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Sample records for twelve healthy adults

  1. Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy

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    ... Shortfall Questionnaire Home Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy Family HealthPrevention and WellnessStaying ...

  2. Oral endotoxin in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanSaene, JJM; vanSaene, HKF; Martin, MV; Leenstra, T.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a study that measured oral endotoxin levels in healthy persons with the Limulus amoebocyte lysate microassay. Only young nonsmoking adults with a healthy dentition measured with the plaque index and a good level of oral hygiene based on a twice-daily (morning and evening)

  3. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality.Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations.Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations.Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P-trend aging (P-interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake.Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Twelve weeks of BodyBalance® training improved balance and functional task performance in middle-aged and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson VP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan P Nicholson, Mark R McKean, Brendan J Burkett School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of BodyBalance® training on balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and health-related quality of life in adults aged over 55 years.Participants and methods: A total of 28 healthy, active adults aged 66±5 years completed the randomized controlled trial. Balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and self-reported quality of life were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Participants either undertook two sessions of BodyBalance per week for 12 weeks (n=15 or continued with their normal activities (n=13.Results: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the timed up and go (P=0.038, 30-second chair stand (P=0.037, and mediolateral center-of-pressure range in narrow stance with eyes closed (P=0.017. There were no significant effects on fear of falling or self-reported quality of life.Conclusion: Twelve weeks of BodyBalance training is effective at improving certain balance and functional based tasks in healthy older adults. Keywords: postural control, yoga, tai chi, center of pressure, exercise

  5. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

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    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.

  6. Reliability of Transcallosal Inhibition in Healthy Adults

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    Fleming, Melanie K.; Newham, Di J.

    2017-01-01

    Transcallosal inhibition (TCI), assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation, can provide insight into the neurophysiology of aging and of neurological disorders such as stroke. However, the reliability of TCI using the ipsilateral silent period (iSP) has not been formally assessed, despite its use in longitudinal studies. This study aimed to determine the reliability of iSP onset latency, duration and depth in healthy young and older adults. A sample of 18 younger (mean age 27.7 years, range: 19–42) and 13 older healthy adults (mean age 68.1 years, range: 58–79) attended four sessions whereby the iSP was measured from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of each hand. 20 single pulse stimuli were delivered to each primary motor cortex at 80% maximum stimulator output while the participant maintained an isometric contraction of the ipsilateral FDI. The average onset latency, duration of the iSP, and depth of inhibition relative to baseline electromyography activity was calculated for each hand in each session. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all four sessions, or the first two sessions only. For iSP onset latency the reliability ranged from poor to good. For iSP duration there was moderate to good reliability (ICC > 0.6). Depth of inhibition demonstrated variation in reproducibility depending on which hand was assessed and whether two or four sessions were compared. Bland and Altman analyses showed wide limits of agreement between the first two sessions, particularly for iSP depth. However, there was no systematic pattern to the variability. These results indicate that although iSP duration is reliable in healthy adults, changes in longitudinal studies should be interpreted with caution, particularly for iSP depth. Future studies are needed to determine reliability in clinical populations. PMID:28119588

  7. Fast Mapping in Healthy Young Adults: The Influence of Metamemory

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    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Rickenbach, Bryna; Ruda, Marissa; LeCureux, Bethanie; Pope, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Several research studies suggest the significant role played by metamemory in lexical abilities of both adults and children. To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date that have explored the role of metamemory (Judgments of Learning) in fast mapping of novel words by adults. One hundred and twelve undergraduate students were given tasks…

  8. Fast Mapping in Healthy Young Adults: The Influence of Metamemory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Rickenbach, Bryna; Ruda, Marissa; LeCureux, Bethanie; Pope, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Several research studies suggest the significant role played by metamemory in lexical abilities of both adults and children. To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date that have explored the role of metamemory (Judgments of Learning) in fast mapping of novel words by adults. One hundred and twelve undergraduate students were given tasks…

  9. Exploring the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota of healthy adults receiving amoxicillin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladirat, S.E.; Schoterman, M.H.C.; Rahaoui, H.; Mars, M.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Gruppen, H.; Nauta, A.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present double-blind, randomised, parallel intervention study, the effects of the intake of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on the gut microbiota of twelve healthy adult subjects (aged 18-45 years with a normal BMI (18-25 kg/m2)) receiving amoxicillin (AMX) treatment were determined. All the

  10. Exploring the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota of healthy adults receiving amoxicillin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladirat, S.E.; Schoterman, M.H.C.; Rahaoui, H.; Mars, M.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Gruppen, H.; Nauta, A.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present double-blind, randomised, parallel intervention study, the effects of the intake of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on the gut microbiota of twelve healthy adult subjects (aged 18–45 years with a normal BMI (18–25 kg/m2)) receiving amoxicillin (AMX) treatment were determined. All the

  11. Educating Adult Learners: Twelve Tips for Teaching Business Professionals. Reflection on Theory and Practice

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    Kisamore, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Dayle; Alexander, Evangeline; White, Dana Leann

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide specific suggestions for teaching adult business professionals. The suggestions we present are based on our combined experiences as instructors of business professionals who have returned to school for continuing education and as adult learners ourselves. In this article, we discuss the unique characteristics…

  12. VALIDITY OF SPIROMETRIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR HEALTHY ADULTS IN SHANGHAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity of current spirometric reference values for healthy adults in Shanghai.Methods Healthy non-smoking adults without respiratory diseases were randomly enrolled in the study.Gender,age,standing height,body weight and spirometric parameters were obtained.The parameters were compared with reference values from current prediction equations with or without conversion factors.Results A total of 127 healthy adults (60 males and 67 females) aged 18-57 years participated in the study...

  13. Twelve-Month Effects of the COPE Healthy Lifestyles TEEN Program on Overweight and Depressive Symptoms in High School Adolescents

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    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie A.; Belyea, Michael J.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith A.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the 12-month effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) program versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on overweight/obesity and depressive symptoms in high school adolescents. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled…

  14. A Classification Scheme for Adult Education. Education Libraries Bulletin, Supplement Twelve.

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    Greaves, Monica A., Comp.

    This classification scheme, based on the 'facet formula' theory of Ranganathan, is designed primarily for the library of the National Institute of Adult Education in London, England. Kinds of persons being educated (educands), methods and problems of education, specific countries, specific organizations, and forms in which the information is…

  15. An evaluation of the resistance to flow through the patient valves of twelve adult manual resuscitators.

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    Hess, D; Simmons, M

    1992-05-01

    What is the inspiratory and expiratory resistance to flow through the patient valves of adult manual resuscitators? We evaluated the resistance to flow through the patient valves of 12 adult resuscitators (Ambu, Code Blue, DMR, Hope 4, Hospitak, Hudson, Intertech, Laerdal, Mercury, Respironics, SPUR, Vitalograph). Expiratory resistance was evaluated by directing a flow of oxygen through the valve in the direction that the patient expires. Inspiratory resistance was evaluated by directing oxygen through the valve in the direction of flow when the bag is squeezed. Flow was controlled by a Timeter 0-75 flowmeter, and measured using a calibrated Timeter RT-200. Flows of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 L/min were used. Resistive back pressure of the resuscitator valves was measured using a calibrated Timeter RT-200. Resistance was calculated by dividing back pressure by flow. Five measurements were made at each flow setting for each resuscitator. Significant differences in back pressures and resistances existed between the resuscitators for both expiratory and inspiratory flows (p less than 0.001 in each case). Significant interaction effects also existed between resuscitator brands and flows (p less than 0.001 in each case). At an expiratory flow of 50 L/min, all resuscitators except the Hospitak and Vitalograph produced a back pressure less than 5 cm H2O (the International Standards Organization standard). At an inspiratory flow of 50 L/min, all resuscitators but the Hospitak, Mercury, and Vitalograph produced a back pressure less than 5 cm H2O. Significant differences existed in the back pressures produced due to the flow resistance through the patient valves of these resuscitators, and these might be considered excessive in some cases. Because this was a bench study, further work is needed to determine the clinical importance of these findings.

  16. Napping: Do's and Don'ts for Healthy Adults

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    ... Effects on human direct associative and relational memory. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 2010;93:554. What ... Medicine. 2006;12:379. Oct. 03, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/ ...

  17. Clusters of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors Are Associated With Body Mass Index Among Adults.

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    Heerman, William J; Jackson, Natalie; Hargreaves, Margaret; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Schlundt, David; Wallston, Kenneth A; Rothman, Russell L

    2017-05-01

    To identify eating styles from 6 eating behaviors and test their association with body mass index (BMI) among adults. Cross-sectional analysis of self-report survey data. Twelve primary care and specialty clinics in 5 states. Of 11,776 adult patients who consented to participate, 9,977 completed survey questions. Frequency of eating healthy food, frequency of eating unhealthy food, breakfast frequency, frequency of snacking, overall diet quality, and problem eating behaviors. The primary dependent variable was BMI, calculated from self-reported height and weight data. k-Means cluster analysis of eating behaviors was used to determine eating styles. A categorical variable representing each eating style cluster was entered in a multivariate linear regression predicting BMI, controlling for covariates. Four eating styles were identified and defined by healthy vs unhealthy diet patterns and engagement in problem eating behaviors. Each group had significantly higher average BMI than the healthy eating style: healthy with problem eating behaviors (β = 1.9; P eating behaviors (β = 5.1; P eating styles should address not only the consumption of healthy foods but also snacking behaviors and the emotional component of eating. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. Methods 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 y...

  19. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

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    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  20. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

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    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  1. Impaired mediolateral postural control at the ankle in healthy, middle-aged adults.

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    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Mercier, Marie; Szaffarczyk, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Elderly adults sway more than young adults. Based on the literature, the authors expected the mediolateral ankle postural control mechanism to be affected before age 60 years. Twelve healthy young adults (24.21 ± 2.50 years) and 12 middle-aged adults (51.13 ± 6.09 years) participated in the study. To challenge mediolateral stance, the conditions modified the mediolateral distance among the feet (narrow and standard distances), mandibular position (rest position, left and right laterality occlusion positions), and the occlusion with clenching (intercuspal occlusion, left and right maximal voluntary clenches). As we expected, middle-aged adults exhibited significantly reduced contribution of the ankle mechanism. It was so both in narrow and standard stances. A second objective was to show a greater contribution of the 2 mechanisms in narrow than in standard stances. The results confirmed our hypothesis. As we expected, mandibular conditions only had a significant effect on center of pressure sway. Unexpectedly, middle-aged adults did not increase their range of center of pressure sway in narrow stance. They may have overconstrained their center of pressure sway because of their ankle impairments. On the practical level, our results suggest that older adults should increase their stance width to relieve their hip and ankle control mechanisms and to stabilize their mediolateral posture.

  2. Postural sway following cryotherapy in healthy adults.

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    Fukuchi, Claudiane A; Duarte, Marcos; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2014-01-01

    In light of the wide use of cryotherapy and its potential negative effects on postural stability, little is known about how postural sway is affected, particularly when the whole lower limb is immersed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of cryotherapy on postural sway in healthy males. Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned into two intervention groups: control (tepid water at ∼26°C) or ice (cold water at ∼11°C). Postural sway was measured through the center of pressure (COP) position while they stood on a force plate during bipedal (70 s) and unipedal (40 s) conditions before and after the subjects were immersed in a water tub up to the umbilical level for 20 min. COP standard deviation (SD) and COP velocity were analyzed in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Statistical analysis showed that in the bipedal condition cryotherapy increased the COP SD and COP velocity in the ML direction. During the unipedal condition, a higher COP velocity in the AP and ML directions was also reported. Our findings indicate that cryotherapy by immersing the whole lower limb should be used with caution before engaging in challenging postural control activities.

  3. Determinants of selenium status in healthy adults

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    Hoeg Antonia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium (Se status in non-deficient subjects is typically assessed by the Se contents of plasma/serum. That pool comprises two functional, specific selenoprotein components and at least one non-functional, non-specific components which respond differently to changes in Se intake. A more informative means of characterizing Se status in non-deficient individuals is needed. Methods Multiple biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P [SEPP1], plasma glutathione peroxidase activity [GPX3], buccal cell Se, urinary Se were evaluated in relation to selenoprotein genotypes (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, SEP15, dietary Se intake, and parameters of single-carbon metabolism in a cohort of healthy, non-Se-deficient men (n = 106 and women (n = 155. Conclusions Plasma Se concentration was 142.0 ± 23.5 ng/ml, with GPX3 and serum-derived SEPP1 calculated to comprise 20% and 34%, respectively, of that total. The balance, comprised of non-specific components, accounted for virtually all of the interindividual variation in total plasma Se. Buccal cell Se was associated with age and plasma homocysteine (hCys, but not plasma Se. SEPP1 showed a quadratic relationship with body mass index, peaking at BMI 25-30. Urinary Se was greater in women than men, and was associated with metabolic body weight (kg0.75, plasma folate, vitamin B12 and hCys (negatively. One GPX1 genotype (679T/T was associated with significantly lower plasma Se levels than other allelic variants. Selenium intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, did not predict Se status as indicated by any biomarker. These results show that genotype, methyl-group status and BMI contribute to variation in Se biomarkers in Se-adequate individuals.

  4. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

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    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  5. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  6. Pyrosequencinq analysis of the oral microflora of healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, B.J.F.; Zaura, E.; Huse, S.M.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Schuren, F.H.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Gate, J.M. ten; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    A good definition of commensal microflora and an understanding of its relation to health are essential in preventing and combating disease. We hypothesized that the species richness of human oral microflora is underestimated. Saliva and supragingival plaque were sampled from 71 and 98 healthy adults

  7. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration con

  8. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

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    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  9. Modulation, Adaptation, and Control of Orofacial Pathways in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Meredith E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the healthy adult possesses a large repertoire of coordinative strategies for oromotor behaviors, a range of nonverbal, speech-like movements can be observed during speech. The extent of overlap among sensorimotor speech and nonspeech neural correlates and the role of neuromodulatory inputs generated during oromotor behaviors are unknown.…

  10. Modulation, Adaptation, and Control of Orofacial Pathways in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Meredith E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the healthy adult possesses a large repertoire of coordinative strategies for oromotor behaviors, a range of nonverbal, speech-like movements can be observed during speech. The extent of overlap among sensorimotor speech and nonspeech neural correlates and the role of neuromodulatory inputs generated during oromotor behaviors are unknown.…

  11. Physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults: a review.

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    Keogh, Justin W L; Kilding, Andrew; Pidgeon, Philippa; Ashley, Linda; Gillis, Dawn

    2009-10-01

    Dancing is a mode of physical activity that may allow older adults to improve their physical function, health, and well-being. However, no reviews on the physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults have been published in the scientific literature. Using relevant databases and keywords, 15 training and 3 cross-sectional studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Grade B-level evidence indicated that older adults can significantly improve their aerobic power, lower body muscle endurance, strength and flexibility, balance, agility, and gait through dancing. Grade C evidence suggested that dancing might improve older adults' lower body bone-mineral content and muscle power, as well as reduce the prevalence of falls and cardiovascular health risks. Further research is, however, needed to determine the efficacy of different forms of dance, the relative effectiveness of these forms of dance compared with other exercise modes, and how best to engage older adults in dance participation.

  12. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  13. Cerebellar contributions to neurological soft signs in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Kubera, Katharina M; Stieltjes, Bram; Wolf, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are frequently found in psychiatric disorders of significant neurodevelopmental origin, e.g., in patients with schizophrenia and autism. Yet NSS are also present in healthy individuals suggesting a neurodevelopmental signature of motor function, probably as a continuum between health and disease. So far, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these motor phenomena in healthy persons, and it is even less known whether the cerebellum contributes to NSS expression. Thirty-seven healthy young adults (mean age = 23 years) were studied using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and "resting-state" functional MRI at three Tesla. NSS levels were measured using the "Heidelberg Scale." Cerebellar gray matter volume was investigated using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods. Cerebellar function was assessed using regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of local network strength. The relationship between cerebellar structure and function and NSS was analyzed using regression models. There was no significant relationship between cerebellar volume and NSS (p motor coordination" and "hard signs" NSS domains. A negative relationship was found between lobule VI activity and "complex motor task" domain (p < 0.005, uncorrected for height, p < 0.05 corrected for spatial extent). The data indicate that in healthy young adults, distinct NSS domains are related to cerebellar activity, specifically with activity of cerebellar subregions with known cortical somatomotor projections. In contrast, cerebellar volume is not predictive of NSS in healthy persons.

  14. RESPONSE TO 6 MINUTE WALK TEST IN HEALTHY ADULTS

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    Vibhuti kiran shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: 6Minute walk test (MWT has been used as a performance based measure of functional exercise capacity in all populations including healthy adults. 6MWT is recommended out of other all timed walked tests due to its reproducibility and ease of administration compared to other longer or shorter time duration tests. It detects changes following interventions to improve exercise tolerance in healthy individuals, to assess the fitness level, used as intervention to improve walking endurance and as predictor of objectively measured aerobic fitness in healthy adults. It is essential to know a level of fitness healthy adults possess in our community, thus aim of this study was to evaluate response to 6MWT in young healthy adults. Method: 50 healthy individuals (25 males and 25 females of 18 - 30 years of age were recruited. The 6MWT was performed as per standard guidelines. All subjects were assessed for the outcome measures by principal investigator at baseline i.e. before and post- 6MWT for following parameters. BP, PR, RR, SPO2, RPE. Results: The mean 6 minute walked distance (6MWD was 635.6+59.07, for men it was 675.0+46.88 and for women it was 596.5+41.41. Out of study population 18% of people covered 70%-80%, 54% people covered 80%-90% and 28% people covered 90%-100% of their predicted distance. Oxygen saturation remained unaltered throughout the walk. Mean resting and walking spo2 values were 96.80+13.55% and 96.71+13.55% (p-value: 0.2288. Pulse rate (PR and respiratory rate (RR were affected by the walk. Mean resting and walking PR was 79.82+9.18 and 142.6+19.62 (p-value: 0.0001 and RR was 18.48+2.78 and 30.20+4.35 (p-value: 0.0001 respectively. Mean resting and walking systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in males as compared to females. Conclusion: The 6 minute walk test is a useful measure of functional capacity in healthy adults. There was a difference between predicted distance covered and actual distance

  15. The Healthy Ageing Model: health behaviour change for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Susan W; Flaherty-Robb, Marna K; Gaynor, William L

    2010-01-01

    Proposed is a model of primary care for older adults with chronic health conditions that focuses on active engagement in health care. The Healthy Ageing Model is anchored in established theory on motivation and health behaviour change. The model draws on empirical and applied clinical underpinnings in such diverse areas as health promotion and education, treatment of addictions or obesity, management of chronic diseases, goal-setting, and coaching techniques. The conceptual foundation for the Healthy Ageing Model is described first, followed by a brief description of the key characteristics of the model. In conclusion, suggestions are offered for the clinical application and for further developing the model.

  16. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Method: Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and…

  17. Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women.

  18. Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n = 703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p eating, and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Findings complement what is already known of the factors that relate to poor eating practices. This can provide nutrition promotion with a more comprehensive picture of the factors that both support and hinder healthy eating practices. Future research should explore these factors to better understand their origins and mechanisms in relation to healthy eating practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Streptococcus pyogenes sternoclavicular septic arthritis in a healthy adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savcic-Kos, Radmila M; Mali, Padmavati; Abraham, Ajit; Issa, Meltiady; Rangu, Venu; Nasser, Rana

    2014-12-01

    Sternoclavicular septic arthritis is a rare infection, accounting for approximately 1% of septic arthritis in the general population. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant etiologic agent, and it usually occurs in relatively young adults with some type of predisposition to infection. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of group A streptococcal, sternoclavicular arthritis in a previously healthy 62-year-old male patient. We present a detailed history and physical examination, with laboratory findings, imaging studies, cultures, and therapy.

  20. Streptococcus pyogenes Sternoclavicular Septic Arthritis in a Healthy Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Savcic-Kos, Radmila M.; Mali, Padmavati; Abraham, Ajit; Issa, Meltiady; Rangu, Venu; Nasser, Rana

    2014-01-01

    Sternoclavicular septic arthritis is a rare infection, accounting for approximately 1% of septic arthritis in the general population. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant etiologic agent, and it usually occurs in relatively young adults with some type of predisposition to infection. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of group A streptococcal, sternoclavicular arthritis in a previously healthy 62-year-old male patient. We present a detailed history and physical examina...

  1. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couet Jacques; Roussel Élise; Drolet Marie-Claude; Lachance Dominic; Plante Eric; Arsenault Marie

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intra...

  2. Ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Shanmugam; Rai, Santosh B; Parsons, Helen; Drew, Steve; Smith, Christopher D; Griffin, Damian R

    2014-08-01

    No studies have looked at the rotator cuff dimensions in the young healthy population using ultrasonography. Our aim is to define the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff in the healthy young adult population and explore correlations with other patient characteristics. Thirty male and 30 female healthy volunteers (aged 18-40 years), with no shoulder problems, underwent ultrasound assessment of both shoulders by a musculoskeletal radiologist. The dimensions of the rotator cuff, deltoid, and biceps were measured in a standardized manner. A total of 120 shoulders were scanned. The mean maximum width of the supraspinatus footprint was 14.9 mm in men and 13.5 mm in women (P infraspinatus was 4.9 mm in men and 4.4 mm in women. There was no correlation between height, weight, biceps, or deltoid thickness with any tendon measurements. Apart from supraspinatus tendon thickness, the difference between dominant and nondominant shoulders in the same sex was not significant for any other tendon dimensions. This study has defined the dimensions of the rotator cuff in the young healthy adult, which has not been previously published. This is important for the documentation of normal ultrasound anatomy of the rotator cuff and also demonstrates that the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can and should be used to estimate the expected dimensions. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cryptosporidium muris: Infectivity and Illness in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Although Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis cause the majority of human cryptosporidiosis cases, other Cryptosporidium species are also capable of infecting humans, particularly when individuals are immunocompromised. Ten C. muris cases have been reported, primarily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients with diarrhea. However, asymptomatic cases were reported in two HIV-negative children, and in another case, age and immune status were not described. This study examines the infectivity of C. muris in six healthy adults. Volunteers were challenged with 105 C. muris oocysts and monitored for 6 weeks for infection and/or illness. All six patients became infected. Two patients experienced a self-limited diarrheal illness. Total oocysts shed during the study ranged from 6.7 × 106 to 4.1 × 108, and the number was slightly higher in volunteers with diarrhea (2.8 × 108) than asymptomatic shedders (4.4 × 107). C. muris-infected subjects shed oocysts longer than occurred with other species studied in healthy volunteers. Three volunteers shed oocysts for 7 months. Physical examinations were normal, with no reported recurrence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal complaints. Two persistent shedders were treated with nitazoxanide, and the infection was resolved. Thus, healthy adults are susceptible to C. muris, which can cause mild diarrhea and result in persistent, asymptomatic infection. PMID:25311695

  4. Complete blood count reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhong Wu

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi'an. Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples.Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles.We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently.

  5. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  6. Decreased segregation of brain systems across the healthy adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Micaela Y; Park, Denise C; Savalia, Neil K; Petersen, Steven E; Wig, Gagan S

    2014-11-18

    Healthy aging has been associated with decreased specialization in brain function. This characterization has focused largely on describing age-accompanied differences in specialization at the level of neurons and brain areas. We expand this work to describe systems-level differences in specialization in a healthy adult lifespan sample (n = 210; 20-89 y). A graph-theoretic framework is used to guide analysis of functional MRI resting-state data and describe systems-level differences in connectivity of individual brain networks. Young adults' brain systems exhibit a balance of within- and between-system correlations that is characteristic of segregated and specialized organization. Increasing age is accompanied by decreasing segregation of brain systems. Compared with systems involved in the processing of sensory input and motor output, systems mediating "associative" operations exhibit a distinct pattern of reductions in segregation across the adult lifespan. Of particular importance, the magnitude of association system segregation is predictive of long-term memory function, independent of an individual's age.

  7. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores.

  8. Subchondral stress fracture of femoral head in a healthy adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subchondral fracture of the femoral head is an uncommon entity and usually occurs as an insufficiency fracture associated with poor bone quality or as a fatigue fracture in young military recruits. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute hip pain in young patients along with transient osteoporosis and avascular necrosis of the hip. We report a case of acute onset hip pain in an asymptomatic healthy adult in which the diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and the patient responded well to conservative treatment.

  9. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  10. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0 or 7.0 (Bev-7.0 or gels as acid (Gel-Acid or heated (Gel-Heated. In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05, and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0 vs. CON (all, p < 0.05. Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  11. The diurnal pattern of salivary IL-1β in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Nur Basirah; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Idris, Adi

    2017-08-01

    Disruption in circadian rhythm affects the production of inflammatory cytokines. Understanding how it behaves in diseased conditions is essential. Despite the role of the interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a potent inflammatory cytokine, in human diseases, little is known about the steady-state circadian rhythm of IL-1β in healthy individuals. This short study investigates the diurnal pattern of salivary IL-1β throughout the day in healthy young adults. Twelve participants provided saliva samples at various times throughout the day. Salivary IL-1β were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Salivary IL-1β levels were highest at 0430 h and lowest at 0000 h and shared a similar diurnal pattern to that of salivary IL-6. Western blot analysis showed that these levels correspond to the mature form of IL-1β. Our findings are important as it established the diurnal pattern of salivary IL-1β is fluctuating normally throughout the day. The findings also open an incredible opportunity for developing research conducted in the field with saliva as the diagnostic tool.

  12. Cognitive Benefits of Online Social Networking for Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Janelle W; Mehl, Matthias R; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that older adults who remain socially active and cognitively engaged have better cognitive function than those who are isolated and disengaged. This study examined the efficacy of learning and using an online social networking website, Facebook.com, as an intervention to maintain or enhance cognitive function in older adults. Forty-one older adults were assigned to learn and use Facebook (n = 14) or an online diary website (active control, n = 13) for 8 weeks or placed on a waitlist (n = 14). Outcome measures included neuropsychological tests of executive functions, memory, and processing speed and self-report questionnaires about social engagement. The Facebook group showed a significant increase in a composite measure of updating, an executive function factor associated with complex working memory tasks, compared to no significant change in the control groups. Other measures of cognitive function and social support showed no differential improvement in the Facebook group. Learning and using an online social networking site may provide specific benefits for complex working memory in a group of healthy older adults. This may reflect the particular cognitive demands associated with online social networking and/or the benefits of social engagement more generally.

  13. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte; Thomsen, Carsten; Vissing, John

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors. Fifty-three healthy adults (24-76 yr) were included. Dixon magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to determine CSA and to quantify the fat fraction of paraspinal and leg muscles. Muscle CSA and fat fractions were tested for association with age and muscle strength. The fat fractions were also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P fat fraction was higher in paraspinal than leg muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction was higher in paraspinal muscles than leg muscles (P muscles did not correlate with age. Knee extension strength correlated with fat fraction (P muscle strength of hip muscles, thigh muscles, and anterior calf muscles correlated with CSA (P fat fraction (P fat fraction (P fat fraction and physical activity or lower back pain. The paraspinal muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had significantly lower fat fractions in lumbar paraspinal muscles, and BMI was positively associated with thigh, but not paraspinal, fat fraction.

  14. Alternate-day dosing of itraconazole in healthy adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, S M; Kubier, A; Dirikolu, L; Papich, M G; Mitchell, M A; Rubin, S I

    2016-02-01

    The current available formulations of itraconazole are not ideal for dosing in cats. The capsular preparation often does not allow for accurate dosing, the oral solution is difficult to administer and poorly tolerated, and the bioavailability of compounded formulations has been shown to be poor in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate every other day dosing of 100 mg itraconazole capsule in healthy adult cats. Ten healthy adult cats received a 100 mg capsule of itraconazole orally every 48 h for 8 weeks. Peak and trough serum concentrations of itraconazole were measured weekly using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Physical examination, complete blood count (CBC), and chemistry profiles were performed weekly. The dosage regimen achieved average therapeutic trough concentrations (>0.5 μg/mL) within 3 weeks. The protocol yielded no adverse effects in 8 of the 10 study cats, with affected cats recovering fully with discontinuation of the drug and supportive care. At 8 weeks, an average peak concentration of 1.79 ± 0.952 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.996-2.588) and an average trough concentration of 0.761 ± 0.540 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.314-1.216) were achieved. Overall, a 100 mg every other day oral dosage regimen for itraconazole in cats yielded serum concentrations with minimal fluctuation and with careful monitoring may be considered for treatment of cats with systemic fungal disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Gastrointestinal tolerance and utilization of agave inulin by healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Hannah D; Doligale, Jamie L; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-06-01

    Little clinical research exists on agave inulin as a fiber source. Due to differences in botanical origin and chemical structure compared to other inulin-type fibers, research is needed to assess gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance following consumption. This study aimed to evaluate GI tolerance and utilization of 5.0 and 7.5 g per day of agave inulin in healthy adults (n = 29) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial consisting of three 21 day periods with 1 week washouts among periods. GI tolerance was assessed via daily and weekly questionnaires, three fecal samples were collected on days 16-20 of each period, and breath hydrogen testing was completed on the final day of each treatment period. Survey data were compared using a generalized linear mixed model. All other outcomes were analyzed using a mixed linear model with a repeated measures procedure. Composite GI intolerance scores for 5.0 and 7.5 g treatments were both greater (P agave inulin. Abdominal pain and rumbling intensity were marginally greater (P Agave inulin did not affect diarrhea (P > 0.05). Number of bowel movements per day increased, stools were softer, and stool dry matter percentage was lower with 7.5 g (P agave inulin compared to control. These data demonstrate that doses up to 7.5 g per day of agave inulin led to minimal GI upset, do not increase diarrhea, and improve laxation in healthy young adults.

  16. Surface electromyography of continuous drinking in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Gabriel, Chaim; Eviatar, Ephraim; Segal, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    To give a description of normal surface electromyography (sEMG) aspects of uninterrupted (continuous) drinking and to establish normal sEMG values for swallowing 100 mL of water. Prospective observational study of healthy volunteers. Four hundred twenty apparently healthy male and female volunteers divided into three age groups (18-40, 41-65, 66+ years). The evaluated parameters included the total duration, number of swallows, amount of water per swallow, and voltage of the EMG activity of the orbicularis oris, masseter, and submental-submandibular muscles and the infrahyoid muscle groups covered by the m. platysma. The overall normal mean values for duration, number of swallows, and amplitude of muscle activity during continuous drinking were compiled. The age-related increase in duration of swallows and of total drinking time was significant only in the older group (95% confidence interval, P or = .05). The mean electric activity (in muV) varied insignificantly among the age groups. The activity of the m. orbicularis oris was the least informative. An unexpectedly significant number of healthy subjects (14.25%, P swallow after drinking. The establishment of normal sEMG levels now makes this modality applicable for evaluating the swallowing mechanism among adults for potentially identifying and ruling out abnormalities. Its simplicity, noninvasiveness, and low level of discomfort also make it highly suitable for screening purposes.

  17. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence.

  18. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were...... between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship...... between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake...

  19. Grip strength in healthy caucasian adults: reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Christian M; Bürger, Alexander; Rickert, Markus; Crispin, Alexander; Schulz, Christoph U

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to update reference data of handgrip strength for healthy adults of both genders spanning a wide age range and to analyze possible factors of influence. Intraindividual and interindividual variations of grip strength and their relation to several anthropometric factors were analyzed in a standardized manner for 769 healthy adults (women, n = 403; men, n = 366) aged between 20 years and 95 years. Measurements were done in neutral position of arm, forearm, and wrist on setting II of a Baseline digital hydraulic dynamometer (NexGen Ergonomics Inc. Quebec, Canada). Mean strength was about 41% less in women (right 29 kg; left 27 kg) than in men (right 49 kg; left 47 kg) resulting in a ratio of left to right hand slightly above .95 in both genders. During the course of life, hand strength develops comparably in both genders peaking at 35 years of age and decreasing continuously further on. Anthropometric variables such as forearm circumference and length, hand size, or body mass showed a positive correlation with grip strength. Body mass index, type of work, and hand dominance showed only a partial positive correlation or no correlation with grip strength. Gender and age, followed by parameters representing body length and obesity, were observed to have the highest predictive value for handgrip strength and were therefore entered into the generation of prediction equations. We recommend side adjustment of measured values for intraindividual comparison and inclusion of information regarding anthropometric characteristics, as well as using gender- and age-adjusted reference values, whereas hand dominance can be neglected. The regression equations we generated might prove to be useful for clinicians or for those who use normative values within software to provide more accurate predictions of strength scores for specific applications.

  20. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Its Associates in Mongolian Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Tong, Weijun; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Not all obese individuals show cardiometabolic abnormalities. We examined metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and its associates in 2530 Mongolian Chinese adults. Methods: MHO was defined by waist circumference, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and glucose. Results: Only 3.0% of the participants had MHO, with 0.8% of men and 4.5% of women having this condition (Pobesity measures, MHO individuals had a comparable cardiometabolic profile to that for metabolically healthy, nonobese individuals (MHNO) and an improved cardiometabolic profile, i.e., lower levels of blood pressure, glucose, insulin, LDL-C, TGs, and higher levels of HDL-C compared to metabolically abnormal individuals (all Pobese individuals (overall P<0.001). Conclusions: We conclude that MHO is associated with a low inflammation state, and family history of hypertension may play a role in the MHO phenotype. PMID:24460218

  1. Pramipexole Impairs Stimulus-Response Learning in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Haley; Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic therapy has paradoxical effects on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with some functions worsened and others improved. The dopamine overdose hypothesis is proposed as an explanation for these opposing effects of medication taking into account the varying levels of dopamine within different brain regions in PD. The detrimental effects of medication on cognition have been attributed to exogenous dopamine overdose in brain regions with spared dopamine levels in PD. It has been demonstrated that learning is most commonly worsened by dopaminergic medication. The current study aimed to investigate whether the medication-related learning impairment exhibited in PD patients is due to a main effect of medication by evaluating the dopamine overdose hypothesis in healthy young adults. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy young undergraduate students completed a stimulus-response learning task. Half of the participants were treated with 0.5 mg of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, whereas the other half were treated with a placebo. We found that stimulus-response learning was significantly impaired in participants on pramipexole relative to placebo controls. These findings are consistent with the dopamine overdose hypothesis and suggest that dopaminergic medication impairs learning independent of PD pathology. Our results have important clinical implications for conditions treated with pramipexole, particularly PD, restless leg syndrome, some forms of dystonia, and potentially depression.

  2. Psychological correlates of habitual diet in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain. Although many psychological correlates of diet have been identified, the literature is highly dispersed, and there has been no previous comprehensive narrative review. Organized here by psychological domain, studies linking diet with individual differences in perception, cognition, impulsivity, personality, affective processing, mental health, and attitudes, beliefs and values-in healthy adults-are reviewed. Although there is a growing literature on the psychological correlates of fruit/vegetable intake-the core of a healthy diet-consumers of unhealthy diets have characteristics that probably make them less responsive to education-based interventions. Diet may be a causal contributor to depression, and diet is consistently linked to impulsivity and certain personality traits. There are inconsistent and less explored links to perceptual, affective and cognitive processes, with several emerging parallels to the animal literature. Impulsivity and personality traits common to obese individuals also occur in lean consumers of unhealthy diets, suggesting these may contribute to weight gain. Diet-psychology correlates remain understudied even though this could significantly benefit human health. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  4. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0.......0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u...... in nanograms per gram creatinine did not diminish the observed variation and blunted the pubertal increase in u-GH excretion. In conclusion, (1) u-GH excretion depends significantly on age, sex and pubertal maturation as does the day/night ratio of u-GH excretion. (2) The interindividual variation in u...

  5. Higher Eating Frequency Does Not Decrease Appetite in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam; Wang, Ching-Yun; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of small, frequent meals is suggested as an effective approach to control appetite and food intake and might be a strategy for weight loss or healthy weight maintenance. Despite much speculation on the topic, scientific evidence is limited to support such a relation in the absence of changes to diet composition. We examined the effects of high compared with low eating frequency (EF) on self-reported appetite as a secondary outcome in a controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, crossover intervention trial in 12 participants (4 men, 8 women) who completed 2 isocaloric 3-wk intervention phases of low EF (3 eating occasions/d) compared with high EF (8 eating occasions/d). On the last morning of each study phase, participants completed a 4-h appetite testing session. During the appetite testing session, participants completing the low EF phase consumed a meal at 0800. Participants completing the high EF intervention consumed the same meal spread evenly over 2 eating occasions at 0800 and 1030. Standardized ratings of hunger, desire to eat, fullness, thirst, and nausea were completed every 30 min with the use of paper-and-pencil semianchored 100-mm visual analog scales. A composite appetite score was calculated as the mean of hunger, desire to eat, and the inverse of fullness (calculated as 100-fullness rating). Linear regression analysis compared ratings between low EF and high EF conditions. The mean composite appetite score was higher in the high EF condition for the total testing period (baseline through 1200) (P healthy adults do not support the popularized notion that small, frequent meals help to decrease overall appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02548026. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE REFERENCE VALUES FOR TWO MINUTE WALK DISTANCE IN HEALTHY INDIAN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krishna Priya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of functional scales to assess the prognosis of the individuals is widely being encouraged by the International classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Two, six and twelve minute walk tests are the existing functional walk tests, among which 6MWT is being considered as the gold standard. Patients in acute stages of illnesses and early stages of recovery, it is difficult and tiring to accomplish a 6MWT. 2MWT is presently being used as a pre and post-test. To comment on the status of the patient and the test results in the first attempt, it is necessary to look at the reference values of 2MWT. Purpose of the study: This study aims to establish reference values for 2MWT in healthy Indian adults. Objective of the study: To establish reference values for 2 minute walk distance in healthy Indian adults of 20-80 years age. Methods: Three hundred subjects met the inclusion criteria through convenience sampling. Two trials of 2MWT were administered. Instructions for the test were adopted from American Thoracic Society guidelines for 6MWT. Out of the two trials, the one in which more distance was covered by the subject was taken for the analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: The mean 2MWD was 182.69 + 32.40 meters. 2MWD had shown moderate significant negative correlation with age (r = -0.58 and weak but significant positive correlation with height (r = 0.35. The correlations with weight (r= 0.1 and BMI (r= -0.13 were found to be negligible. It was also found that males walked 21.55 + 3.5 meters more than females and aye2MWD during the second trial was found to be 3.011 + 1.44 meters greater than the first trial. Conclusion: The average distance covered by a healthy Indian individual is approximately 182.69 + 32.40 meters in 2 minutes duration. Implication: Patients in early stages of rehabilitation, early post-operative period and patients with severe disability, found 6MWT difficult

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Doses of Oral Psilocybin in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Randall T; Nicholas, Christopher R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gassman, Michele C; Cooper, Karen M; Muller, Daniel; Thomas, Chantelle D; Hetzel, Scott J; Henriquez, Kelsey M; Ribaudo, Alexandra S; Hutson, Paul R

    2017-03-28

    Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin. The escalating oral psilocybin doses were administered at approximately monthly intervals in a controlled setting and subjects were monitored for 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h and assayed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for psilocybin and psilocin, the active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were determined using both compartmental (NONMEM) and noncompartmental (WinNonlin) methods. No psilocybin was found in plasma or urine, and renal clearance of intact psilocin accounted for less than 2% of the total clearance. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were linear within the twofold range of doses, and the elimination half-life of psilocin was 3 h (standard deviation 1.1). An extended elimination phase in some subjects suggests hydrolysis of the psilocin glucuronide metabolite. Variation in psilocin clearance was not predicted by body weight, and no serious adverse events occurred in the subjects studied. The small amount of psilocin renally excreted suggests that no dose reduction is needed for subjects with mild-moderate renal impairment. Simulation of fixed doses using the pharmacokinetic parameters suggest that an oral dose of 25 mg should approximate the drug exposure of a 0.3 mg/kg oral dose of psilocybin. Although doses of 0.6 mg/kg are in excess of likely therapeutic doses, no serious physical or psychological events occurred during or within 30 days of any dose. NCT02163707.

  8. Biomechanical Correlates of Surface Electromyography Signals Obtained during Swallowing by Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A.; Carnaby (Mann), Giselle D.; Groher, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe biomechanical correlates of the surface electromyographic signal obtained during swallowing by healthy adult volunteers. Method: Seventeen healthy adults were evaluated with simultaneous videofluoroscopy and surface electromyography (sEMG) while swallowing 5 mL of liquid barium sulfate. Three…

  9. Medical Groups Raise Blood Pressure Rx Threshold for Healthy Adults Over 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163063.html Medical Groups Raise Blood Pressure Rx Threshold for Healthy Adults Over 60 Guidelines ... benefit from more aggressive treatment is small, the groups say. Doctors ... control of blood pressure in healthy older adults may produce more harm ...

  10. Biomechanical Correlates of Surface Electromyography Signals Obtained during Swallowing by Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A.; Carnaby (Mann), Giselle D.; Groher, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe biomechanical correlates of the surface electromyographic signal obtained during swallowing by healthy adult volunteers. Method: Seventeen healthy adults were evaluated with simultaneous videofluoroscopy and surface electromyography (sEMG) while swallowing 5 mL of liquid barium sulfate. Three…

  11. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  12. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  13. Comparison of Biomarkers in Blood and Saliva in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williamson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers measure biomarkers as a reflection of patient health status or intervention outcomes. While blood is generally regarded as the best body fluid for evaluation of systemic processes, substitution of saliva samples for blood would be less invasive and more convenient. The concentration of specific biomarkers may differ between blood and saliva. The objective of this study was to compare multiple biomarkers (27 cytokines in plasma samples, passive drool saliva samples, and filter paper saliva samples in 50 healthy adults. Demographic data and three samples were obtained from each subject: saliva collected on filter paper over 1 minute, saliva collected by passive drool over 30 seconds, and venous blood (3 mL collected by venipuncture. Cytokines were assayed using Bio-Rad multiplex suspension array technology. Descriptive statistics and pairwise correlations were used for data analysis. The sample was 52% male and 74% white. Mean age was 26 (range = 19–63 years, sd = 9.7. The most consistent and highest correlations were between the passive drool and filter paper saliva samples, although relationships were dependent on the specific biomarker. Correlations were not robust enough to support substitution of one collection method for another. There was little correlation between the plasma and passive drool saliva samples. Caution should be used in substituting saliva for blood, and relationships differ by biomarker.

  14. Precursors of Hypertensive Heart Phenotype Develop in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marvao, Antonio; Dawes, Timothy J.W.; Shi, Wenzhe; Durighel, Giuliana; Rueckert, Daniel; Cook, Stuart A.; O’Regan, Declan P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study used high-resolution 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance to define the anatomical and functional left ventricular (LV) properties associated with increasing systolic blood pressure (SBP) in a drug-naïve cohort. Background LV hypertrophy and remodeling occur in response to hemodynamic stress but little is known about how these phenotypic changes are initiated in the general population. Methods In this study, 1,258 volunteers (54% women, mean age 40.6 ± 12.8 years) without self-reported cardiovascular disease underwent 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance combined with computational modeling. The relationship between SBP and wall thickness (WT), relative WT, end-systolic wall stress (WS), and fractional wall thickening were analyzed using 3-dimensional regression models adjusted for body surface area, sex, race, age, and multiple testing. Significantly associated points in the LV model (p heart phenotype can be traced to healthy normotensive adults and that an independent and continuous relationship exists between adverse LV remodeling and SBP in a low-risk population. These adaptations show distinct regional variations with concentric hypertrophy of the septum and eccentric hypertrophy of the lateral wall, which challenge conventional classifications of LV remodeling. PMID:26476505

  15. Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönholm-Nyman, Petra; Soveri, Anna; Rinne, Juha O.; Ek, Emilia; Nyholm, Alexandra; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna; Laine, Matti

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17) performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session), while the active control group (n = 16) played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre- and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  16. Effects of motor and cognitive dual-task performance in depressive elderly, healthy older adults, and healthy young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Moraes

    Full Text Available Abstract Impairments in dual-task performance can be observed in healthy older adults when motor and cognitive assignments are applied simultaneously. According to the hypofrontality hypothesis, there may be a reduction in frontal cognitive function during exercise. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance changes on cognitive tests of depressive elderly (n=10, healthy older adults (n=10, and healthy young individuals (n=10 during cycle ergometer exercise. Methods: The groups were submitted to a working memory test, a short memory test and a semantic memory test, before and during a 20-minute cycle ergometer exercise at 80% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Results: Significant differences (p=0.04 were observed in scores on the digit backward test during exercise when young individuals were compared to healthy older adults. This result indicates that young subjects, as expected, had better performance than elderly. No significant differences were found among the groups for the digit forward subtest (p=0.40 or the vocabulary test (p=0.69. Conclusion: Data from this study showed that healthy older adults had impaired performance on higher cognitive tasks when these assignments were applied together with motor tasks.

  17. Physical exercise and cardiac autonomic activity in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, pexercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.

  18. Reassessment of stiripentol pharmacokinetics in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigné, Sophie; Rey, Elisabeth; Le Guern, Marie-Emmanuelle; Dulac, Olivier; Chiron, Catherine; Pons, Gerard; Jullien, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Because children who have been receiving stiripentol for the treatment of Dravet syndrome for more than 10 years are now becoming young adults, it is important to accurately characterize stiripentol pharmacokinetics in this age range. A double-blind placebo-controlled dose ranging study was therefore conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of stiripentol in 12 healthy volunteers. Each subject received 3 single doses of stiripentol (500, 1000, and 2000 mg) separated by a wash-out period of 1 week. Pharmacokinetics of stiripentol was analyzed for each dose by non-compartmental analysis. Median area under the curve (AUC), terminal elimination half-life (t1/2,z) and maximal concentration (Cmax) were calculated for between-dose comparison. Safety was evaluated based on both clinical and biological criteria. Oppositely to previous results, there was no concentration rebounds in the elimination phase, which could be the consequence of the food intake. A more than proportional increase in the AUC was observed, associated with a significant increase in the t1/2,z, for increasing doses (median AUC of 8.3, 31 and 88 mgh/L, and median t1/2,z of 2, 7.7 and 10h for the 500, 1000, and 2000 mg doses respectively), which confirmed the Michaelis-Menten pharmacokinetics of Stiripentol. However, dose-normalized Cmax did not significantly vary between doses. Median Michaelis-Menten parameters were 117 mg/h for Vmax and 1.9 mg/L for Km. No safety concern was observed during the study. The present study allowed a better characterization of the disposition phase of stiripentol and confirmed its non-linear pharmacokinetic behaviour. Further pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies would be useful to determine the optimal dose of stiripentol for the treatment of Dravet patients in adulthood.

  19. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Feizi, Hossein; Hasan-khali, Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for designing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population. Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females) aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis. Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively. Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population. PMID:26000246

  20. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  1. Smartphone technology facilitates dietary change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipjian, Michelle L; Johnston, Carol S

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals are advised to adhere to specific diet plans for their personal health; hence, it is important that tools are available to support these behaviors. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist health care professionals in educating their clients on specific dietary modifications. This pilot study focused on a single dietary modification, reducing sodium intake, to determine whether a commercial health app is useful for promoting dietary change. Thirty healthy adults (age 34.4 ± 15.7 y; body mass index 25.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)) were recruited from a university community and completed this 4-wk randomized parallel trial. Participants were instructed to reduce their sodium intake to ≤2300 mg/d by using the MyFitnessPal app to receive feedback on sodium content of foods or by paper tallying of estimated sodium intake. The predicted 24-h sodium excretion, estimated using the ratio of sodium to creatinine from the first morning urine void, and participant satisfaction were the main outcomes measured. The change in the predicted 24-h sodium excretion differed between groups: -838 ± 1093 and +236 ± 1333 mg/24 h predicted for the app and journal groups, respectively (P = 0.010). Moreover, participants in the app group reported significantly greater satisfaction with their method of diet tracking than the journal group (P = 0.001). These data suggest that smartphone apps have the potential to facilitate the implementation of dietary advice. This was a small pilot study with limited scope, and more research is necessary to determine the value of smartphone apps for facilitating dietary change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of exercises on knee cartilage volume in young healthy adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Liangyu; Wang Yubin

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute effects of physical exercise on the deformational behavior of knee articular cartilage and changes in cartilage volume are definite.However,conclusive effects of different exercises on the loss of articular cartilage volume have not been proved.In this parallel-group randomized controlled trial,we tested whether 12 weeks of swimming,powerstriding,cycling,and running exercises would decrease the cartilage volume significantly and whether there would be a difference in the loss of cartilage volume after different types of exercises.Methods From October 2012 to January 2013 we evaluated 120 healthy volunteer students in Biomechanics Laboratory of Tongji University.Body mass index (BMI),right lower limb strength,and right knee cartilage magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained before exercise.MRI were conducted in East Hospital.The study was approved by Tongji University Ethical Committee,all subjects were randomly assigned to the running,powerstriding,cycling,swimming,and control groups by a drawing of lots.Each group contained 24 samples.At the end of 12 weeks of regular exercises,the same measurement procedures were applied.Cartilage volume was calculated with OSIRIS software based on the quantitative-MRI.Pre-and post-exercise comparisons were carried out using paired t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare differences of cartilage volume loss between groups with Student-Newman-Keuls procedure for multiple comparisons.Results Running,cycling,and swimming groups resulted in a significant decrease in BMI.The quadriceps peak torque increased significantly in the swimming and cycling groups.Total cartilage volume significantly decreased in the running and cycling groups after 12 weeks of training,without any significant change in the nonimpact swimming,low-impact powerstriding,and control groups.Loss of total cartilage volume in the running and cycling groups were 2.21% (3.03) and 1.50% (0.42).Conclusions Twelve

  3. Motivators of and Barriers to Engagement in Healthy Eating Behaviors among non-Hispanic Black Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Sarah E M; Tucker, Carolyn M; Flenar, Delphia J; Arthur, Tya M; Smith, Tasia M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if non-Hispanic Black adults' levels of endorsement of motivators and barriers related to healthy eating are significantly associated with their level of engagement in healthy eating and their perceived importance of healthy eating and if these investigated variables differ by gender, income, and/or age. An assessment battery was completed by a cross-sectional sample of 207 non-Hispanic Black adults in Bronx, NY (54.1 % female; age: M = 38, SD = 14.12). Participants were recruited by culturally diverse data collectors at community-based locations within Bronx. Building healthy eating into a routine was a significant motivator of healthy eating (p eating behaviors was a significant barrier to healthy eating (p healthy eating were positively associated with motivators to engaging in healthy eating (routine: p healthy foods: p eating healthy foods: p healthy eating among adults similar to those in this study may benefit from including a focus on increasing self-control of eating behaviors and incorporating healthy eating into one's routine.

  4. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  5. Haematological and CD4+ T cells reference ranges in healthy adult populations in Gojjam zones in Amhara region, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wondemagegn Mulu; Bayeh Abera; Zewdie Mekonnen; Yesuf Adem; Mulat Yimer; Yohannes Zenebe; Asmare Amuamuta; Wondimu Gebeyehu

    2017-01-01

    ...(246 females and 235 males) healthy adults enrolled in the study. Healthy adults were defined by medical history, physical examination and laboratory screening for HIV, HBV, HCV and intestinal parasitosis...

  6. The effects of hyperglycemia and endotoxemia on coagulation parameters in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, K F; Lascola, K M; Smith, S A; Clark-Price, S C; Wilkins, P A; Schaeffer, D J; Foreman, J H

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and endotoxemia have been associated with coagulation abnormalities in horses. Studies in humans suggest greater disturbances in coagulation with hyperglycemia and concurrent endotoxemia. To compare coagulation parameters in horses administered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with and without concurrent hyperglycemia. Twelve healthy adult horses. Hyperglycemia (180-240 mg/dL) was maintained for 6 hours in 6 horses (GLU-LPS) using 140 mg/kg IV bolus of dextrose followed by a 20% dextrose constant rate infusion. A similar volume of saline was administered to an additional 6 horses (SAL-LPS). LPS (20 ng/kg) was administered to each horse. Fibrogen concentration, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin antithrombin concentration (TAT), and thromboelastometry were measured at baseline and after 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, and 22 hours. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine temporal changes. Increases in PT (P = .001) and TAT (P = .027) were observed in the GLU-LPS group. Changes in thromboelastometry parameters including increased clot formation time (In-TEM, P = .006; Ex-TEM, P = .002) and decreased alpha angle (Ex-TEM, P = .04) and maximal clot firmness (Ex-TEM, P = .014) were observed in the SAL-LPS group. Differences between SAL-LPS and GLU-LPS groups were limited to increased maximal clot firmness (Ex-TEM) at 3, 6, and 22 hours (P < .001) in the SAL-LPS group. Minor alterations in coagulation parameters identified for each group are most likely not clinically relevant. Observed differences between groups do not suggest that concurrent hyperglycemia and endotoxemia are associated with greater coagulation abnormalities in horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, M.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.B.; van Loon, L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves, R.D.A.M.; Vervoort, J.; Müller, M.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy

  8. The muscle metabolome differs between healthy and frail older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, C.A.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves Rolo, Rodrigo; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Müller, M.R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy o

  9. Profiling healthy eaters: determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.; Bouwman, L.; Hiddink, G.J.; Aarts, N.; Koelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's

  10. Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.C.; Bouwman, L.I.; Hiddink, G.J.; Aarts, N.; Koelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's

  11. Healthy eating beliefs and intentions of mothers and their adult children: an intergenerational transmission perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sumodhee, Dayyanah; Payne, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This study examined possible intergenerational transmission of eating beliefs and intentions between 60 mothers and their adult children. Maternal restrictive feeding practices were correlated with mothers' own healthy eating attitudes and subjective norms and with their adult children's subjective norms. Mothers’ beliefs and intentions were correlated with their adult children’s. Adult children's intentions to eat healthily were predicted by their attitudes and PBC, and also by their mothers...

  12. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota composition in healthy adults have not been well established. We aimed to provide a systematic review of the potential evidence for an effect of probiotic supplementation on the composition of human fecal microbiota...... references of relevant papers. Search terms included healthy adult, probiotic, bifidobacterium, lactobacillus, gut microbiota, fecal microbiota, intestinal microbiota, intervention, and (clinical) trial. RCTs of solely probiotic supplementation and placebo in healthy adults that examined alteration...... methodological quality assessment of reports of the clinical trials based on revised tools from PRISMA/Cochrane and by the Jadad score. RESULTS: Seven RCTs investigating the effect of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota in healthy adults were identified and included in the present systematic review...

  13. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  14. Reference Ranges for Exhaled Nitric Oxide Fraction in Healthy Japanese Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuto Matsunaga; Tsunahiko Hirano; Tomotaka Kawayama; Takahiro Tsuburai; Hiroyuki Nagase; Hisamichi Aizawa; Kazuo Akiyama; Ken Ohta; Masakazu Ichinose

    2010-01-01

    Background: The measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FEno) is proposed as a useful marker of airway inflammation. In healthy adults, there have been a few studies of the reference ranges for FEno in Caucasians. A community study in other regions may reveal any possible ethnic differences in the FEno levels. Methods: A total of 240 healthy adults aged between 18 to 74 years were recruited from four medical centers in Japan. Current smokers and subjects having a history of atopi...

  15. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  16. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  17. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  18. Kinematic Mechanisms of How Power Training Improves Healthy Old Adults' Gait Velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M. I.; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; Devita, Paul; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extrem

  19. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  20. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  1. A Novel Noninvasive Method for Measuring Fatigability of the Quadriceps Muscle in Noncooperating Healthy Subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poulsen, Jesper B; Rose, Martin H; Møller, Kirsten; Perner, Anders; Jensen, Bente R

    2015-01-01

    .... On two occasions, separated by seven days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic) of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults...

  2. Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpelini, S; Rhind, S G; Nascimento, B; Tien, H; Shek, P N; Peng, H T; Huang, H; Pinto, R; Speers, V; Reis, M; Rizoli, S B

    2009-12-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG parameters analyzed were R, K, alpha, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer's normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, alpha: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity). Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer's normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer's recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG.

  3. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.

  4. The microbiome of the middle meatus in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are multifactorial disease processes in which bacteria may play a role either in infection or stimulation of the inflammatory process. Rhinosinusitis has been historically studied with culture-based techniques, which have implicated several common pathogens in disease states. More recently, the NIH Human Microbiome Project has examined the microbiome at a number of accessible body sites, and demonstrated differences among healthy and diseased patients. Recent DNA-based sinus studies have suggested that healthy sinuses are not sterile, as was previously believed, but the normal sinonasal microbiome has yet to be thoroughly examined. Middle meatus swab specimens were collected from 28 consecutive patients presenting with no signs or symptoms of rhinosinusitis. Bacterial colonization was assessed in these specimens using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. All subjects were positive for bacterial colonization of the middle meatus. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes were the most prevalent and abundant microorganisms detected. Rich and diverse bacterial assemblages are present in the sinonasal cavity in the normal state, including opportunistic pathogens typically found in the nasopharynx. This work helps establish a baseline for understanding how the sinonasal microbiome may impact diseases of the upper airways.

  5. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni [A' Hospital of IKA, Athens (Greece); Dona, Artemis [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: artedona@med.uoa.gr; Papoutsis, John [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece); Spiliopoulou, Chara [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)

    2006-04-15

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 {+-} 23.56 {mu}g/dl and 77.11 {+-} 17.67 {mu}g/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries.

  6. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  7. Healthy eating beliefs and intentions of mothers and their adult children: An intergenerational transmission perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumodhee, Dayyanah; Payne, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the possible intergenerational transmission of eating beliefs and intentions between 60 mothers and their adult children. Maternal restrictive feeding practices were correlated with mothers' own healthy eating attitudes and subjective norms, and with their adult children's subjective norms. Mothers' beliefs and intentions were correlated with their adult children. Adult children's intentions to eat healthily were predicted by their attitudes and perceived behavioural control, and also by their mothers' intentions and perceived behavioural control. Mothers' own beliefs and intentions may be involved in shaping their children's beliefs and intentions into adulthood but their child feeding practices may have less of an influence.

  8. Prospective dynamic balance control in healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Hanne; van der Meer, Audrey L H

    2007-08-01

    Balance control during gait initiation was studied using center of pressure (CoP) data from force plate measurements. Twenty-four participants were divided into four age groups: (1) 2-3 years, (2) 4-5 years, (3) 7-8 years, and (4) adults. Movement in the antero-posterior (CoPy) direction during the initial step was tau-G analyzed, investigating the hypothesis that tau of the CoPy motion-gap (tau(CoPy)), i.e., the time it will take to close the gap at its current closure rate, is tau-coupled onto an intrinsic tau-G guide (tau(G)), by maintaining the relation tau(CoPy )= Ktau(G), for a constant K. Mean percentage of tau-guidance for all groups was >/=99%, resulting in all r(2) exceeding 0.95, justifying an investigation of the regression slope as an estimate of the coupling constant K in the tau-coupling equation. Mean K values decreased significantly with age and were for 2- to 3-year-olds 0.56, for 4- to 5-year-olds 0.50, for 7- to 8-year-olds 0.47, and for adults 0.41. Therefore, the control of dynamic balance develops from the youngest children colliding with the boundaries of the base of support (K > 0.5) to the older children and adults making touch contact (K

  9. Diet Quality Scores of Australian Adults Who Have Completed the Healthy Eating Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Schumacher, Tracy; Collins, Clare E

    2017-08-15

    Higher scores obtained using diet quality and variety indices are indicators of more optimal food and nutrient intakes and lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the overall diet quality and variety in a sample of Australian adults who completed an online diet quality self-assessment tool, the Healthy Eating Quiz. The Healthy Eating Quiz takes approximately five minutes to complete online and computes user responses into a total diet quality score (out of a maximum of 73 points) and then categorizes them into the following groups: 'needs work' (Healthy eating quiz scores were higher in those aged 45-75 years compared to 16-44 years (p Healthy Eating Quiz data indicates that individuals receiving feedback on how to improve their score can improve their diet quality, there is a need for further nutrition promotion interventions in Australian adults.

  10. Enantioselective HPLC-DAD method for the determination of etodolac enantiomers in tablets, human plasma and application to comparative pharmacokinetic study of both enantiomers after a single oral dose to twelve healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewala, Ismail I; Moneeb, Marwa S; Elmongy, Hatem A; Wahbi, Abdel-Aziz M

    2014-12-01

    An enantioselective high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed and validated for the determination of etodolac enantiomers in tablets and human plasma. Enantiomeric separation was achieved on a Kromasil Cellucoat chiral column (250 mm × 4.6mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) using a mobile phase consisting of hexane: isopropanol: triflouroacetic acid (90:10:0.1 v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The chromatographic system enables the separation of the two enantiomers and the internal standard within a cycle time of 8 min. The resolution between the two enantiomers was 4.25 and the resolution between each enantiomer and the internal standard was more than 2.0. Detection was carried out at 274 nm, and the purity assessment was performed using a photodiode array detector. Solid phase extraction technique using C-18 cartridge was applied to extract the analytes from the plasma samples, and the percentage recovery was more than 95% for the lower quantification limit. The method has been validated with respect to selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. The linearity range for the determination of each enantiomer in human plasma was 0.4-30.0 µg mL(-1) and the limits of quantification of R-etodolac and S-etodolac were 0.20 and 0.19 µg mL(-1), respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of etodolac enantiomers in tablets and to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of the two enantiomers after the administration of 300 mg single oral dose etodolac racemate tablets to twelve healthy volunteers.

  11. Learned Fear of Gastrointestinal Sensations in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceunen, Erik; Zaman, Jonas; Weltens, Nathalie; Sarafanova, Ekaterina; Arijs, Vicky; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse

    2016-11-01

    Gastrointestinal symptom-specific fear and anxiety are important determinants of gastrointestinal symptom perception. We studied learning of fear toward innocuous gastrointestinal sensations as a putative mechanism in the development of gastrointestinal symptom-specific fear and anxiety. Fifty-two healthy subjects (26 women) received 2 types of esophageal balloon distention at a perceptible but nonpainful intensity (conditioned stimulus [CS], the innocuous sensation) and at a painful intensity (unconditioned stimulus [US]). Subjects were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups. During the learning phase, the innocuous CS preceded the painful US in the experimental group (n = 26). In the control group (n = 26), on the contrary, the US never followed the CS directly. During a subsequent extinction phase, both groups received only CS distention-the painful US was no longer administered. Indexes of fear learning toward the innocuous CS distention included the skin conductance response, fear-potentiated startle (measured by the eye-blink electromyogram), and self-reported expectancy of the US. During the learning phase, only the experimental group learned to fear the innocuous gastrointestinal CS, based on the increase in US expectancy (compared with the control group, P = .04), increased skin conductance response (compared with the control group, P = .03), and potentiated startle reflex (compared with the control group, P = .001) in response to the CS. The differences between the experimental and control groups in US expectancy and skin conductance, but not fear-potentiated startle, disappeared during the extinction phase. Fear toward innocuous gastrointestinal sensations can be established through associative learning in healthy human beings. This may be an important mechanism in the development of fear of gastrointestinal symptoms, implicated in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc

  12. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice AL Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory under three (quiet, urban, and social noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban, reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social, and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function, and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive

  13. Mechanisms of action in integrated cognitive-behavioral treatment versus twelve-step facilitation for substance-dependent adults with comorbid major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasner-Edwards, Suzette; Tate, Susan R; McQuaid, John R; Cummins, Kevin; Granholm, Eric; Brown, Sandra A

    2007-09-01

    In a population of veterans with co-occurring substance use disorders and concomitant major depressive disorder, the current study compared mechanisms of change and therapeutic effects relevant to both disorders between integrated, dual disorder-specific cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) and twelve-step facilitation (TSF). Veterans (N = 148) were given standard pharmacotherapy for depression and were randomly assigned to receive 24 weeks of either TSF or ICBT. Process measures were selected to quantify (1) changes in self-efficacy in ICBT, (2) changes in ability to terminate negative affect in ICBT, (3) twelve-step affiliation (TSA) in TSF, and (4) changes in social support in both conditions. Measures of depression and substance use were administered to all participants before treatment, during treatment, and at the end of treatment. Self-efficacy increased among both TSF and ICBT participants during treatment, whereas self-reported ability to regulate negative affect did not change. Consistent with predictions, TSF participants increased community TSA during treatment, whereas those receiving ICBT reduced TSA. Changes in self-efficacy and TSA were associated with improvement in substance use outcomes at the end of treatment. Hypothesized changes in social support were not supported. Both ICBT and TSF produce improvements in self-efficacy, and these changes are related to substance use outcomes for depressed substance abusers. In TSF, intervention-specific changes in TSA occur during the course of treatment and are related to substance use outcomes.

  14. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Primaquine and Pyronaridine-Artesunate in Healthy Adult Thai Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jittamala, Podjanee; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Nosten, François; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Lee, Sue J.; Thana, Praiya; Chairat, Kalayanee; Blessborn, Daniel; Panapipat, Salwaluk; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Tarning, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540−180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesun...

  15. Pharmacokinetic interactions between primaquine and pyronaridine-artesunate in healthy adult Thai subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Jittamala, P.; Pukrittayakamee, S; Ashley, EA; Nosten, F; Hanboonkunupakarn, B; Lee, SJ; Thana, P; Chairat, K; Blessborn, D; Panapipat, S; White, NJ; Day, NP; Tarning, J

    2015-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540-180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesun...

  16. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiandu, C; Okerengwo, A A; Dapper, D V

    2013-06-30

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. The effects of age and sex on the serum levels of the various immunoglobulin types were also determined. The mean values and ranges for the various immunoglobulin types are presented for both children and adults. Although, female children were found to have significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male children (p0.05). However, female adults had significantly higher mean values of IgG and significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male adults (pimmunoglobulin between adults and children. The present study reports mean values of the various types of immunoglobulin in apparently healthy children and adults resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. Significant gender differences were observed for some of the immunoglobulin types only amongst adults. Our results suggest that these gender differences amongst adults were apparently a gradual build-up from childhood. The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria.

  17. Nutrients can modulate the adiponectin concentrations in apparently healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adiponectin, an adipocyte derived peptide, has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects, and improves insulin sensitivity. However, little is known about dietary predictors and their interactions with lifestyle on adiponectin concentrations, in apparently healthy young adults. Objective: To evaluate the associations between plasma concentrations of adiponectin with dietary components and lifestyle in apparently healthy young adults. Methods: Anthropometric and body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diet and lifestyle data of 157 healthy young adults, aged 18 and 35, were collected and analyzed. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 12 hours to determine adiponectin concentrations. Dietary and anthropometric indexes were calculated and analyzed. Results: Adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher for women compared to men; and there was an indirect and significant correlation between adiponectin concentrations with BMI. There was a significant association between adiponectin concentrations with the healthy eating index, calories, lipids, proteins, fibers, riboflavin, and phosphorus, among others; and a tendency with carbohydrates and niacin. In multiple linear regression analysis, fiber and riboflavin (r² = 0.0928; p = 0.0013 and carbohydrates and phosphorus were associated with the concentrations of adiponectin. The association with carbohydrates and phosphorus suffered interaction with gender (r²= 0.2400; p < 0.0001, as well as the association with phosphorus also suffered interaction with physical activity (r²= 0.1275; p = 0.0003. Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, in healthy young adults, seem to be modulated by components of diet depending on gender and physical activity.

  18. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  19. Thrombopoietin concentration in umbilical cord blood of healthy term newborns is higher than in adult controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walka, M M; Sonntag, J; Dudenhausen, J W; Obladen, M

    1999-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations were determined in umbilical cord plasma of 121 healthy term newborns. The lower detection limit of the enzyme immunoassay employed was 32.5 pg/ml. Median cord plasma TPO concentration was 78 (interquartile range 55-107) pg/ml. 95th percentile was 255 pg/ml. In only 8% (10/121), TPO was below the detection limit compared to 81% of healthy adults (25/31). In cord blood and adult controls, there were no significant correlations of TPO with platelet count or mass.

  20. Failure to differentiate between threat-related and positive emotion cues in healthy adults with childhood interpersonal or adult trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Denise A; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M; Harris, Anthony W F

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced threat-related processing is associated with both elevated anxiety and childhood exposure to trauma. Given the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure on subsequent psychophysiological processes in the absence of psychopathology, we investigated the relative impacts of childhood interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma, as well as adult trauma exposure on neural processing of threat in healthy adults. We measured peak amplitudes of the N170 face-sensitive visual ERP component response to non-conscious and conscious Angry (threat) versus Happy (non-threat, positive) and Neutral (non-threat baseline) faces at temporo-occipital sites (right-T6; left-T5) in 489 psychiatrically asymptomatic adults (aged 18-70 years, 54% women, 94% right-handed). N170 peak amplitude differences between Angry vs Happy or Neutral faces were calculated and subjected to hierarchical multiple regression analysis, with trauma types (childhood interpersonal, childhood non-interpersonal and adult trauma) entered as predictors of interest. After controlling for sociodemographic and health factors, N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious Angry vs Happy faces were inversely associated with childhood interpersonal trauma at T6 and adult trauma exposure at T5. Post-hoc repeated measures ANOVA indicated that unlike adults without trauma exposure, trauma-exposed adults failed to show significantly reduced N170 responses to Happy relative to Angry faces during non-conscious processing. This suggests that childhood interpersonal and adult trauma exposure are associated with a failure to differentiate between non-threat or positive and threat-related emotion cues. This is consistent with generalised hypervigilance seen in PTSD, and suggests trauma exposure is associated with a generalized heightened responsivity to non-conscious non-threat or positive as well as threat-related emotion cues in psychiatrically healthy adults.

  1. Influential factors for pressure pulse waveform in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Wang, Ling; Li, Shuyu; Zhi, Guang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gender and other contributory factors on pulse waveform are still under arguments. In view of different results caused by few considerations of possible influential factors and general agreement of gender relating to pulse waveform, this study aims to address the confounding factors interfering with the association between gender and pulse waveform characteristics. A novel method was proposed to noninvasively detect pressure pulse wave and assess the morphology of pulse wave. Forty healthy young subjects were included in the present research. Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured manually and body mass index (BMI), pulse blood pressure (PP) and heart rate (HR) were calculated automatically. Student's t test was used to analyze the gender difference and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the effects of intrinsic factors. Univariate regression analysis was performed to assess the main factors on the waveform characteristics. Waveform features were found significantly different between genders. However this study indicates that the main factors for time-related and amplitude-related parameters are HR and SBP respectively. In conclusion, the impact of HR and SBP on pulse waveform features should not be underestimated, especially when analyzing the gender difference.

  2. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  3. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  4. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Astrid Marie; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of gonadal function during maturation in girls and in adult women can be troublesome. With the recent advent of specific assays for the gonadal peptides inhibin A and inhibin B, it might be possible to achieve a clearer picture of events. We therefore determined serum levels...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  5. Exercise and Healthy Eating Intentions and Behaviors among Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Psouni, Stavroula; Chasandra, Mary; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests that exercise and eating behaviours are strongly linked. Theory of Planned Behaviour is a theoretical framework that has been successfully used to explain and predict both behaviours. The aim of the present study is to explore the constructs of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) that better predicts exercise and healthy eating: a) intentions and b) selfreported behaviors among normal weight and overweight/obese adults. Participants were 361 adults in Gree...

  6. Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics and Their Joint Association With Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Branscum, Adam; Hanks, June; Smit, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics and to examine the association between different combinations of healthy lifestyle characteristics and cardiovascular disease biomarkers. The prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics was estimated for the US adult population (N=4745) using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for the following parameters: being sufficiently active (accelerometer), eating a healthy diet (Healthy Eating Index based on 24-hour recalls), being a nonsmoker (serum cotinine level), and having a recommended body fat percentage (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Cardiovascular biomarkers included mean arterial pressure, C-reactive protein, white blood cells (WBCs), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, and homocysteine. The study was conducted from August 15, 2013, through January 5, 2016. Only 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.4%) of all adults had all 4 healthy lifestyle characteristics. Participants with 3 or 4 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics had more favorable biomarker levels except for mean arterial blood pressure, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1c. Having at least 1 or 2 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics was favorably associated with C-reactive protein, WBCs, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and homocysteine. For HDL-C and total cholesterol, the strongest correlate was body fat percentage. For homocysteine, a healthy diet and not smoking were strong correlates; for WBCs, diet was not a strong correlate. Although multiple healthy lifestyle characteristics are important, specific health characteristics may be more important for particular cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Strategies used during a challenging weighted walking task in healthy adults and individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinski, Andrew J; Higginson, Jill S

    2012-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that affects millions of people. While numerous gait differences have been identified between healthy adults and adults with knee OA under normal and challenging conditions, adults with knee OA have not been studied during a challenging weighted walking task. Investigation of the effect of weighted walking on the initial contact and loading response phases of gait was undertaken in 20 healthy and 20 knee OA subjects ages 40-85 years old walking at 1.0m/s while unweighted and weighted with 1/6th of their body weight in a weight vest. Subjects were grouped according to their Kellgren and Lawrence radiographic score and healthy subjects were age-matched to those with knee OA. ANOVA revealed significant effects for hip flexion angle at initial contact, step length, initial double support percent, and load rate. Post hoc t-tests revealed that subjects with knee OA had a larger initial double support percent and hip flexion angle at initial contact and a decreased load rate compared to unweighted, healthy adults. Also, both groups increased their initial double support percent in response to the challenging weighted walking task, but only the healthy adults increased their hip flexion angle at initial contact and decreased their load rate. During the weighted condition, the knee OA group had a shorter step length compared to the healthy group. Because the knee OA group only made minor compensations to their gait strategy, it appears that they may be unable or prefer not to adjust their gait mechanics due to underlying issues.

  8. Practical NK cell phenotyping and variability in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Laura S.; Banerjee, Pinaki P.; Monaco-Shawver, Linda; Rosen, Joshua B.; Makedonas, George; Forbes, Lisa R.; Mace, Emily M.; Orange, Jordan S.

    2015-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells display a wide array of surface and intracellular markers that indicate various states of differentiation and/or levels of effector function. These NK cell subsets exist simultaneously in peripheral blood, and may vary amongst individuals. We examined variety amongst selected NK cell receptors expressed by NK cells from normal donors, as well as the distribution of select NK cell subsets and NK cell receptor expression over time in several individual donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were evaluated using flow cytometry via fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies against a number of NK cell receptors. Results were analyzed for both mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and the percent positive cells for each receptor. CD56bright and CD56dim NK cell subsets were also considered separately, as was variation of receptor expression in NK cell subsets over time in selected individuals. Through this effort we provide ranges of NK cell surface receptor expression for a local adult population as well as provide insight into intra-individual variation. PMID:26013798

  9. Clinical assessment of organizational strategy: An examination of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pia; White, Desirée A

    2015-06-01

    During the assessment of patients with cognitive difficulties, clinicians often examine strategic processing, particularly the ability to use organization-based strategies to efficiently complete various tasks. Several commonly used neuropsychological tasks are currently thought to provide measures of organizational strategic processing, but empirical evidence for the construct validity of these strategic measures is needed before interpreting them as measuring the same underlying ability. This is particularly important for the assessment of organizational strategic processing because the measures span cognitive domains (e.g., memory strategy, language strategy) as well as types of organization. In the present study, 200 adults were administered cognitive tasks commonly used in clinical practice to assess organizational strategic processing. Factor analysis was used to examine whether these measures of organizational strategic processing, which involved different cognitive domains and types of organization, could be operationalized as measuring a unitary construct. A very good-fitting model of the data demonstrated no significant shared variance among any of the strategic variables from different tasks (root mean square error of approximation strategic processing is highly specific to the demands and goals of individual tasks even when tasks share commonalities such as involving the same cognitive domain. In the design of neuropsychological batteries involving the assessment of organizational strategic processing, it is recommended that various strategic measures across cognitive domains and types of organizational processing are selected as guided by each patient's individual cognitive difficulties. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Executive functioning and adaptive coping in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Villegas, Ana Lilia; Salvador Cruz, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged individuals encounter multiple environmental demands to which they must develop efficient solutions, thus making the study of executive functions and coping strategies within this age group important. This study evaluated the relationship between the planning and flexible organization of executive function with adaptive coping strategies (ACS) in adults aged 43 to 52 years old. The study included 104 participants, including 52 men and 52 women, with no history of neurological or psychiatric illnesses, diabetes, or hypertension. The participants engaged in the Tower of London(DX) (TOL(DX)) test, the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), and the Coping Strategies Inventory. A relationship was observed between the percentage of errors and conceptual-level responses (WCST) and the Problem Solving ACS. In a separate analysis performed on the men, a negative relationship was discovered between the WCST and the Emotional Expression ACS. In the female group, the dimensions of the WCST and the TOL(DX) were associated with the ACS Emotional Expression and Problem-Solving subscales and the maladaptive coping strategy Social Withdrawal subscale. The relationship between executive functioning and the ACS is multidimensional, complex, and different between men and women. This study adds a neuropsychological characterization of the relationship between executive functions and ACS with ecological validity. The study confirms a relationship between the flexible organization of executive function and the Problem-Solving ACS.

  11. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Kostyra, Eliza; Raats, Monique

    2016-07-15

    Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers' reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1) Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2) Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3) Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers' reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. NCT02776410 registered May 16, 2016.

  12. Discriminant analysis of pulmonary function parameters. Healthy adults versus mild asthmatics and moderate asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguro,Tadamichi

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available Volume-time (V-T and flow-volume (F-V curves were measured in all the subjects of nonsmoking young males (mean value 26.3 yrs. of age, healthy and asthmatics. Eleven parameters of pulmonary function tests composed of two V-T, six F-V, and three mean time constant (MTC parameters, were calculated from the curves. These parameters were used in the two analyses through the all possible selection procedure (APSP discriminating between healthy adults and mild asthmatics and also between healthy and moderate. Flow rate at 75% of FVC (V75 proved to be the most useful parameter and V50 the next best in both analyses. The probability of misclassification using all eleven parameters was 19.64% in the analysis of healthy adults and mild asthmatics, and 4.29% in the analysis of healthy adults and moderate asthmatics. There was a little difference in the parameters selected at every step. The discriminant analysis proved that the flow-volume patterns were different according to the severity of bronchial asthma. Thus flow-volume recognition was considered to be important in analyzing the severity of bronchial asthma.

  13. Pharmacoeconomics of influenza vaccination for healthy working adults - Reviewing the available evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, MJ; Jansema, P; van Genugten, MLL; Heijnen, MLA; Jager, JC; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    2002-01-01

    A favourable pharmacoeconomic profile has been well established for influenza vaccination in the elderly. For employers relevant benefits seem to exist for vaccinating healthy working adults to avert absenteeism and related production losses. From a pharmacoeconomic point of view it is relevant to c

  14. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  15. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  16. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius GJ-24, a probiotic strain isolated from healthy adult intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Joon; Choi, Jae Kyoung; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lim, Yea-Seul; Ham, Jun-Sang; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Chun, Jongsik; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Geun-Bae

    2011-09-01

    The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius GJ-24 isolated from the feces of healthy adults was determined. Its properties, including milk fermentation activity and bacteriocin production, suggest its potential uses as a probiotic lactic acid bacterium and start culture for dairy products.

  17. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  18. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    as assessed by high-throughput molecular approaches in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of healthy adults. METHODS: The survey of peer-reviewed papers was performed on 17 August 2015 by a literature search through PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science. Additional papers were identified by checking...

  19. Absorption capacity of fructose in healthy adults. Comparison with sucrose and its constituent monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1986-01-01

    The capacity to absorb fructose in 10 healthy adults was investigated by means of hydrogen breath analysis. Fructose absorption was quantified with lactulose standards. Significant hydrogen production (greater than or equal to 20 ppm rise of breath hydrogen) was found after challenge with 10...

  20. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  1. Mild Memory Impairment in Healthy Older Adults Is Distinct from Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargin, J. Weaver; Maruff, P.; Collie, A.; Masters, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mild memory impairment was detected in 28% of a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults using the delayed recall trial of a word list learning task. Statistical analysis revealed that individuals with memory impairment also demonstrated relative deficits on other measures of memory, and tests of executive function, processing speed and…

  2. Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jessica K.; Baran, Bengi; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Richard B. Ivry; Rebecca M. C. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known of the role of sleep on memory for healthy older adults. We used two tasks, one assaying motor skill learning and the other assaying non-motor/declarative learning, to examine off-line changes in performance in young (20–34 yrs), middle-aged (35–50 yrs), and older (51–70 yrs) adults without disordered sleep. During an initial session, conducted either in the morning or evening, participants lea...

  3. UnAdulterated - children and adults' visual attention to healthy and unhealthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Astrid F; Hooge, Ignace T C; Maas, Josje; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-04-01

    Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting adults' superior self-regulation skills compared to children. This study employed a novel method to investigate self-regulatory skills. Children and adults' initial (bottom-up) and maintained (top-down) visual attention to simultaneously presented healthy and unhealthy food were examined in an eye-tracking paradigm. Results showed that both children and adults initially attended most to the unhealthy food. Subsequently, adults self-regulated their visual attention away from the unhealthy food. Despite the children's high self-reported attempts to eat healthily and importance of eating healthily, children did not self-regulate visual attention away from unhealthy food. Children remained influenced by the attention-driven desire to consume the unhealthy food whereas adults visually attended more strongly to the healthy food thereby avoiding the desire to consume the unhealthy option. The findings emphasize the necessity of improving children's self-regulatory skills to support their desire to remain healthy and to protect children from the influences of the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The effect of rhythmic musical training on healthy older adults' gait and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Linda M; Brown, Laura J E; Astell, Arlene J

    2014-08-01

    Older adults' gait is disturbed when a demanding secondary cognitive task is added. Gait training has been shown to improve older adults' walking performance, but it is not clear how training affects their cognitive performance. This study examined the impact on gait, in terms of cost or benefit to cognitive performance, of training healthy older adults to walk to a rhythmic musical beat. In a mixed model design, 45 healthy older adults aged more than 65 years (M = 71.7 years) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group received a rhythmic musical training and their dual-task (DT) walking and cognitive performances were compared with a group who had music playing in the background but no training, and a third group who heard no music and received no training. Outcomes in single-task (ST) and DT conditions were step-time variability and velocity for gait and correct cognitive responses for the cognitive task. The Musical Training group's step-time variability improved in both the ST (p cognitive performance. No change was seen in the control groups. Rhythmic musical training can improve gait steadiness in healthy older adults with no negative impact on concurrent cognitive functioning. This could potentially enhance "postural reserve" and reduce fall risk. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Successful adaptation of gait in healthy older adults during dual-task treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Karen Z H; Abbud, Gabriela A; Fraser, Sarah A; Demont, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Dual-task methods have been used to demonstrate increased prioritization of walking performance over cognition in healthy aging. This is expressed as greater dual-task costs in cognitive performance than in walking. However, other research shows that older adults can prioritize cognitive performance over walking when instructed to do so. We asked whether age-related cognitive prioritization would emerge by experimentally manipulating cognitive difficulty. Young and older adults performed mental arithmetic at two levels of difficulty, alone or while walking. Electromyography and footswitches were used to measure muscle activity and stride parameters. Under high cognitive load, older adults increased their stride time, stride length, and hamstring activity, while maintaining their cognitive performance. Young adults showed negligible dual-task costs in each domain. The older adults appeared to successfully adapt their stride in response to high cognitive demands. The results have implications for neural models of gait regulation, and age differences in task emphasis.

  6. The Functional Integration in the Sensory-Motor System Predicts Aging in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Xin; Shan, Yan; Cao, Weifang; Gong, Jinnan; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Bobes, Maria A; Biswal, Bharat; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is typically accompanied by a decrease in the motor capacity. Although the disrupted neural representations and performance of movement have been observed in older age in previous studies, the relationship between the functional integration of sensory-motor (SM) system and aging could be further investigated. In this study, we examine the impact of healthy aging on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the SM system, and investigate as to how aging is affecting the rsFC in SM network. The SM network was identified and evaluated in 52 healthy older adults and 51 younger adults using two common data analytic approaches: independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (seed at bilateral M1 and S1). We then evaluated whether the altered rsFC of the SM network could delineate trajectories of the age of older adults using a machine learning methodology. Compared with the younger adults, the older demonstrated reduced functional integration with increasing age in the mid-posterior insula of SM network and increased rsFC among the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, the reduction in the rsFC of mid-posterior insula is associated with the age of older adults. Critically, the analysis based on two-aspect connectivity-based prediction frameworks revealed that the age of older adults could be reliably predicted by this reduced rsFC. These findings further indicated that healthy aging has a marked influence on the SM system that would be associated with a reorganization of SM system with aging. Our findings provide further insight into changes in sensorimotor function in the aging brain.

  7. Extended nitric oxide measurements in exhaled air of cystic fibrosis and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Markus; Mueller, Luzia; Rechsteiner, Thomas; Benden, Christian; Boehler, Annette

    2009-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is not raised, but rather is normal or even decreased when measured at a single expiratory flow. FeNO measurements at several flow rates allow differentiation between alveolar and bronchial nitric oxide (NO) production. Extended FeNO measurements therefore should be useful to localize the FeNO deficit in CF airways. FeNO was measured in stable CF adults with moderate lung disease and in healthy controls. Bronchial NO fluxes (J(NO,Br)) and alveolar NO concentrations (C(Alv)) were calculated from FeNO measurements at flow rates of 100, 150 and 200 ml/s using a method previously described. Thirty-two adults were included in the study, 12 of whom had CF. CF adults had significantly lower FeNO values at all flow rates. The median J(NO,Br) was significantly lower in CF adults than in healthy controls [0.31 nl/s (range = 0.11-0.63) vs. 0.70 nl/s (0.27-3.52); P alveolar and bronchial NO outputs in CF adults. The lower FeNO in adults with moderate to severe CF lung disease is likely to be the result of lower bronchial NO output.

  8. Precursors to suicidality and violence on antidepressants: systematic review of trials in adult healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Andreas Ø; Danborg, Pia B; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-10-01

    To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Harms related to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult healthy volunteers that reported on suicidality or violence or precursor events to suicidality or violence. A total of 5787 publications were screened and 130 trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trials were generally uninformative; 97 trials did not report the randomisation method, 75 trials did not report any discontinuations and 63 trials did not report any adverse events or lack thereof. Eleven of the 130 published trials and two of 29 clinical study reports we received from the regulatory agencies presented data for our meta-analysis. Treatment of adult healthy volunteers with antidepressants doubled their risk of harms related to suicidality and violence, odds ratio 1.85 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 3.08, p = 0.02, I(2 )= 18%). The number needed to treat to harm one healthy person was 16 (95% confidence interval 8 to 100; Mantel-Haenszel risk difference 0.06). There can be little doubt that we underestimated the harms of antidepressants, as we only had access to the published articles for 11 of our 13 trials. Antidepressants double the occurrence of events in adult healthy volunteers that can lead to suicide and violence. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  9. Precursors to suicidality and violence on antidepressants: systematic review of trials in adult healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Andreas Ø; Danborg, Pia B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Main outcome measure Harms related to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. Setting Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators. Participants Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult healthy volunteers that reported on suicidality or violence or precursor events to suicidality or violence. Results A total of 5787 publications were screened and 130 trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trials were generally uninformative; 97 trials did not report the randomisation method, 75 trials did not report any discontinuations and 63 trials did not report any adverse events or lack thereof. Eleven of the 130 published trials and two of 29 clinical study reports we received from the regulatory agencies presented data for our meta-analysis. Treatment of adult healthy volunteers with antidepressants doubled their risk of harms related to suicidality and violence, odds ratio 1.85 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 3.08, p = 0.02, I2 = 18%). The number needed to treat to harm one healthy person was 16 (95% confidence interval 8 to 100; Mantel-Haenszel risk difference 0.06). There can be little doubt that we underestimated the harms of antidepressants, as we only had access to the published articles for 11 of our 13 trials. Conclusions Antidepressants double the occurrence of events in adult healthy volunteers that can lead to suicide and violence. PMID:27729596

  10. Protein Requirements in Healthy Adults:A Meta-analysis of Nitrogen Balance Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; SUN Feng; PIAO Jian Hua; YANG Xiao Guang

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to analyze protein requirements in healthy adults through a meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies. Methods A comprehensive search for nitrogen balance studies of healthy adults published up to October 2012 was performed, each study were reviewed, and data were abstracted. The studies were first evaluated for heterogeneity. The average protein requirements were analyzed by using the individual data of each included studies. Study site climate, age, sex, and dietary protein source were compared. Results Data for 348 subjects were gathered from 28 nitrogen balance studies. The natural logarithm of requirement for 348 individuals had a normal distribution with a mean of 4.66. The estimated average requirement was the exponentiation of the mean of the log requirement, 105.64 mg N/kg·d. No significant differences between adult age, source of dietary protein were observed. But there was significant difference between sex and the climate of the study site (P Conclusion The estimated average requirement and recommended nutrient intake of the healthy adult population was 105.64 mg N/kg·d (0.66 g high quality protein/kg·d) and 132.05 mg N/kg·d (0.83 g high quality protein/kg·d), respectively.

  11. Sleep disorders and their impacts on healthy, dependent, and frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochen, V; Arbus, C; Soto, M E; Villars, H; Tiberge, M; Montemayor, T; Hein, C; Veccherini, M F; Onen, S H; Ghorayeb, I; Verny, M; Fitten, L J; Savage, J; Dauvilliers, Y; Vellas, B

    2009-04-01

    Sleep disorders differ widely in the heterogeneous older adult population. Older adults can be classified into three groups based upon their overall level of disability: healthy, dependent, and frail. Frailty is an emerging concept that denotes older persons at increased risk for poor outcomes. The aim of this consensus review is to describe the sleep disorders observed in healthy and dependent older adults and to discuss the potential sleep disorders associated with frailty as well as their potential consequences on this weakened population. A review task force was created including neurologists, geriatricians, sleep specialists and geriatric psychiatrists to discuss age related sleep disorders depending on the three categories of older adults. All published studies on sleep in older adults on Ovid Medline were reviewed and 106 articles were selected for the purpose of this consensus. Many healthy older adults have complains about their sleep such as waking not rested and too early, trouble falling asleep, daytime napping, and multiple nocturnal awakenings. Sleep architecture is modified by age with an increased percentage of time spent in stage one and a decreased percentage spent in stages three and four. Insomnia is frequent and its mechanisms include painful medical conditions, psychological distress, loss of physical activity and iatrogenic influences. Treatments are also involved in older adults' somnolence. The prevalence of primary sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements and sleep disordered breathing increases with age. Potential outcomes relevant to these sleep disorders in old age include mortality, cardiovascular and neurobehavioral co-morbidities. Sleep in dependent older adults such as patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) is disturbed. The sleep patterns observed in these patients are often similar to those observed in non-demented elderly but alterations are more severe. Nocturnal sleep disruption and daytime

  12. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Anne; Juul, A A; Andersson, Annica

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of gonadal function during maturation in girls and in adult women can be troublesome. With the recent advent of specific assays for the gonadal peptides inhibin A and inhibin B, it might be possible to achieve a clearer picture of events. We therefore determined serum levels...... of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...

  13. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women.

  14. Humoral responses to independent vaccinations are correlated in healthy boosted adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Lori; Vineyard, Amanda J.; Crowe, Sherry R.; Harley, John B.; Spooner, Christina E.; Collins, Limone C.; Nelson, Michael R.; Engler, Renata J.M.; James, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Roughly half of U.S. adults do not receive recommended booster vaccinations, but protective antibody levels are rarely measured in adults. Demographic factors, vaccination history, and responses to other vaccinations could help identify at-risk individuals. We sought to characterize rates of seroconversion and determine associations of humoral responses to multiple vaccinations in healthy adults. Methods Humoral responses toward measles, mumps, tetanus toxoid, pertussis, hepatitis B surface antigen, and anthrax protective antigen were measured by ELISA in post-immunization samples from 1,465 healthy U.S. military members. We examined the effects of demographic and clinical factors on immunization responses, as well as assessed correlations between vaccination responses. Results Subsets of boosted adults did not have seroprotective levels of antibodies toward measles (10.4%), mumps (9.4%), pertussis (4.7%), hepatitis B (8.6%) or protective antigen (14.4%) detected. Half-lives of antibody responses were generally long (>30 years). Measles and mumps antibody levels were correlated (r=0.31, pvaccination history. Measles and mumps antibody levels also correlated with tetanus antibody response (r=0.11, pVaccination responses are predominantly robust and vaccine specific. However, a small but significant portion of the vaccinated adult population may not have quantitative seroprotective antibody to common vaccine-preventable infections. PMID:25140930

  15. Comparing Years of Healthy Life, Measured in 16 Ways, for Normal Weight and Overweight Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The traditional definitions of overweight and obesity are not age specific, even though the relationship of weight to mortality is different for older adults. Effects of adiposity on aspects of health beside mortality have not been well investigated. Methods. We calculated the number of years of healthy life (YHL in the 10 years after baseline, for 5,747 older adults. YHL was defined in 16 different ways. We compared Normal and Overweight persons, classified either by body mass index (BMI or by waist circumference (WC. Findings. YHL for Normal and Overweight persons differed significantly in 25% of the comparisons, of which half favored the Overweight. Measures of physical health favored Normal weight, while measures of mental health and quality of life favored Overweight. Overweight was less favorable when defined by WC than by BMI. Obese persons usually had worse outcomes. Discussion. Overweight older adults averaged as many years of life and years of healthy life as those of Normal weight. There may be no outcome based reason to distinguish Normal from Overweight for older adults. Conclusion. The “Overweight paradox” appears to hold for nonmortality outcomes. New adiposity standards are needed for older adults, possibly different by race and sex.

  16. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  17. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  18. Severe infective endocarditis in a healthy adult due to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Itaru; Tsukimori, Ayaka; Sato, Akihiro; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    A case of severe endocarditis, with complications of multiple infarction, meningitis, and ruptured mitral chordae tendineae, caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a healthy man, is reported. Emergency cardiovascular surgery was performed on the day of admission. Infective endocarditis caused by S. agalactiae is very rare, particularly in a healthy adult. In addition, microbiological analysis revealed that S. agalactiae of sequence type (ST) 19, which belongs to serotype III, was present in the patient's vegetation, mitral valve, and blood culture. It was therefore concluded that the endocarditis was caused by ST19, which has been reported as a non-invasive type of S. agalactiae. This was an extremely rare case in which S. agalactiae of ST19 caused very severe endocarditis in an adult patient with no underlying disease.

  19. Prohibition or coffee shops: regulation of amphetamine and methylphenidate for enhancement use by healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubljević, Veljko

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes appropriate public policies for enhancement use of two most important stimulant drugs: Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts). The author argues that appropriate regulation of cognition enhancement drugs cannot be a result of a general discussion on cognitive enhancements as such, but has to be made on a case-by-case basis. Starting from the recently proposed taxation approach to cognition enhancement drugs, the author analyzes available, moderately permissive models of regulation. After a thorough analysis of relevant characteristics of methylphenidate and amphetamine, the author concludes that a moderately liberal permissive regulation of enhancement use by healthy adults might be appropriate for extended release forms of methylphenidate. However, due to their danger profile, amphetamine and instant release forms of methylphenidate should not be made readily available to healthy adults and would need to be prohibited.

  20. Music enhances category fluency in healthy older adults and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R G; Moulin, C J A; Hayre, S; Jones, R W

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to some music, in particular classical music, has been reported to produce transient increases in cognitive performance. The authors investigated the effect of listening to an excerpt of Vivaldi's Four Seasons on category fluency in healthy older adult controls and Alzheimer's disease patients. In a counterbalanced repeated-measure design, participants completed two, 1-min category fluency tasks whilst listening to an excerpt of Vivaldi and two, 1-min category fluency tasks without music. The authors report a positive effect of music on category fluency, with performance in the music condition exceeding performance without music in both the healthy older adult control participants and the Alzheimer's disease patients. In keeping with previous reports, the authors conclude that music enhances attentional processes, and that this can be demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Gait variability in healthy old adults is more affected by a visual perturbation than by a cognitive or narrow step placement demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Carrie A; Franz, Jason R; O'Connor, Shawn M; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-09-01

    Gait variability measures have been linked to fall risk in older adults. However, challenging walking tasks may be required to elucidate increases in variability that arise from subtle age-related changes in cognitive processing and sensorimotor function. Hence, the study objective was to investigate the effects of visual perturbations, increased cognitive load, and narrowed step width on gait variability in healthy old and young adults. Eleven old (OA, 71.2±4.2 years) and twelve young (YA, 23.6±3.9 years) adults walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched virtual hallway. Subjects walked: (1) normally, (2) with mediolateral visual perturbations, (3) while performing a cognitive task (serial seven subtractions), and (4) with narrowed step width. We computed the mean and variability of step width (SW and SWV, respectively) and length (SL, SLV) over one 3-min trial per condition. Walking normally, old and young adults exhibited similar SWV and SLV. Visual perturbations significantly increased gait variability in old adults (by more than 100% for both SWV and SLV), but not young adults. The cognitive task and walking with narrowed step width did not show any effect on SWV or SLV in either group. The dramatic increase in step width variability when old adults were subjected to mediolateral visual perturbations was likely due to increased reliance on visual feedback for assessing whole-body position. Further work is needed to ascertain whether these findings may reflect sub-clinical balance deficits that could contribute to the increased fall risk seen with advancing age.

  2. Adherence to Alternative Healthy Eating Index in relation to depression and anxiety in Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afshar, Hamid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-07-01

    Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in Western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudied region of Middle East. We examined the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI-2010, as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was 15·2 % (males 10·8 % and females 18·3 %) and 30·0 % (males 22·9 % and females 35·1 %), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, those in the top quartile of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower chance of anxiety (OR 0·51; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·72) and a 45 % lower odds of depression (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72), compared with those in the bottom quartile. Stratified analysis by sex revealed that women in the highest categories of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower odds of having anxiety and depression, after adjustment for confounders, but no significant association was found in men. In addition, among individuals who were 40 years old or younger, those with high adherence to AHEI-2010 were 58 and 51 % less likely to have anxiety and depression, compared with those with less adherence. Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of anxiety and depression in Iranian adults. Prospective studies are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  3. Construction of Healthy and Palatable Diet for Low Socioeconomic Female Adults using Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslee Rajikan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Differences in socioeconomic profile may influences healthy food choices, particularly among individuals with low socioeconomic status. Thus, high-energy dense foods become the preferences compared to high nutritional content foods due to their cheaper price. The present study aims to develop healthy and palatable diet at the minimum cost based on Malaysian Dietary Guidelines 2010 and Recommended Nutrient Intake 2005 via linear programming. A total of 96 female adults from low socioeconomic families in Johor, South East Malaysia have been recruited for the present study. Anthropometric measurement; weight and height, socio-demographic information and 3-days food record have been collected from the subjects. In addition, data on food prices have also been collected. Then, a linear programming model has been developed to select the cheapest food combinations that could fulfil all the nutritional recommendations and palatable constraints in order to capture common dietary habit of the locals. Subsequently, healthy seven-days menus have been created using the optimal food servings estimated from the linear programming model. Dietary data have shown that the average energy intake among low-income adult women (1871 ± 317 kcal/day is less than the nutrient recommendation. Thus, from the linear programming analysis, the minimum food cost has been estimated at RM6.55 (2.15 USD for the total energy intake of 2000 kcal per day for a female adult which meets the recommendation of MDG 2010 and RNI 2005. In conclusion, linear programming may be a useful tool to develop healthy and palatable diets at a minimal cost in managing dietary problems among low socioeconomic groups where food expenditure becomes an important restraining factor. Eventually, low socioeconomics female adults would improve their nutritional intake by making wiser food choices to meet all the nutritional requirements, which lead to healthier life.

  4. Sternoclavicular joint septic arthritis with chest wall abscess in a healthy adult: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Yoshihito; Kato, Hisaaki; SHIRAI, Kunihiro; NAKAJIMA, Yasuhiro; YAMADA, Noriaki; Okada, Hideshi; Yoshida, Takahiro; Toyoda, Izumi; Ogura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Background Septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint is rare. It can be associated with serious complications such as osteomyelitis, chest wall abscess, and mediastinitis. In this report, we describe a case of an otherwise healthy adult with septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint with chest wall abscess. Case presentation A 68-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital complaining of pain and erythema near the right sternoclavicular joint. Despite 1 week of oral antibiotics,...

  5. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  6. Urinary excretion of dietary maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Butre, C.I.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Download »Citation Alerts »Sign up for TOC email alerts Share »Email this content »Recommend to librarian Facebook Twitter doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9550 Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats12 C. van Rooijen*, G. Bosch 3*, C. I. Butré†, A. F. B. van der Poe

  7. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J.; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults’ ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavio...

  8. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Behringer, M.; Moser, M.; Montag, J.; McCourt, M.; Tenner, D.; Mester, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. Methods: 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) a...

  9. Gender differences in factors affecting rejection of food in healthy young Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, S; Broman, D A; Garvill, J; Nyroos, M

    2004-12-01

    With the objectives to better understand gender-related differences in variables of importance for food intake, and interrelations between these variables, 100 healthy, young women and 100 healthy, young men responded to self-administrated questionnaires about general food rejection, learned illness-associated food aversions, disgust (the Disgust Scale), food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale), nausea and appetite. The results show that food rejection and aversions were more common in women (69 and 38%, respectively) than in men (47 and 18%), and that women are more disgust sensitive than men. However, no differences between women and men were observed regarding reasons for rejecting food (predominantly sensory attributes), prevalence of gastrointestinal illness as an associated aversion symptom (95 vs 89%), type of aversive food due to associated illness (predominantly high protein items), or food neophobia. Based on path analyses, a model is proposed of interrelations between disgust, food neophobia, learned food aversions, nausea, appetite, and general food rejection in healthy young adults.

  10. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeongwon; Kim, Hong Geum; Song, Daeheon; Yoon, Jung Yoon; Chung, Myung Eun

    2016-09-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology.

  11. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we aimed to examine the associations between levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and inflammatory cytokines in healthy Japanese adults. A total of 95 healthy adults (61 women; age range 21–69 years participated in our study. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for 25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH2D], interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and interleukin-17 (IL-17 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kits. Total percent body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA was assessed objectively using an activity monitor for 7 days. The mean 25(OHD concentration was 34.7 nmol/L, and 83 subjects had 25(OHD concentrations less than 50 nmol/L. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum 25(OHD level was positively related to plasma IL-17 level (β = 0.26, p = 0.025, after adjustment for gender, age, vitamin D intake, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and percent body fat. This relationship remained statistically significant (β = 0.28, p = 0.019 even after additional adjustment for MVPA. However, no significant association was found between serum 25(OHD level and plasma IFN-γ or IL-6 levels. In conclusion, this study identified a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy Japanese adults. Serum 25(OHD level was positively related to IL-17 level, independent of physical activity.

  12. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  13. Does proprioceptive system stimulation improve sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcelo P; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Lahr, Juliana; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] Sit-to-walk performance is linked to proper proprioceptive information processing. Therefore, it is believed that an increase of proprioceptive inflow (using muscle vibration) might improve sit-to-walk performance. However, before testing muscle vibration effects on a frail population, assessment of its effects on healthy young people is necessary. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle vibration on sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen young adults performed the sit-to-walk task under three conditions: without vibration, with vibration applied before movement onset, and with vibration applied during the movement. Vibration was applied bilaterally for 30 s to the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and upper trapezius muscles bellies. The vibration parameters were as follows: 120 Hz and 1.2 mm. Kinematics and kinetic data were assessed using a 3D motion capture system and two force plates. The coordinates of reflective markers were used to define the center-of-mass velocities and displacements. In addition, the first step spatiotemporal variables were assessed. [Results] No vibration effect was observed on any dependent variables. [Conclusion] The results show that stimulation of the proprioceptive system with local muscle vibration does not improve sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults.

  14. Reference ranges and age-related changes of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in Chinese healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yang; QIU ZhiFeng; XIE Jing; LI DongJing; LI TaiSheng

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to build region-specific reference ranges of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets for Chinese healthy adults from the young to the elderly and analyze the trends of changes in lymphocyte subsets for evaluating the impact of age on the values. 151 healthy adults aged 19-86 were recruited based on the SENIEUR protocol. Three sets of reference ranges were finally built applicable for the healthy young (19-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years) and elder adults (>65). Comparisons in parameters among the three cohorts showed that e statistically significant increase in CD16CD56+ NK cell was observed between the middle-aged and elder cohorts, whereas for the majority of the parameters, a significant decline was observed between the young and the middle-aged cohorts.Further results showed that inverse correlations were observed between the age and CD19+ B, CD3+T,CD3+CD4+1, CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+ naTve T cell and CD4+CD28+/CD4+, while the positive one was identified between the age end the NK cell. These significant changes of the most of immune parameters provided evidence for immunosenescence. Notably, T cell activation markers of CD8+CD38+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ showed reverse trends of association with age, which provides a clue for further researches on the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical clinical presentation of the elder patients.

  15. Biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in adult healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Autumn N; Estrada, Amara H; Gallagher, Alexander E; Winter, Brandy; Lamb, Kenneth E; Bohannon, Mary; Hanscom, Jancy; Mainville, Celine A

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and its impact on diagnostic utility is unknown in healthy cats and those with cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the biologic variation of NT-proBNP within-day and week-to-week in healthy adult cats. Methods Adult cats were prospectively evaluated by complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, total thyroxine, echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure, to exclude underlying systemic or cardiac disease. Adult healthy cats were enrolled and blood samples were obtained at 11 time points over a 6 week period (0, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The intra-individual (coefficient of variation [CVI]) biologic variation along with index of individuality and reference change values (RCVs) were calculated. Univariate models were analyzed and included comparison of the six different time points for both daily and weekly samples. This was followed by a Tukey's post-hoc adjustment, with a P value of cats. Further research is warranted to evaluate NT-proBNP variability, particularly how serial measurements of NT-proBNP may be used in the diagnosis and management of cats with cardiac disease.

  16. Grip Strength as a Marker of Hypertension and Diabetes in Healthy Weight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Anton, Stephen D; Jo, Ara

    2015-12-01

    Muscle strength may play a role in cardiometabolic disease. We examined the relationship between hand grip strength and diabetes and hypertension in a sample of healthy weight adults. In 2015, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 for adults aged ≥20 years with healthy BMIs (between 18.5 and Hypertension was based on measured blood pressure and reported hypertension diagnosis. Individuals with undiagnosed diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes had lower grip strength (51.9 vs 69.8, p=0.0001), as did individuals with diagnosed diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes (61.7 vs 69.8, p=0.008). Mean grip strength was lower among individuals with undiagnosed hypertension compared with individuals without hypertension (63.5 vs 71.5, p=0.008) as well as among individuals with diagnosed hypertension compared with those without hypertension (60.8 vs 71.5, phypertension (β=-6.6, p=0.004) and diagnosed hypertension (β=-4.27, p=0.04) compared with individuals without hypertension. Among healthy weight adults, combined grip strength is lower in individuals with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO Norms in Healthy Tunisian Adults

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    Sonia Rouatbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To establish FeNO norms for healthy Tunisian adults aged 18–60 years and to prospectively assess their reliability. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. A convenience sample of healthy Tunisian adults was recruited. Subjects responded to a medical questionnaire, and then FeNO levels were measured by an online method (Medisoft, Sorinnes (Dinant, Belgium. Clinical, anthropometric, and plethysmographic data were collected. All analyses were performed on natural logarithm values of FeNO. Results. 257 adults (145 males were retained. The proposed reference equation to predict FeNO value is lnFeNO (ppb = 3.47−0.56× height (m. After the predicted FeNO value for a given adult was computed, the upper limit of normal could be obtained by adding 0.60 ppb. The mean ± SD (minimum-maximum of FeNO (ppb for the total sample was 13.54±4.87 (5.00–26.00. For Tunisian and Arab adults of any age and height, any FeNO value greater than 26.00 ppb may be considered abnormal. Finally, in an additional group of adults prospectively assessed, we found no adult with a FeNO higher than 26.00 ppb. Conclusion. The present FeNO norms enrich the global repository of FeNO norms that the clinician can use to choose the most appropriate norms.

  18. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research

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    Johanna C. Badcock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement, highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions.Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the

  19. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  20. Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on hemostasis in healthy adults treated with heparin: a randomized, controlled, blinded crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Brahm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of nitric oxide (NO on hemostasis have been studied in various investigational settings, but data regarding inhaled NO on bleeding and platelet function are conflicting. It is not known if inhaled NO has an effect when administered with drugs that influence hemostasis. This trial evaluated effects of inhaled NO on hemostasis in the presence of heparin using aspirin as a positive control. Patients/Methods Twelve healthy adult males were enrolled in a single-center, randomized, single-blind, four-way crossover trial. Subjects received 80 ppm NO or medical air (placebo inhalation for 30 min with simultaneous injection of placebo or heparin. Aspirin capsules were used as a positive control. Parameters of hemostasis were measured before treatment and at post-treatment intervals. Results Activated clotting time (ACT, prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT increased only in groups that received heparin. Areas under the curve for ACT in heparin groups receiving inhaled NO were judged to be equivalent to those receiving medical air for both 0- to 4-h (ratio: 1.00; 90% CI, 0.90-1.11 and 0- to 24-h time intervals (ratio: 1.01; 90% CI, 0.92-1.12. Changes in bleeding time and platelet aggregation were observed only in aspirin groups. No clinically significant changes in hemoglobin, red blood cell counts or haematocrit were observed in any group. Conclusions Inhaled NO, when administered with heparin, exhibited no significant additive effects on ACT, PT, aPTT, bleeding time or platelet aggregation.

  1. STAPHYLOCOCCAL SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME MIMICKING TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS IN A HEALTHY ADULT

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    Tomoko Oishi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome (SSSS presents generalized form bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infection, typically seen in infants and children. SSSS may occur also in adults; however, the majority of adult cases are those with immunosuppression. Atypical clinical features of impetigo in adults sometimes make it difficult to diagnose correctly. Case Report: A 74-year-old healthy woman was hospitalized, complaining of extensive desquamative erythema and a number of erosions. She was administered oral antiviral drugs under suspicion of herpes zoster prior to 10 days. Initial diagnosis on the admission was toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN due to antiviral tablets; however, steroid pulse therapy resulted in no effect. Bacterial culture yielded coagulase-positive methicillin-resistent S. aureus, producing exfoliative toxin B. A biopsy specimen showed subcorneal splitting of the epidermis. The diffuse erosions gradually improved over 10 days by the treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Conclusions: The differentiation between streptococcal scaled skin syndrome (SSSS and TEN is sometimes difficult. It is important to remind SSSS when we suspect TEN, even in healthy adults..

  2. Twelve-months prevalence of mental disorders in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults - Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH): a methodological addendum and correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Frank; Höfler, Michael; Strehle, Jens; Mack, Simon; Gerschler, Anja; Scholl, Lucie; Busch, Markus A; Hapke, Ulfert; Maske, Ulrike; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Zielasek, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    We recently published findings in this journal on the prevalence of mental disorders from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH). The DEGS1-MH paper was also meant to be the major reference publication for this large-scale German study program, allowing future users of the data set to understand how the study was conducted and analyzed. Thus, towards this goal highest standards regarding transparency, consistency and reproducibility should be applied. After publication, unfortunately, the need for an addendum and corrigendum became apparent due to changes in the eligible reference sample, and corresponding corrections of the imputed data. As a consequence the sample description, sample size and some prevalence data needed amendments. Additionally we identified a coding error in the algorithm for major depression that had a significant effect on the prevalence estimates of depression and associated conditions. This addendum and corrigendum highlights all changes and presents the corrected prevalence tables. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity during cold stress and isometric exercise in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Jody L; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-09-15

    Cardiovascular mortality increases in cold weather in older adults, and physical activity may impart even greater cardiovascular risk than cold exposure alone. Human aging is associated with exaggerated pressor responses to whole body cooling; however, the sympathetic response to cold stress alone and in combination with isometric exercise is unknown. We hypothesized that cold stress would 1) increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and 2) augment the MSNA response to isometric handgrip in older adults. Whole body cooling (water-perfused suit) was conducted in 11 young (23 ± 1 yr) and 12 healthy older adults (60 ± 2 yr). Blood pressure (BP; Finometer) and MSNA (microneurography) were measured throughout cooling and during isometric handgrip at 30% maximal voluntary contraction performed at a mean skin temperature (Tsk) of 34 and 30.5°C. MSNA was greater in older adults at Tsk = 34.0°C and throughout cooling (P 0.05) or older adults (Δ12 ± 1 Tsk 34°C vs. Δ8 ± 1 Tsk 30.5°C bursts/min; Δ18 ± 3 Tsk 34°C vs. Δ17 ± 2 Tsk 30.5°C mmHg; both P > 0.05). In summary, MSNA increased during cold stress in older, but not young, adults. Furthermore, concomitant cold stress did not alter the sympathetic responses to isometric exercise in either age group, suggesting preserved sympathetic responsiveness during exercise in the cold in healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Characteristic muscle activity patterns during gait initiation in the healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Roya; Talebian, Saeed; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that gait initiation (GI) might be an optimal task for identifying postural control deficiencies. Thus, the aim of this study was to clarify the strategies adopted by older subjects during this task. 16 healthy younger and 15 healthy older adults participated in the study. Subjects were instructed to begin forward stepping with their dominant limb in response to an auditory stimulus. The mean muscle activity, co-contraction index, and intra-subject coefficients of variation (intra-subject CVs) of dominant limb muscles in different phases of GI were measured. The level of association between the co-contraction index and intra-subject CV of muscles was also explored. This study showed that in the anticipatory phase, the younger group had larger amplitudes and more intra-subject CVs than older the group, particularly for the tibialis anterior muscle. However, the co-contraction index was greater in older subjects relative to younger subjects. During the weight transition phase, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus and vastus lateralis muscles of older adults had a lower amplitude as compared to younger adults. However, during the locomotor phase, the activity of tibialis anterior was greater in comparison to younger adults. Also, during this phase, similar to the anticipatory phase, the co-contraction index between tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles was greater in older subjects relative to younger subjects. Additionally, the larger co-contraction index of some muscles was associated with smaller intra-subject CV. These findings suggest that muscle behaviors are altered with aging and older adults employ different strategies in the different phases of GI as compared to younger adults.

  5. Prescription of anti-influenza drugs for healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Jane; Corbett, Mark; Stock, Christian; Nicholson, Karl; Elliot, Alex J; Duffy, Steven; Westwood, Marie; Palmer, Stephen; Stewart, Lesley

    2009-09-01

    In publicly funded health systems with finite resources, management decisions are based on assessments of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence commissioned a systematic review to inform their 2009 update to guidance on the use of antiviral drugs for the treatment of influenza. We searched databases for studies of the use of neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of seasonal influenza. We present the results for healthy adults (ie, adults without known comorbidities) and people at-risk of influenza-related complications. There was an overall reduction in the median time to symptom alleviation in healthy adults by 0.57 days (95% CI -1.07 to -0.08; p=0.02; 2701 individuals) with zanamivir, and 0.55 days (95% CI -0.96 to -0.14; p=0.008; 1410 individuals) with oseltamivir. In those at risk, the median time to symptom alleviation was reduced by 0.98 days (95% CI -1.84 to -0.11; p=0.03; 1252 individuals) with zanamivir, and 0.74 days (95% CI -1.51 to 0.02; p=0.06; 1472 individuals) with oseltamivir. Little information was available on the incidence of complications. In view of the advantages and disadvantages of different management strategies for controlling seasonal influenza in healthy adults recommending the use of antiviral drugs for the treatment of people presenting with symptoms is unlikely to be the most appropriate course of action.

  6. Design and evaluation of a computer game to promote a healthy diet for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei

    2009-03-01

    This article reports the development and evaluation of a computer game (RightWay Café) as a special medium to promote a healthy diet for young adults. Structural features of computer games, such as interactive tailoring, role playing, the element of fun, and narrative, were operationalized in the RightWay Café game to afford behavior rehearsal in a safe and entertaining way. Theories such as the health belief model, social cognitive theory, and theory of reasoned action guided the content design of the game to influence mediators of behavior change, including self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and behavior change intention. A randomized controlled evaluation study with pretest, posttest, and follow-up design demonstrated that this game was effective in teaching nutrition and weight management knowledge and increasing people's self-efficacy and perceived benefits of healthy eating, as well as their intention to be on a healthy diet. Limited long-term effects were also found: participants in the game-playing group had greater self-efficacy than participants in the control group after 1 month. This study validates the computer game-based approach to health promotion for young adults. Limitations and implications are also discussed.

  7. Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    Lesion studies link the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to executive functions. However, the evidence from in vivo investigations in healthy people is mixed, and there are no quantitative estimates of the association strength. To examine the relationship between PFC volume and cortical thickness with executive cognition in healthy adults, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that assessed executive functions and PFC volume (31 samples,) and PFC thickness (10 samples) in vivo, N=3272 participants. We found that larger PFC volume and greater PFC thickness were associated with better executive performance. Stronger associations between executive functions and PFC volume were linked to greater variance in the sample age but was unrelated to the mean age of a sample. Strength of association between cognitive and neuroanatomical indices depended on the executive task used in the study. PFC volume correlated stronger with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test than with digit backwards span, Trail Making Test and verbal fluency. Significant effect size was observed in lateral and medial but not orbital PFC. The results support the “bigger is better” hypothesis of brain-behavior relation in healthy adults and suggest different neural correlates across the neuropsychological tests used to assess executive functions. PMID:24568942

  8. The effects of sling exercise using vibration on trunk muscle activities of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.

  9. Perception of the older adults regarding the practise of physical activity and healthy eating

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    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the perception of regular physical activity and healthy eating among the older adults. Methods: This descriptive study (qualitative approach included 36 older adults (69 to 91 years residents in a rural community in southern Brazil. A semi-structured interview was used and the information were recorded, transcribed and interpreted (content analysis technique. Results: The following categories of analysis were identified: a facilitators and barriers for the practising PA, b benefits of regular PA, and c healthy eating habits-consumption of food (beneficial and harmful for health. Facilitating factors were related to social interaction, motivation, willpower, practise enjoying, having company, and being encouraged. Barriers perceived were diseases, physical limitations, pain, lack of willingness and age. The PA benefits were wellbeing, pain reduction, increased willingness, treatment and disease prevention. Fruits, vegetables, vitamin D, calcium, and water were cited as important to health. The consumption of foods rich in fat and sugars was associated with the occurrence of diseases. Conclusion: Personal aspects, of coexistence and motivation, are factors cited as facilitators for the practise of physical activities, while the barriers are related to health, unwillingness, and age. Health promotion strategies may be multidisciplinary and should consider personal aspects, of coexistence, motivation and health. Strategies should focus on the benefits of regular PA and healthy eating.

  10. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

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    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks.

  11. Serum ferritin levels are associated with arterial stiffness in healthy Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ji Yoon; Kim, Min Kyung; Kang, Shinae; Nam, Ji Sun; Ahn, Chul Woo; Kim, Kyung Rae; Park, Jong Suk

    2016-08-01

    Although an association between serum ferritin and atherosclerosis has been suggested, limited epidemiologic data are available regarding the association between ferritin and arterial stiffness in healthy adults. A total of 2932 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles including ferritin were measured. The arterial stiffness was measured using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Serum ferritin levels were classified into quartiles and baPWV values gradually increased with each ferritin quartile. Multiple regression analysis showed that ferritin levels were independently correlated with baPWV. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, as compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios for high baPWV (>75(th) percentile) were 1.15 (0.84-1.56), 1.37 (0.97-1.73), and 1.46 (1.29-2.17) among men (p for trend ferritin, respectively. In conclusion, serum ferritin levels are independently associated with arterial stiffness in healthy Korean adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lampit, Amit; Hallock, Harry; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    .... Computerized cognitive training (CCT) is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed...

  13. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population: serosurvey and risk factors in Southeast Brazil

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    Elaine Cristina Negri

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: The results of this study reinforce the necessity in promoting preventive public health measures, even for healthy adult individual, particularly those related to the deworming of pets to avoid the soil contamination, and hygiene education of the population.

  14. Influence of vitamin-optimized plasma homocysteine cutoff values on the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Margaretha; Weijer, JM; Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. We determined plasma homocysteine (Hcy) reference values at optimized vitamin status and investigated their influence on the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy adults. Results were compared with those obtained

  15. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults.

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    Parvane Saneei

    Full Text Available Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population.In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was applied to screen for anxiety and depression.After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27 and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15, compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88 and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81 compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16 and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12 than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87 than those with a non-healthy diet.We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.

  16. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. Methods In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01–0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47–0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48–0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10–0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08–0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. Conclusion We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders. PMID:26771311

  17. The Effect Auditory and Contextual Emotional Cues on the Ability to Recognise Facial Expressions of Emotion in Healthy Adult Aging

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous research into the relationship between emotion recognition and healthy adult aging finds an age-related decline in facial emotion recognition accuracy in individuals over 60. However, this apparent age-related decline in emotion recognition accuracy is at odds with research in other areas. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that experimental tasks of the majority of studies into emotion recognition and healthy adult aging lack ecological validity and...

  18. Healthy adults maximum oxygen uptake prediction from a six minute walking test

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    Nury Nusdwinuringtyas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A parameter is needed in medical activities or services to determine functional capacity. This study is aimed to produce functional capacity parameter for Indonesian adult as maximum O2.Methods: This study used 123 Indonesian healthy adult subjects (58 males and 65 females with a sedentary lifestyle, using a cross-sectional method.Results: Designed by using the followings: distance, body height, body weight, sex, age, maximum heart rate of six minute walking test and lung capacity (FEV and FVC, the study revealed a good correlation (except body weight with maximum O2. Three new formulas were proposed, which consisted of eight, six, and five variable respectively. Test of the new formula gave result of maximum O2 that is relevant to the golden standard maximum O2 using Cosmed® C-Pex.Conclusion: The Nury formula is the appropriate predictor of maximum oxygen uptake for healthy Indonesians adult as it is designed using Indonesian subjects (Mongoloid compared to the Cahalin’s formula (Caucasian. The Nury formula which consists of five variables is more applicable because it does not require any measurement tools neither specific competency. (Med J Indones 2011;20:195-200Keywords: maximum O2, Nury’s formula, six minute walking test

  19. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalanka-Tuovinen, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability,

  20. A pilot study assessing pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oral and intravenous baclofen in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Suresh K; Kriel, Robert L; Cloyd, James C; Coles, Lisa D; Scherkenbach, Lisa A; Tobin, Michael H; Krach, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize baclofen pharmacokinetics and safety given orally and intravenously. Twelve healthy subjects were enrolled in a randomized, open-label, crossover study and received single doses of baclofen: 3 or 5 mg given intravenously and 5 or 10 mg taken orally with a 48-hour washout. Blood samples for baclofen analysis were collected pre-dose and at regular intervals up to 24 hours post-dose. Clinical response was assessed by sedation scores, ataxia, and nystagmus. Mean absolute bioavailability of oral baclofen was 74%. Dose-adjusted areas under the curve between the oral and intravenous arms were statistically different (P = .0024), whereas area under the curve variability was similar (coefficient of variation: 18%-24%). Adverse effects were mild in severity and not related to either dose or route of administration. Three- and 5-mg intravenous doses of baclofen were well tolerated. Seventy-four percent oral bioavailability indicates that smaller doses of intravenous baclofen are needed to attain comparable total drug exposures.

  1. Prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in healthy French adults: the VARIETE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Massart, Catherine; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Cavalier, Etienne; Chanson, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Institute of Medicine considers that a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration >20 ng/mL corresponds to optimal vitamin D status in the general population. Old studies of vitamin D status in the French general population have demonstrated high prevalence of insufficiency. We measured serum 25OHD, 1,25(OH)2D, PTH, calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine levels in 892 French Caucasian healthy subjects (463 men, 429 women) aged from 18 to 89 years. The 25OHD concentration was similar in men (24.1 ± 8.2 ng/mL) and women (23.4 ± 8.0 ng/mL). 25OHD concentrations of French healthy adults have a 25OHD concentration French general population are urgently needed.

  2. COMPONENTS OF THE HEALTHY EATING INDEX IN NUTRITION OF ADULT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess and monitor the nutriton and dietary status, the U.S. Department of Agriculture developed the Healthy Eating Index - HEI. The index consists of 10 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutrition in adult females and to analyze the actual nutrition according to selected four components (no. 6-9 of the Healthy Eating Index. Components 6 and 7 measure total fat and saturated fat consumption, respectively, as a percentage of total food intake (maximal 30 % and 10 % of total energy daily content respectively; in case of 31,3 % and 58,62 % females respectively. Components 8 and 9 measure total cholesterol (daily maximal 300 mg in case of 69,54 % participants and sodium intake (maximal 2400 mg a day in case of 22,99 % probands. doi:10.5219/106

  3. Relationship between trunk and foot accelerations during walking in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jordan J; Bruetsch, Adam; Huisinga, Jessie M

    2016-09-01

    Understanding upper body and lower body segment relationships may be an important step in assessing stability during gait. This study explored the relationship between acceleration patterns at the trunk and at the foot during treadmill walking at self-selected pace in healthy adults. Forty healthy subjects walked on a treadmill for 3 minutes at self-selected speed. Root mean square (RMS) and approximate entropy (ApEn) were derived from the acceleration time series at the trunk and at the foot in the frontal and sagittal plane. RMS of accelerations at the trunk were strongly correlated with RMS values at the foot in the sagittal plane (r=0.883, psegment motion, and assessing relationships between upper and lower body motion may provide a more comprehensive evaluation of overall stability.

  4. The Twelve Hotel, Barna : Video

    OpenAIRE

    Irish Food Channel

    2014-01-01

    Fergus O'Halloran, Managing Director of The Twelve Hotel in Barna in County Galway, talks about his philosophy in running this unique boutique hotel. Reproduced with kind permission from John & Sally McKenna. 3.35 mins

  5. Electromyography and Mechanomyography Signals During Swallowing in Healthy Adults and Head and Neck Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Hodgetts, William; Scott, Dylan; Kuffel, Kristina; King, Ben; Brodt, Chris; Rieger, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used as an adjuvant to dysphagia therapy to demonstrate the activity of submental muscles during swallowing exercises. Mechanomyography (MMG) has been suggested as a potential superior alternative to sEMG; however, this advantage is not confirmed for signal acquired from submental muscles. This study compared the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained from sEMG and MMG sensors during swallowing tasks, in healthy participants and those with a history of head and neck cancer (HNC), a population with altered anatomy and a high incidence of dysphagia. Twenty-two healthy adults and 10 adults with a history of HNC participated in this study. sEMG and MMG signals were acquired during dry, thin liquid, effortful, and Mendelsohn maneuver swallows. SNR was compared between the two sensors using repeated measures ANOVAs and subsequent planned pairwise comparisons. Test-retest measures were collected on 20 % of participants. In healthy participants, MMG SNR was higher than that of sEMG for dry [t(21) = -3.02, p = 0.007] and thin liquid swallows [t(21) = -4.24, p sEMG also showed much better test-retest reliability than MMG. Biofeedback provided as an adjuvant to dysphagia therapy in patients with HNC should employ sEMG technology, as this sensor type yielded better SNR and overall test-retest reliability. Poor MMG test-retest reliability was noted in both healthy and HNC participants and may have been related to differences in sensor application.

  6. Normative Values of Voice Analysis Parameters With Respect to Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Adult Turkish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Emel C; Sahin, Mustafa; Demiral, Dilek; Bayir, Omer; Saylam, Guleser; Ozdek, Ali; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2016-05-01

    Objective measurements are quite important for assessment of voice disorders. The first aim of this study was to establish a prototype database of normative values of voice analysis parameters in healthy Turkish adult female population. The second aim was to evaluate the variations of these parameters during physiological menstrual cycle. This is a prospective, single-blind study. Eighty-nine healthy women (mean age, 31.5 ± 6.0 years) with normal physical findings and without vocal abuse or dysphonia were participated. Detailed physical and videostroboscopic larynx examination was done. Participants' voice samples of sustained /a/ and /i/ vowels were recorded, and voice analysis was done. GRBAS scale was done by four otolaryngologists, and subjects were asked to score their own voice quality using Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) at the premenstruation, during menstruation, and postmenstruation periods. Eighty-nine healthy Turkish women's some normative acoustic vocal parameters of three different phases of menstrual cycle were reported. The data indicated that during the premenstruation period; the mean jitter %, shimmer % and noise-to-harmonic ratio values were significantly higher than that of other two periods. Variations of computerized acoustic vocal analysis parameters through menstruation cycle were in concordance with the perceptual voice assessment (GRBAS) and the questionnaire of subjects' perception of their own voices (VHI-10). In this study the normative values of voice analysis parameters of healthy adult Turkish women was reported. Adding computerized voice analysis parameters may improve the assessment and screening of voice in routine clinical practice because this is a simple and reliable method. Evaluation of voice can be performed regardless of the phases of menstrual cycle, but not performing acoustic analysis during the premenstrual period may prevent some of the unintended errors. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by

  7. THE IMPACT OF PILATES EXERCISES ON THE POSTURAL ALIGNMENT OF HEALTHY ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Krawczky

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Exercises of Pilates method have been widely used to improve postural alignment. There is strong evidence favoring their use in improving flexibility and balance, as well as some evidence of improvement in muscle strength. However, the benefits related to posture are not well established. Objective: To investigate in healthy adults, the impact of the Pilates method in the postural alignment through some angles in the sagittal plane and the occurrence of pain before and after an exercise session, and after the completion of a 16-session program. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study of pre and post-intervention type. Healthy adults (n = 37 interested in starting Pilates were evaluated for acute effects on posture after a Pilates session (n = 37 and after a 16-session program, for a period of 10 weeks (n = 13. Using the postural assessment software (SAPO, six angles were analyzed: head horizontal alignment (HHA, pelvis horizontal alignment (PHA, hip angle (HA, vertical alignment of the body (VAB, thoracic kyphosis (TK, and lumbar lordosis (LL. The occurrence of pain was investigated to control adverse effects. Results: Statistically significant (p<0.05 differences found after one session include increased HHA (left view, decreased VAB (left view and TK (both side views. After 16 sessions, we observed an increase of HHA, and a decrease of TK, LL (both side views and HA (right view. All the differences point to an improvement of postural alignment. A significant reduction of prevalence of pain was verified after the first session (40.5% vs. 13.5%; p=0.004 and after the full program (30.8% vs. 15.3%; p=0.02. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the Pilates method has a positive impact on postural alignment in healthy adults, besides being a safe exercise.

  8. N400 elicited by incongruent ending words of Chinese idioms in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing-shi; ZHANG Tian-hong; TANG Yun-xiang; XIAO Ze-ping; WANG Ji-jun; ZHANG Ming-dao; ZHANG Zai-fu; HU Zhen-yu; LOU Fei-ying; CHEN Chong

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior research about N400 has been mainly based on English stimuli,while the cognitive.processing of Chinese characters is still unclear.The aim of the present study was to further investigate the semantic processing of Chinese idioms.Methods Event related potentials (ERP) component N400 was elicited by 38 pairs of matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) ended Chinese idioms:ending words with same phoneme but different shape and meaning (sPdSdM),with similar shape but different phoneme and meaning(sSdPdM),with same meaning but different phoneme and shape(sMdPdS),and words with different phoneme,shape and meaning(dPdSdM)and recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments.In 62 right-handed healthy adults(age 19-50 years),N400 amplitudes and latencies were compared between matching and mismatching conditions at Fz,Cz and Pz.Results N400 showed a midline distribution and could be elicited in electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz.The mean values of N400 latencies and amplitudes were obtained for matching and mismatching ending werds in healthy adults.Significant differences were found in N400 latencies and amplitudes in matching and mismatching ending-werds idioms in healthy adults(P0.05).Conclusions Compared with English stimuli.Chinese ideographic words could provide more flexible stimuli for N400 research in that the werds have 3-dimension changes-phoneme.shape and meaning.Features of N400 elicited by matching and mismatching ending words in Chinese idioms are mainly determined by the meaning of the werd.Some issues of N400 elicited by Chinese characters deserve further research.

  9. Assessment of acute moderate hyperglycemia on traditional and thromboelastometry coagulation parameters in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Kate F; Lascola, Kara M; Smith, Stephanie A; Clark-Price, Stuart C; McMichael, Maureen; Wilkins, Pamela A

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether experimentally induced acute moderate hyperglycemia is associated with coagulation activation in healthy adult horses. Prospective experimental study. University veterinary teaching hospital. Six healthy adult horses. Hyperglycemia (10.0-13.3 mmol/L [180-240 mg/dL]) was induced and maintained for 6 hours using a hyperglycemic clamp technique. Blood glucose concentrations were assessed using a point of care (POC) glucometer at 10- and 20-minute intervals throughout the hyperglycemic clamp procedure. Platelet count, fibrinogen concentration, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin antithrombin complex level (TAT), and thromboelastometry (TEM) were determined before and after jugular catheter placement, prior to glucose administration, and at 3 and 6 hours of sustained hyperglycemia. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with significance defined as P 10.0 mmol/L (>180 mg/dL) throughout the duration of the hyperglycemic clamp with a mean concentration of 11.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L [216 ± 6 mg/dL] as measured by the POC glucometer. No significant difference was found for any evaluated parameter associated with sustained hyperglycemia. Intravenous catheter placement resulted in a significant increase in mean TAT (0.8 ± 0.3 μg/L pre-catheter, 2.3 ± 0.8 μg/L post-catheter; P = 0.008). Acute, moderate hyperglycemia in healthy adult horses does not have a detectable effect on coagulation based on evaluated parameters. Jugular catheter placement results in a transient increase in thrombin generation as determined by increased TAT concentrations. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  10. POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CHRONIC MOTION SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyahya D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural control requires complex processing of peripheral sensory inputs from the visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Motion sensitivity and decreased postural control are influenced by visual-vestibular conflicts.The purpose of this study was to measure the difference between the postural control of healthy adults with and without history of sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity using a computerized dynamic posturography in a virtual reality environment. Sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity was operationally defined as a history of avoiding activities causing dizziness, nausea, imbalance, and/or blurred vision without having a related medical diagnosis. Methods: Twenty healthy adults between 22 and 33 years of age participated in the study. Eleven subjects had sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity and 9 subjects did not. Postural control was measured in both groups using the Bertec Balance Advantage-Dynamic Computerized Dynamic Posturography with Immersion Virtual Reality (CDP-IVR. The CDP-IVR reports an over-all equilibrium score based on subjects’ center of gravity displacement and postural sway while immersed in a virtual reality environment. Subjects were tested on stable (condition 1 and unstable (condition2 platform conditions. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean age, height, weight, body mass index in kg/m2, postural control scores for conditions 2, and average (p>0.05. However, significant differences were observed in mean postural control for condition 1 between groups (p=0.03. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that healthy young adults without chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity have better postural control than those with chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity. Further investigation is warranted to explore wider age ranges with larger samples sizes as well as intervention strategies to improve postural control.

  11. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  12. Reference ranges and age-related changes of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in Chinese healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to build region-specific reference ranges of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets for Chinese healthy adults from the young to the elderly and analyze the trends of changes in lymphocyte subsets for evaluating the impact of age on the values.151 healthy adults aged 19-86 were recruited based on the SENIEUR protocol.Three sets of reference ranges were finally built applicable for the healthy young(19-44 years),middle-aged(45-64 years) and elder adults(≥65).Comparisons in parameters among the three cohorts showed that a statistically significant increase in CD16CD56+ NK cell was observed between the middle-aged and elder cohorts,whereas for the majority of the parameters,a significant decline was observed between the young and the middle-aged cohorts.Further results showed that inverse correlations were observed between the age and CD19+ B,CD3+ T,CD3+CD4+ T,CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+ nave T cell and CD4+CD28+/CD4+,while the positive one was identified between the age and the NK cell.These significant changes of the most of immune parameters provided evidence for immunosenescence.Notably,T cell activation markers of CD8+CD38+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ showed reverse trends of association with age,which provides a clue for further researches on the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical clinical presentation of the elder patients.

  13. Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Stepien, Magdalena; O'Mahony, Louise; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Collier, John; Fraser, William D.; Gibney, Michael J.; Nugent, Anne P.; Brennan, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is emerging worldwide and many studies now suggest its role in the development of several chronic diseases. Due to the low level of vitamin D naturally occurring in food there is a need for supplementation and use of vitamin D-enhanced products. The aim of the present study was to determine if daily consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased vitamin D status in free-living healthy adults or affected markers of the metabolic syndrome. A total of ninety voluntee...

  14. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes N. Pedersen; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of ...

  15. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulatio...

  16. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2016-07-27

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  17. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  18. Physical exercise habits correlate with gray matter volume of the hippocampus in healthy adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Olson, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-12

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  19. Therapeutic effects of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzadi, Andleeb; Javed, Ijaz; Aslam, Bilal; Muhammad, Faqir; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Zia-ur-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Carbamazepine is a (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme inducer) medicine which is used by epileptic patients for a long time. During the course of therapy, patients are generally caught by other diseases like urinary tract infections, upper respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection etc. To cure them, physicians commonly prescribe fluoroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin (CYP1A2 inhibitor) along with Carbamazepine (CBZ). Interactions may result without recognition which may lead to unforeseen toxicity, untoward effects or even therapeutic failure. Therefore, studies were conducted to investigate the effect of Ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers. The main objective of this study was to generate new knowledge regarding CBZ and ciprofloxacin interaction for physicians and research workers dealing with these medicines. Eight healthy adult male volunteers were selected to assess the effect of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine. After overnight fast the selected male volunteers were given CBZ orally. Blood samples were drawn at different time intervals after medication. Then the same volunteers were given CBZ along with ciprofloxacin. Blood samples were again drawn at the same time intervals as done previously. Plasma was separated from the blood samples. Concentration of CBZ in the plasma samples was determined by using HPLC technique. Results of the present study indicated that ciprofloxacin significantly increased the plasma concentration of CBZ when given concurrently to the healthy adult male volunteers. Ciprofloxacin increased Cmax, AUC and t½ while it decreased the CL and Vd of CBZ when administered concurrently to the adult volunteers. Change in pharmacokinetic parameters was due to slow metabolism or elimination of CBZ when given concurrently with ciprofloxacin to the adult volunteers. This is probably due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 isoenzyme by ciprofloxacin which is responsible for

  20. Gait velocity is an indicator of cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artin Jabourian

    Full Text Available Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18-65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R = -0.817, p<0.0001; the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared = 0.496. In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R = -0.867; p<0.001. In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ≤ 49 = 0.361; ≥50 = 0.613. These findings indicate that i a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii gait velocity (GV could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation

  1. Moderators of physical activity and healthy eating in an integrated community-based intervention for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, Karla A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: An integrated community-based intervention was developed to stimulate physical activity (PA) and healthy eating in older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area. This study aims to assess whether its short-term effects among older adults vary by sociodemographic, psychosocial an

  2. Executive function subcomponents and their relations to everyday functioning in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-10-01

    Everyday functioning and its executive functioning cognitive correlates (i.e., switching, inhibition, and updating) were investigated in healthy older adults (HOAs) using multiple methods of functional status. In addition to whether computerized experimental tasks would better dissociate these subcomponents than neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, we were also interested in the contributions of both experimental and neuropsychological measures of executive function subcomponents to functional abilities. Seventy HOAs (45 young-old and 25 old-old) and 70 younger adults completed executive function and neuropsychological tests. In addition to self- and informant questionnaires of functional abilities, HOAs completed two performance-based measures. An aging effect was found on all executive function measures. Old-old older adults and their informants did not report more functional difficulties but demonstrated more difficulties on performance-based measures than did young-old participants. For the HOAs, after controlling for age and education, the neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, but not experimental measures, explained a significant amount of variance in the informant-report and both performance-based measures. Updating measures differentially predicted performance-based measures, while switching was important for questionnaire and performance-based measures. The contribution of executive functioning to functional status when measured with experimental measures specifically designed to isolate the executive subcomponent was not as strong as hypothesized. Further research examining the value of isolating executive function subcomponents in neuropsychological assessment and the prediction of functional abilities in older adults is warranted.

  3. The reliability of two visual motor integration tests used with healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Chinner, Alexandra; Stagnitti, Karen

    2010-10-01

    ABSTRACT Occupational therapists often assess the visual motor integration (VMI) skills of children, adults, and the elderly, which are parts of the Body Functions and Structures of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Objective. As it is imperative that therapists use tests and measures with strong psychometric properties, this study aims to examine the reliability of two VMI tests used with adults. Method. Sixty-one healthy adults, 18 males and 43 females, with an average age of 31.82 years, completed the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (DTVMI) and the Full Range Test of Visual Motor Integration (FRTVMI). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to examine the tests' internal consistency, while the Spearman's rho correlation was used to evaluate the test-retest reliability, intrarater reliability, and interrater reliability of the two VMI tests. Results. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the DTVMI and FRTVMI was 0.66 and 0.80, respectively. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.77 (p VMI tests appear to exhibit reasonable levels of reliability and are recommended for use with adults and the elderly.

  4. Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica K; Baran, Bengi; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Ivry, Richard B; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2012-05-01

    Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known of the role of sleep on memory for healthy older adults. We used 2 tasks, 1 assaying motor skill learning and the other assaying nonmotor/declarative learning, to examine off-line changes in performance in young (20-34 years), middle-aged (35-50 years), and older (51-70 years) adults without disordered sleep. During an initial session, conducted either in the morning or evening, participants learned a motor sequence and a list of word pairs. Memory tests were given twice, 12 and 24 hours after training, allowing us to analyze off-line consolidation after a break that included sleep or normal wake. Sleep-dependent performance changes were reduced in older adults on the motor sequence learning task. In contrast, sleep-dependent performance changes were similar for all 3 age groups on the word pair learning task. Age-related changes in sleep or networks activated during encoding or during sleep may contribute to age-related declines in motor sequence consolidation. Interestingly, these changes do not affect declarative memory.

  5. Gene expression profiles of colonic mucosa in healthy young adult and senior dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yong Kil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously reported the effects of age and diet on nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and large intestinal fermentation patterns in healthy young adult and senior dogs. However, a genome-wide molecular analysis of colonic mucosa as a function of age and diet has not yet been performed in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colonic mucosa samples were collected from six senior (12-year old and six young adult (1-year old female beagles fed one of two diets (animal protein-based vs. plant protein-based for 12 months. Total RNA in colonic mucosa was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip® Canine Genome Arrays. Results indicated that the majority of gene expression changes were due to age (212 genes rather than diet (66 genes. In particular, the colonic mucosa of senior dogs had increased expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, inflammation, stress response, and cellular metabolism, whereas the expression of genes associated with apoptosis and defensive mechanisms were decreased in senior vs. young adult dogs. No consistent diet-induced alterations in gene expression existed in both age groups, with the effects of diet being more pronounced in senior dogs than in young adult dogs. CONCLUSION: Our results provide molecular insight pertaining to the aged canine colon and its predisposition to dysfunction and disease. Therefore, our data may aid in future research pertaining to age-associated gastrointestinal physiological changes and highlight potential targets for dietary intervention to limit their progression.

  6. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  7. The Recline Exercise: Comparisons with the Head Lift Exercise in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avinash; Rajappa, Akila; Tipton, Elizabeth; Malandraki, Georgia A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the comparative effectiveness of the new Recline Exercise (RE) and the traditional Head Lift Exercise (Shaker Exercise) on submental muscle activity, tongue strength, and perceived exertion in 40 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.5 years, SD 2.6 years). Both groups participated in a 6-week exercise regimen. Outcome variables evaluated pre- and post-exercise included: duration and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity during swallowing measured via surface electromyography (sEMG); anterior and posterior isometric lingual pressures measured with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument; and perceived exertion levels measured with the Borg category-ratio scale of perceived exertion. Results indicated no significant pre-post differences within or between groups in swallow duration and peak amplitude. In addition, the RE group demonstrated significant post-treatment increases in anterior and posterior tongue strength [p = 0.009; p swallow duration or amplitude gains, most likely due to the reduced need for such gains in the healthy head/neck musculature for submaximal tasks. Furthermore, the significant lingual strength gains seen with the RE indicate that additional musculature is being engaged during its completion. These results are encouraging; however, future research in older adults and patients with dysphagia with examination of swallowing biomechanics is needed to determine its full potential as a rehabilitative regimen.

  8. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard.

  9. Association of childhood trauma with cognitive function in healthy adults: a pilot study

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    Lin Jin-Mann S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitive function in healthy adults. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3 to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income. Results Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p Conclusions Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology.

  10. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. A Novel Clinical Test of Recognition Reaction Time in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckner, James T; Richardson, James K; Kim, Hogene; Lipps, David B; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a clinical “go/no-go” reaction time test (recognition RTclin) that is portable and does not require a computer, and used it to quantify the effect of age on recognition RTclin test scores. Fifty-two healthy adults aged 19 – 83 years completed simple and recognition RTclin testing. Simple RTclin was measured as the elapsed time from initial release of a suspended vertical shaft by the examiner until its arrest by participant pinch grip. Recognition RTclin was similar except that a light on the apparatus randomly illuminated in 50% of the trials to signal the participant to arrest the device. To help interpret the RTclin results we partitioned them into pre-movement time (PMT) and movement time (MT) using an optoelectronic camera system that is not ordinarily part of the RTclin test. Recognition RTclin scores were significantly slower than simple RTclin scores, with 71% of the prolongation attributable to PMT. While simple RTclin test scores correlated with age, recognition RTclin scores did not. A strong negative association between recognition RTclin accuracy and age was found. Recognition RTclin is feasible to measure in healthy adults and appears to represent a portable, computer-independent measure of cognitive processing speed and inhibitory capacity. Potential applications include assessment of brain injury, dementing illness, medication side-effects, fall risk, and driving safety. PMID:21859222

  12. Probiotic intervention has strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riina A Kekkonen; Riitta Korpela; Netta Lummela; Heli Karjalainen; Sinikka Latvala; Soile Tynkkynen; Salme Jarvenpaa; Hannu Kautiainen; Ilkka Julkunen; Heikki Vapaatalo

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of three potentially anti-inflammatory probiotic bacteria from three different genera on immune variables in healthy adults in a clinical setting based on previous in vitro characterization of cytokine responses.METHODS: A total of 62 volunteers participated in this randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled parallel group intervention study. The volunteers were randomized to receive a milk-based drink containing either Lactobadllus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bbl2 (Bbl2), or Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS (PJS) or a placebo drink for 3 wk. Venous blood and saliva samples were taken at baseline and on d 1, 7 and 21. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and at the end of intervention.RESULTS: The serum hsCRP expressed as the median AUCo-21 (minus baseline) was 0.018 mg/L in the placebo group, -0.240 mg/L in the LGG group, 0.090 mg/L in the Bbl2 group and -0.085 mg/L in the PJS group (P = 0.014). In vitro production of TNF-a from in vitro cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was significantly lower in subjects receiving LGG vs placebo. IL-2 production from PBMC in the Bbl2 group was significantly lower compared with the other groups.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, probiotic bacteria have strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults.

  13. The effect of acute increase in urge to void on cognitive function in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M S; Snyder, P J; Pietrzak, R H; Darby, D; Feldman, R A; Maruff, P

    2011-01-01

    In healthy adults, voluntary inhibition of micturition is associated with an increasing sensation in the urge to void and pain, and acute pain has been associated with transient deterioration in aspects of cognitive function. Eight healthy young adults consumed 250 ml of water every 15 min until they could no longer inhibit voiding. Performance on standardized measures of cognitive function was measured at hourly intervals which were classified as baseline, when individuals reported an increase in the urge to void, a strong increase in the urge to void, an extreme increase in the urge to void and postmicturition. Sensations of the urge to void and pain increased with time of inhibition of urge to void and with amount of water consumed. Having an extreme urge to void exerted a large negative effect on attentional and working memory functions (d>0.8). These cognitive functions returned to normal levels after micturition. The magnitude of decline in cognitive function associated with an extreme urge to void was as large and equivalent or greater than the cognitive deterioration observed for conditions known to be associated with increased accident risk. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Converse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n=28 and control participants (n=44 were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15 weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  15. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention on global serum lipidomic profiles in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riina A Kekkonen; Marko Sysi-Aho; Tuulikki Sepp(a)nen-Laakso; Ilkka Julkunen; Heikki Vapaatalo; Matej Ore(s)i(c); Riitta Korpela

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of three weeks' intervention with a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) bacteria on global serum lipidomic profiles and evaluate whether the changes in inflammatory variables (CRP,TNF-α and IL-6) are reflected in the global lipidomic profiles of healthy adults.METHODS:We performed UPLC/MS-based global lipidomic platform analysis of serum samples (n = 26)in a substudy of a randomised,double-blind,placebocontrolled 3-wk clinical intervention trial investigating the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in healthy adults.RESULTS:A total of 407 lipids were identified,corresponding to 13 different lipid classes.Serum samples showed decreases in the levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoGPCho),sphingomyelins (SM) and several glycerophosphatidylcholines (GPCho),while triacylglycerols (TAG) were mainly increased in the probiotic LGG group during the intervention.Among the inflammatory variables,IL-6 was moderately associated by changes in global lipidomic profiles,with the top-ranked lipid associated with IL-6 being the proinflammatory LysoGPCho (20:4).There was a weak association between the lipidomic profiles and the two other inflammatory markers,TNF-α and CRP.CONCLUSION:This was the first study to investigate the effects of probiotic intervention on global lipidomic profiles in humans.There are indications that probiotic LGG intervention may lead to changes in serum global lipid profiles,as reflected in decreased GPCho,LysoGPCho and SM as well as mainly increased TAG.

  16. Heart rate variability, overnight urinary norepinephrine, and plasma cholesterol in apparently healthy human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Julian F; Fischer, Joachim E

    2013-01-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between autonomic nervous system activity as indexed by measures of heart rate variability and overnight urinary norepinephrine, and plasma cholesterol levels in a large sample of working adults. The study population comprised 611 apparently healthy employees of an airplane manufacturing plant in Southern Germany. Heart rate variability was calculated as beat-to-beat intervals over the course of one 24-hour weekday measured with an ambulatory ECG recorder. Overnight urine collection and blood samples were also obtained. We found an inverse association between indices of vagally-mediated heart rate variability and plasma levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the ratio of LDL to high density lipoprotein (HDL) that remained significant in multivariate models after controlling for relevant covariates including norepinephrine. Urinary norepinephrine was not significantly related to any measure of cholesterol in multivariate models. We report here for the first time, in a large sample of healthy human adults, evidence supporting the hypothesis of a clinically relevant inverse relationship between measures of plasma cholesterol and vagally-mediated heart rate variability after controlling for sympathetic nervous system activity. This suggests an important role for the vagal control of plasma cholesterol levels in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Debra A; Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E; Turner, Arlener D; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S

    2015-03-31

    To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = -0.304, slope = -0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = -1.793, slope = -0.241) activity. Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Olfaction and Apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Sarah C.; Kamath, Vidyulata; Giovannetti, Tania; Arnold, Steven E.; Moberg, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Apathy is a prevalent neuropsychiatric manifestation in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that is associated with decreased social functioning and increased caregiver burden. Olfactory deficits are also commonly observed in AD, and prior work has indicated a link between increased apathy and olfactory dysfunction in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Here, we examined odor identification performance in patients with probable AD (n = 172), individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 112), and neurologically and psychiatrically healthy older adults (n = 132) and its relation to apathy, depression, and overall psychopathology. Method Participants were administered the Sniffin’ Sticks odor identification test and measures assessing severity of apathy, depression, and overall neuropsychiatric symptomatology. Results Consistent with previous research, AD and MCI patients were significantly worse at identifying odors than healthy older adults. Additionally, a sex by diagnosis interaction was observed. AD patients had significantly higher levels of apathy relative to MCI and control participants. Of note, across the entire sample odor identification deficits were correlated with level of apathy at the level of p < 0.01, but not with depression or neuropsychiatric symptom severity, when controlling for MMSE score. Conclusion Collectively, these data suggest that olfactory disturbance and apathy in AD may result from the progression of disease pathology in shared neural substrates. PMID:23398350

  19. ESTABLISHING MEAN CD4+ T CELL VALUES AMONG HEALTHY JAVANESE ADULTS IN INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Zaini, Khilyat Ulin Nur

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish mean CD4+ T cell values among healthy Javanese adults in Indonesia. Two hundred forty-one healthy adults (119 women and 122 men), aged 18-65 years, were enrolled in the study. CD4+ T cells were analyzed by immunophenotyping. The mean absolute CD4+ T cell count was 753.3 ± 270.3 cells/µl (median = 725.0 cells/µl) and the mean CD4+ T cell percentage was 32.6 ± 7.7%, (median = 31.0%). Women had a slightly higher mean absolute CD4+ T cell count and CD4+ T cell percentage (779.1 ± 271.0 cells/ µl; 33.4 ± 8.2%) than men (728.2 ± 268.3 cells/µl; 31.8 ± 7.1%), but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.126, p = 0.216, respectively). The mean absolute CD4+ T cell varied significantly by age group (p = 0.002). Sixty-one point seven percent of men studied (37/60) had a CD4+ T cell count less than 500 cells/µl (OR 1.8; 95% CI = 1.001-3.300). Absolute CD4+ T cell counts among Javanese Indonesians varied significantly by age.

  20. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW (P<0.05, with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83±32.42 mm3 was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD, which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41–50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans.

  1. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yuan; Xu, Qian; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhu, Haohao; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV) and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW) (P ACV (mean 153.83 ± 32.42 mm(3)) was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD), which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41-50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans.

  2. Combination of erythritol and fructose increases gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Sonhee C; Wolf, Bryan W; Hertzler, Steven R

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of a large amount of dietary fructose induces gastrointestinal intolerance, and glucose has been known as an enhancer of fructose absorption. Erythritol is a nonglycemic sugar alcohol, and it has been suggested that erythritol is absorbed paracellularly. It was hypothesized that paracellular absorption of erythritol could also enhance paracellular absorption of fructose in healthy adults. This is one of the proposed pathways for how additional glucose enhances the absorption of fructose. Thirty-seven nondiabetic, healthy adults participated in a randomized, double-masked, controlled crossover study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed beverages containing either 50 g fructose and 50 g glucose, 50 g fructose and 33.3 g erythritol (an equimolar concentration of fructose), or 50 g fructose alone. Breath hydrogen response was determined for 8 hours postprandially. Gastrointestinal intolerance symptoms and the number and consistency of bowel movements were recorded for 24 hours postprandially. The breath hydrogen area under the curve (AUC) of the fructose and erythritol beverage was 2 times the AUC of the fructose beverage and 8.75 times the AUC of the fructose and glucose beverage (P fructose and glucose beverage and fructose alone, frequency of watery stools increased (P fructose and erythritol. These data suggest that coingestion of equimolar concentrations of fructose and erythritol increased carbohydrate malabsorption.

  3. Differences in dynamic and static functional connectivity between young and elderly healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ryu, Kyeoung Hwa; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN]). Static FC was calculated as Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient. The sliding time window correlation (window size 30 s, step size 3 s) was applied for dynamic FC, and the standard deviation across sliding windows was calculated. Differences in static and dynamic FC between EH and YH were calculated and compared by region. EH showed decreased static FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions (FDR corrected p = 0.0013; 74 regions), with no regions showing static FC higher than that in YH. EH showed increased dynamic FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions, whereas decreased dynamic FC in CC and DMN regions (p static and dynamic FC. Dynamic FC exhibited differences from static FC in EH and YH, mainly in regions involved in cognitive control and the DMN. Altered dynamic FC demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct patterns of transient brain activity and needs to be studied as an imaging biomarker in the aging process.

  4. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1, motor threshold (E2, and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3. Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject’s demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  5. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegel, M A; Pleil, J D; Sobus, J R; Angrish, M M; Morgan, M K

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creatinine is a human metabolite that is continually produced in skeletal muscles and presumably excreted in the urine at a stable rate. However, creatinine also serves as a biomarker for glomerular filtration rate (efficiency) of the kidneys, so undiagnosed kidney function impairment could affect this commonly applied dilution calculation. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has recently conducted a study that collected approximately 2600 urine samples from 50 healthy adults, aged 19-50 years old, in North Carolina in 2009-2011. Urinary ancillary data (creatinine concentration, total void volume, elapsed time between voids), and participant demographic data (race, gender, height, and body weight) were collected. A representative subset of 280 urine samples from 29 participants was assayed using a new kidney injury panel (KIP). In this article, we investigated the relationships of KIP biomarkers within and between subjects and also calculated their interactions with measured creatinine levels. The aims of this work were to document the analytical methods (procedures, sensitivity, stability, etc.), provide summary statistics for the KIP biomarkers in "healthy" adults without diagnosed disease (distribution, fold range, central tendency, variance), and to develop an understanding as to how urinary creatinine level varies with respect to the individual KIP proteins. Results show that new instrumentation and data reduction methods have sufficient sensitivity to measure KIP levels in nominally healthy urine samples, that linear regression between creatinine concentration and urinary excretion explains only about 68% of variability, that KIP markers are poorly correlated with

  6. The Effects of Twelve Weeks of Tai Chi Practice on Anxiety in Stressed But Healthy People Compared to Exercise and Wait-List Groups-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuai; Kim, Christine; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2017-06-13

    This randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether 12 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) practice can reduce anxiety in healthy but stressed people. Fifty participants were randomized into TC (n=17), exercise (n=17), and wait-list (WL) groups (n=16). Outcome measures used were State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale 14 (PSS14), blood pressure and heart rate variability, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Short Form 36. Significant improvements were observed from baseline for both TC and exercise groups for both state (p stress levels in healthy individuals and provides a safer, cost effective, and less physically vigorous alternative to exercise. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panackal, Anil A; Komori, Mika; Kosa, Peter; Khan, Omar; Hammoud, Dima A; Rosen, Lindsey B; Browne, Sarah K; Lin, Yen-Chih; Romm, Elena; Ramaprasad, Charu; Fries, Bettina C; Bennett, John E; Bielekova, Bibiana; Williamson, Peter R

    2017-02-01

    Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology. All 6 exhibited severe lower motor neuron involvement in addition to cognitive changes and gait disturbances from meningoencephalitis. Spinal involvement was associated with asymmetric weakness and urinary retention. Diagnostic specificity was improved by MRI imaging which demonstrated lumbar spinal nerve root enhancement and clumping or lesions. Despite negative fungal cultures, CSF inflammatory biomarkers, sCD27 and sCD21, as well as the neuronal damage biomarker, neurofilament light chain (NFL), were elevated compared to healthy donor (HD) controls. Elevations in these biomarkers were associated with clinical symptoms and showed improvement with adjunctive high dose pulse corticosteroids. These data suggest that a post-infectious spinal arachnoiditis is an important complication of CM in previously healthy individuals, requiring heightened clinician awareness. Despite microbiological control, this syndrome causes significant pathology likely due to increased inflammation and may be amenable to suppressive therapeutics. Published by Oxford University Press for the Clinical Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Approximate time to steady state resting energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry in young, healthy adults

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    Collin Popp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indirect calorimetry (IC measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE necessitate a stable measurement period, or steady state (SS. There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2 completed IC measurement for approximately 30-minutes while the volume of oxygen (VO2 and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2 were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV over a period of 5- consecutive minutes. The 30-minute IC measurement was divided into six 5-minute segments, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%, and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3= 8.07 ± 4.4%; S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%; S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%; S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%. The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 minutes. The first 5-minute segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-minute segment.

  9. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

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    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerian population - a cross sectional study

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    Gbadamosi Maruf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a major cause of morbidity and a leading contributor to mortality worldwide. Over the next 2 decades, it is projected that there will be a rise in CVD mortality rates in the developing countries, linked to demographic changes and progressive urbanization. Nigeria has witnessed tremendous socio-economic changes and rural-urban migration which have led to the emergence of non-communicable diseases. We set out to determine the prevalence of modifiable CVD risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerians. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out at Katsina, northwestern Nigeria from March to May 2006. Subjects for the study were recruited consecutively from local residents, hospital staff and relations of in-patients of the Federal Medical Centre, Katsina using convenience sampling. Socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were obtained from the subjects in a standardized manner. Venous samples were collected for necessary investigations and analyzed at the hospital central laboratory. Findings Three hundred subjects (129 males and 171 females with a mean age of 37.6 ± 10.6 (range 18-75 years were studied. Prevalence of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors screened for were as follows: generalized obesity 21.3% (males 10.9%, females 29.2%, p 0.05, type 2 diabetes mellitus 5.3% (males 5.4%, females 5.3%, p > 0.05, hypercholesterolaemia 28.3% (males 23.3%, females 32.2%, p 0.05, low HDL-cholesterol 59.3% (males 51.9%, females 65%, p 0.05 and metabolic syndrome 22% (males 10.9%, females 30.4%, p Conclusions We found high prevalence of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerians. In order to reduce this high prevalence and prevent subsequent cardiovascular events, encouragement of a healthy lifestyle is suggested.

  11. Relationships of electrocardiographic parameters with ambulatory hypertension in young and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Metin, Fatih; Bossard, Matthias; Schoen, Tobias; von Rotz, Mirco; Mettler, Heidi; Abächerli, Roger; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a leading cardiovascular risk factor and a major determinant of left ventricular mass. Te aim of this study was to assess electrocardiographic (ECG) changes associated with hypertension in a large cohort of young and healthy adults. Healthy individuals aged 25–41 years without known cardiovascular disease were enrolled in a population based cohort study. Resting 12-lead ECG and ambulatory 24-hour BP measurement were obtained using validated devices. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess the relationships between ECG parameters and daytime hypertension, defined as systolic daytime BP≥140, diastolic BP≥90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive treatment. Daytime hypertension was present among 430 of 2070 (21%) participants. Significant linear relationships were observed between daytime hypertension with RR interval (odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 (0.78; 0.92)), R-wave amplitude in leads I and II (OR (95% CI) 2.04 (1.30; 3.19) and 1.61 (1.15; 2.24), and S-wave amplitudes in leads aVR, V1 and V2 with ORs (95% CI) of 3.28 (1.93; 5.59), 2.15 (1.51; 3.08) and 1.47 (1.18; 1.83), respectively. We also observed linear associations between daytime hypertension and T-wave amplitudes in leads V1 (OR (95% CI) 4.83 (2.35; 9.91)), V2 (2.18 (1.43; 3.32)), V4 (0.48 (0.29; 0.80)) and V5 (0.37 (0.19; 0.72)). Several ECG parameters are independently associated with daytime hypertension among young and healthy adults. This is one of the first studies to show significant relationships between T wave amplitude and hypertension.

  12. Seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis and diphtheria among healthy adults in China.

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    Zhang, Qi; Han, Fulian; Nie, Qing; Ren, Hongyu; Zhang, Baoqiang; Liu, Qiyong; He, Qiushui; Shao, Zhujun

    2011-12-01

    Despite extensive childhood immunization, pertussis remains one of the world's leading causes of vaccine-preventable deaths. Incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has increased in many countries despite high vaccination coverage. In China, booster vaccinations against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis are not used in adults, and little is known about pertussis incidence in the age group. The aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) and diphtheria among adults in China. Blood samples were obtained from 210 healthy adults aged 18-50 years in Weifang city, China during the period of May and June 2010. Serum IgG antibodies against PT (anti-PT IgG) and diphtheria were determined by the commercial ELISA kits, respectively. According to the kit, concentration of anti-PT IgG higher than 30 IU/mL was considered positive. An antibody concentration of ≥ 0.1 IU/mL was defined as evidence of seroprotection against diphtheria. The mean concentration of anti-PT IgG antibodies was 9.95 IU/mL (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.45-11.44). Eleven (5.24%) of the studied subjects were proved to be seropositive to pertussis. Of the 210 subjects, 161 (76.6%) had anti-diphtheria antibody concentration ≥ 0.1 IU/mL and 49 (23.3%) had the antibody concentration between 0.01 and 0.099 IU/mL. Our study indicated that about 5% of adults aged 18-50 years had positive anti-PT IgG antibodies, suggesting that adult pertussis is not uncommon in China. Although a high proportion of studied subjects had a protective level of immunity against diphtheria, the antibody level decreased with the increasing age of adults. Booster vaccinations against pertussis should be considered in adults in China. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impaired peripheral vasodilation during graded systemic hypoxia in healthy older adults: role of the sympathoadrenal system.

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    Richards, Jennifer C; Crecelius, Anne R; Larson, Dennis G; Luckasen, Gary J; Dinenno, Frank A

    2017-04-01

    Systemic hypoxia is a physiological and pathophysiological stress that activates the sympathoadrenal system and, in young adults, leads to peripheral vasodilation. We tested the hypothesis that peripheral vasodilation to graded systemic hypoxia is impaired in older healthy adults and that this age-associated impairment is due to attenuated β-adrenergic mediated vasodilation and elevated α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. Forearm blood flow was measured (Doppler ultrasound), and vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated in 12 young (24 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (63 ± 2 yr) adults to determine the local dilatory responses to graded hypoxia (90, 85, and 80% O2 saturations) in control conditions, following local intra-arterial blockade of β-receptors (propranolol), and combined blockade of α- and β-receptors (phentolamine + propranolol). Under control conditions, older adults exhibited impaired vasodilation to hypoxia compared with young participants at all levels of hypoxia (peak ΔFVC at 80% [Formula: see text] = 4 ± 6 vs. 35 ± 8%; P adults actively constricted at 85 and 80% [Formula: see text] (peak ΔFVC at 80% [Formula: see text] = -13 ± 6%; P adults; however, older adults failed to significantly vasodilate (peak ΔFVC at 80% [Formula: see text]= 12 ± 11% vs. 58 ± 11%; P adults, which cannot be fully explained by altered sympathoadrenal control of vascular tone. Thus, the impairment in hypoxic vasodilation is likely due to attenuated local vasodilatory and/or augmented vasoconstrictor signaling with age.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that the lack of peripheral vasodilation during graded systemic hypoxia with aging is not mediated by the sympathoadrenal system, strongly implicating local vascular control mechanisms in this impairment. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to therapeutic advances for improving tissue blood flow and oxygen delivery in aging and disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Salivary cortisol, stress and mood in healthy older adults: the Zenith study.

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    Simpson, Ellen E A; McConville, Chris; Rae, Gordon; O'Connor, Jacqueline M; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Coudray, Charles; Strain, J J

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress and mood and to look at the circadian rhythms of positive (PA) and negative (NA) mood in older adults. The participants were 41 healthy adults aged 55-69 years, recruited in Northern Ireland as part of the European Commission-funded Zenith project. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained twice a day (2.30 p.m. and 10.30 p.m.) for 7 consecutive days in conjunction with momentary measures of positive (PA) and negative mood (NA), using PANAS and a trait measure of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale). Salivary cortisol levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Higher perceived stress levels were associated with lower afternoon PA (r=-0.46, p=0.003) and higher afternoon (r=0.43, p=0.007) and evening (r=0.45, p=0.004) NA. Lower afternoon PA was correlated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=-0.47, p=0.002). Greater afternoon PA variability was associated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=0.38, p=0.015). A high intra-class correlation between cortisol and positive mood was found (r=0.67, p=0.009). Previously established rhythms for positive and negative mood were confirmed. Interestingly, there was no association between salivary cortisol levels and perceived stress in these healthy older adults. Further, more extensive research is required to better understand the apparent interplay between these variables and ageing.

  15. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults.

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    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults' ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders.

  16. VOR Gain Is Related to Compensatory Saccades in Healthy Older Adults

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    Anson, Eric R.; Bigelow, Robin T.; Carey, John P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Studenski, Stephanie; Schubert, Michael C.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain is well-suited for identifying rotational vestibular dysfunction, but may miss partial progressive decline in age-related vestibular function. Since compensatory saccades might provide an alternative method for identifying subtle vestibular decline, we describe the relationship between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 subjects age 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT). Saccades in each HIT were identified as either “compensatory” or “compensatory back-up,” i.e., same or opposite direction as the VOR response respectively. Saccades were also classified as “covert” (occurring during head movement) and “overt” (occurring after head movement). The relationship between VOR gain and percentage of HITs with saccades, as well as the relationship between VOR gain and saccade latency and amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race. Results: In adjusted analyses, the percentage of HITs with compensatory saccades increased 4.5% for every 0.1 decrease in VOR gain (p < 0.0001). Overt compensatory saccade amplitude decreased 0.6° (p < 0.005) and latency increased 90 ms (p < 0.001) for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Covert back-up compensatory saccade amplitude increased 0.4° for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Conclusion: We observed significant relationships between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Lower VOR gain was associated with larger amplitude, shorter latency compensatory saccades. Compensatory saccades reflect underlying rotational vestibular hypofunction, and may be particularly useful at identifying partial vestibular deficits as occur in aging adults. PMID:27445793

  17. Invasive pneumococcal disease in healthy adults: increase of empyema associated with the clonal-type Sweden(1-ST306.

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    Imma Grau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD occurs mainly in the elderly and patients with co-morbidities. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, serotypes and genotypes causing IPD in healthy adults. METHODS: We studied 745 culture-proven cases of IPD in adult patients aged 18-64 years (1996-2010. Patients were included in two groups: 1. adults with co-morbidities, and 2. healthy adults, who had no prior or coincident diagnosis of a chronic or immunosuppressive underlying disease. Microbiological studies included pneumococcal serotyping and genotyping. RESULTS: Of 745 IPD episodes, 525 (70% occurred in patients with co-morbidities and 220 (30% in healthy adults. The healthy adults with IPD were often smokers (56% or alcohol abusers (18%. As compared to patients with co-morbidities, the healthy adults had (P<0.05: younger age (43.5+/-13.1 vs. 48.7+/-11.3 years; higher proportions of women (45% vs. 24%, pneumonia with empyema (15% vs. 7% and infection with non-PCV7 serotypes including serotypes 1 (25% vs. 5%, 7F (13% vs. 4%, and 5 (7% vs. 2%; and lower mortality (5% vs. 20%. Empyema was more frequently caused by serotype 1. No death occurred among 79 patients with serotype 1 IPD. There was an emergence of virulent clonal-types Sweden(1-ST306 and Netherlands(7F-ST191. The vaccine serotype coverage with the PCV13 was higher in healthy adults than in patients with co-morbidities: 82% and 56%, respectively, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: In this clinical study, one-third of adults with IPD had no underlying chronic or immunosuppressive diseases (healthy adults. They were often smokers and alcohol abusers, and frequently presents with pneumonia and empyema caused by virulent clones of non-PCV7 serotypes such as the Sweden(1-ST306. Thus, implementing tobacco and alcohol abuse-cessation measures and a proper pneumococcal vaccination, such as PCV13 policy, in active smokers and alcohol abusers may diminish the burden of IPD in adults.

  18. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

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    Ana Rita Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective: We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design: A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT. The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory. Results: The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions: A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the

  19. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins-Crépeau, Laurence; Berryman, Nicolas; Fraser, Sarah A; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Li, Karen ZH; Bosquet, Laurent; Bherer, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults. Methods Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT) training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention. Results All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training. All groups showed improved speed of processing and inhibition abilities, but only participants who took part in the DT training, independently of physical training, showed increased task-switching abilities. The level of functional mobility after intervention was significantly associated with task-switching abilities. Conclusion Combined training did not yield synergetic effects. However, DT training did lead to transfer effects on executive performance in neuropsychological tests. Both aerobic-resistance training and stretching-toning exercises can improve functional mobility in older adults. PMID:27698558

  20. Meeting recommendations for multiple healthy lifestyle factors. Prevalence, clustering, and predictors among adolescent, adult, and senior health plan members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Anderson, Louise H; Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; O'Connor, Patrick J; Sherwood, Nancy E; Whitebird, Robin R

    2004-08-01

    Whereas much is known about single lifestyle-related health risk factor prevalence and covariates, more research is needed to elucidate the interactions among multiple healthy lifestyle factors and variables that may predict adherence to these factors. Such data may guide both clinical and health policy decision making and person-centered approaches to population health improvement. We document the prevalence and cluster patterns of multiple healthy lifestyle factors among a random sample of adolescents (n =616), adults (n =585), and seniors (n =685) from a large Midwestern health plan. Modifiable, lifestyle-related health factors assessed included physical activity, nonsmoking, high-quality diet, and healthy weight for all subjects; adults and seniors were also asked about their alcohol consumption. Second, we sought to identify characteristics associated with the likelihood of meeting recommendations for healthy lifestyle factors. The healthy lifestyle factors sum score was categorized into three levels, that is, 0 to 2, 3, or 4 to 5 healthy lifestyle factors (4 for adolescents), and we used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the odds of meeting each of these criteria from several demographic characteristics and disease states. Overall, only 14.5% of adolescent, adult, and senior health plan members meet recommended guidelines for four common healthy lifestyle factors. Only 10.8% of adults and 12.8% of seniors met all five behavior-related factors. For adolescents, only being nondepressed was associated with an increased likelihood to be in adherence to multiple healthy lifestyle factors (odds ratio [OR]=2.15; p adults, being in the 50- to 64-year-old cohort (OR=1.46, plifestyle factors. For seniors, having a college degree (OR=1.61; p lifestyle factors. A small proportion of health plan members meet multiple recommended healthy lifestyle guidelines at once. This analysis identifies population subgroups of specific interest and importance based on adherence

  1. Influence of passive leg movements on blood circulation on the tilt table in healthy adults

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    Czell David

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One problem in the mobilization of patients with neurological diseases, such as spinal cord injury, is the circulatory collapse that occurs while changing from supine to vertical position because of the missing venous pump due to paralyzed leg muscles. Therefore, a tilt table with integrated stepping device (tilt stepper was developed, which allows passive stepping movements for performing locomotion training in an early state of rehabilitation. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if passive stepping and cycling movements of the legs during tilt table training could stabilize blood circulation and prevent neurally-mediated syncope in healthy young adults. Methods In the first experiment, healthy subjects were tested on a traditional tilt table. Subjects who had a syncope or near-syncope in this condition underwent a second trial on the tilt stepper. In the second experiment, a group of healthy subjects was investigated on a traditional tilt table, the second group on the tilt ergometer, a device that allows cycling movements during tilt table training. We used the chi-square test to compare the occurrence of near-syncope/syncope in both groups (tilt table/tilt stepper and tilt table/tilt ergometer and ANOVA to compare the blood pressure and heart rate between the groups at the four time intervals (supine, at 2 minutes, at 6 minutes and end of head-up tilt. Results Separate chi-square tests performed for each experiment showed significant differences in the occurrence of near syncope or syncope based on the device used. Comparison of the two groups (tilt stepper/ tilt table in experiment one (ANOVA showed that blood pressure was significantly higher at the end of head-up tilt on the tilt stepper and on the tilt table there was a greater increase in heart rate (2 minutes after head-up tilt. Comparison of the two groups (tilt ergometer/tilt table in experiment 2 (ANOVA showed that blood pressure was significantly

  2. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  3. False positivity of ETV6/RUNX1 detected by FISH in healthy newborns and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Maria Schioldan; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Andersen, Mette Klarskov

    2014-01-01

    The leukemia-associated ETV6-RUNX1-translocation frequently emerges prenatally. Reverse-transcriptase PCR screening may indicate presence of ETV6-RUNX1 transcripts in random cord blood samples. Subsequent cell enrichment validation finds significantly lower levels than validation applying...... fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (RUNX1-positive dilution series, healthy adults and random cord blood samples. The t(12;21) single fusion extra signal translocation probe and the ETV6 break apart probe...... gave false positive results mimicking ETV6-RUNX1-positive cell levels of 10(-3). This questions the paradigm that 1% of newborns have ETV6-RUNX1-positive cells at levels of 10(-3) to 10(-4)....

  4. Common epigenetic variation in a European population of mentally healthy young adults.

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    Milnik, Annette; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; Egli, Tobias; Freytag, Virginie; Hartmann, Francina; Heck, Angela; Peter, Fabian; Spalek, Klara; Stetak, Attila; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Vukojevic, Vanja

    2016-12-01

    DNA methylation represents an important link between structural genetic variation and complex phenotypes. The study of genome-wide CpG methylation and its relation to traits relevant to psychiatry has become increasingly important. Here, we analyzed quality metrics of 394,043 CpG sites in two samples of 568 and 319 mentally healthy young adults. For 25% of all CpGs we observed medium to large common epigenetic variation. These CpGs were overrepresented in open sea and shore regions, as well as in intergenic regions. They also showed a strong enrichment of significant hits in association analyses. Furthermore, a significant proportion of common DNA methylation is at least partially genetically driven and thus may be observed similarly across tissues. These findings could be of particular relevance for studies of complex neuropsychiatric traits, which often rely on proxy tissues.

  5. Effects of Increased Physiological Arousal on Upper Extremity Positional Awareness in Healthy Young Adults

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    Christopher Kovacs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of increased physiological arousal on the ability to perceive upper extremity positional awareness in healthy young adults. Approach: Thirty-eight participants were pre- and post-tested for upper extremity positional awareness using a manual kinesthesiometer. Participants in the experimental group underwent a combination of the Stroop color-word task and timed arithmetic problems to produce a state of physiological arousal. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements were taken during data collection to assess levels of physiological arousal. Pre-and post-test absolute error scores for each participant were compared. Results: ANCOVA revealed a significant time effect (pConclusion: The results suggested positional awareness is altered under a state of elevated physiological arousal and that these results may have significant implications for individuals performing various types of motor skills.

  6. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN.

  7. Composition of microbial oral biofilms during maturation in young healthy adults.

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    Daniela Langfeldt

    Full Text Available In the present study we aimed to analyze the bacterial community structure of oral biofilms at different maturation stages in young healthy adults. Oral biofilms established on membrane filters were collected from 32 human subjects after 5 different maturation intervals (1, 3, 5, 9 and 14 days and the respective phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Our analyses revealed highly diverse entire colonization profiles, spread into 8 phyla/candidate divisions and in 15 different bacterial classes. A large inter-individual difference in the subjects' microbiota was observed, comprising 35% of the total variance, but lacking conspicuous general temporal trends in both alpha and beta diversity. We further obtained strong evidence that subjects can be categorized into three clusters based on three differently occurring and mutually exclusive species clusters.

  8. A time to be stressed? Time perspectives and cortisol dynamics among healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A.; Juster, Robert-Paul; Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of past, present, and future events may be related to stress pathophysiology. We assessed whether Time Perspective (TP) is associated with cortisol dynamics among healthy adults (N = 61, Ages = 18–35, M = 22.9, SD = 4.1) exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). TP was measured according to two profiles: maladaptive Deviation from Balanced TP (DBTP) and adaptive Deviation from Negative TP (DNTP). Eight salivary cortisol samples were analyzed using area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and to increase (AUCi). Statistic analyses involved partial correlations controlling for depressive symptoms. Results for both sexes showed that higher DBTP scores were associated with lower cortisol AUCg scores, while higher DNTP scores were associated with higher cortisol AUCg scores. These novel findings suggest that maladaptive TP profiles influence hypocortisolism, whereas adaptive TP profiles influence hypercortisolism. Thus, TP profiles may impact conditions characterized by altered cortisol concentrations. PMID:26362588

  9. Composition of microbial oral biofilms during maturation in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfeldt, Daniela; Neulinger, Sven C; Heuer, Wieland; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Eberhard, Jörg; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to analyze the bacterial community structure of oral biofilms at different maturation stages in young healthy adults. Oral biofilms established on membrane filters were collected from 32 human subjects after 5 different maturation intervals (1, 3, 5, 9 and 14 days) and the respective phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Our analyses revealed highly diverse entire colonization profiles, spread into 8 phyla/candidate divisions and in 15 different bacterial classes. A large inter-individual difference in the subjects' microbiota was observed, comprising 35% of the total variance, but lacking conspicuous general temporal trends in both alpha and beta diversity. We further obtained strong evidence that subjects can be categorized into three clusters based on three differently occurring and mutually exclusive species clusters.

  10. Angle-specific torques of thigh muscles: variability analysis in 200 healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannus, P; Kaplan, M

    1991-12-01

    This study evaluated the variability of the isokinetic angle-specific torques (ASTs) at 15 and 75 degrees of knee flexion and assessed the relationship between them and the isokinetic peak torque (PT) in 200 healthy adults. The results showed that the value of these AST measurements was lower than of the PT measurements. This was due to larger variability of the AST (male and female coefficient of variation [cv] 34 and 43% in the ASTs vs. 19 and 31% in the PTs); unequal variation in the results between men and women (mean cv 27% in men vs. 34% in women); and fairly poor prediction of the ASTs from the PT (PT accounted for only 39 and 62% for the variation seen in the men's and women's AST results). Furthermore, in regression analysis the standard errors of the estimates were unacceptably high, averaging 26%. AST measurements should not be used routinely.

  11. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress is a common experience in today's society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level....... OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self......-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. METHODS: A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM...

  12. Analytes and Metabolites Associated with Muscle Quality in Young, Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori Lyn; Fielding, Roger A

    2015-08-01

    Identification of mechanisms that underlie lower extremity muscle quality (leg press one repetition maximum/total lean mass; LP/Lean) may be important for individuals interested in optimizing fitness and sport performance. The purpose of the current study was to provide observational insight into mechanisms that may underlie muscle quality by characterizing the association between 286 mass spectrometry metabolites and 17 chemistry screen analytes with LP/Lean in young, healthy adults (N = 77 (49 women and 28 men); mean age, 24.4 ± 4.2 yr; BMI, 23.5 ± 2.6 kg·m). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the 286 metabolites into 73 metabolite-containing PCA factors. Sex-adjusted linear regression was used to examine the association between PCA factors and chemistry screen analytes with LP/Lean. Q values were computed to account for multiple comparison testing. Stepwise linear regression and leave-one-out cross validation were used to identify a predictor set representative of LP/Lean and to assess internal validity, respectively. Metabolites or analytes related to dietary protein intake (albumin, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)) and excitation-contraction coupling (calcium and magnesium) were positively associated, whereas metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism (cinnamoylglycine, hydrocinnamate, hippurate, indolepropionate) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) (methylglutarylcarnitine and cinnamoylglycine) activation were negatively associated with LP/Lean. Use of leave-one-out cross validation identified magnesium, sex, and the PCA factors containing BCAAs and methionine and methylglutarylcarnitine to be present in more than 90% of the stepwise regression models, thereby explaining 26.7% of the variance (adjusted R) inherent in muscle quality. Collectively, these data suggest that mechanisms related to dietary protein intake, excitation-contraction coupling, gut microbial metabolism, and PPAR-α activation may

  13. Foot pain and functional limitation in healthy adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

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    Nix Sheree E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallux valgus (HV is a very common deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that often requires surgical correction. However, the association between structural HV deformity and related foot pain and disability is unclear. Furthermore, no previous studies have investigated concerns about appearance and difficulty with footwear in a population with HV not seeking surgical correction. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate foot pain, functional limitation, concern about appearance and difficulty with footwear in otherwise healthy adults with HV compared to controls. Methods Thirty volunteers with HV (radiographic HV angle >15 degrees and 30 matched controls were recruited for this study (50 women, 10 men; mean age 44.4 years, range 20 to 76 years. Differences between groups were examined for self-reported foot pain and disability, satisfaction with appearance, footwear difficulty, and pressure-pain threshold at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Functional measures included balance tests, walking performance, and hallux muscle strength (abduction and plantarflexion. Mean differences (MD and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results All self-report measures showed that HV was associated with higher levels of foot pain and disability and significant concerns about appearance and footwear (p Conclusions These findings show that HV negatively impacts on self-reported foot pain and function, and concerns about foot appearance and footwear in otherwise healthy adults. There was also evidence of impaired hallux muscle strength and increased postural sway in HV subjects compared to controls, although general physical functioning and participation in physical activity were not adversely affected.

  14. Arginine synthesis from enteral glutamine in healthy adults in the fed state.

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    Tomlinson, Chris; Rafii, Mahroukh; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies have documented transfer of labeled nitrogen from [2-(15)N]glutamine to citrulline and arginine in fasting human adults. Conversely, in neonates and piglets we have shown no synthesis of arginine from [2-(15)N]glutamate, and others have shown in mice that glutamine is a nitrogen, but not a carbon donor, for arginine synthesis. Therefore, we performed a multitracer study to determine whether glutamine is a nitrogen and/or carbon donor for arginine in healthy adult men. Two glutamine tracers, 2-(15)N and 1-(13)C, were given enterally to five healthy men fed a standardized milkshake diet. There was no difference in plasma enrichments between the two glutamine tracers. 1-(13)C isotopomers of citrulline and arginine were synthesized from [1-(13)C]glutamine. Three isotopomers each of citrulline and arginine were synthesized from the [2-(15)N]glutamine tracer: 2-(15)N, 5-(15)N, and 2,5-(15)N(2). Significantly greater enrichment was found of both [5-(15)N]arginine (0.75%) and citrulline (3.98%) compared with [2-(15)N]arginine (0.44%) and [2-(15)N]citrulline (2.62%), indicating the amino NH(2) from glutamine is mostly transferred to arginine and citrulline by transamination. Similarly, the enrichment of the 1-(13)C isotopomers was significantly less than the 2-(15)N isotopomers, suggesting rapid formation of α-ketoglutarate and recycling of the nitrogen label. Our results show that the carbon for 50% of newly synthesized arginine comes from dietary glutamine but that glutamine acts primarily as a nitrogen donor for arginine synthesis. Hence, studies using [2-(15)N]glutamine will overestimate arginine synthesis rates.

  15. Continuous passive movement does not influence motor maps in healthy adults

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    Michelle Nadine McDonnell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hand weakness following stroke is often associated with a reduced representation of the hand in the primary motor cortex. Meaningful sensory input can induce sensorimotor reorganisation in the brain, but the effect of continuous passive motion on the cortical representation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated sessions of continuous passive movement (CPM of the thumb induce a lasting increase in the motor cortical representation of a thumb muscle in healthy adults. Thirteen right-handed healthy adults (mean age 24.3 ± 4.3 yrs participated in the study. Single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS was delivered over the motor area of the target muscle (abductor pollicis brevis before and/or after a thirty minute session of thumb CPM administered on three consecutive days. TMS was also delivered five days after cessation of the CPM intervention. The response to TMS (motor evoked potential was recorded in the target muscle with surface EMG. Resting motor threshold, motor evoked potential amplitude at a specified intensity, and the area and volume of the cortical representation of the target muscle were measured. Thumb CPM had no significant effect on TMS parameters (p > 0.05 all measures and performance of an attention task remained unchanged within and across CPM sessions. The results suggest that three sessions of repetitive passive thumb movement is not sufficient to induce a change in the cortical representation of the thumb and is unlikely to reverse the decreased representation of the affected hand following stroke.

  16. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J.; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults’ ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders. PMID:28197085

  17. Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence in healthy young adults: the role of basal ganglia volume.

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    Cosima Rhein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R. Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01, whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01. Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively. The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex

  18. Effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in healthy nonsmoking Saudi adults

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    Syed Shahid Habib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is an emerging marker of inflammation in respiratory diseases. However, it is affected by a number of confounding factors. We aimed to study the effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on FENO in non-smoking Saudi healthy adults. Methods: We recruited 12 nonsmoker healthy male adults aged 36.6 ± 2.7 (21-50 years. All subjects were free from acute respiratory infections or allergies and had normal ventilatory functions and serum IgE levels. At 8 am in the morning, their baseline values of FENO were recorded. They had not taken tea or coffee in the morning and had taken similar light breakfast. They were given three cups of Arabian Qahwa to drink and then after every 30 minutes, serial levels of FENO were recorded. Results: Average FENO levels at baseline were 28.73 ± 9.33 (mean ± SD parts per billion (ppb. The mean FENO levels started to decrease significantly after 30 minutes of drinking Arabian Qahwa (P=0.002. This decrease in FENO level was further observed till two hours after Qahwa drinking and then it started to increase in next 90 minutes but still was significantly lower than the baseline (P=0.002. The mean FENO level recorded after 4 hours was 27.22 ± 10.22 (P=0.039. Conclusions: FENO levels were significantly lowered by intake of Arabian Qahwa and this effect remains for about 4 hours. Therefore, history of recent Qahwa intake and abstinence is essential before performance of FENO and its interpretation.

  19. Inter-device reliability of an automatic-scoring actigraph for measuring sleep in healthy adults

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    Matthew Driller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Actigraphy has become a common method of measuring sleep due to its non-invasive, cost-effective nature. An actigraph (Readiband™ that utilizes automatic scoring algorithms has been used in the research, but is yet to be evaluated for its inter-device reliability. A total of 77 nights of sleep data from 11 healthy adult participants was collected while participants were concomitantly wearing two Readiband™ actigraphs attached together (ACT1 and ACT2. Sleep indices including total sleep time (TST, sleep latency (SL, sleep efficiency (SE%, wake after sleep onset (WASO, total time in bed (TTB, wake episodes per night (WE, sleep onset variance (SOV and wake variance (WV were assessed between the two devices using mean differences, 95% levels of agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, typical error of measurement (TEM and coefficient of variation (CV% analysis. There were no significant differences between devices for any of the measured sleep variables (p>0.05. TST, SE, SL, TTB, SOV and WV all resulted in very high ICC's (>0.90, with WASO and WE resulting in high ICC's between devices (0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Mean differences of −2.1 and 0.2 min for TST and SL were associated with a low TEM between devices (9.5 and 3.8 min, respectively. SE resulted in a 0.3% mean difference between devices. The Readiband™ is a reliable tool for researchers using multiple devices of this brand in sleep studies to assess basic measures of sleep quality and quantity in healthy adult populations.

  20. Visual and quantitative electroencephalographic analysis of healthy young and adult cats under medetomidine sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Marcin; Nicpon, Jozef; Bergamasco, Luciana; Sammartano, Federica; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Jaggy, André

    2009-05-01

    A study was designed to investigate the effect of medetomidine sedation on quantitative electroencephalography (q-EEG) in healthy young and adult cats to determine objective guidelines for diagnostic EEG recordings and interpretation. Preliminary visual examination of EEG recordings revealed high-voltage low-frequency background activity. Spindles, k-complexes and vertex sharp transients characteristic of sleep or sedation were superimposed on a low background activity. Neither paroxysmal activity nor EEG burst-suppression were observed. The spectral analysis of q-EEG included four parameters, namely, relative power (%), and mean, median and peak frequency (Hz) of all four frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta). The findings showed a prevalence of slow delta and theta rhythms as opposed to fast alpha and beta rhythms in both young (group A) and adult (group B) cats. A posterior gradient was reported for the theta band and an anterior gradient for the alpha and beta bands in both groups, respectively. The relative power value in group B compared to group A was significantly higher for theta, alpha and beta bands, and lower for the delta band. The mean and median frequency values in group B was significantly higher for delta, theta and beta bands and lower for the alpha band. The study has shown that a medetomidine sedation protocol for feline EEG may offer a method for investigating bio-electrical cortical activity. The use of q-EEG analysis showed a decrease in high frequency bands and increased activity of the low frequency band in healthy cats under medetomidine sedation.

  1. Detection and Clinical Patterns of Nephron Hypertrophy and Nephrosclerosis Among Apparently Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic, Aleksandar; Alexander, Mariam P; Kaushik, Vidhu; Lerman, Lilach O; Lieske, John C; Stegall, Mark D; Larson, Joseph J; Kremers, Walter K; Vrtiska, Terri J; Chakkera, Harini A; Poggio, Emilio D; Rule, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Even among ostensibly healthy adults, there is often mild pathology in the kidney. The detection of kidney microstructural variation and pathology by imaging and the clinical pattern associated with these structural findings is unclear. Cross-sectional (clinical-pathologic correlation). Living kidney donors at Mayo Clinic (Minnesota and Arizona sites) and Cleveland Clinic 2000 to 2011. Predonation kidney function, risk factors, and contrast computed tomographic scan of the kidneys. These scans were segmented for cortical volume and medullary volume, reviewed for parenchymal cysts, and scored for kidney surface roughness. Nephrosclerosis (glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and arteriosclerosis) and nephron size (glomerular volume, mean profile tubular area, and cortical volume per glomerulus) determined from an implantation biopsy of the kidney cortex at donation. Among 1,520 living kidney donors, nephrosclerosis associated with increased kidney surface roughness, cysts, and smaller cortical to medullary volume ratio. Larger nephron size (nephron hypertrophy) associated with larger cortical volume. Nephron hypertrophy and larger cortical volume associated with higher systolic blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and urine albumin excretion; larger body mass index; higher serum uric acid level; and family history of end-stage renal disease. Both nephron hypertrophy and nephrosclerosis associated with older age and mild hypertension. The net effect of both nephron hypertrophy and nephrosclerosis associating with cortical volume was that nephron hypertrophy diminished volume loss with age-related nephrosclerosis and fully negated volume loss with mild hypertension-related nephrosclerosis. Kidney donors are selected on health, restricting the spectrum of pathologic findings. Kidney biopsies in living donors are a small tissue sample leading to imprecise estimates of structural findings. Among apparently healthy adults, the microstructural

  2. The influence of peripheral vision induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Han; Park, Du-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of the peripheral vision (PV) induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults. The subjects consisted of 12 healthy adult volunteers (5 males, 7 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The visual interventions were composed of three types. PV1 and PV2 were stimulated using a one-way vertical striped pattern and a two-way vertical striped pattern, respectively. To embody the features of moving people reflected in the mirrors, researchers recorded movements of people or objects provided by mirrors on video image. In this study, this was named PV3. The subjects were exposed to each of the visual stimuli for 3 min in a random order, and their postural control was then evaluated. All the subjects were allowed to practice once prior to performing the one leg stand test, functional reaching test and body sway test. All the evaluations were made before and after the visual intervention, and the subjects rested for 30 min between each intervention. PV3 ranked second in before and after differences of trace length and velocity and had no significant difference from PV2, demonstrating that the PV3, as well as PV2, affected the amount and velocity of body sway. In addition, the standard deviation velocity, trace length and velocity values of PV3 were higher than the PV1 values. Therefore, the treatment of those who have difficulty with postural control and balance maintenance should take place in a controlled therapeutic environment. PMID:27807518

  3. Intestinal microbiota in healthy U.S. young children and adults--a high throughput microarray analysis.

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    Tamar Ringel-Kulka

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1-2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years.To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1-4 years and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis.Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1-4 years old (n = 28 and healthy adults of 21-60 years (n = 23 was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults.We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify 'windows of opportunity' for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes.

  4. Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuchun; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Pingfan; Ni, Li

    2014-04-01

    Almonds and almond skins are rich in fiber and other components that have potential prebiotic properties. In this study we investigated the prebiotic effects of almond and almond skin intake in healthy humans. A total of 48 healthy adult volunteers consumed a daily dose of roasted almonds (56 g), almond skins (10 g), or commercial fructooligosaccharides (8 g) (as positive control) for 6 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at defined time points and analyzed for microbiota composition and selected indicators of microbial activity. Different strains of intestinal bacteria had varying degrees of growth sensitivity to almonds or almond skins. Significant increases in the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed in fecal samples as a consequence of almond or almond skin supplementation. However, the populations of Escherichia coli did not change significantly, while the growth of the pathogen Clostridum perfringens was significantly repressed. Modification of the intestinal microbiota composition induced changes in bacterial enzyme activities, specifically a significant increase in fecal β-galactosidase activity and decreases in fecal β-glucuronidase, nitroreductase and azoreductase activities. Our observations suggest that almond and almond skin ingestion may lead to an improvement in the intestinal microbiota profile and a modification of the intestinal bacterial activities, which would induce the promotion of health beneficial factors and the inhibition of harmful factors. Thus we believe that almonds and almond skins possess potential prebiotic properties.

  5. An unusual case of spontaneous Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer in a healthy middle-aged adult

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    Bhandari V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vipul Bhandari, R Sriganesh, Kirti RelekarDepartment of Cornea, Nethradhama Eye Hospital, Bengaluru, IndiaBackground: To report a rare presentation of culture-positive Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer and its management.Findings: We report a rare case of a patient with a history of chronic pain and blurriness of vision. Examination revealed a chronic nonhealing paracentral corneal ulcer inferiorly at the 5–7 o'clock meridian with anterior chamber reaction unresponsive to routine antibiotic and antifungal medications with Mantoux test positivity in a middle-aged nondiabetic patient with no prior history of trauma, ocular surgery, and contact lens usage. Ziehl–Neelsen staining of the nonhealing ulcer revealed acid-fast bacilli typical of M. chelonae, with subsequent culture positivity in Löwenstein–Jensen medium. Subsequent treatment with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin resulted in rapid healing of the corneal ulcer.Conclusion: M. chelonae presenting as a chronic nonhealing corneal ulcer spontaneously occurring in a healthy adult with no predisposing factor draws attention towards the need to have a good index of suspicion by performing a Ziehl–Neelsen stain and culture, and subsequent successful management with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin.Keywords: spontaneous, M. chelonae, nonhealing corneal ulcer, healthy

  6. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannice, Gretchen; Rasmussen, Heather

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) that dietary fat for the healthy adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy, with an increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and limited intake of saturated and trans fats. The Academy recommends a food-based approach through a diet that includes regular consumption of fatty fish, nuts and seeds, lean meats and poultry, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. These recommendations are made within the context of rapidly evolving science delineating the influence of dietary fat and specific fatty acids on human health. In addition to fat as a valuable and calorically dense macronutrient with a central role in supplying essential nutrition and supporting healthy body weight, evidence on individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups is emerging as a key factor in nutrition and health. Small variations in the structure of fatty acids within broader categories of fatty acids, such as polyunsaturated and saturated, appear to elicit different physiological functions. The Academy recognizes that scientific knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on human health is young and takes a prudent approach in recommending an increase in fatty acids that benefit health and a reduction in fatty acids shown to increase risk of disease. Registered dietitian nutritionists are uniquely positioned to translate fat and fatty acid research into practical and effective dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults

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    Oliver C. Witard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is critical for human health. Protein feeding, alongside resistance exercise, is a potent stimulus for muscle protein synthesis (MPS and is a key factor that regulates skeletal muscle mass (SMM. The main purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the latest evidence for optimising the amino acid or protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion for increasing or preserving SMM in healthy young and healthy older adults. We used a systematic search strategy of PubMed and Web of Science to retrieve all articles related to this review objective. In summary, our findings support the notion that protein guidelines for increasing or preserving SMM are more complex than simply recommending a total daily amount of protein. Instead, multifactorial interactions between protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion, alongside exercise, influence the stimulation of MPS, and thus should be considered in the context of protein recommendations for regulating SMM. To conclude, on the basis of currently available scientific literature, protein recommendations for optimising SMM should be tailored to the population or context of interest, with consideration given to age and resting/post resistance exercise conditions.

  8. Coffee polyphenols improve peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Shioya, Yasushi; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2014-02-01

    Brewed coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and many studies have examined its effects on human health. We investigated the vascular effects of coffee polyphenols (CPPs), hypothesizing that a single ingestion of CPP during glucose loading would improve endothelial function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized acute clinical intervention study with crossover design and measured reactive hyperemia index (RHI) to assess the acute effects of a 75-g glucose load with CPP in healthy, nondiabetic adult men. Blood glucose and insulin levels were elevated after glucose loading with and without CPP, with no significant differences between treatments. The RHI did not significantly decrease after glucose loading without CPP. With CPP, however, RHI significantly (P < .05) increased over baseline after glucose loading. The difference between treatments was statistically significant (P < .05). No significant changes were observed in an oxidative stress marker after glucose loading with or without CPP. These findings suggest that a single ingestion of CPP improves peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy subjects.

  9. Pharmacokinetic interactions between primaquine and pyronaridine-artesunate in healthy adult Thai subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamala, Podjanee; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Nosten, François; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Lee, Sue J; Thana, Praiya; Chairat, Kalayanee; Blessborn, Daniel; Panapipat, Salwaluk; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Tarning, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540-180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesunate plus primaquine in combination, with intervening washout periods between all treatments. The pharmacokinetic properties of primaquine, its metabolite carboxyprimaquine, artesunate, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin, and pyronaridine were assessed in 15 subjects using a noncompartmental approach followed by a bioequivalence evaluation. All drugs were well tolerated. The single oral dose of primaquine did not result in any clinically relevant pharmacokinetic alterations to pyronaridine, artesunate, or dihydroartemisinin exposures. There were significantly higher primaquine maximum plasma drug concentrations (geometric mean ratio, 30%; 90% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 46%) and total exposures (15%; 6.4% to 24%) during coadministration with pyronaridine-artesunate than when primaquine was given alone. Pyronaridine, like chloroquine and piperaquine, increases plasma primaquine concentrations. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01552330.).

  10. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Primaquine and Pyronaridine-Artesunate in Healthy Adult Thai Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamala, Podjanee; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Nosten, François; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Lee, Sue J.; Thana, Praiya; Chairat, Kalayanee; Blessborn, Daniel; Panapipat, Salwaluk; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540−180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesunate plus primaquine in combination, with intervening washout periods between all treatments. The pharmacokinetic properties of primaquine, its metabolite carboxyprimaquine, artesunate, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin, and pyronaridine were assessed in 15 subjects using a noncompartmental approach followed by a bioequivalence evaluation. All drugs were well tolerated. The single oral dose of primaquine did not result in any clinically relevant pharmacokinetic alterations to pyronaridine, artesunate, or dihydroartemisinin exposures. There were significantly higher primaquine maximum plasma drug concentrations (geometric mean ratio, 30%; 90% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 46%) and total exposures (15%; 6.4% to 24%) during coadministration with pyronaridine-artesunate than when primaquine was given alone. Pyronaridine, like chloroquine and piperaquine, increases plasma primaquine concentrations. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01552330.) PMID:25385096

  11. Effects of two kinds of decaffeinated coffee on serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrburg, U; Martin, H; Schulte, H; Walek, T; Assmann, G

    1994-03-01

    To investigate the effects of two kinds of decaffeinated coffee on serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults. Randomized controlled study with three study groups and a parallel design, consisting of two consecutive periods. Outpatient clinical research center in a university clinic. 119 healthy students (60 male, 59 female) who were selected after a screening. All completed the study. Blood samples of three subjects (1 male, 2 female) were excluded from evaluation due to later diagnosed genetic anomalies of lipid metabolism. All subjects consumed 750-1000 ml of caffeinated filtered coffee per day for a 2 week wash-in period. During the 6 week test period one group continued drinking the caffeinated coffee, while the two other groups consumed different kinds of decaffeinated coffee. Consumption of both types of decaffeinated coffee did not lead to any significant changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the reactions between the three groups. The diet did not change during the study. Switch from regular to decaffeinated coffee had no cholesterol-elevating effects, irrespective of the type of coffee.

  12. Characteristics of diffusion-tensor imaging for healthy adult rhesus monkey brains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxiang Zhao; Jun Pu; Yaodong Fan; Xiaoqun Niu; Danping Yu; Yanglin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-tensor imaging can be used to observe the microstructure of brain tissue. Fractional sotropy reflects the integrity of white matter fibers. Fractional anisotropy of a young adult brain is low in gray matter, high in white matter, and highest in the splenium of the corpus cal osum. Thus, we selected the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, head of the caudate nucleus, se-mioval center, thalamus, and corpus cal osum (splenium and genu) as regions of interest when using diffusion-tensor imaging to observe fractional anisotropy of major white matter fiber tracts and the deep gray matter of healthy rhesus monkeys aged 4-8 years. Results showed no laterality ferences in fractional anisotropy values. Fractional anisotropy values were low in the head of date nucleus and thalamus in gray matter. Fractional anisotropy values were highest in the sple-nium of corpus cal osum in the white matter, fol owed by genu of the corpus cal osum and the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Fractional anisotropy values were lowest in the semioval center and posterior limb of internal capsule. These results suggest that fractional anisotropy values in major white matter fibers and the deep gray matter of 4-8-year-old rhesus monkeys are similar to those of healthy young people.

  13. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness After Inspiratory Threshold Loading in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sunita; Sheel, A. William; Road, Jeremy D.; Reid, W. Darlene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Skeletal muscle damage occurs following high-intensity or unaccustomed exercise; however, it is difficult to monitor damage to the respiratory muscles, particularly in humans. The aim of this study was to use clinical measures to investigate the presence of skeletal muscle damage in the inspiratory muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects underwent 60 minutes of voluntary inspiratory threshold loading (ITL) at 70% of maximal inspiratory pressure. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures, delayed onset muscle soreness on a visual analogue scale and plasma creatine kinase were measured prior to ITL, and at repeated time points after ITL (4, 24 and 48 hours post-ITL). Results: Delayed onset muscle soreness was present in all subjects 24 hours following ITL (intensity = 22 ± 6 mm; significantly higher than baseline p = 0.02). Muscle soreness was reported primarily in the anterior neck region, and was correlated to the amount of work done by the inspiratory muscles during ITL (r = 0.72, p = 0.02). However, no significant change was observed in maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressures or creatine kinase. Conclusions: These findings suggest that an intense bout of ITL results in muscle soreness primarily in the accessory muscles of inspiration, however, may be insufficient to cause significant muscle damage in healthy adults. PMID:20467514

  14. Bouncing back - trauma and the HPA-axis in healthy adults

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    Ellen Renée Klaassens

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA-axis is thought to underlie stress-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Some studies have reported HPA-axis dysregulation in trauma-exposed (TE adults in the absence of psychiatric morbidity. In this dissertation we set out to unravel part of the mechanism that underlies the complex relations between trauma exposure, stress regulation, and psychopathology. Mentally healthy TE subjects were compared with non-trauma-exposed (NE healthy controls. To distinguish between the potential effects of childhood trauma and adulthood trauma, we included women exposed to childhood trauma as well as men who were exposed to trauma during adulthood. Basal HPA-axis functioning was assessed with salivary cortisol samples. HPA-axis reactivity was assessed with the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH test. The results show that childhood trauma exposure is associated with an attenuated cortisol response after the Dex/CRH challenge test in women. In contrast, trauma exposure during adulthood was not associated with alterations in HPA-axis regulation after the Dex/CRH test. Neither childhood trauma nor adulthood trauma were associated with basal HPA-axis functioning. Childhood trauma rather than adulthood trauma may chronically affect HPA-axis functioning. Since the association between adulthood trauma and resilience to psychopathology cannot be explained by HPA-axis functioning alone, other factors must play a role.

  15. Propagation Curve and Velocity of Swallowing Pressure in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Keigo; Kumai, Yoshihiko; Samejima, Yasuhiro; Yumoto, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to construct a propagation curve and determine propagation velocities in young healthy adults examined using a 2.64-mm-diameter high-resolution manometry catheter with 36 circumferential sensors; to explore data reproducibility; and to determine whether the swallowing pressure (SP) propagation velocity correlated with bolus volume. Repeated measures with subjects serving as their own controls. Thirty healthy subjects (average age 25.3 years) swallowed saliva and 2, 5, and 10 mL of cold water to determine the maximum SP from the soft palate to the cervical esophagus. The SP propagation curve was obtained by plotting the duration to reach each SP peak. The SP propagation velocity was calculated for each region. These parameters were examined according to bolus size and gender. The intra-class correlation coefficient for estimating the SP propagation curves was >0.61 (i.e., highly consistent). The propagation velocity was maximal at the meso-hypopharynx and minimal at the UES and cervical esophagus. The SP propagation curve was very reproducible within any subject. Neither the water volume (with the exception of 2 and 5 mL) nor gender exerted any apparent effect on velocity in any region. However, the velocity was quite variable at the cervical esophagus.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and comparative bioavailability of domperidone suspension and tablet formulations in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Sally A; El Bedaiwy, Heba M

    2014-03-01

    Domperidone is a dopamine antagonist with a unique gastroprokinetic and antiemetic properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and comparative bioavailability of suspension (reference) and tablet (test) formulations of domperidone. In vivo study was established according to a single-center, randomized, single-dose, laboratory-blinded, two way, cross-over study with a washout period of 1 week. Under fasting conditions, 26 healthy Egyptian male volunteers were randomly allocated to receive a single oral dose of either 20 mL domperidone or two tablets (each contains 10 mg domperidone) of marketed suspension and tablet formulations. Plasma samples were obtained over a 24-hour interval and analyzed for domperidone by reversed phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of log transformed values of Cmax , AUC0-t , and AUCt-∞ of the two treatments were within the acceptable range (0.8-1.25) for bioequivalence. From PK perspectives, in this small study in healthy Egyptian adult male volunteers, a single 20 mg dose of the tablet formulation was bioequivalent to a single 20 mg dose of the suspension formulation based on the US FDA's regulatory definition. No adverse events occurred or were reported during the study and both formulations were well tolerated.

  17. Interindividual variation, correlations, and sex-related differences in the salivary biochemistry of young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodan, Andrei; Brand, Henk S; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; van der Weijden, Fridus; Crielaard, Wim; Keijser, Bart J F; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate interindividual biochemical variation in unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy young students, 18-30 yr of age, with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Salivary flow rate, protein content, pH, buffering capacity, mucins MUC5B and MUC7, albumin, secretory IgA, cystatin S, lactoferrin, chitinase, amylase, lysozyme, and proteases were measured using ELISAs and enzymatic activity assays. Significant differences were found between male and female subjects. Salivary pH, buffering capacity, protein content, MUC5B, secretory IgA, and chitinase activity were all lower in female subjects compared with male subjects, whereas MUC7 and lysozyme activity were higher in female subjects. There was no significant difference between sexes in salivary flow rate, albumin, cystatin S, amylase, and protease activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) and spectral clustering (SC) were used to assess intervariable relationships within the data set and to identify subgroups. Spectral clustering identified two clusters of participants, which were subsequently described. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the distribution and inter-relations of a set of important salivary biochemical variables in a systemically healthy young adult population, free of apparent caries lesions and periodontal disease. It highlights significant gender differences in salivary biochemistry.

  18. Age dependency of serum insulin - like growth factor (IGF-1 in healthy Turkish adolescents and adults.

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    Tiryakioaylu O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 reflect endogenous growth hormone (GH secretion in healthy subjects. Measurements of IGF-1 are useful for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with acromegaly and the diagnosis of GH deficiency in children. AIMS: To assess age dependency and normal ranges of serum IGF-1 levels in healthy Turkish population. SETTING AND DESIGN: We therefore studied 272 healthy adolescents and adults between 15-75 years of age. None had diabetes or other endocrine disease or had received estrogen therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Height, weight, body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio were measured in all subjects. Serum samples were obtained during morning hours and IGF-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The age-dependent reference range for serum IGF-1 concentrations was calculated by simple least linear regression analysis: the regression line represents the means with 95 percent confidence intervals. Correlation analysis was also done. RESULTS: Ageing was negatively related to serum levels of IGF-1 (P= 0.0001, r=-0.931 with a mean decrease (youngest vs. oldest. IGF-1 levels increased during adolescence, with the highest mean values during puberty. After puberty, a subsequent decline in serum levels of IGF-1 was apparent. There were also a significant difference according to gender; females had significantly higher levels (357.909+/-219.167 mg/L than males (307.962+/-198.41 mg/L (P=0.012. IGF-1 levels were correlated with body height (P=0.001, r=0.223, body weight (P=0.002,r=-0.188 and BMI (P=0.039, r=0.128. CONCLUSION: IGF-1 serum levels increase in adolescents with a peak in puberty, whereafter IGF-1 levels return to prepubertal levels.

  19. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of oral rivaroxaban in healthy adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Jimenez, Amy C; Brainard, Benjamin M; Brooks, Marjory B; Nie, Ben; Arnold, Robert D; Loper, Daniel; Abrams, Jessica C; Rapoport, Gregg S

    2016-09-01

    To determine the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban (RVX), in healthy cats and to evaluate the clinicopathologic effects of various plasma RVX concentrations within target therapeutic ranges established for people. Prospective randomized cross-over study performed between July 2013 and November 2014. Veterinary university teaching hospital. Six healthy adult domestic shorthair cats (3 males, 3 females). Cats were treated with oral RVX at single, fixed doses (1.25, 2.5, 5 mg PO), q 12 h for 3 days (1.25 mg); q 24 h for 7 days (2.5 mg); and q 24 h for 28 days (1.25 mg). Blood samples were collected for complete blood count, blood chemistry, and RVX anticoagulant activity based on prolongation of dilute prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), activated Factor X (FXa) inhibition (anti-Xa activity [aXa]) and high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of drug concentration. Treated cats had no signs of hemorrhage or clinicopathologic off-target adverse effects. There were dose-dependent prolongations of coagulation times and increase in aXa, with peak effect at 3 hours postadministration. There was a direct correlation between plasma RVX concentration and dilute prothrombin time and aXa. Coagulation parameters returned to baseline by 24 hours after the last dose. Oral RVX was well tolerated by healthy cats with predictable pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant effects. Clinical studies of RVX are warranted in cats with heart disease. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  20. SPONTANEOUS SPINAL EPIDURAL ABSCESS FOLLOWING TRAUMA TO BACK IN A HEALTHY ADULT WITHOUT PREDISPOSING FACTORS - A RARE CASE REPORT

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    Shanmuga Sundaram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess due to its varied presentation , poses a great challenge, more so in a healthy adult, without any predisposing factors. Early diagnosis and treatment is paramount, as late diagnosis and delayed treatment result in increased mortality and morbidity. In this case report, we are presenting a case of spinal extradural abscess in a healthy young adult without predisposing factors, provisionally diagnosed as extradural hematoma and early surgical intervention confirmed the diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess and prevented any devastating consequence

  1. Spinal shape analysis in 1,020 healthy young adults aged from 19 to 30 years

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    Jakub Krejčí

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on diseased spine have been published; however, there is a relative paucity of studies investigating spine shape characteristics in healthy populations. Such characteristics are needed for diagnostics of spine disorders and assessment of changes in the spinal shape that may have been caused by influence of the modern life style or intensive sport activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Methods: Population cross-sectional study. A non-radiographic surface method (system DTP-3 was used for the assessment of spine shape in the sagittal and frontal planes. A total of 1,020 participants (440 men, 580 women took part in the study, their mean (± SD age was 21.8 ± 1.9 years (range 19.1-29.7 for men and 21.9 ± 1.8 years (range 19.3-29.7 for women. All data were checked for normality and are presented as means, standard deviations, ranges, skewness, and kurtosis. Differences between the sexes were assessed with the two-sample t-test. Results: The average sagittal spinal shape was C3 - 12.9° - C7 - 43.0° - T10 - 27.1° - L5 for men and C3 - 12.1° - C6 - 44.5° - T11 - 34.1° - L5 for women. Men showed a significantly smaller thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures than women. The average curvature due to the lateral deviation in the frontal plane was 6.1° for both sexes, the curvature was larger than 10° in 9.1% of men and 8.8% of women. We found left lateral deviation in 72.5% of men and in 63.6% of women. Conclusions: The study provides characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Such characteristics should be part and parcel of determining the cut-off level for physiological spinal shape. Based on the results of the study, we suggest a lateral deviation of 10° as the maximum for a curvature to be still considered non-pathological.

  2. Estimating cognitive reserve in healthy adults using the Cognitive Reserve Scale.

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    Irene León

    Full Text Available The concept of cognitive reserve emerged from observed disparities between brain pathology and clinical symptoms. It may explain better neuropsychological performance in healthy individuals. The objectives of this study were to measure reserve in healthy subjects using a new Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS, analyze the internal consistency of the CRS, and analyze validity evidence. A total of 117 healthy individuals were divided into two groups: 87 adults (aged 18-64 years and 30 elderly adults (≥65 years. All subjects completed the CRS and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The internal consistency of the scale was satisfactory (α = 0.77. No significant differences were observed between genders (t = 0.51, p = 0.611, and age was corrected by averaging the CRS score. The study of validity evidence showed that education affected the CRS (t = -2.98, p = 0.004, partial h2 = 0.07 and there was no significant relationship between the CRS and IQ (r = 0.09, p = 0.33. Occupational attainment and the CRS were not related (F2,116 = 0.11, p = 0.898. In line with previous studies on reserve, heterogeneity was observed in the analyses of relationships between the CRS and cognitive performance. There were significant relationships between CRS score and the Verbal Learning Spanish-Complutense Test last trial (r = 0.24, p = 0.009, sum (r = 0.32, p = 0.000, short-term (r = 0.29, p = 0.002 and long-term memory (r = 0.22, p = 0.018, Matrix Reasoning subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.027 and Block Design subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.029. No other neuropsychological variables correlated with the CRS (p>0.05. The CRS is a reliable instrument that reflects the frequency of participation in brain-stimulating activities across the lifetime. The associations between the CRS and education and neuropsychological performance support validity evidence.

  3. Approximate Time to Steady-state Resting Energy Expenditure Using Indirect Calorimetry in Young, Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Collin J; Tisch, Jocelyn J; Sakarcan, Kenan E; Bridges, William C; Jesch, Elliot D

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) completed IC measurement for approximately 30 min while the volume of oxygen (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2) were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV) over a period of five consecutive minutes. The 30-min IC measurement was divided into six 5-min segments, such as S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%), and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3 = 8.07 ± 4.4%, S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%, S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%, and S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%). The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 min. The first 5-min segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-min segment.

  4. Quantitative molecular detection of 19 major pathogens in the interdental biofilm of periodontally healthy young adults

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    Florence eCarrouel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18-35 yrs old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as F. nucleatum. The red complex (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were A. viscosus, P. gingivalis and A. actino. a. The genome counts for E. corrodens, C. concisus, C. rectus, T. denticola and T. forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis, the green complex (E. corrodens, C. gracilis, C. ochracea, C. sputigena, A. actino a, the purple complex (V. parvula, A. ondotolitycus and the blue complex (A. viscosus are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important pathogen in adult periodontal disease, represents 8.08% of the 19 bacteria analyzed. P. gingivalis was detected in 19% of healthy subjects and represents 0.02% of the

  5. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control.

  6. Minor Physical Anomalies in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Controls

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    Irina Manouilenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Minor Physical Anomalies (MPAs are subtle abnormalities of the head, face, and limbs, without significant cosmetic or functional impact to the individual. They are assumed to represent external markers of developmental deviations during foetal life. MPAs have been suggested to indicate severity in mental illness and constitute external markers for atypical brain development. Higher frequencies of MPAs can be found in children with autism. The aims of the present study were to examine the prevalence and patterns of MPAs in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and to investigate whether MPAs are associated with symptom severity and overall functioning. Fifty adults with ASD and intelligence within the normal range and 53 healthy controls were examined with the Waldrop scale, an instrument for assessing MPAs. Face and feet were photographed enabling blinded assessment. Significant differences between the ASD and the control group were found on the MPA total scores, and also in the craniofacial region scores. Moreover, the shape of the ears was associated with autistic traits, in the ASD group. High MPA total scores were associated with poorer functioning. The findings suggest a link between MPAs, autistic traits, and level of functioning. Assessment of MPAs may assist in the diagnostic procedure of psychiatric disorders.

  7. Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Cognitive Functions in Healthy Young and Older Adults

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    Daria Antonenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS has emerged as a tool to enhance human cognitive processes. Here, we provide a brief summary of the rationale behind tACS-induced effects on task-relevant brain oscillations and associated cognitive functions and review previous studies in young subjects that have applied tACS in cognitive paradigms. Additionally, we present pilot data where we administered theta-tACS (6 Hz over the temporoparietal cortex and a supraorbital reference for 20 min during implicit language learning in healthy young (mean/SD age: 22/2 and older (mean/SD age: 66/4 adults, in a sham-controlled crossover design. Linear mixed models revealed significantly increased retrieval accuracy following tACS-accompanied associative learning, after controlling for session order and learning success. These data provide the first implementation of tACS during cognitive performance in older adults and support recent studies suggesting that tACS in the theta frequency range may serve as a tool to enhance cognition, possibly through direct modulation of task-relevant brain oscillations. So far, studies have been heterogeneous in their designs, leaving a number of issues to be addressed in future research, including the setup of electrodes and optimal stimulation frequencies to be employed, as well as the interaction with age and underlying brain pathologies in specific patient populations.

  8. Strategic Variations in Fitts’ Task: Comparison of Healthy Older Adults and Cognitively Impaired Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Céline; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Decker, Leslie Marion; Retornaz, Frédérique; Lemaire, Patrick; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating how healthy older adults (HOA) and cognitively impaired patients (CIP) differ in a discrete Fitts’ aiming task. Four levels of task difficulty were used, resulting from the simultaneous manipulation of the size of the target and its distance from home position. We found that movement times (MTs) followed Fitts’ law in both HOA and CIP, with the latter being significantly slower and more affected by increased task difficulty. Moreover, correlation analyses suggest that lower information processing speed (IPS) and deficits in executive functions (EFs) are associated with decline of sensorimotor performance in Fitts’ task. Analyses of strategic variations showed that HOA and CIP differed in strategy repertoire (which strategies they used), strategy distribution (i.e., how often they used each available strategy), and strategy execution (i.e., how quick they were with each available strategy). These findings further our understanding of how strategic variations used in a sensorimotor task are affected by cognitive impairment in older adults. PMID:28163682

  9. Exergames for unsupervised balance training at home: A pilot study in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diest, M; Stegenga, J; Wörtche, H J; Verkerke, G J; Postema, K; Lamoth, C J C

    2016-02-01

    Exercise videogames (exergames) are gaining popularity as tools for improving balance ability in older adults, yet few exergames are suitable for home-based use. The purpose of the current pilot study was to examine the effects of a 6-week unsupervised home-based exergaming training program on balance performance. Ten community dwelling healthy older adults (age: 75.9 ± 7.2 years) played a newly developed ice skating exergame for six weeks at home. In the game, the speed and direction of a virtual ice skater on a frozen canal were controlled using lateral weight shifts, which were captured using Kinect. Sway characteristics during quiet standing in eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and dual task (DT) conditions were assessed in time and frequency domain before, and after two, four and six weeks of training. Balance was also evaluated using the narrow ridge balance test (NRBT). Multilevel modeling was applied to examine changes in balance ability. Participants played 631 (± 124)min over the intervention period and no subjects dropped out. Balance in terms of sway characteristics improved on average by 17.4% (EO) and 23.3% (EC) after six weeks of training (ptraining programs.

  10. Determination of breath alcohol value after using mouthwashes containing ethanol in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglio-Bonda, P L; Poggia, F; Foglio-Bonda, A; Mantovani, C; Pattarino, F; Giglietta, A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate breath alcohol value and blood alcohol concentration after using mouthwashes containing ethanol in a panel of healthy young adults. To determine zeroing time of these values and if subjects' body mass index or gender influenced it. Breathalyzer test is a practice performed to detect alcohol-impaired-drivers that can be penalized. Sometimes Italian judges revoke the penalty justifying that the presence of residual ethanol in the oral cavity can cause false positive values. Our study involved 40 young adult volunteers; the cohort was composed of University students aged between 21 and 30 years. They underwent a medical examination to evaluate BMI. We selected four alcoholic mouthwashes available on the market with a different ethanol amount and an ethanol/ water (10/90) mixture as a reference. Breath alcohol concentration values were collected using a portable breathalyzer immediately after the rinse (T0), after 10 and 20 minutes (T10 and T20). We evaluated blood alcohol concentration 5 minutes after the rinse. All T10 values are lower than 0.5 g/L (Italian BAC driving limit). Differences between average values at T0-T10 are statistically significant (p alcoholic mouthwash before undergoing the breathalyzer test does not realistically influence the result.

  11. Telephone counseling promotes dietary change in healthy adults: results of a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Vicky A; Flatt, Shirley W; Pierce, John P

    2008-08-01

    Telephone counseling is increasingly reported to be an effective behavior change strategy, but more studies in broader populations are needed. This uncontrolled pilot trial investigated whether a 3-month/eight-call telephone counseling intervention could promote dietary changes associated with reduced chronic disease risk in adults consuming fiber, and fat were assessed at baseline and at 6 months, each by a set of three 24-hour recalls. Plasma carotenoids were measured on a subsample (n=41) as an objective biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake. Change in mean self-reported dietary intake (ie, vegetables, fruit, whole grains, beans/legumes, fiber, and fat) and plasma carotenoids were compared by paired t tests. The intervention was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase in vegetable servings per day (baseline 2.1 servings per day, 6 months 3.5 servings per day; 67% increase), fruit servings per day (baseline 1.4 servings per day, 6 months 2.4 servings per day; 71% increase), and whole-grain and/or bean servings per day (baseline 1.0 serving per day, 6 months 1.4 servings per day; 40% increase). These changes were corroborated by a significant (P<0.001) increase in total plasma carotenoids. This 3-month/eight-call telephone counseling intervention was associated with dietary change in healthy adults consuming fewer than five servings per day of vegetables and fruit at study entry.

  12. Mean arterial pressure change associated with cerebral blood flow in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverdun, Jeremy; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Charroud, Celine; Abdennour, Meriem; Brickman, Adam M; Chemouny, Stephane; Steffener, Jason; Portet, Florence; Bonafe, Alain; Stern, Yaakov; Ritchie, Karen; Molino, François; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    We investigate over a 12-year period the association between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cardiovascular risk factors in a prospective cohort of healthy older adults (81.96 ± 3.82 year-old) from the Cognitive REServe and Clinical ENDOphenotype (CRESCENDO) study. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured over 12 years, and gray matter CBF was measured at the end of the study from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging using arterial spin labeling. The association between cardiovascular risk factors, their long-term change, and CBF was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Women were observed to have higher CBF than men (p < 0.05). Increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) over the 12-year period was correlated with a low cerebral blood flow (p < 0.05, R(2) = 0.21), whereas no association was detected between CBF and MAP at the time of imaging. High levels of glycemia tended to be associated with low cerebral blood flow values (p < 0.05). Age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, and hypertension were not associated with CBF. Our main result suggests that change in MAP is the most significant predictor of future CBF in older adults.

  13. An 8-week reactive balance training program in older healthy adults:A preliminary investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Max R. Paquette; Yuhua Li; Joseph Hoekstra; Joshua Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Background:This preliminary study examined the effects of an 8-week supervised reactive balance training program on reaction time (RT) and foot speed, static balance and balance confidence in healthy older adults compared to an exercise control group. Methods:Twenty-five older adults were randomly assigned to a reactive balance training group (QuickBoard;n=12;71.0 ± 8.6 years) or a stationary cycling group (control; n = 13; 70.2 ± 6.0 years). Both groups were tested for foot RT foot speed, static balance, and balance confidence at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 4-week follow-up. Results: Results indicated significant improvements in QuickBoard foot RT and speed in both groups with greater improvements in the QuickBoard group. However, no group difference was found in static balance performance. Conclusion: Although the improvements in RT and foot speed may be beneficial for fall and trip prevention, the implications of the current findings for trip avoidance and performance of daily tasks are unclear.

  14. Consuming a multi-ingredient thermogenic supplement for 28 days is apparently safe in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne M. Vogel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermogenic (TRM supplements are often used by people seeking to decrease body weight. Many TRM supplements are formulated with multiple ingredients purported to increase energy expenditure and maximize fat loss. However, in the past some TRM ingredients have been deemed unsafe and removed from the market. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety of multi-ingredient TRM supplements with chronic consumption. Objective: To assess the safety of daily consumption of a multi-ingredient TRM supplement over a 28-day period in healthy adults. Design: Twenty-three recreationally active adults (11M, 12F; 27.1±5.4 years, 171.6±9.6 cm, 76.8±16.1 kg, 26±5 BMI were randomly assigned either to consume a multi-ingredient TRM supplement (SUP; n=9 or remain unsupplemented (CRL; n=14 for 28 days. Participants maintained their habitual dietary and exercise routines for the duration of the study. Fasting blood samples, resting blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before and after the supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic, and lipid panels. Results: Significant (p<0.05 group by time interactions were present for diastolic BP, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, chloride, CO2, globulin, albumin:globulin (A/G, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Dependent t-tests conducted on significant variables revealed significant (p<0.05 within-group differences in SUP for diastolic BP (+6.2±5.3 mmHG, creatinine (+0.09±0.05 mg/dL, eGFR (−11.2±5.8 mL/min/1.73, globulin (−0.29±0.24 g/dL, A/G (+0.27±0.23, and HDL (−5.0±5.5 mg/dL, and in CRL for CO2 (−1.9±1.5 mmol/L between time points. Each variable remained within the accepted physiological range. Conclusion: Results of the present study support the clinical safety of a multi-ingredient TRM containing caffeine, green tea extract, and cayenne powder. Although there were statistically significant (p<0.05 intragroup

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of brodalumab in healthy adults and adults with psoriasis from single and multiple dose studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Christopher J; Salinger, David H; Köck, Kathleen; Gastonguay, Marc R; Martin, David A; Klekotka, Paul; Nirula, Ajay; Gibbs, Megan A

    2014-11-01

    Brodalumab, a human monoclonal IgG2-antibody, acts as a potent antagonist at the interleukin-17 receptor A, which is important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of brodalumab and assess the effects of covariates, brodalumab concentrations from Phase 1a and Phase 2 clinical studies in healthy adults and subjects with psoriasis were used to construct a population PK model. The final two-compartment model with parallel linear and non-linear elimination pathways fit the data well. The population typical values for PK parameters CL, V, and V(max) were 0.223 L/day, 4.62 L, and 5.40 mg/day with between-subject-variability of 69.2, 69.6, and 25.9%CV, respectively. Body weight (BW) was an important covariate on CL (and Q), V (and V(2)) and V(max), with estimated effect exponents of 0.598, 0.849, and 1.12, respectively. Based on simulations from the final model, for doses between 140 and 210 mg, AUC was predicted to be greater than two fold higher in subjects weighing less than 75 kg compared to reference subjects. Age and diagnosis had smaller influence on exposure and was not clinically significant. These data suggest that BW is an important covariate explaining some of the variability in population PK observed in human clinical trials with brodalumab.

  16. Are effects of the symmetric and asymmetric tonic neck reflexes still visible in healthy adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, S M; Massaad, F; Maclellan, M J; Van Gestel, L; Ivanenko, Y P; Duysens, J

    2013-11-27

    When a cat's head is rotated in a transverse plane to one side, the legs on that side of the body extend, while on the other side, they flex (asymmetric tonic neck reflexes ATNR). On the contrary, when the head is rotated in a sagittal plane both legs flex when the head flexes, and extend when the head extends (symmetric tonic neck reflexes STNR). These reflexes have also been found in newborn babies and are thought to be a motor primitive, which is suppressed later in life. Still, using a test in which children sit on hand and knees, the ATNR and STNR can be found in children up to 9 years of age. This may suggest that these reflexes may still be involved in motor control in these children. Whether this is also the case in full-grown adults has thus far only been studied using coarse methods. Thus, for the current study, we set out to measure in detail whether the ATNR/STNR can still be evoked in healthy adult subjects. We measured 10 subjects who were asked to sit on their hands and knees while (1) their head was rotated left and right by an experimenter, (2) their head was flexed and extended by an experimenter. Kinematics was registered using a Vicon system. Elbow and head angles were detrended, and a regression analysis was performed, to investigate the effects of head angle on elbow angle. Results clearly showed the existence of the ATNR and STNR in adult subjects. A next step will be to assess the effects of the ATNR and STNR during everyday motor control tasks, such as making head rotations while driving a bike. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low HDL cholesterol is associated with lower gray matter volume in cognitively healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ward

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is common in adults and contributes to high rates of cardiovascular disease and may be linked to subsequent neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases. This study examined whether lower brain volumes and cognition associated with dyslipidemia could be observed in cognitively healthy adults, and whether apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype or family history of Alzheimer’s disease (FHAD alters this effect. Methods: T1-weighted MRI was used to examine regional brain gray matter (GM and white matter (WM in 183 individuals (58.4 ± 8.0 years using voxel-based morphometry. A nonparametric multiple linear regression model was used to assess the effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, APOE, and FHAD on regional GM and WM volume. A post hoc analysis was used to assess whether any significant correlations found within the volumetric analysis had an effect on cognition. Results: HDL was positively correlated with GM volume in the bilateral temporal poles, middle temporal gyri, temporo-occipital gyri, and left superior temporal gyrus and parahippocampal region. This effect was independent of APOE and FHAD. A significant association between HDL and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test was found. Additionally, GM volume within the right middle temporal gyrus, the region most affected by HDL, was significantly associated with the Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Conclusions: These findings suggest that adults with decreased levels of HDL cholesterol may be experiencing cognitive changes and GM reductions in regions associated with neurodegenerative disease and therefore, may be at greater risk for future cognitive decline.

  18. Comparison of Cognitive Change after Working Memory Training and Logic and Planning Training in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette

    2017-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on the benefits of cognitive training in healthy adults. Many commercial cognitive training programs are available given the attraction of not only bettering one's cognitive capacity, but also potentially preventing age-related declines, which is of particular interest to older adults. The issue of whether cognitive training can improve performance within cognitive domains not trained (i.e., far transfer) is controversial, with meta-analyses of cognitive training both supporting and falsifying this claim. More support is present for the near transfer (i.e., transfer in cognitive domain trained) of cognitive training; however, not in all studies. To date, no studies have compared working memory training to training higher-level processes themselves, namely logic and planning. We studied 97 healthy older adults above the age of 65. Healthy older adults completed either an 8-week web-based cognitive training program on working memory or logic and planning. An additional no-training control group completed two assessments 8-weeks apart. Participants were assessed on cognitive measures of near and far transfer, including working memory, planning, reasoning, processing speed, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, and creativity. Participants improved on the trained tasks from the first day to last day of training. Bayesian analyses demonstrated no near or far transfer effects after cognitive training. These results support the conclusion that performance-adaptive computerized cognitive training may not enhance cognition in healthy older adults. Our lack of findings could be due to a variety of reasons, including studying a cohort of healthy older adults that were performing near their cognitive ceiling, employing a training protocol that was not sufficient to produce a change, or that no true findings exist. Research suggests numerous study factors that can moderate the results. In addition, the role of psychological variables, such as

  19. The Effects of Dual Task on Healthy Adults Balance Index in Age and Gender groups

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    Sona Abedi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Falls are the leading cause of accidental death among older adults. Recent studies have demonstrated that an impaired ability to maintain balance while simultaneously performing cognitive tasks is associated with increased rates of adverse outcomes, such as falls in elderly people. Because interventions designed to improve dual-task balance performance have the potential to reduce falling rate and functional decline, they are a critical health care need.Material & Methods: 60 healthy adults in four equal groups (mean age in: young men=22.1±1.9, old men =68.3±4.1, young women =22.6±1.8, old women =66.9±2.6 participated in this study. All subjects experienced four test conditions including: single- task with eyes open (O1, single- task with eyes closed (C1, dual-task with eyes open (O2 and dual-task with eyes closed (C2. Postural task in this study included standing on 8 instability level of biodex balance SD machine plate and cognitive task was backward counting by three.Results: balance index mean in older group was significantly higher in comparison with young group in all test conditions (O1 P=.000, C1 P=.003, O2 P=.000, C2 P=.000. There are not any significant differences between gender groups balance index mean, in test conditions. In Young women group O2 overall (OL, antroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML balance indexes means were significantly higher than corresponding amounts in C2 (OL P=.014, AP P=.030, ML P=.017. In old women group C2 ML balance index mean was significantly higher than O2 ML balance index mean (P=.034. There are not significant differences between single- and dual-task conditions in other within group comparisons.Conclusion: In young men, young women and old women balance index means are different between single and dual eyes closed condition. Older adults balance index in single- and dual-task conditions is higher than young adults balance index. There is not any difference between men and

  20. Dose-Response Relationships of Resistance Training in Healthy Old Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borde, Ron; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Resistance training (RT) is an intervention frequently used to improve muscle strength and morphology in old age. However, evidence-based, dose-response relationships regarding specific RT variables (e.g., training period, frequency, intensity, volume) are unclear in healthy old adults. O

  1. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the lum

  2. A study of the variation in the salivary peptide profiles of young healthy adults acquired using MALDI-TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodan, A.; Brand, H.; Imangaliyev, S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; van der Weijden, F.; de Jong, A.; Paauw, A.; Crielaard, W.; Keijser, B.; Veerman, E.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate the inter-individual variation in the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiles of unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy adults aged 18–30 yr (150 males and 118 females) with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal

  3. A study of the variation in the salivary peptide profiles of young healthy adults acquired using MALDI-TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodan, A.; Brand, H.; Imangaliyev, S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Weijden, F. van der; Jong, A. de; Paauw, A.; Crielaard, W.; Keijser, B.; Veerman, E.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate the inter-individual variation in the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiles of unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy adults aged 18-30 yr (150 males and 118 females) with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal

  4. Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults. Roberta R Holt1, Karan Agarwal1, Xuequi Li2, Eleni Melliou3, Theresa Pedersen1, Selina Wang2, Dan Flynn2, Prokopios Magiatis3, John W Newman1,4 1Department of Nutrition, and 2UC Davis ...

  5. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  6. Pulmonary Responses in Healthy Young Adults Exposed to Low Concentration of Ozone for 6.6 Hours with Mild Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rational: Recent studies have shown small but significant decreases in lung function following a prolonged exposure (6.6 hour) of healthy young adults to levels of ozone (0.08 ppm) near the current 8 hour standard. It is unclear, however, if such effects may be extended to concen...

  7. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  8. Balancing Healthy Meals and Busy Lives: Associations between Work, School, and Family Responsibilities and Perceived Time Constraints among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize associations between perceived time constraints for healthy eating and work, school, and family responsibilities among young adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: A large, Midwestern metropolitan region. Participants: A diverse sample of community college (n = 598) and public university (n = 603) students.…

  9. High intake of whole grains and beans pattern is inversely associated with insulin resistance in healthy Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the association between dietary patterns and insulin resistance in the 3871 healthy Korean adults from the 2007 to 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The whole grains and beans pattern was associated with lower prevalence of insulin resistance (OR for highest quintile=0.80, 95% CI=0.61-1.03, P for trend=0.013).

  10. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Li, Yadan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA.

  11. Coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Isamu; Umeda, Mika; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, acute, crossover, intervention study in healthy male adults, measuring blood parameters and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after ingestion of a meal with or without coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). Nineteen subjects consumed a test meal with either a placebo- or CPE-containing beverage. Blood biomarkers and FMD were measured at fasting and up to 180 minutes postprandially. The CPE beverage led to a significantly lower peak postprandial increase in blood glucose and diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite, and significantly higher postprandial FMD than the placebo beverage. Postprandial blood GLP-1 increase tended to be higher after ingestion of the CPE beverage, compared with placebo. Subclass analysis revealed that the CPE beverage significantly improved postprandial blood GLP-1 response and reduced blood glucose increase in the subjects with a lower insulinogenic index. Correlation analysis showed postprandial FMD was negatively associated with blood glucose increase after ingestion of the CPE beverage. In conclusion, these results suggest that coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function, which is associated with increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased oxidative stress in healthy humans.

  12. Age-related changes in radiation-induced micronuclei among healthy adults

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    G. Joksic

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to establish the extent of in vitro radioresponse of lymphocytes among 62 healthy adults of both genders and to estimate the distribution of baseline micronuclei and radiosensitivity among individuals of the study population using the cytochalasin block micronucleus test. A younger study group consisted of 10 males (mean age, 22.4 years; range, 21-27 and 12 females (mean age, 24.8 years; range, 20-29, whereas an older study group consisted of 18 males (mean age, 35.1 years; range, 30-44 and 22 females (mean age, 38.5 years; range, 30-48. For evaluation of radiosensitivity blood samples were irradiated in vitro using 60Co g-ray source. The radiation dose employed was 2 Gy, the dose rate 0.45 Gy/min. The study revealed a significant gender effect on baseline micronuclei favoring females (Z = 3.25, P < 0.001, while yields of radiation-induced micronuclei did not differ significantly (Z = 0.56, P < 0.56 between genders. The distribution of baseline micronuclei among the individuals tested followed Poisson distribution in both study groups and in both genders, whereas the distribution of radiosensitivity among individuals of the older study group did not fulfill Poisson expectations (Kolmogorov-Smirnof test, P < 0.01. In contrast to a nonsignificant difference in radiosensitivity between males and females of the same age group (Z = 1.97, P < 0.56, a statistically significant difference in radiosensitivity between younger and older group for both genders was found (Z = 3.03, P < 0.03. Since the individuals tested were healthy, the observed variability in radiation response is considered to be an early effect of ageing.

  13. Lack of negative correlation in glucose dynamics by nonexercise activity thermogenesis restriction in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hitomi; Nakamura, Kazuteru; Sato, Maki; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Ebine, Naoyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recently, nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) has been highlighted for its ability to prevent weight gain and obesity. It has also been shown that the long-range negative autocorrelation of glucose dynamics, considered to reflect long-term blood glucose controllability, breaks down in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of restricted NEAT on the glycemic profile and/or control characterized by glucose autocorrelation. The glucose dynamics of 10 young healthy subjects were measured by continuous glucose monitoring during a day with normal activity and a day with restricted NEAT. To estimate the correlation property of the glycemic fluctuation, we used detrended fluctuation analysis, a method that analyzes the long-range temporal autocorrelation of signals. In the long-range regime (>130 min) on a normal activity day, the detrended fluctuation analysis scaling exponent was α(2) = 1.37 ± 0.21. This was significantly (P = 0.036) smaller than the reference "uncorrelated value" of α = 1.5, suggesting that glycemic fluctuation was negatively autocorrelated. In contrast, on a day with restricted NEAT in the long-range regime (>167.5 min), the exponent was α(2) = 1.57 ± 0.15; this was significantly (P = 0.024) larger than 1.5, implying a lack of negative correlation. The negative autocorrelation of glucose dynamics disappears with restricted NEAT compared with normal activity. This indicates that NEAT, reflective of all nonvolitional muscle activity, plays an important role in long-range negative correlation and hence long-term blood glucose control in healthy young adults.

  14. Neurophysiological effects of sleep deprivation in healthy adults, a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula M H Klumpers

    Full Text Available Total sleep deprivation (TSD may induce fatigue, neurocognitive slowing and mood changes, which are partly compensated by stress regulating brain systems, resulting in altered dopamine and cortisol levels in order to stay awake if needed. These systems, however, have never been studied in concert. At baseline, after a regular night of sleep, and the next morning after TSD, 12 healthy subjects performed a semantic affective classification functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI task, followed by a [11C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET scan. Saliva cortisol levels were acquired at 7 time points during both days. Affective symptoms were measured using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Index (STAI and visual analogue scales. After TSD, perceived energy levels, concentration, and speed of thought decreased significantly, whereas mood did not. During fMRI, response speed decreased for neutral words and positive targets, and accuracy decreased trendwise for neutral words and for positive targets with a negative distracter. Following TSD, processing of positive words was associated with increased left dorsolateral prefrontal activation. Processing of emotional words in general was associated with increased insular activity, whereas contrasting positive vs. negative words showed subthreshold increased activation in the (parahippocampal area. Cortisol secretion was significantly lower after TSD. Decreased voxel-by-voxel [11C]raclopride binding potential (BPND was observed in left caudate. TSD induces widespread cognitive, neurophysiologic and endocrine changes in healthy adults, characterized by reduced cognitive functioning, despite increased regional brain activity. The blunted HPA-axis response together with altered [11C]raclopride binding in the basal ganglia indicate that sustained wakefulness requires involvement of additional adaptive biological systems.

  15. Pressure Mapping of a Standard Hospital Recliner and Select Cushions With Healthy Adults: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayton, Stephanie; Morris, Paula; Brinkley, Jason

    The aim of the study was to compare the degree of pressure created when healthy adult volunteers sat on a hospital recliner chair in various positions and on various cushions. Comparative cross-sectional study. Thirty-four healthy subjects were recruited from the community, an urban city in a rural area of Eastern North Carolina. Interface pressure measurements were taken by the investigators for each subject sitting on a standard hospital recliner under each of the following conditions: no cushion, foam cushion, nonadjustable air cushion, nonadjustable air/foam cushion, and adjustable air cushion. Subject positions, upright sitting and reclined, were randomly selected. Analyses consisted of data visualizations by investigators and univariate statistics. For each surface, mean pressure, peak pressure, and Pressure Area Index (PAI) were obtained and compared. Inferences were drawn from a repeated-measures analysis-of-covariance model. Subject position was not associated with any of the measures for each surface after adjusting for other variables (average pressure P = .1094, maximum/peak pressure P = .1318, PAI P = .4336). Subject weight, the type of surface, and their interaction do impact the results (average pressure, maximum/peak pressure, and PAI, P pressures and the lowest PAI. The nonadjustable air and air/foam cushions performed most similarly to each other, showing lowest mean and average interface pressures and the highest PAI. Position of a hospital recliner chair in the 2 positions studied had no association with interface pressure outcomes; therefore, other methods of pressure redistribution need to be utilized by clinicians. Based on the results of this study, clinicians may need to reevaluate the type of cushion used in the acute hospital setting, as a standard foam cushion was found to increase interface pressures when compared to other cushions and a standard hospital recliner.

  16. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  17. Assessment of pharmacokinetics and tolerability of intranasal diazepam relative to rectal gel in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, Herbert R; Sperling, Michael R; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Bream, Gary; Carrazana, Enrique J

    2014-09-01

    Diazepam rectal gel (RG) is currently the only approved rescue therapy for outpatient management of seizure clusters in the United States. There is an unmet medical need for an alternative rescue therapy for seizure clusters that is effective, and more convenient to administer with a socially acceptable method of delivery. An intranasal diazepam formulation has been developed, and this study evaluates the tolerability and bioavailability of diazepam nasal spray (NS) relative to an equivalent dose of diazepam-RG in healthy adults. Twenty-four healthy adults were enrolled in a phase 1, open-label, 3-period crossover study. Plasma diazepam and metabolite concentrations were measured by serial sampling. Dose proportionality for 5- and 20-mg intranasal doses and the bioavailability of 20mg diazepam-NS relative to 20mg diazepam-RG were assessed by maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure parameters (AUC0-∞ and AUC0-24). The mean Cmax values for 20mg diazepam-NS and 20mg diazepam-RG were 378 ± 106 and 328 ± 152 ng/mL, achieved at 1.0 and 1.5h, respectively. Subjects administered intranasal and rectal gel formulations experienced nasal and rectal leakage, respectively. Diazepam absorption following intranasal administration was consistent but 3 subjects with diazepam-RG had low plasma drug levels at the earliest assessment of 5 min, due to poor retention, and were excluded from analysis. Excluding them, the treatment ratios (20mg diazepam-NS:20mg diazepam-RG) and 90% confidence intervals for diazepam Cmax and AUC0-24 were 0.98 (0.85-1.14) and 0.89 (0.80-0.98), respectively, suggesting that the bioavailability was comparable between the two formulations. Dose proportionality was observed between the lowest and highest dose-strengths of intranasal formulation. Both intranasal and rectal treatments were well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events. Results suggest that a single-dose of 20mg diazepam-NS is tolerable and comparable in bioavailability

  18. Pharmacokinetic properties of low-dose SoluMatrix meloxicam in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Azra; Solorio, Daniel; Young, Clarence

    2016-04-01

    SoluMatrix® meloxicam has been developed using SoluMatrix Fine Particle Technology™ to produce a meloxicam drug product with enhanced absorption properties to enable treatment at lower doses than available oral meloxicam drug products. This follows recognition of serious dose-dependent adverse events (AEs) associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including meloxicam. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of SoluMatrix meloxicam 5-mg (fasting conditions) and 10-mg capsules (fasting and fed conditions) and compared SoluMatrix meloxicam 10-mg capsules with meloxicam 15-mg tablets under fasting conditions. This four-period crossover study randomized 28 healthy adult participants to receive single doses of SoluMatrix meloxicam 5-mg capsules (fasting) and 10-mg capsules (fasting or fed) and meloxicam tablets 15 mg (fasting). Meloxicam plasma concentrations were assessed through 96 h postdose. Safety was assessed. Twenty-five participants (89.3 %) completed the study. Under fasting conditions, SoluMatrix meloxicam 10 mg [1252.8 (254.22) ng/mL] produced similar meloxicam mean (standard deviation (SD)) maximum plasma concentrations vs meloxicam 15-mg tablets [1288.8 (424.40) ng/mL]. The overall mean (SD) systemic meloxicam exposure was 33 % lower for SoluMatrix meloxicam 10 mg [29,173.01 (11,042.09) ng*h/mL] vs meloxicam 15-mg tablets [40,875.6 (11,733.47) ng*h/mL]. The median time to maximum plasma meloxicam levels occurred earlier following SoluMatrix meloxicam 5 mg (2.0 h) and 10 mg (2.0 h) administration vs meloxicam 15-mg tablets (4.0 h). Few study-medication-related AEs were reported. SoluMatrix meloxicam 10 mg was more rapidly absorbed and associated with a lower overall exposure compared with meloxicam 15-mg tablets in this study in healthy adults under fasting conditions.

  19. Prolactin secretion in healthy adults is determined by gender, age and body mass index.

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    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolactin (PRL secretion is quantifiable as mean, peak and nadir PRL concentrations, degree of irregularity (ApEn, approximate entropy and spikiness (brief staccato-like fluctuations. HYPOTHESIS: Distinct PRL dynamics reflect relatively distinct (combinations of subject variables, such as gender, age, and BMI. LOCATION: Clinical Research Unit. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four healthy adults aged 22-77 yr (41 women and 33 men, with BMI 18.3-39.4 kg/m(2. MEASURES: Immunofluorometric PRL assay of 10-min samples collected for 24 hours. RESULTS: Mean 24-h PRL concentration correlated jointly with gender (P<0.0001 and BMI (P = 0.01, but not with age (overall R(2 = 0.308, P<0.0001. Nadir PRL concentration correlated with gender only (P = 0.017 and peak PRL with gender (P<0.001 and negatively with age (P<0.003, overall R(2 = 0.325, P<0.0001. Forward-selection multivariate regression of PRL deconvolution results demonstrated that basal (nonpulsatile PRL secretion tended to be associated with BMI (R(2 = 0.058, P = 0.03, pulsatile secretion with gender (R(2 = 0.152, P = 0.003, and total secretion with gender and BMI (R(2 = 0.204, P<0.0001. Pulse mass was associated with gender (P = 0.001 and with a negative tendency to age (P = 0.038. In male subjects older than 50 yr (but not in women approximate entropy was increased (0.942±0.301 vs. 1.258±0.267, P = 0.007 compared with younger men, as well as spikiness (0.363±0.122 vs. 0463±2.12, P = 0.031. Cosinor analysis disclosed higher mesor and amplitude in females than in men, but the acrophase was gender-independent. The acrophase was determined by age and BMI (R(2 = 0.186, P = 0.001. CONCLUSION: In healthy adults, selective combinations of gender, age, and BMI specify distinct PRL dynamics, thus requiring balanced representation of these variables in comparative PRL studies.

  20. P50 auditory sensory gating in first onset schizophrenics and normal healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongxing; ZHANG Mingdao; CHEN Xingshi; LOU Feiying; LIANG Jianhua; CHEN Chong; SHI Tiantao; LU Qiulin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the variations of P50 auditory sensory gating(P50)in normal healthy adults and the first onset schizophrenics.By using the American Nicolet Bravo electromyography/evoked potential (EMG/EP)system,P50 was measured with conditioningtesting paradigm(paired-click stimuli S1 and S2 were used)in 58 first onset schizophrenics and 108 healthy adults,and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS)was applied.The following three conclusions have been reached.(1)In normal control(NC)group,measured from central,anterior and posterior zone(Cz,Fz and Pz respectively),there were no statistical differences(P>0.05)between S1 and S2 evoked P50 peak latencies(S1-P50 and S2-P50);the amplitudes of S2-P50 [(2.2±1.4),(2.3±1.5)and(2.1±1.4)μV respectively] reduced significantly as compared with S1-P50 [(5.6±3.3),(5.6±3.9)and(4.9±2.8)μV respectively](P<0.01);the S2/S1 ration,S1-S2 difference,and 100(1-S2/S1)had no statistical differences(P>0.05).(2)Compared with NC,the schizophrenic group significantly showed lower S1-P50 amplitudes(P<0.01,except at Pz in which Z=2.030,P=0.042),higher S2-P50 amplitudes,higher S2/S1 ratio,lower S1-S2 difference,and more decreased 100(1-S2/S1)(P<0.01)at Cz,Fz and Pz.(3)No significant correlations were found among S2/S1 ratio,S1-S2,100(1-S2/S1)of sensory gating and PANSS(P>0.05)in schizophrenic group.The first onset schizophrenics had sensory gating deficits,which could be quantified by P50.

  1. Serum levels of high sensitivity C-Reactive protein and its association with lipidemic status in Bangladeshi healthy adults

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    B Rehnuma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic diseases are affecting human health all over the world. These chronic disease states are associated with high sensitive CRP. The present study aims to measure hsCRP and lipid levels in a group of healthy adults to work out the normal hsCRP levels and explore its relationship to lipidemic and anthropometric variables.Materials and Methods: A total of 149 adults, age 30-60 yrs, healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Vital statistics were taken along with measurement of blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and hsCRP levels. Data were analyzed using statistical Package for Social Program (SPSS for Windows version 10.Results: Mean (±SD hsCRP was 2.46±1.89 (mg/l with a cut off value of 3mg/l. Of the total 149 subjects 102 (66.4% and 47 (31.5% subjects had hsCRP level below and above the cutoff respectively. Triglyceride was significantly higher (p=0.033 and HDL was lower in subjects with high hsCRP. Total cholesterol and LDL was almost similar in both groups. Binary logistic regression showed significant negative association between hsCRP and HDLc (p=0.029 and but the model excluding HDL-c showed significant positive association (p=0.03 with triglyceride.Conclusion: About one-third of healthy Bangladeshi adults may have chronic subclinical inflammation and thus may have a risk of cardiovascular disorders. More than one-third healthy Bangladeshi adults have one or more type of dyslipidemia and the subclinical chronic inflammation in healthy Bangladeshi adults has a positive association with their serum triglyceride and negative association with their HDL-cholesterol levels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11591 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 644-648

  2. Excess diuresis and natriuresis during acute sleep deprivation in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstroem, Soren; Radvanska, Eva; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2010-08-01

    The transition from wakefulness to sleep is associated with a pronounced decline in diuresis, a necessary physiological process that allows uninterrupted sleep. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute sleep deprivation (SD) on urine output and renal water, sodium, and solute handling in healthy young volunteers. Twenty young adults (10 male) were recruited for two 24-h studies under standardized dietary conditions. During one of the two admissions, subjects were deprived of sleep. Urine output, electrolyte excretions, and osmolar excretions were calculated. Activated renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic peptide were measured in plasma, whereas prostaglandin E(2) and melatonin were measured in urine. SD markedly increased the diuresis and led to excess renal sodium excretion. The effect was more pronounced in men who shared significantly higher diuresis levels during SD compared with women. Renal water handling and arginine vasopressin levels remained unaltered during SD, but the circadian rhythm of the hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was significantly affected. Urinary melatonin and prostaglandin E(2) excretion levels were comparable between SD and baseline night. Hemodynamic changes were characterized by the attenuation of nocturnal blood pressure dipping and an increase in creatinine clearance. Acute deprivation of sleep induces natriuresis and osmotic diuresis, leading to excess nocturnal urine production, especially in men. Hemodynamic changes during SD may, through renal and hormonal processes, be responsible for these observations. Sleep architecture disturbances should be considered in clinical settings with nocturnal polyuria such as enuresis in children and nocturia in adults.

  3. Effectiveness of supersaturation promoting excipients on albendazole concentrations in upper gastrointestinal lumen of fasted healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourentas, Alexandros; Vertzoni, Maria; Symillides, Mira; Goumas, Konstantinos; Gibbon, Robert; Butler, James; Reppas, Christos

    2016-08-25

    To evaluate the impact of dosage form relevant levels of a polymeric precipitation inhibitor and of lipid excipients on supersaturation of upper gastrointestinal contents with albendazole, a lipophilic weak base. Albendazole concentrations in stomach and in duodenum were evaluated after administration of 1) a suspension in water (Susp-Control), 2) a suspension in water in which hydroxyprolylmethylcellulose E5 (HPMC E5) had been pre-dissolved (Susp-HPMC), and 3) and 4) two contrasting designs of lipid based suspensions dispersed in water (Susp-IIIA and Susp-IV), on a cross-over basis to fasted healthy adults. Limited, but statistically significant supersaturation of duodenal contents was observed after Susp-HPMC, Susp-IIIA, and Susp-IV; supersaturation was more consistent after Susp-HPMC administration. Based on total albendazole amount per volume, gastric secretions did not significantly alter volumes of bulk gastric contents during the first 40min post administration of a glass of non-caloric water-based fluid. Αlbendazole gastric concentrations were higher than in the administered suspensions, but similar for all four formulations. Gastric emptying of albendazole after administration of Susp-Control or Susp-HPMC was slower than after administration of Susp-IIIA or Susp-IV. Small amounts of HPMC E5 were as effective as lipid excipients in achieving supersaturation of duodenal contents with albendazole, a fast precipitating weak base, in fasted adults. However, compared with the effect of HPMC E5 the effect of lipid excipients was delayed and variable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of feeding on the pharmacokinetics of oral minocycline in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, K O; Lascola, K M; Giguère, S; Foreman, J H

    2017-09-11

    Minocycline is commonly used to treat bacterial and rickettsial infections in adult horses but limited information exists regarding the impact of feeding on its oral bioavailability. This study's objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of minocycline after administration of a single oral dose in horses with feed withheld and with feed provided at the time of drug administration. Six healthy adult horses were administered intravenous (2.2 mg/kg) and oral minocycline (4 mg/kg) with access to hay at the time of oral drug administration (fed) and with access to hay delayed for 2 hr after oral drug administration (fasted), with a 7-day washout between treatments. Plasma concentration versus time data was analyzed based on noncompartmental pharmacokinetics. Mean ± SD bioavailability (fasted: 38.6% ± 4.6; fed: 15.7% ± 2.3) and Cmax (fasted: 1.343 ± 0.418 μg/ml; fed: 0.281 ± 0.157 μg/ml) were greater in fasted horses compared to fed horses (p < .05 both). Median (range) Tmax (hr) in fasted horses was 2.0 (1.5-3.5) and in fed horses was 5.0 (1.0-8.0) and was not significantly different between groups. Overnight fasting and delaying feeding hay 2 hr after oral minocycline administration improve drug bioavailability and thus plasma concentrations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Active vision task and postural control in healthy, young adults: Synergy and probably not duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Baudry, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    In upright stance, individuals sway continuously and the sway pattern in dual tasks (e.g., a cognitive task performed in upright stance) differs significantly from that observed during the control quiet stance task. The cognitive approach has generated models (limited attentional resources, U-shaped nonlinear interaction) to explain such patterns based on competitive sharing of attentional resources. The objective of the current manuscript was to review these cognitive models in the specific context of visual tasks involving gaze shifts toward precise targets (here called active vision tasks). The selection excluded the effects of early and late stages of life or disease, external perturbations, active vision tasks requiring head and body motions and the combination of two tasks performed together (e.g., a visual task in addition to a computation in one's head). The selection included studies performed by healthy, young adults with control and active - difficult - vision tasks. Over 174 studies found in Pubmed and Mendeley databases, nine were selected. In these studies, young adults exhibited significantly lower amplitude of body displacement (center of pressure and/or body marker) under active vision tasks than under the control task. Furthermore, the more difficult the active vision tasks were, the better the postural control was. This underscores that postural control during active vision tasks may rely on synergistic relations between the postural and visual systems rather than on competitive or dual relations. In contrast, in the control task, there would not be any synergistic or competitive relations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility of integrating the "Healthy moves for aging well" program into home care aide services for frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chae-Hee; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of implementing simple, safe, non-equipment evidence-based movements (Healthy Moves for Aging Well program) using an affordable and sustainable homecare-aide based delivery model that reaches the maximum possible number of frail older adults living at home in Illinois. Two local agencies were asked to identify two experienced home care aides and two inexperienced home care aides (n= 8). Each home care aides delivered the Healthy Moves to four clients (n= 16). Eight home care aides visited the client in the home and were asked to deliver the Healthy Moves program on a regular basis for a four-month time period. Outcome measures included a pre-and post- survey, a functional fitness test (older adults), and interviews. Evaluation procedures focused on older adult participants, homecare aids, and sites. The results showed that both interview and survey data revealed that most participants including older adults, home care aides, and site directors had a positive perception and high satisfaction with the program. Specially, 100% of older adult participants reported that they would recommend the program to others. Additionally, seniors and home care aides reported that they enjoyed working with each other on the program and both site directors reported that dissemination of the program in the State of Illinois employing home care aides was feasible and acceptable. Our study results indicate that Healthy Moves for Aging Well could be safely and successfully be disseminated to frail older adults in the State of Illinois.

  7. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

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    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  8. Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Magdalena; O'Mahony, Louise; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Collier, John; Fraser, William D; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P; Brennan, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is emerging worldwide and many studies now suggest its role in the development of several chronic diseases. Due to the low level of vitamin D naturally occurring in food there is a need for supplementation and use of vitamin D-enhanced products. The aim of the present study was to determine if daily consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased vitamin D status in free-living healthy adults or affected markers of the metabolic syndrome. A total of ninety volunteers (aged 40-65 years) were randomly assigned to one of two 4-week studies: mushroom study (15 µg vitamin D2 or placebo mushroom powder) and capsule study (15 µg vitamin D3 or placebo capsules). Consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) by 128 % from baseline (3·9 (sd 1·9) nmol/l; P D3 increased significantly in the vitamin D3 capsule group (a 55 % increase from a baseline of 44.0 (sd 17·1) nmol/l; P Vitamin D status (25(OH)D) was affected only in the vitamin D3 group. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was lowered by vitamin D2 intake. Vitamin D2 from enhanced mushrooms was bioavailable and increased serum 25(OH)D2 concentration with no significant effect on 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D.

  9. Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, A; Gläser, S; Hannemann, A; Schäper, C; Nauck, M; Felix, S B; Bollmann, T; Ewert, R; Friedrich, N

    2016-02-14

    Vitamin D has an important role in calcium homeostasis and is known to have various health-promoting effects. Moreover, potential interactions between vitamin D and physical activity have been suggested. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and exercise capacity quantified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). For this, 1377 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and 750 participants from the independent SHIP-TREND cohort were investigated. Standardised incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer were performed to assess exercise capacity by VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peakVO2, O2 pulse and peak power output. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. In SHIP-1, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25% higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile). All associations were replicated in the independent SHIP-TREND cohort and were independent of age, sex, season and other interfering factors. In conclusion, significant positive associations between 25(OH)D and parameters of CPET were detected in two large cohorts of healthy adults.

  10. Dose-response investigation into glucose facilitation of memory performance and mood in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Owen, Lauren; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that the memory enhancing effect of glucose follows an inverted U-shaped curve, with 25 g resulting in optimal facilitation in healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to further investigate the dose dependency of the glucose facilitation effect in this population across different memory domains and to assess moderation by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight. Following a double-blind, repeated measures design, 30 participants were administered drinks containing five different doses of glucose (0 g, 15 g, 25 g, 50 g, and 60 g) and were tested across a range of memory tasks. Glycaemic response and changes in mood state were assessed following drink administration. Analysis of the data showed that glucose administration did not affect mood, but significant glucose facilitation of several memory tasks was observed. However, dose-response curves differed depending on the memory task with only performance on the long-term memory tasks adhering largely to the previously observed inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Moderation of the response profiles by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight was observed. The current data suggest that dose-response function and optimal dose might depend on cognitive domain and are moderated by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight.

  11. White matter and memory in healthy adults: Coupled changes over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrew R; Prindle, John J; Brandmaier, Andreas M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to link age-related differences in white matter (WM) anisotropy and concomitant decrements in cognitive ability. Due to a dearth of longitudinal evidence, the relationship between changes in diffusion properties of WM and cognitive performance remains unclear. Here we examine the relationship between two-year changes in WM organization and cognitive performance in healthy adults (N=96, age range at baseline=18-79 years). We used latent change score models (LCSM) to evaluate changes in age-sensitive cognitive abilities - fluid intelligence and associative memory. WM changes were assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in WM regions that are considered part of established memory networks and exhibited individual differences in change. In modeling change, we postulated reciprocal paths between baseline measures and change factors, within and between WM and cognition domains, and accounted for individual differences in baseline age. Although baseline cross-sectional memory performance was positively associated with FA and negatively with RD, longitudinal effects told an altogether different story. Independent of age, longitudinal improvements in associative memory were significantly associated with linear reductions in FA and increases in RD. The present findings demonstrate the sensitivity of DTI-derived indices to changes in the brain and cognition and affirm the importance of longitudinal models for evaluating brain-cognition relations.

  12. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

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    Ella W. Yeung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively and peak torque production (p = 0.483 measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults.

  13. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness.

  14. Moderate relationships between NAA and cognitive ability in healthy adults: implications for cognitive spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulpesh ePatel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS is a non-invasive imaging technique that enables quantification of neurochemistry in vivo and thereby facilitates investigation of the biochemical underpinnings of human cognitive variability. Studies in the field of cognitive spectroscopy have commonly focused on relationships between measures of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, a surrogate marker of neuronal health and function, and broad measures of cognitive performance, such as IQ.Methodology/Principal Findings. In this study, we used 1H-MRS to interrogate single-voxels in occipitoparietal and frontal cortex, in parallel with assessments of psychometric intelligence, in a sample of 40 healthy adult participants. We found correlations between NAA and IQ that were within the range reported in previous studies. However, the magnitude of these effects was significantly modulated by the stringency of data screening and the extent to which outlying values contributed to statistical analyses.Conclusions/Significance. 1H-MRS offers a sensitive tool for assessing neurochemistry non-invasively, yet the relationships between brain metabolites and broad aspects of human behaviour such as IQ are subtle. We highlight the need to develop an increasingly rigorous analytical and interpretive framework for collecting and reporting data obtained from cognitive spectroscopy studies of this kind.

  15. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, June; Siegel, Erika H; Purcell, Amanda L; Earls, Holly A; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task among 22 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD; AgeM=30.82, AgeSD=7.04; 68.2% female) compared with 22 healthy adults (CTL; AgeM=20.86, AgeSD=9.91; 72.2% female). Across both groups, participants rated neutral faces as more trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen happy faces as compared to unseen angry and neutral faces; participants rated neutral faces as less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen angry as compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that emotion-related disturbances are not explained by early automatic processing stages, and that activity in the dorsal visual stream underlying implicit emotion processing is intact in bipolar disorder. Implications for understanding the etiology of emotion disturbance in BD are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C; Wagenaar, Robert C; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2014-02-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory.

  17. Effect of lead use on back and shoulder postural muscle activity in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel D; Kirkpatrick, Anne E; Ashton-Miller, James A; Shih, Albert J

    2011-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that wearing the 3.7 kg vest portion of a radiological shielding garment (a "lead") significantly increases lower back and shoulder muscle activity in quasistatic erect and forward-flexed postures. Secondarily, the authors examined the effects of gender and forward-flexed posture as well as their interactions with lead use. The use of a lead is mandatory for interventionalists during surgical procedures. Because the vest portion of a lead weighs considerably more than normal clothing, there is concern that its use increases the risk of developing back and shoulder pain. In a repeated-measures study design, 19 young healthy male and female adults assumed standardized erect or forward-flexed postures, both with and without wearing the vest portion of a lead. Shoulder and lower back muscle activity was measured via surface electromyography, normalized by maximum voluntary contraction values. Data were analyzed using general linear models and repeated-measures ANOVA (significant for p back or shoulders, despite perceived increases in effort and discomfort. Posture proved to be the most significant secondary factor affecting activity in the lower back, and participant gender proved insignificant. Short-term use of the lead does not appear to contribute to the incidence of back pain or injury in interventionalists. Avoiding flexed postures could more directly reduce the likelihood of pain or injury. Potential applications include assessing and improving operating room ergonomics for physicians.

  18. The effects of visual stimuli on EEG mu rhythms in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiYoung; Kim, SeongYoel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Several action observation/imagery training studies have been conducted in patients with limited physical activity showing improvements in motor function. However, most studies compared effects of action observation and imagery, so little is known about the changes caused by subsequent observation of target objects. Moreover, few studies analyzed brain wave changes in the EEG mu rhythm. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy female adults participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: ‘Visual Stimuli’ and ‘Non-Visual Stimuli’. EEG amplitude in the 8–13 Hz frequency band over the sensorimotor cortex was evaluated. [Results] Significant mu suppression was obtained in the action observation trials. Mu power showed a main effect of visual stimuli, with decreased power during action observation, and increased power post-observation in both conditions. Comparing the ‘Visual Stimuli’ and ‘Non-Visual Stimuli’ conditions during the post-observation period, mu power demonstrated a greater increase in the ‘Non-Visual Stimuli’ condition. Furthermore, mu power was lower post-observation than pre-observation. [Conclusion] These results show the effects of visual input between maintaining target objects and no visual input, and their relevance to modulations of the mirror neuron system. It also suggests that greater visual input may be more effective for cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:27390408

  19. Anthropometric study of male external genitalia of 320 healthy Nigerian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, M L; Jain, S P; Saxena, S K

    1985-06-01

    Five basic measurements of the male external genitalia were studied in 320 healthy male medical students belonging to the various parts of Nigeria (West Africa). Their ages range from 17 to 23 years. The measurements were as follows: average length of the penis (81.6 +/- 0.94 mm); circumference of the penis (88.3 +/- 0.02 mm); circumference of the scrotum (212.6 +/- 2.48 mm); length of right testis (46.8 +/- 0.54 mm); width of right testis (32.4 +/- 0.37 mm); length of left testis (46.0 +/- 0.53 mm); and width of left testis (31.4 +/- 0.36 mm). The size of the genitalia increases with the increase in age in younger year groups. The adult stages of genitalia development are reached at the age of 21 years in 89.0% of the individuals. The growth of the genitalia is continued with the increasing height and weight, but this growth slows down after attaining a definite height and weight.

  20. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Rao, Hengyi; Brennan, Lauretta; Wang, Danny J J; Detre, John A; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Brodkin, Edward S; Farah, Martha J

    2011-09-30

    Recent attempts to understand the biological bases of depression vulnerability have revealed that both the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and activity in the amygdala are associated with depression. Other studies have reported amygdala hyperactivity associated with the 5-HTTLPR short allele, linking the genetic and neuroimaging lines of research and suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. However, fewer investigations have examined the associations among depression, 5-HTTLPR variability, and amygdala activation in a single study. The current study thus investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion fMRI during a task-free scan. We hypothesized differential associations between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among individuals homozygous for the short allele and individuals homozygous for the long allele. Both whole brain analyses and region-of-interest analyses confirmed this prediction, revealing a significant negative association among the long allele group and a trend of positive association among the short allele group. These results complement existing reports of short allele related amygdala hyperactivity and suggest an additional neurobiological mechanism whereby the 5-HTTLPR is associated with psychiatric outcomes.

  1. Heart rate variability is reduced in underweight and overweight healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Valenzano, Anna; Ciliberti, Michela Anna Pia; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Villani, Stefano; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni; Federici, Antonio; Babiloni, Claudio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in obese subjects, but whether this is true also in underweight (UW) subjects is still under debate. We investigated the HRV profile in a sample of healthy adult women and its association with adiposity. Five-minute resting state electrocardiographic activity was recorded in 69 subjects grouped according to their body mass index, [23 normal weight (NW), 23 overweight/obese (OW) and 23 UW). Body fat mass (FM) was measured by bio-impedance. Frequency- and time-domain analyses were performed. Compared to NW, UW and OW subjects showed a significant decrease in HRV indices, as revealed by spectral analysis. No differences were observed between UW and OW subjects. A second-order polynomial regression unveiled an inverted U-shaped relationship between FM extent and HRV indices. A decrease of HRV indices was associated with changes in FM extent, proving that in UW and OW subjects, the adaptive flexibility of autonomic cardiac function was reduced. These findings provide important clues to guide future studies addressed to determine how changes in adiposity and autonomic cardiac function may contribute to health risk. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Neural responses to negative feedback are related to negative emotionality in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Bogdan, Ryan; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Goetz, Elena L.; Holmes, Avram J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence suggests that potentiated responses in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), particularly the rostral ACC, may contribute to abnormal responses to negative feedback in individuals with elevated negative affect and depressive symptoms. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) represents an electrophysiological index of ACC-related activation in response to performance feedback. The purpose of the present study was to examine the FRN and underlying ACC activation using low resolution electromagnetic tomography source estimation techniques in relation to negative emotionality (a composite index including negative affect and subclinical depressive symptoms). To this end, 29 healthy adults performed a monetary incentive delay task while 128-channel event-related potentials were recorded. We found that enhanced FRNs and increased rostral ACC activation in response to negative—but not positive—feedback was related to greater negative emotionality. These results indicate that individual differences in negative emotionality—a putative risk factor for emotional disorders—modulate ACC-related processes critically implicated in assessing the motivational impact and/or salience of environmental feedback. PMID:21917847

  3. Systemic evening primrose oil improves the biophysical skin parameters of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, R

    2005-08-01

    Biophysical skin parameters are indicators of age-related structural and functional changes in skin tissues. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy adults tested the effect of Efamol evening primrose oil [EPO, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) containing vegetable oil] on skin moisture, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), redness, firmness, elasticity, fatigue resistance and roughness. Efamol EPO was administered orally in soft gel capsules, 3 x 500 mg b.i.d. for 12 weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 4 and 12. The two treatment groups did not differ at baseline and at week 4. At week 12, however, all measured variables, with the exception of skin redness, were significantly different in the EPO group compared with placebo. Skin moisture, TEWL, elasticity, firmness, fatigue resistance and roughness had significantly improved by 12.9, 7.7, 4.7, 16.7, 14.2 and 21.7%, respectively. The two-sided levels of significance in favor of the EPO treatment ranged between 0.034 and 0.001. These findings lend further support to the notion that GLA is a conditionally essential fatty acid for the skin, i.e. it is unable to synthesize GLA, and therefore depends on preformed GLA for optimal structure and function.

  4. Loneliness and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Findings From the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bao-Liang; Chen, Shu-Lin; Tu, Xin; Conwell, Yeates

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between loneliness and cognitive function and to explore the mediating role of physical health on the loneliness-cognition relationship in Chinese older adults (OAs). Data came from a nationally representative sample of 14,199 Chinese OAs (aged 65+) from 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. A latent variable cross-lagged panel model combined with mediation analysis was used to determine the relationship between loneliness and cognitive function and the mediating effect of increase in the number of chronic conditions (ΔNCCs) on the ascertained loneliness-cognition relationship. Severe loneliness at prior assessment points was significantly associated with poorer cognitive function at subsequent assessments, and vice versa. The ΔNCCs partially mediated this prospective reciprocal relationships, accounting for 2.58% of the total effect of loneliness on cognition and 4.44% of the total effect of cognition on loneliness, respectively. Loneliness may predict subsequent cognitive decline, and vice versa. This loneliness-cognition relationship is partially explained by their impact on physical health. Multidisciplinary interventions aimed at reducing loneliness and cognitive decline per se and their associated risk factors as well as improving chronic illness management would be beneficial for emotional well-being and cognitive health in OAs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Interaction between resistance training and flexibility training in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Antonio C L; Paula, Karla C; Carvalho, Ana Cristina G

    2005-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that increases in muscle strength and flexibility are developed by specific training programs, 43 healthy young adults were tested before and after 4 different interventions conducted twice a week for 12 weeks: (a) resistance training only (n = 13); (b) flexibility training only (n = 11); (c) resistance and flexibility training (n = 9); and (d) no intervention (n = 10). There was no change in either strength or flexibility in the control group (p > 0.05). Resistance training improved muscle strength either alone (+14%; effect size = 0.53; p flexibility training (+16%; effect size = 0.66; p = 0.032), but did not change flexibility (p = 0.610). Flexibility increased with specific training alone (+33%; p training (+18%; p training alone did not increase flexibility, but resistance training did not interfere with the increase in joint range of motion during flexibility training. These results support the concept that specific training should be employed in order to increase either muscle strength or flexibility.

  6. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  7. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  8. Evaluation of Potential Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interaction between Armodafinil and Aripiprazole in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, M; Bond, M; Yang, R; Hellriegel, E T; Robertson, P

    2015-07-01

    Armodafinil, a moderate inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, has been studied as adjunctive therapy to maintenance medications for major depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. We evaluated the effect of daily dosing with armodafinil on the pharmacokinetics and safety of the CYP3A4 substrate aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic used to treat bipolar I disorder. Healthy adults received 15 mg aripiprazole alone and after armodafinil (250 mg/day) pretreatment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from plasma concentrations of aripiprazole and its active metabolite, dehydro-aripiprazole, obtained over 16 days after each aripiprazole administration. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of armodafinil and its 2 circulating metabolites was assessed. Of 36 subjects enrolled, 24 were evaluable for pharmacokinetic analysis. Armodafinil reduced systemic exposure to aripiprazole (Cmax, - 8%; AUC0-∞, -34%) and dehydro-aripiprazole, which is both formed and eliminated in part via CYP3A4 (Cmax, - 10%; AUC0-∞, - 32%). Adverse events were generally consistent with known safety profiles of each agent. Systemic exposure to aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole was moderately reduced following armodafinil pretreatment. The combination was generally well tolerated under the conditions studied. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eLemaire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioural expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression. The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Methods: Healthy adults (N=101 were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI to each picture were recorded.Results: Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity and anxiety. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  10. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulations. Blood samples for plasma phenytoin levels were collected at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24 hours. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the two brands of phenytoin sodium calculated were area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero to 24 hours (AUC 0–24, Area under the Curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞, peak plasma concentration (Cmax and time of peak concentration (tmax. Formulation B failed to comply in terms of Area under the Curve (AUC, an important pharmacokinetic parameter to test bioequivalency, which was tested at significance level 0.05. This showed that the test formulation is not bioequivalent with the innovator. Taken together, our preliminary findings suggest that further studies in a large population is needed before switching phenytoin brands once a patient is carefully titrated to a given phenytoin brand.

  11. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Interaction between PA-824 and Midazolam in Healthy Adult Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Helen; Egizi, Erica; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann; Rouse, Doris J.; Severynse-Stevens, Diana; Pauli, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic interaction between PA-824, a novel antitubercular nitroimidazo-oxazine, and midazolam, a CYP3A4 substrate, in 14 healthy adult male and female subjects. The study followed up on observations in vitro that PA-824 caused weak and time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4. Subjects received a single oral dose of midazolam (2 mg), followed by a 2-day washout. After the washout, all subjects received PA-824 (400 mg) once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, all subjects received the final PA-824 dose coadministered with a 2-mg oral dose of midazolam. The pharmacokinetic endpoints AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, and Cmax for midazolam and 1-hydroxy midazolam were compared between midazolam administered alone versus midazolam coadministered with PA-824. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the mean midazolam values of Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–∞ parameters were reduced by ca. 16, 15, and 15%, respectively, when PA-824 was coadministered with midazolam. The total exposure (AUC) of 1-hydroxy midazolam was 13 to 14% greater when coadministered with PA-824 compared to midazolam administered alone. The Cmax of 1-hydroxy midazolam was similar between treatments. Based on these results, PA-824 does not inhibit or induce CYP3A4 to a clinically meaningful extent and is not likely to markedly affect the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 metabolized drugs. PMID:23689718

  12. Association of telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number in a community sample of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrka, Audrey R; Carpenter, Linda L; Kao, Hung-Teh; Porton, Barbara; Philip, Noah S; Ridout, Samuel J; Ridout, Kathryn K; Price, Lawrence H

    2015-06-01

    Cellular aging plays a role in longevity and senescence, and has been implicated in medical and psychiatric conditions, including heart disease, cancer, major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be central to the cellular aging process. The present study examined the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and telomere length in a sample of medically healthy adults. Participants (total n=392) were divided into 4 groups based on the presence or absence of early life adversity and lifetime psychopathology: No Adversity/No Disorder, n=136; Adversity/No Disorder, n=91; No Adversity/Disorder, n=46; Adversity/Disorder, n=119. Telomere length and mtDNA copy number were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. There was a positive correlation between mtDNA and telomere length in the entire sample (r=0.120, ptelomere length in a large group of women and men both with and without early adversity and psychopathology, suggesting co-regulation of telomeres and mitochondrial function. The mechanisms underlying this association may be important in the pathophysiology of age-related medical conditions, such as heart disease and cancer, as well as for stress-associated psychiatric disorders.

  13. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam, E-mail: sasarker@icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Berger, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.berger@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Pittet, Anne-Cecile [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Sultana, Shamima, E-mail: shamima@icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Krause, Lutz, E-mail: ltz.krause@gmail.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Huq, Sayeda, E-mail: sayeeda@mail.icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Bibiloni, Rodrigo, E-mail: Rodrigo.Bibiloni@agresearch.co.nz [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bruttin, Anne, E-mail: anne.bruttin@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Reuteler, Gloria, E-mail: gloria.reuteler@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bruessow, Harald, E-mail: harald.bruessow@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-20

    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  14. An association between human hippocampal volume and topographical memory in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eHartley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between human hippocampal structure and topographical memory was investigated in healthy adults (N=30. Structural MR images were acquired, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to estimate local gray matter volume throughout the brain. A complementary automated mesh-based segmentation approach was used to independently isolate and measure specified structures including the hippocampus. Topographical memory was assessed using a version of the Four Mountains Task, a short test designed to target hippocampal spatial function. Each item requires subjects to briefly study a landscape scene before recognizing the depicted place from a novel viewpoint and under altered non-spatial conditions when presented amongst similar alternative scenes. Positive correlations between topographical memory performance and hippocampal volume were observed in both VBM and segmentation-based analyses. Score on the topographical memory task was also correlated with the volume of some subcortical structures, extra-hippocampal gray matter and total brain volume, with the most robust and extensive covariation seen in circumscribed neocortical regions in the insula and anterior temporal lobes. Taken together with earlier findings, the results suggest that global variations in brain morphology affect the volume of the hippocampus and its specific contribution to topographical memory. We speculate that behavioral variation might arise directly through the impact of resource constraints on spatial representations in the hippocampal formation and its inputs, and perhaps indirectly through an increased reliance on non-allocentric strategies.

  15. Constraining eye movement when redirecting walking trajectories alters turning control in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep Ambati, V N; Murray, Nicholas G; Saucedo, Fabricio; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

    2013-05-01

    Humans use a specific steering synergy, where the eyes and head lead rotation to the new direction, when executing a turn or change in direction. Increasing evidence suggests that eye movement is critical for turning control and that when the eyes are constrained, or participants have difficulties making eye movements, steering control is disrupted. The purpose of the current study was to extend previous research regarding eye movements and steering control to a functional walking and turning task. This study investigated eye, head, trunk, and pelvis kinematics of healthy young adults during a 90° redirection of walking trajectory under two visual conditions: Free Gaze (the eyes were allowed to move naturally in the environment), and Fixed Gaze (participants were required to fixate the eyes on a target in front). Results revealed significant differences in eye, head, and trunk coordination between Free Gaze and Fixed Gaze conditions (p segments moved together with no significant differences between segment onset times. In addition, the sequence of segment rotation during Fixed Gaze suggested a bottom-up postural perturbation control strategy in place of top-down steering control seen in Free Gaze. The results of this study support the hypothesis that eye movement is critical for the release of the steering synergy for turning control.

  16. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults.

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    Behringer, M; Moser, M; Montag, J; McCourt, M; Tenner, D; Mester, J

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus.

  17. Schizotypal traits are associated with poorer executive functioning in healthy adults

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    Stephanie eLouise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown mild forms of the neurocognitive impairments seen in schizophrenia among healthy individuals exhibiting high schizotypal traits. This study aimed to explore associations between schizotypy and cognitive performance in an adult community sample. Ninety-five females and 79 males completed the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE, which measures four separable aspects of schizotypy: cognitive disorganisation, unusual experiences, introvertive anhedonia and impulsive nonconformity. Subsequently, participants were administered a neurocognitive battery incorporating measures of executive skills including inhibition, cognitive flexibility, reasoning and problem solving along with measures of attention and processing speed and both verbal and spatial working memory. In line with predictions, the current study found that higher scores on the subscales of unusual experiences, cognitive disorganisation and impulsive non-conformity related to worse performance on a measure of inhibition. Additionally, as introvertive anhedonia increased, both attention and processing speed and reasoning and problem solving performance became more impaired. In conclusion, this study extends schizotypy literature by examining the subscales of the O-LIFE, and enables inferences to be drawn in relation to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  18. Understanding noise stress-induced cognitive impairment in healthy adults and its implications for schizophrenia.

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    Wright, Bernice; Peters, Emmanuelle; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Noise stress (NS) is detrimental to many aspects of human health and behavior. Understanding the effect of noise stressors on human cognitive function is a growing area of research and is crucial to helping clinical populations, such as those with schizophrenia, which are particularly sensitive to stressors. A review of electronic databases for studies assessing the effect of acute NS on cognitive functions in healthy adults revealed 31 relevant studies. The review revealed (1) NS exerts a clear negative effect on attention, working memory and episodic recall, and (2) personality characteristics, in particular neuroticism, and sleep influence the impact of noise stressors on performance in interaction with task complexity. Previous findings of consistent impairment in NS-relevant cognitive domains, heightened sensitivity to stressors, elevated neuroticism and sleep disturbances in schizophrenia, taken together with the findings of this review, highlight the need for empirical studies to elucidate whether NS, a common aspect of urban environments, exacerbates cognitive deficits and other symptoms in schizophrenia and related clinical populations.

  19. Assessment of the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue of healthy adults using ultrasonography

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    Terumi Ueda-Iuchi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lymphoedema involves swelling, especially in the subcutaneous tissues. For lymphoedema management to be successful, it is necessary to remove the interstitial fluid. Subcutaneous echogenicity may be associated with interstitial fluid, but echogenicity is not an indicator for the evaluation of management because we do not directly compare echogenicity with the interstitial fluid. We aimed to identify an outcome indicator for the evaluation of interstitial fluid using ultrasonography. We assessed the correlation between echogenicity and transverse relaxation rate (R2 on magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: This was an observational study. Healthy adults with leg swelling after activity for >8 h were recruited. The legs of 13 women were evaluated using ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of the limb circumference before and after an intervention to reduce the swelling. Results: Echogenicity in the oedema group was greater than that of the controls. Echogenicity decreased with reductions in oedema. The range of the strongest correlations with the changes in R2 occurred at echogenicity values of 48–144 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: r = −0.63 and p < 0.01. Thus, it was possible to evaluate the interstitial fluid using echogenicity. Conclusion: The outcome indicators for the evaluation of interstitial fluid using ultrasonography were echogenicities in the range of 48–144, and these values were valid for assessing the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue.

  20. Music intervention on cognitive dysfunction in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Xu, Bing; Sui, Yi; Zhu, Chunyan; Yang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Jin; Li, Li; Ren, Li; Wang, Xu

    2017-03-08

    The background of this study is to determine whether there is an association between music intervention and cognitive dysfunction therapy in healthy older adults, and if so, whether music intervention can be used as first-line non-pharmacological treatment. The method used in this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that examined the effects of music intervention on patient-relevant and disease-specific outcomes. A comprehensive literature was performed on PubMed, EMbase and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 2016. A total of 10 studies (14 analyses, 966 subjects) were included; all of them had an acceptable quality based on the PEDro scale score and CASP scale score. Compared with control group, the standardized mean difference was 0.03 (-0.18 to 0.24) for cognitive function as primary outcome by random effect model; secondary outcomes were included disruptive behavior, depressive score, anxiety and quality of life. No evidence of publication bias could be found in funnel plots, Begg's test and Egger's test. Subgroup analyses showed that intervention method, comparator, trial design, trial period and outcome measure instruments made little difference in outcomes. Meta-regression might not identify cause of heterogeneity. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD442016036264. There was positive evidence to support the use of music intervention on treatment of cognitive function.

  1. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults

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    Björck Inger ME

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from European blueberries, also called bilberries, (Vaccinium myrtillus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (Rosa canina on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Methods glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in young healthy adults were measured in two series. In series 1, two drinks based on oat meal (5%, fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, and added with fruit (10%; bilberries (BFOMD or rose hip (RFOMD respectively, were studied. In series 2, BFOMD was repeated, additionally, a drink enriched with bilberries (47% was tested (BBFOMD. As control a fermented oat meal drink (FOMD was served. Results in series 1 the bilberry- and rosehip drinks, gave high glucose responses similar to that after the reference bread. However, the insulin index (II after the BFOMD was significantly lower (II = 65 (P Conclusion a fermented oat meal drink added with bilberries induced a lower insulin response than expected from the glycaemic response. The mechanism for the lowered acute insulin demand is still unclear, but may be related to some bio-active component present in the bilberries, or to the fermented oat meal base.

  2. Changes in joint space width during Kaltenborn traction according to traction grade in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Gui-do; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the joint space width of the humeral head and glenoid fossa during traction under 2 grade conditions (grade 2/grade 3). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy male adults who had not experienced any shoulder injury. Three radiographs were obtained with the subjects in the supine position (resting, grades 2 and 3). The glenohumeral joint space was examined on radiography. Joint space width was measured by a radiologist at the points described by Petersson and Redlund-Johnell. A radiologist blinded to the variable "resting" or "traction" performed all radiographic measurements. The joint space widths were compared by using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] The results of this study indicated significant differences in the changes in joint space width according to traction grade. Compared to resting, grades 2 and 3 traction significantly increased joint space width. However, no significant difference in joint space width was found between grades 2 and 3 traction. [Conclusion] Although no significant differences were found between grades 2 and 3 traction during glenohumeral joint traction, the increase in joint space width between the glenoid fossa and humeral head was highest during grade 3 traction.

  3. Fatal venous air embolism during anesthesia in an apparently healthy adult Chihuahua.

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    Mouser, Pamela J; Wilson, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    An apparently healthy adult female Chihuahua was presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. After induction of general anesthesia, but prior to the start of the surgery, air was inadvertently administered to the patient via the i.v. fluid line. The patient convulsed, became apneic, arrested, and died despite attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At necropsy, the pericardial sac was incised and filled with water to entirely submerge the intact heart. The right ventricular free wall was punctured, releasing several air bubbles from the right ventricle. Death was attributed to venous air embolism based on the clinical history, gross findings, and paucity of underlying gross and microscopic pathology that might have predisposed the dog to an anesthetic-related death. The discussion of this case includes a review of previously reported veterinary cases of fatal venous air embolism, including the varied mechanisms of embolus formation, the potential impact of pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease, and the methods used to detect emboli. This report outlines the events of fatal iatrogenic venous air embolization and emphasizes the importance of considering this entity in the case of sudden death of a patient with an indwelling catheter in order to pursue either appropriate diagnostic tests or necropsy techniques to aid in the diagnosis.

  4. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

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    Desjardins-Crépeau L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau,1,2 Nicolas Berryman,2,3 Sarah A Fraser,4 Thien Tuong Minh Vu,5,6 Marie-Jeanne Kergoat,2,6 Karen ZH Li,7 Laurent Bosquet,8 Louis Bherer2,7 1Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Research Center, Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Sports Studies, Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 4Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 5Research Center, Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Department of Psychology and PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, Montréal, QC, Canada; 8Faculté des sciences du sport, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France Purpose: Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults.Methods: Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention.Results: All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training

  5. Decreasing Internal Focus of Attention Improves Postural Control during Quiet Standing in Young Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafati, Gilel; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether and how decreasing the amount of attentional focus invested in postural control could affect bipedal postural control. Twelve participants were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible on a force platform in one control condition and one cognitive condition. In the latter condition, they…

  6. Age-associated differences in cognitive performance in older patients with schizophrenia: a comparison with healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Czaja, Sara J; Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    There are varying results regarding the conjoint influence of aging and schizophrenia on cognitive abilities. Previous studies have been limited by restricted age ranges among schizophrenia and psychiatrically healthy control samples as well as small numbers of control participants. To quantify the association between age and cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and psychiatrically healthy older adult controls and to determine if age-associated changes in cognitive performance were different in the two groups. People with schizophrenia (n = 226) and psychiatrically healthy individuals (n = 834) ranging in age from 40 to older than 80 years were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tests. To directly compare the impact of age on cognitive performance, age was also regressed on performance in the two samples. The performance of psychiatrically healthy adults age 70 and older was superior to the performance of the youngest patients with schizophrenia (age 40-49) years on measures of working and episodic memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. Regression analyses indicated that age effects on cognition were significantly greater for schizophrenia patients on measures of verbal learning and speed of processing. Within both the schizophrenia group, and psychiatrically healthy adults, the greatest age-related differences in performance seemed to occur for individuals aged more than 70 years. In this cross-sectional study, the present findings underscore the fact that schizophrenia is associated with cognitive impairment across all ages and that older schizophrenia patients experience relatively greater age associated differences in cognitive functioning than healthy individuals. These findings have wide-ranging implications regarding the ability of older patients with schizophrenia to function independently and for the development of treatment strategies.

  7. Effects of increased step width on frontal plane knee biomechanics in healthy older adults during stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare E; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    Peak internal knee abduction moment is a common surrogate variable associated with medial compartment knee loading. Stair descent has been shown to yield a greater peak knee abduction moment compared to level-walking. Changes in step width (SW) may lead to changes in frontal plane lower extremity limb alignment in the frontal plane and alter peak knee abduction moment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increased SW on frontal plane knee biomechanics during stair descent in healthy older adults. Twenty healthy adults were recruited for the study. A motion analysis system was used to obtain three-dimensional lower limb kinematics during testing. An instrumented 3-step staircase with two additional customized wooden steps was used to collect ground reaction forces (GRF) data during stair descent trials. Participants performed five stair descent trials at their self-selected speed using preferred, wide (26% leg length), and wider (39% leg length) SW. The preferred normalized SW in older adults during stair descent was 20% of leg length. Wide and wider SW during stair descent reduced both first and second peak knee adduction angles and abduction moments compared to preferred SW in healthy adults. Increased SW reduced peak knee adduction angles and abduction moments. The reductions in knee abduction moments may have implications in reducing medial compartment knee loads during stair descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of the H(2) blocker roxatidine acetate hydrochloride in pediatric patients, in comparison with healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidefumi; Kawashima, Hisashi; Azuma, Rieko; Sato, Ikuya; Nagao, Koji; Miyazawa, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride capsules (ALTAT(®) CAPSULES) in children. In a single-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) study in pediatric patients aged between 6 and 14 years with acid-related diseases, 37.5 mg or 75 mg roxatidine capsules were given orally, and blood samples were collected to determine the plasma roxatidine concentrations. Meanwhile, a single-dose PK study in healthy adult volunteers was newly conducted; subjects were given 37.5 mg, 75 mg or 150 mg roxatidine capsules. Differences were present between the PK parameters in pediatric patients and those in healthy adult volunteers. However, the CL/F and Vd/F adjusted by body surface area (BSA) or body weight (BW) were comparable. A close correlation of the C(max) and AUC(0-∞) to the dose per unit BSA (mg/m(2)) or BW (mg/kg) was also shown. In the multiple-dose study in pediatric patients, no roxatidine accumulation in plasma was observed, as was the case with a previous study in adults. These data show that the PK profile of roxatidine in pediatric patients is similar to the profile in healthy adult volunteers when adjusted by BSA or BW.

  9. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

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    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  10. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review

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    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress is a common experience in today’s society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. Objective The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. Results A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Conclusions Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in

  11. Association between Yogurt Consumption and Intestinal Microbiota in Healthy Young Adults Differs by Host Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Ikeda, Keiichi; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Sachio; Sawaki, Keisuke; Asahara, Takashi; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nomoto, Koji; Nagpal, Ravinder; Wang, Chongxin; Nagata, Satoru; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota are influenced by various factors viz. diet, environment, age, gender, geographical, and socioeconomic situation, etc. among which diet has the most profound impact. However, studies investigating this impact have mostly included subjects from diverse geographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and hence the precise effects of dietary factors on gut microbiota composition remain largely confounded. Herein, with an aim to evaluate the association between dietary habits, specifically yogurt consumption, and the gut microbiota in healthy young adults sharing similar age, lifestyle routine, geographical setting, etc., we conducted a cross-sectional study wherein 293 collegiate freshmen answered a questionnaire about their frequency of yogurt consumption over the last 2 months and provided stool specimens for microbiota analysis. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by highly sensitive reverse-transcription-quantitative-PCR assays targeting bacterial 16S rRNA molecules. Fecal organic acids were measured by HPLC. Overall, the gut microbiota were predominated (97.1 ± 8.6%) by Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster. Interestingly, after adjusting the data for yogurt consumption, females were found to have higher total bacterial (P = 0.013) and Bifidobacterium (P = 0.046) count and fecal pH (P = 0.007) and lower fecal concentration of total organic acids (P = 0.030), succinic acid (P = 0.007) and formic acid (P = 0.046) as compared to males. Altogether, yogurt consumption showed positive linear association with Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup in both male and female subjects; however, several gender-specific disparities were also detected in this yogurt-microbiota association. Yogurt consumption demonstrated a negative association with L. sakei subgroup, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus in males but shared a positive association with L. casei subgroup

  12. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

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    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  13. Association between Yogurt Consumption and Intestinal Microbiota in Healthy Young Adults Differs by Host Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Suzuki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microbiota are influenced by various factors viz. diet, environment, age, gender, geographical, and socioeconomic situation, etc. among which diet has the most profound impact. However, studies investigating this impact have mostly included subjects from diverse geographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and hence the precise effects of dietary factors on gut microbiota composition remain largely confounded. Herein, with an aim to evaluate the association between dietary habits, specifically yogurt consumption, and the gut microbiota in healthy young adults sharing similar age, lifestyle routine, geographical setting, etc., we conducted a cross-sectional study wherein 293 collegiate freshmen answered a questionnaire about their frequency of yogurt consumption over the last 2 months and provided stool specimens for microbiota analysis. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by highly sensitive reverse-transcription-quantitative-PCR assays targeting bacterial 16S rRNA molecules. Fecal organic acids were measured by HPLC. Overall, the gut microbiota were predominated (97.1 ± 8.6% by Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster. Interestingly, after adjusting the data for yogurt consumption, females were found to have higher total bacterial (P = 0.013 and Bifidobacterium (P = 0.046 count and fecal pH (P = 0.007 and lower fecal concentration of total organic acids (P = 0.030, succinic acid (P = 0.007 and formic acid (P = 0.046 as compared to males. Altogether, yogurt consumption showed positive linear association with Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup in both male and female subjects; however, several gender-specific disparities were also detected in this yogurt-microbiota association. Yogurt consumption demonstrated a negative association with L. sakei subgroup, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus in males but shared a positive association with L

  14. CLSI-Derived Hematology and Biochemistry Reference Intervals for Healthy Adults in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karita, Etienne; Ketter, Nzeera; Price, Matt A.; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Nanvubya, Annet; Anzala, Omu; Jaoko, Walter; Mutua, Gaudensia; Ruzagira, Eugene; Mulenga, Joseph; Sanders, Eduard J.; Mwangome, Mary; Allen, Susan; Bwanika, Agnes; Bahemuka, Ubaldo; Awuondo, Ken; Omosa, Gloria; Farah, Bashir; Amornkul, Pauli; Birungi, Josephine; Yates, Sarah; Stoll-Johnson, Lisa; Gilmour, Jill; Stevens, Gwynn; Shutes, Erin; Manigart, Olivier; Hughes, Peter; Dally, Len; Scott, Janet; Stevens, Wendy; Fast, Pat; Kamali, Anatoli

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinical laboratory reference intervals have not been established in many African countries, and non-local intervals are commonly used in clinical trials to screen and monitor adverse events (AEs) among African participants. Using laboratory reference intervals derived from other populations excludes potential trial volunteers in Africa and makes AE assessment challenging. The objective of this study was to establish clinical laboratory reference intervals for 25 hematology, immunology and biochemistry values among healthy African adults typical of those who might join a clinical trial. Methods and Findings Equal proportions of men and women were invited to participate in a cross sectional study at seven clinical centers (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; two in Nairobi and one in Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia). All laboratories used hematology, immunology and biochemistry analyzers validated by an independent clinical laboratory. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines were followed to create study consensus intervals. For comparison, AE grading criteria published by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of AIDS (DAIDS) and other U.S. reference intervals were used. 2,990 potential volunteers were screened, and 2,105 (1,083 men and 1,022 women) were included in the analysis. While some significant gender and regional differences were observed, creating consensus African study intervals from the complete data was possible for 18 of the 25 analytes. Compared to reference intervals from the U.S., we found lower hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, particularly among women, lower white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower amylase. Both genders had elevated eosinophil counts, immunoglobulin G, total and direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase, the latter being more pronounced among women. When graded against U.S.-derived DAIDS AE grading criteria, we observed 774 (35

  15. CLSI-derived hematology and biochemistry reference intervals for healthy adults in eastern and southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Karita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical laboratory reference intervals have not been established in many African countries, and non-local intervals are commonly used in clinical trials to screen and monitor adverse events (AEs among African participants. Using laboratory reference intervals derived from other populations excludes potential trial volunteers in Africa and makes AE assessment challenging. The objective of this study was to establish clinical laboratory reference intervals for 25 hematology, immunology and biochemistry values among healthy African adults typical of those who might join a clinical trial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Equal proportions of men and women were invited to participate in a cross sectional study at seven clinical centers (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; two in Nairobi and one in Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia. All laboratories used hematology, immunology and biochemistry analyzers validated by an independent clinical laboratory. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines were followed to create study consensus intervals. For comparison, AE grading criteria published by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of AIDS (DAIDS and other U.S. reference intervals were used. 2,990 potential volunteers were screened, and 2,105 (1,083 men and 1,022 women were included in the analysis. While some significant gender and regional differences were observed, creating consensus African study intervals from the complete data was possible for 18 of the 25 analytes. Compared to reference intervals from the U.S., we found lower hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, particularly among women, lower white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower amylase. Both genders had elevated eosinophil counts, immunoglobulin G, total and direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase, the latter being more pronounced among women. When graded against U.S. -derived DAIDS AE grading criteria

  16. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2017-02-13

    Stress is a common experience in today's society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; Psmartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in different contexts. The evidence of the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress is

  17. A new topical panthenol-containing emollient: skin-moisturizing effect following single and prolonged usage in healthy adults, and tolerability in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Hans; Kurka, Peter; Wagner, Christine; Sznurkowska, Katarzyna; Czernicka, Olga; Böhling, Arne; Bielfeldt, Stephan; Wilhelm, Klaus-Peter; Lenz, Holger

    2017-05-01

    Two studies were conducted with a new topical panthenol-containing emollient (NTP-CE) to investigate the skin-moisturizing effect in healthy adults and tolerability in healthy infants. In Study 1 (N = 44), a single skin application of NTP-CE was performed followed by a 4-week twice-daily application. Skin hydration and stratum corneum (SC) water content change (using Raman spectroscopy) were measured. In the 4-week Study 2 (N = 65, aged 3-25 months), NTP-CE tolerability was assessed using a 5-point scoring system; skin hydration was determined in a subset (N = 21). In Study 1, mean AUC0 - 24 h for skin capacitance change from baseline was 302.03 i.u. with NTP-CE and -15.90 i.u. in control areas (p water content within the upper SC part was reduced (-45.10 vs. -13.39 g/cm(2), p = .013) and the water gradient increased (0.51 vs. 0.11 g/cm(4), p = .036), indicating relocation of water into deeper layers. In Study 2, there was no statistically significant change from baseline in mean cutaneous tolerability scores. At days 7, 14, and 28, skin hydration had increased by 42%, 54%, and 49%, respectively (all p usage is associated with sustained and deep skin moisturization. NTP-CE is well tolerated by healthy infants.

  18. Synbiotic yogurt consumption by healthy adults and the elderly: the fate of bifidobacteria and LGG probiotic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, M; Brandi, G; Borsari, A; Gasbarri, R; Gioia, D Di

    2013-03-01

    Synbiotic dietary supplements are used to modulate the intestinal microbiota in adults; however, studies regarding elderly people are limited. The aim of this work is to determine the effect of regular consumption of yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the fructooligosaccharide (FOS) Actilight(®) both in healthy adults and the elderly suffering from constipation. Yogurt was administered daily for 4 weeks; faecal samples were collected before starting, after 4-week administration and a 15-day wash out period, and analyzed for LGG and bifidobacteria counts. Constipation status in the elderly was recorded by a standardized questionnaire. Bifidobacteria did not increase in either groups; at the end of the intervention trial, LGG was detected in significantly different amount in the faeces of the elderly and adults, being higher in adults (95% vs. 30%). An increased evacuation number in the elderly was evidenced, probably due to the presence of FOS in yogurt.

  19. Differences in resting state functional connectivity between young adult endurance athletes and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Raichlen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running. Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n=11; age=21.3±2.5 and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n=11; age=20.6±1.1, to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults. Although generally considered an automated repetitive task, locomotion, especially at an elite level, likely engages multiple cognitive actions including planning, inhibition, monitoring, attentional switching and multi-tasking, and motor control. Here, we examined connectivity in three resting-state networks that link such executive functions with motor control: the Default Mode Network (DMN, the Fronto-Parietal Network (FPN, and the Motor Network (MN. We found two key patterns of significant between-group differences in connectivity that are consistent with the hypothesized cognitive demands of elite endurance running. First, enhanced connectivity between the FPN and brain regions often associated with aspects of working memory and other executive functions (frontal cortex, suggest endurance running may stress executive cognitive functions in ways that increase connectivity in associated networks. Second, we found significant anti-correlations between the DMN and regions associated with motor control (paracentral area, somatosensory functions (postcentral region, and visual association abilities (occipital cortex. DMN deactivation with task-positive regions has been shown to be generally beneficial for cognitive performance, suggesting anti-correlated regions observed here are engaged during running. For all between

  20. Differences in Resting State Functional Connectivity between Young Adult Endurance Athletes and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A.; Bharadwaj, Pradyumna K.; Fitzhugh, Megan C.; Haws, Kari A.; Torre, Gabrielle-Ann; Trouard, Theodore P.; Alexander, Gene E.

    2016-01-01

    Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults. Although generally considered an automated repetitive task, locomotion, especially at an elite level, likely engages multiple cognitive actions including planning, inhibition, monitoring, attentional switching and multi-tasking, and motor control. Here, we examined connectivity in three resting-state networks that link such executive functions with motor control: the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the motor network (MN). We found two key patterns of significant between-group differences in connectivity that are consistent with the hypothesized cognitive demands of elite endurance running. First, enhanced connectivity between the FPN and brain regions often associated with aspects of working memory and other executive functions (frontal cortex), suggest endurance running may stress executive cognitive functions in ways that increase connectivity in associated networks. Second, we found significant anti-correlations between the DMN and regions associated with motor control (paracentral area), somatosensory functions (post-central region), and visual association abilities (occipital cortex). DMN deactivation with task-positive regions has been shown to be generally beneficial for cognitive performance, suggesting anti-correlated regions observed here are engaged during running. For all between

  1. Fronto-cerebellar systems are associated with infant motor and adult executive functions in healthy adults but not in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, Khanum; Veijola, Juha M; Tanskanen, Päivikki; Miettunen, Jouko; Chitnis, Xavier; Suckling, John; Murray, Graham K; Haapea, Marianne; Jones, Peter B; Isohanni, Matti K; Bullmore, Edward T

    2006-10-17

    Delineating longitudinal relationships between early developmental markers, adult cognitive function, and adult brain structure could clarify the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. We aimed to identify brain structural correlates of infant motor development (IMD) and adult executive function in nonpsychotic adults and to test for abnormal associations between these measures in people with schizophrenia. Representative samples of nonpsychotic adults (n = 93) and people with schizophrenia (n = 49) were drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 general population birth cohort. IMD was prospectively assessed at age 1 year; executive function testing and MRI were completed at age 33-35 years. We found that earlier motor development in infancy was correlated with superior executive function in nonpsychotic subjects. Earlier motor development was also normally associated with increased gray matter density in adult premotor cortex, striatum, and cerebellum and increased white matter density in frontal and parietal lobes. Adult executive function was normally associated with increased gray matter density in a fronto-cerebellar system that partially overlapped, but was not identical to, the gray matter regions normally associated with IMD. People with schizophrenia had relatively delayed IMD and impaired adult executive function in adulthood. Furthermore, they demonstrated no normative associations between fronto-cerebellar structure, IMD, or executive function. We conclude that frontal cortico-cerebellar systems correlated with adult executive function are anatomically related to systems associated with normal infant motor development. Disruption of this anatomical system may underlie both the early developmental and adult cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  2. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Torab, Tina; Yen, Dorothy; Boyland, E J; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults' snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of snack pack was recorded. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess the impact of external, restrained and emotional eating behaviour on snack pack selection following exposure to advertisements. The majority of unrestrained participants preferentially choose the HFSS snack pack irrespective of advertisement condition. In contrast, high restrained individuals exposed to the healthy eating advertisement condition preferentially selected the healthy snack pack while those in other advertisement conditions refused to take either snack pack. The healthy eating message, when distributed through mass media, resonated with restrained eaters only. Exposure to healthy food adverts provoked restrained eaters into choosing a snack pack; while exposure to other messages results in restrained eaters refusing to take any foods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Vital capacity in trained and untrained healthy young adults in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biersteker, M W; Biersteker, P A

    1985-01-01

    Slow inspiratory vital capacity was measured in 226 healthy young adults, aged from 17 to 35 years. The group included 119 men and 107 women, 87 trained subjects, 71 untrained subjects who intended to take part in a training program for competitive rowing, and 68 untrained subjects who never took part in any competitive sport. The vital capacity increased with height, weight, fat-free mass, height X fat-free mass, and height-independent fat-free mass, with men having significantly higher vital capacities than women of the same height or weight. In both males and females vital capacity showed the best relation with height X fat-free mass (correlation coefficients are 0.78 and 0.57 respectively). Multiple regression on vital capacity with height, weight, fat-free mass, height X fat-free mass, height-independent fat-free mass, percentage body fat, and age increased the correlation coefficient only slightly (0.80 and 0.59 respectively). The subjects had vital capacities that were much higher than those predicted for them by equations originating from the USA. There was no difference between the observed vital capacities and those predicted by equations originating from Europe. There is a difference in vital capacity between the European subjects studied and subjects of similar height studied in the USA. This implies that equations derived from subjects in the USA cannot be applied to European subjects. From our results we conclude that vital capacity is not increased by physical activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Quinine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir in Healthy Thai Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapunya, Siwalee; Cressey, Tim R; Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Tawon, Yardpiroon; Kongjam, Panida; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions between quinine and lopinavir boosted with ritonavir (LPV/r) in healthy Thai adults (8 males and 12 females). Period 1 (day 1): subjects received a single oral dose of 600 mg quinine sulfate. Period 2: subjects received LPV/r (400/100 mg) twice daily. Period 3: subjects received a single quinine sulfate dose plus LPV/r twice a day. Intensive blood sampling was performed during each phase. Quinine AUC0-48h (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to 48 hours), AUC0-∞ (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity), and Cmax (maximum concentration over the time-span specified), were 56%, 57%, and 47% lower, respectively, in the presence of LPV/r. 3-Hydroxyquinine AUC0-48h, AUC0-∞, and Cmax were significantly lower and the metabolite-to-parent ratio was significantly reduced. Lopinavir and ritonavir exposures were not significantly reduced with quinine coadministration, but Cmax of both drugs were significantly lower. The geometric mean ratio (GMR) and 90% CI of AUC0-48h, AUC0-∞, and Cmax for quinine, 3-hydroxyquinine, lopinavir, and ritonavir lay outside the bioequivalent range of 0.8-1.25. Drug treatments during all periods were generally well tolerated. The reduction in systemic exposure of quinine and 3-hydroxyquinine with concomitant LPV/r use raises concerns of suboptimal exposure. Studies in HIV/malaria coinfection patients are needed to determine the clinical impact to decide if any change to the quinine dose is warranted.

  5. Progressive gender differences of structural brain networks in healthy adults: a longitudinal, diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical "small-world" architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes. Additional analysis revealed a more economical "small-world" architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.

  6. Identification of swallowing events from sEMG Signals Obtained from Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby Mann, Giselle D; Groher, Michael E

    2007-04-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is being used with increasing frequency to identify the occurrence of swallowing, to describe swallow physiology, and to treat impaired swallowing function in dysphagic patients. Despite this increased utilization, limited information is available regarding the validity and reliability of investigators and clinicians to interpret sEMG data in reference to swallowing. This study examines the validity and interjudge reliability of swallow identification using sEMG records obtained from healthy adults. Validity and reliability estimates were compared between experienced and naïve judges in the identification of swallows from graphic sEMG records. Multiple validity estimates were high, indicating a strong degree of accuracy in identification of swallows versus nonswallow movements from sEMG traces. Experienced judges were more accurate than naïve judges (classification accuracy: experienced = 90% vs. naïve = 81%; p = 0.006, kappa: experienced = 0.89 vs. naïve 0.62; p = 0.008). Judges in both groups were more likely to classify swallows as nonswallow movements (false negatives) than to classify nonswallow movements as swallows (false positives). Interjudge reliability estimates indicated a high degree of agreement among judges in the identification of swallows versus nonswallow movements from the sEMG signal, with higher agreement among experienced judges (average kappa coefficient: experienced = 0.75 vs. naïve = 0.51). These results suggest that the sEMG graphic record is a valid and reliable tool for identifying normal swallows and that experience with this technique results in better identification and interjudge agreement.

  7. Dynamic regulation of atrial coronary blood flow in healthy adult pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bragt, Kelly A; Nasrallah, Hussein M; Kuiper, Marion; van Hunnik, Arne; Kuijpers, Nico H L; Schotten, Ulrich; Verheule, Sander

    2015-05-01

    There are several indications for a mismatch between atrial oxygen supply and demand during atrial fibrillation (AF), but atrial coronary flow regulation has not been investigated extensively. The purpose of this study was to characterize the dynamic regulation of atrial coronary flow in pigs. In anesthetized open-chest pigs, Doppler flow probes were placed around left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) branches of the circumflex artery. Pressures and work indices were measured simultaneously. Systolic and diastolic flow contribution, flow response kinetics, and relationship between pressures, work, and flow were investigated during sinus rhythm, atrial pacing, and acute AF. During atrial systole, LA flow decreased. Only 2% of total LA flow occurred during atrial systole. Pacing with 2:1 AV block and infusion of acetylcholine revealed that atrial contraction itself impeded atrial coronary flow. The response to sudden changes in heart rate was slower in LA compared to LV. Both LA and LV vascular conductance were positively correlated with work. After the cessation of acute AF, the LA showed a more pronounced phase of supranormal vascular conductance than the LV, indicating a period of atrial reactive hyperemia. In healthy adult pigs, atrial coronary flow is impeded by atrial contraction. Although atrial coronary blood flow is positively correlated with atrial external work, it reacts more slowly to changes in rate than ventricular flow. The occurrence of a pronounced hyperemic phase after acute AF supports the notion of a significant supply-demand mismatch during AF. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-associated Epstein–Barr virus-specific T cell responses in seropositive healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Sierra, D; Vélez Colmenares, G; Orfao de Matos, A; Fiorentino Gómez, S; Quijano Gómez, S M

    2014-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is present in 95% of the world's adult population. The immune response participates in immune vigilance and persistent infection control, and this condition is maintained by both a good quality (functionality) and quantity of specific T cells throughout life. In the present study, we evaluated EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte responses in seropositive healthy individuals younger and older than 50 years of age. The assessment comprised the frequency, phenotype, functionality and clonotypic distribution of T lymphocytes. We found that in both age groups a similar EBV-specific T cell response was found, with overlapping numbers of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α+ T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+) within the memory and effector cell compartments, in addition to monofunctional and multi-functional T cells producing interleukin (IL)-2 and/or interferon (IFN)-γ. However, individuals aged more than 50 years showed significantly higher frequencies of IL-2-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes in association with greater production of soluble IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 than subjects younger than 50 years. A polyclonal T cell receptor (TCR)-variable beta region (Vβ) repertoire exists in both age groups under basal conditions and in response to EBV; the major TCR families found in TNF-α+/CD4+ T lymphocytes were Vβ1, Vβ2, Vβ17 and Vβ22 in both age groups, and the major TCR family in TNF-α+/CD8+ T cells was Vβ13·1 for individuals younger than 50 years and Vβ9 for individuals aged more than 50 years. Our findings suggest that the EBV-specific T cell response (using a polyclonal stimulation model) is distributed throughout several T cell differentiation compartments in an age-independent manner and includes both monofunctional and multi-functional T lymphocytes. PMID:24666437

  9. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burklund, Lisa J.; Creswell, J. David; Irwin, Michael R.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one's emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one's own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N = 39). Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes. PMID:24715880

  10. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jane Burklund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one’s emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one’s own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N=39. Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes.

  11. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in healthy adults from five regions of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakszyn, Paula; Goñi, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asunción; Millán, Esmeralda; López, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, M José; Tormo, M José; González, Carlos A; Agudo, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure of serum levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (p,p'-DDE), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in healthy adults in Spain. Furthermore, we also analyzed these levels according to dietary, other lifestyle factors and anthropometric characteristics. We measured the concentrations of such organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in serum samples collected during 1992-1996 from 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, they were residents of five Spanish regions, they were randomly selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. OCPs were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The most frequent compound found in serum was p,p'-DDE, present in 98% of the samples, followed by HCB and beta-HCH, found in 89% and 77% of samples, respectively, while p,p'-DDT could be measured only in 26% of subjects. The geometric means of serum concentrations (ng/g lipid) were 822 for p,p'-DDE, 167 for beta-HCH, and 379 for HCB. The concentrations of all OCPs were positively associated with age and body mass index, and decreased along the period of blood collection. No association was found between OCPs levels and dietary factors. The concentrations of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCB were higher in Murcia, one of southern regions, most likely associated with intensive past use of pesticides related to agricultural practices, while higher levels of HCB were found in Navarra, located in the north, maybe due to industrial use rather than agricultural application.

  12. Hallucinations and aberrant perceptions are prevalent among the young healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ptacek, S; García Azorín, D; Sanchez Salmador, R; Cuadrado, M L; Porta-Etessam, J

    2013-01-01

    Hallucinations are frequent in clinical practice, with an incidence of up to 38.7% in the general population. We aim to determine the prevalence of hallucinations among healthy young adults in our environment. We designed an observational study, using as subjects 3rd to 6th year medical students at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid who complete clinical rotations in the Hospital Clínico San Carlos. After a screening questionnaire, an individual interview was conducted via telephone or e-mail to those students who reported hallucinations. We obtained clinical and epidemiological data through a semi-structured clinical interview performed by a third year neurology resident. N=134 (average age was 22.1 years; 77.6% were women). 74 respondents answered affirmatively to one or more screening questions, and 54 completed the follow-up interview. 22.2% described visual phenomena and 64.8%, auditory. The majority reported sleep-related experiences and auditory perceptions related to hyper vigilance, such as hearing the telephone or the doorbell ring when in fact it had not (38.8%). All subjects had good insight into their experiences and none had psychotic symptoms. Two cases were associated with substance abuse. Hallucinations are frequent among the general population. Traditionally, auditory phenomena have been associated with psychotic pathology, and other studies show a low population incidence (0.6%). However, in our sample, short auditory perceptions with immediate analysis were frequent and not pathological. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Reference ranges of cholesterol sub-fractions in random healthy adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice T C R Kiba Koumaré

    Full Text Available In Burkina Faso, the values that serve as clinical chemistry reference ranges are those provided by European manufacturers' insert sheets based on reference of the Western population. However, studies conducted so far in some African countries reported significant differences in normal laboratory ranges compared with those of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of cholesterol fractions in apparently normal adults in Burkina Faso that could be used to better assess the risks related to cardiovascular diseases. Study population was 279 healthy subjects aged from 15 to 50 years including 139 men and 140 women recruited at the Regional Center of Blood Transfusion of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso (West Africa. Exclusion criteria based on history and clinical examination were used for defining reference individuals. The dual-step precipitation of HDL cholesterol sub-fractions using dextran sulfate was performed according to the procedure described by Hirano. The medians were calculated and reference values were determined at 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The median and upper ranges for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were observed to be higher in women in comparison to men (p <0.05. These reference ranges were similar to those derived from other African countries but lower than those recorded in France and in USA. This underscores the need for such comprehensible establishment of reference values for limited resources countries. Our study provides the first cholesterol sub-fractions (HDL2 and HDL3 reference ranges for interpretation of laboratory results for cardiovascular risk management in Burkina Faso.

  14. The effect of topical adrenergic and anticholinergic agents on the choroidal thickness of young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Beata P; Collins, Michael J; Read, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    The human choroid is capable of rapidly changing its thickness in response to a variety of stimuli. However little is known about the role of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of the thickness of the choroid. Therefore, we investigated the effect of topical parasympatholytic and sympathomimetic agents upon the choroidal thickness and ocular biometrics of young healthy adult subjects. Fourteen subjects (mean age 27.9 ± 4 years) participated in this randomized, single-masked, placebo-controlled study. Each subject had measurements of choroidal thickness (ChT) and ocular biometrics of their right eye taken before, and then 30 and 60 min following the administration of topical pharmacological agents. Three different drugs: 2% homatropine hydrobromide, 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride and a placebo (0.3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) were tested in all subjects; each on different days (at the same time of the day) in randomized order. Participants were masked to the pharmacological agent being used at each testing session. The instillation of 2% homatropine resulted in a small but significant increase in subfoveal ChT at 30 and 60 min after drug instillation (mean change 7 ± 3 μm and 14 ± 2 μm respectively; both p choroid also exhibited a similar magnitude, significant increase in thickness with time after 2% homatropine (p thickness (LT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) (p choroidal thickness, or ocular biometrics were found after 2.5% phenylephrine or placebo at any examination points (p > 0.05). In human subjects, significant increases in subfoveal and parafoveal choroidal thickness occurred after administration of 2% homatropine and this implies an involvement of the parasympathetic system in the control of choroidal thickness in humans. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory mechanics and results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in healthy adult alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ana P; Bedenice, Daniela; Mazan, Melissa R; Hoffman, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory mechanical function and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytologic results in healthy alpacas. 16 client-owned adult alpacas. Measurements of pulmonary function were performed, including functional residual capacity (FRC) via helium dilution, respiratory system resistance via forced oscillatory technique (FOT), and assessment of breathing pattern by use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) in standing and sternally recumbent alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed orotracheally during short-term anesthesia. Mean ± SD measurements of respiratory function were obtained in standing alpacas for FRC (3.19 ± 0.53 L), tidal volume (0.8 ± 0.13 L), and respiratory system resistance at 1 Hz (2.70 ± 0.88 cm H(2)O/L/s), 2 Hz (2.98 ± 0.70 cm H(2)O/L/s), 3 Hz (3.14 ± 0.77 cm H(2)O/L/s), 5 Hz (3.45 ± 0.91 cm H(2)O/L/s), and 7 Hz (3.84 ± 0.93 cm H(2)O/L/s). Mean phase angle, as a measurement of thoracoabdominal asynchrony, was 19.59 ± 10.06°, and mean difference between nasal and plethysmographic flow measurements was 0.18 ± 0.07 L/s. Tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow were significantly higher in sternally recumbent alpacas than in standing alpacas. Cytologic examination of BAL fluid revealed 58.52 ± 12.36% alveolar macrophages, 30.53 ± 13.78% lymphocytes, 10.95 ± 9.29% neutrophils, 0% mast cells, and several ciliated epithelial cells. Pulmonary function testing was tolerated well in nonsedated untrained alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage in alpacas yielded samples with adequate cellularity that had a greater abundance of neutrophils than has been reported in horses.

  16. Diurnal microstructural variations in healthy adult brain revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Chunxiang Jiang

    Full Text Available Biorhythm is a fundamental property of human physiology. Changes in the extracellular space induced by cell swelling in response to the neural activity enable the in vivo characterization of cerebral microstructure by measuring the water diffusivity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. To study the diurnal microstructural alterations of human brain, fifteen right-handed healthy adult subjects were recruited for DTI studies in two repeated sessions (8∶30 AM and 8∶30 PM within a 24-hour interval. Fractional anisotropy (FA, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, axial (λ// and radial diffusivity (λ⊥ were compared pixel by pixel between the sessions for each subject. Significant increased morning measurements in FA, ADC, λ// and λ⊥ were seen in a wide range of brain areas involving frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Prominent evening dominant λ⊥ (18.58% was detected in the right inferior temporal and ventral fusiform gyri. AM-PM variation of λ⊥ was substantially left side hemisphere dominant (p<0.05, while no hemispheric preference was observed for the same analysis for ADC (p = 0.77, λ// (p = 0.08 or FA (p = 0.25. The percentage change of ADC, λ//, λ⊥, and FA were 1.59%, 2.15%, 1.20% and 2.84%, respectively, for brain areas without diurnal diffusivity contrast. Microstructural variations may function as the substrates of the phasic neural activities in correspondence to the environment adaptation in a light-dark cycle. This research provided a baseline for researches in neuroscience, sleep medicine, psychological and psychiatric disorders, and necessitates that diurnal effect should be taken into account in following up studies using diffusion tensor quantities.

  17. Assessment of the pharmacokinetic interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir-ritonavir in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wire, Mary B; McLean, Heidi B; Pendry, Carolyn; Theodore, Dickens; Park, Jung W; Peng, Bin

    2012-06-01

    Eltrombopag is an orally bioavailable thrombopoietin receptor agonist that is approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. It is being developed for other medical disorders that are associated with thrombocytopenia. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may suffer from thrombocytopenia as a result of their HIV disease or coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV medications, particularly ritonavir (RTV)-boosted HIV protease inhibitors, are involved in many drug interactions. This study evaluated the potential drug-drug interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir (LPV)/RTV. Forty healthy adult subjects enrolled in this open-label, three-period, single-sequence crossover study received a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag (period 1), LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg twice daily (BID) for 14 days (period 2), and LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg BID (2 doses) with a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag administered with the morning LPV/RTV dose (period 3). There was a 3-day washout between periods 1 and 2 and no washout between periods 2 and 3. Serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected during 72 h in periods 1 and 3 and during 12 h in period 2. The coadministration of 400/100 mg LPV/RTV BID with a single dose of 100 mg eltrombopag decreased the plasma eltrombopag area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) by 17%, on average, with no change in plasma LPV/RTV exposure. Adverse events (AEs) reported in period 2 were consistent with known LPV/RTV AEs, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rash, and fatigue. No subjects withdrew due to AEs, and no serious AEs were reported. These study results suggest that platelet counts should be monitored and the eltrombopag dose adjusted accordingly if LPV/RTV therapy is initiated or discontinued.

  18. Effect of hydration status on atrial and ventricular volumes and function in healthy adult volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schantz, Daryl I. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Manitoba, Variety Children' s Heart Centre, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Dragulescu, Andreea [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Memauri, Brett [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology, St. Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Grotenhuis, Heynric B. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Seed, Mike; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    Assessment of cardiac chamber volumes is a fundamental part of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. While the effects of inter- and intraobserver variability have been studied and have a recognized effect on the comparability of serial cardiac MR imaging studies, the effect of differences in hydration status has not been evaluated. To evaluate the effects of volume administration on cardiac chamber volumes. Thirteen healthy adults underwent a baseline cardiac MR to evaluate cardiac chamber volumes after an overnight fast. They were then given two saline boluses of 10 ml/kg of body weight and the cardiac MR was repeated immediately after each bolus. From the baseline scan to the final scan there was a significant increase in all four cardiac chamber end-diastolic volumes. Right atrial volumes increased 8.0%, from 61.1 to 66.0 ml/m2 (P<0.001), and left atrial volumes increased 10.0%, from 50.0 to 55.0 ml/m2 (P<0.001). Right ventricular volumes increased 6.0%, from 91.1 to 96.5 ml/m2 (P<0.001), and left ventricular volumes increased 3.2%, from 87.0 to 89.8 ml/m2 (P<0.001). Hydration status has a significant effect on the end-diastolic volumes of all cardiac chambers assessed by cardiac MR. Thus, hydration represents a ''variable'' that should be taken into account when assessing cardiac chamber volumes, especially when performing serial imaging studies in a patient. (orig.)

  19. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Miller

    Full Text Available In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was

  20. Dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-12-01

    Prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to stroke risk have reported inconsistent results. This study assessed the association between intake of total fiber and fiber sources and stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults. The analysis was based on 69,677 participants (aged 45-83 y) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men who were free from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline (1 January 1998). Diet was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of stroke were ascertained through linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate RRs, adjusted for potential confounders. During 10.3 y of follow-up, 3680 incident stroke cases, including 2722 cerebral infarctions, 363 intracerebral hemorrhages, 160 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 435 unspecified strokes, were ascertained. High intakes of total fiber and fiber from fruits and vegetables but not from cereals were inversely associated with risk of stroke. After adjustment for other risk factors for stroke, the multivariable RRs of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for total fiber, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95) for fruit fiber, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00) for vegetable fiber, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.04) for cereal fiber. These findings indicate that intake of dietary fiber, especially fruit and vegetable fibers, is inversely associated with risk of stroke. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Immune Biomarker Response Depends on Choice of Experimental Pain Stimulus in Healthy Adults: A Preliminary Study

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    Yenisel Cruz-Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in healthy subjects have examined the neuroimmune responses associated with specific experimental pain stimuli, while none has measured multiple biomarkers simultaneously. The aim of the present study was to compare the neuro-immune responses following two common experimental pain stimuli: cold pressor test (CPT and focal heat pain (FHP. Eight adults participated in two counterbalanced experimental sessions of FHP or CPT with continuous pain ratings and blood sampling before and 30 minutes after the sessions. Despite similar pain intensity ratings (FHP = 42.2±15.3; CPT = 44.5±34.1; P=0.871, CPT and FHP induced different neuro-immune biomarker responses. CPT was accompanied by significant increases in cortisol (P=0.046 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (P=0.043 with significant decreases in several pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β (P=0.028, IL-12 (P=0.012, TNF-α (P=0.039, and MCP-1 (P=0.038. There were nonsignificant biomarker changes during the FHP session. There were close to significant differences between the sessions for IL-1β (P=0.081, IFN-γ (P=0.072, and IL-12 (P=0.053 with biomarkers decreasing after CPT and increasing after FHP. There were stronger associations between catastrophizing and most biomarkers after CPT compared to FHP. Our results suggest that CPT is a stressful and painful stimulus, while FHP is mostly a painful stimulus. Thus, each experimental pain stimulus can activate different neuro-immune cascades, which are likely relevant for the interpretation of studies in chronic pain conditions.

  2. Adverse Impact of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment on Autonomic Function in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Carter, Jason R; Van Cauter, Eve; Leproult, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in epidemiological studies, but experimental evidence for a causal link is scarce. The present study compares the impact of circadian misalignment (CM) to circadian alignment (CA) on human autonomic function using a nonrandomized parallel group design to achieve the same total sleep time in both conditions. After baseline assessments (3 days with 10-hour bedtimes), 26 healthy young adults were assigned to sleep restriction (SR; eight 5-hour bedtimes) with either fixed nocturnal bedtimes (CA; n=13) or bedtimes delayed by 8.5 hours on 4 of the 8 days (CM; n=13). Daytime ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (HR; CA, n=11; CM, n=10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine levels (CA, n=13; CM, n=13) were assessed at baseline and the end of SR. Nocturnal HR and HR variability were analyzed during sleep at baseline and during the fourth and seventh nights of SR (CA, n=8; CM, n=12). SR resulted in a significant increase in daytime HR in both groups, without changes in blood pressure. SR increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine in the CM group (30±4 versus 21±2 μg), but not in the circadian alignment group (group×condition, P=0.005). In contrast to the lack of detectable impact of CM on daytime autonomic function, SR with CM elicited greater increases in nocturnal HR, as well as greater reductions in vagal indices of HR variability, than SR without CM (group×condition, P<0.05). In conclusion, SR and CM both result in impaired autonomic function that could lead, under chronic conditions, to enhanced cardiovascular risk.

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND HANDGRIP STRENGTH AND HANDGRIP ENDURANCE AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS

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    Anupi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has become a serious problem all over the world. Handgrip Strength (a form of isometric static contraction test, is an important test to evaluate the physical fitness and nutritional status of an individua l. A number of factors like a ge, gender, body size, effort, skeletal muscle bulk and contractility may affect the handgrip strength (HGS and handgrip endurance (HGE. AIM: This study was conducted to establish the possible correlation (if any between body mass index and handgrip str ength and endurance among young healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cross - sectional study comprising of 200 students (both male and female, age group - 18 - 22 yrs was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Jorhat Medical College. Anthropometric parameters like height and weight were taken to evaluate the BMI and handgrip strength and handgrip endurance were taken by using handgrip dynamometer. According to WHO classification of BMI, subjects were categorized into three groups as un derweight BMI ≤18.5 kg/m 2 , normal weight BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2 and overweight BMI≥ 24.9 kg/m 2 . Gender wise difference was analyzed by unpaired t test. Statistical analysis for correlation was done by using Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient denoted by(r. RESULT: Males had higher handgrip strength and handgrip endurance than females. Statistic ally significant correlation was found between BMI and handgrip strength & endurance in underweight & overweight subjects. Gender differences in correlation were observed in correlation between BMI & HGS and HGE. CONCLUSION: The observed influence of BMI a nd gender differences in correlation between BMI and HGS and HGE indicate that besides BMI several other factors like effort, strength, muscular contractility etc . affect muscular strength & endurance in young males and females.

  4. Head and trunk stabilization strategies during forward and backward walking in healthy adults.

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    Nadeau, Sylvie; Amblard, Bernard; Mesure, Serge; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the head and trunk equilibrium strategies while walking forwards and backwards under different conditions (eyes open vs. closed, hard vs. soft surface) in a sample of 11 consenting healthy adult subjects. Nine markers placed on the subject allowed us to record the kinematics of the head, spine and pelvis segments while walking. The data were acquired and analyzed using an optical TV-image processor (ELITE system). For each locomotor trial, the walking speed as well as the absolute angular dispersions and the anchoring indexes (AI) of six segments around the roll and pitch axes were calculated to assess the head and trunk equilibrium strategies. A three-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to depict differences between the walking conditions. The results showed that the walking speed was affected by the locomotion tasks (P walking forwards on a hard surface, eyes open) to 0.79 +/- 0.15 m s(-1) for the most unusual conditions (walking backwards on a foam support, eyes closed). In general, walking backwards reduced the angular dispersion of the spine segments while the absolute angular dispersions of the head and pelvis did not vary significantly with any factors (P > 0.05). The AI around the roll axis indicated good stabilization in space of the head and pelvis with high positive values and this stability increased while the subject was walking backwards on a soft surface (foam). By contrast, the spinal segments were predominantly stabilized on the underlying segment (negative AI), and this stabilization even increased when the subjects walked backwards on a soft surface. Increasing the locomotion difficulty thus induced a generally rigid ('en bloc') functioning of the spinal segments and increased effectiveness of the head and pelvis stabilization strategies in space, especially when walking backwards on a soft surface.

  5. Roles of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Hypertension-Associated Cognitive Decline in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Ihab; Goldstein, Felicia C; Martin, Greg S; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49.2 years, 70% women, 27% black, and education=18 years) underwent annual vascular and cognitive assessments. Cognition was assessed using computerized versions commonly used cognitive tests, and principal component analysis was used for deriving cognitive scores for executive function, memory, and working memory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Higher PWV, but not blood pressure, was associated with a steeper decline in executive (P=0.0002), memory (P=0.05), and working memory (P=0.02) scores after adjusting for demographics, education, and baseline cognitive performance. This remained true after adjusting for hypertension. Hypertension was associated with greater decline in executive score (P=0.0029) and those with combined hypertension and elevated PWV (>7 m/s) had the greatest decline in executive score (P value hypertension×PWV=0.02). PWV explained the association between hypertension and executive function (P value for hypertension=0.0029 versus 0.24 when adjusting for PWV). In healthy adults, increased arterial stiffness is superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline in all domains and in explaining the hypertension-executive function association. Arterial stiffness, especially in hypertension, may be a target in the prevention of cognitive decline.

  6. Tonic sympathetic support of metabolic rate is attenuated with age, sedentary lifestyle, and female sex in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C; Seals, D R; Monroe, M B; Day, D S; Shapiro, L F; Johnson, D G; Jones, P P

    2001-09-01

    We recently demonstrated in young adult humans that the sympathetic nervous system contributes to the control of resting metabolic rate via tonic beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. In the present follow-up study we determined the respective effects of age, habitual exercise status, and sex on this regulatory mechanism. Resting metabolic rate (ventilated hood, indirect calorimetry) was determined in 55 healthy sedentary or endurance exercise-trained adults, aged 18-35 or 60-75 yr (29 men and 26 women), before (baseline) and during the infusion of either a nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol) or saline (control). Relative to baseline values, during beta-adrenergic receptor antagonism resting metabolic rate adjusted for fat-free mass was reduced to a lesser extent in older (mean +/- SE, -130 +/- 46 kJ/d) compared with young (-297 +/- 46) adults, sedentary (-151 +/- 50) compared with endurance exercise-trained (-268 +/- 46) adults, and women (-105 +/- 33) compared with men (-318 +/- 50; all P < 0.01). Reductions in resting metabolic rate during beta-adrenergic receptor antagonism were positively related to higher baseline resting metabolic rate and plasma catecholamine concentrations and negatively related to adiposity (all P < 0.05). Resting metabolic rate was unchanged in response to saline control in all groups. These results provide experimental support for the hypothesis that aging, sedentary living, and female sex are associated with attenuated sympathetic nervous system support of resting metabolic rate in healthy adult humans.

  7. The relation of salivary cortisol to patterns of performance on a word list learning task in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie; Demireva, Petya; Heffner, Kathi

    2008-10-01

    A pattern of performance on a word list learning task known as a reduced primacy effect has been shown to be characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can distinguish AD from depression. Deficits in memory and hippocampal atrophy seen in AD have been associated with hypercortisolism. The present study evaluated whether the reduced primacy effect is associated with elevated salivary cortisol in a sample of 40 healthy older community-dwelling adults participating in a study of memory and stress. We found that primacy, but not recency, was associated with higher salivary cortisol levels. In addition, participants who showed a reduced primacy had higher salivary cortisol levels than those with a normal serial position curve. Results suggest that there may be value to examining both serial position curves and changes to cortisol patterns over time as potential predictors of cognitive decline in healthy older adults.

  8. RBANS Memory Indices Are Related to Medial Temporal Lobe Volumetrics in Healthy Older Adults and Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Heather B.; Gillis, M. Meredith; Hampstead, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study (i) determined whether NeuroQuant® volumetrics are reflective of differences in medial temporal lobe (MTL) volumes between healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (ii) examined the relationship between RBANS indices and MTL volumes. Forty-three healthy older adults and 57 MCI patients completed the RBANS and underwent structural MRI. Hippocampal and inferior lateral ventricle (ILV) volumes were obtained using NeuroQuant®. Results revealed significantly smaller hippocampal and larger ILV volumes in MCI patients. MTL volumes were significantly related to the RBANS Immediate and Delayed Memory and Language indices but not the Attention or Visuoconstruction indices; findings that demonstrate anatomical specificity. Following discriminant function analysis, we calculated a cutpoint that may prove clinically useful for integrating MTL volumes into the diagnosis of MCI. These findings demonstrate the potential clinical utility of NeuroQuant® and are the first to document the relationship between RBANS indices and MTL volumes. PMID:24709384

  9. Lipoprotein particle subclass profiles among metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese adults: does size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine M; Perry, Ivan J

    2015-10-01

    No data regards lipoprotein particle profiles in obese and non-obese metabolic health subtypes exist. We characterised lipoprotein size, particle and subclass concentrations among metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese adults. Cross-sectional sample of 1834 middle-aged Irish adults were classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and non-obese (BMI Lipoprotein size, particle and subclass concentrations were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Lipoprotein profiling identified a range of adverse phenotypes among the metabolically unhealthy individuals, regardless of BMI and metabolic health definition, including increased numbers of small low density lipoprotein (LDL) (P lipoprotein (HDL) particles (P lipoprotein (VLDL) particles (P lipoprotein related insulin resistance (P lipoprotein particle profiles, irrespective of BMI and metabolic health definition. These findings underscore the importance of maintaining a healthy lipid profile in the context of overall cardiometabolic health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Necrotizing fasciitis of lower extremity caused by Haemophilus influenzae in a healthy adult with a closed lisfranc injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R Wesley; Casillas, Mark M; Almaguer, Enrique C

    2014-05-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare bacterial infection with an incidence of approximately 0.4 cases per 100,000 population. Although the majority of cases of necrotizing fasciitis are polymicrobial, a systematic review of the literature found only 7 reports of Haemophilus influenzae as the causal agent, and only 1 incidence of H influenzae causing the infection in a healthy adult. This report documents the unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis in a healthy adult with a history of smoking as her only risk factor. The patient presented with a seemingly innocuous low-grade Lisfranc injury. Our case illustrates the importance of early diagnosis and aggressive surgical management and medical treatment of necrotizing fasciitis.

  11. Examining the perceptions, preferences, and practices that influence healthy aging for African American older adults: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, Cheryl

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the healthy aging and health promotion perceptions, preferences, and practices of a purposive sample of African American older adults who resided in two communities in the south. An ecological framework was used to capture environmental factors, perceptions regarding access to health promotion resources, and health behavior preferences and practices. A mixed-method approach was used. Health supporting amenities were mapped, focus groups were conducted, and demographic information was obtained. The data were merged to create consolidated themes. The results indicated that health promotion amenities were available, but with some limitations. Convenient access to transportation strongly affected ability to use resources. Older adults were interested in preserving their health and independence, but some had difficulty staying motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle. They wanted easier access to amenities. Implications for best practice include attention to culturally responsive outreach, motivating with social support and incentives, and developing community-based culturally compatible programming.

  12. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalleck LC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lance C Dalleck,1,3 Gary P Van Guilder,2,3 Tara B Richardson,1 Donald L Bredle,3 Jeffrey M Janot31Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science Department, Western State Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA; 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI, USABackground: Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1 whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2 whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness.Methods and results: Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2 adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO. After community exercise, 27/68 (40% MAO individuals (P<0.05 transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64. Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05 and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05 times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively.Conclusion: Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the

  13. Bomb calorimetry, the gold standard for assessment of intestinal absorption capacity: normative values in healthy ambulant adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierdsma, N J; Peters, J H C; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M A E; Mulder, C J J; Metgod, I; van Bodegraven, A A

    2014-04-01

    Intestinal absorption capacity is considered to be the best method for assessing overall digestive intestinal function. Earlier reference values for intestinal function in healthy Dutch adults were based on a study that was conducted in an inpatient metabolic unit setting in a relatively small series. The present study aimed to readdress and describe the intestinal absorption capacity of healthy adults, who were consuming their usual (Western European) food and beverage diet, in a standard ambulatory setting. Twenty-three healthy subjects (aged 22-60 years) were included in the analyses. Nutritional intake (energy and macronutrients) was determined with a 4-day nutritional diary. Subsequently, mean faecal losses of energy (by bomb calorimetry), fat, protein and carbohydrate were determined following a 3-day faecal collection. Finally, intestinal absorption capacity was calculated from the differences between intake and losses. Mean (SD) daily faeces production was 141 (49) g (29% dry weight), containing 891 (276) kJ [10.7 (1.3) kJ g(-1) wet faeces; 22.6 (2.5) kJ g(-1) dry faeces], 5.2 (2.2) g fat, 10.0 (3.8) g protein and 29.7 (11.7) g carbohydrates. Mean (SD) intestinal absorption capacity of healthy subjects was 89.4% (3.8%) for energy, 92.5% (3.7%) for fat, 86.9% (6.4%) for protein and 87.3% (6.6%) for carbohydrates. The present study provides normative values for both stool nutrient composition and intestinal energy and macronutrient absorption in healthy adults on a regular Dutch diet in an ambulatory setting. Intestinal energy absorption was found to be approximately 90%. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. ROLLER COASTER RETINOPATHY: CASE REPORT OF SYMPTOMATIC BILATERAL INTRARETINAL HEMORRHAGES AFTER SHAKING INJURY IN AN OTHERWISE HEALTHY ADULT

    OpenAIRE

    Yogin P. Patel; Saraf, Steven S.; Desai, Ankit; Desai, Uday R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Traumatic head injuries not involving the eye have been known to cause retinal injury through multiple mechanisms. Abusive head trauma remains the prototypical example. We propose to demonstrate the first case of bilateral multiple retinal hemorrhages in a young healthy adult related to riding multiple theme park roller coasters. Methods: The patient was evaluated with a complete ophthalmic examination including dilated extended ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, optical cohere...

  15. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Results Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Conclusion Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. Trial

  16. Comparison of jugular and transverse facial venous sinus blood analytes in healthy and critically ill adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, Kara M; Vander Werf, Karie; Freese, Stephanie; Morgera, Alison; Schaeffer, David J; Wilkins, Pamela

    2017-03-01

    To compare blood gas, electrolyte, and metabolic analysis results between blood obtained by jugular and transverse facial venous sinus (TFVS) venipuncture in healthy adult horses and sick adult horses presented for emergency evaluation. Prospective, experimental study, from June 2012 to October 2013. Large animal university teaching hospital. Ten healthy adult University-owned horses and 48 client-owned adult horses (≥2 years old) presenting to the large animal hospital emergency service for medical or surgical evaluation of systemic illness. Venipunctures (jugular vein [JV] and TFVS) were performed using preheparinized syringes and obtained prior to institution of medical therapy. Samples were analyzed in random order within a 10-minute interval using a point-of-care blood gas analyzer (NOVA Critical Care Xpress) that also reports electrolyte and metabolite results. Comparisons between venipuncture sites were analyzed using the Student's paired t-test for normally distributed data and the Wilcoxon paired test for nonnormally distributed data. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between venipuncture sites. There were no statistically significant differences found between variables for JV and TFVS in healthy horses. In sick horses, JV measurements were greater than TFVS for ionized calcium (P = 0.002) and glucose (P = 0.001), and less than TFVS for hematocrit (P = 0.015). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated small biases but overall agreement between sites. The TFVS can be used interchangeably with JV for venous blood gas analysis in healthy horses. In sick horses, identified differences were small and likely not clinically important. The reliability of this point-of-care blood gas analyzer for measurement of hematocrit remains to be determined. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  17. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  18. Impact of family history on relations between insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol and carotid IMT in healthy adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderwald, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.

  19. Healthy Older Observers Show Equivalent Perceptual-Cognitive Training Benefits to Young Adults for Multiple Object Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Legault, Isabelle; Allard, Rémy; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to process complex dynamic scenes is of critical importance in real life. For instance, traveling through a crowd while avoiding collisions and maintaining orientation and good motor control requires fluent and continuous perceptual-cognitive processing. It is well documented that effects of healthy aging can influence perceptual-cognitive processes (Faubert, 2002) and that the efficiency of such processes can improve with training even for older adults (Richards et al., 2006). H...

  20. Adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief versus healthy control subjects: relationships with lifetime depressive and hypomanic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 9% to 20% of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of complicated grief (CG that are associated with significant distress and impairment. A major issue is whether CG represents a distinctive nosographic entity, independent from other mental disorders, particularly major depression (MD, and the role of symptoms of adult separation anxiety. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with CG versus a sample of healthy control subjects, with particular focus on adult separation anxiety and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms. Methods A total of 53 patients with CG and 50 healthy control subjects were consecutively recruited and assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P, Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG, Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR lifetime version. Results Patients with CG reported significantly higher scores on the MOODS-SR, ASA-27, and WSAS with respect to healthy control subjects. The scores on the ASA-27 were significantly associated with the MOODS-SR depressive and manic components amongst both patients and healthy control subjects, with a stronger association in the latter. Conclusions A major limitation of the present study is the small sample size that may reduce the generalizability of the results. Moreover, lifetime MOODS-SR does not provide information about the temporal sequence of the manic or depressive symptoms and the loss. The frequent comorbidity with MD and the association with both depressive and manic lifetime symptoms do not support the independence of CG from mood disorders. In our patients, CG is associated with high levels of separation anxiety in adulthood. However, the presence of lifetime mood instability, as measured by the frequent presence of depressive and hypomanic lifetime symptoms, suggests that cyclothymia

  1. Texting and walking: effect of environmental setting and task prioritization on dual-task interference in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Prudence; Apple, Sarah; Dowd, Colleen; Keith, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that young adults significantly reduce their gait speed and weave more when texting while walking. Previous research has not examined the simultaneous dual-task effects on texting performance, therefore, the attention prioritization strategy used by young adults while texting and walking is not currently known. Moreover, it is not known whether laboratory-based studies accurately reflect texting and walking performance in the real world. This study compared dual-task interference during texting and walking between laboratory and real-world settings, and examined the ability of young adults to flexibly prioritize their attention between the two tasks in each environment. Texting and walking were assessed in single-task and three dual-task conditions (no-priority, gait-priority, texting-priority) in the lab and a University Student Center, in 32 healthy young adults. Dual-task effects on gait speed, texting speed, and texting accuracy were significant, but did not significantly differ between the two environments. Young adults were able to flexibly prioritize their attention between texting and walking, according to specific instruction, and this ability was not influenced by environmental setting. In the absence of instructions, young adults prioritized the texting task in the low-distraction environment, but displayed more equal focus between tasks in the real world. The finding that young adults do not significantly modify their texting and walking behavior in high-distraction environments lends weight to growing concerns about cell phone use and pedestrian safety.

  2. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of knowledge of diabetes mellitus between patients with diabetes and healthy adults: a survey from north Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lai Shin; Hassan, Yahaya; Aziz, Noorizan Abd; Awaisu, Ahmed; Ghazali, Rozina

    2007-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge of diabetes mellitus possessed by patients with diabetes and healthy adult volunteers in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 20 February 2006 to 31 March 2006. We randomly selected 120 patients with diabetes mellitus from a diabetic clinic at the General Hospital Penang, Malaysia and 120 healthy adults at a shopping complex in Penang. Each participant was interviewed face-to-face by a pharmacist using a validated questionnaire, and they were required to answer a total of 30 questions concerning knowledge about diabetes mellitus using Yes, No or Unsure as the only response. The results showed that patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly more knowledgeable than the healthy volunteers about risk factors, symptoms, chronic complications, treatment and self-management, and monitoring parameters. Educational level was the best predictive factor for diabetes mellitus and public awareness. Knowledge about diabetes mellitus should be improved among the general population. This study has major implications for the design of an educational programme for diabetics and a health promotion programme as a primary prevention measure for the healthy population in general, and especially for those at high risk. The results could be useful in the design of future studies for evaluating patients' and the general public's knowledge about diabetes mellitus.

  4. Heart rate variability analysis during immediate recovery from exercise in overweight/obese healthy young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar M; Kirmani, Azra; Labban, Ezaz

    2017-05-01

    Data on heart rate variability (HRV) changes during immediate recovery period after exercise in overweight/obese healthy young adult females are still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate recovery (HRR), and arterial blood pressure immediately after cessation of exercise in overweight/obese healthy young adult females. This study was carried out in the laboratory of the Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University. Fifty-five female students were classified into normal weight group and overweight/obese group. HRV, HRR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were estimated at resting condition and immediately after cessation of exercise. During recovery, heart rate was significantly increased in overweight/obese group along with significant decrease in rMSSD (square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals) and HF (high-frequency power) compared with normal group. The recovery of heart rate, normalized HF, and normalized sympathovagal balance to their baseline values were significantly lowered in overweight/obese group. Both SBP and DBP were significantly lowered from their baseline values during recovery in normal group but unchanged in overweight/obese group. This study provides evidence that overweight/obesity are associated with decreased HRR and delayed vagal reactivation, in addition to impaired postexercise hypotension early in the recovery period after exercise in healthy young adult females. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on the control of finger force during dexterous manipulation in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav J Parikh

    Full Text Available The contribution of poor finger force control to age-related decline in manual dexterity is above and beyond ubiquitous behavioral slowing. Altered control of the finger forces can impart unwanted torque on the object affecting its orientation, thus impairing manual performance. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over primary motor cortex (M1 has been shown to improve the performance speed on manual tasks in older adults. However, the effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on the finger force control during object manipulation in older adults remain to be fully explored. Here we determined the effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on the control of grip force in older adults while they manipulated an object with an uncertain mechanical property. Eight healthy older adults were instructed to grip and lift an object whose contact surfaces were unexpectedly made more or less slippery across trials using acetate and sandpaper surfaces, respectively. Subjects performed this task before and after receiving anodal or sham tDCS over M1 on two separate sessions using a cross-over design. We found that older adults used significantly lower grip force following anodal tDCS compared to sham tDCS. Friction measured at the finger-object interface remained invariant after anodal and sham tDCS. These findings suggest that anodal tDCS over M1 improved the control of grip force during object manipulation in healthy older adults. Although the cortical networks for representing objects and manipulative actions are complex, the reduction in grip force following anodal tDCS over M1 might be due to a cortical excitation yielding improved processing of object-specific sensory information and its integration with the motor commands for production of manipulative forces. Our findings indicate that tDCS has a potential to improve the control of finger force during dexterous manipulation in older adults.

  6. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  7. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years. We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2 than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2 adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64. Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD: −17 (−22 to −13 mm to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9 mm lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake.

  8. Social engagement and health in younger, older, and oldest-old adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E; Walker, Erin Jackson; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Volaufova, Julia; LaMotte, Lynn R; Welsh, David A; Su, L Joseph; Jazwinski, S Michal; Ellis, Rebecca; Wood, Robert H; Frisard, Madlyn I

    2013-02-01

    Social support has been shown to influence health outcomes in later life. In this study, we focus on social engagement as an umbrella construct that covers select social behaviors in a life span sample that included oldest-old adults, a segment of the adult population for whom very little data currently exist. We examined relationships among social engagement, positive health behaviors, and physical health to provide new evidence that addresses gaps in the extant literature concerning social engagement and healthy aging in very old adults. Participants were younger (21-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90-97 years) adults (N = 364) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Linear regression analyses indicated that age, gender, and hours spent outside of the house were significantly associated with self-reported health. The number of clubs and hours outside of home were more important factors in the analyses of objective health status than positive health behaviors, after considering age group and education level. These data strongly suggest that social engagement remains an important determinant of physical health into very late adulthood. The discussion focuses on practical applications of these results including social support interventions to maintain or improve late-life health.

  9. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  10. Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Non-Obese and Clinically Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jamille Oliveira; Vásquez, Cecília M Passos; Santana, Gleiciane de Jesus; Silva, Natanael de Jesus; Braz, Juciene de Matos; Jesus, Amélia M Ribeiro de; Silva, Danielle Góes da; Cunha, Luana Celina Seraphim; Barbosa, Kiriaque Barra Ferreira

    2017-07-10

    The oxidative biomarkers play an important role in the genesis of cardiometabolic risk-related processes. To investigate the total antioxidant capacity of plasma and its association with cardiometabolic risk in non-obese and clinically healthy young adults. University students of the state of Sergipe, Brazil, aged between 18 and 25 years, were recruited for this study from May of 2013 and October of 2014. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters were measured and analyzed using protocols which were previously standardized and described in the literature. The measurement of plasma total antioxidant capacity was based on the ability that all the antioxidants present in the sample (plasma) have to inhibit the oxidation of the oxidizable substrate ABTS (2,2`- Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate]) to ABTS•+ by metmyoglobin. Approximately 25% of the sample presented more than one component of cardiometabolic risk. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent component. Compared to absence of components, the subjects with at least one component presented greater body weight and waist circumference, higher levels of diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose, greater total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, and lower levels of HDL-c (p literatura. A medida da capacidade antioxidante total do plasma baseou-se na capacidade de todos os antioxidantes presentes na amostra (plasma) em inibir a oxidação do substrato oxidável ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis-(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfonato) a ABTS•+ pela metamioglobina. Aproximadamente 25% da amostra apresentaram mais de um componente do risco cardiometabólico. Valores baixos de HDL foram o componente mais prevalente. Em comparação à ausência de componentes, os indivíduos com pelo menos um componente apresentou valores mais altos de peso corporal, circunferência da cintura, pressão sanguínea diastólica, glicemia de jejum e razão colesterol total/HDL-c, e valores mais baixos de HDL-c (p < 0,05). A glicemia de jejum

  11. Acute toxicity of nano- and micro-scale zinc powder in healthy adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Feng, Wei-Yue; Wang, Tian-Cheng; Jia, Guang; Wang, Meng; Shi, Jun-Wen; Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang

    2006-02-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acute toxicity of oral exposure to nanoscale zinc powder in mice. The healthy adult male and female mice were gastro-intestinally administered at a dose of 5 g/kg body weight with two size particles, nanoscale zinc (N-Zn) and microscale zinc (M-Zn) powder, while one group mice treated with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose was used as the control. The symptoms and mortality after zinc powder treatment were recorded. The effects of particles on the blood-element, the serum biochemical level and the blood coagulation were studied after 2 weeks of administration. The organs were collected for histopathological examination. The N-Zn treated mice showed more severe symptoms of lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea in the beginning days than the M-Zn mice. Deaths of two mice occurred in the N-Zn group after the first week of treatment. The mortalities were confirmed by intestinal obstruction of the nanoscale zinc aggregation. The biochemical liver function tests of serum showed significantly elevated ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH in the M-Zn mice and ALT, ALP, and LDH in the N-Zn mice compared with the controls (Pnano-scale zinc powders. The clinical changes were observed in the two treated group mice as well. The levels of the above enzymes were generally higher in the M-Zn mice than in the N-Zn mice, which implied that M-Zn powder could induce more severe liver damage than N-Zn. The biochemical renal function tests of serum BUN and CR in the M-Zn mice markedly increased either compared with the N-Zn mice or with the controls (P<0.05), but no significant difference was found between the N-Zn and the control mice. However, severe renal lesions were found by the renal histopathological examination in the N-Zn exposed mice. Therefore, we concluded that severe renal damage could occur in the N-Zn treated mice, though no significant change of blood biochemical levels occurred. Blood-element test showed that in the N-Zn mice, PLT and RDW

  12. Test-Retest Reliability of “High-Order” Functional Connectivity in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity (FC has become a leading method for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI analysis. However, the majority of the previous studies utilized pairwise, temporal synchronization-based FC. Recently, high-order FC (HOFC methods were proposed with the idea of computing “correlation of correlations” to capture high-level, more complex associations among the brain regions. There are two types of HOFC. The first type is topographical profile similarity-based HOFC (tHOFC and its variant, associated HOFC (aHOFC, for capturing different levels of HOFC. Instead of measuring the similarity of the original rs-fMRI signals with the traditional FC (low-order FC, or LOFC, tHOFC measures the similarity of LOFC profiles (i.e., a set of LOFC values between a region and all other regions between each pair of brain regions. The second type is dynamics-based HOFC (dHOFC which defines the quadruple relationship among every four brain regions by first calculating two pairwise dynamic LOFC “time series” and then measuring their temporal synchronization (i.e., temporal correlation of the LOFC fluctuations, not the BOLD fluctuations. Applications have shown the superiority of HOFC in both disease biomarker detection and individualized diagnosis than LOFC. However, no study has been carried out for the assessment of test-retest reliability of different HOFC metrics. In this paper, we systematically evaluate the reliability of the two types of HOFC methods using test-retest rs-fMRI data from 25 (12 females, age 24.48 ± 2.55 years young healthy adults with seven repeated scans (with interval = 3–8 days. We found that all HOFC metrics have satisfactory reliability, specifically (1 fair-to-good for tHOFC and aHOFC, and (2 fair-to-moderate for dHOFC with relatively strong connectivity strength. We further give an in-depth analysis of the biological meanings of each HOFC metric and highlight their differences compared to the

  13. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Agnes N; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate-high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and suggestive for effect of physical training on whole-body protein retention. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the estimated requirement based on

  14. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes N. Pedersen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest, B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate–high-protein (LCHP diets; but inconclusive for a relationship between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and suggestive for effect of physical training on whole-body protein retention. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the estimated

  15. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  16. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations.

  17. Risk factors for low bone mass in healthy young adults from North India: studies on BMD and bone turnover markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Fotedar Verma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite availability of adequate sunshine, Indian population has the highest prevalence of low bone mass and Bone Mineral Content (BMC. Risk factors for osteoporosis have been extensively studied in the west but poorly investigated in India. We studied BMD and Bone Turnover Markers (BTMs among healthy young adults. Methods: Fifty one healthy young adults (28 Males, 23 Females in the age group of 20-35 years were studied. Morphometric, biochemical parameters and BMD (whole body, spine, hip and wrist were recorded. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, BMI and Waist/Hip Ratio (WHR. BTMs studied included - serum Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (sBAP, serum Collagen cross-linked C-Terminal telopeptide (sCTx, serum Osteocalcin (OC and human intact parathyroid hormone (hPTH using standard ELISA kits. Results: Of 51 healthy volunteers 21.57% had normal BMD, 13.73% were frankly osteoporotic and 64.70% were osteopenic. Age, weight and BMI were the best predictors of total BMD and BMC at all sites. sCTX positively correlated with Total Bone Area (TBA, BMD at Hip and Forearm. Using multiple regressions - age, weight, and BMI were significant predictors of BMD in young adults. Percentage body fat had inverse correlation with BMC, BMD and TBA. Weight and height positively correlated with BMD at femoral neck, inter-trochanter and Ward's triangle. Body weight was best predictor of BMD at femoral neck, Ward's triangle, forearm UD, forearm MID and forearm1/3. Conclusion: Majority of healthy young Indians have poor bone health as evidenced by bone markers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 933-939

  18. A quantitative systematic review of normal values for short-term heart rate variability in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Brodie, David A

    2010-11-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a known risk factor for mortality in both healthy and patient populations. There are currently no normative data for short-term measures of HRV. A thorough review of short-term HRV data published since 1996 was therefore performed. Data from studies published after the 1996 Task Force report (i.e., between January 1997 and September 2008) and reporting short-term measures of HRV obtained in normally healthy individuals were collated and factors underlying discrepant values were identified. Forty-four studies met the pre-set inclusion criteria involving 21,438 participants. Values for short-term HRV measures from the literature were lower than Task Force norms. A degree of homogeneity for common measures of HRV in healthy adults was shown across studies. A number of studies demonstrate large interindividual variations (up to 260,000%), particularly for spectral measures. A number of methodological discrepancies underlined disparate values. These include a systematic failure within the literature (a) to recognize the importance of RR data recognition/editing procedures and (b) to question disparate HRV values observed in normally healthy individuals. A need for large-scale population studies and a review of the Task Force recommendations for short-term HRV that covers the full-age spectrum were identified. Data presented should be used to quantify reference ranges for short-term measures of HRV in healthy adult populations but should be undertaken with reference to methodological factors underlying disparate values. Recommendations for the measurement of HRV require updating to include current technologies.

  19. Association between Sleep Habits and Metabolically Healthy Obesity in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thirumagal Kanagasabai; Ramandeep Dhanoa; Jennifer L. Kuk; Chris I. Ardern

    2017-01-01

    ...) are metabolically healthy (MHO). Extreme sleep durations and poor sleep quality are associated with higher bodyweight and cardiometabolic dysfunction, but the full extent to which sleep habits may help differentiate those with MHO...

  20. Reaching in reality and virtual reality: a comparison of movement kinematics in healthy subjects and in adults with hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Anatol G

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual reality (VR is an innovative tool for sensorimotor rehabilitation increasingly being employed in clinical and community settings. Despite the growing interest in VR, few studies have determined the validity of movements made in VR environments with respect to real physical environments. The goal of this study was to compare movements done in physical and virtual environments in adults with motor deficits to those in healthy individuals. Methods The participants were 8 healthy adults and 7 adults with mild left hemiparesis due to stroke. Kinematics of functional arm movements involving reaching, grasping and releasing made in physical and virtual environments were analyzed in two phases: 1 reaching and grasping the ball and 2 ball transport and release. The virtual environment included interaction with an object on a 2D computer screen and haptic force feedback from a virtual ball. Temporal and spatial parameters of reaching and grasping were determined for each phase. Results Individuals in both groups were able to reach, grasp, transport, place and release the virtual and real ball using similar movement strategies. In healthy subjects, reaching and grasping movements in both environments were similar but these subjects used less wrist extension and more elbow extension to place the ball on the virtual vertical surface. Participants with hemiparesis made slower movements in both environments compared to healthy subjects and during transport and placing of the ball, trajectories were more curved and interjoint coordination was altered. Despite these differences, patients with hemiparesis also tended to use less wrist extension during the whole movement and more elbow extension at the end of the placing phase. Conclusion Differences in movements made by healthy subjects in the two environments may be explained by the use of a 2D instead of a 3D virtual environment and the absence of haptic feedback from the VR target

  1. The Functional Integration in the Sensory-Motor System Predicts Aging in Healthy Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Xin; Shan, Yan; Cao, Weifang; Gong, Jinnan; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Bobes, Maria A.; Biswal, Bharat; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Healthy aging is typically accompanied by a decrease in the motor capacity. Although the disrupted neural representations and performance of movement have been observed in older age in previous studies, the relationship between the functional integration of sensory-motor (SM) system and aging could be further investigated. In this study, we examine the impact of healthy aging on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the SM system, and investigate as to how aging is affecting the...

  2. Role of C-peptide in Altered Lipid Profile among Apparently Healthy Adults of Vijayapura City, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrahas M.Kulkarni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-peptide is produced in equimolar concentration during insulin production as inactive molecule by beta islet cells of Langerhans. C-peptide is most useful biomarker of endogenous insulin production. Aim and Objectives: To predict metabolic syndrome in advance by estimation of C-peptide and lipid profile in healthy adults. Material and Methods: Serum C-peptide, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile of 128 healthy individuals were estimated. Adults in the age group of 18 to 60 years of both sexes were included in study. Results: C-peptide levels were increased in 27%, Serum cholesterol in 30%, LDL Cholesterol in 55% and triglyceride levels in 21% of healthy individuals. Significant correlation was observed between C peptide, age, serum cholesterol, LDL and cholesterol LDL ratio in male subjects only. In our study group most of the subjects (both males and females fell in overweight group. Conclusion: Cpeptide level and lipid profile may be considered as useful biomarkers to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in advance, possibly due to insulin resistance.

  3. Modulation of impulsivity and reward sensitivity in intertemporal choice by striatal and midbrain dopamine synthesis in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher T; Wallace, Deanna L; Dang, Linh C; Aarts, Esther; Jagust, William J; D'Esposito, Mark; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Converging evidence links individual differences in mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine (DA) to variation in the tendency to choose immediate rewards ("Now") over larger, delayed rewards ("Later"), or "Now bias." However, to date, no study of healthy young adults has evaluated the relationship between Now bias and DA with positron emission tomography (PET). Sixteen healthy adults (ages 24-34 yr; 50% women) completed a delay-discounting task that quantified aspects of intertemporal reward choice, including Now bias and reward magnitude sensitivity. Participants also underwent PET scanning with 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FMT), a radiotracer that measures DA synthesis capacity. Lower putamen FMT signal predicted elevated Now bias, a more rapidly declining discount rate with increasing delay time, and reduced willingness to accept low-interest-rate delayed rewards. In contrast, lower FMT signal in the midbrain predicted greater sensitivity to increasing magnitude of the Later reward. These data demonstrate that intertemporal reward choice in healthy humans varies with region-specific measures of DA processing, with regionally distinct associations with sensitivity to delay and to reward magnitude.

  4. Motivational dynamics underlying eating regulation in young and adult female dieters: relationships with healthy eating behaviours and disordered eating symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstuyf, Joke; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soetens, Barbara; Soenens, Bart

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether type of goals and motives underlying females' eating regulation are associated differentially with daily eating behaviours, dependent upon weight and age category. 99 late adolescent female dieters (Mage = 18.94) and 98 adult female dieters (Mage = 45.06), 23.6% of which were overweight, completed a questionnaire and a 7-day diary assessment. Descriptive analysis and path analysis were performed to investigate the research questions. Healthy eating behaviours (HEHS), drive for thinness and binge eating symptoms (EDI). Appearance-focused and controlled eating regulation were positively related to disordered eating symptoms throughout the week. In contrast, autonomous and health-focused eating regulation were associated positively with healthy eating behaviours and were either related negatively or unrelated to disordered eating symptoms. Mean level differences in motivation and eating behaviours emerged according to age and weight status. However, the examined structural model was similar for late adolescent and adult dieters and only few differences emerged between normal-weight and overweight dieters. Dieters' type of motivation helps to explain when eating regulation relates to healthy and disordered eating symptoms.

  5. Effects of Water-Based Exercise Training on the Cognitive Function and Quality of Life of Healthy Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayán, Carlos; Carvalho, Paulo; Varela, Silvia; Cancela, José María

    2017-09-25

    Research regarding the impact of aquatic exercise on cognition is scarce. This study aimed at identifying the effects of water-based exercise training on the cognitive function and quality of life of healthy adult women. Fifty-one healthy women [mean age: 46.5 (12.3) y] were assigned to group A or B and followed a water-based exercise program for 6 months. During the first 3 months, the sessions performed by group A were focused on stimulating cognitive function. For the next 3 months, the sessions were mainly aimed at improving physical fitness. Participants in group B followed the same program in reverse order. The trail making and symbol digit modality tests were used to assess the impact of the program on cognition. The effects of the intervention on the participants' physical and mental health were measured by means of the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey. Once the intervention ended, significant improvements were observed in the participants' cognitive function and mental health domain, regardless of the group in which they were initially included. Water-based exercise is a training modality capable of enhancing cognitive function and quality of life through improvements in mental health in healthy adult women.

  6. Brain activation in response to bladder filling in healthy adults: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Nisha G; Weissbart, Steven J; Xu, Sihua; Rao, Hengyi

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have used different neuroimaging techniques and identified various brain regions that are activated during bladder filling. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding which of these brain regions regulate the process of urine storage. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify brain regions that are commonly activated during bladder filling in healthy adults across different studies. PubMed was searched for neuroimaging studies investigating the effects of bladder filling on regional brain activation. Studies were excluded if they did not report brain activation differences from whole-brain group analysis by comparing the state of bladder filling with the state of bladder rest. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. We identified 14 neuroimaging studies examining brain activation in response to experimental bladder filling in 181 healthy subjects, which reported 89 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significant activation in multiple brain regions including thalamus (bilaterally), right insula, cerebellum, and brainstem (bilaterally). Several key brain regions involved in sensory processing are commonly activated during bladder filling in healthy adults across different studies. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:960-965, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Impact of the AGTR1 A1166C polymorphism on subcortical hyperintensities and cognition in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Lauren E; Schofield, Peter R; Pierce, Kerrie D; Conturo, Thomas E; Tate, David F; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Baker, Laurie M; Akbudak, Erbil; Paul, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Vascular aging consists of complex and multifaceted processes that may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system. A polymorphism in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AGTR1/rs5186) has been associated with an increased risk for arterial stiffness, hypertension, and ischemic stroke. Despite these identified relationships, the impact of AGTR1 A1166C on white matter integrity and cognition is less clear in a healthy aging population. The present study utilized indices of neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment to examine the impact of the A1166C polymorphism on subcortical hyperintensities (SH) and cognition in 49 healthy adults between ages 51-85. Using a dominant statistical model (CC + CA (risk) vs. AA), results revealed significantly larger SH volume for individuals with the C1166 variant (p < 0.05, partial eta(2) = 0.117) compared with those with the AA genotype. Post hoc analyses indicated that increased SH volume in C allele carriers could not be explained by vascular factors such as pulse pressure or body mass index. In addition, cognitive performance did not differ significantly between groups and was not significantly associated with SH in this cohort. Results suggest that presence of the C1166 variant may serve as a biomarker of risk for suboptimal brain integrity in otherwise healthy older adults prior to changes in cognition.

  8. The effect of soymilk intake on the fecal microbiota, particularly Bifidobacterium species, and intestinal environment of healthy adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Tomohiko; Ohashi, Yuji; Shin, Ryoichi; Narai-Kanayama, Asako; Nakagaki, Takenori

    2017-01-01

    The influence of soymilk on the fecal microbiota, particularly Bifidobacterium species, and metabolic activities were investigated in eight healthy adult humans. During the soymilk intake period, the number of bifidobacteria in feces was significantly higher (penvironment.

  9. Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lampit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New effective interventions to attenuate age-related cognitive decline are a global priority. Computerized cognitive training (CCT is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed. Our aim therefore was to quantitatively assess whether CCT programs can enhance cognition in healthy older adults, discriminate responsive from nonresponsive cognitive domains, and identify the most salient design factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant studies from the databases' inception to 9 July 2014. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of ≥ 4 h of CCT on performance in neuropsychological tests in older adults without dementia or other cognitive impairment. Fifty-two studies encompassing 4,885 participants were eligible. Intervention designs varied considerably, but after removal of one outlier, heterogeneity across studies was small (I(2 = 29.92%. There was no systematic evidence of publication bias. The overall effect size (Hedges' g, random effects model for CCT versus control was small and statistically significant, g = 0.22 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.29. Small to moderate effect sizes were found for nonverbal memory, g = 0.24 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.38; verbal memory, g = 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; working memory (WM, g = 0.22 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.35; processing speed, g = 0.31 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.50; and visuospatial skills, g = 0.30 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.54. No significant effects were found for executive functions and attention. Moderator analyses revealed that home-based administration was ineffective compared to group-based training, and that more than three training sessions per week was ineffective versus three or fewer. There was no evidence for the effectiveness of WM training, and only weak

  10. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  11. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version in Healthy Adults and Application to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert M.; Lance, Charles E.; Isquith, Peter K.; Fischer, Adina S.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday l