed and validated for the determination of etodolac enantiomers in tablets and human plasma. Enantiomeric separation was achieved on a Kromasil Cellucoat chiral column (250 mm × 4.6mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) using a mobile phase consisting of hexane: isopropanol: triflouroacetic acid (90:10:0.1 v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The chromatographic system enables the separation of the two enantiomers and the internal standard within a cycle time of 8 min. The resolution between the two enantiomers was 4.25 and the resolution between each enantiomer and the internal standard was more than 2.0. Detection was carried out at 274 nm, and the purity assessment was performed using a photodiode array detector. Solid phase extraction technique using C-18 cartridge was applied to extract the analytes from the plasma samples, and the percentage recovery was more than 95% for the lower quantification limit. The method has been validated with respect to selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. The linearity range for the determination of each enantiomer in human plasma was 0.4-30.0 µg mL(-1) and the limits of quantification of R-etodolac and S-etodolac were 0.20 and 0.19 µg mL(-1), respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of etodolac enantiomers in tablets and to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of the two enantiomers after the administration of 300 mg single oral dose etodolac racemate tablets to twelve healthy volunteers.

  4. Why Static O-H Bond Parameters Cannot Characterize the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Phenolic Antioxidants: ab initio Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The static O-H bond parameters including O-H bond length, O-H charge difference, O-H Mulliken population and O-H bond stretching force constant (k) for 17 phenols were calculated by ab initio method HF/6-31G**. In combination with the O-H bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) of the phenols determined by experiment, it was found that there were poor correlationships between the static O-H bond parameters and O-H BDE. Considering the good correlationship between O-H BDE and logarithm of free radical scavenging rate constant for phenolic antioxidant, it is reasonable to believe that the ineffectiveness of static O-H bond parameters in characterizing antioxidant activity arises from the fact that they cannot measure the O-H BDE.

  5. Phenolic Compounds and In Vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Three Tropic Fruits: Persimmon, Guava, and Sweetsop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, WenQing; Zhou, XiaoMin

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we have found that persimmon, guava, and sweetsop owned considerably high antioxidant activity and contained high total phenolic contents as well. In order to further supply information on the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of these three tropic fruits, they were extracted by 80% methanol. We then examined the extractions about their phenolic compounds and also studied the extractions and phenolic contents about their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against twelve targeted pathogens including 8 standard strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Monilia albican, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and 4 multidrug-resistant strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli, carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii), which are common and comprehensive in clinic. We also employed two ways, that is, FRAP and TEAC, to evaluate their antioxidant activities, using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. Our study indicated that the three tropical fruits possessed obvious antioxidant and antibacterial activity, which supported the possibility of developing the fruits into new natural resource food and functional food as well as new natural antimicrobial agent and food preservatives. Moreover, phenolic compounds detected in the fruits could be used as a potential natural antibacterial agent and antioxidant. PMID:27648444

  6. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chung-Jung

    1988-01-01

    Treatability studies were performed on oily wastewaters produced by petroleum and canning industries. Chlorine dioxide was used for the removal of phenolic compounds from these oily wastewaters. Most of phenolic compounds can be destroyed by chlorine dioxide within 15 minutes if CI02-to-phenol ratios of higher than 5.0 are provided. Factors such as pH, temperature, and COD have little effect on phenol removal. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment depends critic...

  7. Mixed-ligand copper(II) phenolate complexes: Synthesis, spectral characterization, phosphate-hydrolysis, antioxidant, DNA interaction and cytotoxic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurumoorthy, Perumal; Mahendiran, Dharmasivam; Prabhu, Durai; Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Rahiman, Aziz Kalilur

    2015-01-01

    A series of phenol-based mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes of the type [CuL1-4(diimine)] (1-8), where L1-4 = N1,N2-bis(5-substituted-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,2-ethylene/phenylenediimine and diimine = 2,2‧-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), have been isolated and fully characterized by analytical and spectral techniques. Electronic spectra of complexes suggest Cu(II) cation has a d9 electronic configuration, adopting distorted octahedral geometry with axial elongation, due to Jahn-Teller effect. Electrochemical studies of complexes evidenced one-electron irreversible reduction wave in the cathodic region. The observed rate constant (k) values for the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) are in the range of 0.25-3.82 × 10-2 min-1. The obtained room temperature magnetic moment values (1.79-1.90 BM) lies within the range observed for octahedral copper(II) complexes. Antioxidant studies revealed that these complexes possess considerable radical scavenging potency against DPPH. The binding studies of complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) revealed intercalation with minor-groove binding, and the complex 4 exhibits highest binding activity than the other complexes. The cleavage activity on supercoiled pBR322 DNA revealed the involvement of hydroxyl radical and singlet-oxygen as reactive oxygen species, and complexes encourage binding to minor-groove. Further, the cytotoxicity of complex 4 on human hepatocellular liver carcinoma HepG2 cell line implies the cell death through apoptosis.

  8. Phenolic content of strawberry spreads during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivec, Mirta; Bornšek, Špela Može; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2013-09-25

    This study provides a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of phenolics in strawberry spreads processed according to different industrial procedures and stored under several storage conditions for up to 19 weeks. Total phenolics were determined spectrophotometrically, and individual phenolics were determined by combined liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry: six anthocyanins, four phenolic acids, two flavonols, one flavanol, and one flavone. During storage, the phenolics were modified. The total anthocyanins, vanillic acid, kaempferol, and luteolin decreased, while salicylic and gallic acids increased. Total phenolics, cyanidin 3-(6″-succinyl-glucoside) (here observed for the first time), protocatechuic acid, quercetin, and catechin remained stable. The best phenolic retention was observed in spreads stored at 4 °C. Therefore, the proposed storage process (use of a cold chain) indicates good retention of phenolics in strawberry spreads, which maintain high nutritional and sensorial quality.

  9. Development and application of an UHPLC-MS method for comparative pharmacokinetic study of phenolic components from dragon's blood in rats under simulated microgravity environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujuan; Li, George Q; Li, Yongzhi; Deng, Yulin; Deng, Li

    2016-03-20

    Dragon's blood is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine shown to have protective effects in simulated microgravity in rats and mice. The current study aimed to develop an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four phenolic components from the herb: loureirin A, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and pterostilbene in rats, and use the method for comparative study on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and excretion of these components in rats after oral dosage of dragon's blood under simulated microgravity environments. The results showed the developed UHPLC-MS method was sensitive and rapid. The comparative pharmacokinetic study in rats showed loureirin A, loureirin C and 7,4-dihydroxyflavone had decreased Cmax and AUC and increased Vd and CL in simulated microgravity environment; but pterostilbene had the opposite changes. The four phenolic components also showed increased or decreased excretions in simulated microgravity rats. These results indicate the chemical structure and physicochemical property, as well as physiological conditions may have an impact on the absorption and excretion of phenolic components in simulated microgravity environment. It also implies that different drug may behave differently in the same spaceflight condition leading to an increase or a reduction in pharmacodynamic outcomes.

  10. Contribution of phenolics and essential oils to the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qisi; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Dongzhi; Chunjie, Zhao

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the characterization of essential oil and phenolic compounds in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and twelve volatile bioactive compounds of D. pernyi were identified. Polyphenols were identified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) and quantified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). A total of 4 polyphenolic compounds found in extract were identified as rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid. All obtained extracts and the 4 polyphenolic compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the plant.

  11. A study on the Fermi resonance of phenol under the effects of pressure and temperature by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, DongFei; Hua, Zhong; Liu, ChengZhi; Fan, Cunbo; Sun, ChengLin; Li, ZuoWei; Chen, WanJin

    2015-02-05

    The ν1-ν18a Fermi resonance (FR) of phenol were investigated by pressure-dependent Raman spectroscopy from atmospheric up to P=15.2GPa and temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy from 40 down to T=-180°C, respectively. In the case of pressure, we found the Fermi coupling coefficient W, which were calculated based on the FR theory, exposed a value turnover between 1.912 and 2.244GPa in the process of increasing the pressure. This turnover phenomenon of the Fermi coupling coefficient W has been ascribed to the crystal structure of phenol evolving towards a more symmetric structure with pressure, from a structure like a pseudo-threefold helical chain at ambient pressure to like a ribbon arrangement at 1.912GPa, then to adopt a herringbone arrangement at much higher pressure. On the other hand, we also found the Fermi coupling coefficient W exhibited monotonic reduction without turnover points appearing by decreasing the temperature. The tendencies of the Fermi coupling coefficient W with temperature were in good agreement with the pressure dependence of the Fermi coupling coefficient W in the region of ambient to 1.912GPa, indicating that the effect of pressure and temperature on the FR of phenol in this region might be the same. A conformation evolving induced by pressure and temperature on the ν1 and ν18a FR of phenol have been analyzed.

  12. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.

  13. Chemical Analysis and Study of Phenolics, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Effect of the Wood and Bark of Maclura tinctoria (L. D. Don ex Steud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Lamounier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maclura tinctoria (L. D. Don ex Steud. has one of the highest qualities among the coefficients for Brazilian woods (up to 9.6 and resistance rates equivalent to Indian teak (Tectona grandis. In this study, the macromolecular constituents and total phenols compounds as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this wood were evaluated. Total phenols and proanthocyanidin levels were higher in wood when compared with bark levels. The antioxidant activity of wood extracts (IC50 = 18.7 μg/mL was more effective than that of bark extracts (IC50 = 20.9 μg/mL. Wood and bark extracts revealed a high potential for inhibition of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bark extracts were the most active (MIC from 20 to 60 μg/mL. Both antioxidant activity and high potential for bacteria inhibition turn these extracts promising for drug formulations, especially as antibacterial agent.

  14. Studies on the photochemistry of 1,7-diphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, a non-phenolic curcuminoid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaryono, Agus; Nourmamode, Aziz; Gardrat, Christian; Grelier, Stéphane; Bravic, Georges; Chasseau, Daniel; Castellan, Alain

    2003-09-01

    The comparative photostability of curcumin 1, and two non-phenolic curcuminoids: 1,7-diphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione 2 (unsubstituted curcumin) and dimethylcurcumin 3 in non-degassed dilute solutions (approximately 3-5 x 10(-5) mol l(-1)) has been established by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy; disappearance quantum yields were measured. The similar behavior of the three studied curcuminoids is indicative of only a moderate role of phenol groups in the photodegradation process. Structural analysis of the photodegradation products of compound 2 in more concentrated solution (approximately 3.6 x 10(-3) mol l(-1)) shows formation of benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, 2'-hydroxy-5',6'-benzochalcone 4, flavanone 5 and some other unidentified photoproducts. Flavanone 5 is formed by irradiation of chalcone 4. It represents a unique example of photochemical conversion of a diarylheptanoid molecule into a flavonoid, another very important class of natural products.

  15. Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Yield of Aeroponically and Conventionally Grown Leafy Vegetables and Fruit Crops: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. PMID:24782905

  16. STUDY ON THE THERMAL ANALYSIS OF THE P-Mo PHENOLIC-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN%磷钼酚醛树脂的热分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会明; 郑怀礼

    2001-01-01

    The influence of amount of the curing agent on P-Mo Phenolic-formaldehyde resin is studied by thermal-weight analysis.The immobilizafion agent of P-Mo Phenolic-formaldehyde resin is hexamethylenetetramine. The apparent kinetic for action of immobilization agent is also studied. The ratio of P-Mo phenolic-formaldehyde resin to immobilization agent is 100: 10, the lost ratio of weight is 30.3% at700℃.The temperature of thermal decomposability is 791.7℃. The apparent active energy is 21.11 kJ/mol.%以六次甲基四胺为磷钼酚醛树脂的固化剂,采用热重分析法研究了固化剂用量对磷钼酚醛树脂性能的影响和磷钼酚醛树脂的固化反应表观动力学。结果表明,磷钼酚醛树脂与固化剂配比为100:10时,700℃下失重率为30.3%,热分解温度为791.7℃,磷钼酚醛树脂固化反应的表观活化能为21.11KJ/mol。

  17. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  18. Bromination of Phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  19. Lipid encapsulated phenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds have numerous health benefits when included in the human diet and have emerged as a functional food and feed additive. Current sources of phenolics include commodity grains such as corn, oat, and wheat but may also be obtained as a co-product from agricultural residues and other l...

  20. Determination of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, G.K.J.; Suatoni, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Details are given of a procedure for separation and identification of phenolic compounds in aqueous solution by high-performance liquid chromatography. It can also be applied to non-aqueous samples after preliminary isolation of a polar fraction containing the phenolic compounds.

  1. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  2. Laboratory studies of carbon kinetic isotope effects on the production mechanism of particulate phenolic compounds formed by toluene photooxidation: a tool to constrain reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irei, Satoshi; Rudolph, Jochen; Huang, Lin; Auld, Janeen; Collin, Fabrice; Hastie, Donald

    2015-01-08

    In this study, we examined compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios for phenolic compounds in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by photooxidation of isotope-label-free toluene. SOA generated by photooxidation of toluene using a continuous-flow reactor and an 8 m(3) indoor smog chamber was collected on filters, which were extracted with acetonitrile for compound-specific analysis. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in the extracts using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, and their compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios were determined using a gas chromatograph coupled with a combustion furnace followed by an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The majority of products, including methylnitrophenols and methylnitrocatechols, were isotopically depleted by 5-6‰ compared to the initial isotope ratio of toluene, whereas the isotope ratio for 4-nitrophenol remained identical to that of toluene. On the basis of the reaction mechanisms proposed in previous reports, stable carbon isotope ratios of these products were calculated. By comparing the observed isotope ratios with the predicted isotope ratios, we explored possible production pathways for the particulate phenolic compounds.

  3. Degradation and toxicity reduction of phenol by ultrasound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maleki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of parameters such as pH, kinetic constants and initial phenol concentration on the sonochemical degradation of phenol and toxicity assay were studied. The experimental results showed that lower pH and lower concentration of phenol favor the phenol degradation. But the rates of phenol degradation under sonication have always been quite low. It is found that the rate of ultrasonic degradation of phenol for initial concentration of 1 mg/L is 0.018 min-1 but later it reduces with increasing of phenol initial concentration substantially and the experimental data fitted well with pseudo first-order reaction rate equation. Bioassay tests showed that phenol was toxic to Daphnia magna and so resulted in quite low LC50 values. Comparison of toxicity units (TU between phenol and effluent toxicity showed that the TU value for effluent was 1.21 times lower than that obtained for phenol solely. Thus, the toxicity of metabolites formed during the degradation of phenol is lower than the toxicity of phenol itself.

  4. Adsorption of phenol onto rice straw biowaste for water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.N.; Mustafa, A.I.; Khalil, M.I.; Rahman, M.; Nahid, I. [University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2012-10-15

    The adsorption technique has been studied using waste rice straw to adsorb phenol from aqueous solutions at room temperature. Batch adsorption studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time, operational temperature, pH of phenol solution, initial phenol concentration, adsorbent dose, and particle size. The time to reach equilibrium was found to be 3 h. Results showed that the equilibrium data for phenol-sorbent systems fitted the Freundlich model and Langmuir model within the concentration range studied. Adsorbed phenol could be regenerated by desorption with the help of 1M NaOH. The studies showed that the rice straw can be used as an efficient adsorbent material for removal of phenol and phenolic compounds from water and wastewater. (orig.)

  5. Twelve tips for getting your manuscript published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A

    2016-01-01

    The author shares twelve practical tips on how to navigate the process of getting a manuscript published. These tips, which apply to all fields of academic writing, advise that during the initial preparation phase authors should: (1) plan early to get it out the door; (2) address authorship and writing group expectations up front; (3) maintain control of the writing; (4) ensure complete reporting; (5) use electronic reference management software; (6) polish carefully before they submit; (7) select the right journal; and (8) follow journal instructions precisely. Rejection after the first submission is likely, and when this occurs authors should (9) get it back out the door quickly, but first (10) take seriously all reviewer and editor suggestions. Finally, when the invitation comes to revise and resubmit, authors should (11) respond carefully to every reviewer suggestion, even if they disagree, and (12) get input from others as they revise. The author also shares detailed suggestions on the creation of effective tables and figures, and on how to respond to reviewer critiques.

  6. Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou

    2004-01-01

    Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.

  7. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant.

  8. Extraction, antioxidant capacity and identification of Semen Astragali Complanati (Astragalus complanatus R. Br.) phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-An; Fan, Xue-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Li, Tao; Zhu, Cai-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rui; Song, Wei

    2013-11-15

    A study about the ultrasonic extraction, antioxidant capacity and identification of phenolics from Semen Astragali Complanati was undertaken. The optimised extraction condition with an orthogonal experiment design of L9(3(4)) was 50°C, 30min and 15:1 (methanol solution:sample, mL:g). An extraction yield of 40.12±1.10mg gallic acid/g dry seed and the antioxidant capacity of 0.85±0.13mg dry extract/mg DPPH were obtained with the optimum condition, respectively. For each extraction set, the antioxidant capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay highly correlated to its total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Twelve phenolic components obtained with the optimised extraction procedure were tentatively identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Q-TOF Mass Spectrometer (UPLC-Q-TOF) according to their mass spectrometry, UV/vis spectrometry, and related literature reports. Furthermore, the ultrasonic effect on the particles' microstructure of Semen Astragali Complanati was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis.

  9. Waterpipe smoke: source of toxic and carcinogenic VOCs, phenols and heavy metals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Jens; Müller, Frederic D; Schmidt, Roman; Luch, Andreas; Schulz, Thomas G

    2015-11-01

    The use of the waterpipe, a traditional aid for the consumption of tobacco, has spread worldwide and is steadily increasing especially among the youth. On the other hand, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition of mainstream waterpipe smoke and the toxicological risks associated with this kind of smoking habit. Using a standardized machine smoking protocol, mainstream waterpipe smoke was generated and further analyzed for twelve volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and eight phenolic compounds by applying gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection, respectively. Additionally, seventeen elements were analyzed in waterpipe tobacco and charcoal prior to and after smoking, applying inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to assess the maximum exposure of these elements. For the first time ever, we have been able to show that waterpipe mainstream smoke contains high levels of the human carcinogen benzene. Compared with cigarette smoke yields, the levels were 6.2-fold higher, thus representing a significant health hazard for the waterpipe smoker. Furthermore, we found that waterpipe mainstream smoke contains considerable amounts of catechol, hydroquinone and phenol, each of which causing some health concern at least. The analysis of waterpipe tobacco and charcoal revealed that both matrices contained considerable amounts of the toxic elements nickel, cadmium, lead and chromium. Altogether, the data on VOCs, phenols and elements presented in this study clearly point to the health hazards associated with the consumption of tobacco using waterpipes.

  10. Reducing Phthalate, Paraben, and Phenol Exposure from Personal Care Products in Adolescent Girls: Findings from the HERMOSA Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Madrigal, Daniel S.; Cardenas, Maritza; Vera, Irene A.; Meza-Alfaro, Gonzalo; She, Jianwen; Gavin, Qi; Zahedi, Rana; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Parra, Kimberly L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personal care products are a source of exposure to potentially endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) for adolescent girls. Methods: We enrolled 100 Latina girls in a youth-led, community-based participatory research intervention study to determine whether using personal care products whose labels stated they did not contain these chemicals for 3 days could lower urinary concentrations. Pre- and postintervention urine samples were analyzed for phthalate metabolites, parabens, triclosan, and BP-3 using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Urinary concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) decreased by 27.4% (95% CI: –39.3, –13.2) on average over the 3-day intervention; no significant changes were seen in urinary concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP). Methyl and propyl paraben concentrations decreased by 43.9% (95% CI: –61.3, –18.8) and 45.4% (95% CI: –63.7, –17.9), respectively. Unexpectedly, concentrations of ethyl and butyl paraben concentrations increased, although concentrations were low overall and not detected in almost half the samples. Triclosan concentrations decreased by 35.7% (95% CI: –53.3, –11.6), and BP-3 concentrations decreased by 36.0% (95% CI: –51.0, –16.4). Discussion: This study demonstrates that techniques available to consumers, such as choosing personal care products that are labeled to be free of phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and BP-3, can reduce personal exposure to possible endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Involving youth in the design and implementation of the study was key to recruitment, retention, compliance, and acceptability of the intervention. Citation: Harley KG, Kogut K, Madrigal DS, Cardenas M, Vera IA, Meza-Alfaro G, She J, Gavin Q, Zahedi R, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Parra KL. 2016. Reducing phthalate, paraben, and phenol exposure from personal care

  11. A WATER-COMPATIBLE PHENOLIC HYDROXYL MODIFIED POLYSTYRENE AS AN ADSORBENT FOR ADSORBING PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A water-compatible phenolic hydroxyl modified polystyrene adsorbent (AM-1) foradsorbing and removing phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions was prepared by covalent bonding of phenolic hydroxyl groups to the surface of porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads, this resin can be used directly without wetting process. A comparison of the sorption properties of the new resin and Amberlite XAD-4 toward four phenolic compounds, phenol, p-cresol, p-chlorophenol,and p-nitrophenol was made. The capacities of equilibrium adsorption of AM-l for all four phenolic compounds increased around 20% over that of Amberlite XAD-4, which may be contributed to phenol hydroxyl group on the surface and the unusual pore distributior. At their dilute solution, the equilibrium adsorption capacities of AM-1 for phenol increased about 62% over that of Amberlite X4D-4, while equilibrium adsorption capacities of the other three phenolic compounds increased 4-35%, suggesting an advantage of AM-I over Amberlite XAD-4 in the collection of phenol.Freundlich isotherm equations and isosteric adsorption enthalpies for the four phenolic compounds indicate a physical adsorption process on the Amberlite XAD-4 and AM-I resins. Column studies for phenol show that AM-1 resin has excellent adsorption and desorption performance.

  12. Phenolics and Ascorbic Acid Related to Antioxidant Activity of MaoFruit Juice and Their Thermal Stability Study (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitiya Sripakdee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidantand/or anti-aging activities are always linedwith people’s minds as major potential benefits concerning human health in the recent commercial features for an economicworld of foodstuffs and medical uses. Total phenolics includingflavonoids and anthocyanins,and ascorbic acid in the Mao juices areclosely related to their antioxidant activity.Numerous research approaches on these functional foods, in particular the colored fruits and vegetableshave been investigated. Method validation and determination ofthe potential compounds have been increasingly developedwith highly sensitive and selective procedures and applications including thermal stability of the Mao juice.Their antioxidant activities obtained from different assays related to the contents of both phenolics and ascorbic acid in the anthocyanins-richMao juicesin Thailand are reported and discussed.

  13. Phenolics and Ascorbic Acid Related to Antioxidant Activity of MaoFruit Juice and Their Thermal Stability Study (Review Article)

    OpenAIRE

    Thitiya Sripakdee; Ratana Mahachai; Saksit Chanthai

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidantand/or anti-aging activities are always linedwith people’s minds as major potential benefits concerning human health in the recent commercial features for an economicworld of foodstuffs and medical uses. Total phenolics includingflavonoids and anthocyanins,and ascorbic acid in the Mao juices areclosely related to their antioxidant activity.Numerous research approaches on these functional foods, in particular the colored fruits and vegetableshave been investigated. Method validation...

  14. STUDY ON THE OXIDIZED GRAPHITE MATERIAL COATED WITH N-DOPED PHENOLIC RESIN FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-quan Zou; Chun-yang Wang; Qin-min Pan; Tong Zhao; Ling-zhi Wang; Shi-bi Fang

    2002-01-01

    Carbon-coated oxidized graphite has been prepared by a liquid-state deposition method. Oxidized graphite was prepared by wet chemical oxidation. Oxidation increases the reversible capacity of graphite, but its initial charge and discharge efficiency was reduced. Phenolic resin was applied to form the disordered carbon layer on the oxidized graphite. The efficiency and reversible charge capacity were obviously increased. The morphology of carbon materials was investigated by SEM.

  15. Temperature-dependent studies on the total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, and sugar content in six onion varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heating effect on total phenol, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and sugar content of six onion varieties has been quantitatively investigated to explore the effect of different temperatures. The onion varieties comprised one red-skinned variety, two white-skinned varieties, and three yellow-skinned varieties. The heating temperature was scanned at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C, and 150°C for 30 minutes each, and quantitative analysis was performed relative to the powdered onion at ambient temperature. Quercetin, glucosides and sugar content were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic and antioxidant content increased in all six varieties. The total flavonoid levels showed a considerable change. On heating the onion samples at 120°C for 30 minutes, the red-skinned variety showed the highest level of total phenolic content [13712.67 ± 1034.85 μg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight (μg GAE/g DW] and total flavonoids [3456.00 ± 185.82 μg of quercetin equivalents/g dry weight (μg Q/g DW], whereas the content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were 13611.83 ± 341.61 μg GAE/g DW and 3482.87 ± 117.17 μg Q/g DW, respectively, for the yellow-skinned (Sunpower variety. Quercetin and its glucoside contents increased up to 120°C and then decreased at 150°C, whereas the sugar content continuously decreased with heating. All cultivars showed the same pattern in the heating effect, and the predominant flavonoids were destroyed at higher temperatures. Therefore, it is improper to expose onion powder to a temperature higher than 120°C.

  16. Study on Mimetic Peroxidase and Molecular Recognition of Phenols With Inclusion Complex of *Ironporphyrin Immobilized by β-CD Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) and its cross-linke d polymer (β-CDP) were known as the mimetic models.Metalloporphyrin had been widely used in the enzymatic method of analysis and molecular recognition. In present work, it was investigation that supramolecular recognition for halogenated phenols, three cresols,three nitrophenols and three aminophenols, served respectively as the substrate of the mimetic receptor,iron-5,10,15,20-tetrakis (sulforphenyl)-21H, 23H-porphine (FeTPPS) or FeTPPS-ββ-CDP. Supramolecular complex, FeTPPS-β-CDP with tunction of mult i-recognition and induced-fit, was a advanced kind of mimetic peroxidase; Methyl phenol or polyphenol was the substitute of chlorophenic acid, while aminophenols and other phenols were suggested not to be utilized to enzymatic assay of H2O2. Being a mimetic enzyme mimicking the space structure of overall proteinase, beaimed by immobilized mimetic enzyme with a large number of β-CD interior cavities, chlorophenol was identified optimal substrate in the system tested.

  17. A Quantum Chemical and Statistical Study of Phenolic Schiff Bases with Antioxidant Activity against DPPH Free Radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouar, El Hassane

    2014-04-21

    Phenolic Schiff bases are known as powerful antioxidants. To select the electronic, 2D and 3D descriptors responsible for the free radical scavenging ability of a series of 30 phenolic Schiff bases, a set of molecular descriptors were calculated by using B3P86 (Becke's three parameter hybrid functional with Perdew 86 correlation functional) combined with 6-31 + G(d,p) basis set (i.e., at the B3P86/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory). The chemometric methods, simple and multiple linear regressions (SLR and MLR), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were employed to reduce the dimensionality and to investigate the relationship between the calculated descriptors and the antioxidant activity. The results showed that the antioxidant activity mainly depends on the first and second bond dissociation enthalpies of phenolic hydroxyl groups, the dipole moment and the hydrophobicity descriptors. The antioxidant activity is inversely proportional to the main descriptors. The selected descriptors discriminate the Schiff bases into active and inactive antioxidants.

  18. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Archela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is important the development of the phenolic compounds determination methods to be more selective, fast and easy operation. This paper brings a review of the methods employed on phenolics determination until this year.

  19. Study on Kinetic Parameters of Degradating Phenol by Photosynthetic Bacteria%光合细菌降解苯酚的动力学参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏芳

    2011-01-01

    苯酚是炼焦(油)、塑料、化工等行业生产过程中的主要污染物。随着经济的快速发展,各类含酚废水已经严重威胁着人类的生存环境。利用微生物处理含酚废水是一种经济有效且无二次污染的方法。本文主要研究了光合细菌-沼泽红假单胞菌降解含酚废水的动力学参数。实验结果表明,沼泽红假单胞菌对含酚废水具有很好的降解性能,正常状态下,该菌最大比生长速率μmax为8.00 mg/g.h,半速率常数Ks为247.92 mg/L,产率系数Y为5.88 mg/mg,内源呼吸系数Kd为0.29 d-1。%Phenol is the significant raw material or midst substance of coking plant,oil refining,plastic and medicine composing etc.More and more waste water containing phenol without treatment is threatening the environment heavily with the rapid development of economy.The method of microorganism biodegradation is economic and effective to treat with phenol waste water without second pollution.The kinetic parameters of the degradation of the phenol were studied with Rhodopseudomonas palustri.The experimental results show that Rhodopseudomonas palustris had excellent biodegradability for phenol wastewater.Under normal conditions,μmax is 8.00 mg/g·h,Ks is 247.92 mg/L,Y is 5.88 mg/mg and Kd is 0.29 d-1.

  20. Studies on Catalytic Degradation of Phenol Wastewater by Fenton and UV/Fenton%Fenton和UV-Fenton催化降解苯酚废水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽红; 孙洪军

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of Fenton and UV -Fenton is examined using phenol as a model compound .A batch study is con-ducted to optimize parameters like pH ,hydrogen peroxide concentration and ferrous ion concentration .At optimum condi-tions ,two processes are compared for the degradation of phenol .The degradation and mineralisation efficiency can be in-creased in UV-Fenton processes compared to conventional Fenton process and the maximum mineralising efficiency for phe-nol with UV-Fenton and Fenton processes is 98% and 40% respectively .In Fenton process ,carboxylic acids like acetic acid and oxalic acid can be formed as end products during the degradation of phenol ,while in UV -Fenton process ,both these ions are identified during the early stages of phenol degradation and oxidized almost completely at 120mins of the reac-tion time .In UV-Fenton process ,concentration of Fe2+ is 0 .4 mmol/L and that is 0 .8 mmol/L in conventional Fenton process .%研究Fenton和UV-Fenton两种工艺对苯酚的降解效率。分批研究优化pH值、温度、H2 O2浓度和Fe2+浓度。在最优条件下,比较了两种工艺降解苯酚的效果。结果表明,UV -Fenton工艺比传统的Fenton工艺增加了降解和矿化效率,最大的矿化效率分别是98%和40%。在Fenton工艺中,苯酚的最终产物是羧酸如醋酸和草酸,而在UV-Fenton工艺中,这些离子在苯酚降解的早期阶段形成,在120 min的反应时间内几乎完全氧化。在UV-Fenton工艺中Fe2+浓度为0.4 mmol/L ,而Fenton工艺中Fe2+浓度为0.8 mmol/L。

  1. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts.

  2. Study on a phenol-aldehyde condensation process for the pre-treatment of phenolic resin plant effluents%酚醛缩聚法处理酚醛树脂废水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘慧云; 李成杰; 张静

    2013-01-01

    采用酚醛缩聚的方法作为酚醛树脂废水前处理工艺,分别探讨了酸性条件和碱性条件下的酚醛缩合反应.结果表明,碱性条件下,最佳反应条件为甲醛2 mL,Ba(OH)21 g,反应时间3h,反应温度85℃,COD去除率46.7%,挥发酚去除率42.1%,甲醛去除率72.1%.酸性条件下,最佳反应条件为:甲醛3 mL,HCl 4 mL,反应时间3h,反应温度100℃,COD去除率47.4%、挥发酚去除率84.6%,甲醛去除率-1.0%.酚醛缩聚法可以有效去除废水中高浓度的挥发酚和甲醛,为后续的化学氧化或生物处理提供良好基础.%Pre-treatment of phenolic resin plant effluents containing highly concentrated phenol has been carried out by phenol-aldehyde condensation method. The optimal conditions are determined under acidic conditions and alkaline conditions respectively. The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows :formaldehyde 2 mL,Ba(OH)2 1 g,reaction time 3 h and reaction temperature 85 ℃ , the removal rate of COD,phenol and formaldehyde were 46.7% ,42. 1% and 72.1% respectively under alkaline conditions. And the optimal conditions were as follows:formaldehyde 3 mL,HCl 4 mL,reaction time 3 h and reaction temperature 100 ℃ , the removal rate of COD, phenol and formaldehyde were 47.4% ,84.6% and - 1. 0% under acidic conditions. According to the results, phenol-aldehyde condensation process proved to be an effective method for the pre-treatment of phenolic resin plant effluents containing highly concentrated phenol and formaldehyde, it' s providing a good foundation for the subsequent chemical oxidation and biological treatment.

  3. An adsorption-release-biodegradation system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Hu; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ren, Rui-Peng; Lv, Yong-Kang

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater was evaluated in a reusable system, which contained macroporous adsorption resin and Alcaligenes faecalis strain WY-01. In the system, up to 6000mg/L phenol could be completely degraded by WY-01; meanwhile, 99.03±3.95% of ammonium was removed from the initial concentration of 384mg/L. This is the first study to show the capability of single strain in simultaneous removal of ammonium and phenol in wastewater containing such high concentrations of phenol. Moreover, the resin was regenerated during the biodegradation process without any additional manipulations, indicating the system was reusable. Furthermore, enzyme assay, gene expression patterns, HPLC-MS and gas chromatography analysis confirmed that phenol biodegradation accompanied with aerobic nitrifier denitrification process. Results imply that the reusable system provides a novel strategy for more efficient biodegradation of phenol and ammonium contained in some particular industrial wastewater.

  4. STUDIES ON THE ADSORPTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ON A PS-BASED RESIN MODIFIED BY NITRO FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-nan Wang; Ai-min Li; Sheng Zhong; Wei-ben Yan; Quan-xing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A new adsorbent (JN-01) was prepared by modifying resin NDA-1800 with nitro functional groups.The adsorption capacities of resins XAD-4,NDA-1800 and JN-01 were investigated,and the results indicated that the modified resin JN-01 was much better in adsorbing phenol,p-nitrophenol and p-cresol.The adsorption capacities of the resin JN-01 were higher than those of the resins XAD-4 and NDA-1800 within a temperature range of 283-323 K,which might be attributed to the higher surface area and the partial polarity on its matrix.The new adsorbent could be widely used in wastewater treatment.

  5. A WATER—COMPATIBLE PHENOLIC HYDROXYL ODIFIED POLYSTYRENE AS AN ADSORBENT FOR ADSORBING PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAimin; FeiZhenghao; 等

    2001-01-01

    A water-compatible phenolic hydroxyl modified polystyrene adsorbent (AM-1) for adsorbing and removing phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions was prepared by covalent bonding of phenolic hydroxyl groups to the surface of porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads,this resin can be used directly without wetting process.A comparison of the sorption properites of the new resin and Amberlite XAD-4 toward four phenolic compounds,phenol,p-cresol,p-chlorophenol,and p-nitrophenol was made.The capacities of equilibrium adsorption of AM-1 for all four phenolic compounds increased around 20% over that of Amberlite XAD-4,which may be contributed to pheonl hydroxyl group on the surface and the unusual poe distribution.At their dilute solution,the equilibrium adsorption capacities of AM-1 for phenol increased aout 62% over that of Amberlite XAD-4,while equilibrium adsorption capacities of the other three phenolic compounds increased 4-35%,suggesting an advantage of AM-1 over Amberlite XAD-4 in the collection of phenol.Freundlich isotherm equations and isosteric adsorption enthalpies for the four phenolic compunds indicate a physical adsorption process on the Amberlite XAD-4 and AM-1 resins,Column studies for phenol show that AM-1 resin has excellent adsorption and desorption performance.

  6. Microwave Cure of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    高谷, 政広; 田平, 英敏; 岡本, 忠

    2006-01-01

    [Synopsis] Phenol-formaldehyde resin has been used as a versatile material for adhesives and coatings of a wide range of adherends because of its excellent performance in water- resistance, strength against abrasion, and so on. However, it has a drawback of slow rate of cure and relevant emission of formaldehyde gas after bonding. We studied the curing performance under irradiation of microwave for the purpose of looking for a way of accelerating the cure rate of phenol formaldehyde resin. Th...

  7. Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Chia Meng; Abbe Maleyki Mhd Jalil; Amin Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins), insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC), milk (MC), and white (WC) chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theob...

  8. 淀粉改性酚醛胶粘剂的研究%Study on phenolic adhesive modified with starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜拴丽; 李文莉

    2001-01-01

    Partially replacing formaldehyde by starch, phenolic adhesives modified with starch were synthesized and their performance were also tested. The factors affecting the performance of phenolic starch adhesive were discussed and the results show this modification can reduce the cost and poisonoussness of product, whereby the producing and constructing conditions can be improved.%介绍了以淀粉部分代替甲醛与苯酚反应制备淀粉改性酚醛胶粘剂的工艺,并对该胶粘剂的性能进行了测试。讨论了各种因素对改性胶粘剂性能的影响。用淀粉改性酚醛胶粘剂代替酚醛胶粘剂,可以降低成本和毒性,改善生产和施工环境,减少环境污染。

  9. A study of the effects of phenolic de-emulsifier solutions in xylene on the de-emulsification of a Nigerian crude oil emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Enontiemonria Efeovbokhan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research and development of de-emulsifiers for separating water from crude oil emulsions usually result in varying degrees of success, depending on the location and the type of crude being treated. This makes de-emulsifiers crude oil specific and thus gives rise to the continuous search for more and effective de-emulsifiers that can meet the specific needs of each locality. In this study, base-catalyzed phenol formaldehyde resins were formulated at varying formaldehyde to phenol ratios (1.2:1–1.8:1; the assessment was carried out by the bottle test method at varied de-emulsifier concentrations (vol/vol in xylene acting as solvent diluent. The bottle test was carried out at an optimum temperature of 70 °C, dosage of 50 ppm and residence times of 10 and 20 min. A factorial design was done to determine the best combination of the de-emulsification conditions for the resolution of the Nigerian crude oil emulsion. The results were analyzed and optimized using Minitab 16 utilizing a Pareto chart, normal effects, main effects and interaction plots. From the analysis carried out, it was found that the most effective formulated de-emulsifier was obtained at formaldehyde to phenol (F:P mole ratio of 1.8:1, 80% de-emulsifier concentration in xylene and residence time of 20 min. This de-emulsifier obtained a water separation efficiency of 79% compared to the commercial de-emulsifier which gave 71% efficiency. Thus the solution of P:F de-emulsifiers in xylene enhances the de-emulsification of the Nigerian crude oil emulsions.

  10. 腰果酚改性焦油粗酚酚醛泡沫塑料的研究%Study on Cardanol Modiifed Tar Crude Phenol Phenolic Foam Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红标; 张晓丹; 沈国鹏

    2014-01-01

    为降低酚醛泡沫塑料的成本,改善其性能,以焦油粗酚、苯酚、多聚甲醛为原材料,腰果酚为改性剂,合成可发性腰果酚改性焦油粗酚酚醛树脂,发泡制备出腰果酚改性焦油粗酚酚醛泡沫塑料。研究了腰果酚用量对改性焦油粗酚酚醛泡沫塑料保温性能、阻燃性能、吸水率、力学性能和耐热稳定性等的影响,并通过傅立叶变换红外光谱仪对合成改性焦油粗酚酚醛树脂进行了表征,通过生物显微镜、热重分析仪对改性焦油粗酚酚醛泡沫塑料的微观结构和耐热稳定性进行表征。结果表明,腰果酚的加入使改性焦油粗酚酚醛泡沫塑料的综合性能有较大改善,当腰果酚占混合酚的质量分数为15%时,改性焦油粗酚酚醛泡沫塑料的综合性能最佳,吸水率为4.51%,压缩强度为0.31 MPa,弯曲强度为0.55 MPa,导热系数为0.036 W/(m · K),极限氧指数为35.2%。改性焦油粗酚酚醛泡沫塑料的保温、阻燃性能和耐热稳定性较好,泡孔致密均匀。%In order to reduce the cost and improve the performance of phenolic foam plastics,the foamable tar crude phenol phenolic resin modified with cardanol was synthesized by using tar crude phenol,phenol,paraformaldehyde as materials,cardanol as modifier. Then tar crude phenol phenolic foam plastics modified with cardanol was prepared by foaming. The effects of the amount of cardanol on heat preservation,fire retardancy,water absorption,mechanical properties and thermal stabilities of the modified foam plastics were investigated,the modified tar crude phenol phenolic resin was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the microscopic structure and thermal stabilities of the modified foam plastics were characterized by biological microscope and thermo gravimetric analyzer. The results show that the comprehensive properties of the modified foam plastics is improved greatly by cardanol

  11. Phenolic substances in Ailanthus glandulosa Desf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekala Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the isolation and identification of phenolic acids from fruit and leaves of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. The methods used in the isolation and identification of the compounds were: isolation of phenolic acids modified by Ibrahim and Towers, acidic and alkaline hydrolysis by Schmidtlein and Herrmann and identification of phenolic acids in the isolated fraction of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography (TLC on cellulose plates. In the course of the study, the presence of phenolic acids in leaves and fruit of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf was confirmed. Overall, proportions of 15 phenolic acids were found and identified in the analyzed material. These are: gallic acid, ellagic acid, caffeic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, syryngic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, 2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dimethoxycinnamic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3 other compounds named A, B, C, whose identification was not possible due to the lack of suitable reference patterns. Studies have shown that leaves and fruit of the plant Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. contain a large number of phenolic acids which possess many important pharmacological activities.

  12. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  13. Interactions of phenol with cationic micelles of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide studied by titration calorimetry, conductimetry, and 1H NMR in the range of low additive and surfactant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaghi, Radhouane; de Ménorval, Louis-Charles; Charnay, Clarence; Derrien, Gaëlle; Zajac, Jerzy

    2008-10-01

    Interactions of phenol (PhOH) with micellar aggregates of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) in aqueous solutions at surfactant concentrations close to the CMC and phenol contents of 1, 5, or 10 mmol kg(-1) have been investigated at 303 K by means of titration calorimetry, solution conductimetry, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Estimates of the main thermodynamic parameters related to HTAB micellization were made for PhOH/HTAB/H(2)O systems based on the specific conductivity measurements and calorimetric determination of the cumulative enthalpy of dilution as functions of the surfactant concentration at a fixed additive content. The combined analysis of the results obtained in H(2)O solutions pointed to the preferential location of PhOH in the outer micelle parts by an enthalpy-driven mechanism. Additional PhOH molecules were located increasingly deeper within the micelle core. The (1)H NMR study of PhOH solubilization by 1.5 mmol kg(-1) HTAB solutions in D(2)O indicated that the two categories of the solubilization site became saturated with the solubilizate already at the lowest additive content. Dissimilar amounts of the solubilized material in H(2)O and D(2)O solutions were ascribed to the difference in the initial micelle structures formed in the two solvents, as inferred from calorimetry and (1)H NMR studies of the HTAB micellization in D(2)O and H(2)O.

  14. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  15. Phenolics and plant allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Ruan, Xiao; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An

    2010-12-07

    Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide) metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  16. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  17. Theoretical DFT and matrix isolation FTIR studies of 2-(1,2,4-triazolyl)phenol isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagacz-Kostrzewa, Magdalena; Sałdyka, Magdalena; Wierzejewska, Maria; Khomenko, Dmytro M.; Doroschuk, Roman O.

    2016-07-01

    The structure, isomerization pathways and vibrational spectra of the important heterocyclic 2-(1,2,4-triazolyl)phenol molecule were investigated by DFT calculations and matrix isolation FTIR spectroscopy. Among forty-five minima located on PES three isomers with intramolecular hydrogen bond Osbnd H⋯N, 2-TRP1, 1-TRP1 and 1-TRP2, are the most stable forms with the calculated abundance of 83.4%, 10.3% and 6.0%, respectively. The presented FTIR results allow identification and characterization of these species. Several hydrogen bond parameters such as OH bond distance, νOH wavenumber shift and occupancy of the antibonding σ∗(OH) orbital were found to be linearly related with the estimated interaction energy.

  18. Spectroscopic investigations and quantum chemical computational study of (E)-4-methoxy-2-[(p-tolylimino)methyl]phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, Basak; Albayrak, Cigdem

    2011-01-01

    In this work the electronic structure of (E)-4-methoxy-2-[(p-tolylimino)methyl]phenol has been characterized by the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level by using density functional theory. The experimental infrared and electronic absorption spectra have been obtained and compared with the theoretically obtained ones. Molecular electrostatic potential map has been evaluated; natural bond orbital and frontier molecular orbitals analysis have been performed from the optimized geometry. The energetic behavior of the title compound has been examined in solvent media using polarizable continuum model. The non-linear optical properties have been computed with the same level of theory. In addition, the changes of thermodynamic properties have been obtained in the range of 100-500 K.

  19. STUDY ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF ADSORPTION OF ETHYL BENZOATE AND DIETHYL PHTHALATE BY PHENOLIC RESIN ADSORBENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Wang; Zuo-qing Shi; Rong-fu Shi; Yun-ge Fan; Yi-zhong Yang

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents experimental observations on the adsorption of individual solutes by a simple thermodynamic framework, and the equilibrium adsorption of ethyl benzoate and diethyl phthalate on phenolic resin adsorbent in hexane solutions within the temperature range of 293-313 K. The experimental results show that the Freundlich adsorption law is applicable to the adsorption of ethyl benzoate and diethyl phthalate on the adsorbent, since all the correlative factors R' are larger than 0.99. The negative values of all the isosteric adsorption enthalpies for ethyl benzoate and diethyl phthalate indicate that they undergo exothermic processes, while their magnitudes (19-28 kJ/mol) manifest a hydrogen bonding sorption process. Other thermodynamic properties: the free energy changes and the entropy change associated with the adsorption have been calculated from the Gibbs adsorption equation and the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation.

  20. Application of quantum topological molecular similarity descriptors in QSPR study of the O-methylation of substituted phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Mohajeri, Afshan

    2008-01-30

    The usefulness of a novel type of electronic descriptors called quantum topological molecular similarity (QTMS) indices for describing the quantitative effects of molecular electronic environments on the O-methylation kinetic of substituted phenols has been investigated. QTMS theory produces for each molecule a matrix of descriptors, containing bond (or structure) information in one dimension and electronic effects in another dimension, instead of other methods producing a vector of descriptors for each molecule. A collection of chemometrics tools including principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and genetic algorithms (GA) were used to model the structure-kinetic data. PCA separated the bond and descriptor effects, and PLS modeled the effects of these parameters on the rate constant data, and GA selected the most relevant subset of variables. The model performances were validated by both cross-validation and external validation. The results indicated that the proposed models could explain about 95% of variances in the rate constant data. The significant effects of variables on the reaction kinetic were identified by calculating variable important in projection (VIP). It was found that the rate constant of esterification of phenols is highly influenced by the electronic properties of the C2--C1--O--H fragment of the parent molecule. Indeed, the C2--X and C4--X bonds (corresponding to ortho and para substituents) were found as highly influential parameters. All of the eight calculated QTMS indices were found significant however, lambda1, lambda2, lambda3, epsilon, and K(r) were detected as highly influential parameters.

  1. Studies into the phenolic patterns of different tissues of pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) infructescence by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (n) and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof B; Glock, Mona P; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-08-01

    In a comprehensive study, more than 60 phenolic compounds were detected in methanolic extracts from different tissues of pineapple infructescence by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation multiple-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (n) ) as well as by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical workflow combining both methods revealed numerous compounds assigned for the first time as pineapple constituents by their mass fragmentations. Pineapple crown tissue was characterised by depsides of p-coumaric and ferulic acid. In contrast, major phenolic compounds in pineapple pulp extracts were assigned to diverse S-p-coumaryl, S-coniferyl and S-sinapyl derivatives of glutathione, N-L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and L-cysteine, which were also identified in the peel. The latter was additionally characterised by elevated concentrations of p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid depsides and glycerides, respectively. Two peel-specific cyanidin hexosides were found. Elevated concentrations of isomeric N,N'-diferuloylspermidines may be a useful tool for the detection of fraudulent peel usage for pineapple juice production. Mass fragmentation pathways of characteristic pineapple constituents are proposed, and their putative biological functions are discussed.

  2. Electrochemical treatment of phenolic waters in presence of chloride with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes: experimental study and mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Michele; Vacca, Annalisa; Polcaro, Anna Maria; Palmas, Simonetta; Ruiz, Jesus Rodriguez; Da Pozzo, Anna

    2010-02-15

    This work deals with an experimental and numerical study on the electrochemical treatment of waters containing phenolic compounds with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes. Anodic oxidation of m-cresol, as a model of phenolic compound, was investigated by galvanostatic electrolyses. The electrolyses were carried out under different experimental conditions by using an impinging-jet flow cell inserted in a hydraulic circuit in a closed loop. On the basis of the experimental results a mathematical model was implemented to simulate the effect of the chemistry of organic compounds and solution on the process, in particular the effect of chlorides on the kinetics of m-cresol oxidation. The effect of hydrodynamics of the cell on the mass transfer towards the electrode surface was also considered. The model was validated through comparison with experimental data: the results showed that the proposed model well interpreted the complex effect on removal efficiency of such operative parameters as current density, hydrodynamic of the reactor and chemistry of the solution. The model predictions were utilised to obtain quantitative information on the reaction mechanism, as well as to predict the performance of the process under different operative conditions, by calculating some relevant figures of merit.

  3. The Effects of Non-Maternal Care in the First Twelve Months of Life on Children in the First Year of School: Preliminary Findings from a Two Stage Study (The Australian Early Childhood Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiltree, Gay; Edgar, Don

    This paper, which presents preliminary analysis of data from stage one of the Australian Early Childhood study, examined the effects of nonmaternal care in the first year of life on children in their first year of school. The author tested the hypothesis, proposed by John Bowlby and others, that long periods of nonmaternal care in the first 12…

  4. The Effects of Non-Maternal Care in the First Twelve Months of Life on Children in the First Year of School: Preliminary Findings from a Two Stage Study (The Australian Early Childhood Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiltree, Gay; Edgar, Don

    This paper, which presents preliminary analysis of data from stage one of the Australian Early Childhood study, examined the effects of nonmaternal care in the first year of life on children in their first year of school. The author tested the hypothesis, proposed by John Bowlby and others, that long periods of nonmaternal care in the first 12…

  5. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  6. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lisa; Cicerale, Sara

    2016-12-16

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  7. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SPORT INJURY RISK AND TYPES OF INJU-RIES: A RETROSPECTIVE TWELVE-MONTH STUDY ON CROSS-COUNTRY SKIERS, SWIMMERS, LONG-DISTANCE RUNNERS AND SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Ristolainen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long- distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p < 0.05, and more male than female runners reported at least one overuse injury (69% vs. 51%, p < 0.05. When the incidence of acute and overuse injuries both separately and combined was calculated per 1000 training hours, per 1000 competition hours and all exposure hours combined we found no gender differences in either of these comparisons. After adjustment for sport event males were at increased risk for posterior thigh overuse injuries compared to females (relative risk (RR 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.3 to 26.4, p < 0.05 while females were at increased risk for overuse injuries in the ankle compared to males (RR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 9.3, p < 0.05. After adjustment for exposure time (injuries/1000 exposure hours significance of the difference between the sexes in overuse injury to the ankle persisted (female 0.11 vs. male 0.02 injuries/1000 exposure hours, p < 0.05. Six athletes had an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, of whom four were female soccer players. After combining all reported acute and overuse ankle and knee injuries, the proportion of athletes with such injury was higher in the female compared to male soccer players (75% and 54% respectively; p < 0.05, but no difference was found in such injuries when calculated per 1000 exposure hours. In conclusion, we found some gender differences in sport-related injuries, but most of these differences seemed to be explained at least in part by differences in the amount of training

  8. Twelve-Month Efficacy and Safety Data for the "Stress Incontinence Control, Efficacy and Safety Study": A Phase III, Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study Treating Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Using the Vesair Intravesical Balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Harvey; Jacoby, Karny; Kalota, Susan; Snyder, Jeffrey; Cline, Kevin; Robertson, Kaiser; Kahan, Randall; Green, Lonny; McCammon, Kurt; Rovner, Eric; Rardin, Charles

    2017-09-26

    The "Stress Incontinence Control, Efficacy and Safety Study" (SUCCESS) is a phase III study of the Vesair Balloon in women with stress urinary incontinence who had failed conservative therapy, and either failed surgery, were not candidates for surgery, or chose not to have surgery. The safety and efficacy of the balloon at 12 months is reported for those participants in the treatment arm who elected to continue with the SUCCESS trial beyond the primary end point at 3 months. The SUCCESS trial is a multicenter, prospective, single-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled study. Participants were randomized on a 2.33:1 basis to either Vesair Balloon placement or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of both a greater than 50% reduction from baseline on 1-hour provocative pad weight test and an at least 10-point improvement in symptoms on the Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire assessed at the 3-month study visit. Patients in the treatment arm who opted to continue in the trial were followed up prospectively up to 12 months. A total of 221 participants were randomized, including 157 in the treatment arm and 64 in the control arm. Sixty-seven participants in the treatment arm (42.7% of participants enrolled) were evaluated at 12 months, with 56.3% achieving the composite end point and 78.7% having greater than 50% reduction in pad weight from baseline in a per-protocol analysis. In an intent-to-treat analysis treating all participants who did not continue with the balloon as failures, 24% of the participants achieved the composite end point and 33.6% had a greater than 50% reduction in pad weight from baseline. Treatment-related adverse events in this group included dysuria (40.1%), gross hematuria (36.9%), and urinary tract infection (26.1%). In this phase III trial, symptom relief was maintained for those participants who continued therapy for 12 months. The balloon was found to be safe with no device- or procedure-related serious adverse events

  9. Estimating reaction constants by ab initio molecular modeling: a study on the oxidation of phenol to catechol and hydroquinone in advanced oxidation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular modeling is growing as a research tool in Chemical Engineering studies, as can be seen by a simple research on the latest publications in the field. Molecular investigations retrieve information on properties often accessible only by expensive and time-consuming experimental techniques, such as those involved in the study of radical-based chain reactions. In this work, different quantum chemical techniques were used to study phenol oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in Advanced Oxidation Processes used for wastewater treatment. The results obtained by applying a DFT-based model showed good agreement with experimental values available, as well as qualitative insights into the mechanism of the overall reaction chain. Solvation models were also tried, but were found to be limited for this reaction system within the considered theoretical level without further parameterization.

  10. Comparative study of the kinetics and equilibrium of phenol biosorption on immobilized white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Viktor; Felinger, Attila; Hegedűsova, Alžbeta; Dékány, Imre; Pernyeszi, Tímea

    2013-03-01

    In this study the kinetics and equilibrium of phenol biosorption were studied from aqueous solution using batch technique at an initial pH of 5.5. The biosorption was studied on Ca-alginate beads, on non-living mycelial pellets of Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on Ca-alginate, and on free fungal biomass. Ph. chrysosporium was grown in a liquid medium containing mineral and vitamin materials with complex composition. The biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics on all bioadsorbents. The bioadsorption-equilibrium on blank Ca-alginate, free and immobilized fungal biomass can be described by Langmuir, anti-Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models using nonlinear least-squares estimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioactivity of phenolic acids: Metabolites versus parent compounds: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids are present in our diet in different foods. In particular, mushrooms are a good source of these molecules. Due to their bioactive properties, phenolic acids are extensively studied and there is evidence of their role in disease prevention. Nevertheless, in vivo, these compounds are metabolized and circulate in the organism as glucuronated, sulfated and methylated metabolites, displaying higher or lower bioactivity. To clarify the importance of the metabolism of phenolic acids, ...

  12. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10–15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, ...

  13. Phenol Solvothermal Synthesis of JBW-Type Zeolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Bo; WANG Ye; XIN Ming-hong; QIU Shi-lun

    2007-01-01

    Phenol was used as an aromatic and acidic solvent in solvothermal synthesis. JBW- type zeolites were successfully synthesized in a phenolic system. The as-synthesized microporous crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The results indicate that phenol is a good organic solvent and has a huge potential of application in studying crystallization mechanism and synthesizing novel microporous materials.

  14. Effects of Ultrasonic Irradiation on Phenolic Compounds in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    2000-05-01

    Red wine has been of interest recently because many poly-phenols, that are considered to be good for health, are contained therein. Since ultrasonic irradiation accelerates maturation, its effects on phenolic compounds in wine were investigated in this study. Effects were evaluated using the indices developed by Glories. It was found that weak ultrasonic irradiation promotes an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds in red wine.

  15. Phenolic characterization of Northeast Portuguese propolis: usual and unusual compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Soraia; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Barros, Cristina; Domingues, M. R. M.; Cardoso, Susana M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an ethanolic extract from Portuguese propolis was prepared, fractionated by highperformance liquid chromatography, and the identification of the phenolic compounds was done by electrospray mass spectrometry in the negative mode. This technical approach allowed the identification of 37 phenolic compounds, which included not only the typical phenolic acids and flavonoids found in propolis from temperate zones but also several compounds in which its occurre...

  16. Antimicrobial properties and phenolic contents of medicinal plants used by the Venda people for conditions related to venereal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaudzi, R B; Ndhlala, A R; Kulkarni, M G; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2011-05-17

    Many people are infected by venereal diseases and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in rural areas. Sexual transmitted diseases are considered a disgrace in the community because of the stigmas attached to them. Indigenous people tend to use several medicinal plants to treat these infectious diseases rather than western medicines. This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal, antigonococcal, HIV-type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and to determine phenolic content of twelve medicinal plants used by the Venda people to treat venereal diseases. The dried plant materials of twelve medicinal plants were extracted with petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM), 80% ethanol (EtOH) and water. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), three Gram-negative (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria and a fungus Candida albicans. The phenolic contents including total phenolics, flavonoids, gallotannins and condensed tannins of the methanolic extracts of the same plants were also determined. DCM and EtOH extracts of Bolusanthus speciosus bark and stems exhibited good activity (Water and 50% methanol extracts of Acacia karroo bark, Bolusanthus speciosus stems and Ximenia caffra roots and leaves showed good RT inhibition percentages (>70%) at 1mg/ml. All tested extracts exhibited dose dependent IC(50) values ranging from (0.1 to 0.6 mg/ml). Almost all plant species investigated contained phenolic compounds, which were greater than 5mg/g with the exception of Adansonia digitata bark and Aloe chabaudii roots. The highest level of flavonoids (11.9 μg/g) were detected in Ximenia caffra leaves. Whereas the highest amount of gallotannins were detected in Ekebergia capensis bark (69 μg/g). Condensed tannins were higher in Ekebergia capensis bark and Ximenia caffra roots (0.47 and 0.48% respectively). Adansonia digitata bark and Aloe

  17. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian cultivars of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Susana; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Taco, Verónica; Poveda, Cristina; Ayuda-Durán, Begoña; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2016-03-01

    Tree tomato fruits from the yellow giant, giant purple and New Zealand purple cultivars, cultivated in Ecuador were analysed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Twelve hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives and four anthocyanins (in the purple cultivars) were detected and identified. The hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives mostly derived from caffeic acid, being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and rosmarinic acid the majority compounds. Furthermore, various rosmarinic acid glucosides, caffeoyl glucoside, feruloyl glucoside and two ferulic acid dehydrodimers were tentatively identified. The presence of rosmarinic acid is particularly relevant as it constituted a majority phenolic compound in the four studied tree tomato cultivars and it had not been reported previously in this fruit. In the purple cultivars main anthocyanins were pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside and delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside. The New Zealand purple cultivar was by far the richest sample in both hydroxycinnamates (421.6mg/100g dry pulp) and anthocyanins (168.9mg/100g dry pulp). Antioxidant capacity, as determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays, followed the same pattern as phenolic contents, with the New Zealand purple cultivar being the one with the highest and the yellow giant cultivar with the lowest values.

  18. Phenolics from Brazilian propolis

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The main phenolic constituents from Brazilian propolis, originating from Sao Paulo State, were isolated and identified: three flavonoids, a prenylated coumaric acid and two new benzopyranes, E and Z 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-8-prenyl-2H-benzopyranes.

  19. Phenol-pyrazole ligands in the design of manganese(III) compounds : synthesis, structural characterization and study of the magnetic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viciano Chumillas, Marta

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis project, new manganese(III) compounds containing phenol-pyrazole ligands are presented. Small variations on the phenol-pyrazole ligand have been performed to investigate the role of the ligand in the formation of new complexes. The reaction conditions are also crucial to determine the

  20. METHODS OF REDUCTION OF FREE PHENOL CONTENT IN PHENOLIC FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich

    2012-12-01

    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  1. Analysis of nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods: the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2011-12-28

    More than 500 phenolic compounds have been reported as present in foodstuffs, and their intake has been related to the prevention of several chronic diseases. Most of the literature on phenolic compounds focuses on those present in the supernatant of aqueous-organic extractions: extractable phenolics. Nevertheless, significant amounts of phenolic compounds remain in the solid residues after such extractions. These nonextractable phenolics are mostly proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and hydrolyzable tannins that are closely associated with the food matrix. Studies of this fraction of dietary phenolic compounds are scarce, and the few there are usually refer to particular types of phenolics rather than to the fraction as a whole. The present review reports the state-of-the-art methods that currently exist for analyzing nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods.

  2. Topical therapy of molluscum contagiosum as a comparative therapeutic study using 15% phenol in lactic acid, 5% tincture iodine and pricking alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa E. Sharquie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molluscum contagiosum is a common viral infection of the skin, caused by poxvirus, commonly affects young children. Although there was no specific treatment for molluscum contagiosum virus, many therapeutic modalities were used with different response rates. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 15% phenol in lactic acid, 5% tincture iodine and pricking alone through comparative treatments of molluscum contagiosum. Materials and Methods: This randomized, therapeutic, single, blinded, comparative study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology–Baghdad Teaching Hospital Baghdad, Iraq, during the period from October 2007 to October 2008. Seventy-five patients with molluscum contagiosum were included in this study. They were diagnosed on clinical bases. Patients with prior treatment in the last 2 weeks and patients who had inflamed lesions were excluded. Full history and physical examination were done for all Patients. The patients were divided into 3 equal groups according to the mode of therapy (25 patients for each group: Group 1 patients treated by pricking the lesions with orange stick dipped in 15% phenol in lactic acid. Group 2 patients treated by pricking the lesions with orange stick dipped in 5% tincture iodine. Group 3 patients treated by pricking with orange stick alone. The treatment sessions were done at the time of presentation and then every week until complete cure was achieved, but not more than three sessions. The patients were followed up after one month from the last session to record the clinical cure and any local or systemic side effects. Results: Seventy five patients with molluscum contagiosum, 43 (57% males and 32 (43% females with male to female ratio 1.3-1, their ages ranged from 2-35 years(median:6 years. The most common age groups affected were below 10 years; 57 (76% patients. The most common affected body sites were the face and neck 58 (77.3% patients. Atopic diseases like atopic

  3. Electron transfer reactions of osmium(II) complexes with phenols and phenolic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, Angusamy; Ramdass, Arumugam; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Velayudham, Murugesan; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-07-01

    Three [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes (NN = polypyridine) with ligands of varying hydrophobicity were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectral techniques. The geometry of the molecules are optimized by DFT calculations. The interaction between [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes and phenolate ion in ground state is confirmed by absorption spectral study and the binding constant values are in the range of 3-740 M-1. The photoinduced electron transfer reaction of these [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes with phenols and phenolic acids at pH 12.5 leads to the formation of phenoxyl radical confirmed through transient absorption spectral study. Binding constants and electron transfer rate constants within the [Os(NN)3]2+-phenolate ion adduct account for the change for the overall quenching constant with the change of structure of reactants.

  4. LC-MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of six phenolic components in rat plasma after taking traditional Chinese medicinal-preparation: Guanxinning lyophilized powder for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaorui; Chen, Xiaohui; Li, Li; Shen, Zhenduo; Wang, Xiaoli; Zheng, Ping; Duan, Fangxia; Ma, Yongfen; Bi, Kaishun

    2008-09-15

    A traditional Chinese medicinal preparation (TCMP) named Guanxinning lyophilized powder for injection composed of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. (SMB) and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (LCH) was studied. In order to learn the kinetic behaviors of the lyophilized powder and provide proofs for rational administration, we have developed a sensitive and reproducible method for determination and pharmacokinetic study of six main phenolic components {danshensu (DSS), protocatechuic acid (PAC), protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL), chlorogenic acid (CHA), caffeic acid (CAA) and salvianolic acid B (SAB)} of Guanxinning in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) method. Sample preparations were carried out by protein precipitation with the addition of methanol followed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-ethyl ether (3:1, v/v) after internal standard (IS, galic acid) spiked. After evaporation to dryness, the resultant residue was reconstituted in methanol and injected onto a Kromasil C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d. with 5 microm particle size). The analytes were analyzed by using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was with good linearity in the range 0.342-85.0 microgmL(-1) for DSS, 0.0647-12.9 microgmL(-1) for PAC, 0.0933-18.7 microgmL(-1) for PAL, 0.0085-3.40 microgmL(-1) for CHA, 0.0138-2.75 microgmL(-1) for CAA and 0.0272-810 microgmL(-1) for SAB (r>0.99). The average extract recoveries of the six analytes from rat plasma were all no less than 75%, the precision and accuracy determined were all within the required limits. This LC-MS method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of the six phenolic components of Guanxinning lyophilized powder for injection in rats.

  5. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ∼350 °C and ∼450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  6. Spectroscopic and structural studies of the Schiff base 3-methoxy-N-salicylidene-o-amino phenol complexes with some transition metal ions and their antibacterial, antifungal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Aly, M. M.; Salem, A. M.; Sayed, M. A.; Abdel Aziz, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    Spectroscopic (IR, Raman, NMR, UV-visible, and ESR), and structural studies of the ligand 3-methoxy-N-salicylidene-o-amino phenol (H2L) and its synthesized complexes with some transition metal ions (Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II)), Cu(II) and Zn(II)) were recorded and analyzed. The magnetic properties and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and DTA) were also measured for the complexes. The metal complexes were found to have The structural formula MLṡH2O and the metal ions Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II)) and Zn(II) were found to form tetrahedral complexes with the ligand whereas Cu(II) formed a square planar one. Antimicrobial activity of the ligand and its complexes were also investigated and discussed.

  7. Soluble free phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of bread and durum wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine phenolic compounds and the total antioxidant capacity in the grain of ten bread (T. aestivum L. and ten durum (T. durum Desf. wheat genotypes. Soluble free forms of total phenolics, flavonoids, PVPP (polyvinylpolypyrrolidone bound phenolics, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids were investigated. In addition, the correlation coefficients between total antioxidant capacities and the concentration of different soluble free phenolic compounds, as well as between soluble free total phenolics and phenolic acids, flavonoids and PVPP bound phenolics were determined. Significant differences in the content of aceton/water extractable total phenolics, PVPP bound phenolics and phenolic acids between and within two wheat species were found. On the average, durum wheat samples had about 1.19-fold higher total phenolic compounds and about 1.5-fold higher PVPP bound phenolics than bread wheat samples. Three phenolic acids, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic, were detected in wholemeal bread wheat. Caffeic acid was not found in durum wheat samples whilst ferulic acid was the most abundant. Proanthocyanidins in bread and durum wheat genotypes were not detected. The antioxidant capacity measured as the DPPH radical scavenging activity was similar in wholemeal of bread and durum wheat, however, significant differences were observed among genotypes within species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31069

  8. In situ phenol removal from fed-batch fermentations of solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 by pertraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerema, L.; Wierckx, N.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Verdoes, D.; Keurentjes, J.

    2011-01-01

    In situ phenol pertraction with 1-octanol has been experimentally studied to improve the production of the model component phenol by a recombinant strain of Pseudomonas putida S12. When the phenol concentration in the reactor reaches 2mM, the cells in fermentations without phenol removal are inhibit

  9. Resonant two-photon ionization of phenol in methylene chloride doped solid argon using 248 nm KrF laser and 254 nm Hg lamp radiation, a comparative study. The UV/VIS absorption spectrum of phenol radical cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesper, Karl; Diehl, Frank; Simon, Jens Georg Günther; Specht, Harald; Schweig, Armin

    1991-06-01

    Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) of phenol (PhOH) has been successfully achieved in methylene chloride (CH 2Cl 2) doped solid argon using a KrF laser and a Hg resonance lamp. The result constitutes the first-time TPI of a typically organic molecule in this medium using an excimer laser as well as the first-time spectroscopic identification of PhOH +•. A qualitative model is proposed which is consistent with both the unexpected photostability of PhOH +• and the incomplete running of the TPI process in the applied medium.

  10. Oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma in twelve dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, A; Murphy, B G; Jordan, R C; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-01-01

    Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a distinct histological subtype of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), described in both dogs and man. In dogs, PSCC has long been considered a malignant oral tumour of very young animals, but it has recently been reported to occur in adult dogs as well. The aim of this study was to describe the major clinicopathological characteristics of canine oral PSCC (COPSCC). Twelve dogs diagnosed with COPSCC were included in this retrospective study (1990-2012). The majority (75%) of the dogs were >6 years of age (median age 9 years). All tumours were derived from the gingiva of dentate jaws, with 66.7% affecting the rostral aspects of the jaws. The gross appearance of the lesions varied, with one having an intraosseous component only. The majority (91.7%) of the tumours were advanced lesions (T2 and T3), but no local or distant metastases were noted. Microscopically, two patterns were seen: (1) invasion of bone forming a cup-shaped indentation in the bone or a deeply cavitating cyst within the bone (cavitating pattern), (2) histologically malignant growth, but lack of apparent bone invasion (non-cavitating pattern). The microscopical appearance corresponded to imaging findings in a majority of cases, with cavitating forms presenting with a cyst-like pattern of bone loss or an expansile mass on imaging and non-cavitating forms showing an infiltrative pattern of bone destruction on imaging. These features suggest two distinct biological behaviours of COPSCC.

  11. Isolation and identification of plant phenolic compounds in birch leaves: Air pollution stress and leaf phenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponen, Jyrki Mikael

    Chromatographic (analytical and preparative HPLC), chemical (hydrolysis) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques proved to be suitable tools for the structure identification of plant phenolic compounds. More than 30 individual phenolic compounds were detected and quantified. Detailed information of the structures of individual compounds was determined after isolation from birch leaves. Ten flavonoid glycosides were identified. Two of them, myricetin-3-O-α-L-(acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-α-L-(4/prime'-O-acetyl)- rhamnopyranoside, have been rarely found in birch leaves. Further, some characterized major phenolics with non- flavonoid structures in our study were 1-O-galloyl- β-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose, gallic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, cis- and trans-forms of 3- and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids. The presence of gallotannin group was evidenced by strong positive correlations between concentrations of these gallotannins (preliminary identified by HPLC and UV spectra) and the protein precipitation capacity of extracts. Content of gallotannins decreased with leaf growth and maturation. It is known that concentrations of phenolic compounds regularly increase in slowly growing stressed plants and therefore, it is natural that they are also sensitive to different forms of air pollution. Total content and the contents of some individual phenolics correlated negatively with the distance from the pollution source in our study area. In addition to comparing absolute concentrations of compounds in question, the within-tree correlations or within-tree variations of the relevant compounds between polluted and control areas were an alternative approach. Differences in pairwise correlations between the investigated leaf phenolic compounds indicated the competition between some gallotannins and p-coumaroylquinic acids on the polluted but not on the control site. Air pollution seems to be a stress factor for birch trees associated with

  12. Equilibrium and kinetics studies on the adsorption of substituted phenols by a Cu–Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with 1-naphthol-3,8-disulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, Tomohito, E-mail: kameda@env.che.tohoku.ac.jp; Uchiyama, Tomomi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2016-06-15

    Cu–Al layered double hydroxides (Cu–Al LDHs) intercalated with 1-naphthol-3,8-disulfonate (1-N-3,8-DS{sup 2−}) were confirmed to easily take up substituted phenols with electron-poor benzene rings from aqueous solution. The uptake of the substituted phenols by the 1-N-3,8-DS• Cu–Al LDH was better expressed by the Langmuir-type than the Dubinin−Radushkevich (DR) adsorption model. The negative values of ΔG for all substituted phenols indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous regardless of the temperature. The |ΔH| values for all substituted phenols are less than 20 kJ mol{sup −1}, indicating that the phenol uptake by this LDH can be considered a physical adsorption process caused by π–π stacking interactions. Although the uptake of the substituted phenols by the 1-N-3,8-DS• Cu–Al LDH can be considered a physical adsorption process caused by π–π stacking interactions, it is closely related chemically to Langmuir-type adsorption. The uptake of various substituted phenols by 1-N-3,8-DS• Cu–Al LDH followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. By fitting the results of phenol uptake by 1-N-3,8-DS• Cu–Al LDH to the Eyring equation, it was found that positive values of ΔH{sup ‡} and ΔG{sup ‡} indicated the presence of an energy barrier in the adsorption process. Furthermore, the positive value of ΔH{sup ‡} confirmed that the process was endothermic. - Highlights: • The uptake of the substituted phenols was better expressed by the Langmuir-type. • The uptake can be considered a physical adsorption process caused by π–π stacking interactions. • The uptake followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  13. Bismuth nanoparticles for phenolic compounds biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C; Cadevall, Miquel; Guix, Maria; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-15

    The rapid determination of trace phenolic compounds is of great importance for evaluating the total toxicity of contaminated water samples. Nowadays, electrochemical tyrosinase (Tyr) based biosensors constitute a promising technology for the in situ monitoring of phenolic compounds because of their advantages such as high selectivity, low production cost, promising response speed, potential for miniaturization, simple instrumentation and easy automatization. A mediator-free amperometric biosensor for phenolic compounds detection based on the combination of bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) and Tyr for phenol detections will be hereby reported. This is achieved through the integration of BiNPs/Tyr onto the working electrode of a screen printed electrode (SPE) by using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. BiNPs/Tyr biosensor is evaluated by amperometric measurements at -200 mV DC and a linear range of up to 71 μM and 100 μM and a correlation coefficient of 0.995 and 0.996 for phenol and catechol, respectively. The very low DC working potential ensures the avoidance of interferences making this biosensor an advantageous device for real sample applications. In addition, the response mechanism including the effect of BiNPs based on electrochemical studies and optical characterizations will be also discussed. The obtained results may open the way to many other BiNPs applications in the biosensing field.

  14. Aniline–phenol recognition: from solution through supramolecular synthons to cocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Mukherjee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aniline–phenol recognition is studied in the crystal engineering context in several 1:1 cocrystals that contain a closed cyclic hydrogen-bonded [...O—H...N—H...]2 tetramer supramolecular synthon (II. Twelve cocrystals of 3,4,5- and 2,3,4-trichlorophenol with one of eight halogenated anilines have been characterized. Ten of these cocrystals contain an extended octamer synthon that is assembled with hydrogen bonding and π...π stacking that defines a Long-Range Synthon Aufbau Module (LSAM. The design strategy is, therefore, based on the construction and transferability of the LSAM, which is a dimer of tetramers. Using the LSAM concept, two short cell axes in the crystal structures can be predicted. Whilst one of them is dictated by synthon II, the other one is dominated by π...π interactions. The third cell axis can also be predicted, in some cases, by systematic tuning of the halogen bonds. The design strategy is also verified in cocrystals of non-halogenated precursors. The observation of this large synthon in so many structures points to its stability and possible existence in solution. To this end, one-dimensional 1H and 15N NMR studies, performed on the 3,4,5-trichlorophenol–3,5-dichloroaniline cocrystal in CDCl3, show characteristic downfield shifts that point to a π...π stacked structure and to the robustness of the hydrogen-bonded aggregates. Nuclear Overhauser effects point to hydrogen bonding between aniline and phenol molecules in the aggregates. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy and T1 inversion recovery experiments show that stacking is present in concentrated solution and lost at a certain dilution. A sequence of events is therefore established: molecules of the aniline and the phenol associate via hydrogen bonding to form tetramers, and tetramers subsequently stack to form octamers.

  15. Phenol dissociation on pristine and defective graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Hantarto; Oluwoye, Ibukun; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Hamra, A. A. B.; Lim, H. N.; Huang, N. M.; Yin, Chun-Yang; Jiang, Zhong-Tao

    2017-03-01

    Phenol (C6H5O‒H) dissociation on both pristine and defective graphene sheets in terms of associated enthalpic requirements of the reaction channels was investigated. Here, we considered three common types of defective graphene, namely, Stone-Wales, monovacancy and divacancy configurations. Theoretical results demonstrate that, graphene with monovacancy creates C atoms with dangling bond (unpaired valence electron), which remains particularly useful for spontaneous dissociation of phenol into phenoxy (C6H5O) and hydrogen (H) atom. The reactions studied herein appear barrierless with reaction exothermicity as high as 2.2 eV. Our study offers fundamental insights into another potential application of defective graphene sheets.

  16. Studies on phenolic acids variation in Central European Pinus species 1. Five Polish populations of Pinus mugo Turra and some related forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids were investigated in the needles of eight different pine populations, five of which were Pinus mugo, two -- P. silvestris and one a critical form described by Neumann as P. uliginosa. Twenty different phenolic acids were detected. Six were discovered in pine needles for the first time (salicylic acid, gentisic acid, γ-resorcylic acid, o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, β-resorcylic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Each of the investigated taxons was shown to exhibit a characteristic spectrum of phenolic acids. The critical form from the locus classicus of Pinus uliginosa is of intermediate character.

  17. In Situ and Laboratory Studies on the Fate of Specific Organic Compounds in an Anerobic Landfill Leachate Plume, 1. Experimental Conditions and Fate of Phenolic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Heron, Gorm;

    1995-01-01

    microcosm experiments performed and the results on the fate of 7 phenolic compounds. Part 2 of this series of papers, also published in this issue, presents the results on the fate of 8 aromatic compounds and 4 chlorinated aliphatic compounds. The redox conditions in the plume were characterized...... by in situ and laboratory experiments, both concerning redox conditions and the fate of the phenolic compounds. However, for phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, transformation was observed in some in situ experiments but not in the corresponding laboratory experiments. In some experiments, this could be explained...

  18. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Tiago Nunes

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoretical discussion. In particular, we study the nature of the bulk transition that separates a chirally broken phase at strong coupling from a chirally restored phase at weak coupling. When a non-improved action is used, a rapid crossover is observed at small bare quark masses. Our results confirm a first order nature for this transition, in agreement with previous results we obtained using an improved action. As shown in Ref.[1], when improvement of the action is used, the transition is preceded by a second rapid crossover at weaker coupling and an exotic phase emerges, where chiral symmetry is not yet broken. This can be explained [1] by the non hermiticity of the improved lattice Transfer matrix, arising from the c...

  19. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  20. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  1. The twelve dimensional super (2+2)-brane

    CERN Document Server

    Hewson, S F

    1996-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in twelve dimensions and present a covariant supersymmetric action for a brane with worldsheet signature (2,2), called a super (2+2)-brane, propagating in the osp(64,12) superspace. This superspace is explicitly constructed, and is trivial in the sense that the spinorial part is a trivial bundle over spacetime, unlike the twisted superspace of usual Poincare supersymmetry. For consistency, it is necessary to take a projection of the superspace. This is the same as the projection required for worldvolume supersymmetry. Upon compactification of this superspace, a torsion is naturally introduced and we produce the membrane and type IIB string actions in 11 and 10 dimensional Minkowski spacetimes. In addition, the compactification of the twelve dimensional supersymmetry algebra produces the correct algebras for these theories, including central charges. These considerations thus give the type IIB string and M-theory a single twelve dimensional origin.

  2. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  3. Kinetics of ozone-phenol reaction in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, M.G.; Shambaugh, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of ozone and phenol in aqueous medium was studied. The reaction was first order with respect to both ozone and phenol. The rate constant was found to increase with increase in the pH of the reaction mixture. Four different catalysts were examined for their effect on the rate of reaction. 30 refs.

  4. Crystal structure, spectroscopic investigations and quantum chemical computational study of 5-(diethylamino)-2-((3-nitrophenylimino)methyl)phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir Tarı, Gonca; Ceylan, Ümit; Aǧar, Erbil; Eserci, Hande

    2016-12-01

    The Schiff base compound, 5-(diethylamino)-2-((3-nitrophenylimino)methyl)phenol, C17H19O3N3, was synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The title compound prefers enol tautomeric form in solid state as to X-ray, IR and UV-Vis spectra results. Also, using the TD-DFT method, the electronic absorption spectra of the title compound was computed in both the gas phase and ethanol solvent. The calculated results support that the enol form is more stable than keto form. The molecular geometry from the X-ray single-crystal determination of the title compound in the ground state was compared at the B3LYP and B3PW91 levels of the density functional method (DFT) with the 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set. The harmonic vibrational frequencies of the title compound were calculated using the B3LYP and B3PW91 methods with the 6-311G+(d,p) basis set. The calculated results were compared with the experimental determination results of the compound. The potential energy surface scans about important torsion angels were performed by B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level of theory for the title compound. The energetic behaviors of the title compound in the solvent media were also examined using the B3LYP and B3PW91 methods with the 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set applying the Onsager and the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Besides, the molecular electrostatic potential map (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) analysis and thermodynamic properties for the title compound were obtained with the same levels of theory. The nonlinear optical properties (NLO) of the title compound were performed in the solvent media using the B3LYP and B3PW91 methods with the 6-311 + G(d,p) level using the PCM model.

  5. Alcoholics anonymous and other twelve-step programs in recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detar, D Todd

    2011-03-01

    Recovery is a new way of life for many patients; a life without substances to alter their moods but with a major change improving the physical, psychological, and emotional stability with improved overall health outcomes. The Twelve Steps of the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) are the foundation of the AA, describing both the necessary actions and the spiritual basis for the recovery program of the AA. The Twelve Steps of the AA provide a structure for which a patient with alcoholism may turn for an answer to their problem of alcohol use, abuse, or dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of olive oil phenolic compounds on headspace aroma release by interaction with whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; De Luca, Lucia; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-04-22

    The release of volatile compounds in an oil-in-water model system obtained from olive oil-whey protein (WP) pairing was investigated by considering the effect of phenolic compounds. Human saliva was used to simulate mouth conditions by retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) analysis. Twelve aroma compounds were quantified in the dynamic headspace by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed significant influences of saliva on the aroma release of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatiles also in the presence of WP. The interaction between WP and saliva leads to lower headspace release of ethyl esters and hexanal. Salivary components caused lower decrease of the release of acetates and alcohols. A lower release of volatile compounds was found in the RAS essay in comparison to that in orthonasal simulation of only refined olive oil (without addition of saliva or WP), with the exception of hexanal and 1-penten-3-one, where a significantly higher release was found. Our results suggest that the extent of retronasal odor (green, pungent) of these two volatile compounds is higher than orthonasal odor. An extra VOO was used to verify the release in model systems, indicating that WP affected aroma release more than model systems, while saliva seems to exert an opposite trend. A significant increase in aroma release was found when phenolic compounds were added to the system, probably due to the contrasting effects of binding of volatile compounds caused by WP, for the polyphenol-protein interaction phenomenon. Our study could be applied to the formulation of new functional foods to enhance flavor release and modulate the presence and concentrations of phenolics and whey proteins in food emulsions/dispersions.

  7. Nitration of Phenol Catalyzed by Horseradish Peroxidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Rong-ji; HUANG Hui; TONG Bin; XIAO Sheng-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase, an acidic peroxidase from the horseradish, is one of the most important enzymes as analytical reagent.The enzymatic nitration of phenol by oxidation of nitrite was studied using horseradish peroxidase in the presence of H2O2.The results showed that nitration occur at 2- and 4- positions of phenol.There were also minor products of hydroquinone and catechol.The influence of various reaction parameters, including pH, organic solvent, and concentration of H2O2, on nitration products were discussed.The best nitration pH was 7.0, and H2O2 should be added to the reaction mixture slowly.

  8. Environmental Phenols And Pubertal Development In Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mary S.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; McGovern, Kathleen; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Galvez, Maida; Pajak, Ashley; Rybak, Michael; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures to many phenols are documented worldwide and exposures can be quite high (>1 micromolar of urine metabolites). Phenols have a range of hormonal activity, but knowledge of effects on child reproductive development is limited, coming mostly from cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study of pubertal development among 1239 girls recruited at three U.S. sites when they were 6–8 years old and were followed annually for 7 years to determine age at first breast or pubic hair development. Ten phenols were measured in urine collected at enrollment (benzophenone-3, enterolactone, bisphenol A, three parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-), 2,5-dichlorophenol, triclosan, genistein, daidzein). We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR (95% confidence intervals)) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to estimate relative risk of earlier or later age at puberty associated with phenol exposures. For enterolactone and benzophenone-3, girls experienced breast development 5–6 months later, adjusted HR 0.79 (0.64–0.98) and HR 0.80 (0.65–0.98) respectively for the 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary biomarkers (μg/g-creatinine). Earlier breast development was seen for triclosan and 2,5- dichlorophenol: 4–9 months sooner for 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary concentrations (HR 1.17 (0.96–1.43) and HR 1.37 (1.09–1.72), respectively). Association of breast development with enterolactone, but not the other three phenols, was mediated by body size. These phenols may be antiadipogens (benzophenone-3 and enterolactone) or thyroid agonists (triclosan and 2,5- dichlorophenol), and their ubiquity and relatively high levels in children would benefit from further investigation to confirm these findings and to establish whether there are certain windows of susceptibility during which exposure can affect pubertal development. PMID:26335517

  9. A comparative study of the capsaicinoid and phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant activities of the peppers of the genus Capsicum: an application of chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Sora, Gisele Teixeira Souza; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; da Silva, Marcos Vieira; Zielinski,Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Gonçalves, Geferson Almeida; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta,Rosane Marina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the contents of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and total phenolics as well as of the antioxidant activities of six types of peppers of the genus Capsicum. The varieties were analyzed in terms of their in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant powder (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate (ABTS●+) assays. The contents of phenolics and capsainoids as well as the antioxidant activiti...

  10. Correlation of pasting behaviors with total phenolic compounds and starch digestibility of indigenous pigmented rice grown in upper Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapa Ponjanta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thailand has one of the most important rice genetic resources with white, light brown, brown, red, and purple rice bran colors. The latter believed to have potential for health benefits due to their phenolic content. Recently researchers have indicated that starch digestive enzymes, including salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and α-glucosidases, can be inhibited by phenolic compounds. Although pasting properties of rice flour are key determinants of quality significantly impacting the final product texture, there is no in-depth study on their correlation with phenolic compound and starch digestibility. Methods: Rice flour from twelve varieties, three from each of five bran colors (white, brown, red, and purple, were evaluated for pasting properties (RVA-3D, total phenolic compounds, amylose content, resistant starch and estimated glycemic index. Simple correlation coefficients were calculated for the relationships between pasting properties (final viscosity, breakdown, setback and pasting temperature and total phenolic compounds, resistant starch and estimated glycemic index. Results: Within each rice variety, red and purple pigmented flours had higher total phenolic compounds (TPC and more resistant starch than that of white flours. The TPC and resistant starch content of the flours ranged between 7.83- 47.3 mg/L and 2.44–10.50% respectively, and producing 60-80 of estimated glycemic index. Viscosity behavior showed that pigmented with low amylose rice had lower viscosity temperature than that of pigmented with high amylose rice flour, but higher in peak viscosity. Correlation coefficients of pasting temperature, final viscosity, break down and setback with TCP was observed to be inversely related to glycemic index. However, it was positively correlated to the resistant starch and amylose content. Conclusions: Pigmented rice flour is a better source of TPC and resistant starch which in turn provides low glycemic index. This

  11. Flexible Phenolic Impregnated Felt Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this program Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop innovative yet practical methods for preparing Phenolic Impregnated Felt (PIF) materials for thermal...

  12. Phytochemical screening of twelve species of phytoplankton isolated from Arabian Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanth Vishwanath Rai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the phytochemicals in twelve species of marine phytoplankton. Methods: Total phenolic content of methanol extract was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content of the methanol extarct was determined by aluminium chloride method. Chlorophylls, β-carotene and astaxanthin were estimated by acetone extraction method. Vitamin C was determined by dinitrophenyl-hydrazine method. Phycobiliproteins such as allophycocyanin, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin in the aqueous extracts were determined. Results: Total phenolics varied from 5.41 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW in Phormidium corium (P. corium to 17.37 mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW in Oscillatoria fremyii (O. fremyii. Total flavonoids ranged between 0.74 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW in P. corium and 9.87 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW in Nannochloropsis oceanica. Chlorophyll-a pigment was high in Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans (15.51 mg/g DW and low in P. corium (1.08 mg/g DW. Chlorophyll-c ranged between 0.07 mg/g DW in Nannochloropsis oceanica and 4.62 mg/g DW in C. calcitrans. High contents of β-carotene and astaxanthin were found in C. calcitrans and low in P. corium which ranged from 0.33 to 10.03 mg/g DW and 0.18 to 3.85 mg/g DW, respectively. Vitamin C content varied from 0.50 mg/g DW in C. calcitrans to 1.51 mg/g DW in Phormidium tenue. O. fremyii showed highest total phycobiliproteins of 317.05 mg/g DW. High contents of allophycocyanin and phycocyanin were found in O. fremyii, whereas high contents of phycoerythrin were found in Oscillatoria sancta. All the three phycobiliproteins were low in Chroococcus turgidus. Conclusions: Marine phytoplankton are one of the natural sources providing novel biologically active compounds with potential for pharmaceutical applications.

  13. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Tiago Nunes da; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoret

  14. EFFORTS Technical annex for the twelve month progress report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Eriksen, Morten; Thomas christensen, Thomas Vennick;

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU during the second year of project activity. The report describes the work completed by DTU in general as well as on the active sub-tasks within materials properties, friction modelling and physical modelling, over the last twelve...

  15. Human Evolution in Science Textbooks from Twelve Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre; Oerke, Britta; Valente, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    What kinds of images of human beings illustrate human evolution in school textbooks? A comparison between the textbooks of eighteen different countries (twelve European countries and six non-European countries) was attempted. In six countries (Algeria, Malta, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, and Tunisia), we did not find any chapter on the topic of…

  16. Bibliography of Spanish Materials for Students, Grades Seven through Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This annotated bibliography of Spanish materials for students in grades seven through twelve is divided into the following categories: (1) Art, Drama, Music, and Poetry; (2) Books in Series; (3) Culture; (4) Dictionaries and Encyclopedias; (5) Literature; (6) Mathematics; (7) Physical Education, Health, and Recreation; (8) Reading and Language…

  17. The variability of phenol compounds based on karyological studies of taxa of the genus Vaccinium L., subgenus Oxycoccus (Hill A. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Gugnacka-Fiedor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 52 population samples from Poland and several European countries were subjected to karyological and chemotaxonomic studies. Two diploid species (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. and V. microcarpum (Turcz, ex Rupr. Schmalh. with chromosome number 2n = 24 were found, differing essentially in the chemical composition of their phenol fractions. Besides diploid species, a tetraploid V. oxycoccos L., with the chromosome number 2n = 48 was distinguished. It is, characterized by a high chemical variability. Its chromatograms show spots of compounds characteristic of both subspecies distinguished. No hexaploid V. hagerupii (Löve et Löve Rothm. with chromosome number 2n = 72 was in the karyologically studied material. Chemical studies of a herbarium sample do not confirm the distinctness of this taxon in relation to V. oxycoccos. The karyological studies, which, however, need replication, have also revealed the presence of a presumed hybrid, V. pseudonanum Keller, with chromosome number 2n = 36. The chromatogram of that taxon is very similar to that of V. oxycoccos L. subsp. microphyllus (Lange Löve et Löve.

  18. Permeability Study of Polyphenols Derived from a Phenolic-Enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract by UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Herranz-López, María; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival; Fernández Gutiérrez, Alberto; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-08-07

    Previous findings on the capacity of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) polyphenols to ameliorate metabolic disturbances justify the necessity of studies oriented to find the potential metabolites responsible for such an effect. The present study examined the intestinal epithelial membrane permeability of polyphenols present in a phenolic-enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (PEHS), free and encapsulated, using the Caco-2 cell line. Additionally, selected polyphenols (quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucuronide, and N-feruloyltyramine) were also studied in the same absorption model. The powerful analytical platform used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS), and enabled the characterization of seven new compounds in PEHS. In the permeation study, only a few compounds were able to cross the cell monolayer and the permeability was lower when the extract was in an encapsulated form. Pure compounds showed a moderate absorption in all cases. Nevertheless, these preliminary results may need further research to understand the complete absorption mechanism of Hibiscus polyphenols.

  19. Permeability Study of Polyphenols Derived from a Phenolic-Enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract by UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Borrás-Linares

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings on the capacity of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS polyphenols to ameliorate metabolic disturbances justify the necessity of studies oriented to find the potential metabolites responsible for such an effect. The present study examined the intestinal epithelial membrane permeability of polyphenols present in a phenolic-enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (PEHS, free and encapsulated, using the Caco-2 cell line. Additionally, selected polyphenols (quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucuronide, and N-feruloyltyramine were also studied in the same absorption model. The powerful analytical platform used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS, and enabled the characterization of seven new compounds in PEHS. In the permeation study, only a few compounds were able to cross the cell monolayer and the permeability was lower when the extract was in an encapsulated form. Pure compounds showed a moderate absorption in all cases. Nevertheless, these preliminary results may need further research to understand the complete absorption mechanism of Hibiscus polyphenols.

  20. Ionic liquid-assisted solublization for improved enzymatic esterification of phenolic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic acids are very difficult to dissolve in most of solvent, which lead to low yield and long reaction time for production of lipophilic phenolic derivatives according to previous studies.This work is focused on increasing production of lipophilic phenolic derivatives catalyzed by Novozym 43...

  1. Diurnal Influence on Phenol Compound Dynamic into Leaves of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Zhivetiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Content of phenol compound in leaves of Alchemilla subcrenata, Achillea asiatica, Taraxacum officinale, Veronica chamaedrys was researched. The dynamics of alteration of phenol compound content during round the clock in October was determined. The dependence of phenol compound substance in leaves of study plants on temperature was shown.

  2. PHENOLIC CONTENT OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. FROM NATURAL HABITATS IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Paula STEFANACHE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess the phenolic compounds content and profile of A. annua samples harvested from natural habitats in R. Moldova. The samples, consisting in leaves, were harvested in August 2014 (before flowering from different growing sites in north, centre and south regions. Phenolic extracts were obtained by methanol extraction of the residual plant material resulted from artemisinin separation. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by TLC and HPLC-DAD analyses, respectively. In all samples, four phenolic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids, cynarin and two flavonoids (isoquercitrin and luteolin-7-glucoside were identified and quantified, cynarin being the major compound. The variations in phenolic composition between samples harvested from the same growing site and also for the samples from different growing areas (south, centre, north, were mostly quantitative. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained for all samples, regardless of the growing site. Phenolic acids were the dominant components in the phenolic extracts.

  3. Photodegradation and removal of phenol and phenolic derivatives from petroleum refinery wastewater using nanoparticles of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahrezaei, A. Akhbari, A. Rostami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential application of TiO2 photocatalysis as primary degradation system of phenol and phenolic derivatives from refinery wastewater. The removal of phenol was investigated in terms of various parameters namely: pH, temperature and catalyst concentration. Determination of phenol and phenolic derivatives compounds is carried out by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. In order to analyze the process, chemical oxygen demand fraction (R was studied. The region of the exploration for the process was taken as the area enclosed by pH (2-10, temperature (293-318 k and catalyst concentration (10-200 mg/l boundaries. The optimum conditions for phenol and phenolic derivatives removal were found to be 3, 318 k and 100 mg/l, respectively, for pH, temperature and catalyst concentration. The results showed that, at optimum conditions, remarkable removal of 90% of phenol after 2 h can be achieved. The main feature of this work is the use of inexpensive and recoverable catalyst and may be considered for preliminary application in the refinery wastewater treatments after physicochemical treatments to avoid solids and colloids.

  4. Photodegradation and removal of phenol and phenolic derivatives from petroleum refinery wastewater using nanoparticles of TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrezaei, F. [Academic Center for Education, Culture & Research (ACECR), Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhbari, A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Water and Wastewater Research Center (WWRC), Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostami, A. [Kermanshah Oil Refinery company, R& amp; D department (KORC), Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the potential application of TiO2 photocatalysis as primary degradation system of phenol and phenolic derivatives from refinery wastewater. The removal of phenol was investigated in terms of various parameters namely: pH, temperature and catalyst concentration. Determination of phenol and phenolic derivatives compounds is carried out by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. In order to analyze the process, chemical oxygen demand fraction (R) was studied. The region of the exploration for the process was taken as the area enclosed by pH (2-10), temperature (293-318 k) and catalyst concentration (10-200 mg/l) boundaries. The optimum conditions for phenol and phenolic derivatives removal were found to be 3, 318 k and 100 mg/l, respectively, for pH, temperature and catalyst concentration. The results showed that, at optimum conditions, remarkable removal of 90% of phenol after 2 h can be achieved. The main feature of this work is the use of inexpensive and recoverable catalyst and may be considered for preliminary application in the refinery wastewater treatments after physicochemical treatments to avoid solids and colloids.

  5. Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

  6. Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryltsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Martynov, V.Y.; Chilachava, K.B.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar at 750-900 {degree}C and contact time of 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbon, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component composition of the liquid products and pyrolysis gas were determined. The main groups of compounds in liquid products were analysed.

  7. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  8. Selective hydrogenation of phenol in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Gang; JIANG Huan-feng; ZHAO Yah; YIN Ji-xiang; SHI Chao-feng

    2004-01-01

    Liquid phase hydrogenation of phenol over Pt/C catalysts was investigated under conventional conditions and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The equivalent ration of hydrogen to phenol shows a significant effect on the product selectivity. Hydrogenation of phenol in different solvents was also studied, the experimental results show that polarity of solvents influences the yield of cyclohexanone remarkably, scCO2 has the highest one. Catalytic hydrogenation of phenol in scCO2 or sub-scCO2 was emphatically researched. The result is that near the critical point of CO2 phenol has higher reaction activity than that of normal organic solvents, cyclohexanone has 47% in yield and 87% in selectivity.

  9. The Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Twelve Galloyl Glucosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve galloyl glucosides 1–12, showing diverse substitution patterns with two or three galloyl groups, were synthesized using commercially available, low-cost D-glucose and gallic acid as starting materials. Among them, three compounds, methyl 3,6-di-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (9, ethyl 2,3-di-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (11 and ethyl 2,3-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (12, are new compounds and other six, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (1, 1,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2, 1,2-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (3, 1,3-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (4, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranose (6 and methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (10, were synthesized for the first time in the present study. In in vitro MTT assay, 1–12 inhibited human cancer K562, HL-60 and HeLa cells with inhibition rates ranging from 64.2% to 92.9% at 100 μg/mL, and their IC50 values were determined to be varied in 17.2–124.7 μM on the tested three human cancer cell lines. In addition, compounds 1–12 inhibited murine sarcoma S180 cells with inhibition rates ranging from 38.7% to 52.8% at 100 μg/mL in the in vitro MTT assay, and in vivo antitumor activity of 1 and 2 was also detected in murine sarcoma S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice using taxol as positive control.

  10. [Twelve years of working of Brazzaville cancer registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsondé Malanda, Judith; Nkoua Mbon, Jean Bernard; Bambara, Augustin Tozoula; Ibara, Gérard; Minga, Benoît; Nkoua Epala, Brice; Gombé Mbalawa, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The Brazzaville cancer registry was created in 1996 with the support of the International Agency Research against Cancer (IARC) which is located in Lyon, France. The Brazzaville cancer registry is a registry which is based on population which records new cancer cases occurring in Brazzaville by using Canreg 4.0 Software. Its aim is to supply useful information to fight against cancer to physicians and to decision makers. We conducted this study whose target was to determine the incidence of cancer in Brazzaville during twelve years, from January 1st, 1998 to December 31, 2009. During that period 6,048 new cancer cases were recorded: 3,377 women (55.8%), 2,384 men (39.4%), and 287 children (4.8%) from 0 to 14 years old with an annual average of 504 cases. Middle age to the patient's diagnosis was 49.5 years in female sex and 505.5 years old for male sex. The incidence rate of cancers in Brazzaville was 39.8 or 100.000 inhabitants per year and by sex we observed 49 to female sex and 35.2 for male sex. The first cancers localizations observed to women were in order of frequency: breast, cervix uterine, liver ovaries, hematopoietic system, to men : liver, prostate, hematopoietic system, colon and stomach; to children : retina, kidney, hematopoietic system, liver and bones. These rates are the basis to know the burden of cancer among all pathologies of Brazzaville and the achievement of a national cancer control program.

  11. Hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome: report of twelve unrelated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lonlay, P; Benelli, C; Fouque, F; Ganguly, A; Aral, B; Dionisi-Vici, C; Touati, G; Heinrichs, C; Rabier, D; Kamoun, P; Robert, J J; Stanley, C; Saudubray, J M

    2001-09-01

    Hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome has been reported as a cause of moderately severe hyperinsulinism with diffuse involvement of the pancreas. The disorder is caused by gain of function mutations in the GLUD1 gene, resulting in a decreased inhibitory effect of guanosine triphosphate on the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzyme. Twelve unrelated patients (six males, six females) with hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome have been investigated. The phenotypes were clinically heterogeneous, with neonatal and infancy-onset hypoglycemia and variable responsiveness to medical (diazoxide) and dietary (leucine-restricted diet) treatment. Hyperammonemia (90-200 micromol/L, normal carbamylglutamate administration. The patients had mean basal GDH activity (18.3 +/- 0.9 nmol/min/mg protein) not different from controls (17.9 +/- 1.8 nmol/min/mg protein) in cultured lymphoblasts. The sensitivity of GDH activity to inhibition by guanosine triphosphate was reduced in all patient lymphoblast cultures (IC(50), or concentrations required for 50% inhibition of GDH activity, ranging from 140 to 580 nM, compared with control IC(50) value of 83 +/- 1.0 nmol/L). The allosteric effect of ADP was within the normal range. The activating effect of leucine on GDH activity varied among the patients, with a significant decrease of sensitivity that was correlated with the negative clinical response to a leucine-restricted diet in plasma glucose levels in four patients. Molecular studies were performed in 11 patients. Heterozygous mutations were localized in the antenna region (four patients in exon 11, two patients in exon 12) as well as in the guanosine triphosphate binding site (two patients in exon 6, two patients in exon 7) of the GLUD1 gene. No mutation has been found in one patient after sequencing the exons 5-13 of the gene.

  12. Experimental Study on the Friction Materials of Nano-modified Phenolic Resin and Modified Polygorskite%纳米改性酚醛树脂/改性坡缕石二元摩擦材料的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜菲; 何林; 管琪明

    2012-01-01

    Three types of palygorskites and three types of NBR-modified phenolic resin are compressed respectively into new dual friction materials by material testing machine. Their friction, wear and impact resistance performances are studied experimentally. The results show that modified friction materials made of palygorskites raw ore and nano-particle modified NBR phenolic resin have better performance than unmodified phenolic resin mixed materials in high temperature stage. But compared with NBR-modified phenolic resin, the friction and wearing performances of dual friction material compressed by palygorskites by Al-Zr coupling agent and modified phenolic resin by A12O3 nanoparticles decrease a little bit and the mixed modified material by XD-172 has better effect only at the low temperature stage.%通过试验机将3种不同的坡缕石和3种不同的丁腈改性酚醛树脂分别热压制成不同的二元摩擦材料,研究了其摩擦磨损和耐冲击性能,结果表明,在高温阶段,坡缕石原矿与纳米改性树脂形成的摩擦材料性能比未改性丁腈酚醛树脂更好,铝锆偶联剂改性坡缕石与Al2O3纳米粒子改性树脂组成材料的摩擦磨损性能较未改性丁腈酚醛树脂有所下降,XD-172改性坡缕石与纳米Al2O3改性丁腈酚醛树脂组成材料的摩擦磨损性能在低温阶段有所提高.

  13. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  14. SODs, DNA binding and cleavage studies of new Mn(III) complexes with 2-((3-(benzyloxy)pyridin-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, L.; Shivaprasad, K.; Revanasiddappa, Hosakere D.

    2013-04-01

    Newly synthesized ligand [2-((3-(benzyloxy)pyridin-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol] (Bpmp) react with manganese(II) to form mononuclear complexes [Mn(phen)(Bpmp)(CH3COO)(H2O)]·4H2O (1), (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and [Mn(Bpmp)2(CH3COO)(H2O)]·5H2O (2). These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, Mass, UV-vis spectral studies. Molar conductance and thermogravimetric analysis of these complexes were also recorded. The in vitro SOD mimic activity of Mn(III) complexes were carried out and obtained with good result. The DNA-binding properties of the complexes 1 and 2 were investigated by UV-spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The spectral results suggest that the complexes 1 and 2 can bind to Calf thymus DNA by intercalation mode. The cleavage properties of these complexes with super coiled pUC19 have been studied using the gel electrophoresis method, wherein both complexes 1 and 2 displayed chemical nuclease activity in the absence and presence of H2O2via an oxidative mechanism. All the complexes inhibit the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria to competent level. The MIC was determined by microtiter method.

  15. Studies of nitrile oxide cycloadditions, and the phenolic oxidative coupling of vanillin aldoxime by Geobacillus sp. DDS012 from Italian rye grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David R; Baker, Simon C; King, David S; de Silva, Deepa S; Lord, Gwyn; Taylor, Jason P

    2008-02-21

    During studies directed towards the discovery of nitrile hydrolysing enzymes from thermophiles, vanillin aldoxime was incubated with the thermophilic organism, Geobacillus sp. DDS012 isolated from Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) silage. The predominant product was a dihydro-dimer, which could only be characterised by LC-MS. This was initially imagined to be the product of cycloaddition of vanillin aldoxime with the corresponding nitrile oxide, but preparation of the supposed adduct and model studies excluded this possibility. The rate constant for the second order dimerisation of 4-O-acetyl vanillin nitrile oxide was measured (1.21 x 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1), 0.413 M, 25 degrees C) and the (13)C-NMR signal for the nitrile oxide carbon was observed (delta(C) 34.4, br. t (1)J(13)C,(14)N circa 50 Hz). Treatment of vanillin aldoxime with potassium persulfate and iron sulfate gave material with the same LC-MS properties as the natural product, which is therefore identified as 5,5'-dehydro-di-(vanillin aldoxime) 1d formed by phenolic oxidative coupling.

  16. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin;

    2010-01-01

    A significant unmet medical need exists in patients with uncontrolled asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate/formoterol (MF/F) 400/10 microg versus MF 400 microg administered twice-daily (b.i.d.) via metered-dose inhaler in patients...

  17. TWELVE-WEEK MULTICENTER OPEN-LABEL RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF METHOTREXATE AS A CONCENTRATED SOLUTION FOR SUBCUTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION AND AS 15-MG TABLETS PER WEEK FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Muravyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate of the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX as a concentrated solution (50 mg/ml for subcutaneous administration versus coated tablets at equal oral doses of 15 mg/week for rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Subjects and methods. The study was conducted at two centers: the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology and the Saint Petersburg Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development. At each center, the patients were randomized into two groups: a study group and a control group. In the study group, MTX was used as a concentrated solution (50 mg/ml for subcutaneous administration at a dose of 15 mg/week. The controls were patients with RA who took MTX as coated tablets once weekly at the same dose as used in the study group. A trend in the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28 was a main criterion for evaluating therapy efficiency. For efficiency evaluation, other criteria were additionally used; these included disease activity assessment by a physician; functional status assessment (Health Assessment Questionnaire; C-reactive protein level. The safety of the used MTX formulations was evaluated during each visit: the patients' subjective sensations and examination and laboratory findings were kept in mind.Results and discussion. After randomization (totally at the two centers, the study group included 42 patients and the control group comprised 23. Based on 95% confidence interval for the mean, it may be concluded that the efficiency of MTX as a solution for subcutaneous administration (the study group is no less than that of MTX as tablets (the control group. Subcutaneous MTX was shown to be associated with the lower rate of therapy correction than oral MTX; and did not differ from it in toxicity. In addition, subcutaneous MTX may noticeably reduce the need for biological agents.The final DAS28 value in the study group does not exceed that in the control group (t-test. Remission

  18. Potential of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash) for phytoremediation of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Melo, J S; Eapen, Susan; D'Souza, S F

    2008-11-01

    Aseptically grown Vetiveria zizanoides were evaluated for their potential for phytoremediation of phenol from Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium. Phenol was found to be completely removed from incubation medium at the end of 4 days by V. zizanoides plantlets, when medium was supplemented with 50 and 100 mg L(-1) phenol, while with 200, 500, and 1000 mg L(-1) of phenol, 89%, 76% and 70%, respectively, were removed. Phenol removal was found to be associated with inherent production of peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. Coupled with H(2)O(2) formation, the levels of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and peroxidase showed an enhancement when plants were exposed to phenol, whereas catalase levels initially showed a decline due to the utilization of H(2)O(2) by peroxidase for phenol oxidation. However, when peroxidase levels declined, there was an enhancement in catalase levels to minimize the presence of H(2)O(2) in the medium. Having confirmed that the removal of phenol was by V. zizanoides plantlets, in the next phase, micropropagated plantlets and well-developed plants grown in hydroponics were used under in vivo conditions to study the effect of phenol (200 mg L(-1)) on plant growth and reuse. Although plant growth was reduced in presence of phenol, the results of the reuse study indicated the possibility of plants getting adapted to phenol without any decline in potential for phenol remediation.

  19. Bioremoval Capacity Of Phenol By Green Micro-Algal And Fungal Species Isolated From Dry Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah T. Al-fawwaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is an organic hazardous pollutant that exerts toxic effects on living cells at relatively at low concentrations. Moreover accumulation of phenol exhibit toxicity towards the biotic components of the environment. Phenol bioremoval is a very useful approach to clean up the residual phenol from the environment. This study aims at isolating green microalgae and fungi from local dry environment to test their ability to remove phenol. Subsequently two green microalgal species have been isolated and identified as Desmodesmus sp. and Chlamydomonas sp.. Also two fungal species have been isolated and identified as Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp. Phenol bioremoval capacity as well as the effects of some physicochemical factors on the bioremoval process were then studied. These factors include initial phenol concentration contact time and the synergistic effect Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp. on the bioremoval process. Both microalgae and fungi showed phenol bioremoval capacity. The highest phenol removal percentage among algae was found 75 by Desmodesmus sp. after 25 days at 25 mgL while the highest phenol removal percentage among fungi was found 86 by Rhizopus sp. after 25 days at 100 mgL. Bioremoval of phenol by the consortium Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp. was found to be 95 at the phenol concentration 25 mgL.

  20. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    with asthma uncontrolled on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). In a 12-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients (>or=12 years of age) were randomized to MF/F 200/10 microg, MF/F 400/10 microg, or MF 400 microg, b.i.d. after a 2- to 3-week open-label run in with MF 400...

  1. Natural Biodegradation of Phenolic Compounds in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of field data and theoretical approaches is used to assess the natural attenuation and status of a complex plume of phenolic compounds (phenol, cresols, xylenols) in a deep, consolidated, UK Permo-Triassic sandstone aquifer. Biodegradation of the phenolic compounds at concentrations up to 12500mg·L-1 is occurring under aerobic, NO-3-reducing, Mn/Fe-reducing, SO2-4-reducing and methanogenic conditions in the aquifer, with the accumulation of inorganic and organic metabolites in the plume. An electron and carbon balance for the plume suggests that only 6% of the source term has been degraded in 50 years. The residual contaminant mass in the plume significantly exceeds estimates of electron acceptor inputs, indicating that the plume will grow. Two detailed vertical profiles through the plume show that contaminant distributions are controlled more by source history than by biodegradation processes. Microbiological and mass balance studies show that biodegradation is greatest at the plume fringe where contaminant concentrations are diluted by transverse mixing. Active bacterial populations exist throughout the plume but biodegradation is inhibited in the plume core by high contaminant concentrations. Stable isotope studies show that SO2-4-reduction is particularly sensitive to contaminant concentration. The aquifer is not oxidant-deficient but natural attenuation of the phenolic compounds in this system is limited by toxicity from the pollutant load and the bioavailability of electron acceptors. Natural attenuation of these contaminants will increase only after increased dilution of the plume.

  2. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Roussis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH. and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phenolics differed in antiradical potency, which was visible in their EC50 values. The dry red wine, Xinomavro, had a lower EC50 value, indicating the higher antiradical potency of its phenolics. The scavenging capacities of phenolic extracts from Xinomavro red wine on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen were also assessed. Wine total extract was fractionated by extraction, and each of the three fractions was then subfractionated by column chromatography into two subfractions. Wine total extract, and its fractions and subfractions exhibited scavenging capacity on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen, indicating the activity of many wine phenolics. The most active wine extracts towards hydroxyl radicals were characterized by the high peaks of flavanols, anthocyanins and flavonols in their HPLC-DAD chromatograms. The most active extract towards superoxide radicals was rich in flavanols and anthocyanins. The characteristic phenolics of the most active wine extracts towards singlet oxygen were flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids. The ability of all red wine phenolic extracts to scavenge singlet oxygen, along with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, emphasizes its health functionality.

  3. Measurement of Total and Free Urinary Phenol and Paraben Concentrations over the Course of Pregnancy: Assessing Reliability and Contamination of Specimens in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longnecker, Matthew P.; Aase, Heidi; Eggesbø, Merete; Zeiner, Pål; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun P.; Bertelsen, Randi J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Engel, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposures to environmental phenols and parabens may be harmful, especially in utero. Prior studies have demonstrated high within-person variability of urinary concentrations across pregnancy. Objectives We sought to measure phenol and paraben biomarker concentrations for the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study, assess within-person variability, and investigate any possible external phenol or paraben contamination of specimens. Methods We collected three spot urine samples at approximately 17, 23, and 29 weeks gestation in a hospital setting and added a preservative containing ethyl paraben. We measured urinary concentrations and within-person variability for phenols and parabens in a MoBa sample (n = 45), including a subgroup of 15 participants previously randomly selected for a bisphenol A (BPA) exposure study who had unusually high total BPA concentrations. Additionally, we compared reliability results for total, conjugated, and free concentrations of phenolic compounds. Results We detected total and free BPA, butyl paraben, propyl paraben, and methyl paraben in 100% of samples, total benzophenone-3 in 95% of samples, and infrequently detected free benzophenone-3 and total and free 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for total, conjugated, and free concentrations ranged from relatively low for BPA to moderate for propyl paraben. ICCs were generally similar overall and by subgroup. Conclusions Using conjugated concentrations improved reliability estimates only for BPA. Measuring total and free concentrations, an approach that may be useful for future studies, allowed us to identify likely BPA and butyl paraben contamination of archived MoBa urine specimens. Citation Guidry VT, Longnecker MP, Aase H, Eggesbø M, Zeiner P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Knudsen GP, Bertelsen RJ, Ye X, Calafat AM, Engel SM. 2015. Measurement of total and free urinary phenol and paraben concentrations over the course of

  4. The use of TLC-DPPH* test with image processing to study direct antioxidant activity of phenolic acid fractions of selected Lamiaceae family species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Łukasz; Staszek, Dorota; Kowalska, Teresa; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2013-01-01

    TLC coupled with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl staining was used to analyze phenolic acid fractions of selected Salvia and Thymus species. Documented videoscans were processed by means of an image processing program. This is the first time that free phenolic acids fractions, as well as fractions containing phenolic acids derived from basic and acidic hydrolysis, have been analyzed and compared for selected sage and thyme species. The analyzed samples along with caffeic acid (CA; standard) were chromatographed on silica gel plates with toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (60 + 40 + 1, v/v/v) mobile phase. The extracts were investigated with respect to the activity of CA. It was found that CA was most abundant in the fractions derived from basic hydrolysis. This compound was not detected in any of the fractions obtained after acidic hydrolysis. S. officinalis and S. triloba have similar free radical scavenging activity fingerprints obtained for all the analyzed fractions.

  5. Twelve Theses on Reactive Rules for the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Reactivity, the ability to detect and react to events, is an essential functionality in many information systems. In particular, Web systems such as online marketplaces, adaptive (e.g., recommender) sys- tems, and Web services, react to events such as Web page updates or data posted to a server. This article investigates issues of relevance in designing high-level programming languages dedicated to reactivity on the Web. It presents twelve theses on features desira...

  6. Catalytic Graphitization of Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Zhao; Huaihe Song

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic graphitization of thermal plastic phenolic-formaldehyde resin with the aid of ferric nitrate (FN) was studied in detail. The morphologies and structural features of the products including onion-like carbon nanoparticles and bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements. It was found that with the changes of loading content of FN and residence time at 1000℃, the products exhibited various morphologies. The TEM images showed that bamboo-shaped carbon nanotube consisted of tens of bamboo sticks and onion-like carbon nanoparticle was made up of quasi-spherically concentrically closed carbon nanocages.

  7. Community analysis and recovery of phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui eGu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is a ubiquitous organic contaminant in drinking water. Biodegradation plays an important role in the elimination of phenol pollution in the environment, but the information about phenol removal by drinking water biofilters is still lacking. Herein, we study an acclimated bacterial community that can degrade over 80% of 300 mg/L phenol within 3 d. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial phenol degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained the initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Based on the PCR denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE profiles of bacteria from biological activated carbon (BAC, the predominant bacteria in drinking water biofilters including Delftia sp., Achromobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp., which together comprised up to 50% of the total microorganisms. In addition, a shift in bacterial community structure was observed during phenol biodegradation. Furthermore, the most effective phenol-degrading strain DW-1 that correspond to the main band in DGGE profile was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp., according to phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene sequences. The strain DW-1 also produced the most important enzyme, phenol hydroxylase, and it also exhibited a good ability to degrade phenol when immobilized on GAC. This study indicates that the enrichment culture has great potential application for treatment of phenol-polluted drinking water sources, and the indigenous phenol-degrading microorganism could recover from drinking water biofilters as an efficient resource for phenol removal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to draw attention to recover native phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters, and use these native microorganisms as phenolic water remediation in drinking water sources.

  8. Community Analysis and Recovery of Phenol-degrading Bacteria from Drinking Water Biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qihui; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Guo, Weipeng; Wu, Huiqing; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phenol is a ubiquitous organic contaminant in drinking water. Biodegradation plays an important role in the elimination of phenol pollution in the environment, but the information about phenol removal by drinking water biofilters is still lacking. Herein, we study an acclimated bacterial community that can degrade over 80% of 300 mg/L phenol within 3 days. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial phenol degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained the initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Based on the PCR denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of bacteria from biological activated carbon (BAC), the predominant bacteria in drinking water biofilters including Delftia sp., Achromobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp., which together comprised up to 50% of the total microorganisms. In addition, a shift in bacterial community structure was observed during phenol biodegradation. Furthermore, the most effective phenol-degrading strain DW-1 that correspond to the main band in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp., according to phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. The strain DW-1 also produced the most important enzyme, phenol hydroxylase, and it also exhibited a good ability to degrade phenol when immobilized on granular active carbon (GAC). This study indicates that the enrichment culture has great potential application for treatment of phenol-polluted drinking water sources, and the indigenous phenol-degrading microorganism could recover from drinking water biofilters as an efficient resource for phenol removal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to draw attention to recover native phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters, and use these native microorganisms as phenolic water remediation in drinking water sources.

  9. Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution onto fly ash from a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richa Sharan; Gurdeep Singh; Sunil K. Gupta

    2009-04-15

    Phenol ranks as one of the most common hazardous pollutants present in water and industrial effluents. The object of the work described herein was to assess the phenol adsorption capacity of fly ash under varying experimental conditions such as adsorbent dosage, pH, varying phenol concentration and contact time. The study showed that, at a phenol concentration of 100 mg/l, the percentage removal of phenol was 95.69% at an optimum dosage of 7 g/l fly ash. The effect of the initial phenol concentration indicated that the percentage phenol removal increased with increasing phenol concentration, being a maximum (98.08%) at a phenol concentration of 700 mg/l. Further increase in phenol concentration (1000 mg/l) resulted in a slight decrease in phenol removal. The adsorption of phenol also varied with the pH and was found to be a maximum at a pH value of 8. Adsorption equilibrium studies indicated that an equilibrium time of 2 h was necessary for the maximum removal of phenol. Isotherm studies showed that the adsorption of phenol onto fly ash was best described by the Langmuir isotherm relative to the Freundlich isotherm. Accordingly, the Langmuir adsorption coefficients, i.e. the maximum adsorption capacity (q{sub 0}) and the Langmuir adsorption constant (K{sub L}) were evaluated and found to be 142.86 mg/g and 0.0199 l/g, respectively. Analysis of the kinetic data indicated that the kinetics of phenol adsorption closely follow the pseudo-second-order model.

  10. Phenolic Wastewater Treatment Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    They t5 enerally show less tendency than solid adsorbents to be sensitive to variations in pH and phenol concentrations of the was tes being treated...AFSC/ SGB 1 AFATL/DLODL 1 AMD/RDU 1 AFWL/SUL 1~ OEHL/CC 3 AFTEC/SG 1 USAFSAM/EDE 2 HQ SAC/DEP 1 AFOSR/NL 1 HQ SAC/6GPA 1 SD/SGX 1 HQ TAC/6SGPA 1 SD...ALC/SGP 1 HQ PACAF/DEEV 1 OC-ALC/SGP 1 OL-AD; USAF OEHL 1 USAF Hospital/SGPB 1 HQ AFISC/SG 1 USAF Hospital/SGPB 1 HQ AAC/ SGB 1 OG-ALC/SGP 1 HQ AAC

  11. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution by SnO{sub 2}:Sb nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M., E-mail: Abdullah.Al.Hamdi@lut.fi [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Chemistry Department, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Bora, Tanujjal [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Dutta, Joydeep [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Functional Materials Division, ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Isafjordsgatan 22, SE-164 40 KistaStockholm (Sweden)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • Sb doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using sol–gel process. • Photocatalytic degradation of phenol were studies using SnO{sub 2}:Sb nanoparticles. • Under solar light phenol was degraded within 2 h. • Phenol mineralization and intermediates were investigated by using HPLC. - Abstract: Photodegradation of phenol in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles under UV light irradiation is known to be an effective photocatalytic process. However, phenol degradation under solar light is less effective due to the large band gap of SnO{sub 2}. In this study antimony (Sb) doped tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared at a low temperature (80 °C) by a sol–gel method and studied for its photocatalytic activity with phenol as a test contaminant. The catalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous media was studied using high performance liquid chromatography and total organic carbon measurements. The change in the concentration of phenol affects the pH of the solution due to the by-products formed during the photo-oxidation of phenol. The photoactivity of SnO{sub 2}:Sb was found to be a maximum for 0.6 wt.% Sb doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with 10 mg L{sup −1} phenol in water. Within 2 h of photodegradation, more than 95% of phenol could be removed under solar light irradiation.

  12. Twelve Case Studies of Terminations and Divestitures by Business Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Rand looked for businesses whose organization resembled that of the complex public bureaucracy. We chose only firms that controlled a major share of...to create better information upon which to base strategies. Joe Alibrandi , as vice president of Whittaker, was assigned the task of developing a...an acquisition policy that threatened the well-being of the company. The board chairman asked a vice president, Joe Alibrandi , to formulate a new

  13. Biomarkers of dietary intake of flavonoids and phenolic acids for studying diet-cancer relationship in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many polyphenolic compounds found in plant-derived food, biological effects possibly relevant for cancer prevention have been shown. Since dietary intake estimates suffer from imprecision, the measurement of these compounds (or metabolites of) in biological specimens collected in epidemiological studies is expected to improve accuracy of exposure estimation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The current use of biomarkers in etiologic studies on polyphenolics and cancer risk is evaluated. In a...

  14. Paraplegia after intercostal neurolysis with phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollapalli L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lakshman Gollapalli, Rudramanaidu Muppuri Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: In patients with advanced stages of cancer, severe pain is commonly encountered and is very difficult to treat. It affects the quality of life of the patient and the families involved. Pain can be managed using analgesics and adjuvant therapy. However, studies have shown that at least 10%–15% of patients fail to control pain adequately and will experience severe pain. We discuss the case of a 66-year-old female with metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left submandibular gland and developed paraplegia following intercostal neurolysis with phenol. After a successful diagnostic T6 to T12 intercostal nerve block, the patient was scheduled for an intercostal neurolytic block. We injected 2 mL of 10% aqueous phenol at each level on the left from the T6 to T12 ribs. One hour after the procedure, the patient developed bilateral lower extremity weakness with difficulty moving. A physical examination showed the absence of sensation to pinpricks and vibration from T10 to S5 and an absence of anal sphincter tone and sensation. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic and lumbar spine showed leptomeningeal metastatic disease and myelitis. We postulate that the paraplegia could be from phenol diffusing along either the spinal nerves or the paravertebral venous plexus into the subarachnoid space. This case report points to the risks involved with phenol neurolysis close to the spine, and we propose alternative methods to minimize neurological complications. Keywords: intercostal neurolysis, pain, phenol, paraplegia 

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of individual and combined phenolics in Olea europaea leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2010-05-01

    Olive leaves, an agricultural waste, have great potential as a natural antioxidant. The current study was made to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both the individual and combined phenolics in olive leaf extract. A combined phenolics mixture was prepared by amount ratios of the phenolic compounds in the olive leaf extract. The results showed that both the individual and combined phenolics exhibited good radical scavenging abilities, and also revealed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. In terms of antimicrobial activity, both oleuropein and caffeic acid showed inhibition effects against microorganisms. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect of the combined phenolics was significantly higher than those of the individual phenolics. These results show that the combination of olive leaf extract phenolics possessed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This study indicates that olive leaf extract might be a valuable bioactive source, and would seem to be applicable in both the health and medical food.

  16. Magnetic, catalytic, EPR and electrochemical studies on binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 3,4-disubstituted phenol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Kannappan; R Mahalakshmy; T M Rajendiran; R Venkatesan; P Sambasiva Rao

    2003-02-01

    New symmetrical compartmental binucleating ligands 2,6-bis[N-(2-{dimethylamino}ethyl)-N-methyl)aminomethyl]-3,4-dimethylphenol [HL1] and 2,6-bis[N-(2-{diethylamino}ethyl)-N-ethyl)aminomethyl]-3,4-dimethylphenol [HL2], and their copper(II) complexes [Cu2L1-2(X)]ClO4, (X = NO$_{2}^{-}$, OAc- and OH-) have been prepared. Spectral, catalytic, magnetic, EPR and electrochemical studies have been carried out. A catecholase activity study indicates that only HL1 complexes have efficient catalytic activity due to a less sterically hindered methyl group and enhanced planarity (larger -2 values) with respect to the oxidation of 3,5-di--butylcatechol to the corresponding quinone. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility studies of the complexes show antiferromagnetic interaction between the copper atoms. X-band EPR signals could not be observed for polycrystalline samples both at room temperatures and liquid nitrogen, consistent with two antiferrromagnetically coupled copper centres in the solid state. EPR spectral studies in methanol solvent show welldefined four hyperfine signals at room temperature due to decomposition of the dimer into monomers. This however is not seen in frozen methanol glass, may be owing to restructuring of the monomers into dimers due to an increase in viscosity of the solvent. Electrochemical studies revealed chemically irreversible behaviour due to chemical or/and stereochemical changes subsequent to electron transfer.

  17. Phenol Analysis -- Some Analytical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, R. J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Contamination of potable water supplies with halogenated phenols in concentrations of 2-10 parts per billion (ppb) produces objectionable tastes and odors capable of influencing consumer acceptability. Routine analysis by the distillation/ 4-aminoantipyrine method is limited by lack of sensitivity and subject to interference by aryl amines. This has been overcome by developing a continuous liquid-liquid extraction system to selectively isolate phenols and eliminate major interfering substances. Stable reagents have been formulated to reduce blank color and extend sensitivity. Equipment suitable for analysis of phenols at the 1 ppb level or less in 20 minutes is described.

  18. Preliminary studies of bioelectrochemical removal of phenolic compounds of residuals water of refinery; Estudos preliminares de remocao bioeletroquimica de compostos fenolicos de aguas residuais de refinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rotta H, Camilo E.; Bon, Elba P.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Tecnologia Enzimatica]. E-mail: elba1996@iq.ufrj.br; Luetz, Stephan; Liese, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: a.liese@fz-juelich.de

    2003-07-01

    Chloroperoxidase from Caldariomyces fumago has been previously reported for the oxidation of several phenolic compounds and is emerging as a promising alternative for the treatment of industrial effluents. Nevertheless, a high efficiency of the enzymatic removal means the use of high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, causing a fast loss of enzyme activity. The electroenzymatic approach allows a significantly lower and easily controllable hydrogen peroxide formation rate than any other so far. The stability of peroxidase could be significantly increased in this electroenzymatic system. Using the enzymatic method a distinct pattern of products regarding colour, concentration and solubility was observed in response to pH, substrate concentration and stoichiometry. A higher number of events concerning to product variety and intensity was observed at pH 6,0 in absence of chloride ions, and equimolar concentration of 5,0 mM of 4- chlorophenol and hydrogen peroxide. Under these conditions up to 95% of phenol removal and formation of dark precipitate was observed. The bioelectrochemical experiment showed also a high phenol oxidation of up to 90% of the initial phenol concentration. Nevertheless, the formation of dark precipitate was not observed. CPO showed to be active for conventional and bioelectrochemical experiments, during three and six hours, respectively. (author)

  19. Studies on the tumor-promoting activity of additives in biomaterials: inhibition of metabolic cooperation by phenolic antioxidants involved in rubber materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, T; Fukuhara, K; Hata, H; Ikarashi, Y; Miyata, N; Katoh, F; Yamasaki, H; Nakamura, A

    1995-01-01

    For the detection of tumor-promoting activities of phenolic antioxidants, the inhibitory activities on the intercellular gap-junctional communication were investigated using the V79 metabolic cooperation (MC) assay. Among eight antioxidants, 4,4'-butylidene-bis(3-methyl-6-tert-butyl-phenol), 2,2'-methylene-bis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) (MBMBP), and styrenated phenol (SP) showed stronger inhibitory activities than lithocholic acid, which is known to be a tumor promotor. However, 4,4'-thio-bis(3-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol), Irganox 1010, and 1330 did not inhibit at any concentrations. When the single-electron oxidation potentials were compared among antioxidants, the electrochemical ease estimated with the first oxidation potential was correlated with the cytotoxic potentials (r = 0.88), but not with the inhibitory activities in an MC assay. The tumor-promoting activity of MBMBP was also investigated using an in vitro, two-stage Balb/c 3T3 transformation assay. MBMBP did not show initiating activity, but significant promoting activity at concentrations of both 1 and 2.5 micrograms/ml were noted. These concentrations were close to the lowest effective inhibitory concentration (1.3 micrograms/ml) of MBMBP in an MC assay. In conclusion, there is a possibility that the phenolic antioxidants that show inhibitory activities in an MC assay contribute to the enhancement of tumor incidence induced by biomaterials.

  20. Analysis of phenolic type antioxidants; Capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, S.K. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)); Kapoor, V.B. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)); Vishnoi, S.C. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)); Bhagat, S.D. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehradun (India))

    1994-06-01

    A simple gas chromatographic (GC) procedure has been developed to estimate the individual alkylated phenols used as antioxidants to improve the shelf life of fuels and lubricants. Preparative gas chromatography was applied for separation and collection in sufficient quantity of the isomers of tertiary butyl, octyl and dodecyl phenols prepared by catalytic alkylation of phenol with isobutylene or its oligomers. The separated fractions were characterised by Infra-red spectrometry (IR) and paper chromatography. Out of several GC columns studies, a high resolution capillary column of 100% Methyl, Silicone gum (SE-30) as stationary phase gave best results. Data generated on various packed and capillary columns are in good agreement. (orig.)

  1. [Adsorption of phenol chemicals by surfactant-modified zeolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Wang, Zhe; Wu, De-Yi; Li, Chun-Jie

    2012-12-01

    Two kinds of zeolites were prepared from fly ash and modified by surfactant subsequently. Surfactant-modified zeolites were studied for adsorption of phenol chemicals (phenol, p-chlorphenol, bisphenol A). It showed that the adsorption affinity of zeolite to phenol chemicals was significantly improved after surfactant modification. The adsorption isotherms of phenol chemicals were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. For the two surfactant-surfactant modified zeolites, the maximum adsorption amounts of phenol, p-chlorphenol, and bisphenol A calculated from the Langmuir equation were 37.7, 52.36, 90.9 mg x g(-1) and 10.7, 22.83, 56.8 mg x g(-1), respectively. When pH values of solutions were higher than the pK(a) values of phenol chemicals, the removal efficiencies were getting higher with the increase of pH values. The octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) was also found to be an important factor affecting adsorption of phenol chemicals by the modified zeolites. Higher K(ow) value, which means the greater hydrophobicity of the chemicals, resulted in a higher removal.

  2. Selective catalytic hydroalkylation and deoxygenation of substituted phenols to bicycloalkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chen; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2012-04-01

    Phenol and substituted phenols are hydroalkylated and hydrodeoxygenated to bi-cycloalkanes in a tandem reaction over Pd nanoclusters supported on a large-pore molecular sieve HBEA at 473-523 K using water as solvent. The HBEA-supported Pd catalyst (metal-acid ratio: 1:22 mol/mol) optimally balances the competing rates of metal catalyzed hydrogenation as well as of solid acid-catalyzed dehydration and carbon-carbon coupling to combine hydrodeoxygenation and dimerization of phenol derivatives to C{sub 12}-C{sub 18} bicycloalkanes in a single reaction sequence. A detailed kinetic study of the elementary reactions of (substituted) phenol and their potential products (cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexene) demonstrates that phenol selectively reacts with the in situ generated cyclohexanol or cyclohexene on Broensted acid sites. The acid-catalyzed alkylation of phenol with alcohol intermediates and alcohol dehydration are parallel reactions, which are subtly influenced by the competing hydrogenation reactions as well as by the presence of water as solvent. IR spectroscopy of adsorbed species and preliminary molecular modeling indicate that phenol and cyclohexanol enrichment in the large pores of zeolite HBEA is critical for the high activity and hydroalkylation selectivity.

  3. Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic compounds in rhizosphere of the symbiotic legumes. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... compounds in the rhizosphere of a few studied symbiotic legumes and other plants.

  4. Synthesis and physiochemical studies on binuclear Cu(II) complexes derived from 2,6-[(N-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-4-substituted phenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Karthikeyan; T M Rajendiran; R Kannappan; R Mahalakshmy; R Venkatesan; P Sambasiva Rao

    2001-08-01

    Preparation of the ligands HL1= 2,6-[(N-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]--ethylphenol; HL2 = 2,6-[(N-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]--methoxyphenol and HL3 = 2,6-[(N-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]--nitrophenol are described together with their Cu(II) complexes with different bridging units. The exogenous bridges incorporated into the complexes are: hydroxo [Cu2L(OH)(H2O)2](ClO4)2.H2O(L1 = 1a, L2 = 1b, L3 = 1c), acetato [Cu2L(OAc)2]ClO4.H2O (L1 = 2a, L2 = 2b, L3 = 2c) and nitrito [Cu2L1(NO2)2(H2O)2]ClO4.H2O (L1 = 3a, L2 = 3b, L3 = 3c). Complexes 1a, 1b, 1c and 2a, 2b, 2c contain bridging exogenous groups, while 3a, 3b, 3c possess only open -phenolate structures. Both the ligands and complexes were characterized by spectral studies. Cyclic voltammetric investigation of these complexes revealed that the reaction process involves two successive quasireversible one-electron steps at different potentials. The first reduction potential is sensitive to electronic effects of the substituents at the aromatic ring of the ligand system, shifting to positive potentials when the substituents are replaced by more electrophilic groups. EPR studies indicate very weak interaction between the two copper atoms. Various covalency parameters have been calculated.

  5. Experimental (X-ray, FT-IR and UV-vis spectra) and theoretical methods (DFT study) of (E)-3-methoxy-2-[(p-tolylimino)methyl]phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioğlu, Zeynep; Albayrak, Çiğdem; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2014-07-15

    A suitable single crystal of (E)-3-methoxy-2-[(p-tolylimino)methyl]phenol, formulated as C15H15N1O2, reveals that the structure is adopted to its E configuration about the azomethine C=N double bond. The compound adopts a enol-imine tautomeric form with a strong intramolecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond. The single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis at 296K crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 13.4791(11) Å, b = 6.8251(3) Å, c = 18.3561(15) Å, α = 90°, β = 129.296(5)°, γ = 90° and Z = 4. Comprehensive theoretical and experimental structural studies on the molecule have been carried out by FT-IR and UV-vis spectrometry. Optimized molecular structure and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been investigated by DFT/B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Stability of the molecule, hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization and intramolecular hydrogen bond has been analyzed by using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Electronic structures were discussed by TD-DFT method and the relocation of the electron density were determined. The energetic behavior of the title compound has been examined in solvent media using polarizable continuum model (PCM). Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), Mulliken population method and natural population analysis (NPA) have been studied. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were also investigated. In addition, frontier molecular orbitals analysis have been performed from the optimized geometry. An ionization potential (I), electron affinity (A), electrophilicity index (ω), chemical potential (μ), electronegativity (χ), hardness (η), and softness (S), have been investigated.

  6. The efficiency of different phenol-degrading bacteria and activated sludges in detoxification of phenolic leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahru, A; Reiman, R; Rätsep, A

    1998-07-01

    Phenolic composition, toxicity and biodegradability of three different phenolic leachates/samples was studied. Samples A and C were the leachates from the oil-shale industry spent shale dumps at Kohtla-Järve, Estonia. Sample B was a laboratory-prepared synthetic mixture of 7 phenolic compounds mimmicking the phenolic composition of the leachate A. Toxicity of these 3 samples was analyzed using two photobacterial test (BioTox and Microtox), Daphnia test (DAPHTOXKIT F pulex) and rotifiers' test (ROTOXKIT F). All the LC50 values were in the range of 1-10%, leachate A being the most toxic. The growth and detoxifying potential (toxicity of the growth medium was measured using photobacterial tests) of 3 different phenol-utilizing bacteria and acclimated activated sludges was studied in shake-flask cultures. 30% leachate A (altogether 0.6 mM total phenolic compounds) was too toxic to rhodococci and they did not grow. Cell number of Kurthia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in 30% leachate A increased by 2 orders of magnitude but despite of the growth of bacteria the toxicity of the leachate did not decrease even by 7 weeks of cultivation. However, if the activated sludge was used instead of pure bacterial cultures the toxicity of the 30% leachate A was eliminated already after 3 days of incubation. 30% samples B and C were detoxified by activated sludge even more rapidly, within 2 days. As the biodegradable part of samples A and B should be identical, the detoxification of leachate A compared to that of sample B was most probably inhibited by inorganic (e.g. sulphuric) compounds present in the leachate A. Also, the presence of toxic recalcitrant organic compounds in the leachate A (missed by chemical analysis) that were not readily biodegradable even by activated sludge consortium should not be excluded.

  7. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes; a food irradiation study on radiation induced stress in vegetable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation is a recent preservation method. With the aid of ionizing radiation microorganisms in food can be killed or specific physiological processes in vegetable products can be influenced.

    In order to study the effects of metabolic radiation stress on quantitative chemical changes in

  8. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes (a food irradiation study on radiation-induced stress in vegetable products)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation is a recent preservation method. With the aid of ionizing radiation microorganisms in food can be killed or specific physiological processes in vegetable products can be influenced.In order to study the effects of metabolic radiation stress on quantitative chemical changes in vegetable p

  9. Physiological and functional diversity of phenol degraders isolated from phenol-grown aerobic granules: Phenol degradation kinetics and trichloroethylene co-metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic granule is a novel form of microbial aggregate capable of degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. Aerobic granules have been formed on phenol as the growth substrate, and used to co-metabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a synthetic solvent not supporting aerobic microbial growth. Granule formation process, rate limiting factors and the comprehensive toxic effects of phenol and TCE had been systematically studied. To further explore their potential at the level of microbial population and functions, phenol degraders were isolated and purified from mature granules in this study. Phenol and TCE degradation kinetics of 15 strains were determined, together with their TCE transformation capacities and other physiological characteristics. Isolation in the presence of phenol and TCE exerted stress on microbial populations, but the procedure was able to preserve their diversity. Wide variation was found with the isolates' kinetic behaviors, with the parameters often spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Haldane kinetics described phenol degradation well, and the isolates exhibited actual maximum phenol-dependent oxygen utilization rates of 9-449 mg DO g DW(-1) h(-1), in phenol concentration range of 4.8-406 mg L(-1). Both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane types were observed for TCE transformation, with the actual maximum rate of 1.04-21.1 mg TCE g DW(-1) h(-1) occurring between TCE concentrations of 0.42-4.90 mg L(-1). The TCE transformation capacities and growth yields on phenol ranged from 20-115 mg TCE g DW(-1) and 0.46-1.22 g DW g phenol(-1), respectively, resulting in TCE transformation yields of 10-70 mg TCE g phenol(-1). Contact angles of the isolates were between 34° and 82°, suggesting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell surface. The diversity in the isolates is a great advantage, as it enables granules to be versatile and adaptive under different operational conditions.

  10. A comparative study of the capsaicinoid and phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant activities of the peppers of the genus Capsicum: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sora, Gisele Teixeira Souza; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; da Silva, Marcos Vieira; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Gonçalves, Geferson Almeida; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the contents of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and total phenolics as well as of the antioxidant activities of six types of peppers of the genus Capsicum. The varieties were analyzed in terms of their in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant powder (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate (ABTS(●+)) assays. The contents of phenolics and capsainoids as well as the antioxidant activities were higher in seeds than in pulps. The correlations (ρ < 0.01) between the phenolic composition and the capsaicinoids levels were high (r = 0.98). Similarly high were also the correlations between the antioxidant activities and the contents of total phenolics and capsaicinoids. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). PCA explained 97.77 % of the total variance of the data, and their separation into three groups in a scatter plot was divised. Using HCA, three clusters were suggested. Cluster one, formed by pulps (bell pepper, orange habanero, cayenne, dedo de moça and red habanero), showed the lowest levels of the compounds quantified. Most seed samples were grouped in cluster two (bell pepper, cayenne, dedo de moça and malagueta) together with malagueta pulp. Cluster three was formed by orange and red habanero seeds, which showed the highest levels of all compounds analyzed. The MRL revealed that the values of capsaicinoids and total phenols are more adequate to predict the antioxidant activity measured by the FRAP assay.

  11. Optical properties of natural phenols in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vusovich, Olga; Sultimova, Natalia; Tchaikovskaya, Olga; Sokolova, Irina; Vasilieva, Nina

    2015-11-01

    Currently, the study of the photochemistry of natural phenols is relevant as it has a fundamental and a practical importance. The optical properties of natural phenols are studied: 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) and 3- hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (isovanillin), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (vanillic acid). The processes of proton transfer in the investigated molecules in ground and excited states under exposure to lamp and laser emissions are presented using the methods of electron spectroscopy and quantum chemistry.

  12. Health promoting and sensory properties of phenolic compounds in food

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; Mariana Veras de Carvalho; Lauro Melo

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have been extensively studied in recent years. The presence of these compounds in various foods has been associated with sensory and health promoting properties. These products from the secondary metabolism of plants act as defense mechanisms against environmental stress and attack by other organisms. They are divided into different classes according to their chemical structures. The objective of this study was to describe the different classes of phenolic compounds, the ma...

  13. Premarital Sex in the Last Twelve Months and Its Predictors among Students of Wollega University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Tesfaye; Chala, Dereje; Adeba, Emiru

    2016-07-01

    Premarital sex increases the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV if unprotected and contraception is not used. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among regular undergraduate students of Wollega University. A cross-sectional survey using pretested, structured questionnaire was conducted on a total of 704 regular undergraduate students of Wollega University from February to March, 2014. We used multistage sampling technique to recruit study participants. Binary and multivariable logistic regressions were performed using SPSS version 20 to assess predictors of premarital sex. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Wollega University youths who had premarital sex in the last twelve months were 28.4%; 55.5% of them did not use condom during last sex while 31.3% engaged in multiple sex. Being male [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)(95% Confidence Interval(CI))=2.7(1.58-4.75)], age 20-24 years [AOR(95%CI)=2.8(1.13-7.20)], training on how to use condom [AOR(95%CI)=1.7(1.17-2.46)], being tested for HIV [AOR(95%CI)=2.3(1.48-3.53)], using social media frequently [AOR(95%CI)=1.8(1.14-2.88)], having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use [AOR (95%CI)=2.2(1.31-3.56)] were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the last twelve months. Nearly one-third of regular undergraduate students of the university were engaged in premarital sex in the last twelve months. Being male, using social media frequently and alcohol use were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the stated period. Thus, higher institutions have to deliver abstinence messages alongside information about self-protection.

  14. Phenolic contents of myrtle (Myrtus communis L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu BAYIR YEĞİN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrtle is one of the important natural plant of the Mediterranean region. Fruits are in black and white colour. The earlier studies are mostly focused on the essential oil content of leaves in myrtle plant, whereas the latest studies are dealing with the phenolic compounds of leaves and fruits with their effects on human health. The aim of the study was to determine the phenolic content of the myrtle fruit and to investigate the differences between the genotypes. Myrtle fruits were collected from Antalya district. Phenolic content was determined by HPLC. Gallic acid (GA, catechin (CT, epicatechin (ECT, epicatechin-3-0-gallate (ECG, procyanidin B1 (B1, procyanidin B2 (B2, quercetin (Q, kamferol (K and myricetin (M were calculated as phenolic compounds. Epicatechin-3-0-gallate (in flavan-3-ol group and myricetin (in flavonol group were detected in large amounts.

  15. Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and HPLC analyses of the phenolic compounds of extracts from common Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Ereifej, Khalil I; Esoh, Ranya B; Al-u'datt, Muhammad H; Alrababah, Mohammad A; Yang, W

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the total phenolic amounts and antioxidant activities of plant extracts obtained from some common Mediterranean plant species collected from different places in Jordan were determined. The phenolic constituents of these extracts were also determined using HPLC. The total phenolic amounts ranged from 52.8 to 876.9 mg GAE per 100 g dry material. The antioxidant activities were evaluated according to the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenger method. Sage (Salvia officinalis) showed the highest antioxidant activity (91%), while the lowest (11.3%) was seen in parsley (Petroselinum crispum). A strong correlation (r = 0.85) between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was found. The phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin and benzoic acid. All the investigated plants contain gallic acid, whose phenolic content ranged from 0.4 to 37.8 mg per 100 g, catechin (0.3-339.9 mg per 100 g), protocatechuic acid (0.3-41.9 mg per 100 g) and gentisic acid (0.3-35.8 mg per 100 g), while caffeic acid (0.3-2.6 mg per 100 g) was detected in six species only. These natural plant phenolics could thus be a good source of antioxidants for applications in food.

  16. Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in tomato peel, seeds, and byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2014-06-11

    The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-β-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds.

  17. COMPARISON OF PHENOL REMOVAL IN ANAEROBIC FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS WITH SAND AND GAC MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Yazdanbakhsh; A.R. Mesdaghinia; A. Torabian; M. Shariat

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study two identical anaerobic completely mixed fluidized bed reactors with GAC and sand media were employed for COD & phenol removal. At loading rate of 1.6 g phenol L-1d-1, the efficiency of phenol removal in GAC & sand reactors were 97.7% & 74%, respectively. At high loading rate of phenol (6.09 g phenol I: 1d1 the efficiency of phenol removal in GAC reactor was better than 95%. In GAC reactor, the main mechanism for phenol removal at steady state condition was biological process; this was concluded through balance of gas production and COD removal. Better efficiency of GAC reactor comparing with sand reactor was because of resistance to fluctuations, higher surface for biomass growth and adsorption capacity of activated carbon.

  18. Syntheses of L-tyrosine-related amino acids by tyrosine phenol-lyase of Citrobacter intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, T; Utagawa, T; Goto, J; Kim, C J; Tani, Y; Kumagai, H; Yamada, H

    1981-06-01

    Degradation of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate and ammonia by tyrosine phenol-lyase from Citrobacter intermedius (formerly named Escherichia intermedia) is readily reversible at high concentrations of pyruvate and ammonia. Spectrophotometric studies indicate that ammonia is the first substrate which interacts with bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Kinetic results show that pyruvate is the second substrate bound, hence phenol must be the third. When an appropriate phenol derivative is substituted for phenol, the corresponding tyrosine analogue can be synthesized. 3-Fluoro-, 2-fluoro-, 3-chloro-, 2-chloro-, 3-bromo-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 3-methyl-, 2-methyl- and 2-methoxy-L-tyrosines have been synthesized by this reaction. By using various phenol derivatives or tyrosine analogues as substrates, the substrate specificity of tyrosine phenol-lyase is investigated and the situation of its active site is discussed.

  19. Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Coal Gasification Wastewater by Biofilm Reactor with Isolated Klebsiella sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Fang; HongJun Han; ChunYan Xu; Qian Zhao; LingHan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of phenolic compounds by one strain isolated from coal gasification wastewater ( CGW ) . 16S rRNA gene sequences homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate is belonged to the genus Klebsiella sp. The effect of different phenolic compounds on the isolate was investigated by determining OD600 and phenoloxidase activity, of which the results showed that the isolate can utilize phenol, 4-methyl phenol, 3, 5-dimethyl phenol and resorcinol as carbon resources. The biofilm reactor ( formed by the isolate) can resist the influent concentration of phenolic compounds as high as 750 mg/L when fed with synthetic CGW and incubated at optimum conditions. The capacity of improving the biodegradability of CGW through degrading phenolic compounds was testified with fed the biofilm reactor with real CGW. Thus, it might be an effective strain for bioaugmentation of CGW treatment.

  20. Optimized Extraction of Resveratrol from Arachis repens Handro by Ultrasound and Microwave: A Correlation Study with the Antioxidant Properties and Phenol Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Leonardo; Garcia, Renata; Sutili, Felipe; Souza, Rodrigo De

    2016-01-01

    The vegetal species Arachis repens, commonly known as peanut grass, was studied and, for the first time, we detected the presence of the bioactive compound trans-resveratrol (t-RSV). We compared the efficiency of three different methodologies (conventional maceration [CM], ultrasound-assisted extractions [UAE], and microwave-assisted extractions [MAE]) concerning total phenolics (TP) and resveratrol (t-RSV) content, followed by antioxidant activity (AA) evaluation. By CM, at 1 h, the highest RSV content (1.024 ± 0.036 mg/L) and, correspondingly, the highest DPPH capture (23.90 ± 0.04%) were found. The TP contents, at 1 h, presented the highest value (27.26 ± 0.26 mg/g GAE). By the UAE, the maximum yields of TP (357.18 mg/g GAE) and RSV (2.14 mg/L), as well as, the highest AA (70.95%), were obtained by 5 min after a maceration pretreatment, on the solid-solvent ratio 1 : 40 w/v. For MAE, a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied followed by the FFD design in order to evaluate the statistical effects of four independent variables on the extraction of RSV. The optimal conditions established for obtaining the highest recovery (2.516 mg/g) were 20 min; 90% MeOH aq.; 120 rpm; 60°C; and solid-solvent ratio: 1 : 35 w/v. Relevant correlations were established considering the TP and RSV contents, as well as the AA, corroborating obvious advantages of such techniques in terms of high extraction efficiency in shorter times. PMID:28116343

  1. Comparative studies on the properties of tryptophanase and tyrosine phenol-lyase immobilized directly on Sepharose or by use of Sepharose-bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, S; Ikeda, S; Fujimura, M; Yamada, H; Kumagai, H

    1975-02-01

    Tryptophanase from Escherichia coli B/qt 7-A and tyrosine phenol-lyase (beta-tyrosinase) from Escherichia intermedia were immobilized on Sepharose 4B by several direct coupling reactions or through pyridoxal 5'-phosphate previously bound to Sepharose. The most active preparation of immobilized tryptophanase was obtained by coupling tetrameric apoenzyme to pyridoxal-P bound on Sepharose at the 6-position through a diazo linkage. This immobilization procedure involves the formation to Schiff base linkage between 4-formyl group of Sepharose-bound pyridoxal-P and the epsilon-amino group of the lysine residue at the active center of one subunit of tetrameric apo-tryptophanase, followed by the fixation of the Schiff base linkage by reduction with NaBH4. In the case of beta-tyrosinase having two catalytic centers, however, this method was not so suitable as the case of tryptophanase. Direct coupling of the apoenzyme to CNBr-activated Sepharose or to a bromoacetyl derivative of Sepharose gave better results. In each case, the affinity for substrate or coenzyme was scarcely influenced by the immobilization. When used repeatedly in a batch system or continuously in a flow system in the absence of added pyridoxal-P, immobilized holo-tryptophanase of holo-beta-tyrosinase gradually lost its original activity; however, supplement of pyridoxal-P to the reaction system restored its initial activity. From the kinetic analyses of these phenomena, the rate constants of coenzyme dissociation from immobilized tryptophanase and beta-tyrosinase were calculated. Upon immobilization, the pH optima of both enzymes shifted 0.5 to 1.0 pH unit to the alkaline side. Both immobilized enzymes showed higher thermal stability and resistance to a denaturing agent such as guinidine-HCl than their free counterpart. Furthermore, the reactivity of sulfhydryl group of beta-tyrosinase, in connection with its coenzyme-binding property, was conveniently studied by use of the immobilized enzyme.

  2. Optimized Extraction of Resveratrol from Arachis repens Handro by Ultrasound and Microwave: A Correlation Study with the Antioxidant Properties and Phenol Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetal species Arachis repens, commonly known as peanut grass, was studied and, for the first time, we detected the presence of the bioactive compound trans-resveratrol (t-RSV. We compared the efficiency of three different methodologies (conventional maceration [CM], ultrasound-assisted extractions [UAE], and microwave-assisted extractions [MAE] concerning total phenolics (TP and resveratrol (t-RSV content, followed by antioxidant activity (AA evaluation. By CM, at 1 h, the highest RSV content (1.024±0.036 mg/L and, correspondingly, the highest DPPH capture (23.90±0.04% were found. The TP contents, at 1 h, presented the highest value (27.26±0.26 mg/g GAE. By the UAE, the maximum yields of TP (357.18 mg/g GAE and RSV (2.14 mg/L, as well as, the highest AA (70.95%, were obtained by 5 min after a maceration pretreatment, on the solid-solvent ratio 1 : 40 w/v. For MAE, a central composite rotatable design (CCRD was applied followed by the FFD design in order to evaluate the statistical effects of four independent variables on the extraction of RSV. The optimal conditions established for obtaining the highest recovery (2.516 mg/g were 20 min; 90% MeOH aq.; 120 rpm; 60°C; and solid-solvent ratio: 1 : 35 w/v. Relevant correlations were established considering the TP and RSV contents, as well as the AA, corroborating obvious advantages of such techniques in terms of high extraction efficiency in shorter times.

  3. The twelve theses: a call to a new reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Shelby Spong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With every discovery emerging from the world of science over the last 500 years concerning the origins of the universe and of life itself, the traditional explanations offered by the Christian Church appeared to be more and more dated and irrelevant.  Christian leaders, unable to embrace the knowledge revolution seemed to believe  that the only way to save Christianity was not to disturb the old patterns either by listening to, much less by entertaining the new knowledge. I tried to articulate this challenge in a book entitled: Why Christianity Must Change or Die, published in 1998.  In that book I examined in detail the issues that I was convinced Christianity must address. Shortly after that book was published I reduced its content to twelve theses, which I attached in Luther-like fashion to the great doors on the Chapel of Mansfield College at Oxford University in the United Kingdom. I then mailed copies of those Twelve Theses to every acknowledged Christian leader of the world. It was an attempt to call them into a debate on the real issues that I was certain the Christian Church now faced.  I framed my twelve theses in the boldest, most provocative language possible, designed primarily to elicit response and debate. I welcome responses from Christians everywhere.  I claim no expertise or certainty in developing answers, but I am quite confident that I do understand the problems we are facing as Christians who are seeking to relate to the 21st century.

  4. Solvation dynamics of coumarin 153 embedded in AOT + phenol organogels studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Katsura; Takata, Kei; Watanabe, Keiichi; Shigematsu, Hirotake

    2012-03-01

    We investigate solvation dynamics of organogel utilizing ps-ns fluorescence spectroscopy. The organogel studied in this Letter comprises bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) and p-chlorophenol in the m-xylene solvent, that produce an organogel architecture with self-assembly. Within the organogel, an emitting probe, coumarin 153 (C153), is embedded. We then obtain dynamic response functions of solvation derived from the time-resolved fluorescence spectra of C153. We propose that total energy of the C153-organogel system relaxes with a relaxation time of 3.9 ns, whereas the entire rearrangement of the organogel structure around C153 is achieved with that of 6.1 ns, respectively.

  5. Demand for Phenol Increases Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dramatic growth in output By the end of 2006 China's capacity to produce phenol had reached more than 600 thousand t/a. The total output was 523 thousand tons in 2006,an increase of 18.1% over 2005.

  6. Comparative study on gamma irradiation and cold plasma pretreatment for a cellulosic substrate modification with phenolic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Anamaria; Ioanid, Ghiocel Emil; Zaharescu, Traian; Coroabă, Adina; Doroftei, Florica; Safrany, Agnes; Vasile, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of the activation of the cellulose/chitin mix substrate by cold plasma or γ-radiation exposure in order to modify it with bioactive compounds was studied. The eugenol or vegetable oils such as grape seed oil and rosehip seed oil have been grafted onto activated substrate. The examination of modified cellulose/chitin mix substrate by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirms that the structural and morphological changes took place in both cases. The grafting degrees of the surface layer estimated from XPS data varied from 31.1% to 58.7% for air cold plasma activation and from 9.7% to 22.8% for γ-irradiation treatment. They depend both on bioactive compound used and procedure of substrate activation. Higher grafting degree are obtain by using vegetable oils than in the case of modification with eugenol and the air cold plasma activation seems to be much efficient than γ-irradiation. By grafting the polymeric substrate with bioactive compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties have been conferred. Such materials can be considered promising for food packaging applications and medical textiles and also the applied procedures are environmental friendly ones.

  7. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC. 13 compounds were received, 8 of them were identified as the substances of phenolic origin: flavonoids (quercetine, taxofolin, luteolin, hydroxycoric acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic, polyphenolic compounds (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin. The sum of identified phenolic compounds amounted to 78,24% of all compounds found by the given method.

  8. Estudio exploratorio sobre la presencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en niños entre 10 y 12 años y en sus padres o adultos responsables Preliminary study about the presence of the use of psychoactive substances among children between ten and twelve years old and in their parents or responsible adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Slapak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados preliminares de un estudio cuyo propósito es indagar la presencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en niños entre 10 y años y en sus padres o adultos responsables. Metodología: Muestras: niños de a años que reciben asistencia psicoterapéutica en una unidad de docencia en servicio de una cátedra universitaria; padres o adultos responsables de dichos niños. Instrumentos: CORIN. Fuente: CONICET. Cuestionario que indaga hábitos de consumo en los adultos. Anamnesis a los adultos. Protocolo de datos sociodemográficos. Conclusiones: Se registra consumo ocasional de alcohol durante el año de administración del instrumento entre los niños. De la misma manera, se observa un consumo habitual de diversas sustancias psicoactivas en su entorno familiar. Se concluye que el consumo ocasional de alcohol en los niños no se encuentra relacionado con su sintomatología, sino más bien con las características del contexto familiar.This paper presents the preliminaries results of a study which purpose is to inquire the presence of the use of psychoactive substances among children between ten and twelve years old and in their parents or responsible adults. Methodology: Samples: Children between ten and twelve years old that receive psychotherapeutical assistance in an academic unit in a service witch belongs to an university chair; parents or responsible adults of these children. Tools: CORIN. Source: CONICET. Questionnaire that inquires about consume habits in the adults. Adults anamnesis. Sociodemographic data protocol. Conclusions: During the year of the administration of the instrument, it is registred an occasional consume of alcohol among the children. In the same way, it is observed a habitual consume of diverse psychoactive substances in their family context. It is concluded that the occasionally use of alcohol in children it is not related with their sinthomatology, but with the characteristics of their family

  9. Phenolic compounds among the bioactive molecules in Ginkgo biloba L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The interest for natural antioxidants has been increasing over the years. Phenolic compounds comprise a very large group of biologically active molecules, being appreciated for their beneficial effects on health (physiologically active compounds with anti-allergic, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects) [1-3]. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic compounds of Ginkgo biloba L...

  10. Triterpenes and phenolic compounds in apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), a popular and widely cultivated fruit world-wide, contains bioactive triterpenes and phenolic compounds with potentially valuable pharmacological functions. This thesis investigated the effects of pre-harvest and postharvest factors on concentrations of these bioactive compounds in apples. It also studied the effect of ozone treatment, before or during storage, combined with cold storage on triterpene and phenolic compound concentrations in apples and the ant...

  11. Monitoring of phenol photodegradation by ultraviolet spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, B.; Gonzalez, C.; Thomas, O.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed as an emerging technology for hazardous organic treatment in industrial wastewater. In this paper, the contribution of ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy to follow phenol photodegradation was studied in a laboratory photochemical reactor equipped with a low pressure mercury lamp. It has been observed that a multicomponent approach is efficient for the evolution estimation of the initial product or intermediate compounds formed during the photodegradation.

  12. Phytochemical screening of twelve species of phytoplankton isolated from Arabian Sea coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushanth Vishwanath Rai; Madaiah Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the phytochemicals in twelve species of marine phytoplankton. Methods: Total phenolic content of methanol extract was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content of the methanol extarct was determined by aluminium chloride method. Chlorophylls,β-carotene and astaxanthin were estimated by acetone extraction method. Vitamin C was determined by dinitrophenyl-hydrazine method. Phycobiliproteins such as allophycocyanin, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin in the aqueous extracts were determined. Results: Total phenolics varied from 5.41 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) in Phormidium corium (P. corium) to 17.37 mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW inOscillatoria fremyii(O. fremyii). Total flavonoids ranged between 0.74 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW inP. corium and 9.87 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW inNannochloropsis oceanica. Chlorophyll-a pigment was high inChaetoceros calcitrans(C. calcitrans)(15.51 mg/g DW) and low inP. corium (1.08 mg/g DW). Chlorophyll-c ranged between 0.07 mg/g DW inNannochloropsis oceanica and 4.62 mg/g DW inC. calcitrans. High contents ofβ-carotene and astaxanthin were found inC. calcitrans and low inP. corium which ranged from 0.33 to 10.03 mg/g DW and 0.18 to 3.85 mg/g DW, respectively. Vitamin C content varied from 0.50 mg/g DW inC. calcitrans to 1.51 mg/g DW inPhormidium tenue.O. fremyii showed highest total phycobiliproteins of 317.05 mg/g DW. High contents of allophycocyanin and phycocyanin were found inO. fremyii, whereas high contents of phycoerythrin were found inOscillatoria sancta. All the three phycobiliproteins were low inChroococcus turgidus. Conclusions: Marine phytoplankton are one of the natural sources providing novel biologically active compounds with potential for pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Importance of insoluble-bound phenolics to antioxidant properties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyana-Pathirana, Chandrika M; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-02-22

    Two commercial samples of soft (70% Canadian Eastern soft red spring and 30% Canadian Eastern soft white winter) and hard (90% Canadian western hard red spring and 10% Canadian Eastern hard red winter) wheats were used to obtain different milling fractions. Phenolics extracted belonged to free, soluble esters and insoluble-bound fractions. Soluble esters of phenolics and insoluble-bound phenolics were extracted into diethyl ether after alkaline hydrolysis of samples. The content of phenolics was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent and expressed as ferulic acid equivalents (FAE). The antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions was evaluated using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence, and iron(II) chelation activity. The bound phenolic content in the bran fraction was 11.3 +/- 0.13 and 12.2 +/- 0.15 mg FAE/g defatted material for hard and soft wheats, respectively. The corresponding values for flour were 0.33 +/- 0.01 and 0.46 +/- 0.02 mg FAE/g defatted sample. The bound phenolic content of hard and soft whole wheats was 2.1 (+/-0.004 or +/-0.005) mg FAE/g defatted material. The free phenolic content ranged from 0.14 +/- 0.004 to 0.98 +/- 0.05 mg FAE/g defatted milling fractions of hard and soft wheats examined. The contribution of bound phenolics to the total phenolic content was significantly higher than that of free and esterified fractions. In wheat, phenolic compounds were concentrated mainly in the bran tissues. In the numerous in vitro antioxidant assays carried out, the bound phenolic fraction demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than free and esterified phenolics. Thus, inclusion of bound phenolics in studies related to quantification and antioxidant activity evaluation of grains and cereals is essential.

  14. DFT Study on the Effect of Gallic Acid on Adsorption of Phenol by Resin%DFT法研究没食子酸对树脂吸附苯酚的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海艳; 陈辛; 王坚; 殷明星; 张倩

    2013-01-01

    用密度泛函B3LYP/6-311++G*理论,对气相和水相中(PCM溶剂模型应用于水相计算)所研究物种进行全自由度优化,通过研究没食子酸与水及苯酚分子间的氢键作用,探讨了没食子酸与水或苯酚分子间的作用力,进而研究了树脂对没食子酸、苯酚吸附的影响及没食子酸对树脂吸附苯酚的影响.计算结果显示,没食子酸的羟基能与水分子形成双聚氢键,显示出极强的亲水性,且与苯酚分子亦可形成三氢键,与苯酚之间有一定的作用力;没食子酸的存在影响树脂吸附苯酚;溶剂化效应对树脂吸附没食子酸和苯酚也具有一定的影响.%The molecular structures for DFT(Density Functional Theory) study were full optimized by the B3LYP method using the 6-311++G** basis set, in both the gaseous and aqueous phases, and the PCM(Polarizable Continuum Model) solvate theory model was employed for aqueous solution calculations. The hydrogen bonds, formed between the molecules of gallic acid and the molecules of water or phenol, were studied by DFT method, and then the effects on the adsorption of gallic acid and phenol by resin were discussed. The calculation results indicated that the hydroxyl group in gallic acid could form hydrogen bonds with water and phenol molecules, which led to a strong hydro-philicity of gallic acid and a little effect on adsorption of phenol by resin. Additional, the solvent effect influenced the adsorption of phenol and gallic acid by resin.

  15. Acrylamide formation in plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips influenced by different ripening stages: A correlation study with respect to reducing sugars, amino acids and phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ripening on the formation of acrylamide in deep fried plantain chips made from Nendran variety (Musa paradisiaca) was investigated. The precursors of acrylamide formation, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and ten major amino acids, were quantified during different stages of ripening using HPLC and correlated with acrylamide formation. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also estimated and correlated with acrylamide formation. Both glucose and fructose increased during ripening and demonstrated a positive correlation on formation of acrylamide (correlation coefficient of r=0.95 and 0.94 respectively (p0.05). The decreased levels of phenolic content during ripening of plantain were negatively correlated with acrylamide formation in the deep fried chips prepared. Thus the selection of proper ripening stage renders reduced formation of acrylamide in plantain chips to a reasonable extend.

  16. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  17. Plant derived and dietary phenolic antioxidants: anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Varela, Carla L; Costa, Saul C; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in-vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

  19. TLC analysis of some phenolic compounds in kombucha beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Black and green tea contains a wide range of natural phenolic compounds Flavanoids and their glycosides, catechins and the products of their condensation, and phenolic acids are the most important. Kombucha beverage is obtained by fermentation of tea fungus on black or green tea sweetened with sucrose. The aim of this paper was to investigate the composition of some phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin, gallic and tanic acid, and monitoring of their status during tea fungus fermentation. The method used for this study was thin layer chromatography with two different systems. The main phenolic compounds in the samples with green tea were catechin and epicatechin, and in the samples with black tea it was quercetin.

  20. Efficient Enzyme-Free Biomimetic Sensors for Natural Phenol Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Garcia, Luane; Ribeiro Souza, Aparecido; Sanz Lobón, Germán; Dos Santos, Wallans Torres Pio; Alecrim, Morgana Fernandes; Fontes Santiago, Mariângela; de Sotomayor, Rafael Luque Álvarez; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2016-08-13

    The development of sensors and biosensors based on copper enzymes and/or copper oxides for phenol sensing is disclosed in this work. The electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry using standard solutions of potassium ferrocyanide, phosphate/acetate buffers and representative natural phenols in a wide pH range (3.0 to 9.0). Among the natural phenols herein investigated, the highest sensitivity was observed for rutin, a powerful antioxidant widespread in functional foods and ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. The calibration curve for rutin performed at optimum pH (7.0) was linear in a broad concentration range, 1 to 120 µM (r = 0.99), showing detection limits of 0.4 µM. The optimized biomimetic sensor was also applied in total phenol determination in natural samples, exhibiting higher stability and sensitivity as well as distinct selectivity for antioxidant compounds.

  1. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiaoli [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail: xlchai@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Zhao Youcai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  2. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries.

  3. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  4. Study on the Extraction Process of Total Phenols from Cinnamon%桂皮总酚提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红玉; 郝教敏; 杨文平; 杨珍平; 张晓丽

    2016-01-01

    优选桂皮总酚的提取条件。以乙醇为提取剂,根据单因素试验和正交回归设计,分析了乙醇浓度、料液比、提取温度和提取时间对桂皮多酚提取率的影响并优化工艺参数。结果表明:桂皮总酚的最优提取条件为乙醇浓度65%,料液比1∶80,浸提温度80℃,浸提时间90 min,此时桂皮总酚提取率为75.05 mg/g,本研究结果为桂皮的开发利用提供了实验数据。%The condition of total phenols extracted from cinnamon is preferred through the experiment. The effects of four factors of ethanol concentration,ratio of solid to liquid,extraction temperature and extraction time on the extraction yield of cinnamon total phenols are investigated on the basis of single-factor experiment and orthogonal design with ethanol as extracting agent,and the extraction parameters are optimized.The results show that the optimal extraction conditions of total phenols from cinnamon are as follows:ethanol concentration of 6 5%, material and liquid ratio of 1∶80 (g/mL),extraction temperature of 80 ℃and extraction time of 90 min,under such conditions, the extraction yield of cinnamon total phenols is up to 75 .05 mg/g.The results could provide experi-mental data for the development and utilization of cinnamon.

  5. Phenolics from Kalanchoe marmorata Baker, Family Crassulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser Badawy Singab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In search of plants rich in phenolics in Egypt, Kalanchoe marmorata Baker was subjected to phytochemical study. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed its richness in phenolics. Fractionation of the lyophilized aqueous extract of the leaves of K. marmorata by different organic solvents successively resulted in the isolation and purification of five compounds from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction. These compounds namely; E1 isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E2 quercitin; E3 4′-methoxy-myricetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E4 Quercitin-3-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside and E5 protocatechuic-4′-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside, were identified by analysis of their spectral data including 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  6. Study on the growth rhythm by one-year-old cuttings of twelve varieties of Populus deltoides in Wuhan%武汉地区不同杨树品种扦插苗的物候与生长节律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭婵; 张亚东; 樊孝萍; 张新叶

    2013-01-01

    Phenological stage and annual growth dynamics of one-year-old stecklings of twelve varieties of Populus deltoides in Wuhan were studied.The results showed that there were differences in phenophase among these materials.The largest variation was found out with the bugs expanding stage from the variation coefficient, and the least difference was shown by the late abscission period.The growth rules of steckling height, ground diameter and leaf numbers were "S" type.Fast-growing period of these varieties was from mid-June to mid-August.%以12个不同杨树品种的1年生扦插苗为试验材料,对其在武汉地区的物候期和生长规律进行了动态测定.结果表明:各品种的物候期存在较大差异,以变异系数来看其中以芽膨大期差异最大,落叶末期差异最小;杨树扦插苗的苗高、地径以及叶片数的生长规律呈递增的变化趋势,符合“S”型生长曲线,杨树苗木的速生期在6月中旬到8月中旬左右.

  7. Sulfomethylated phenolic material useful in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, P.R.; Pardue, J.E.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a sulfomethylated alkyl phenol compound chosen from among the group consisting of sulfomethylated alkyl phenol, sulfomethylated alkylated bis-phenol, and sulfomethylated alkylated naphthol.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of 2-{(E)-[(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)imino]methyl}-4-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]phenol as a novel azo-azomethine dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Muhammet; Kurtoglu, Nurcan; Gümüşsu, Özkan; Tutak, Mustafa; McKee, Vickie; Karakaş, Duran; Kurtoglu, Mukerrem

    2013-12-01

    A novel dye, 2-{(E)-[(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)imino]methyl}-4-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]phenol dye was synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]benzaldehyde with 2-amino-4-methylphenol in methanol. The title dye was characterized by its melting point, elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. Molecular structure of the title dye was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. X-ray data showed that the dye crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with cell parameters a = 18.541(2) Å, b = 4.7091(5) Å, c = 20.586(2) Å, V = 1761.5(3) Å3 and Z = 4. The title dye adopts azo-enamine tautomer in the solid state. The molecules crystallises as dimers assembled by two molecules of methanol via intermolecular hydrogen bonding resulting in R64(18) hydrogen bonding motif. Additionally, there is an intramolecular keto-amine hydrogen bond (NH⋯O) with a distance of 2.6172(17) Å. Optimized structures of the three possible tautomers of the compound were obtained using B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p), 6-31G and 3-21G basis sets in the gas phase. Thermal properties of the prepared dye were examined by thermogravimetric analysis and results indicated that the framework of the dye is stable up to 172 °C. Furthermore, the pathogenic activities of the synthesized dye were tested in vitro against the sensitive organisms, Bacillus cereous (ATCC 33019) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) as gram positive bacteria, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883) as gram negative bacteria and the results are discussed. The results indicated that the prepared dye had antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and Bacillus cereuss), but it exhibited no activity against gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and K. pneumoniae).

  9. Model-free Kinetic Study of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Cure%酚醛树脂固化的非模型拟合动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晓川; 曾黎明; 张超; 陈雷

    2012-01-01

    The curing behavior of novolac type phenolic resin was studied through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using model-free (isoconversion) kinetic methods. In the model-free kinetic study, Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods were used to calculate the curing activation energy. The dependence curve of activation energy on conversion and the piecewise model fitting results both displayed a change in the kinetic reaction mechanism from the autocatalytic to n-order regime. According to the isothermal prediction results, the model-free kinetic methods show excellent prediction ability. Also, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods were found to show similar results in analyzing the curing behavior of this novolac resin.%根据不等温差示扫描量热曲线,采用非模型拟合动力学法对酚醛树脂的固化动力学进行了研究.基于Friedman,Flynn-Wall-Ozawa和Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose 3种模型计算得到了固化速率及活化能与固化度的关系,进而对此树脂体系的固化反应阶段及固化行为进行了分析,并对等温固化行为进行预测.结果表明,固化反应逐渐从自催化反应机理转变为n阶反应机理,与模型拟合法研究的结果基本吻合.对Friedman,Flynn-Wall-Ozawa,Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose 3种动力学方法进行比较发现,3种方法都显示了较好的拟合结果.其中,Flynn-Wall-Ozawa和Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose两种方法的结果十分接近,并能对固化行为进行准确地反映.

  10. Complex of myoglobin with phenol bound in a proximal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Wang, Chunxue; Celeste, Lesa R; Lovelace, Leslie L; Sun, Shenfang; Dawson, John H; Lebioda, Lukasz

    2012-12-01

    Sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) has weak dehaloperoxidase activity and catalyzes the peroxidative dehalogenation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) to 2,6-dichloroquinone. Crystals of Mb and of its more active G65T variant were used to study the binding of TCP, 4-iodophenol (4-IP) and phenol. The structures of crystals soaked overnight in a 10 mM solution of phenol revealed that a phenol molecule binds in the proximal cavity, forming a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl of Tyr146 and hydrophobic contacts which include interactions with Cβ and Cγ of the proximal histidine His93. The phenol position corresponds to the strongest xenon binding site, Xe1. It appears that the ligand enters the proximal cavity through a gate formed by the flexible loops 79-86 and 93-103. TCP and 4-IP do not bind to Mb in this manner under similar conditions; however, it appears to be likely that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was used at a concentration of 0.8 M to facilitate 4-IP dissolution, binds in the phenol/Xe1 binding site. In this structure, a water molecule coordinated to the heme iron was replaced by an oxygen molecule, reflecting the reduction of the heme. Crystals of Mb and G65T Mb soaked for 5-10 min did not show bound phenol. Kinetic studies of TCP dechlorination showed that phenol has a dual effect: it acts as a competitive inhibitor that is likely to interfere with TCP binding at the heme edge and as a weak activator, likely through binding in the proximal cavity. The lack of phenol bound at the heme edge in the crystal structures suggests that its inhibitory binding only takes place when the heme is activated by hydrogen peroxide.

  11. Rapid degradation of phenol by ultrasound-dispersed nano-metallic particles (NMPs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide: A possible mechanism for phenol degradation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Chang, Yoon-Young

    2016-06-15

    The present study was carried out to investigate the degradation of phenol by ultrasonically dispersed nano-metallic particles (NMPs) in an aqueous solution of phenol. Leaching liquor from automobile shredder residue (ASR) was used to obtain the NMPs. The prepared NMPs were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images show that the diameters of the NMPs were less than 50 nm. An SEM-EDX elemental analysis reveals that Fe was the most commonly found element (weight %) in the NMPs. The FTIR and XRD peaks indicate the presence of metals oxides on the surfaces of the NMPs. The results of the XPS analysis indicate that various elements (e.g., C, O, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) are present on the surfaces of the NMPs. The effects of the NMP dose, the initial solution pH, and of different concentrations of phenol and H2O2 on the phenol degradation characteristics were evaluated. The results of this study demonstrate that phenol degradation can be improved by increasing the amount of NMPs, whereas it is reduced with an increase in the phenol concentration. The degradation of phenol by ultrasonically dispersed NMPs followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. The probable mechanism of phenol degradation by ultrasonically dispersed NMPs was the oxidation of phenol caused by the hydroxyl radicals produced during the reaction between H2O2 and the NMPs during the ultrasonication process.

  12. Phenol removal from refinery wastewater by mutant recombinant horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Sedigheh; Dabirmanesh, Bahareh; Khajeh, Khosro

    2014-01-01

    Application of mutated recombinant horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for phenol removal from refinery effluents is reported. Recombinant HRP produced in Escherichia coli suffers from the disadvantage of lacking glycosylation, which affects its catalytic efficiency and stability toward inactivating parameters such as increased temperature and enhanced amounts of hydrogen peroxide. In the present study, the previously reported variant (in which Asn268 was substituted with Asp, N268D) with improved stability characteristics and catalytic efficiency was used to remove phenol from a petroleum refinery effluent. The presence and removal of phenol was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography; the precipitated oxidized phenol was also observed and removed from the sample by centrifugation. Results showed that the N268D variant can remove 61%, 67%, and 81% of phenol from effluent in 1, 2, and 16 H, respectively. By exploiting the N268D mutant, removal of 50% phenol could be achieved in 42 Min, which was more than 22 times less than the treatment time required by native recombinant enzyme.

  13. INHIBITION KINETICS DURING THE OXIDATION OF BINARY MIXTURES OF PHENOL WITH CATECHOL, RESORCINOL AND HYDROQUINONE BY PHENOL ACCLIMATED ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Lobo

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work the aerobic degradation of phenol (PH, catechol (CA, resorcinol (RE, hydroquinone (HY and of the binary mixtures PH+CA, PH+RE, PH+HY by phenol-acclimated activated sludge was studied. Single substrate experiments show a Haldane-type dependence of the respiration rate on PH, RE and HY, while CA corresponded to the Monod model. Binary substrate experiments demonstrated that the presence of a second substrate only affected the kinetics, but not the stoichiometry of the oxidation of the compounds tested. While CA inhibited the oxidation of PH, PH inhibited the oxidation of RE and HY. A mathematical model was developed to represent the aerobic biodegradation of the phenolic compounds tested. The agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data indicates that the proposed model can be useful for predicting substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations in bioreactors treating phenolic wastewaters.

  14. Removal of cadmium by bioflocculant produced by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia using phenol-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honggao; Zhong, Chunying; Berkhouse, Hudson; Zhang, Youlang; Lv, Yao; Lu, Wanyu; Yang, Yongbing; Zhou, Jiangang

    2016-07-01

    Bioflocculants have been applied in numerous applications including heavy metals removal. A major bottleneck for commercial application of bioflocculant is its high production cost. Phenol-containing wastewater are abundantly available. However, the toxic phenol inhibited the microbial activities in the subsequent fermentation processes. Consequently, strains that can secrete phenol-degrading enzymes and simultaneously produce bioflocculants through directly degrading the phenol are of academic and practical interests. A phenol-degrading strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ZZC-06, which can produce the bioflocculant MBF-06 using phenol-containing wastewater, was isolated in this study. The effects of culture conditions including initial pH, dissolved oxygen, phenol concentration, inoculum size, and temperature on MBF-06 production were analyzed. The experimental results showed that over 90% flocculating activity was achieved when the phenol was used as a carbon source and 4.99 g/L of MBF-06 was achieved under the optimized condition: 2.0% dissolved oxygen, 800 mg/L phenol concentration, 10% inoculum size, an initial pH of 6.0, and a temperature of 30 °C. The bioflocculant MBF-06 contained 71.2% polysaccharides and 27.9% proteins. The feasibility of cadmium removal using MBF-06 was evaluated. The highest flocculating efficiency for cadmium was 81.43%. This study shows for the first time that Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ZZC-06 can directly convert phenol into a bioflocculant, which can be used to effectively remove cadmium.

  15. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeasts from wastewater in the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Maryam; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this study, the phenol-degrading yeast from environmental samples (soil and wastewater) was isolated from the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman. Then total heterotrophic yeasts were counted. The soil samples had higher rates of yeast degrader, in comparison to wastewater samples. After three passages, four yeasts (K1, K2, K7 and K11) that had the highest growth rate were selected for further study. Also, these yeasts were able to remove phenol measured by Gibbs reagent. The effect of four different concentrations of phenol (50, 125, 200 and 275) mgL(-1) was measured and three degradation patterns in these yeasts were observed. The hydrophobicity and emulsification activity were measured in all eleven yeasts. Finally, strong yeasts in phenol degrading yeasts were identified by molecular method using amplification of 18S rRNA gene region. The sequencing results showed that these isolated yeasts belonged to Candida tropicalis strain K1, Pichia guilliermondii strain K2, Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain K7 and C. tropicalis strain K11.

  16. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeasts from wastewater in the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this study, the phenol-degrading yeast from environmental samples (soil and wastewater was isolated from the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman. Then total heterotrophic yeasts were counted. The soil samples had higher rates of yeast degrader, in comparison to wastewater samples. After three passages, four yeasts (K1, K2, K7 and K11 that had the highest growth rate were selected for further study. Also, these yeasts were able to remove phenol measured by Gibbs reagent. The effect of four different concentrations of phenol (50, 125, 200 and 275 mg L−1 was measured and three degradation patterns in these yeasts were observed. The hydrophobicity and emulsification activity were measured in all eleven yeasts. Finally, strong yeasts in phenol degrading yeasts were identified by molecular method using amplification of 18S rRNA gene region. The sequencing results showed that these isolated yeasts belonged to Candida tropicalis strain K1, Pichia guilliermondii strain K2, Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain K7 and C. tropicalis strain K11.

  17. Changes in phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacities in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Miller) during three edible maturity stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), individual phenolic compound content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of four phenolic fractions (free, esterified, glycosided and insoluble-bound) fro...

  18. Effect of Bioprocessing on the In Vitro Colonic Microbial Metabolism of Phenolic Acids from Rye Bran Fortified Breads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koistinen, Ville M; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati

    2017-01-01

    Cereal bran is an important source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids. We aimed to study the phenolic acid metabolism of native and bioprocessed rye bran fortified refined wheat bread and to elucidate the microbial metabolic route of phenolic acids. After incubation ...

  19. Study on Curing Kinetics for Bisoxazoline-Modified Phenolic Resin%二恶唑啉改性酚醛树脂固化动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉静; 邹文俊; 彭进

    2015-01-01

    The non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) program was used to study the curing phenomenon of PF2828(cured by hexamethylenetetramine) and the bisoxazoline(1,3–PBO) modified phenolic resin(PF) (mass ratio of 1,3–PBO and PF is 60∶40)of different amount of α,α–dibromo-p-xylene (mass fraction is 0.5 phr,1.5 phr). The Kissinger method and Ozawa method were used to research the curing kinetics of them,the curing reaction activation energy was calculated. The results show that the use of bisoxazoline and α,α–Dibromo-p-xylene can accelerate the curing reaction and reduce the curing reaction activation energy. The curing reaction is the most easy when the amount of catalyst is 1.5 phr.%采用非等温差示扫描量热(DSC)法探讨了固化剂为六次甲基四胺的酚醛树脂(PF2828)和二恶唑啉(1,3–PBO)固化酚醛树脂(PF)(1,3–PBO 与 PF 质量比为40∶60)在不同量α,α–二溴对二甲苯(质量份数分别为0.5份,1.5份)作用下的固化行为,运用 Kissinger 法和 Ozawa 方法对其固化动力学进行研究,得到了固化反应活化能。结果表明,二恶唑啉和催化剂α,α–二溴对二甲苯的使用,可以加速 PF 的固化反应,降低了 PF 固化反应的活化能;当催化剂用量为1.5份时,最易于改性 PF 固化反应的进行。

  20. Studies on phenolic acid constituents of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits%无梗五加果酚酸类化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖扬; 王立波; 金刚; 孙锐; 胡希; 杨春娟

    2012-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the fruits from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus,the seperation was carried out on the column chromatography of silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative liquid chro-matography. Their structures were elucidated on basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Eight phenolic acid compounds were isolated and identified as tyrosol(1) ,p-hydrocoumaric arid(2),protocate-chuic aldehyde(3) ,caffeic acid(4) ,4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone(5) ,gallic acid(6) ,4-hydroxy-benzoic acid(7), pyrocatechol (8). Compound 5 was isolated from the family of Araliaceae for the first time. Compound 2 was isolated from Acanthopanax genus for the first time, and compounds 1,7,8 were isolated from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus for the first time.%目的 对五加科五加属植物无梗五加果的化学成分进行研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱法、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱法、ODS柱色谱法以及制备液相色谱法对无梗五加果的化学成分进行分离,根据化合物的理化性质及波谱数据鉴定其结构.结果 分离得到8个已知的酚酸类化合物,分别为对羟基苯乙醇( tyrosol,1)、对羟基苯丙酸(p-hydrocoumaric acid,2)、原儿茶醛(protocatechuic aldehyde,3)、咖啡酸(caffeic acid,4)、4-(3,4-二羟基苯基)-2-丁酮[4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone,5]、没食子酸(gallic acid,6)、对羟基苯甲酸(4-hydroxybenzoic acid,7)、邻苯二酚(pyrocatechol,8).结论 化合物5为首次从五加科植物中分离得到,化合物2为首次从五加属植物中分离得到,化合物1、7、8为从该植物中首次分离得到.

  1. Twelve tips for teaching medical students with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sebastian Charles Keith; Anderson, John Leeds

    2017-07-01

    Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty. As a result of SS' own experiences as a medical student with dyslexia, we have been researching and teaching on this topic for the past two years. Here, we present twelve tips for teaching medical students with dyslexia. These are gathered from our personal experiences and research, discussions with other educators, and wider literature on the topic. This article aims to shed some light on dyslexia, and also to make practical suggestions. Teaching students with dyslexia should not be a daunting experience. Small changes to existing methods, at minor effort, can make a difference - for example, adding pastel colors to slide backgrounds or avoiding Serif fonts. These tips can help educators gain more insight into dyslexia and incorporate small, beneficial adaptations into their teaching.

  2. Antibacterial activities of extracts from twelve Centaurea species from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeli Yener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Centaurea (Asteraceae have been used in traditional plant-based medicine. The methanol extracts of twelve Centaurea species, of which five are endemic to Turkey flora, were screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the microdilution method and the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC of the extracts were determined. C. cariensis subsp. microlepis exhibited an antimicrobial effect on all tested microorganisms. The extracts from eight Centaurea species (C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis, C. kotschyi var. kotschyi, C. solstitialis subsp. solstitialis, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei and C. virgata possessed antibacterial activity against several of the tested microorganisms.

  3. Twelve tips on how to compile a medical educator's portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Claudia Lucy; Wilson, Anthony; Agius, Steven

    2017-09-17

    Medical education is an expanding area of specialist interest for medical professionals. Whilst most doctors will be familiar with the compilation of clinical portfolios for scrutiny of their clinical practice and provision of public accountability, teaching portfolios used specifically to gather and demonstrate medical education activity remain uncommon in many non-academic settings. For aspiring and early career medical educators in particular, their value should not be underestimated. Such a medical educator's portfolio (MEP) is a unique compendium of evidence that is invaluable for appraisal, revalidation, and promotion. It can stimulate and provide direction for professional development, and is a rich source for personal reflection and learning. We recommend that all new and aspiring medical educators prepare an MEP, and suggest twelve tips on how to skillfully compile one.

  4. Spectroscopy of twelve Type Ia supernovae at intermediate redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Pain, R; Walton, N A; Amanullah, R; Astier, Pierre; Ellis, Richard S; Fabbro, S; Goobar, A; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Irwin, M J; McMahon, R M; Mendez, J M; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Sainton, G; Schahmaneche, K; Stanishev, V

    2005-01-01

    We present spectra of twelve Type Ia supernovae obtained in 1999 at the William Herschel Telescope and the Nordic Optical Telescope during a search for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) at intermediate redshift. The spectra range from z=0.178 to z=0.493, including five high signal-to-noise ratio SN Ia spectra in the still largely unexplored range 0.15 < z < 0.3. Most of the spectra were obtained before or around restframe B-band maximum light. None of them shows the peculiar spectral features found in low-redshift over- or under-luminous SN Ia. Expansion velocities of characteristic spectral absorption features such as SiII at 6355 angs., SII at 5640 angs. and CaII at 3945 angs. are found consistent with their low-z SN Ia counterparts.

  5. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  6. Phenolic Compounds from Allium schoenoprasum, Tragopogon pratensis and Rumex acetosa and Their Antiproliferative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Saha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that phenolic compounds have antiproliferative and tumour arresting effects. The aim of this original study was to investigate the content of phenolic compounds (PhC in flowers of Allium schoenoprasum (chive, Tragopogon pratensis (meadow salsify and Rumex acetosa (common sorrel and their effect on proliferation of HaCaT cells. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated in vitro using the following concentrations of phenolic compounds in cultivation medium: 100, 75, 50 and 25 µg/mL. Phenolic composition was also determined by HPLC. The results indicate that even low concentrations of these flowers’ phenolic compounds inhibited cell proliferation significantly and the possible use of the studied herb’s flowers as sources of active phenolic compounds for human nutrition.

  7. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  8. Gas phase plasma impact on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zoran; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Kljusurić, Jasenka Gajdoš; Jambrak, Anet Režek; Zorić, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of gas phase plasma on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy combined with partial least squares for monitoring the stability of phenolic compounds during plasma treatment was explored, too. Experiments are designed to investigate the effect of plasma operating conditions (treatment time 3, 5, 7 min; sample volume 3, 4, 5 cm(3); gas flow 0.75, 1, 1.25 dm(3) min(-1)) on phenolic compounds and compared to pasteurized and untreated pomegranate juice. Pasteurization and plasma treatment resulted in total phenolic content increasing by 29.55% and 33.03%, respectively. Principal component analysis and sensitivity analysis outputted the optimal treatment design with plasma that could match the pasteurized sample concerning the phenolic stability (5 min/4 cm(3)/0.75 dm(3) min(-1)). Obtained results demonstrate the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy that can be successfully used to evaluate the quality of pomegranate juice upon plasma treatment considering the phenolic compounds.

  9. Phenolic Glucosides from Gentiana piasezkii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Quan-Xiang; SHI,Yan-Ping; YANG,Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) contains about 400 species, which distribute almost all over the world. Some species have been investigated on phytochemistry and they could be characterized by the presence of some secoiridoid glucosides (bitter principles), flavone-C-glucosides and xanthone aglycones and glucosides,[1] but nothing is known, up to now, about the chemical constitutents of Gentiana piasezkii Maxim. Members of the genus Gentiana have been used as traditional Chinese herbal medicines to treat hepatitis.[2] In order to find active compounds as lead molecule for medicine, we have studied on constituents of Gentiana piasezkii Maxim and found two new natural occurring,6'-O-(4-hydroxy-veratroyloxy)-arbutin (1) and luteolin 7-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamoyl)-8-C-glucoside (2) from n-BuOH soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC). So we describe herein the structures of two new phenolic glucosides.

  10. Antioxidant enzymes are induced by phenol in the marine microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, P L G; Marques, L G; Colepicolo, P

    2015-06-01

    Knowing the impacts of different anthropogenic activities on ecosystems promotes preservation of aquatic organisms. Aiming to facilitate the identification of polluted or contaminated areas, the study of microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum in phenol-containing medium comprises the determination of toxic and metabolic phenol effects, featuring a possible use of this microorganism as bioindicator for this pollutant. Marine microalga L. polyedrum exposure to phenol increases superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The 20% and 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC20 and IC50) of cells exposed to phenol were 40 μmol L(-1) and 120 μmol L(-1), respectively. Phenol biodegradation by L. polyedrum was 0.02 μmol h(-1)cell(-1), and its biotransformation was catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST), phenol hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dihydroxygenase metabolic pathways. Phenol exposure produced the metabolites 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde acid, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol), and 2-oxo-4-pentenoic acid; also, it induced the activity of key antioxidant biomarker enzymes SOD and CAT by three folds compared to that in the controls. Further, phenol decreased the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG), highlighting the effective glutathione oxidation in L. polyedrum. Overall, our results suggest that phenol alters microalga growth conditions and microalgae are sensitive bioindicators to pollution by phenol in marine environments.

  11. Biofilm coupled with UV irradiation for phenol degradation and change of its community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Siqing; Yan, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yongming

    2011-06-01

    The extensive use of phenol compounds and the inability to remove these compounds during wastewater treatment have resulted in the widespread occurrence of phenols in the natural environment. Phenols have been linked to serious risks to human and environmental health. Hence, the need to develop technologies that can effectively remove phenols from wastewater and source waters is a pressing challenge. In this study, light ceramic particles were immersed in activated sludge acclimated to degrade phenol, and microorganisms were allowed to attach to the particles surface to form biofilm. Then the ceramic particles with biofilm were moved into the photolytic circulating-bed biofilm reactor made of quartz glass, which was used for the degradation of phenol by three protocols: photolysis with UV light alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and the two mechanisms operating simultaneously (photobiodegradation, P&B). The experimental results indicated that phenol removal rate was quickest by B experiment. However, P&B experiment gave more complete mineralization of phenol than that by other protocols. During P&B experiment, the microorganisms grown on porous ceramic carrier still kept the bioactivity degrading phenol, even under UV light irradiation. However, the dominant members of the bacterial community changed dramatically after the intimately coupled photobiodegradation, according to molecular biological analysis to the biofilm. Whereas Beijerinckia sp. was the dominant strain in the inoculum, it was replaced by Thauera sp. MZ1T that played a main role on degrading phenol during P&B experiment.

  12. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of different parts of pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouia Boumaiza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in almost all higher plants and are present in different tissues. The quality and quantity of phenolics are used as criteria for variety identification. The present study has been planned to determine the phenolic composition of Pistacia vera.Total phenolic content and concentration of flavonoids of eight different extracts, from the floral buds and leaves of Pistacia vera. (Anacardiaceae were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The total phenolic content ranged from 401.64 to 513.77 (mg GAE/g DW. The total flavonoid concentrations varied from 8.28 to 67.94 mg CE/g.Antioxidant activity was assessed by three methods: DPPH°+, β-carotene and ABTS and determined respectively as IC50 (mg/mL, CAA and PI (%, all extract have shown to be endowed by a high antioxidant activity similar to that of BHT.Ethanolic extract of male floral buds showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid concentration and the strongest antioxidant activity. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plant extracts.Phenolic compounds were investigated by LTQ Orbitrap LC-MS analysis and revealed 17compounds split into 5 groups: Abscisic acids, phenolic acids and their derivatives, flavonols, flavanones, flavones, flavanols. The high contents of phenolic compounds indicated that these last contribute to the antioxidant activity. The Pistacia vera can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources of antioxidants with high value.

  13. Phenolics Content and Antioxidant Activity of Tartary Buckwheat from Different Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two tartary buckwheat samples (Xingku No.2 and Diqing grown at three locations were analyzed for free and bound phenolic content and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the relative contributions of variety and growing environment to phenolic content and antioxidant properties were determined, as well as correlations of these properties to growing conditions. The total phenolic contents varied from 5,150 to 9,660 μmol of gallic acid equivalents per 100 gram of dry weight (DW of tartary buckwheat and the free phenolics accounted for 94% to 99%. Rutin content was in the range from 518.54 to 1,447.87 mg per 100 gram of DW of tartary buckwheat. p-Hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids were the prominent phenolic acids and other phenolics, including p-coumaric, gallic, caffeic, vanillic and syringic acids were also detected. Tartary buckwheat exhibited higher DPPH· and ABTS·+ scavenging activities and was more effective at preventing the bleaching of β-carotene in comparison with reference antioxidant and plant phenolics constituents. Additionally, growing conditions and the interaction between variety and environment may have more contribution than variety to individual phenolics and antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat. Environmental parameters such as higher altitudes may also have an increasing effect on rutin and phenolic acids. This study suggests that tartary buckwheat has potential health benefits because of its high phenolic content and antioxidant properties. These components could also be enhanced by optimizing the growing conditions of a selected variety.

  14. Biocatalytic trifluoromethylation of unprotected phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert C.; Busto, Eduardo; Richter, Nina; Resch, Verena; Houk, Kendall N.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Organofluorine compounds have become important building blocks for a broad range of advanced materials, polymers, agrochemicals, and increasingly for pharmaceuticals. Despite tremendous progress within the area of fluorination chemistry, methods for the direct introduction of fluoroalkyl-groups into organic molecules without prefunctionalization are still highly desired. Here we present a concept for the introduction of the trifluoromethyl group into unprotected phenols by employing a biocatalyst (laccase), tBuOOH, and either the Langlois' reagent or Baran's zinc sulfinate. The method relies on the recombination of two radical species, namely, the phenol radical cation generated directly by the laccase and the CF3-radical. Various functional groups such as ketone, ester, aldehyde, ether and nitrile are tolerated. This laccase-catalysed trifluoromethylation proceeds under mild conditions and allows accessing trifluoromethyl-substituted phenols that were not available by classical methods.

  15. Effect of maturity on phenolics (phenolic acids and flavonoids) profile of strawberry cultivars and mulberry species from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5-53.3%, 491-1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83-327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9-54.0%, 201-2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110-1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages.

  16. Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mahmood

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%, total phenolics (TPC and total flavonoids (TFC ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%, total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW, the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages.

  17. DETECTION OF PHENOL DEGRADING BACTERIA AND PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Movahedyan ، H. Khorsandi ، R. Salehi ، M. Nikaeen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is one of the organic pollutants in various industrial wastewaters especially petrochemical and oil refining. Biological treatment is one of the considerable choices for removing of phenol present in these wastewaters. Identification of effective microbial species is considered as one of the important priorities for production of the biomass in order to achieve desirable kinetic of biological reactions. Basic purpose of this research is identification of phenol-degrading Pseudomonas Putida in activated sludge by polymerase chain reaction (PCR that has high speed and specificity. In this research, 10 various colonies of phenol-degrading bacteria were isolated from municipal activated sludge and the rate of phenol removal and growth rate of these bacteria were assessed in different concentrations of phenol (200 – 900 mg/L. Confirmation of the largest subunit of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (LmPH gene and gene coding the N fragment in Pseudomonas Putida-derived methyl phenol operon (DmpN gene through PCR were used for general identification of phenol-degrading bacteria and Pseudomonas Putida, respectively. Presence of a 600 bp (base pairs bond in all of isolated strains indicated that they contain phenol hydroxylase gene. 6 of 10 isolated bacteria were Pseudomonas Putida because they produced a 199 bp PCR product by DmpN primers. According to PCR results in this study, the best phenol-degrading bacteria that can utilize 500 – 600 mg/L phenol completely after 48 hours incubation, belong to Pseudomonas Putida strains. It is clear that use of isolated bacteria can lead to considerable decrease of treatment time as well as promotion of phenol removal rate.

  18. Organochalcogen substituents in phenolic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, Riccardo; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Valgimigli, Luca; Johansson, Henrik; Engman, Lars

    2010-05-21

    Little is known about the ED/EW character of organochalcogen substituents and their contribution to the O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) in phenolic compounds. A series of ortho- and para-(S,Se,Te)R-substituted phenols were prepared and investigated by EPR, IR, and computational methods. Substituents lowered the O-H BDE by >3 kcal/mol in the para position, while the ortho-effect was modest due to hydrogen bonding ( approximately 3 kcal/mol) to the O-H group.

  19. Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Torres

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1, one flavanone: naringenin (2 and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE and total reacting equivalents (TRE.

  20. Study of the chemical composition of the resinous exudate isolated from Heliotropium sclerocarpum and evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the phenolic compounds and the resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Salina, Melissa; Rodilla, Jesús; Torres, René

    2009-11-12

    Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae) is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1), one flavanone: naringenin (2) and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE) and total reacting equivalents (TRE).

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Spectroscopic Studies of A Novel 2-[(E-[(2,4-dichlorophenylimino]methyl]phenol Schiff Base and Its Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Turky Shamkhy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Schiff base 2-{(E-[(2,4-dichlorophenylimino]methyl}phenol (LB was synthesized from the condensation reaction of 2,4-dichloroaniline with salicyladehyde in [1:1] ratio in the presence of glacial acetic acid as catalyst. Complexation reaction of this Schiff base with copper (II, cobalt (II as nitrate salts and with Rhodium (III as chloride salt to produce three coordinate metal complexes, with a Schiff base: Metal ion ratio of 2:1. These compounds have been characterized by a variety of physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The ligand and its metal complexes were expected to show an interesting bioactivity and cytotoxicity.

  2. CORRELATION AMONG PHENOLIC, TOXIC METALS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    The content of metals, total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activities of different plant extracts, used in .... Correlation among phenolic, content of toxic metals and antioxidant activity. Bull. Chem. ..... cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

  3. Lipid encapsulated phenolic compounds by fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound present in grain crops and lignocellulose biomass, was encapsulated with saturated triglycerides using a laboratory fluidizer. Stability of t...

  4. Modulation of Phenol Oxidation in Cofacial Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon Jun; Huynh, Michael; Halbach, Robert L; Stubbe, JoAnne; Nocera, Daniel G

    2015-09-23

    The presentation of two phenols on a xanthene backbone is akin to the tyrosine dyad (Y730 and Y731) of ribonucleotide reductase. X-ray crystallography reveals that the two phenol moieties are cofacially disposed at 4.35 Å. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that phenol oxidation is modulated within the dyad, which exhibits a splitting of one-electron waves with the second oxidation of the phenol dyad occurring at larger positive potential than that of a typical phenol. In contrast, a single phenol appended to a xanthene exhibits a two-electron process, consistent with reported oxidation pathways of phenols in acetonitrile. The perturbation of the phenol potential by stacking is reminiscent of a similar effect for guanines stacked within DNA base pairs.

  5. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  6. Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleusine coracana (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasu P. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: total seven phenolic acids and one flavonoid were separated from the species of Eleusine coracana (L.. The separated phenolics were characterized by various spectral techniques. The antioxidant capacity of all phenolics was determined by rancimat study of sunflower oil using control and standard drugs like Glipizide and Metformin. The stability period of sunflower oil was found to increase from 0.89 hr to 1.04 hr in presence of eight extracted ingredients of Eleusine coracana (L., which was compared with result of neat sunflower oil.

  7. Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Soto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sources of natural ingredients for cosmetics.

  8. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Abaza; Amani Taamalli; Houda Nsir; Mokhtar Zarrouk

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analyt...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  10. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  11. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  12. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas H.; Meredith A. Wilkes; Ali Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the pre...

  13. 电活化玻碳电极作为苯酚伏安传感器的研究%Study on Electro-Activated Glassy Carbon Electrode as A Voltammetric Sensor for Phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜海军

    2012-01-01

    玻碳电极在0.5 mol·L-1硫酸溶液中以恒电位法在+1.7 V(vs.Ag/AgCl)电位阳极氧化400 s得到电活化玻碳电极.采用循环伏安法和差分脉冲伏安法对苯酚在电活化玻碳电极上的电化学行为进行了研究.结果发现,在pH值7.0的磷酸盐缓冲溶液中,苯酚在0.75 V(vs.Ag/AgCl)处有一良好的氧化峰,在0.02~0.10 V·s-1范围内,其氧化峰电流与扫描速率呈良好线性关系,表明电极过程为受吸附控制的不可逆过程;氧化峰电流(Ip)与苯酚浓度在1×10-6~1×10-4 mol·L-1范围内呈良好的线性关系(R=0.9852),检出限为6.0×10-7 mol·L-1 (S/N=3).并应用此法分析了自来水中苯酚的含量.%Electrochemical behavior of phenol at electro-activated glassy carbon electrode(EGCE) was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammefry(DPV). The glassy carbon electrode(GCE) was activated in 0. 5 mol · L-1H2SO4 solution for 400 s by potentiostatic method at the potential +1. 7 V(vs. Ag/AgCl). In a PB solution with pH value of 7. 0,a well defined oxidative peak of phenol was observed at 0. 75 V(vs. Ag/AgCl) with the activated electrode,the oxidation peak current was linear over the scanning speed in the range of 0. 02~0. 10 V ·s-1 .indicating the electrode process of phenol was irreversible and phenol controlled by adsorption. Experimental parameters were optimized and the correlation between peak current ( IP) and concentration was studied by DPV. Under the optimal conditions,the calibration curve showed a good linearity between the oxidation peak current(Ip) and phenol concentration in the range of 1 × 10-6-1 × 10-4 mol · L-1 (R = 0. 9852) with a detection limit of 6. 0× 10-7 mol ·L-1 (S/N = 3). The proposed method was used to determine phenol content in tap water samples.

  14. Phenol biodegradation using a repeated batch culture of Candida tropicalis in a multistage bubble column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ordaz, N; Ruiz-Lagunez, J C; Castañon-González, J H; Hernández-Manzano, E; Cristiani-Urbina, E; Galíndez-Mayer, J

    2001-01-01

    As in many other microorganisms, the growth rate of C. tropicalis is affected by phenol. Besides, when the yeast is aerobically cultivated in a medium containing phenol, using a bubble column, the yeast cell flotation phenomenon occurs, which makes the continuous operation of this type of reactor difficult. Therefore, a system of phenol degradation, which recycles the biomass separated by flotation, was devised in this work. In order to reduce the substrate toxicity observed at high phenol concentrations, the bubble column used in the biodegradation studies was fed in a semibatch mode. So, a semicontinuous system was implemented to treat effluents with relatively high concentrations (> 9,000 ppm) of phenol, by replacing periodically about 22% of the bioreactor operational volume. The phenol removal efficiencies obtained with this system were higher than 98.7%.

  15. Parameters effect on heterogeneous photocatalysed degradation of phenol in aqueous dispersion of TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KASHIF Naeem; OUYANG Feng

    2009-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic degradation of phenol selected as model compound of organic pollutant had been investigated in aqueous titanium dioxide (TiO2) dispersion under UV irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, phenol concentration, anions, metal ions, electron acceptors, and surfactants on the photocatalytic degradation of phenol were investigated. The degradation kinetics was determined by the change in phenol concentration employing UV-Vis spectrometry as a function of irradiation time. The degradation kinetics of phenol follows pseudo first-order kinetics. The results showed a significant dependence of the photocatalytic degradation of phenol on the functional parameters. The probable promising roles of the additives on the degradation process were discussed.

  16. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of phenol over TiO2/ACF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊彩梅; 闵延琴; 郝晓刚; 孙彦平; 李新军; 李芳柏

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of phenol in water were investigated in a cylindrical borosilicon glass photoreactor with a cooling water jacket using TiO2/ACF as photocatalyst. A 15W UV lamp(254nm) was used as central light source. The effects of the temperature and initial concentration of phenol solution on adsorption and photocatalytic process were studied, and the comparison of adsorption, photolysis and photocatalysis was conducted. The results show that the classical model of Langmuir gives a good description of the adsorption of phenol on TiO2/ACF and low temperature can improve the adsorption of phenol on photocatalyst; increasing temperature can increase the photocatalytic degradation rate of phenol; and the adsorption enhances the photocatalytic removal of phenol.

  17. Phenol degradation in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor packed with low density support materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Sancinetti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study phenol degradation in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR packed with polymeric particulate supports (polystyrene - PS, polyethylene terephthalate - PET, and polyvinyl chloride - PVC. The reactors were operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 24 h. The influent phenol concentration in the AFBR varied from 100 to 400 mg L-1, resulting in phenol removal efficiencies of ~100%. The formation of extracellular polymeric substances yielded better results with the PVC particles; however, deformations in these particles proved detrimental to reactor operation. PS was found to be the best support for biomass attachment in an AFBR for phenol removal. The AFBR loaded with PS was operated to analyze the performance and stability for phenol removal at feed concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 mg L-1. The phenol removal efficiency ranged from 90-100%.

  18. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  19. Carbohydrate modified phenol-formaldehyde resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony H. Conner; Linda F. Lorenz

    1986-01-01

    For adhesive self-sufficiency, the wood industry needs new adhesive systems in which all or part of the petroleum-derived phenolic component is replaced by a renewable material without sacrificing high durability or ease of bonding. We tested the bonding of wood veneers, using phenolic resins in which part of the phenol-formaldehyde was replaced with carbohydrates. Our...

  20. 臭氧—生物活性炭纤维对苯酚的降解效果研究%STUDY ON PHENOL DEGRADATION BY O3-BACF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艳娥; 刘亚菲; 胡中华; 鲁超

    2012-01-01

    The ozone- biological activated carbon fiber (O3-BACF) technique formed by combination of oznnation and BACF was used to treat synthetic wastewater containing phenol. The removal of phenol were75%, 85%and 95% in the top, middle part and bottom of O3-BACF pole. The change of phenol during the treatment of O3-BACF was studied by HPLC, which resulted that the medial production of phenol was more. The change of delatation rate was also studied. During the process, a simple and periodic backwash was used to regenerate the used O3-BACF. The regeneration was accomplished in a short time of baclcwashing. Indeed, the capability of regenerated BACF was recovered almost completely after re-process in 1~2 days only.%采用臭氧-生物活性炭纤维(O3-BACF)工艺对含酚废水的降解效果进行了研究.在臭氧-生物活性炭纤维柱的上、中、下部位分别取样,苯酚的最佳去除率分别为75%、85%和95%左右,下部对苯酚的去除效果最好.采用高效液相分析仪( HPLC)分析了O3-BACF处理过程中苯酚的变化情况,发现经过O3-BACF处理过的苯酚废水产生的中间产物多于O3氧化的.在O3-BACF柱运行的不同时段,研究了膨胀率的变化情况.定期地对O3-BACF装置进行反冲洗再生,以恢复和保持生物活性炭纤维的活性.研究发现反冲洗再生所需的时间很短,再生后的炭柱运行1~2d后就基本恢复了原来的处理能力.

  1. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (beer aroma.

  2. Exploratory Studies on the in Vitro Anti-inflammatory Potential of Two Herbal Teas (Annona muricata L. and Jasminum grandiflorum L.), and Relation with Their Phenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Sá, Ivone; Pereira, David M; Gonçalves, Rui F; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia

    2017-06-01

    The need of new anti-inflammatory drugs has led to the search for safer and more potent molecules in distinct sources, such as natural products. This work aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extracts from two herbal teas (Annona muricata L. and Jasminum grandiflorum L.) in RAW 264.7 macrophages cells and in cell-free assays. Furthermore, the phenolic composition of both extracts and of their hydrolysates was characterized by HPLC-DAD, in order to establish possible relationships with the biological activity. In a general way, A. muricata displayed a stronger capacity to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production and the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ), displaying an IC50 value of 142 μg/ml against this enzyme. A deeper look at phenolic compounds revealed that aglycones had more capacity to inhibit NO and PLA2 than their corresponding glycosides, quercetin being clearly the most potent one (IC50  = 7.47 and 1.36 μm, respectively). In addition, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, at 1.56 μm, could also inhibit PLA2 (ca. 35%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of both herbal teas may be a preventive approach to inflammatory disorders. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. 雪莲果叶酚酸抗氧化能力的研究%Study on antioxidant activity of phenolic acid in yacon leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红惠; 彭光华

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidation activity of phenolic acid in yacon leaves was discussed by measuring their reducing ability and the ability of scavenging hydroxyl radicals( · OH) ,superoxide anion radicals( O2- · ) and 1, 1-diphenyl -2-picryl-hydrazyl radicals(DPPH·).The result indicated that the phenolic acid in yacon leaves had preferable antioxidation activity and the ability of scavenging free radicals, between effect of the scavenge radical and concentration of sample showed certain dose-effect relationships.%通过测定雪莲果叶酚酸提取物的还原能力和时化学模拟体系中羟自由基(·OH)、超氧阴离子自由基(O2-·)及二苯代苦味肼基自由基(DPPH·)的清除能力,研究了雪莲果叶酚酸提取物的体外抗氧化活性.结果表明:雪莲果叶酚酸提取物具有较强的抗氧化能力,对自由基有明显清除作用,并且随着雪莲果叶酚酸浓度的增加,其抗氧化能力有显著增强的趋势.

  4. Effects of process parameters on supercritical CO2 extraction of total phenols from strawberry (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits: An optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Seref; Alpak, Ilknur; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize total phenolic yield of Arbutus unedo fruits using supercritical fluid extraction. A Box-Behnken statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of various values of pressure (50-300 bar), temperature (30-80°C) and concentration of ethanol as co-solvent (0-20%) by CO2 flow rate of 15 g/min for 60 min. The most effective variable was co-solvent ratio (pextraction conditions were elicited as 60 bar, 48°C and 19.7% yielding 25.72 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) total phenols/g extract and 99.9% radical scavenging capacity, which were higher than the values obtained by conventional water (24.89 mg/g; 83.8%) and ethanol (15.12 mg/g; 95.8%) extractions demonstrating challenges as a green separation process with improved product properties for industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Study on microwave extraction of phenolic compounds in mushrooms%香菇中酚类物质的微波提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶桐; 贾有青

    2015-01-01

    采用微波提取技术对香菇中的酚类物质进行提取,并通过单因素和正交试验对其提取工艺进行了优化。结果表明,最佳提取工艺为:乙醇体积浓度60%,微波功率400 W,微波时间30 s,料液比1∶25,此条件下香菇中酚类物质的提取率为9.24%。%Microwave extraction technology was used to extract the phenolic compounds in mushrooms, and the extrac-tion process was optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiment. The results show that the optimal extraction pro-cess are 60%ethanol concentration, 400 W microwave power, 30 s microwave time, 1∶25material liquid ratio, the ex-traction rate of phenolic compounds is 9.24%.

  6. 迷迭香中酚类物质的微波辅助提取工艺研究%Study on extraction of phenols from rosemary(Rosmarinus ofifcinalis L.) by microwave-assisted extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱艳; 丁玉琴; 张木连; 陶霞; 林亲录

    2015-01-01

    Amicrowave–assisted extraction procedure was optimized for the extraction of total phenols from rosemary(Rosmarinus officinalisL.) leaf in order to achieve the highest efficiency in this study. Effects ofmaterial particle size,ethanolconcentration,temperature,extraction time and solid–liquid ratio on the yield of total phenols from rosemary leaf usingmicrowave–assisted extraction were investigated by single–factor experiment.And then the optimization ofmicrowave–assisted extraction was performed using orthogonal experimental design principle.The optimumconditions were volumeconcentration of 80% ethanol,extraction temperature of 55℃,extraction time of 30min,solid–liquid ratio of 1∶12(g/mL). Under theseconditions,the yield of the total phenols was 4.30%±0.124%.%为探寻迷迭香中酚类物质更有效的提取工艺,以迷迭香干叶为原料,采用微波辅助提取迷迭香中的酚类物质,通过单因素试验研究物料粒径大小、乙醇浓度、温度、提取时间和料液比对迷迭香酚类物质提取率的影响。在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验优化迷迭香酚类物质的微波提取工艺,得其最佳工艺为乙醇浓度80%、提取温度55℃、提取时间30 min、料液比1∶12(g/mL),此条件下,提取率可达到4.30%±0.124%。

  7. ESTUDIO DEL CONTENIDO DE FENOLES Y ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE DE GUAYABA EN DIFERENTES ESTADOS DE MADUREZ Study of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Guava in Different Stage of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO ANDRÉS OLAYA ZEA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudió el contenido de compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante y el contenido de vitamina C, en diferentes estados de madurez del fruto de tres variedades de guayaba de Colombia. Se trabajó con dos de alta producción silvopastoril, la regional roja (RR y la regional blanca (RB y una de carácter promisorio como es la variedad guavatá victoria (GV, todas provenientes de la región de la hoya del río Suárez (Santander, Colombia. Se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos y se evaluaron el contenido de fenoles libres, capacidades antioxidantes por ABTS•+ y DPPH•, FRAP, decoloración del ß- caroteno y el contenido de vitamina C por HPLC. La guayaba RB en estado maduro fue la variedad que mostró mayor valor de contenido de fenoles libres y mejores capacidades antioxidantes y la RR fue la que presentó mayor valor de contenido de vitamina C.This work studied the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and the content of vitamin C in different stages of maturity of the fruits of three varieties of guava in Colombia. We worked with two wild varieties, the regional red (RR and white regional (RB and a promising character as is the variety guavatá victory (GV, all from the Suárez River region (Santander, Colombia. Ethanol extracts were obtained and evaluated free phenol content, antioxidant capacity by ABTS•+ and DPPH•, FRAP, bleaching of ß-carotene and vitamin C by HPLC. The RB when ripe showed higher value of free phenolic content and antioxidant capacities and best RR was the one with higher value of vitamin C.

  8. A twelve-week randomized controlled study of the cognitive-behavioral Integrated Psychological Therapy program: positive effect on the social functioning of schizophrenic patients Estudo controlado randomizado de 12 semanas do programa cognitivo-comportamental IPT (Terapia Psicológica Integrada com efeito positivo sobre o funcionamento social em pacientes com esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Zimmer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of twelve weekly sessions of the cognitive-behavioral program originally known as the Integriertes Psychologisches Therapieprogramm für Schizophrene Patienten, designated the Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT program in English, on cognition, social adjustment and quality of life in schizophrenic outpatients, comparing it to the effect of treating such patients as usual. METHOD: Fifty-six adult outpatients (from 18 to 65 years of age with ICD-10-based diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to two different groups: active intervention (IPT group; and treatment as usual (control group. Outcome measures were quality of life (as determined using the WHOQOL-Bref, cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination and Word Recall Test, global functioning (DSM-IV Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, social functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and social adjustment (Social Adjustment Scale. RESULTS: The findings suggest that, in comparison with treatment as usual (control group, the twelve-session IPT program had a positive effect on several outcome measures: cognition in the domains of spatiotemporal orientation (p = 0.051 and memory (p = 0.031; overall social adjustment (p = 0.037, leisure/social life (p = 0.051 and family relations (p = 0.008; overall functioning (p = 0.000; social-occupational functioning (p = 0.000; and quality of life in the psychological domain (p = 0.021. CONCLUSIONS: The twelve-session cognitive-behavioral IPT intervention demonstrated superiority over treatment as usual in its effects on cognition, social adjustment and quality of life. Studies involving larger samples, longer follow-up periods and additional outcome measures are needed in order to assess the specific effects on dimensions of social functioning, cognitive functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo foi

  9. Trichlorinated phenols from Hypholoma elongatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swarts, H.J.; Verhagen, F.J.M.; Field, J.A.; Wijnberg, J.B.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Three trichlorinated phenols, 2,4,6-trichloro-3-methoxyphenol, 3,5,6-trichloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenol and 3,4,6-trichloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenol, were detected as novel metabolites in the ethyl acetate extract from the culture medium of the Basidiomycete, Hypholoma elongatum (strain WIJS94-28).

  10. Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotewold, Erich [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-26

    The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly

  11. Twelve novel Atm mutations identified in Chinese ataxia telangiectasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Yang, Lu; Wang, Jianchun; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Ying; Xia, Rongjun; Yuan, Xianhou; Yan, Mingshan

    2013-09-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized mainly by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, and immunodeficiency. This disease is caused by mutations of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) gene. More than 500 Atm mutations that are responsible for A-T have been identified so far. However, there have been very few A-T cases reported in China, and only two Chinese A-T patients have undergone Atm gene analysis. In order to systemically investigate A-T in China and map their Atm mutation spectrum, we recruited eight Chinese A-T patients from six unrelated families nationwide. Using direct sequencing of genomic DNA and the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, we identified twelve pathogenic Atm mutations, including one missense, four nonsense, five frameshift, one splicing, and one large genomic deletion. All the Atm mutations we identified were novel, and no homozygous mutation and founder-effect mutation were found. These results suggest that Atm mutations in Chinese populations are diverse and distinct largely from those in other ethnic areas.

  12. Sensitivity and growth of twelve Elatior begonia cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, R.A.; Nelson, P.V.

    1979-12-01

    Twelve cultivars of Elatior begonia (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.) were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 25 and 50 pphM. The 'Schwabenland' group, 'Whisper 'O' Pink', and 'Improved Krefeld Orange' were the most sensitive, whereas 'Ballerina', 'Mikkell Limelight', and 'Turo' were the least sensitive. 'Rennaisance', 'Heirloom' 'Nixe', and 'Fantasy' were intermediate in sensitivity. The dry weight of foliage (stems plus leaves) of 9 cultivars exposed to O/sub 3/ was significantly less than that of control plants. Ozone at 25 and 50 pphM inhibited flower growth (including peduncles) and development in 4 and 8 of the 12 cultivars, respectively. Differences in flower weight ranged from 43 to 105% of the control at 25 pphM and from 25 to 98% of the control at 50 pphM, depending on cultivar. 1 table.

  13. Twelve tips for designing and running longitudinal integrated clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel; Graves, Lisa; Berry, Sue; Myhre, Doug; Cummings, Beth-Ann; Konkin, Jill

    2013-12-01

    Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) involve learners spending an extended time in a clinical setting (or a variety of interlinked clinical settings) where their clinical learning opportunities are interwoven through continuities of patient contact and care, continuities of assessment and supervision, and continuities of clinical and cultural learning. Our twelve tips are grounded in the lived experiences of designing, implementing, maintaining, and evaluating LICs, and in the extant literature on LICs. We consider: general issues (anticipated benefits and challenges associated with starting and running an LIC); logistical issues (how long each longitudinal experience should last, where it will take place, the number of learners who can be accommodated); and integration issues (how the LIC interfaces with the rest of the program, and the need for evaluation that aligns with the dynamics of the LIC model). Although this paper is primarily aimed at those who are considering setting up an LIC in their own institutions or who are already running an LIC we also offer our recommendations as a reflection on the broader dynamics of medical education and on the priorities and issues we all face in designing and running educational programs.

  14. Effect of end of season water deficit on phenolic compounds in peanut genotypes with different levels of resistance to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aninbon, C; Jogloy, S; Vorasoot, N; Patanothai, A; Nuchadomrong, S; Senawong, T

    2016-04-01

    Terminal drought reduces pod yield and affected the phenolic content of leaves, stems and seed of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of end of season water deficit on phenolic content in drought tolerant and sensitive genotypes of peanuts. Five peanut genotypes were planted under two water regimes, field capacity and 1/3 available water. Phenolic content was analyzed in seeds, leaves, and stems. The results revealed that terminal drought decreased phenolic content in seeds of both tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Phenolic content in leaves and stems increased under terminal drought stress in both years. This study provides basic information on changes in phenolic content in several parts of peanut plants when subjected to drought stress. Future studies to define the effect of terminal drought stress on specific phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in peanut are warranted.

  15. Study on the Decomposition of Phenol with the Method of ClO2/UV Oxidization%ClO2/UV氧化法降解苯酚的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹福; 朱莉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The method of the phenol in wastewater was decomposed with the UV photocatalytic method combined with chlorine dioxide( ClO2 ) treatment was studied. [ Method] The effect of the adding amount of ClO2 as oxidant, the irradiation time of UV as assistance,the pH of the wastewater and other factors on the decomposition of phenol was experimented. [ Result ] The degradation rate of phenol in wastewater could reach up to 99.5% while the pH was 8, the adding amount of ClO2 was 140 mg/L and the irradiation time of UV was 30 minutes. Under the same condition, the combination of ClO2 and UV was much better and faster than that of single use of ClO2 or UV. [ Conclusion] The method of ClO2/UV oxidization in treatment of the wastewater containing phenol was effective.%[目的]研究UV光催化联合CIO降解水溶液中苯酚的方法.[方法]以模拟苯酚废水为处理对象,CIO为氧化剂,UV作为辅助手段,考察CIO/UV氧化处理苯酚废水工艺中CIO投加量、UV辐照时闻、废水pH等因素对苯酚处理效果的影响.[结果]处理质量浓度为100 mg/L的苯酚废水.pH在8左右,CIO投加量为140 mg/L,UV辐照时间为30 min的条件下,处理效果最好,苯酚去除率高达99.6%.并且在相同的处理条件下,CIO/UV氧化苯酚的效率明显高于单-CIO或UV法,同时大大缩短了反应时间.[结论]CIO/UV氧化法是一种行之有效的含酚废水的处理方法.

  16. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L. Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abaza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves.

  17. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  18. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Leila; Taamalli, Amani; Nsir, Houda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2015-11-03

    Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves.

  19. Chemical dosimetry system for γ-ray irradiation based on the formation of phenol from aqueous benzene solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    A chemical dosimetry system based on the radiochemical formation of phenol from aqueous benzene solutions was applied to measure the intensity of γ-ray irradiation. Using a simple and sensitive isocratic fluorometric HPLC system, radiochemically generated phenol was determined. The radiochemical formation of phenol was linear up to 100 Gy and the lower limit of detection calculated from the detection limits of phenol was estimated to be 7 mGy. The phenol formation rates were not affected by the oxygen saturation. The chemical dosimetry system investigated in this study was sensitive and was easier to use than traditional chemical dosimeters.

  20. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euna eOh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically-important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN. Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux.