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Sample records for tweaks fertility guidelines

  1. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  2. Windows 8 tweaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sinchak, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Acres of Windows 8 tweaks from a Microsoft MVP and creator of Tweaks.com! From a Microsoft MVP, who is also the savvy creator of Tweaks.com, comes this ultimate collection of Windows 8 workarounds. Steve Sinchak takes you way beyond default system settings, deep under the hood of Windows 8, down to the hidden gems that let you customize your Windows 8 system like you wouldn't believe. From helping you customize the appearance to setting up home networking, sharing media, and squeezing every ounce of performance out of the OS, this book delivers. Get ready to rock and roll with Wind

  3. Fertility drugs and cancer: a guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Methodological limitations in studying the association between the use of fertility drugs and cancer include the inherent increased risk of cancer in women who never conceive, the low incidence of most of these cancers, and that the age of diagnosis of cancer typically is many years after fertility drug use. Based on available data, there does not appear to be a meaningful increased risk of invasive ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or endometrial cancer following the use of fertility drugs. Several studies have shown a small increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors; however, there is insufficient consistent evidence that a particular fertility drug increases the risk of borderline ovarian tumors, and any absolute risk is small. Given the available literature, patients should be counseled that infertile women may be at an increased risk of invasive ovarian, endometrial, and breast cancer; however, use of fertility drugs does not appear to increase this risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fertility preservation for medical reasons in girls and women: British fertility society policy and practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Ephia; Balachandren, Neerujah; Davies, Melanie C; Jones, Georgina L; Lane, Sheila; Mathur, Raj; Webber, Lisa; Anderson, Richard A

    2018-04-01

    Fertility preservation in the female poses several challenges due to the invasive nature of the techniques available to achieve it. The guideline aims to bring together the evidence available for the measures for fertility preservation and their outcome. The guideline addresses fertility preservation for medical reasons and includes both oncological and non-oncological causes. The techniques that the guideline considers are: (i) embryo and oocyte cryopreservation; (ii) ovarian tissue cryopreservation; (iii) GnRH agonist suppression and (iv) ovarian transposition. Although ovarian tissue cryopreservation is still considered experimental, the availability of this technique is gaining momentum as more live births from auto-transplanted tissue are reported. The guideline also highlights use of current treatment modalities for benign and malignant conditions that have a better fertility sparing profile. The guideline recommends a multidisciplinary approach in counselling women and girls about the risk to their fertility and available techniques. The role of psychological support in assisting women and girls with decision-making is highlighted. The guideline also highlights the risks associated with these techniques. Women need to be medically fit to undergo invasive procedures. Fertility preservation techniques are appropriate when treatment has curative intent. Fertility preservation is a subject of on-going research on outcomes of different techniques and at the time of publication, studies are still likely to emerge adding to the available literature.

  5. TWEAK induces liver progenitor cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Aniela; Ambrose, Christine; Parr, Michael; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; Zheng, Timothy S.; Browning, Beth; Michaelson, Jennifer S.; Baestcher, Manfred; Wang, Bruce; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Burkly, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Progenitor (“oval”) cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors. PMID:16110324

  6. Fertility Preservation in Women with Turner Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review and Practical Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Kutluk; Bedoschi, Giuliano; Berkowitz, Karen; Bronson, Richard; Kashani, Banafsheh; McGovern, Peter; Pal, Lubna; Quinn, Gwendolyn; Rubin, Karen

    2016-10-01

    In this article we review the existing fertility preservation options for women diagnosed with Turner syndrome and provide practical guidelines for the practitioner. Turner syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in women, occurring in approximately 1 in 2500 live births. Women with Turner syndrome are at extremely high risk for primary ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Although approximately 70%-80% have no spontaneous pubertal development and 90% experience primary amenorrhea, the remainder might possess a small residual of ovarian follicles at birth or early childhood. The present challenge is to identify these women as early in life as is possible, to allow them to benefit from a variety of existing fertility preservation options. To maximize the benefits of fertility preservation, all women with Turner syndrome should be evaluated by an expert as soon as possible in childhood because the vast majority will have their ovarian reserve depleted before adulthood. Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos is a proven fertility preservation approach, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is a promising technique with a growing number of live births, but remains investigational. Oocyte cryopreservation has been performed in children with Turner syndrome as young as 13 years of age and ovarian tissue cryopreservation in affected prepubertal children. However, current efficacy of these approaches is unknown in this cohort. For those who have already lost their ovarian reserve, oocyte or embryo donation and adoption are strategies that allow fulfillment of the desire for parenting. For those with Turner syndrome-related cardiac contraindications to pregnancy, use of gestational surrogacy allows the possibility of biological parenting using their own oocytes. Alternatively, gestational surrogacy can serve to carry pregnancy resulting from the use of donor oocytes or embryos, if needed. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and

  7. Fertility Preservation in Females with Turner Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review and Practical Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, K; Bedoschi, G; Berkowitz, K; Bronson, R; Kashani, B; McGovern, P; Pal, L; Quinn, G; Rubin, K

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the existing fertility preservation options for females diagnosed with Turner syndrome and provides practical guidelines for the practitioner. Turner syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, occurring in approximately one in 2500 live births. Women with Turner syndrome are at extremely high risk for primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and infertility. Although about 70–80% have no spontaneous pubertal development and 90% experience primary amenorrhea, the remainder may possess a small residual of ovarian follicles at birth or early childhood. The present challenge is to identify these women as early in life as is possible, so as to allow them to benefit from a variety of existing fertility preservation options. To maximize the benefits of fertility preservation, all women with Turner syndrome should be evaluated by an expert as soon as possible in childhood as the vast majority will have their ovarian reserve depleted before adulthood. Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos is a proven fertility preservation approach, while cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is a promising technique with a growing number of live births, but remain investigational. Oocyte cryopreservation has been performed in children with Turner syndrome as young as 13 and ovarian tissue cryopreservation in prepubertal children affected. However, current efficacy of these approaches is unknown in this cohort.. For those who have already lost their ovarian reserve, oocyte or embryo donation and adoption are strategies that allow fulfillment of desire for parenting. For those with Turner syndrome related cardiac contraindications to pregnancy, utilization of gestational surrogacy allows the possibility of biological parenting by using their own oocytes. Alternatively, gestational surrogacy can serve to carry pregnancy resulting from the use of donor oocytes or embryos, if needed. PMID:26485320

  8. Soluble TWEAK and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney patients (CKD). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) as a marker of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD patients.

  9. ESHRE guideline: routine psychosocial care in infertility and medically assisted reproduction-a guide for fertility staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, S; Boivin, J; Dancet, E; de Klerk, C; Emery, M; Lewis-Jones, C; Thorn, P; Van den Broeck, U; Venetis, C; Verhaak, C M; Wischmann, T; Vermeulen, N

    2015-11-01

    Based on the best available evidence in the literature, what is the optimal management of routine psychosocial care at infertility and medically assisted reproduction (MAR) clinics? Using the structured methodology of the Manual for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) Guideline Development, 120 recommendations were formulated that answered the 12 key questions on optimal management of routine psychosocial care by all fertility staff. The 2002 ESHRE Guidelines for counselling in infertility has been a reference point for best psychosocial care in infertility for years, but this guideline needed updating and did not focus on routine psychosocial care that can be delivered by all fertility staff. This guideline was produced by a group of experts in the field according to the 12-step process described in the ESHRE Manual for Guideline Development. After scoping the guideline and listing a set of 12 key questions in PICO (Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) format, thorough systematic searches of the literature were conducted; evidence from papers published until April 2014 was collected, evaluated for quality and analysed. A summary of evidence was written in a reply to each of the key questions and used as the basis for recommendations, which were defined by consensus within the guideline development group (GDG). Patient and additional clinical input was collected during the scoping and the review phase of the guideline development. The guideline group, comprising psychologists, two medical doctors, a midwife, a patient representative and a methodological expert, met three times to discuss evidence and reach consensus on the recommendations. 120 recommendations that aim at guiding fertility clinic staff in providing optimal evidence-based routine psychosocial care to patients dealing with infertility and MAR. The guideline is written in two sections. The first section describes patients' preferences regarding the psychosocial

  10. TWEAK and Fn14 in the neurovascular unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eYepes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit (NVU is a dynamic structure assembled by endothelial cells, a basement membrane, perivascular astrocytes, pericytes, and surrounding neurons. The NVU regulates the passage of substances and cellular elements from the intravascular space into the brain parenchyma. This function, also known as blood-brain barrier (BBB, is regulated by the integrity of tight junctions proteins between endothelial cells, and the interaction between perivascular astrocytes and the basal lamina. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14 are abundantly expressed in the NVU. Here we will review data indicating that the interaction between TWEAK and Fn14 in the endothelial cell - basement membrane - astrocyte interface regulates the function of the BBB following an ischemic/hypoxic injury, and that pharmacological inhibition of TWEAK-Fn14 is a promising target for the treatment of patients with neurological diseases that have a direct impact on the structure and function of the NVU.

  11. ENRICH: A promising oncology nurse training program to implement ASCO clinical practice guidelines on fertility for AYA cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy; Kelvin, Joanne; Reich, Richard R; Reinecke, Joyce; Bowman, Meghan; Sehovic, Ivana; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2016-11-01

    We describe the impact of ENRICH (Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare), a web-based communication-skill-building curriculum for oncology nurses regarding AYA fertility and other reproductive health issues. Participants completed an 8-week course that incorporated didactic content, case studies, and interactive learning. Each learner completed a pre- and post-test assessing knowledge and a 6-month follow-up survey assessing learner behaviors and institutional changes. Out of 77 participants, the majority (72%) scored higher on the post-test. Fifty-four participants completed the follow-up survey: 41% reviewed current institutional practices, 20% formed a committee, and 37% gathered patient materials or financial resources (22%). Participants also reported new policies (30%), in-service education (37%), new patient education materials (26%), a patient navigator role (28%), and workplace collaborations with reproductive specialists (46%). ENRICH improved nurses' knowledge and involvement in activities addressing fertility needs of oncology patients. Our study provides a readily accessible model to prepare oncology nurses to integrate American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines and improve Quality Oncology Practice Initiative measures related to fertility. Nurses will be better prepared to discuss important survivorship issues related to fertility and reproductive health, leading to improved quality of life outcomes for AYAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fertility Preservation for Patients With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren, Alison W.; Mangu, Pamela B.; Beck, Lindsay Nohr; Brennan, Lawrence; Magdalinski, Anthony J.; Partridge, Ann H.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; Wallace, W. Hamish; Oktay, Kutluk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To update guidance for health care providers about fertility preservation for adults and children with cancer. Methods A systematic review of the literature published from March 2006 through January 2013 was completed using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library. An Update Panel reviewed the evidence and updated the recommendation language. Results There were 222 new publications that met inclusion criteria. A majority were observational studies, cohort studies, and case series or reports, with few randomized clinical trials. After review of the new evidence, the Update Panel concluded that no major, substantive revisions to the 2006 American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations were warranted, but clarifications were added. Recommendations As part of education and informed consent before cancer therapy, health care providers (including medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, gynecologic oncologists, urologists, hematologists, pediatric oncologists, and surgeons) should address the possibility of infertility with patients treated during their reproductive years (or with parents or guardians of children) and be prepared to discuss fertility preservation options and/or to refer all potential patients to appropriate reproductive specialists. Although patients may be focused initially on their cancer diagnosis, the Update Panel encourages providers to advise patients regarding potential threats to fertility as early as possible in the treatment process so as to allow for the widest array of options for fertility preservation. The discussion should be documented. Sperm and embryo cryopreservation as well as oocyte cryopreservation are considered standard practice and are widely available. Other fertility preservation methods should be considered investigational and should be performed by providers with the necessary expertise. PMID:23715580

  13. Windows 7 Tweaks A Comprehensive Guide on Customizing, Increasing Performance, and Securing Microsoft Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Sinchak, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The definitive guide to unlocking the hidden potential of the Windows 7 OS. Written by bestselling author and the creator of tweaks.com Steve Sinchak, this unique guide provides you with the ultimate collection of hidden gems that will enable you to get the most out of Windows 7. Packed with more than 400 pages of insider tips, the book delves beneath the surface to reveal little-known ways to tweak, modify, and customize Windows 7 so you can get every ounce of performance from your operating system. Regardless of your experience with tweaking your system, you'll find fascinating and fun tips

  14. Fertility and pregnancy in thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. The UK guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Davis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Progressive improvements in the health and survival of patients with thalassaemia and sickle cell disease have increased the reproductive prospects of affected individuals. However, pregnancy in these disorders is associated with significant maternal and fetal risks and expert management is required to ensure good outcomes. In the United Kingdom, it is recognised that the patchy geographical distribution of these conditions poses challenges for access to specialist care, including specialist obstetric services. Guidelines on the pregnancy management of thalassaemia and sickle cell disease in the UK have been published by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. These guidelines describe the preconceptual, antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum aspects of care. They highlight the high-risk status of pregnancy in these conditions and emphasise the vital importance of specialist multidisciplinary care to the achievement of favourable maternal and fetal outcomes. The guidelines are a valuable resource to healthcare professionals, especially those working in low prevalence areas.

  15. TWEAK/Fn14 axis: a promising target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Blanco-Colio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are the first cause of mortality in Western countries. CVD include several pathologies such as coronary heart disease, stroke or cerebrovascular accident, congestive heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and aortic aneurysm, among others. Interaction between members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily and their receptors elicits several biological actions that could participate in CVD. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK and its functional receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14, are two proteins belonging to the TNF superfamily that activate NF-κB by both canonical and non-canonical pathways and regulate several cell functions such as proliferation, migration, differentiation, cell death, inflammation, and angiogenesis. TWEAK/Fn14 axis plays a beneficial role in tissue repair after acute injury. However, persistent TWEAK/Fn14 activation mediated by blocking experiments or overexpression experiments in animal models has shown an important role of this axis in the pathological remodeling underlying CVD. In this review, we summarize the role of TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in the development of CVD, focusing on atherosclerosis and stroke and the molecular mechanisms by which TWEAK/Fn14 interaction participates in these pathologies. We also review the role of the soluble form of TWEAK as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of CVD. Finally, we highlight the results obtained with other members of the TNF superfamily that also activate canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathway.

  16. The TWEAK-Fn14 system: breaking the silence of cytokine-induced skeletal muscle wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, S; Kumar, A

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of skeletal muscle atrophy, a devastating complication of a large number of disease states and inactivity/disuse conditions, provides a never ending quest to identify novel targets for its therapy. Proinflammatory cytokines are considered the mediators of muscle wasting in chronic diseases; however, their role in disuse atrophy has just begun to be elucidated. An inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), has recently been identified as a potent inducer of skeletal muscle wasting. TWEAK activates various proteolytic pathways and stimulates the degradation of myofibril protein both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, TWEAK mediates the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in response to denervation, a model of disuse atrophy. Adult skeletal muscle express very low to minimal levels of TWEAK receptor, Fn14. Specific catabolic conditions such as denervation, immobilization, or unloading rapidly increase the expression of Fn14 in skeletal muscle which in turn stimulates the TWEAK activation of various catabolic pathways leading to muscle atrophy. In this article, we have discussed the emerging roles and the mechanisms of action of TWEAK-Fn14 system in skeletal muscle with particular reference to different models of muscle atrophy and injury and its potential to be used as a therapeutic target for prevention of muscle loss.

  17. Good clinical practice guide for opioids in pain management: the three Ts - titration (trial, tweaking (tailoring, transition (tapering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaminia Coluzzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Achieving good clinical practice in the use of opioids as part of a comprehensive pain management regimen can face significant challenges. Despite guidelines from governmental and pain society/organization sources, there are still significant hurdles. A review of some basic tenets of opioid analgesia based on current published knowledge and experiences about this important healthcare imperative is warranted. CONTENT: Consistent with guidelines, the literature supports using the lowest total opioid dose that provides adequate pain control with the fewest adverse effects. Titration (or trial during opioid initiation is a way of starting low and going slow (and assessing the appropriateness of a specific opioid and formulation. Recognizing that multiple factors contribute to an individual's personal experience of pain, the physical, psychological, social, cultural, spiritual, pharmacogenomic, and behavioral factors of the individual patient should be taken into account (tweaking, or tailoring. Finally, for those patients for whom transition (tapering from opioid is desired, doing so too rapidly can have negative consequences and minimization of problems during this step can be achieved by proper tapering. CONCLUSION: We conclude that a simultaneously aggressive, yet conservative, approach is advocated in the literature in which opioid therapy is divided into three key steps (the 3 T's: titration (or trial, tweaking (or tailoring, and transition (or tapering. Establishment of the 3 T's along with the application of other appropriate good medical practice and clinical experience/judgment, including non-pharmacologic approaches, can assist healthcare providers in the effort to achieve optimal management of pain.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) enhances vascular and renal damage induced by hyperlipidemic diet in ApoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-García, Begoña; Moreno, Juan Antonio; López-Franco, Oscar; Sanz, Ana Belén; Martín-Ventura, José Luis; Blanco, Julia; Jakubowski, Aniela; Burkly, Linda C; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines. TWEAK binds and activates the Fn14 receptor, and may regulate apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis, in different pathological conditions. We have evaluated the effect of exogenous TWEAK administration as well as the role of endogenous TWEAK on proinflammatory cytokine expression and vascular and renal injury severity in hyperlipidemic ApoE-knockout mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 4 to 10 weeks, then randomized and treated with saline (controls), TWEAK (10 microg/kg/d), anti-TWEAK neutralizing mAb (1000 microg/kg/d), TWEAK plus anti-TWEAK antibody (10 microg TWEAK +1000 microg anti-TWEAK/kg/d), or nonspecific IgG (1000 microg/kg/d) daily for 9 days. In ApoE(-/-) mice, exogenous TWEAK administration in ApoE(-/-) mice induced activation of NF-kappaB, a key transcription factor implicated in the regulation of the inflammatory response, in vascular and renal lesions. Furthermore, TWEAK treatment increased chemokine expression (RANTES and MCP-1), as well as macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques and renal lesions. These effects were associated with exacerbation of vascular and renal damage. Conversely, treatment of ApoE(-/-) mice with an anti-TWEAK blocking mAb decreased NF-kappaB activation, proinflammatory cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration, and vascular and renal injury severity, indicating a pathological role for endogenous TWEAK. Finally, in murine vascular smooth muscle cells or tubular cells, either ox-LDL or TWEAK treatment increased expression and secretion of both RANTES and MCP-1. Furthermore, ox-LDL and TWEAK synergized for induction of MCP-1 and RANTES expression and secretion. Our results suggest that TWEAK exacerbates the inflammatory response associated with a high lipid-rich diet. TWEAK may be a novel therapeutic target to prevent vascular and renal damage associated with

  19. Functional expression of TWEAK and the receptor Fn14 in human malignant ovarian tumors: possible implication for ovarian tumor intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Gu

    Full Text Available The aim of this current study was to investigate the expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14 in human malignant ovarian tumors, and test TWEAK's potential role on tumor progression in cell models in-vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC, we found that TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were expressed in human malignant ovarian tumors, but not in normal ovarian tissues or in borderline/benign epithelial ovarian tumors. High levels of TWEAK expression was detected in the majority of malignant tumors (36 out of 41, 87.80%. Similarly, 35 out of 41 (85.37% malignant ovarian tumors were Fn14 positive. In these malignant ovarian tumors, however, TWEAK/Fn14 expression was not corrected with patients' clinical subtype/stages or pathological features. In vitro, we demonstrated that TWEAK only inhibited ovarian cancer HO-8910PM cell proliferation in combination with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, whereas either TWEAK or TNF-α alone didn't affect HO-8910PM cell growth. TWEAK promoted TNF-α production in cultured THP-1 macrophages. Meanwhile, conditioned media from TWEAK-activated macrophages inhibited cultured HO-8910PM cell proliferation and invasion. Further, TWEAK increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 production in cultured HO-8910PM cells to possibly recruit macrophages. Our results suggest that TWEAK/Fn14, by activating macrophages, could be ovarian tumor suppressors. The unique expression of TWEAK/Fn14 in malignant tumors indicates that it might be detected as a malignant ovarian tumor marker.

  20. Sewage sludge: guidelines and its use as fertilizer, soil conditioner and forest substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pessanha Siqueira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge is a residue generated after treatment of sewage, being a growing environmental issue due to the increase in wastewater collection and treatment networks. The disposal of these wastes to agricultural land has been presented as the most appropriate, with positive effects indicated by research. However, there are criteria and procedures to be followed  for the sewage sludge legal management. The main guidelines for sewage sludge use in agriculture are presented, as well as its impact on the chemical and physical properties of soils and its performance as a forest substrate, highlighting its strengths and weaknesses.

  1. TWEAK enhances E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression, and may contribute to the development of cutaneous vasculitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Our previous work indicated that TWEAK is associated with various types of cutaneous vasculitis (CV. Herein, we investigate the effects of TWEAK on vascular injury and adhesion molecule expression in CV mice. We showed that TWEAK priming in mice induced a local CV. Furthermore, TWEAK priming also increased the extravasation of FITC-BSA, myeloperoxidase activity and the expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1. Conversely, TWEAK blockade ameliorated the LPS-induced vascular damage, leukocyte infiltrates and adhesion molecules expression in LPS-induced CV. In addition, TWEAK treatment of HDMECs up-regulated E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. TWEAK also enhanced the adhesion of PMNs to HDMECs. Finally, western blot data revealed that TWEAK can induce phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK in HDMECs. These data suggest that TWEAK acted as an inducer of E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression in CV mice and HDMECs, may contribute to the development of CV.

  2. GrB-TWEAK: A Potential Novel Biologic for NSCLC Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    325. 29 de Plater L, Vincent-Salomon A, Berger F, Nicolas A, Vacher S, Gravier E et al. Predictive gene signature of response to the anti-TweakR mAb...Bellail AC, Hunter SB, Brat DJ, Tan C, Van Meir EG. Microregional extracellular matrix heterogeneity in brain modulates glioma cell invasion. Int J

  3. Regulatory circuitry of TWEAK-Fn14 system and PGC-1α in skeletal muscle atrophy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Sajedah M; Mishra, Vivek; Bhatnagar, Shephali; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Ogura, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Burkly, Linda C; Zheng, Timothy S; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-03-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting attributed to inactivity has significant adverse functional consequences. Accumulating evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)-Fn14 system are key regulators of skeletal muscle mass in various catabolic states. While the activation of TWEAK-Fn14 signaling causes muscle wasting, PGC-1α preserves muscle mass in several conditions, including functional denervation and aging. However, it remains unknown whether there is any regulatory interaction between PGC-1α and TWEAK-Fn14 system during muscle atrophy. Here we demonstrate that TWEAK significantly reduces the levels of PGC-1α and mitochondrial content (∼50%) in skeletal muscle. Levels of PGC-1α are significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK-knockout (KO) and Fn14-KO mice compared to wild-type mice on denervation. Transgenic (Tg) overexpression of PGC-1α inhibited progressive muscle wasting in TWEAK-Tg mice. PGC-1α inhibited the TWEAK-induced activation of NF-κB (∼50%) and dramatically reduced (∼90%) the expression of atrogenes such as MAFbx and MuRF1. Intriguingly, muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α also prevented the inducible expression of Fn14 in denervated skeletal muscle. Collectively, our study demonstrates that TWEAK induces muscle atrophy through repressing the levels of PGC-1α. Overexpression of PGC-1α not only blocks the TWEAK-induced atrophy program but also diminishes the expression of Fn14 in denervated skeletal muscle.

  4. Comparing the effectiveness of TWEAK and T-ACE in determining problem drinkers in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    2010-01-01

    The TWEAK and T-ACE screening tools are validated methods of identifying problem drinking in a pregnant population. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the TWEAK and T-ACE screening tools in identifying problem drinking using traditional cut-points (CP). Study participants consisted of women calling the Motherisk Alcohol Helpline for information regarding their alcohol use in pregnancy. In this cohort, concerns surrounding underreporting are not likely as women self-report their alcohol consumption. Participant's self-identification, confirmed by her amount of alcohol use, determined whether she was a problem drinker or not. The TWEAK and T-ACE tools were administered on both groups and subsequent analysis was done to determine if one tool was more effective in predicting problem drinking. The study consisted of 75 problem and 100 non-problem drinkers. Using traditional CP, the TWEAK and T-ACE tools both performed similarly at identifying potential at-risk women (positive predictive value = 0.54), with very high sensitivity rates (100-99% and 100-93%, respectively) but poor specificity rates (36-43% and 19-34%, respectively). Upon comparison, there was no statistical difference in the effectiveness for one test performing better than next using either CP of 2 (P = 0.66) or CP of 3 (P = 0.38). Despite the lack of difference in performance, improved specificity associated with TWEAK suggests that it may be better suited to screen at-risk populations seeking advice from a helpline.

  5. TWEAK activates the non-canonical NFkappaB pathway in murine renal tubular cells: modulation of CCL21.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Sanz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TWEAK is a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines that contribute to kidney tubulointerstitial injury. It has previously been reported that TWEAK induces transient nuclear translocation of RelA and expression of RelA-dependent cytokines in renal tubular cells. Additionally, TWEAK induced long-lasting NFkappaB activation suggestive of engagement of the non-canonical NFkappaB pathway. We now explore TWEAK-induced activation of NFkappaB2 and RelB, as well as expression of CCL21, a T-cell chemotactic factor, in cultured murine tubular epithelial cells and in healthy kidneys in vivo. In cultured tubular cells, TWEAK and TNFalpha activated different DNA-binding NFkappaB complexes. TWEAK-induced sustained NFkappaB activation was associated with NFkappaB2 p100 processing to p52 via proteasome and nuclear translocation and DNA-binding of p52 and RelB. TWEAK, but not TNFalpha used as control, induced a delayed increase in CCL21a mRNA (3.5+/-1.22-fold over control and CCL21 protein (2.5+/-0.8-fold over control, which was prevented by inhibition of the proteasome, or siRNA targeting of NIK or RelB, but not by RelA inhibition with parthenolide. A second NFkappaB2-dependent chemokine, CCL19, was upregulates by TWEAK, but not by TNFalpha. However, both cytokines promoted chemokine RANTES expression (3-fold mRNA at 24 h. In vivo, TWEAK induced nuclear NFkappaB2 and RelB translocation and CCL21a mRNA (1.5+/-0.3-fold over control and CCL21 protein (1.6+/-0.5-fold over control expression in normal kidney. Increased tubular nuclear RelB and tubular CCL21 expression in acute kidney injury were decreased by neutralization (2+/-0.9 vs 1.3+/-0.6-fold over healthy control or deficiency of TWEAK (2+/-0.9 vs 0.8+/-0.6-fold over healthy control. Moreover, anti-TWEAK treatment prevented the recruitment of T cells to the kidney in this model (4.1+/-1.4 vs 1.8+/-1-fold over healthy control. Our results thus identify TWEAK as a regulator of non-canonical NFkappa

  6. Assessment of urinary TWEAK levels in Mexican patients with untreated lupus nephritis: An exploratory study

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    Fabiola Reyes-Martínez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinary levels of TWEAK (uTWEAK may be correlated with the degree of lupus nephritis (LN activity. Our objective was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of uTWEAK in Mexican patients with untreated active lupus nephritis. Methods: An exploratory study was performed; four groups of patients were analyzed as follows: 1 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE without renal activity (SLE-LN, 2 patients with SLE with renal activity (SLE + LN, 3 patients with other types of glomerulopathy (glomerulonephritis, GMN, 4 and healthy patients (controls. Results: In all, 44 patients, with an average age of 35.9 ± 11.5 years, were evaluated. uTWEAK levels were higher in patients with SLE + LN compared with patients in the other groups: SLE + LN 12.88 ± 8.33, SLE-LN 3.12 ± 2.31, GMN 4.36 ± 2.31 and controls 2.41 ± 1.94 pg/mg Cr (p = 0.007. A total of 72.7% of the cases had renal activity index scores above 12, and 90.9% of the cases had scores of chronicity below 6 points. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis revealed that uTWEAK levels above 4.91 pg/mg Cr had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 75% for the diagnosis of renal activity due to lupus, with an area under the curve of 0.876 (95% CI: 0.75–0.99. However, no significant correlation was observed between the levels of uTWEAK and the histological findings specific to the activity and chronicity associated with SLE. Conclusions: Our study revealed that uTWEAK can adequately distinguish renal activity due to lupus, but cannot predict the degree of histological activity in Mexican patients with active lupus nephropathy. Resumen: Objetivos: Los niveles urinarios de TWEAK (uTWEAK pueden correlacionarse con el grado de actividad de nefritis lúpica (NL. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la sensibilidad y especificidad de los uTWEAK en pacientes mexicanos con NL activa sin

  7. HIV-1/HAART-Related Lipodystrophy Syndrome (HALS Is Associated with Decreased Circulating sTWEAK Levels.

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    Miguel López-Dupla

    Full Text Available Obesity and HIV-1/HAART-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS share clinical, pathological and mechanistic features. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a multifunctional cytokine that plays an important role in obesity and related diseases. We sought to explore the relationship between HALS and circulating levels of soluble (s TWEAK and its scavenger receptor sCD163.This was a cross-sectional multicenter study of 120 HIV-1-infected patients treated with a stable HAART regimen; 56 with overt HALS and 64 without HALS. Epidemiological and clinical variables were determined. Serum levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 levels were measured by ELISA. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U and χ2 test. Pearson and Spearman correlation were used to estimate the strength of association between variables.Circulating sTWEAK was significantly decreased in HALS patients compared with non-HALS patients (2.81±0.2 vs. 2.94±0.28 pg/mL, p = 0.018. No changes were observed in sCD163 levels in the studied cohorts. On multivariate analysis, a lower log sTWEAK concentration was independently associated with the presence of HALS (OR 0.027, 95% CI 0.001-0.521, p = 0.027.HALS is associated with decreased sTWEAK levels.

  8. TWEAK Receptor Deficiency Has Opposite Effects on Female and Male Mice Subjected to Neonatal Hypoxia–Ischemia

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    Anton Kichev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a multifunctional cytokine member of the TNF family. TWEAK binds to its only known receptor, Fn14, enabling it to activate downstream signaling processes in response to tissue injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TWEAK signaling in neonatal hypoxia–ischemia (HI. We found that after neonatal HI, both TWEAK and Fn14 expression were increased to a greater extent in male compared with female mice. To assess the role of TWEAK signaling after HI, the size of the injury was measured in neonatal mice genetically deficient in Fn14 and compared with their wild-type and heterozygote littermates. A significant sex difference in the Fn14 knockout (KO animals was observed. Fn14 gene KO was beneficial in females; conversely, reducing Fn14 expression exacerbated the brain injury in male mice. Our findings indicate that the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway is critical for development of hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in immature animals. However, as the responses are different in males and females, clinical implementation depends on development of sex-specific therapies.

  9. Exposure and Tumor Fn14 Expression as Determinants of Pharmacodynamics of the Anti-TWEAK Monoclonal Antibody RG7212 in Patients with Fn14-Positive Solid Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meulendijks, Didier; Lassen, Ulrik N; Siu, Lillian L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The TWEAK-Fn14 pathway represents a novel anticancer target that is being actively investigated. Understanding the relationship between pharmacokinetics of anti-TWEAK therapeutics and tumor pharmacodynamics is critical. We investigated exposure-response relationships of RG7212, an anti...... changes in tumor TWEAK-Fn14 signaling in paired pre- and posttreatment tumor biopsies. The objectives of the analysis were to define exposure-response relationships and the relationship between pretreatment tumor Fn14 expression and pharmacodynamic effect. Associations between changes in TWEAK-Fn14...... longer time on study was observed with high versus low RG7212 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: RG7212 reduced tumor TWEAK-Fn14 signaling in a systemic exposure-dependent manner. In addition to higher exposure, relatively high Fn14 expression might be required for pharmacodynamic effect of anti-TWEAK monoclonal...

  10. Basic Use of SExtractor Catalogs With TweakR eg - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ray A.; Hilbert, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    We describe using external SExtractor (v2.8.6) catalogs from crclean.fits images to align ACS/WFC images with DrizzlePac/TweakReg. Note that this example was originally created before a more recent update to ACS/WFC geometric distortion files. At the time of this writing, one must follow the advice on the ACS Geometric Distortion web page as the first step in the process. By late 2015, as part of OPUS 2015.3, this part will be included by default in the standard pipeline processing and this will no longer need to be manually done by the user. We describe the rest of the process of preparing images for SExtractor, running SExtractor, and using the ouput catalogs to feed to the TweakReg task for alignment, and show that reasonably good first-cut results can be obtained with mostly default parameters in SExtractor and TweakReg. Better results may be possible with more exacting methods. This describes a method for quick alignment, not the ultimate best alignment. Note also that the use of crclean.fits images may be more suited to provide better results for ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS than for WFC3/IR.

  11. Serum pentraxin-3 and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK predict severity of infections in acute decompensated cirrhotic patients

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    Wen-Chien Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 and soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK are new candidate prognostic markers for comorbidities and mortality in various inflammatory diseases. Acute decompensation of cirrhosis is characterized by acute exacerbation of chronic systemic inflammation. Recently, increased circulating PTX3 levels have been reported in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients and positively correlated with disease severity. This study aims to explore serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels and their relationship with clinical outcomes in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Methods: We analyzed serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels in relation to inhospital and 3-month new clinical events and survivals in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Results: During admission, serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels were significantly higher in acute decompensated cirrhotic patients than controls and positively correlated with protein-energy wasting (PEW, new infections, long hospital stays, high medical costs, and high mortality. During a 3-month follow-up, acute decompensated cirrhotic patients with high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels had more episodes of unplanned readmission and high 3-month mortality. On multivariate analysis, high PTX3/sTWEAK levels and PEW were independent risk factors for high mortality. Conclusion: High serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels and PEW are common in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. As compared with low serum PTX3 and sTWEAK cases, cirrhotic patients with high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels a have higher probability of new severe infections, severe sepsis, septic shock, type 1 hepatorenal syndrome, in-hospital, and 3-month follow-up mortalities. Therefore, high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels on hospital admission predict disease severity and case fatality in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Keywords: pentraxin-3, protein-energy wasting, soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis

  12. TWEAK-independent Fn14 self-association and NF-κB activation is mediated by the C-terminal region of the Fn14 cytoplasmic domain.

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    Sharron A N Brown

    Full Text Available The tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily member TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine implicated in physiological tissue regeneration and wound repair. TWEAK binds to a 102-amino acid type I transmembrane cell surface receptor named fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14. TWEAK:Fn14 engagement activates several intracellular signaling cascades, including the NF-κB pathway, and sustained Fn14 signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Although several groups are developing TWEAK- or Fn14-targeted agents for therapeutic use, much more basic science research is required before we fully understand the TWEAK/Fn14 signaling axis. For example, we and others have proposed that TWEAK-independent Fn14 signaling may occur in cells when Fn14 levels are highly elevated, but this idea has never been tested directly. In this report, we first demonstrate TWEAK-independent Fn14 signaling by showing that an Fn14 deletion mutant that is unable to bind TWEAK can activate the NF-κB pathway in transfected cells. We then show that ectopically-expressed, cell surface-localized Fn14 can self-associate into Fn14 dimers, and we show that Fn14 self-association is mediated by an 18-aa region within the Fn14 cytoplasmic domain. Endogenously-expressed Fn14 as well as ectopically-overexpressed Fn14 could also be detected in dimeric form when cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions. Additional experiments revealed that Fn14 dimerization occurs during cell lysis via formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond at cysteine residue 122. These findings provide insight into the Fn14 signaling mechanism and may aid current studies to develop therapeutic agents targeting this small cell surface receptor.

  13. Nuclear Factor κB is required for tumor growth inhibition mediated by enavatuzumab (PDL192, a humanized monoclonal antibody to TweakR

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    James W. Purcell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TweakR is a TNF receptor family member, whose natural ligand is the multifunctional cytokine TWEAK. The growth inhibitory activity observed following TweakR stimulation in certain cancer cell lines and the overexpression of TweakR in many solid tumor types led to the development of enavatuzumab (PDL192, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody to TweakR. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of action of enavatuzumab’s tumor growth inhibition and to provide insight into the biology behind TweakR as a cancer therapeutic target. A panel of 105 cancer lines was treated with enavatuzumab in vitro; and 29 cell lines of varying solid tumor backgrounds had >25% growth inhibition in response to the antibody. Treatment of sensitive cell lines with enavatuzumab resulted in the in vitro and in vivo (xenograft activation of both classical (p50, p65 and non-classical (p52, RelB NFκB pathways. Using NFκB DNA binding functional ELISAs and microarray analysis, we observed increased activation of NFκB subunits and NFκB regulated genes in sensitive cells over that observed in resistant cell lines. Inhibiting NFκB subunits (p50, p65, RelB, p52 and upstream kinases (IKK1, IKK2 with siRNA and chemical inhibitors consistently blocked enavatuzumab’s activity. Furthermore, enavatuzumab treatment resulted in NFκB-dependent reduction in cell-division as seen by the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 both in vitro and in vivo. The finding that NFκB drives the growth inhibitory activity of enavatuzumab suggests that targeting TweakR with enavatuzumab may represent a novel cancer treatment strategy.

  14. Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through inversely modulating Notch and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yuji; Mishra, Vivek; Hindi, Sajedah M; Kuang, Shihuan; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-12-06

    Satellite cell self-renewal is an essential process to maintaining the robustness of skeletal muscle regenerative capacity. However, extrinsic factors that regulate self-renewal of satellite cells are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that TWEAK cytokine reduces the proportion of Pax7(+)/MyoD(-) cells (an index of self-renewal) on myofiber explants and represses multiple components of Notch signaling in satellite cell cultures. The number of Pax7(+) cells is significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK knock-out (KO) mice compared with wild-type in response to injury. Furthermore, Notch signaling is significantly elevated in cultured satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers of TWEAK-KO mice. Forced activation of Notch signaling through overexpression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) rescued the TWEAK-mediated inhibition of satellite cell self-renewal. TWEAK also activates the NF-κB transcription factor in satellite cells and inhibition of NF-κB significantly improved the number of Pax7(+) cells in TWEAK-treated cultures. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that a reciprocal interaction between NF-κB and Notch signaling governs the inhibitory effect of TWEAK on satellite cell self-renewal. Collectively, our study demonstrates that TWEAK suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through activating NF-κB and repressing Notch signaling.

  15. Reduced sTWEAK and increased sCD163 levels in HIV-infected patients: modulation by antiretroviral treatment, HIV replication and HCV co-infection.

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    Luis M Beltrán

    Full Text Available Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to increased inflammation and persistent immune activation. CD163 is a macrophage scavenger receptor that is involved in monocyte-macrophage activation in HIV-infected patients. CD163 interacts with TWEAK, a member of the TNF superfamily. Circulating levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 have been previously associated with cardiovascular disease, but no previous studies have fully analyzed their association with HIV.The aim of this study was to analyze circulating levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 as well as other known markers of inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 and sTNFRII and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1 and ADMA in 26 patients with HIV before and after 48 weeks of antiretroviral treatment (ART and 23 healthy subjects.Patients with HIV had reduced sTWEAK levels and increased sCD163, sVCAM-1, ADMA, hsCRP, IL-6 and sTNFRII plasma concentrations, as well as increased sCD163/sTWEAK ratio, compared with healthy subjects. Antiretroviral treatment significantly reduced the concentrations of sCD163, sVCAM-1, hsCRP and sTNFRII, although they remained elevated when compared with healthy subjects. Antiretroviral treatment had no effect on the concentrations of ADMA and sTWEAK, biomarkers associated with endothelial function. The use of protease inhibitors as part of antiretroviral therapy and the presence of HCV-HIV co-infection and/or active HIV replication attenuated the ART-mediated decrease in sCD163 plasma concentrations.HIV-infected patients showed a proatherogenic profile characterized by increased inflammatory, immune-activation and endothelial-dysfunction biomarkers that partially improved after ART. HCV-HIV co-infection and/or active HIV replication enhanced immune activation despite ART.

  16. Serum levels of TWEAK and scavenger receptor CD163 in type 1 diabetes mellitus: relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. a case-control study.

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    Gemma Llauradó

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK and soluble scavenger receptor CD163 (sCD163 as markers of subtle inflammation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM without clinical cardiovascular (CV disease and to evaluate their relationship with arterial stiffness (AS. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with T1DM and 68 age and sex-matched, healthy subjects were evaluated. Anthropometrical variables and CV risk factors were recorded. Serum concentrations of sTWEAK and sCD163 were measured. AS was assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV. All statistical analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: T1DM patients showed lower serum concentrations of sTWEAK (Men: 1636.5 (1146.3-3754.8 pg/mL vs. 765.9 (650.4-1097.1 pg/mL; p<0.001. Women: 1401.0 (788.0-2422.2 pg/mL vs. 830.1 (562.6-1175.9 pg/mL; p = 0.011 compared with their respective controls. Additionally, T1DM men had higher serum concentrations of sCD163 (285.0 (247.7-357.1 ng/mL vs. 224.8 (193.3-296.5 ng/mL; p = 0.012 compared with their respective controls. sTWEAK correlated negatively with aPWV in men (r = -0.443; p<0.001. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for potential confounders. In men, the best multiple linear regression model showed that the independent predictors of sTWEAK were T1DM and WHR (R(2 = 0.640; p<0.001. In women, T1DM and SBP were the independent predictors for sTWEAK (R(2 = 0.231; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: sTWEAK is decreased in T1DM patients compared with age and sex-matched healthy subjects after adjusting for classic CV risk factors, although sTWEAK levels may be partially influenced by some of them. Additionally, T1DM men have higher serum concentrations of sCD163. These results point out an association between the inflammatory system and CV risk in T1DM.

  17. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...

  18. A phase I monotherapy study of RG7212, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody targeting TWEAK signaling in patients with advanced cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Ulrik N; Meulendijks, Didier; Siu, Lilian L

    2015-01-01

    activation. A phase I study of RG7212, a humanized anti-TWEAK IgG1κ monoclonal antibody, was conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors expressing Fn14. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Dose escalations, over a 200- to 7,200-mg range, were performed with patients enrolled in weekly (QW), bi-weekly (Q2W), or every...

  19. Can simple trachelectomy or conization show comparable survival rate compared with radical trachelectomy in IA1 cervical cancer patients with lymphovascular space invasion who wish to save fertility? A systematic review and guideline recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Seung-Hyuk; Lim, Myong Cheol; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Maria; Nam, Eun Ji; Lee, Jung Yun; Lee, Yoo-Young; Lee, Kwang Beom; Park, Jeong Yeol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Ki, Kyung Do; Song, Yong Jung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Sunghoon; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Jae-Weon; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jong-Min

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the published literatures on the effect of less radical fertility-preserving procedures, such as conization or simple trachelectomy, on oncological outcomes in IA1 cervical cancer patients with lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) through a systematic-review. The EMBASE and MEDLINE databases and Cochrane Library were searched for published studies reporting the oncological outcomes of conization/simple trachelectomy in these patients, through April 2017. The endpoints were recurrence and mortality rates. Data were presented as per the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. Practice guidelines were generated via the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. From 6,755 records, 94 full-texts articles were reviewed for eligibility, and five studies were included in this systematic review. All included studies were nonrandomized studies: two case-control studies comparing conization (n = 14) with hysterectomy (n = 24), and the other three were interrupted time series including conization (n = 20) and simple vaginal trachelectomy (n = 59). During the median follow-up duration of 43 months, no recurrence was reported in both conization and simple trachelectomy groups in IA1 patients with LVSI. From three studies reporting the fertility outcomes, the rates of pregnancy, live birth, preterm delivery, and second-trimester miscarriage were 73% (35/48), 64% (32/50), 10% (5/48), and 6% (3/48), respectively. Results suggest that simple trachelectomy or conization could be performed for IA1 cervical cancer patients with LVSI who want to preserve fertility, although these results are only based on a small number of nonrandomized studies (recommendation grade 2 = weak; evidence level D = very low). Further randomized trials with long-term study period are needed to address this issue.

  20. Fertility considerations in young women with hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadoul, Pascale; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    The need for practice guidelines for fertility preservation in young women with hematological malignancies has been increased. To develop recommendations, publications relevant to fertility preservation and hematological cancers were identified through a PubMed database search and reviewed...

  1. Nano Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice DAĞHAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land is decreasing day by day due to erosion, environmental pollution, unconscious irrigation and fertilization. On the other hand, it is necessary to increase agricultural production in order to meet the needs of the developing industry as well as the nutritional needs of the growing population. In the recent years, nano fertilizers have begun to be produced to obtain the highest amount and quality of production from the unit area. Previous research shows that nano fertilizers cause an increase in the use efficiency of plant nutrients, reduce soil toxicity, minimize the potential adverse effects of excessive chemical fertilizer use, and reduce fertilizer application frequency. Nano fertilizers are important in agriculture to increase crop yield and nutrient use efficiency, and to reduce excessive use ofchemical fertilizers. The most important properties of these fertilizers are that they contain one or more of macro and micronutrients, they can be applied frequently in small amounts and are environmentally friendly. However, when applied at high doses, they exhibit decreasing effects on plant growth and crop yields, similar to chemical fertilizers. In this review, the definition, importan ce, and classification of nano fertilizers, their application in plant production, advantages and disadvantages and the results obtained in this field were discussed.

  2. Fertility desires and fertility outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, M; Santow, G

    1991-05-01

    An Australian 1-in-1000 national probability sample conducted in 1986 yielded 2547 women aged 20-59 who provided detailed life histories on marital unions, childbearing, and contraception. Age specific fertility rates, desired family size, differentials in desired family size, desired fertility and achieved fertility, and sequential family building are examined. The results indicate that the desired family size at 1st marriage has declined only slightly over the past 30 years. 3 children are generally desired, and ver few desire 2. The constance of fertility desires in contrasted with the fertilitydecline to below replacement levels. Several reasons are suggested for the desired family size: the desire is for a family size within the family tradition and modified by the desire to have 1 of each sex, the desire reflects less on intentions but more on normative pressure to become a parent. Marrying is self selecting on the desire for a traditional family of at least 2 children. There is a rising age at marriage as well as a decline in marriages. Desired family size exceeds completed fertility. Period factors and personal circumstances affect fertility intentions. Future inquires should explore the multiple factors relating to fertility, rather than in comparing fertility desires and actual fertility. The data collected on age specific fertility were comparable to official estimates. The fertility decline was evidenced in all groups except teenagers. The decline was nearly 50% for those 20-24 years between the 1050's-80's, 33% for ages 25-29. Marriage patterns explain this decline in part. Between 1971-76, women aged 20-25 were married 37 months out of 60 months in 1971-76 versus 25 out of 60 months in 1981-86. Within the 25 year age group, marital fertility has declined and unmarried fertility, which is low, has risen, Women in a marital union of any kind has remained stable. Fertility within de facto unions, which is lower than within marriage, is higher than

  3. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update . J Clin Oncol. 2013; ... Incorporating fertility preservation into the care of young oncology patients. Cancer. 2010;117:4-10. Download Patient ...

  4. A tweaking principle for executive control: neuronal circuit mechanism for rule-based task switching and conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardid, Salva; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2013-12-11

    A hallmark of executive control is the brain's agility to shift between different tasks depending on the behavioral rule currently in play. In this work, we propose a "tweaking hypothesis" for task switching: a weak rule signal provides a small bias that is dramatically amplified by reverberating attractor dynamics in neural circuits for stimulus categorization and action selection, leading to an all-or-none reconfiguration of sensory-motor mapping. Based on this principle, we developed a biologically realistic model with multiple modules for task switching. We found that the model quantitatively accounts for complex task switching behavior: switch cost, congruency effect, and task-response interaction; as well as monkey's single-neuron activity associated with task switching. The model yields several testable predictions, in particular, that category-selective neurons play a key role in resolving sensory-motor conflict. This work represents a neural circuit model for task switching and sheds insights in the brain mechanism of a fundamental cognitive capability.

  5. Enavatuzumab, a Humanized Anti-TWEAK Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, Exerts Antitumor Activity through Attracting and Activating Innate Immune Effector Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enavatuzumab is a humanized IgG1 anti-TWEAK receptor monoclonal antibody that was evaluated in a phase I clinical study for the treatment of solid malignancies. The current study was to determine whether and how myeloid effector cells were involved in postulated mechanisms for its potent antitumor activity in xenograft models. The initial evidence for a role of effector cells was obtained in a subset of tumor xenograft mouse models whose response to enavatuzumab relied on the binding of Fc of the antibody to Fcγ receptor. The involvement of effector cells was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which revealed strong infiltration of CD45+ effector cells into tumor xenografts in responding models, but minimal infiltration in nonresponders. Consistent with the xenograft studies, human effector cells preferentially migrated toward in vivo-responsive tumor cells treated by enavatuzumab in vitro, with the majority of migratory cells being monocytes. Conditioned media from enavatuzumab-treated tumor cells contained elevated levels of chemokines, which might be responsible for enavatuzumab-triggered effector cell migration. These preclinical studies demonstrate that enavatuzumab can exert its potent antitumor activity by actively recruiting and activating myeloid effectors to kill tumor cells. Enavatuzumab-induced chemokines warrant further evaluation in clinical studies as potential biomarkers for such activity.

  6. Tweak, Adapt, or Transform: Policy Scenarios in Response to Emerging Bioenergy Markets in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Atwell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging bioenergy markets portend both boon and bane for regions of intensive agricultural production worldwide. To understand and guide the effects of bioenergy markets on agricultural landscapes, communities, and economies, we engaged leaders in the Corn Belt state of Iowa in a participatory workshop and follow-up interviews to develop future policy scenarios. Analysis of workshop and interview data, in conjunction with the results of regional social and ecological research, was used to develop a heuristic model outlining interactions between key drivers and outcomes of regional landscape change. Three policy scenarios were built on this framework and included the following approaches: tweak, adapt, and transform. Our results suggest that if macroscale markets, technologies, and federal farm policies are allowed to be the overriding drivers of farm owner and operator decision making, Iowa's agricultural landscapes will likely become highly efficient at row crop production at the cost of other desired outcomes. However, the perspectives of Iowa leaders demonstrate how multifunctional agricultural landscapes can be achieved through a concerted portfolio of change coordinated across local, regional, and national scales.

  7. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  8. Fertility and Population Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  9. Recommendations for fertility preservation in patients with lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    This guideline aims to serve as a reference for fertility specialists and other specialists working with young patients at risk of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) or testicular dysfunction (TD) due to treatment of Hodgkin or Non-Hodgkin lymphoma....

  10. Quality Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/criteria.html MedlinePlus Quality Guidelines To use the sharing features on this ... materials must also meet our existing quality guidelines. Quality, authority and accuracy of health content The organization's ...

  11. Fertility Preservation Counseling for Pediatric and Adolescent Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jessica E; Assanasen, Chatchawin; Robinson, Randal D; Knudtson, Jennifer F

    2016-03-01

    Fertility preservation for children and young adults with cancer is an important part of comprehensive patient care. In 2013, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) released updated clinical practice guidelines addressing fertility preservation. This study aimed to evaluate if pediatric oncologists were performing fertility preservation counseling, if the new guidelines were being adopted, and how reproductive endocrinologists can educate this patient population and their providers. A cross-sectional study was performed from May 26, 2014, to August 26, 2014. An online survey addressing fertility preservation practice patterns was created and provided to the members of the Children's Oncology Group (COG). Thirty-five percent of the 234 respondents reported reading the new 2013 ASCO guidelines. Ninety-five percent of providers reported mentioning fertility preservation options prior to treatment, most commonly including referral to a reproductive endocrinologist (28%), and sperm banking (57%). The most commonly reported barrier to fertility preservation counseling was the cost of treatment. Fertility preservation counseling is being performed by pediatric oncology providers. Familiarity of the ASCO guidelines is limited, revealing that the established methods for fertility preservation in women--embryo and oocyte cryopreservation--may be offered less than experimental methods in this younger patient population. Such differences in apparent practice patterns highlight the need for more education for providers.

  12. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  13. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  14. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  15. Summary guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Painuly, J.P.; Turkson, J.; Meyer, H.J.; Markandya, A.

    1999-09-01

    This document is a summary version of the methodological guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Methodological Guidelines. The objectives of this project have been to develop a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change mitigation policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the Methodological Guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au) 13 refs.

  16. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interconnection Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interconnection Guidelines provide general guidance on the steps involved with connecting biogas recovery systems to the utility electrical power grid. Interconnection best practices including time and cost estimates are discussed.

  18. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  19. OSART guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the operational safety of nuclear power plants. These OSART Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of the operational safety review. Specific guidelines are provided as guide for the systematic review in the following areas important to operational safety: management, organization and administration, training and qualification, operations, maintenance, technical support, radiation protection, chemistry, emergency planning and preparedness

  20. Simulation as an ethical imperative and epistemic responsibility for the implementation of medical guidelines in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbayo, Luciana; Stahl, James

    2017-03-01

    Guidelines orient best practices in medicine, yet, in health care, many real world constraints limit their optimal realization. Since guideline implementation problems are not systematically anticipated, they will be discovered only post facto, in a learning curve period, while the already implemented guideline is tweaked, debugged and adapted. This learning process comes with costs to human health and quality of life. Despite such predictable hazard, the study and modeling of medical guideline implementation is still seldom pursued. In this article we argue that to systematically identify, predict and prevent medical guideline implementation errors is both an epistemic responsibility and an ethical imperative in health care, in order to properly provide beneficence, minimize or avoid harm, show respect for persons, and administer justice. Furthermore, we suggest that implementation knowledge is best achieved technically by providing simulation modeling studies to anticipate the realization of medical guidelines, in multiple contexts, with system and scenario analysis, in its alignment with the emerging field of implementation science and in recognition of learning health systems. It follows from both claims that it is an ethical imperative and an epistemic responsibility to simulate medical guidelines in context to minimize (avoidable) harm in health care, before guideline implementation.

  1. No. 354-Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona; Kennedy, V Logan; Poliquin, Vanessa; Dzineku, Frederick; Dean, Nicola L; Margolese, Shari; Symington, Alison; Money, Deborah M; Hamilton, Scot; Conway, Tracey; Khan, Sarah; Yudin, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical information and recommendations for health care providers to assist Canadians affected by HIV with their fertility, preconception, and pregnancy planning decisions. These guidelines are evidence- and community-based and flexible and take into account diverse and intersecting local/population needs based on the social determinants of health. EVIDENCE: Literature searches were conducted by a librarian using the Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Embase databases for published articles in English and French related to HIV and pregnancy and HIV and pregnancy planning for each section of the guidelines. The full search strategy is available upon request. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the SOGC under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and through use of the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation instrument for the development of clinical guidelines. Guideline implementation should assist the practitioner in developing an evidence-based approach for the prevention of unplanned pregnancy, preconception, fertility, and pregnancy planning counselling in the context of HIV infection. These guidelines have been reviewed and approved by the Infectious Disease Committee and the Executive and Council of the SOGC. Canadian Institutes of Health Research Grant Planning and Dissemination grant (Funding Reference # 137186), which funded a Development Team meeting in 2016. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using fertile couples as embryo donors: An ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors.

  3. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society

  4. Protect Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your teens and early twenties can affect your fertility for years to come. This prevention guide was written by ... loss of testic- ulor size, see your doctor. Fertility is something that you ... approximately 40 percent of infertile couples, the male partner is ...

  5. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...... gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  6. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  7. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  8. AIDS guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R

    1986-04-30

    The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text

  9. GRADE guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyatt, Gordon H; Thorlund, Kristian; Oxman, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Presenting continuous outcomes in Summary of Findings tables presents particular challenges to interpretation. When each study uses the same outcome measure, and the units of that measure are intuitively interpretable (e.g., duration of hospitalization, duration of symptoms), presenting differences...... and absolute effects, presenting the ratio of the means of intervention and control groups, and presenting the results in minimally important difference units. We outline the merits and limitations of each alternative and provide guidance for meta-analysts and guideline developers....

  10. ASCOT guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    These guidelines describe an approach used in conducting an Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team (ASCOT) review. They are intended to assist the team members in conducting their reviews and at the same time provide guidance to hosts preparing to receive an ASCOT review. They may also be used by any organization wishing to conduct their own self-assessment of safety culture, independent of an ASCOT review

  11. Physicians' perspectives and practices regarding the fertility management of obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Isiah D; Python, Johanne; Roth, Lauren; Alvero, Ruben; Murray, Shona; Schlaff, William D

    2011-10-01

    To assess the practice patterns and personal beliefs of fertility physicians who care for obese patients seeking assisted reproduction, we conducted a national survey of fertility program directors from both private and academic practices and discovered that although few practices have firm guidelines regarding the management of obese patients, the overwhelming majority of providers believe that body mass index guidelines or cutoffs should exist. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...... and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of expertise...

  13. Perchlorate in Fertilizers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eldridge, J. E; Tsui, D. T; Mattie, D. R; Crown, J; Scott, R; Blackman, T

    1999-01-01

    ...) methods for perchlorate analysis in lawn and garden fertilizers. Seven government, private, and commercial laboratories participated in the analysis of 34 aqueous suspensions of the test materials, using similar ion chromatography systems...

  14. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  15. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  16. Queering the fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura

    2013-06-01

    A sociologist examines contemporary engagements of queer bodies and identities with fertility biomedicine. Drawing on social science, media culture, and the author's own empirical research, three questions frame the analysis: 1. In what ways have queers on the gendered margins moved into the center and become implicated or central users of biomedicine's fertility offerings? 2. In what ways is Fertility Inc. transformed by its own incorporation of various gendered and queered bodies and identities? And 3. What are the biosocial and bioethical implications of expanded queer engagements and possibilities with Fertility Inc.? The author argues that "patient" activism through web 2.0 coupled with a largely unregulated free-market of assisted reproduction has included various queer identities as "parents-in-waiting." Such inclusions raise a set of ethical tensions regarding how to be accountable to the many people implicated in this supply and demand industry.

  17. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  18. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  19. Journal tweaks and pet peeves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    You may have noticed in the first issue that I arranged manuscripts a bit differently from how they were presented in the past. In previous issues, papers were arranged largely by taxonomic groups. I deviated from that by grouping papers according to their topical focus. For example, those with a focus on habitat are grouped, as are those focusing on population,...

  20. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior ...

  1. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  2. Fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Jennifer R; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    When a young woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, there is often a sense of urgency by the patient and her providers to initiate treatment. This article provides guidelines for incorporating the discussion of fertility preservation with newly diagnosed young women with breast cancer....

  3. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conference considers low fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    At present, at least 51 countries--representing 44% of the world's population--are showing below-replacement fertility rates. In some of these countries, where the number of new births is not adequate to replace aging populations, this trend is problematic. In other countries, most notably China, declining fertility has conferred significant benefits. At an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Population Commission meeting held in New York in 1997, staff from China's State Statistical Bureau reported the country has a current total fertility rate of 1.8. The birth rate remains high, however, because of the large numbers of Chinese women in the 15-49 year reproductive age group (336 million in 1997). Also buffering the impact of a low fertility rate is a large labor surplus (130 million excess workers in rural China). To keep fertility below the replacement level, China plans to improve the quality of its family planning service, enhance poverty alleviation programs, and increase incentives for small families in rural areas. China's low fertility rate has provided an important impetus for economic development.

  5. Advanced reproductive age and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kimberly; Case, Allison

    2011-11-01

    To improve awareness of the natural age-related decline in female and male fertility with respect to natural fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and provide recommendations for their management, and to review investigations in the assessment of ovarian aging. This guideline reviews options for the assessment of ovarian reserve and fertility treatments using ART with women of advanced reproductive age presenting with infertility. The outcomes measured are the predictive value of ovarian reserve testing and pregnancy rates with natural and assisted fertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in June 2010, using appropriate key words (ovarian aging, ovarian reserve, advanced maternal age, advanced paternal age, ART). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated into the guideline to December 2010. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table). Primary and specialist health care providers and women will be better informed about ovarian aging and the age-related decline in natural fertility and about options for assisted reproductive technology. 1. Women in their 20s and 30s should be counselled about the age-related risk of infertility when other reproductive health issues, such as sexual health or contraception, are addressed as part of their primary well-woman care. Reproductive-age women should be aware that natural fertility and assisted reproductive technology success (except with egg donation) is significantly lower for women in their late 30s and 40s. (II-2A) 2. Because of the decline in fertility and the

  6. Female fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent cancer patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarroba, Gabriela N; Sanfilippo, Joseph S; Valli-Pulaski, Hanna

    2018-04-01

    The 5-year survival rate for childhood cancer is over 80%, thereby increasing the number of young women facing infertility in the future because of the gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation. The gonadotoxic effects of childhood cancer treatment vary by the radiation regimen and the chemotherapeutic drugs utilized. Although the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines recommend fertility preservation for all patients, there are several barriers and ethical considerations to fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent female population. Additionally, the fertility preservation methods for pre- and postpubertal females differ, with only experimental methods available for prepubertal females. We will review the risk of chemotherapy and radiation on female fertility, the approach to fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent female population, methods of fertility preservation for both pre- and postpubertal females, barriers to fertility preservation, cost, and psychological and ethical considerations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radioactivity in Chemical Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    The fertilizers are essential in agriculture as they supply nutrients to the farming fields. One of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to extensive use of fertilizers. The concentrations of natural radionuclides, 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U in different chemical fertilizers, which are part of the regular control of imported goods from the border crossing were analyzed using gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, relative efficiency 20 %, in order to assess the implications of the extended use of chemical fertilizers. Measurements were performed at Vinca Institute, Radiation and Environmental Protection Department. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of different samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for gamma activity of those fertilizer samples for 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U are 4857 (23 - 12 324) Bq/kg, 87 (4-393) Bq/kg, 220 (26-1145) Bq/kg and 15 (1.6-53) Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) as well as the external absorbed gamma dose rate (D) for all samples was also calculated.(author)

  8. ASSET guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) Service provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the overall level of plant safety while dealing with the policy of prevention of incidents at nuclear power plants. The ASSET programme, initiated in 1986, is not restricted to any particular group of Member States, whether developing or industrialized, but is available to all countries with nuclear power plants in operation or approaching commercial operation. The IAEA Safety Series publications form common basis for the ASSET reviews, including the Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) and the Basic Safety Principles (Recommendations of Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-3). The ASSET Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of their review of incident investigations. Additional guidance and reference material is provided by the IAEA to complement the expertise of the ASSET members. ASSET reviews accept different approaches that contribute to ensuring an effective prevention of incidents at plants. Suggestions are offered to enhance plant safety performance. Commendable good practices are identified and generic lessons are communicated to other plants, where relevant, for long term improvement

  9. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  10. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R A; Halstead, E H

    1974-07-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  11. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.; Halstead, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  12. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  13. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  14. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  15. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the Content  1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  16. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the content  1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  17. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the content  1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  18. Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-09-01

    The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.

  19. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  20. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  1. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  2. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  3. Fertilizer micro-dosing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Localized application of small quantities of fertilizer (micro-dosing), combined with improved planting pits for rainwater harvesting, has generated greater profits and food security for women farmers in the Sahel. • Women are 25% more likely to use combined applications, and have expanded areas of food crops (cowpea,.

  4. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on: The underlying cause of the problem The woman's age Her history of previous pregnancies How long she has had infertility issues The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose infertility is due to problems with ovulation. ...

  5. Nutrition and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  6. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  7. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.  http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionPAGE CONTENTSGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.2. Reporting GuidelinesReporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Journals are encouraged to ask authors to follow these guidelines because

  8. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s. http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols 1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic

  9. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  10. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  11. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  12. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ...

  13. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord ... a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, ...

  14. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. While couples can't control all of the causes of infertility, ...

  15. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  16. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  17. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...

  18. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  19. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  1. Fertility in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T

    2016-06-01

    Reduced maternal fertility is the consequence of depletion of follicles with maternal aging. In a 35-year-old woman, approximately 9.1% of the residual follicle pool disappears annually without entering into the growing stage, whereas, in a 45-year-old woman, this number triples. After the age of 35 years, the frequency of aneuploidies in oocytes increases sharply. Roughly 50-70% of mature oocytes from a 40-year-old woman have chromosomal abnormalities. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are lower in midlife women. Various controlled ovarian stimulation interventions have been suggested for the management of women in advanced age, most of whom are likely to be poor-responder patients. Currently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that there is insufficient evidence to recommend most of the treatments proposed to improve pregnancy rates in these poor responders. Minimal stimulation or natural cycle in vitro fertilization may be offered, without compromising the already existing pregnancy results.

  2. [Stress and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ősapay, György; Ősapay, Klára

    2015-08-30

    In Western countries, sperm quality and fertility of men significantly worsened. Female infertility does not show a better trend either. Subtle defects in the reproductive functions can not be explained by the current methods, and "unexplained infertility" is becoming a more common diagnosis. Every year 1 million couples seek expensive and time consuming fertility treatment in the world. Deeper understanding of an unhealthy lifestyle and the environmental damages may lead to personalized treatments to increase the chance of conception.The effects of various stressors on the male and female reproductive performance were scientifically substantiated by Selye and coworkers in 1976. Cognitive therapy methods can be applied against emotional stressors, supplementation by antioxidants against reactive oxygen compounds, and administration of vitamins and trace elements, especially when deficiency is found, may help before medical intervention on a rational and economical way in the fight against infertility.

  3. Fertility preservation 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  4. Soil and fertilizer nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the intensified practices and effectively diminishing land resources per capita, increasing weights of both native soil- and added fertilizer-nitrogen will be lost to agriculture and its products, and will find their way into the environment. Soil-nitrogen levels and contingent productivity can nevertheless be maintained in the face of these losses on the basis of improved soil-N management. In some local situations nitrate levels in water for drinking purposes are likely to continue rising. In some cases agriculture and clearance practices are only one of several sources. In others they are clearly mainly responsible. In developing countries these losses represent those of a relatively increasingly costly input. This is due to the fact that industrial fertilizer nitrogen production is a particularly high energy-consuming process. In the more advanced industrialized countries they represent an addition to the problems and costs of environmental quality and health protection. The programmes, information and data reviewed here suggest that these problems can be contained by improved and extended soil and water management in agriculture on the basis of existing technology. In particular there appears to be enormous scope for the better exploitation of existing legumes both as non-legume crop alternatives or as biofertilizers which also possess more desirable C:N ratios than chemical fertilizer

  5. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biedka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient’s sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  6. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  7. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  8. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-10-21

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior to starting or who are already receiving immunosuppressive treatment, allowing them in due course to bear children. The recommendations for use are established with a rather low level of proof, which needs to be taken into account in the patient management. Methotrexate, mycophenolate, and le- and teri-flunomide, cyclophosphamide, mitoxanthrone are contraindicated if pregnancy is desired due to their teratogenic effects, as well as gonadotoxic effects in the case of cyclophosphamide. Anti-TNF-alpha and mTOR-inhibitors are to be used cautiously if pregnancy is desired, since experience using these drugs is still relatively scarce. Azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mesalazine, anticalcineurins such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, ß-interferon, glatiramer-acetate and chloroquine can be used during pregnancy, bearing in mind however that side effects may still occur. Experience is limited concerning natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl-fumarate and induction treatments. Conclusion: At the time of prescription, patients must be informed of the possible consequences of immunosuppressants on fertility and of the need for contraception. Pregnancy must be planned and the treatment modified if necessary in a pre-conception time period adapted to the half-life of the drug, imperatively in relation with the prescriber of the immunosuppressive drugs.

  9. Ethnicity and fertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollehlon, Konia T

    2003-01-01

    Using a sample of Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, and all other women from the 1990 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines ethnic fertility differentials in Nigeria within the context of the social characteristics and cultural hypotheses. Among all women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani women to be lower than that of Other women; with no statistically significant difference in the net fertility of Ibo, Yourba, and Other women. But, among currently married women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani and Yoruba women to be lower than that of Other women, while the net fertility of Ibo women is higher than that of Other women. Overall, the findings of this study are more consistent with the cultural hypothesis, because statistically significant fertility differentials by ethnicity remain, even after controlling for selected socioeconomic and demographic variables.

  10. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  11. Fertility and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing social scenario together with economic growth and an increase in job opportunities has to a great extent reduced gender inequality and has resulted in more and more older women seeking help from infertility clinics. Fertility and aging have always been closely linked and the age of the female partner remains the single most important factor in predicting success with treatment. Although tests for the ovarian reserve are an important informative tool and are helpful in selecting treatment options, they are poor predictors of the outcome.

  12. Fertility trends in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K; Viegas, O; Ratnam, S S

    1988-10-01

    In 1966, the Singapore National Family Planning and Population Program established the goal of reaching replacement fertility by 1990 and zero population growth by the year 2030. To achieve this goal, the government relied on a series of incentives and disincentives to discourage births above the 3rd birth order, including tax relief for the 1st 3 children only, paid medical leave for women undergoing sterilization after the 3rd or subsequent birth, monetary stipends in some cases where the mother is sterilized after the 1st or 2nd birth, and increasing accouchement charges for increasing birth orders. Also important to demographic planning were liberalization of Singapore's abortion legislation and more aggressive promotion of contraception. As a result of these efforts, Singapore's crude birth rate has declined from 29.5/1000 population in 1965 to 16.6/1000 in 1985. Also observed have been dramatic declines in infant mortality in this same period, from 26.2/1000 live births to 9.3/1000, and in maternal mortality, from 52/100,000 live births to 10/100,000. In 1985, 42% of total births were to women in the 25-29-year age group. The numbers of 4th and later births fell by 90% between 1966 and 1985. The total fertility rate has declined from 4.6/woman in 1965 to 3.1 in 1970 to 1.6 in 1986. Below replacement level fertility was achieved in 1975, in part because of government policy but also as a result of cultural and socioeconomic factors such as increasing female labor force participation rates, a break-up of the extended family system, a rise in the age at 1st marriage, and rises in educational attainment. The drop in fertility was contributed mainly by the higher socioeconomic class, more affluent, and educated Singaporeans. Thus, in 1981, the government introduced certain pronatalist policies and incentives to encourage better educated women to produce more children, e.g., tax relief and the elimination of monetary incentives to sterilization acceptors above a

  13. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  14. Fertility differentials in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H T; Islam, S M; Khan, H M; Bari, R

    1993-01-01

    "Data from two sources in rural Bangladesh have been used in this study to examine the differentials in fertility by selected socio-economic and demographic factors. Results [indicate] that age at first marriage, education of spouses and availability of electricity in the household...have [an] inverse relationship with fertility. Higher fertility is observed for Muslim women than for non-Muslims. It has been found that fertility is the lowest to those women whose husbands are service holders and the highest for agriculture." excerpt

  15. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  16. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  17. Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices in Vegetable Crops Production: The Case of Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. ... rate, which could leads to pollution of the environment from over dose application and from runoff in to the water bodies and leaching in to the ground water with economic loss.

  18. Fertile ground? : soil fertility management and the African smallholder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiko, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: smallholder farmers, soil fertility, experimentation, "inconvenience", realist.The focus in this thesis is to form a view of how well soil fertility research performs within the ever shifting smallholder contexts. This study examined application of agro-ecological

  19. Fertility after uterine artery embolization of fibroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, K; Hrobjartsson, A; Korsholm, M

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The impact of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the purpose of diminishing the effect of uterine fibroids on fertility is unclear. We have investigated the reported rates of pregnancy and miscarriage after treatment of uterine fibroids with UAE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched...... intervention was included. The PRISMA guideline was used to do a systematic review using the main outcomes pregnancy rate and miscarriage rate. Risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool or by ROBINS-I. The quality of evidence was assessed by the GRADE approach. RESULTS: We included 17 studies...... (989 patients): 1 RCT, 2 cohort studies, and 14 case series. Pregnancy rates after UAE were 50% in the RCT and 51 and 69% in the cohort studies. Among the case series median pregnancy rate was 29%. Miscarriage rates were 64% in the RCT. Miscarriage rates at 56 and 34% were found in the cohort studies...

  20. Visitor's Computer Guidelines | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitor's Computer Guidelines Network Connection Request Instruments Instruments by Telescope IR Instruments Guidelines Library Facilities Outreach NOAO-S EPO Program team Art of Darkness Image Gallery EPO/CADIAS ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Astronomers » Visitor's Computer Guidelines Visitor's Computer

  1. 40 CFR 418.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 418.73 Section 418.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  2. Low Fertility Preservation Utilization Among Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Leena; Tishelman, Amy C; Caltabellotta, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2017-07-01

    Research demonstrates a negative psychosocial impact of infertility among otherwise healthy adults, and distress among adolescents facing the prospect of future infertility due to various medical conditions and treatments that impair reproductive health. Guidelines state that providers should counsel transgender youth about potential infertility and fertility preservation (FP) options prior to initiation of hormone therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates of fertility counseling and utilization of FP among a cohort of adolescents with gender dysphoria seen at a large gender clinic. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of electronic medical records was conducted of all patients with ICD-9/10 codes for gender dysphoria referred to Pediatric Endocrinology for hormone therapy (puberty suppression and/or cross-sex hormones) from January 2014 to August 2016. Seventy-eight patients met inclusion criteria. Five children were prepubertal, no hormone therapy was considered, and they were therefore excluded. Of the remaining 73 patients, 72 had documented fertility counseling prior to initiation of hormone therapy and 2 subjects attempted FP; 45% of subjects mentioned a desire or plan to adopt, and 21% said they had never wanted to have children. Utilization rates of FP are low among transgender adolescents. More research is needed to understand parenthood goals among transgender youth at different ages and developmental stages and to explore the impact of gender dysphoria on decision-making about FP and parenthood. Discussions about infertility risk, FP, and other family building options should be prioritized in this vulnerable adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil nitrogen as fertilizer or pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of 22 studies and surveys are reported on a global scale on N fertilizer applications and the fate of 15 N-labelled fertilizer in various soils, water and nitrate movement, residues, soil-N transformations in relation to leaching, nitrate pollution, nitrogen balance and related aspects under a variety of climatic conditions and crop cultivation are described. Some studies did not contain actual isotope applications, and have therefore not been entered in INIS as individual items. A 13-page report on research coordination includes background information, common methodology, field lysimeter experiments and their results, and the collection and evaluation of data. In conclusion, variations in the fate and behaviour of N residues are considered as are water pollution, the critical role of models and the need for behaviour prediction, the fate of agricultural N residues, the conservation of useful N residues, and future programmes. The report concludes with 7 recommendations, 20 references, and 3 annexes. Annex 1 lists programme participants by country, chief investigator, basis of collaboration and subject area, Annex 2 the titles and authors of working papers; Annex 3 gives guidelines for 15 N-residue experiment objectives, data presentation, etc. All participants in the Coordination Meeting are listed

  4. Prediction of porcine male fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijse, M.L.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871728

    2012-01-01

    Life starts with fertilisation. Variation in fertility is caused by both farm and sow related parameters and boar and semen related parameters. Therefore, achieving high fertility is not obvious. Predominantly, artificial insemination (AI) is used for breeding pigs. The advantage of AI is that you

  5. Fertility treatment in obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide. This has major adverse consequences for health in general and fertility in women in particular. With the increasing number of women in reproductive age being obese, there is also an increasing need for fertility treatment. And with more pregnant women

  6. Fertility drugs and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2017-06-20

    The aetiology of ovarian cancer is multifactorial with both endogenous and exogenous risk factors playing an important role. The exact pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is still not well understood, despite the number of hypotheses published. Due to an increase in the number of women using fertility drugs, much attention has been focused on the long-term health effects of such drugs. Although fertility drugs facilitate the ovulation process, it is however associated with a significant increase in hormone concentrations, placing exposed women at increased risk of gynaecological cancer. Many clinical and epidemiological studies have examined the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Results from these studies have been contradictory, as some studies have reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer while others reported no increased risk. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that women who used fertility drugs and did not conceive had a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer, compared to women who used fertility drugs and conceived and delivered successfully. This review discusses the effect of fertility drugs on the risk of developing ovarian cancer, providing details on four possible scenarios associated with fertility treatment. In addition, the limitations of previous studies and their impact on our understanding of the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer also have been highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Fertilizing Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Roger D. Right

    1979-01-01

    This report supplements a slide-tape presentation of the same title. Part I of the report describes the current practice of nitrogen fertilization of Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon and the effects of this fertilization on tree growth and water quality. Part II discusses factors that affect costs and revenues from investments in forest...

  8. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  9. The new hypertension guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph H

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) has published guidelines annually since 2000. The CHEP guidelines are a model of concise, comprehensive, up-to-date, evidence-rated guidelines for physicians who diagnose and treat hypertension. The guidelines address measurement of blood pressure and the definition of hypertension, secondary hypertension evaluation and treatment, and blood pressure targets and medication choices in patients with and without compelling indications. This review describes CHEP's process for developing guidelines and provides an overview of the 2013 recommendations. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Fertility and health in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina-Fuentes, M; Echánove-Fernández, E

    1989-01-01

    Fertility, health, and family planning are not independent factors, but rather involve a series of biological and social mechanisms in close interaction with one another. The impact that a high fertility rate has on health is reflected mainly in a rise in the rates of maternal and child mortality. Similarly, fertility has a greater negative effect upon the health of groups characterized by high reproductive risk, high parity, short intergenesic intervals, and unwanted pregnancies. On the other hand, family planning -and specifically the use of contraceptive methods-helps to achieve a lowering of the fertility rate and also has a positive effect on maternal-child health. This situation can be observed in the case of Mexico, where fertility rates and tendencies, as well as maternal and child mortality, have been reduced during the past decade.

  11. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  12. Guideline of guidelines: asymptomatic microscopic haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Brian J; Bass, Edward J; Mostafid, Hugh; Boorjian, Stephen A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to review major organizational guidelines on the evaluation and management of asymptomatic microscopic haematuria (AMH). We reviewed the haematuria guidelines from: the American Urological Association; the consensus statement by the Canadian Urological Association, Canadian Urologic Oncology Group and Bladder Cancer Canada; the American College of Physicians; the Joint Consensus Statement of the Renal Association and British Association of Urological Surgeons; and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. All guidelines reviewed recommend evaluation for AMH in the absence of potential benign aetiologies, with the evaluation including cystoscopy and upper urinary tract imaging. Existing guidelines vary in their definition of AMH (role of urine dipstick vs urine microscopy), the age threshold for recommending evaluation, and the optimal imaging method (computed tomography vs ultrasonography). Of the reviewed guidelines, none recommended the use of urine cytology or urine markers during the initial AMH evaluation. Patients should have ongoing follow-up after a negative initial AMH evaluation. Significant variation exists among current guidelines for AMH with respect to who should be evaluated and in what manner. Given the patient and health system implications of balancing appropriately focused and effective diagnostic evaluation, AMH represents a valuable future research opportunity. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options further? Fertility Preservation - Where Does It Fit? Options for Fertility Preservation The following diagram gives a brief description of fertility preservation options available to children diagnosed with cancer before and ...

  14. Fertility Preservation in Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennia Michaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer.

  15. Fertilizers in cereals crops. Effect of fertilization in grain quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaj, Mariana

    1997-01-01

    In the last years the yields of the maize cultivation in the Pampeana production region have constantly increased, foreseeing higher increases of yield in the next years. Such increase is due, between other motives, to the use of hybrids of higher potential yield. There is a direct relation between the yield potential of a genotype and the nutrients demand, fact that constitutes one of the geneticists concerns. Maize hybrids reach its maximum expression when the plant is cultivated in good supplied soils with balanced quantities of nutrients that in several cases are reached with the practice of fertilization. The quantitative and qualitative vegetal response to the use of phosphate fertilizers depend of soils, of the environmental conditions, of fertilizer and the way of its application as well as of the maize hybrid that was used. To direct the practice of fertilization towards the reposition of the soil nutrients extracted by genotypes of high yield without producing excesses that increase costs and put in danger the environment, it is necessary to know the real coefficient used by the plants of the phosphorus available in the soils. The isotopic methodology allows to distinguish the phosphorus coming from two nutrient sources: soil and fertilizer, even in the juvenile phase of vegetal development and to evaluate the efficiency of fertilizers in plant nutrition. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the use of phosphorus coming from one of the phosphorus source available (soil, fertilizer), that should allow to increase and make more specific the knowledge's level of the different maize hybrids. This is obtained by determination of the grade of use of nutrient (of the soil) and of the nutrient of fertilizers, evaluating the qualitative and quantitative responses to fertilization

  16. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for ...

  17. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult ...

  18. Radiological risk comparison guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallinan, E.J.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Brown, L.F.; Yoder, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of DOE safety analyses is estimating potential accident risk. The estimates are used to: determine if additional controls are needed, identify Safety Class Items, and demonstrate adequate risk reduction. Thus, guidelines are needed to measure comparative risks. The Westinghouse M ampersand O Nuclear Facility Safety Committee and the Safety Envelope Working Group have developed radiological risk guidelines for comparing the risks from individual accident analyses. These guidelines were prepared under contract with the US Department of Energy. These guidelines are based on historical DOE guidelines and current requirements, and satisfy DOE and technical community proposals. for goals that demonstrate acceptable risk. The guidelines consist of a frequency versus consequence curve for credible accidents. Offsite and onsite guidelines are presented. The offsite risk acceptance guidelines are presented in Figure 1. The guidelines are nearly isorisk for anticipated events where impacts are chronic, and provide additional reduction for unlikely events where impacts may be acute and risk uncertainties may be significant. The guidelines are applied to individual release accident scenarios where a discrete frequency and consequence has been estimated. The guideline curves are not to be used for total risk assessments. Common cause events are taken into consideration only for an individual facility. Frequencies outside the guideline range are considered to be local site option (analyst judgement) as far as assessments of risk acceptance are concerned. If the curve is exceeded, then options include either a more detailed analysis or imposing additional preventive or mitigative features. Another presentation discusses implementation in detail. Additional work is needed to provide risk comparison guidelines for releases from multiple facilities and for toxic releases

  19. Eating disorders in the context of preconception care: fertility specialists' knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodino, Iolanda S; Byrne, Susan M; Sanders, Katherine A

    2017-02-01

    To gauge fertility specialists' knowledge, clinical practices, and training needs in regard to eating disorders. Cross-sectional study. Fertility clinics. Eighty Australian and New Zealand fertility specialists who were members of the Fertility Society of Australia. None. Responses to an anonymously completed online questionnaire. Approximately 54% of doctors correctly identified the body mass index relevant to anorexia nervosa, and 30% identified menstrual disturbances for anorexia, while 63.8% of doctors incorrectly nominated maladaptive weight control behaviors as a characteristic of binge eating disorder. While clinicians (83.7%) agreed it was important to screen for eating disorders during preconception assessments, 35% routinely screened for eating disorders and 8.8% indicated that their clinics had clinical practice guidelines for management of eating disorders. A minority of participants (13.8%) felt satisfied with their level of university training in eating disorders, 37.5% of doctors felt confident in their ability to recognize symptoms of an eating disorder, and 96.2% indicated a need for further education and clinical guidelines. On most items examined, knowledge and clinical practices regarding eating disorders did not differ according to doctor gender or years of clinical experience working as a fertility specialist. Knowledge about eating disorders in the context of fertility treatment is important. This study highlights the uncertainty among fertility specialists in detecting features of eating disorders. The findings point to the importance of further education and training, including the development of clinical guidelines specific to fertility health care providers. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of unenriched versus 15N-enriched fertilizer as a tracer for N fertilizer uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meints, V.W.; Shearer, G.; Kohl, D.H.; Kurtz, L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three soils with differing cropping and fertilization histories to determine whether unenriched fertilizer N can be used in the same manner as 15 N-enriched fertilizer to estimate the amount of plant N derived from fertilizer. Estimates using unenriched fertilizer N were compared with estimates using two 15 N enrichment levels. Use of unenriched fertilizer N led to underestimation of the amount of fertilizer N in the plant material in four of six cases when compared to 15 N-enriched fertilizer. Standard deviations of the estimates of fertilizer-derived N in plant material were considerably greater when unenriched fertilizer was used. (U.S.)

  1. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  2. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  3. Public informations guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities

  4. Public informations guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities.

  5. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  6. [Nutrition and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that nutritional habits may have a significant effect on both male and female fertility. Maintenance of normal body mass may be effective in the prevention of infertility resulting from ovulatory disorders. Underweight and, to a larger degree, overweight and/or obesity, are related to the enhanced risk of infertility. Insulin resistance is an important pathogenic mechanism that may impair ovulation. Adequate intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, derived mainly from vegetable fats, as well as avoidance of trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids which are present in industrially produced cakes and sweets, crisps, fast-foods, powdered soups and hard margarines, may be effective in the prevention of infertility in females. Choice of plant rather than animal sources of proteins, decrease in glycemic load of the diet, use of dietary supplements containing iron and folic acid, could also be beneficial. Avoidance of vitamin B12 deficiency and its supplementation seem to be important in the prevention of early miscarriages. Sufficient intake of antioxidants also promotes female reproductive functions. Free radical processes play an important role in the development of male factor infertility. It was shown that proper intake or supplementation with antioxidants may be effective in its prevention and treatment. Such nutrients as zinc, selenium and folic acid act beneficially on sperm quality. A well-balanced diet seems to play an important role in the prevention of infertility in both sexes.

  7. Innovative fertility preservation strategies and programs for young adults with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson RH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca H Johnson Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Mary Bridge Hospital, MultiCare Health System, Tacoma, WA, USA Abstract: Preservation of fertility is a key issue for young adults newly diagnosed with cancer. Up to 90% of cancer patients under the age of 45 are at risk for fertility impairment following cancer therapy. Cancer patients who are not offered fertility preservation (FP and those who become infertile following therapy may experience long-term psychosocial distress. This review summarizes the numerous effective strategies for preserving fertility, including sperm banking, electroejaculation, and testicular sperm extraction in males and cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes in females. This paper also highlights novel methods currently in development, such as gonadal tissue cryopreservation and in vitro maturation of gametes. In women, anti-Mullerian hormone is emerging as an accurate marker of ovarian reserve, and the use of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs to protect fertility is increasingly well validated. Although national guidelines mandate FP counseling and referral prior to the start of cancer therapy for patients with reproductive potential, only a minority of young cancer patients in the USA currently take steps to preserve fertility prior to the start of therapy. Some cancer centers across the USA are developing institutional strategies to support FP, resulting in increased utilization of fertility services by newly diagnosed cancer patients. Keywords: young adult, cancer, fertility preservation, program, oocyte, sperm

  8. Fertility preservation and cancer: How many persons are concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan-Benjamin, Christine; Hoog-Labouret, Natalie; Lefeuvre, Delphine; Carré-Pigeon, Frédérique; Bousquet, Philippe Jean

    2018-06-01

    A significant proportion of cancer survivors experience chronic health sequelae, one of them being fertility impairment. However, even if many reports, guidelines and positions papers focus on fertility preservation and its needs, access to fertility preservation is not currently offered to all the patients concerned, and the targeted population is not well counted. A cross sectional study was conducted using the French cancer cohort, a cohort covering the whole French population and including around 7 million of cancer patients. Women under the age of 40 and men under the age of 60 included in the cancer cohort in 2013 who had, in the first year, cancer surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy were considered. Patients treated by surgery alone for cancers in locations distant from the reproductive organs, or being treated for a cancer the past 3 years were excluded. The number of patients concerned by fertility preservation was estimated at a national and regional level, and by cancer types. 40,000 patients - 30,000 men under the age of 60 years and 10,000 women under the age of 40 years - were identified. A second estimation concerning women under the age of 35 and men under 50 reduced the number of patients to 17,200-10,400 men and 6800 women. The most frequent locations were malignant neoplasm of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue, lung cancer, cervix uteri, prostate and colorectal cancer. In 2014, around 5 400 persons had a preservation. Around 17,200 cancer patients of reproductive age should be informed about the fertility preservation options available. Medical professionals have to better integrate in their daily practice fertility preservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IMAGE Programming Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehfest, E; De Waal, L.

    2010-09-15

    This document describes the requirements and guidelines for the software of the IMAGE system. The motivation for this report was a substantial restructuring of the source code for IMAGE version 2.5. The requirements and guidelines relate to design considerations as well as to aspects of maintainability and portability. The design considerations determine guidelines about subjects, such as program structure, model hierarchy, the use of data modules, and the error message system. Maintainability and portability aspects determine the guidelines on, for example, the Fortran 90 standard, naming conventions, code lay-out, and internal documentation.

  10. Guidelines for radiological interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The German Radiological Society, in cooperation with other German professional bodies, set up draft Guidelines for Radiological Interventions and submitted them to the professional community for discussion. The Guidelines are meant to assess the potential of radiological interventions as treatment alternatives to surgery or aggressive therapy such as chemotherapy. In fact, technical practicability on its own is insufficient to warrant intervention. The Guidelines are systematically compiled notions and recommendations whose aim it is to provide support to physicians and patients in choosing suitable medical care provisions (prevention, diagnosis, therapy, aftertreatment) in specific circumstances. A complete Czech translation of the Guidelines is given. (P.A.)

  11. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  12. Determinants of fertility in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This examines the fertility trends in Namibia over the past 2 decades .... contraceptive use was small because of the late age at first ..... limited flexibility in terms of maternity leave conditions ... Longer periods in education have increased the.

  13. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  14. Preserving Fertility while Battling Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some oncologists neglect to discuss the possibility of treatment-related infertility with patients of reproductive age. Researchers are developing decision aids to help patients make an informed, carefully considered decision about fertility.

  15. Determinants of fertility in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be access to education, media, and providing employment opportunities in the modern economic sector. Besides .... and religion shows that muslim women have 1.7% high- er fertility ... traditional social and economic systems continue, the.

  16. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ...

  17. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  18. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury ... 2525 info@facingdisability.com SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER Your email address * This iframe contains the logic ...

  19. Is fertility falling in Zimbabwe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udjo, E O

    1996-01-01

    With an unequalled contraceptive prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa, of 43% among currently married women in Zimbabwe, the Central Statistical Office (1989) observed that fertility has declined sharply in recent years. Using data from several surveys on Zimbabwe, especially the birth histories of the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines fertility trends in Zimbabwe. The results show that the fertility decline in Zimbabwe is modest and that the decline is concentrated among high order births. Multivariate analysis did not show a statistically significant effect of contraception on fertility, partly because a high proportion of Zimbabwean women in the reproductive age group never use contraception due to prevailing pronatalist attitudes in the country.

  20. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  1. (ajst) pedological characteristics, general fertility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Pedological characteristics, fertility, soil classification, benchmark soils, Morogoro. District, Tanzania ... rigorous soil mapping to show their spatial distribution. Although at the ... experience bimodal rainfall pattern characterized by two .... evaluated based on the standards set by EUROCONSULT ... crop growth.

  2. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open ... Diagnosed with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation ...

  3. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu ... Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Patient Pocket Guides Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility ...

  5. Fertility among female hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmon, Anna; Rylander, Lars; Lillienberg, Linnea; Albin, Maria; Hagmar, Lars

    2006-02-01

    The study investigated whether working as a hairdresser has a negative impact on fertility, measured as time to pregnancy and miscarriage risk. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 5289 Swedish hairdressers (response rate 50%) and to 5299 age-matched women from the general Swedish population (response rate 54%). Information was collected on time to pregnancy or trying time for women who had tried, but failed, to conceive at the time of the study. The outcome of the pregnancy was determined and categorized as either miscarriage or stillbirth or live birth. The hairdressers were compared with the referents with respect to these two outcomes. Within the hairdresser cohort, the effects of hair treatments, as well as physical workload and stress were investigated. The hairdressers were less successful than the reference cohort in conceiving (fecundability ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.99). The effect was reduced after first-month conceptions were excluded, the indication being that the effect may be the result of birth control bias. Within the hairdresser cohort, a self-perceived stressful work situation seemed to prolong the time to pregnancy. No effects were found for the different chemical hair treatments. There was no cohort difference with respect to miscarriage risk (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.42), but miscarriage risks were increased for most of the hair treatments and for self-perceived stressful work situations. However, none of these effects were statistically significant. The present study indicates a negative impact on time to pregnancy and miscarriage risk for working as a hairdresser".

  6. Bioassay guideline 2: guidelines for tritium bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This guideline is one of a series under preparation by the Federal-Provincial Working Group on Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring Criteria. In this report tritium compounds have been grouped into four categories for the purpose of calculating Annual Limits on Intake and Investigation Levels: tritium gas, tritiated water, tritium-labelled compounds and nucleic acid precursors

  7. Evidence-based guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovira, Àlex; Wattjes, Mike P; Tintoré, Mar

    2015-01-01

    diagnosis in patients with MS. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the implementation of MRI of the brain and spinal cord in the diagnosis of patients who are suspected of having MS. These guidelines are based on an extensive review of the recent literature, as well as on the personal...

  8. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  9. Guidelines for Learning Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.; Schulz, Jolene

    Guidelines for designing and planning learning stations for pupils at the elementary grade level include suggestions on how to develop a station that will be successful in meeting the learners' needs. Instructions for the use of tapes at a station and matching pupils with stations are given, as are guidelines on classroom arrangement and record…

  10. D 59 Design Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Lamberti, Alberto

    The present guidelines are specifically dedicated to Low Crested Structures on attempt to provide methodological tools both for the engineering design of structures and for prediction of performance and environmental impacts. It is anticipated that the guidelines will provide valuable inputs to c...

  11. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  12. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  13. Primary care guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ijäs, Jarja; Alanen, Seija; Kaila, Minna

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the adoption of the national Hypertension Guideline in primary care and to evaluate the consistency of the views of the health centre senior executives on the guideline's impact on clinical practices in the treatment of hypertension in their health centres. DESIGN: A cross...... Guideline. RESULTS: Data were available from 143 health centres in Finland (49%). The views of head physicians and senior nursing officers on the adoption of the Hypertension Guideline were not consistent. Head physicians more often than senior nursing officers (44% vs. 29%, p ...: Hypertension Guideline recommendations that require joint agreements between professionals are less often adopted than simple, precise recommendations. More emphasis on effective multidisciplinary collaboration is needed....

  14. Global Imaging referral guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawooya, M.; Perez, M.; Lau, L.; Reeed, M.

    2010-01-01

    The medical imaging specialists called for global referral guidelines which would be made available to referring doctors. These referral guidelines should be:- Applicable in different health care settings, including resource-poor settings; Inclusive in terms of the range of clinical conditions; User-friendly and accessible (format/media); Acceptable to stakeholders, in particular to the referrers as the main target audience. To conceive evidence-based medicine as an integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. The Direct recipients of the Referral Guidelines would be:- Referrers: general practitioners / family doctors; paediatricians; emergency department doctors; other specialists and health workers. Providers (medical imaging practitioners): radiologists; nuclear medicine physicians; radiographers; other appropriately qualified practitioners providing diagnostic imaging services. For the Referral Guidelines to be effective there need to be: Credibility evidence-based Practicality end user involvement Context local resources, disease profiles Endorsement, opinion leaders Implementation- policy, education, CPOE - Monitoring of the use clinical audit, report feedback. The aim of the Referral Guidelines Project was to: Produce global referral guidelines that are evidence-based, cost effective and appropriate for the local setting, and include consideration of available equipment and expertise (RGWG; SIGs); Include supporting information about radiation doses, potential risks, protection of children and pregnant women (introductory chapter); Facilitate the implementation of the guidelines through guidance and tools (e.g. implementation guides, checklists, capacity building tools, guides on stakeholders engagement, audit support criteria); Conduct pilot testing in different clinical settings from each of the six WHO regions; Promote the inclusion of the referral guidelines in the curricula of medical schools; Develop and implement

  15. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; King Saud University, Riyadh

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to soil fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)

  16. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lerch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.

  17. The economics of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  18. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  19. Obesity: modern man's fertility nemesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2010-07-01

    The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related to obesity. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include abnormal reproductive hormone levels, an increased release of adipose-derived hormones and adipokines associated with obesity, and other physical problems including sleep apnea and increased scrotal temperatures. Recently, genetic factors and markers for an obesity-related infertility have been discovered and may explain the difference between fertile obese and infertile obese men. Treatments are available for not only infertility related to obesity, but also as a treatment for the other comorbidities arising from obesity. Natural weight loss, as well as bariatric surgery are options for obese patients and have shown promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles. Therapeutic interventions including aromatase inhibitors, exogenous testosterone replacement therapy and maintenance and regulation of adipose-derived hormones, particularly leptin, may also be able to restore fertility in obese males. Because of the relative unawareness and lack of research in this area, controlled studies should be undertaken and more focus should be given to obesity as an etiolgy of male infertility.

  20. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fertility effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Donald E; Hacker, Neville

    2003-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are a subfertile group, and most treatments have the potential to adversely affect gonadal function. As cancer treatment becomes more effective and survival rates improve there are more cancer survivors in the reproductive age group for whom parenting is an important consideration. This article outlines the effects on fertility of cancer treatments and techniques to minimise the risk of infertility. The overall prospects for younger cancer sufferers to either retain their fertility or have genetic offspring is now better than ever before, due to advances in assisted reproductive technology, the appropriate use of fertility sparing surgery and other techniques to reduce the toxicity of therapy on the reproductive organs. These advances raise new moral and ethical concerns that must be considered before advising cancer sufferers of the options for preserving reproductive capacity.

  2. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  3. EMI Messaging Guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Cons, L.

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines for potential users of messaging within EMI. The goal is to provide enough practical information so that EMI product teams can start investigating whether using messaging in their products can be beneficial or not.

  4. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  5. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines describe the interrelationships of this and other dental fields, give an overview of the curriculum and its primary educational objectives, and outline the suggested prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, and faculty requirements. (MSE)

  6. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    As part of learning at the Nordic Workshop of Evidence-based Medicine, we have read with interest the practice guidelines for central venous access, published in your Journal in 2012.1 We appraised the quality of this guideline using the checklist developed by The Evidence-Based Medicine Working ...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....... Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...

  7. Adopting preoperative fasting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Megan; Comrie, Rhonda

    2009-07-01

    In 1999, the American Society of Anesthesiologists adopted preoperative fasting guidelines to enhance the quality and efficiency of patient care. Guidelines suggest that healthy, non-pregnant patients should fast six hours from solids and two hours from liquids. Although these guidelines are in place, studies suggest that providers are still using the blanket statement "NPO after midnight" without regard to patient characteristics, the procedure, or the time of the procedure. Using theory to help change provider's beliefs may help make change more successful. Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations can assist in changing long-time practice by laying the groundwork for an analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of proposed changes, such as changes to fasting orders, while helping initiate local protocols instead of additional national guidelines.

  8. OSART guidelines. 1992 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of the operational safety review. Specific guidelines are provided as a guide for the systematic review in the following areas important to operational safety: management, organization and administration, training and qualification, operations, maintenance, technical support, radiation protection, chemistry, emergency planning and preparedness. Additional guidance and reference material has been prepared by the IAEA to complement the expertise of the OSART members

  9. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  10. Fertility prognosis for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a fertility prognosis model for infertile couples. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: In the period November 30, 1977 to June 1, 1985, 321 consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital. Investigation of the female...... MEASURE: The Cox regression model was used to predict the time required to conceive based on informations provided by fertility investigations. RESULTS: Three of 16 prognostic variables (the period of infertility, the female infertility factor, and the P-test) possess significant prognostic information...

  11. Ecologo guidelines spark disagreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Defining what renewable means has been a challenge, but the authors of a new set of guidelines for the Ecologo certification of renewable low-impact electrcity expect after some delay to have the new rules on the street by March 2000.. There was contention in developing the guideline, according to Terra Choice Environmental Services, the company that created and applied criteria for Ecologo certification under the federal government's Environmetal Choice Program. Interim guidleines were developed and have been in place for renewable power since 1996, and have since been used to certify wood-waste biomass, landfill gas, small hydro and wind power plants, in addition to three green power marketing programs. The first draft of the revised guidelines was issued in March. It was one of the harder guidelines to have been worked on because Canadian power producers did not readily agree on what should qualify as renewable, particularly around the whole area of hydro. While small run-of-river hydro plants will continue to fit within the Ecologo guidelines, larger projects will not. Wind power producers are relatively happy with the latest version of TerraChoice's draft guidelines, released at the end of November. A significant revision of the original rules is a limit on the amount of older generation green power marketers who want to promote the green power Ecologo electricity can sell. At least 50% of their capacity must originate from plants installed after January 1, 1991

  12. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  13. Soil Fertility Status on Organic Paddy Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine fertility status of the soil after organic paddy experiments using kinds and doses of organic fertilizers. Experiment was conducted at greenhouse laboratory in Faculty of Agriculture Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. Experimental design used completely randomized design with 9 kinds of treatment was replicated 3 times. Experiments were the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations that are based on fulfilling nutrient requirements of 120 kg N ha-1. Result shows that the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizers and Azolla inoculum had no effect on changes of soil fertility status. Soil fertility status was not significantly correlated with cow manure (0,16ns, Azolla fertilizer (0,26ns and Azolla inoculum (0,16ns. Average of final soil fertility status included fertile category, which was similar as the initial soil fertility status. Average of final soil properties of treatment but nevertheless was relatively higher than in no treatment, indicating the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations had greater impact to soil properties. Cow manure despite increased available K2O and dry grain, but it did not significantly increase the soil fertility status from fertile to very fertile. This was presumably due to the relatively short experiment period, only one planting season had not given significant effect to soil properties. Implication of this study is the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations although did not increase the soil fertility status but could maintain soil fertility status as the initial conditions before planting.

  14. Fertility and Pregnancy in Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Godbout, Ariane; El Hachem, Hady; Lefebvre, Maude; Bérubé, Lyne; Dionne, Marie-Danielle; Kamga-Ngande, Carole; Lapensée, Louise

    2016-08-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) occurs in one in 2500 live female births and is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in women. Pregnancies in women with TS, conceived with either autologous or donated oocytes, are considered high risk because of the associated miscarriages and life-threatening cardiovascular complications (aortic dissection, severe hypertension). Therefore, it is imperative to conduct a full preconception evaluation and counselling that includes cardiac assessment with Holter blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography, and thoracic MRI. Abnormal findings, such an aortic dilatation, mandate close monitoring throughout the pregnancy and the immediate postpartum period and could possibly contraindicate pregnancy. When in vitro fertilization using donated oocytes is performed in these women, only a single embryo should be transferred. Women with a Turner mosaic karyotype appear to have a lower risk of obstetrical and cardiovascular complications but should nevertheless undergo the full preconception evaluation. In this article, we offer guidelines on the management of women with TS in the preconception period, during pregnancy, and postpartum. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil fertility and plant nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, R.G.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The applications of isotopic and related techniques, including autoradiography, radiation absorption, radiation scattering and activation analysis, in investigations on soil fertility and plant nutrition are discussed. The unique information that can be obtained with isotopes and radiation techniques is indicated. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed in relation to other methods of obtaining similar information. (U.K.)

  16. Plant fertilization: maximizing reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2012-06-19

    Sperm competition does not occur in flowering plants as typically only a single pair of sperm cells is delivered for double fertilization. Two recent reports show that plants are capable of avoiding reproductive failure when defective sperm cells are released. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  19. Global fertility and population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow How does caregiving for your partner often affect romantic relationships? play_arrow What are the common treatments for ... play_arrow How does a spinal cord injury affect male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and ... Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map ...

  1. Fertility decline: transition or transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, J

    1981-01-01

    This essay argues on the basis of evidence from Northern Rwanda that economic theories of fertility which fail to take into account the value of children for reproducing a community's social relations are of limited value in traditional noncapitalist or peasant societies. Regarding the transition to low fertility as an adjustment of the population to available resources ignores the fact that many families in the developing world regard their children as absolute values, not values relative to other resources, and therefore the transition to lower fertility is a dramatic change rather than an adjustment. The Kiga of Rwanda have in the last 20 years or so become differentiated into a group of richer households with excess land and a labor shortage and poorer households with excess labor and a land shortage. In the face of severe material shortages, the poorer families continue to desire and have almost as many children as the richer. Among women aged 25-35, the poorer group had on average 5.5 children while the wealthier had 3.9 on average. Kiga families are embedded in larger social units which provide social insurance against misfortune, and having many children thus reconstitutes a social value which minimizes the impact of misfortune. High fertility appears to occur in social economies where there is no reasonable motivation for reducing family size; where high value is placed on the survival of the collectivity and on the reproduction of concrete social relations, the only rational behavior is to have many children.

  2. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping

  3. Fertilization of SRC willow. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation is important. These key points can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment may ... several resources listed on the reverse that can help you locate a fertility preservation specialist to discuss ...

  5. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation center closest to you Visit the Pediatric Oncofertility Research Foundation Visit the Patient Navigator Website ... Ginsberg JP. New advances in fertility preservation for pediatric cancer patients. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;23:9- ...

  6. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation and the ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility ... specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be ...

  7. Determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    demographic and economic determinants whereas Bongaarts model was used to determine proximate determinants fertility. ... Organization defines the age group of 10-19 and 15-24 ..... In urban areas, 24% of marital fertility was prevented.

  8. Fertilizer and briquetting and carbonisation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangachary, P T

    1984-11-14

    The fertilizer plant and the briquetting and carbonisation plant of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation's complex in Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India, and the processes used in each to produce fertilizers, smokeless fuels and tar products are described.

  9. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_ ... Northwestern University © 2015 Northwestern University Contact Northwestern ... Information University Policies Oncofertility Consortium ...

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and ... Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents. Cancer ...

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertil Steril. 2013; 100:1224-31. Chow EJ, et al. Pregnancy after chemotherapy in male and female ... Cancer . Urology. 2016;91:190-6. Loren AW, et al. Fertility preservation for patients with cancer: American ...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future ... Can you refer us to a fertility preservation specialist to discuss my child’s options further? Fertility Preservation - ...

  13. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health. You may feel uncomfortable discussing issues of reproduction with your child. Ask Your Doctor Discussing fertility ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in patients facing gonadotoxic therapies: a committee opinion. ...

  14. URBANIZATION AND FERTILITY RATES IN ETHIOPIA1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Survey (2010) data suggest that Ethiopia not only has one of the largest fertility rates .... Asian countries where the rural-urban fertility differentials were smaller and more ...... Sibanda, A., Z. Woubalem, D. P. Hogan, and D. P. Lindstrom. 2003.

  15. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ...

  16. Fertility preservation after chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaaij, Marleen A. E.; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma can negatively affect fertility. This review summarizes data on fertility after chemotherapy in adult patients. Alkylating chemotherapy, especially if containing procarbazine and/or cyclophosphamide, is most harmful to gonadal functioning. Alkylating regimens cause

  17. ORGANIC FERTILIZER: THE UNDERESTIMATED COMPONENT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. Emphasis on increase agricultural productivity of small holder rural peasants from the perspective of soil ... a reward system for farmers and researchers who utilize inorganic fertilizers. .... Some are deregulation of seed and fertilizer.

  18. Psychological aspects of male fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Alice Toft; Madsen, Svend Aage Lykke; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment.......To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment....

  19. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JP, Kolon TF. Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents With Cancer . Urology. 2016;91:190-6. Loren ... 10. Nieman CL, et al. Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood ...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner ... there are options for preserving fertility in your child diagnosed with cancer. You may be focused on ...

  1. Cattle manure fertilization increases fig yield

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel,Sarita; Tecchio,Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Fertilization using organic compounds is complementary to chemical fertilization, being essential to integrated fruit production. Reports on fig tree (Ficus carica L.) organic fertilization and mineral nutrition are worldwide scarce, especially in Brazil. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of cattle manure fertilization on the yield and productivity of the fig tree 'Roxo de Valinhos' in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 crop cycles....

  2. Design patterns for modelling guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serban, Radu; Ten Teije, Annette; Marcos, Mar; Polo-Conde, Cristina; Rosenbrand, Kitty C J G M; Wittenberg, Jolanda; van Croonenborg, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    It is by now widely accepted that medical guidelines can help to significantly improve the quality of medical care. Unfortunately, constructing the required medical guidelines is a very labour intensive and costly process. The cost of guideline construction would decrease if guidelines could be

  3. Development of cancer treatment guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Krystyna Kiel

    2011-05-26

    May 26, 2011 ... KEYWORDS. Cancer;. Therapy;. Guidelines. Contents. 1. Why develop guidelines? ... Widely available guideline resources in cancer care. ... The use of guidelines in medicine has a long history. Many .... She has a negative family history. ... The patient has 1 cm grade 3 infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

  4. Japanese Guideline for Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Katayama

    2011-01-01

    The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the “Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008” prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the “Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2009 (ADGL2009” prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle.

  5. BWR emergency procedure guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, J.S.; Karner, E.F.; Stratman, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes plans for dealing with reactor accidents developed by the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Owners' Group in response to post-Three Mile Island US NRC requirements. The devised Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs), applicable to all BWRs, are symptom-based rather than event-based. According to the EPGs, the operator does not need to identify what event is occurring in the plant in order to decide what action to take, but need only observe the symptoms (values and trends of key control parameters) which exist and take appropriate action to control these symptoms. The original objective was to provide reactor operator guidance in responding to a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), but subsequent revisions have included other types of reactor accidents. Topics considered include the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) control guideline, the primary containment control guideline, the secondary containment control guideline, the radioactivity release control guideline, multiple failures vs. the design basis, safe limits vs. technical specifications, the technical status, licensing, and implementation. The EPGs are based upon maintaining both adequate core cooling and primary containment integrity

  6. Are BTS guidelines followed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    In 1993, the British Thoracic Society (BTS) issued guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax. The study's aim was to determine the level of adherence to these guidelines at a London teaching hospital. A retrospective case note audit of 59 episodes was performed. In patients undergoing intervention, the initial procedure was simple aspiration in 32 (73 per cent) and chest tube insertion in 12 (27 per cent) cases, contrasting with the BTS recommendation that aspiration should be attempted first in all such patients. Simple aspiration was successful on 34 per cent of occasions. Successful aspiration was associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay (median 3, range 1-11 days) than either failed aspiration (7, 3-66 days) or chest tube insertion without aspiration (9, 3-16 days). Other areas where practice differed from the BTS guidelines were clamping of chest tubes and use of a pursestring suture for wound closure. A follow up questionnaire suggested a lack of familiarity with the guidelines. These findings indicate that current management of spontaneous pneumothorax deviates from the BTS guidelines in potentially important respects.

  7. Tweaking the Four-Component Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.

    2014-01-01

    By maintaining that moral functioning depends upon four components (sensitivity, judgment, motivation, and character), the Neo-Kohlbergian account of moral functioning allows for uneven moral development within individuals. However, I argue that the four-component model does not go far enough. I offer a more accurate account of moral functioning…

  8. Three Cell Fusions during Double Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunck, Stefanie; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-05-07

    Fertilization of both egg and central cell is a major distinguishing feature of flowering plants. Now, Maruyama et al. report a third cell fusion event between the persistent synergid and the fertilized central cell shortly after double fertilization in Arabidopsis. This causes rapid dilution of pollen tube attractant(s), preventing polytubey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu About SaveMyFertility Provider ... of a clinical study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility ...

  11. Europe the continent with the lowest fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Leridon, H.; Lutz, W.; Velde, E. Te; Thevenon, O.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although fertility rates are falling in many countries, Europe is the continent with the lowest total fertility rate (TFR). This review assesses trends in fertility rates, explores possible health and social factors and reviews the impact of health and social interventions designed to

  12. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  13. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  14. Bio fertilizer Application in a Fertigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Latiffah Noordin; Hoe, P.C.K.

    2011-01-01

    Bio fertilizers contain live beneficial microorganisms that provide nutrients and other benefits to crops. At present, bio fertilizers can be found in solid and liquid forms. Liquid bio fertilizer can be one of the alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Liquid bio fertilizer is produced through culturing of microorganisms that are known to have specific capabilities in helping plant growth. However, application of bio fertilizers in the form of solution is more tedious than that of solid bio fertilizers, which can be applied directly to plants, whereas the liquid form requires several stages of preparation before it can be applied to crops. In Malaysian Nuclear Agency, a study on the distribution of liquid bio fertilizers to crops through the fertigation system has been conducted. In Malaysia, this study has not been conducted in depth, since the present fertigation system is associated to delivery of solubilised mineral fertilizers. This paper discusses the application of liquid bio fertilizers through a fertigation system. Discussions cover technical aspects of bio fertilizer preparation and its application via the said system. Tomato plant was used as test crop to determine the capability and efficiency of bio fertilizer application through the fertigation system. (author)

  15. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers ... Visit the Oncofertility Consortium Web site Use the online Clinic/Center Finder to find the fertility preservation ...

  16. OSART guidelines. 1994 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    These guidelines have been prepared to provide a basic structure and common reference both across the various areas covered by an OSART mission and across all the missions in the programme. As such, they are addressed, principally, to the team members of OSART missions but they will also provide guidance to a host nuclear plant preparing to receive a mission. The guidelines are intended to help each expert to formulate his review in the light of this own experience. They are not all inclusive and should not limit the expert's investigations, but are better considered as illustrating the adequate requirements for his review

  17. Data Qualification guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.B.; Shine, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    Data Qualification (DQ) is a formal, technical process whose objective is to affirm that experimental data are suitable for their intended use. Although it is not possible to develop a fixed recipe for the DQ process to cover all test situations, these general guidelines have been developed for the Nuclear Engineering Section to establish a framework for qualifying data from steady-state processing. These guidelines outline the role of the DQ team providing insight into the planning and conducting of the DQ process

  18. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  19. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  20. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  1. Fertility transition: forecast for demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M; Nicotra, M; Gloria-Bottini, E

    2008-08-01

    By the end of the 20th century most industrialized nations had undergone the so-called fertility transition, characterized by a reduction in fertility to below replacement level and a delay in age at initiation of child-bearing. An emerging concern is the severe economic and social consequences of this demographic decline. We present an overview of fertility changes in Italy in the second half of the 20th century and a mathematical model that may provide projections for the future of the demographic situation. Starting in 1950 the increment of the number of children born in Italy is initially positive; however, beginning in 1965 the trend suddenly becomes negative, and this negative trend further increased in 1975. A slight improvement is observed in 1980, followed by a stable situation beginning in 1987. Relevant socioeconomic and cultural events in Italy coincide with these variations in the fertility trend. Malnutrition, which had been endemic for centuries in some areas of central and southern Italy, disappeared rather abruptly in early 1960. The improvement in the economic situation was also associated with a decrease in illiteracy and with many sociocultural changes, with the emergence of new demands that decreased propensity for childbearing. The additional deceleration observed in 1975 corresponds to the diffusion of contraceptive procedures. The progression of sociocultural changes has led to a progressive liberation of women from the biological burden of childbearing. Two phenomena seem relevant in this context: women's emerging interest in entering the workforce and the possibility to disconnect sex from childbearing. The social function of feminism has overwhelmed the primary function of survival and diffusion of the species, giving rise to relevant and worrying demographic effects. However, the modern woman has an unconscious memory of her primary biological role, depending on both her genetic structure and cultural heritage, that should bring about a

  2. Uptake of fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen by rice using 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Data from five field experiments using labelled nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine the relative effects of soil nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen on rice yield. Yield of grain was closely correlated with total aboveground nitrogen uptake (soil + fertilizer), less closely correlated with soil nitrogen uptake and not significantly correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake. When yield increase rather than yield was correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake, the correlation coefficient was statistically significant. (orig.)

  3. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further

  4. Sexual function and fertility issues in cases of exstrophy epispadias complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with EEC, the issues such as sexuality, sexual function and fertility gain more importance once theses patients advance from puberty to adulthood. The aim of this review is to critically examine the available evidence on these issues. A systemic literature search was performed in Medline over the last 25 years using the key words: Exstrophy, sexual function and pregnancy. Search results were limited to studies of patients with exstrophy published in English literature. A total of 1500 publications were found and subsequently screened by title and when appropriate by abstracts. Of these, 40 publications pertinent to the subject were included for the analysis. The publications were supplemented by an additional 15 publications obtained from their bibliographies. The studies were rated according to the guidelines published by the US department of health and human services. Heterosexuality is usually expressed in both the sexes and most of them have adequate sexual function. Urinary diversion in some series seems to result in better ejaculatory hence fertility outcome in male patients. Recent series have shown equally good results with primary reconstruction. Most of the female patients have normal fertility while male patients have significantly low fertility. Most of the male and female patients with EEC have adequate sexual function. Most of the female patients have normal fertility while most of the male patients have significantly low fertility.

  5. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  6. The Determinants of Low Fertility in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, A.; Rajan, Sowmya; Morgan, S. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework focusing on factors that enhance or reduce fertility relative to desired family size (see Bongaarts 2001), we study fertility variation across time (1992–2006) and space (states) in India. Our empirical analyses use data from three waves of the Indian National Family Health Surveys. We find that this framework can account for a substantial portion of the variation in the TFR across the states and over time. Our estimates focus attention on the critical components of contemporary Indian fertility, especially desired family size, unwanted fertility, son preference, and fertility postponement. PMID:24993746

  7. A decision support system for medical mobile devices based on clinical guidelines for tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazella, Silvio César; Feyh, Rafael; Ben, Angela Jornada

    2014-01-01

    The decision making process conducted by health professionals is strongly linked to the consultations of clinical guidelines, generally available in large text files, making the access to the information very laborious and time consuming. The health area is very fertile for the emergence of

  8. The Cost of Raising Fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurjanska, Malgorzata; Lyngsie, Jacob

    the extent to which maternity benefits may have positive externalities for employers, such as increased employee loyalty. Relying on population wide registry data, we carry out multiple group comparisons (e.g. by comparing women who gave birth with those who adopted children, women with children that require......In recent years, Europe has entered a crisis of fertility. One policy solution that countries can, and some have moved to adopt to deal with low fertility rates, is to increase labor benefits granted to new parents, with a particular focus on extending maternity, not paternity, leave. We explore...... more or less in-home care, etc.). We test the extent to which reduced occupational mobility for women with children is a result of an increased sense of loyalty that may accompany generous maternity leave benefits. We also analyze whether employee loyalty brought on by maternity benefits are influenced...

  9. [Chemotherapy and women fertility preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Tristan; Piver, Pascal; Durand, Lise-Marie; Donadel, Lorène; Pech, Jean-Christophe; Roux, Christophe; Aubard, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Agressive chemotherapy can lead to premature ovarian failure and loss of fertility in women and children. Embryo cryopreservation is an established clinical procedure of fertility preservation but with several limitations. Others options are available. Cryopreservation ovarian cortex tissu have to be suggested in case of high gonadotoxic treatment. It doesn't require puberty and delay in initiation of chemotherapy. The first birth in France after orthotopic graft of ovarian tissu thawed have been recently described with a promising process. Oocyte cryopreservation is available for women without partner but the experience is limited. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy as ovarian protectants seem interesting. Follicular growth and maturation in vitro are still experimental. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotional Variation and Fertility Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Emotional influences on fertility behaviors are an understudied topic that may offer a clear explanation of why many couples choose to have children even when childbearing is not economically rational. With setting-specific measures of the husband-wife emotional bond appropriate for large-scale population research matched with data from a long-term panel study, we have the empirical tools to provide a test of the influence of emotional factors on contraceptive use to limit fertility. This article presents those tests. We use long-term, multilevel community and family panel data to demonstrate that the variance in levels of husband-wife emotional bond is significantly associated with their subsequent use of contraception to avert births. We discuss the wide-ranging implications of this intriguing new result.

  11. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  12. pre-art guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    2004-11-01

    Nov 1, 2004 ... As these guidelines address pre-ART issues, only conditions that occur at ... All HIV-infected adults who are immunosuppressed, i.e. ... therefore recommended that HIV-infected health care ... vaccine in severely immunosuppressed persons, i.e. those ... with residual insecticides, the use of larvicides, and.

  13. Curricular Guidelines for Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Endodontics of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. Endodontics is that branch of dentistry dealing with diagnosis and treatment of oral conditions that arise as a result of pathoses of dental pulp. (MLW)

  14. Evidence-based guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattjes, Mike P; Rovira, Àlex; Miller, David

    2015-01-01

    . This use of MRI can help predict treatment response and assess the efficacy and safety of new therapies. In the second part of the MAGNIMS (Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS) network's guidelines on the use of MRI in MS, we focus on the implementation of this technique in prognostic and monitoring tasks. We...

  15. Guidelines for Authors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Please follow the instructions given below while preparing the manuscript. Articles which do not conform to the guidelines will not be considered. Authors are encouraged to submit their article in ASCII/MS Word/Latex version in a CD or by email to resonanc@ias.ernet.in. Title: Authors are requested to provide a) first title ...

  16. Formalization of Medical Guidelines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Šebesta, K.; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvára, K.; Zvárová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2005), s. 133-141 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GLIF model * formalization of guidelines * prevention of cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  17. Record Keeping Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  18. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  19. Field Campaign Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J. W. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Chapman, L. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  20. Curricular Guidelines for Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presented are the curricular guidelines for Neuroanatomy developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids. Included are recommendations for primary educational goals, prerequisites, scope, content, behavioral objectives,…

  1. Space Guidelines for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Coordinating Committee for Higher Education, Madison.

    The following guidelines are recommended: stack space--for each 10 volumes, one square foot of space; reading room--25 square feet per station x 20% of the total undergraduate population; carrel space--25% of the graduate enrollment x 45 square feet; office and auxilliary space--135 square feet x full time equivalent staff. (NI)

  2. Guidelines on testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Peter; Albrecht, Walter; Algaba, Ferran; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Cohn-Cedermark, Gabriella; Horwich, Alan; Klepp, Olbjoern; Laguna, M. Pilar; Pizzocaro, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    To up-date the 2001 version of the EAU testicular cancer guidelines. A non-structured literature review until January 2005 using the MEDLINE database has been performed. Literature has been classified according to evidence-based medicine levels. Testicular cancer is a highly curable disease.

  3. Guidelines for Urban Labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Christian; Agger Eriksen, Mette; Baerten, Nik

    2017-01-01

    urban lab initiatives from five different European cities: Antwerp (B), Graz and Leoben (A), Maastricht (NL) and Malmö (S). We do not pretend that these guidelines touch upon all possible challenges an urban lab may be confronted with, but we have incorporated all those we encountered in our...

  4. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  5. Radiation doses from phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer coverage of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words, a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  6. Natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, J.; Aurand, K.; Ruehle, H.; Schmier, H.; Wolter, R.

    1974-12-01

    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer covering of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  7. Diagnostic imaging in fertility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, A.C.; Fleischer, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some 10%-15% of married couples are affected by a fertility disorder. The number of infertile couples seeking medical assistance has increased dramatically in the past decade. The roles of diagnostic imaging with radiography and US (conventional and transvaginal) is emphasized in the assessment of couples with fertility disorders and an unexpectedly higher incidence of fetal wastage secondary to unsuspected uterine anomalies. The most frequently utilized radiographic examination in infertile patients is hysterosalpingography (HSG). Techniques and complications of HSG are illustrated. The normal anatomy, variants, and congenital anomalies of the uterus and fallopian tubes are demonstrated, as are the numerous abnormalities such as filling defects of the uterine cavity, synechiae, effects of maternal diethylstilbestrol exposure, inflammatory tubal disease, and the more common HSG findings following uterine and tubal surgery. The role of diagnostic imaging in male infertility, including vasography and varicocele detection, are addressed. Conventional and transvaginal US in the management of gynecologic fertility disorders are examined, with an emphasis on follicular monitoring, guided follicular aspirations, endometrial evaluations, and evaluation of other disorders (such as endometriosis) associated with infertility

  8. Educational differentials in cohort fertility during the fertility transition in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hyun Yoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between women's education and fertility rates, few of these studies have examined the pattern of fertility differentials over the course of the fertility transition. As a country that has experienced a rapid decline in fertility and marked improvements in women's educational attainment over the last several decades, South Korea represents an ideal case for studying this dynamic association. Objective: The aim of the article is to explain the pattern of fertility differentials by level of education and the contribution of the changes in women's educational attainment to the fertility decline during the fertility transition in South Korea. Methods: Drawing upon data from the Korean censuses conducted between 1970 and 2010, I analyze completed cohort fertility for women born between 1926 and 1970 using demographic-decomposition techniques and cohort parity progression ratios by level of education. Results: The differences in fertility by educational attainment have gradually declined over the transition, with fertility almost converging at a low level among recent birth cohorts. Fertility in South Korea had been declining in all of the social groups until the sub-replacement fertility was reached. The change in women's educational attainment then became an important factor in the further decline in fertility. The trend toward fewer children quickly spread from the most educated to the least educated women throughout the fertility transition. Conclusions: The transformation of fertility behaviors across social strata has been a key element in the Korean fertility transition. Although educational expansion, particularly the introduction of mass education, has contributed to falling fertility in South Korea, the role of education in fertility decline is more pronounced in the diffusion of innovative ideas and behaviors, which reduced fertility differentials across

  9. Inspector qualification guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, A.C.; Van Binnebeek, J.J.; Ericsson, P.O.; Fisher, J.C.; Geiger, P.; Grandame, M.; Grimes, B.K.; Joode, A. de; Kaufer, B.; Kinoshita, M.; Klonk, H.; Koizumi, H.; Maeda, N.; Maqua, M.; Perez del Moral, C.; Roselli, F.; Warren, T.; Zimmerman, R.

    1994-07-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) has a Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The WGIP provides a forum for the exchange of Information and experience on the safety Inspection practices of regulatory authorities In the CNRA member countries. A consistent qualification process and well defined level of training for all Inspectors who participate In the safety Inspections are needed to provide consistent Inspections and reliable Inspection results. The WGIP organized in 1992 a workshop on the conduct of inspections, inspector qualification and training, and shutdown inspections at the Technical Training Center of the US NRC in Chattanooga, Tennessee. In the connection of workshop the WGIP identified a need to develop guidance for inspector qualification which could be used as a model by those who are developing their qualification practices. The inspector qualification journals of US NRC provided a good basis for the work. The following inspector qualification guideline has been developed for guidance of qualification of a new inspector recruited to the regulatory body. This guideline has been developed for helping the supervisors and training officers to give the initial training and familiarization to the duties of a new inspector in a controlled manner. US NRC inspector qualification journals have been used to define the areas of attention. This guideline provides large flexibility for application in different type organizations. Large organizations can develop separate qualification journals for each inspector positions. Small regulatory bodies can develop individual training programmes by defining the necessary training topics on case by case basis. E.g. the guideline can be used to define the qualifications of contracted inspectors used in some countries. The appropriate part would apply. Annex 1 gives two examples how this guideline could be applied

  10. Inspector qualification guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batty, A. C.; Van Binnebeek, J. J.; Ericsson, P. O.; Fisher, J. C.; Geiger, P.; Grandame, M.; Grimes, B. K.; Joode, A. de; Kaufer, B.; Kinoshita, M.; Klonk, H.; Koizumi, H.; Maeda, N.; Maqua, M.; Perez del Moral, C.; Roselli, F.; Warren, T.; Zimmerman, R.

    1994-07-15

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) has a Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The WGIP provides a forum for the exchange of Information and experience on the safety Inspection practices of regulatory authorities In the CNRA member countries. A consistent qualification process and well defined level of training for all Inspectors who participate In the safety Inspections are needed to provide consistent Inspections and reliable Inspection results. The WGIP organized in 1992 a workshop on the conduct of inspections, inspector qualification and training, and shutdown inspections at the Technical Training Center of the US NRC in Chattanooga, Tennessee. In the connection of workshop the WGIP identified a need to develop guidance for inspector qualification which could be used as a model by those who are developing their qualification practices. The inspector qualification journals of US NRC provided a good basis for the work. The following inspector qualification guideline has been developed for guidance of qualification of a new inspector recruited to the regulatory body. This guideline has been developed for helping the supervisors and training officers to give the initial training and familiarization to the duties of a new inspector in a controlled manner. US NRC inspector qualification journals have been used to define the areas of attention. This guideline provides large flexibility for application in different type organizations. Large organizations can develop separate qualification journals for each inspector positions. Small regulatory bodies can develop individual training programmes by defining the necessary training topics on case by case basis. E.g. the guideline can be used to define the qualifications of contracted inspectors used in some countries. The appropriate part would apply. Annex 1 gives two examples how this guideline could be applied.

  11. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 2: Judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westling, O.; Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1995-12-01

    The ecological effects of forest fertilization have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in an earlier report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), included the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part is presented here, and contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. The general consensus of this EIA is that the forest fertilization plans drawn up by STORA will not negatively affect the use of the forest as a natural resource in an ecologically sound way, taken into account that the guidelines included in the EIA are followed. The possible environmental effects of a 10 to 20 year period from onset of the plan were studied in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. The recommendations given in this EIA include the choice of forest stands for fertilization, environmental awareness, amount of fertilizer applied, frequency of applications, application procedures and effects follow up, communications, and documentation of the events. 69 refs, 14 tabs

  12. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  13. Computerization of guidelines: towards a "guideline markup language".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, T; Xu, Y; Chatellier, G; Degoulet, P

    2001-01-01

    Medical decision making is one of the most difficult daily tasks for physicians. Guidelines have been designed to reduce variance between physicians in daily practice, to improve patient outcomes and to control costs. In fact, few physicians use guidelines in daily practice. A way to ease the use of guidelines is to implement computerised guidelines (computer reminders). We present in this paper a method of computerising guidelines. Our objectives were: 1) to propose a generic model that can be instantiated for any specific guidelines; 2) to use eXtensible Markup Language (XML) as a guideline representation language to instantiate the generic model for a specific guideline. Our model is an object representation of a clinical algorithm, it has been validated by running two different guidelines issued by a French official Agency. In spite of some limitations, we found that this model is expressive enough to represent complex guidelines devoted to diabetes and hypertension management. We conclude that XML can be used as a description format to structure guidelines and as an interface between paper-based guidelines and computer applications.

  14. Are Nitrogen Fertilizers Deleterious to Soil Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay- Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil is one of the most important natural resources and medium for plant growth. Anthropogenic interventions such as tillage, irrigation, and fertilizer application can affect the health of the soil. Use of fertilizer nitrogen (N for crop production influences soil health primarily through changes in organic matter content, microbial life, and acidity in the soil. Soil organic matter (SOM constitutes the storehouse of soil N. Studies with 15N-labelled fertilizers show that in a cropping season, plants take more N from the soil than from the fertilizer. A large number of long-term field experiments prove that optimum fertilizer N application to crops neither resulted in loss of organic matter nor adversely affected microbial activity in the soil. Fertilizer N, when applied at or below the level at which maximum yields are achieved, resulted in the build-up of SOM and microbial biomass by promoting plant growth and increasing the amount of litter and root biomass added to soil. Only when fertilizer N was applied at rates more than the optimum, increased residual inorganic N accelerated the loss of SOM through its mineralization. Soil microbial life was also adversely affected at very high fertilizers rates. Optimum fertilizer use on agricultural crops reduces soil erosion but repeated application of high fertilizer N doses may lead to soil acidity, a negative soil health trait. Site-specific management strategies based on principles of synchronization of N demand by crops with N supply from all sources including soil and fertilizer could ensure high yields, along with maintenance of soil health. Balanced application of different nutrients and integrated nutrient management based on organic manures and mineral fertilizers also contributed to soil health maintenance and improvement. Thus, fertilizer N, when applied as per the need of the field crops in a balanced proportion with other nutrients and along with organic manures, if available with the

  15. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together on N and P absorption and soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kuibo; Yu Meiyan; Shen Xiuzhen; Wang Tongyan; Chen Xueliu; Wang Zhifen

    1994-01-01

    15 N trace experiments show that organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together promotes organic N mineralization and absorption. Base fertilizer is mainly for nutrition organs and spring fertilizer for reproduction organs. Organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together obtained the highest production efficiency of total N. Total P amount in wheat plant is slightly higher than that of inorganic N applied only, but P distribution in nutrition organs was slightly lower than that of inorganic N applied only. Organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together, not only promoted the production but also increased fertility of soil, so it is an important measure for wheat to obtain high production continuously

  16. Guidelines for Better Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Guidelines for Better Heart Health Past Issues / Winter 2007 ... women either had or did not have CVD. Guidelines at a Glance: Prevention should be tailored to ...

  17. 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual is a revision of the "2004 Water Reuse Guidelines." This document is a summary of reuse guidelines, with supporting information, for the benefit of utilities of utilities and regulatory agencies, particularly EPA.

  18. Paralympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for the benefit of all authorised users. These guidelines apply to LOCOG and IPC creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only.

  19. Guidelines for emergency laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerland Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute abdominal pain is a leading symptom in many surgical emergency patients. Laparoscopy allows for accurate diagnosis and immediate therapy of many intraabdominal pathologies. The guidelines of the EAES (European Association for Endoscopic Surgery provides scientifically founded recommendations about the role of laparoscopy in the different situations. Generally, laparoscopy is well suited for the therapy of the majority of diseases that cause acute abdominal pain.

  20. Severe accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi have highlighted the importance of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). As the world has learned from the catastrophe and countries are considering changes to their nuclear regulatory programs, the content of SAMGs and their regulatory control are being evaluated. This presentation highlights several factors that are being addressed in the United States as rulemaking is underway pertaining to SAMGs. The question of how to be prepared for the unexpected is discussed with specific insights gleaned from Fukushima. (author)

  1. Guidelines on oncologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present issue of European Journal of Radiology is devoted to guidelines on oncologic imaging. 9 experts on imaging in suspected or evident oncologic disease have compiled a broad survey on strategies as well as techniques on oncologic imaging. The group gives advice for detecting tumours at specific tumour sites and use modern literature to emphasize their recommendations. All recommendations are short, comprehensive and authoritative. (orig./MG)

  2. Guidelines for Urban Labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Christian; Agger Eriksen, Mette; Baerten, Nik

    2017-01-01

    These guidelines are intended for team members and managers of urban labs and, more generally, for civil servants and facilitators in cities working with experimental processes to tackle complex challenges. They aim to support the everyday practice of collaboratively experimenting and learning ho...... the result is inspiring and instructive for all those who want to wrap their minds around experimental co-creative approaches to urban governance and city development....

  3. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cancer screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, R; Anderson, R; Cefalu, C; Sidani, M

    2001-03-15

    Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.

  5. Couples' fertility decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The decision about whether to start a family within a partnership can be viewed as a result of an interaction process. The influence of each of the partners in a couple differs depending on their individual preferences and intentions towards having children. Both of the partners additionally influence each other's fertility intentions and preferences. Objective: We specify, estimate, and test a model that examines the decision about whether to have a child as a choice that is made jointly by the two partners. The transition to the birth of a (further child is investigated with the explicit consideration of both the female partner and the male partner in the partnership context. Methods: An approach for modelling the interactive influences of the two actors in the decision-making process was proposed. A trivariate distribution consisting of both the female and the male partners' fertility intentions, as well as the joint generative decision, was modelled. A multivariate non-linear probit model was chosen and the problem of identification in estimating the relative effects of the actors was resolved. These parameters were used to assess the relative importance of each of the partners' intentions in the decision. We carried out the analysis with MPLUS. Data from the panel of intimate relationships and family dynamics (pairfam was used to estimate the model. Results: The biographical context of each of the partners in relation to their own as well as to their partner's fertility intentions was found to be of considerable importance. Of the significant individual and partner effects, the male partner was shown to have the greater influence. But the female partner was found to have stronger parameters overall and she ultimately has a veto power in the couple's final decision.

  6. Kerala reaps low fertility dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Unlike much of India, the state of Kerala has promoted the development of human resources, resulting in lower fertility rates. If current UN projections are correct, India will overtake China as the most populous nation in the world by 2025. Within India, however, great differences exist in fertility rates, reflecting the level of commitment from state governments. In India, state governments control much of the policy and spending on health, education, etc. While the state of Kerala has been among the most committed to human resource development in the developing world, India's 5 northern states (Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Orissa) have been among the least committed. As a result, Kerala's fertility rate has fallen to 2.3 children/women--a rate lower than that of Thailand, China, the formers USSR, or Ireland. Kerala has a contraceptive prevalence rate 3 times the national average and the lowest infant mortality rate in all of India--only 26/1000 live births (infant mortality is 4-5 times higher in the 5 northern states). Only 27% of Kerala's population lives in poverty, compared to 34-49.5% in the northern states. Real incomes and industrialization have been growing faster in Kerala. And industrialization does not appear to have come at the expense of the environment. 2 factors are responsible for Kerala' accomplishments: 1) State government support of human development--the state has invested in health, education, and has conducted a land reform benefiting 3 million landless peasants. 2) The status of women--in Kerala, women are viewed as an asset, not a liability (as in the north). Kerala's female literacy is 66%, compared to 11-21% in the northern states. Kerala also enjoys the highest level of female labor force participation (35%) anywhere in India.

  7. Nanocomposites for controlled release of nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Viviane J.M. da; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V.

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at the development of nano structured materials capable of reducing the rate of release of nitrogen in the soil from an agricultural nitrogen fertilizer. Four different systems of polymer composites were prepared: (1) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, (2) montmorillonite clay/thermoplastic starch and fertilizer, (3) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and also (4) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone. It was confirmed the formation of nano structured materials by elemental analysis (CHN) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetics of nitrogen release was detected by enzymatic colorimetric analysis and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet/visible. The results showed that all materials evaluated were able to reduce the rate of release of nitrogen in the fertilizers. (author)

  8. Pensions with Heterogenous Individuals and Endogenous Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Gahvari, Firouz; Pestieau, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the design of pension schemes in a society where fertility is endogenous and parents differ in their ability to raise children. In a world with perfect information, a pay-as-you-go social security system is characterized by equal pensions for all but different contributions which may or may not increase with the number of children. Additionally, fertility must be subsidized at the margin to correct for the externality that accompanies fertility. In a world of asymmetric inf...

  9. Increasing land sustainability and productivity through soil-fertility management in the West African Sudano-Sahelian zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bationo, A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Kimetu, J.; Kihara, J.; Abdoulaye, M.S.; Adamou, A.; Tabo, R.; Koala, S.

    2005-01-01

    Food production has lagged behind population growth in most parts of the West African semi-arid tropics (WASAT). One of the reasons for low food production is decline in soil fertility as a consequence of continuous cropping without fertilization. As a result, there is a negative nutrient balance in most land-use systems in WASAT. The amount of nutrients leaving the soil, through crop uptake, leaching and erosion exceeds that returned through natural processes such as atmospheric deposition and biological nitrogen fixation or through additions of inorganic and organic fertilizers. Use of mineral fertilizers by many smallholder farmers remains low because of socio-economic constraints. Lack of adequate foreign exchange to import fertilizers, poor infrastructure and poor distribution mechanisms have hampered the use of inorganic fertilizers. Organic inputs such as manure, compost and crop residues are often proposed as alternatives to mineral fertilizers, however, it is important to recognize that in most cases the use of organic inputs is part of an internal flow of nutrients within the farm and does not add nutrient from outside the farm; also, quantities available are inadequate to meet nutrient needs over large areas because of limited availability, low nutrient content of the material, and high labour demands for processing and application. The beneficial effects of combined manure and inorganic nutrients on soil fertility have been repeatedly shown, yet there is need for more research on the establishment of the fertilizer equivalency of manures, in determining the optimum combination of these two plant nutrients and in taking into account the high variability in their quality. Such information is useful in formulating decision-support systems and in establishing simple guidelines for management and utilization of the resources. This paper highlights current research results on the management of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter and summarizes our

  10. The need to improve fertility awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Harper

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Women and men globally are delaying the birth of their first child. In the UK, the average age of first conception in women is 29 years. Women experience age-related fertility decline so it is important that men and women are well-informed about this, and other aspects of fertility. A group of UK stakeholders have established the Fertility Education Initiative to develop tools and information for children, adults, teachers, parents and healthcare professionals dedicated to improving knowledge of fertility and reproductive health.

  11. The intimate genetics of Drosophila fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppin, Benjamin; Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Horard, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    The union of haploid gametes at fertilization initiates the formation of the diploid zygote in sexually reproducing animals. This founding event of embryogenesis includes several fascinating cellular and nuclear processes, such as sperm–egg cellular interactions, sperm chromatin remodelling, centrosome formation or pronuclear migration. In comparison with other aspects of development, the exploration of animal fertilization at the functional level has remained so far relatively limited, even in classical model organisms. Here, we have reviewed our current knowledge of fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster, with a special emphasis on the genes involved in the complex transformation of the fertilizing sperm nucleus into a replicated set of paternal chromosomes. PMID:26246493

  12. Regulation of fertilization and early seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doughty, James

    2014-04-01

    Plant reproduction meetings often deal either with pre-fertilization processes such as flowering and pollen biology or post-fertilization processes such as embryogenesis and seed development. The Biochemical Society Focused Meeting entitled 'Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development' was organized to close this gap and to discuss mechanistic similarities and future research directions in the reproductive processes shortly before, during and after fertilization. As an outcome of the workshop, invited speakers and a few selected oral communication presenters contributed focused reviews and technical articles for this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. We provide here a short overview of the contents and highlights of the various articles.

  13. Fertility behaviour of recent immigrants to Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The fertility practices of immigrants are a particularly interesting field of study for demographers, providing an insight into the fertility behaviour of individuals when both the society and the individual undergo a period of rapid change. This paper describes and compares the fertility behaviour of two large groups of immigrants, from the former Soviet Union (FSU and from Ethiopia to Israel in the last 20 years. The changes in fertility behaviour undergone in the same society and at the same time by two very different groups are examined. The findings reveal that the fertility behaviour of immigrants is indeed changing. The fertility of FSU immigrants is increasing and that of the Ethiopian immigrants decreasing, with accompanying changes in the proximate determinants of fertility. Although the fertility of immigrants is becoming more similar to that of the receiving society, the methods employed to achieve the fertility change are not necessarily similar, and, in some cases, diverge from the norms of the receiving society.

  14. Tunisia: high fertility stalls development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, M

    1985-01-01

    Despite government policy enacted in 1964 to reduce fertility in order to hasten socioeconomic progress, population pressures continue to impair development in Tunisia. The birth rate fell 20% over the last 2 decades, but this accomplishment has been outweighed by a 50% decline in mortality rates. As a result, the rate of natural population increase has remained relatively constant at 2.5%/year. The initial decline in fertility that followed introduction of the national family planning program appears to have reached a plateau, explained in part by the resurgence of conservatism and religious fundamentalism and the consequent emphasis on women's childbearing roles. Unemployment in rural areas has led to widespread migration and unemployment is as high as 20% in the nonagricultural sector. Many young Tunisians lack adequate educational preparation to enter the labor force; in 1982, 27% of new job entrants could not read or write. The government's plan to decentralize development to stabilize population and achieve equilibrium between regions has been thwarted by the pace of population growth and limited resources. The rural regions where population is increasing the fastest are also the most difficult to reach with family planning programs. On the other hand, there have been some successes in this area when services have been adapted to the lifestyle and traditions of those in these isolated rural villages.

  15. Nurses' experiences of guideline implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanen, Seija; Välimäki, Marita; Kaila, Minna

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to address the following questions: What kind of experiences do primary care nurses have of guideline implementation? What do nurses think are the most important factors affecting the adoption of guidelines? BACKGROUND: The implementation of clinical guidelines seems...... to be dependent on multiple context-specific factors. This study sets out to explore the experiences of primary care nurses concerning guideline implementation. DESIGN: Qualitative interview. METHODS: Data were generated by four focus group interviews involving nurses working in out-patient services in primary...... to nurses, (iii) factors related to the anticipated consequences and (iv) factors related to the patient group. Nurses' awareness and acceptance of guidelines and the anticipated positive consequences facilitate the implementation of guidelines. Organisational support, especially the adapting of guidelines...

  16. A review of clinical guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, E J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines are increasingly used in patient management but few clinicians are familiar with their origin or appropriate application. METHODS: A Medline search using the terms \\'clinical guidelines\\' and \\'practice guidelines\\' was conducted. Additional references were sourced by manual searching from the bibliographies of articles located. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Clinical guidelines originated in the USA in the early 1980s, initially as a cost containment exercise. Significant improvements in the process and outcomes of care have been demonstrated following their introduction, although the extent of improvement varies considerably. The principles for the development of guidelines are well established but many published guidelines fall short of these basic quality criteria. Guidelines are only one aspect of improving quality and should be used within a wider framework of promoting clinical effectiveness. Understanding their limitations as well as their potential benefits should enable clinicians to have a clearer view of their place in everyday practice.

  17. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on the placement of phosphorus fertilizer to improve fertilizer utilization by lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, W.H.; Riswantoro; Mardjo, M.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment for studying the placement of phosphorus fertilizer was carried out in the glass house by using 32 P-labelled superphosphate. The specific activity of the labelled fertilizer used was 0,25 mCi/g P 2 O 5 . Three placement methods were studied: (1) Hill placement: Fertilizer was burried at a distance of 5cm from the plants at the depth of 5 cm, (2) Surface placement: Fertilizer was spread on the surface, and (3) Soil mixed application: Fertilizer was mixed with the soil at the depth of 5 cm. Superphosphate was applied at the rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg P 25 /ha. Results obtained from the experiment showed that the dry matter production was significantly affected by the methods of placement of phosphorus fertilizer. Soil mixed placement gave the lowest yield of dry plant material. It differed significantly from the two other methods of placement. However, there was no significant difference between hill and surface placement. The placement of phosphorus fertilizer significantly affected the total uptake of phosphorus nutrient, uptake fertilizer phosphorus, and the percentage of fertilizer utilization. Surface placement gave the highest utilization of fertilizer when supplied at rates higher than 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha. At low rate applications, hill placement was the best, but, at rates higher than 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha the percentage of fertilizer utilization decreased. Soil mixed application was the least efficient fertilizer utilization. (author)

  19. Mineralization dynamics in soil fertilized with seaweed-fish waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera-Vives, Marta; López-Fabal, Adolfo; López-Mosquera, M Elvira; Ribeiro, Henrique M

    2015-12-01

    Seaweed and fish waste can be composted together to obtain fertilizer with high organic matter and nutrient contents. The nutrients, however, are mostly in organic form and must be mineralized to make them available to plants. The objective of this work was to establish a usage guideline for the compost by studying its mineralization dynamics. Also, the release of inorganic N and C from soil fertilized with the compost was monitored and modelled. C and N were released throughout the assay, to an extent significantly dependent on fertilizer rate. Mineralization of both elements fitted a first-order exponential model, and each fertilizer rate required using a specific fitting model. An increased rate favoured mineralization (especially of carbon). After 90 days, 2.3% of C and 7.7% of N were mineralized (and 23.3% of total nitrogen made plant available) with the higher rate. C mineralization was slow because organic matter in the compost was very stable. On the other hand, the relatively high initial content in mineral N of the compost increased gradually by the effect of mineralization. The amount of N available would suffice to meet the requirements of moderately demanding crops at the lower fertilizer rate, and even those of more demanding crops at the higher rate. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Practice guidelines. Cookbook medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, J

    1994-08-01

    A large measure of the confusion and doubt currently being sowed in the ongoing debate over the advisability and effectiveness of practice guidelines is a matter of terminology. In deference to the wishes and fears of physicians, the term "requirements" is not used. But requirements they are. Their quality and the degree to which they are useful will depend on their level of detail and the degree to which they are based on positive outcomes. Regardless, attorneys and others will always view and use them as requirements.

  1. CAD-guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlechtendahl, E.G.; Lang-Lendorff, G.

    1982-10-01

    The CAD-guidelines (CAD = Computer Aided Design) contain rules for programming, structuring and documentation of programs. The standard deals with the structure of CAD-programs, their components, the programming-methods, the language etc. It describes what documents and references are necessary for a CAD-program. In order to gain a broad application of CAD criteria like portability and completeness of the documentation for an effective maintenance are as important as a transparent way of producing CAD-software. (orig.) [de

  2. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration genes for WAtype cytoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen staining test with 1% I2KI solution showed segregation ratio of 15:1 (fertile: sterile), representing two nuclear independent dominant genes controlling the trait carried by fertile parent DN-33-18. Segregation for spikelet fertility in F2 confirmed the results of pollen fertility test. Molecular tagging of fertility restorer genes ...

  3. Nitrous oxide emission factors from N-fertilizer in sugarcane production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, M. V.; Siqueira Neto, M.; Feigl, B. J.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. E.; Cerri, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane production is rapidly expanding due to the increase of global demand for ethanol. Concurrently the necessary inputs to culture, especially N-fertilizer, are growing, since N is one of the key element to maintain sugarcane productivity. However, it is known that N-fertilizer is responsible for the largest share of N2O emissions from agricultural soils. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) estimated that under favorable climatic conditions approximately 1% of the N-fertilizer applied can be emitted as N2O. Our goal was to estimate N2O emission factors from N-fertilizer used in the sugarcane ratoon for ethanol production. A field study was conducted at the Capuava Mill, located in southeastern Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications in a factorial scheme (2 x 2): two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate), two application rates (80 and 120 kg ha-1), and a control treatment. N2O concentrations were determined by gas chromatography using a Shimadzu© GC-mini. N2O fluxes were calculated from linear regressions of concentration versus incubation time in the soil static chambers. The N2O emission factor of N-fertilizer was calculated according to the methodology described in the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC). Comparatively, ammonium nitrate emitted 45 to 75% less N2O than urea application. There was no significant difference in N2O emission between the two applied rates of urea. Also the N2O emission factor of ammonium nitrate (0.3×0.2%) was lower than that of urea (1.1×0.4%). Our results indicated that on average the N fertilization of sugarcane plantation has an emission factor of 0.7×0.5% suggesting that N-fertilizer management can be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to improve the sustainability of bioethanol from sugarcane.

  4. Computerizing clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application and comp......It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application...... is comprised by fieldwork in three oncology departments and a case study of advanced life support. Although close to all patients within oncology are treated according to a CPG, I found limited application of physical CPGs and web-based CPG portals. However, I found comprehensive application of activity...... of the business strategic aims, and 3) analysis and formalization of CPGs. This will imply orchestration of design teams with competencies from a wide array of disciplines such as health practice, business management, knowledge management and information systems....

  5. [Anemia: guidelines comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The development of recombinant human erythropoietin and its introduction into the market in the late 1980s has significantly improved the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reduced the need for blood transfusions. Starting from a cautious target, a progressive increase in the recommended hemoglobin levels has been observed over the years, in parallel with an increase in the obtained levels. This trend has gone together with the publication of findings of observational studies showing a relationship between the increase in hemoglobin levels and a reduction in the mortality risk, with the conduction of clinical trials testing the effects of complete anemia correction, and with the compilation of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients by scientific societies and organizations. In the last two years, evidence of a possible increase in the mortality risk in those patients who were randomized to high hemoglobin levels has resulted in a decrease in the upper limit of the recommended Hb target to be obtained with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA), and consequently in a narrowing of the target range. Comparison of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients is an interesting starting point to discuss single recommendations, strengthen their importance, or suggest new topics of research to fill up important gaps in knowledge.

  6. Postdoctoral program guidelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Miller, Andrew W.; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Liu, Yanli; Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Hall, Lisa Michelle; Liu, Xiaohua H.; Ekoto, Isaac

    2012-04-01

    We, the Postdoc Professional Development Program (PD2P) leadership team, wrote these postdoc guidelines to be a starting point for communication between new postdocs, their staff mentors, and their managers. These guidelines detail expectations and responsibilities of the three parties, as well as list relevant contacts. The purpose of the Postdoc Program is to bring in talented, creative people who enrich Sandia's environment by performing innovative R&D, as well as by stimulating intellectual curiosity and learning. Postdocs are temporary employees who come to Sandia for career development and advancement reasons. In general, the postdoc term is 1 year, renewable up to five times for a total of six years. However, center practices may vary; check with your manager. At term, a postdoc may apply for a staff position at Sandia or choose to move to university, industry or another lab. It is our vision that those who leave become long-term collaborators and advocates whose relationships with Sandia have a positive effect upon our national constituency.

  7. Fertility preservation in young cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Revel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients.

  8. Soil fertility decline: definitions and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    In permanent agricultural systems, soil fertility is maintained through applications of manure, other organic materials, inorganic fertilizers, lime, the inclusion of legumes in the cropping systems, or a combination of these. In many parts of the world the availability, use, and profitability of

  9. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women's educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries and very small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Country differences in fertility outcome are generally rather low. Childlessness is highest in Finland and lowest in Norway, and the educational differentials are largest in Norway. Despite such differences, the cohort analyses in many ways support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  10. Fertilizer and Lime: Why They Are Used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Judith Strand

    This unit teaching guide is designed to help teachers explain the principles of fertilizer and lime use. The first of four major sections is a teaching outline keyed to transparency masters and student handouts. Thirteen major areas are covered in the teaching outline: (1) plant needs; (2) uses of fertilizer; (3) nutrients for plant growth; (4)…

  11. Education Differences in Intended and Unintended Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; England, Paula; Edgington, Sarah; Kangas, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Using a hazards framework and panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2004), we analyze the fertility patterns of a recent cohort of white and black women in the United States. We examine how completed fertility varies by women's education, differentiating between intended and unintended births. We find that the education…

  12. [Assisted fertilization: meditations on the new legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, E; Manzur, A

    1997-02-01

    We review philosophical and controversial aspects of assisted fertilization. This exercise is necessary considering the discussion of a bill in the Parliament that intends to regulate these technologies in our Country. We review the definition of life beginning and the cost-benefit problem of adoption as an alternative to assisted fertilization.

  13. Fertility and money in an OLG model

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    We extend the two-period-lived-agent overlapping generations model with endogenous fertility and demand for money to understand whether and how the introduction of a money sector modifies what we have so far learned about fertility behaviours. It is shown that the existence of money may tend to exacerbate existing problems of either under-population or over-population.

  14. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.

  15. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in patients facing gonadotoxic therapies: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2013; 100:1224-31. Chow EJ, et al. Pregnancy after chemotherapy in male and female survivors of ...

  16. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for ... for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer ...

  17. A physical theory on placement of fertilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1953-01-01

    A theory was developed enabling calculation of the effect of any placement method of fertilizer on yield if the effect of one method is known.

    This theory was based on the following established facts. The reactions between soil and fertilizer rate are the same for broadcasting and placement

  18. Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines: No. 278, June 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona R; Margolese, Shari; Money, Deborah M; Gysler, Mathias; Hamilton, Scot; Yudin, Mark H

    2012-10-01

    Four main clinical issues need to be considered for HIV-positive individuals and couples with respect to pregnancy planning and counselling: (1) pre-conceptional health; (2) transmission from mother to infant, which has been significantly reduced by combined antiretroviral therapy; (3) transmission between partners during conception, which requires different prevention and treatment strategies depending on the status and needs of those involved; and (4) management of infertility issues. The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical information and recommendations for health care providers to assist HIV-positive individuals and couples with their fertility and pregnancy planning decisions. These guidelines are evidence- and community-based and flexible, and they take into account diverse and intersecting local/population needs and the social determinants of health. Intended outcomes are (1) reduction of risk of vertical transmission and horizontal transmission of HIV, (2) improvement of maternal and infant health outcomes in the presence of HIV, (3) reduction of the stigma associated with pregnancy and HIV, and (4) increased access to pregnancy planning and fertility services. PubMed and Medline were searched for articles published in English or French to December 20, 2010, using the following terms: "HIV" and "pregnancy" or "pregnancy planning" or "fertility" or "reproduction" or "infertility" or "parenthood" or "insemination" or "artificial insemination" or "sperm washing" or "IVF" or "ICSI" or "IUI." Other search terms included "HIV" and 'horizontal transmission" or "sexual transmission" or "serodiscordant." The following conference databases were also searched: Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, International AIDS Conference, International AIDS Society, Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, the Canadian Association of HIV/AIDS Research, and the Ontario HIV Treatment

  19. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Healthy couples recruited throughout Denmark....... PATIENT(S): Two hundred ninety-five couples who were planning their first pregnancy were followed up from the discontinuation of birth control until a pregnancy was recognized within six menstrual cycles. Early embryonal losses were detected by changes in urinary hCG levels. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The probability of pregnancy occurring within one menstrual cycle (fecundity). RESULT(S): In women who had a cycle length that differed by >10 days from the usual cycle length, fecundity was approximately 25% that of women who had no variation (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval...

  20. Wealth, intelligence, politics and global fertility differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2009-07-01

    Demographic trends in today's world are dominated by large fertility differentials between nations, with 'less developed' nations having higher fertility than the more advanced nations. The present study investigates whether these fertility differences are related primarily to indicators of economic development, the intellectual level of the population, or political modernity in the form of liberal democracy. Results obtained with multiple regression, path models and latent variable models are compared. Both log-transformed GDP and measures of intelligence independently reduce fertility across all methods, whereas the effects of liberal democracy are weak and inconsistent. At present rates of fertility and mortality and in the absence of changes within countries, the average IQ of the young world population would decline by 1.34 points per decade and the average per capita income would decline by 0.79% per year.

  1. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  2. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors.......Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both...

  3. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  4. On the fertility transition in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent with the predicti......A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent...... with the predictions of the unified growth theory and sheds important insights in explaining the sustained income growth Africa has experienced since 1995. The paper also shows that the effects of income per capita and child mortality on fertility rates are non-robust and inconsistent with the predictions...

  5. Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth and Leaf Yield of Kale ... Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... fertilizer gave leaf yields comparable to those applied with exclusively inorganic sources of fertilizer.

  6. Young female cancer patients' experiences with fertility counselling and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeg, Didde; Schmidt, Lone; Tryde Macklon, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    were aware that chemotherapy could destroy their eggs. The participants described how specialized fertility counselling and fertility preservation contributed to a belief in life after cancer, which gave them hope that they would survive their cancer disease. Further, the women described how......Introduction: Fertility counselling for young women newly diagnosed with cancer is an important field of preconceptional counselling. This qualitative, small-scale study explored how young women newly diagnosed with cancer experienced specialized fertility preservation counselling and treatment...... in the public Danish health care system. Methods: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with five women below 40 years recently diagnosed with cancer. All women received fertility counselling by a fertility specialist at the Fertility Clinic, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark before...

  7. Societal foundations for explaining fertility: Gender equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gender equity theory in relation to fertility argues that very low fertility is the result of incoherence in the levels of gender equity in individually-oriented social institutions and family-oriented social institutions. The salience of gender to the fertility transition is strong in theory but not as strong in specification of testable hypotheses as has been pointed out in the literature. OBJECTIVE The paper aims to clarify the specification of gender equity theory through a discussion of the difference between equity and equality and to suggest methods that might be applied to test the theory. METHODS The theory is restated and further developed using literature from different disciplines. The method is described using a decomposition of fertility for women by human capital levels. RESULTS The clarification of the theory includes a reminder that the theory relates to differences in fertility between countries and not to differences in fertility between women in the same country. In comparisons between countries, higher gender equity leads to higher fertility. In comparisons of fertility across women in the same country, higher gender equity does not necessarily imply higher fertility. In relation to measurement, a specification is suggested that effectively compares women across countries controlling for their level of human capital. Simple graphics are used to indicate ways in which fertility between countries may vary. CONCLUSIONS The paper concludes that it is likely the gender equity theory can be tested more readily by examining the behaviour across countries of women with higher levels of human capital.

  8. Estimation of natural radioactivity in different fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.; Sonkawade, R.G.; Kant, K.

    2011-01-01

    Fertilizers have become essential to the agricultural field all over the world. The natural radionuclides of fertilizers consist mainly of 226 Ra, 232 Th, isotopes with their decay products. The level of activity concentration of radionuclides in phosphate fertilizers provides useful information in the monitoring of environmental contamination. The concepts of natural radiation are essential for radiation protection purpose. Radionuclides present in fertilizers affect the common people and farmers immensely. They are produced and used worldwide in increasing quantities to replenish natural nutrients depleted from soils because of forming and erosion. However, the mining, processing and use of fertilizer materials in massive quantities redistribute radioactive trace elements throughout the environment, principally uranium, radium, radium decay products. The agricultural phosphate fertilizer industries use raw materials that consist of phosphate rocks, phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphate. The level of activity concentration of radionuclides in different fertilizers provides useful information in the monitoring of environmental contamination. Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K, in some phosphate deposits. The concepts of natural radiation are essential for radiation protection purpose. This paper emphasis on the public risk assessment in an integrated manner assessing doses to members of the public via the atmospheric aquatic and secondary pathways. In the present study radioactivity in different fertilizer samples, which are widely used in Indian fields, was determined. The experimental work includes the measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using gamma spectrometry and radon concentration and exhalation rates measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors to asses a

  9. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  10. The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyborova, Oxana

    2010-05-01

    The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves

  11. Heavy Metal Leaching as Affected by Long-Time Organic Waste Fertilizer Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Holm, Peter E; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Magid, Jakob

    2017-07-01

    The recycling of urban waste products as fertilizers in agriculture may introduce contaminants such as heavy metals into soil that may leach and contaminate groundwater. In the present study, we investigated the leaching of heavy metals from intact soil cores collected in the long-term agricultural field trial CRUCIAL. At the time of sampling, the equivalent of >100 yr of urban waste fertilizers following Danish legislation had been applied. The leaching of Cu was significantly increased in the treatments receiving organic waste products compared with the unfertilized control but remained below the permissible level following Danish drinking water guidelines. The leaching of Cu was controlled primarily by the topsoil Cu content and by the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) but at the same time significantly correlated with leaching of colloids in soils that had not received fertilizer or had received an organic fertilizer with a low concentration of Cu. The leaching of Zn, Cd, and Co was not significantly increased in urban waste-fertilized treatments. The leaching of Mo was elevated in accelerated waste treatments (both agricultural and urban), and the leaching of Mo was linked to the leaching of DOC. Since leaching of Cr and Pb was strongly linked to the level of colloid leaching, leaching of these metals was reduced in the urban waste treatments. Overall, the results presented should not raise concern regarding the agricultural use of urban waste products in agriculture as long as the relevant guidelines are followed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Water chemistry guidelines for BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanin, W.J.; Jones, R.L.; Welty, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Guidelines for BWR water chemistry control have been prepared by a committee of experienced utility industry personnel sponsored by the BWR Owners Group on IGSCC Research and coordinated by the Electric Power Research Institute. The guidelines are based on extensive plant operational experience and laboratory research data. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide guidance to the electric utility industry on water chemistry control to help reduce corrosion, especially stress corrosion cracking, in boiling water reactors

  13. Olympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”) by LOCOG and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only who are authorised to use the London 2012 marks. The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for t...

  14. Cost analysis guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy's (DOE's) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies

  15. SARIS Guidelines. 2014 Ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA fundamental safety principles provide the basis for IAEA safety standards and IAEA related programmes. IAEA safety standards reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people and the environment, and therefore represent what all regulators should achieve. These standards, in particular IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1, Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, provide the basics for establishing, maintaining and continuously improving the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. Additional IAEA requirements and guidance, such as the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, and IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3, The Management System for Facilities and Activities, are also used to establish and develop the national infrastructure for safety and for establishing and implementing a management system. Assessment of the regulatory framework for safety with respect to the IAEA safety standards can be made either through an external review or through internal self-assessment. Self-assessment offers a mechanism by which an organization can assess its performance against established standards and models and thereby identify areas for improvement. The IAEA has developed a methodology and tool for Self-assessment of the Regulatory Infrastructure for Safety (SARIS), to assist States in undertaking self-assessment of their national safety framework in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of the IAEA safety standards, and to develop an action plan for improvement. The IAEA self-assessment methodology and the associated tools are fully compatible with the IAEA safety standards and are also used in the preparation for regulatory review missions, such as the Integrated Regulatory Review Service and advisory missions. These guidelines have been developed to

  16. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2015-02-01

    How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these findings. Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of online educational approaches to increase fertility knowledge and support informed family planning decisions. Web

  17. Evaluating Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions that Affect Fertility and Childbearing: How Health Effects are Measured Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for economic evaluations of health interventions define relevant outcomes as those accruing to individuals receiving interventions. Little consensus exists on counting health impacts on current and future fertility and childbearing. Objective To characterize current practices for counting such health outcomes. Design We developed a framework characterizing health interventions with direct and/or indirect effects on fertility and childbearing and how such outcomes are reported. We identified interventions spanning the framework and performed a targeted literature review for economic evaluations of these interventions. For each article, we characterized how the potential health outcomes from each intervention were considered, focusing on QALYs associated with fertility and childbearing. Results We reviewed 108 studies, identifying seven themes: 1) Studies were heterogeneous in reporting outcomes. 2) Studies often selected outcomes for inclusion that tend to bias toward finding the intervention to be cost-effective. 3) Studies often avoided the challenges of assigning QALYs for pregnancy and fertility by instead considering cost per intermediate outcome. 4) Even for the same intervention, studies took heterogeneous approaches to outcome evaluation. 5) Studies employed multiple, competing rationales for whether and how to include fertility-related QALYs and whose QALYs to include. 6) Studies examining interventions with indirect effects on fertility typically ignored such QALYs. 7) Even recent studies had these shortcomings. Limitations The review was targeted rather than systematic. Conclusions Economic evaluations inconsistently consider QALYs from current and future fertility and childbearing in ways that frequently appear biased towards the interventions considered. As the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine updates its guidelines, making the practice of cost-effectiveness analysis more consistent is a priority. Our

  18. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  19. Intergenerational fertility correlations in contemporary developing counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the magnitude of intergenerational continuities in total and effective fertility among women in a group of 46 contemporary developing countries. Information collected from 93,000 women aged 45-49 for estimation of maternal mortality in the demographic and health surveys (DHS) program is analyzed using Pearson product moment intergenerational fertility correlations. A positive but usually small intergenerational correlation is found for both completed fertility (CFS, total number of children born) and effective fertility (EFS, number of children surviving to age of reproduction). Although the developing countries are mainly located in sub-Saharan Africa, a similar pattern appears to hold for the Asian and Latin American countries included. Women in the second generation with no education have a stronger relationship with their parents' fertility than women with some education. The relationship is also stronger in rural than in urban areas and in countries with lower levels of development. Intergenerational correlations of completed fertility in both generations are marginally stronger than for effective fertility largely because the number of a woman's total sibs is more strongly related to her subsequent childbearing than her number of adult sibs. Values of intergenerational correlations for these countries are similar to published values for a number of Western pretransitional populations, but well below values in contemporary developed societies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Diverging patterns of fertility decline in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathías Nathan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The total fertility rate (TFR in Uruguay fell from 2.5 to 1.9 children per woman between 1996 and 2011. However, no study to date has examined the decline of the TFR by observing changes in fertility patterns by birth order. Objective: The main aim of this study is to analyze recent changes in fertility level and timing of childbearing by birth order in Uruguay. Methods: We estimate unconditional and conditional age- and birth-order-specific fertility rates for 1996-2011 using data from vital statistics, population census, and national population estimates. Additionally, three period summary measures of birth-order-specific fertility quantum are calculated: TFR, PATFR and TFRp*. Timing changes by birth order are examined with MAB and TMAB, focusing on MAB1 and its standard deviation and comparing their evolutions in Uruguay with those of selected countries. Results: Fertility decline fits a parity-specific stopping model with a moderate increase in the mean ages of first, second, and third births. The distribution of conditional fertility rates for first and second births depicts an asymmetric bimodal shape linked to the increasing heterogeneity of the timing of childbearing. Compared to countries with similar fertility trends, heterogeneity in the age at first birth in Uruguay is remarkably high. Conclusions: Previous studies suggest that heterogeneity in first and second birth timing is related to structural social inequalities, as women from lower social strata have not significantly changed the age at which they bear a first child, whereas women of middle to high social strata have started to postpone it. The new evidence reinforces the idea that postponement transition in Uruguay cannot be studied without considering this consolidation of social status polarization in fertility timing.

  1. Revised guidelines for good practice in IVF laboratories (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De los Santos, Maria José; Apter, Susanna; Coticchio, Giovanni; Debrock, Sophie; Lundin, Kersti; Plancha, Carlos E; Prados, Fernando; Rienzi, Laura; Verheyen, Greta; Woodward, Bryan; Vermeulen, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Which recommendations can be provided by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Special Interest Group (ESHRE SIG) Embryology to support laboratory specialists in the organization and management of IVF laboratories and the optimization of IVF patient care? Structured in 13 sections, the guideline development group formulated recommendations for good practice in the organization and management of IVF laboratories, and for good practice of the specific procedures performed within the IVF laboratory. NA. The guideline was produced by a group of 10 embryologists representing different European countries, settings and levels of expertise. The group evaluated the document of 2008, and based on this assessment, each group member rewrote one or more sections. Two 2-day meetings were organized during which each of the recommendations was discussed and rewritten until consensus within the guideline group was reached. After finalizing the draft, the members of the ESHRE SIG embryology were invited to review the guideline. NA. The guideline provides recommendations on the general organization of an IVF laboratory (staffing and direction, quality management, laboratory safety), and on the specific aspects of the procedures performed in IVF laboratories (Identification of patients and traceability of their reproductive cells, consumables, handling of biological material, oocyte retrieval, sperm preparation, insemination of oocytes, scoring for fertilization, embryo culture and transfer, and cryopreservation). A last section provides recommendations regarding an Emergency plan for IVF laboratories. Evidence on most of the issues described is scarce, and therefore it was decided not to perform a formal search for and assessment of scientific evidence. However, recommendations published in the EUTCD and relevant and recent documents, manuals and consensus papers were taken into account when formulating the recommendations. Despite the limitations, the guideline

  2. Cohort fertility decline in low fertility countries: Decomposition using parity progression ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystof Zeman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The long-term decline in cohort fertility in highly developed countries has been widely documented. However, no systematic analysis has investigated which parity contributed most to the fertility decline to low and very low levels. Objective: We examine how the contribution of changing parity progression ratios varied across cohorts, countries, and broader regions in Europe, North America, Australia, and East Asia. We pay special attention to countries that reached very low completed cohort fertility, below 1.75 children per woman. Methods: Using population censuses and large-scale surveys for 32 low fertility countries, we decompose the change in completed cohort fertility among women born between 1940 and 1970. The decomposition method takes into account the sequential nature of childbearing as a chain of transitions from lower to higher parities. Results: Among women born between 1940 and 1955, the fertility decline was mostly driven by reductions in the progression ratios to third and higher-order births. By contrast, among women born between 1955 and 1970, changes in fertility showed distinct regional patterns: in Central and Eastern Europe they were fuelled by falling second-birth rates, whereas in the German-speaking countries, Southern Europe, and East Asia decreases in first-birth rates played the major role. Conclusions: Pathways to low and very low fertility show distinct geographical patterns, which reflect the diversity of the cultural, socioeconomic, and institutional settings of low fertility countries. Contribution: Our study highlights the importance of analysing parity-specific components of fertility in order to understand fertility change and variation. We demonstrate that similar low levels of completed cohort fertility can result from different combinations of parity-specific fertility rates.

  3. Fertility after uterine artery embolization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLucas, Bruce; Voorhees, William D; Elliott, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) research has largely been focused on women over 40 years, yet women of reproductive age undergo UAE without any increased morbidity. Some physicians refrain from recommending UAE to women in this age group because of some research findings showing a negative effect on fertility. This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the fertility potential of women undergoing UAE, in terms of pregnancy rates and complications as well as ovarian function and reserve. Findings indicate many benefits for women desiring fertility who undergo UAE over traditional myomectomy.

  4. Fate of nitrogenous fertilizers in forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, P.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The fate of the nitrogenous fertilizers through the processes of denitrification, ammonia volatilization, immobilization and uptake by a conifer is determined, with the aid of 15 N-labelled fertizers. The foliage of Douglas-fir was able to absorb gaseous ammonia under optimal conditions. Denitrification and immobilization of fertilizer-N by forest soil were highest with forest floor samples and decreased with depth. Laboratory studies with four-year-old Douglas-fir demostrated that a higher quantity of fertilizer-N was utilized by trees when the nitrogen was supplied as NO 3 - rather than NH 4 + . (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Global radiological impact of the phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rudnei Karam; Alves, Rex Nazare

    1996-01-01

    About ninety percent of the products obtained in the phosphate industry are directly used in agriculture as fertilizers. The uranium, thorium and radium content in phosphate fertilizers pollute the soil, water and air, creating risks due to associated natural radiation. This work shows the concentration of radionuclides present in various products of the national and American phosphate fertilizers industry, and compared them with worldwide mean values. The radiological impact of the products on the environment is evaluated and suggestions are presented in order to minimize the risks due to radioactivity. (author)

  6. IT governance guidelines for directors

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This important new book – 'IT Governance: Guidelines for Directors' provides directors, executives, managers and professional advisers with clear, pragmatic guidelines for ensuring that IT and the business work together for the same strategic objectives. 

  7. [Guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.; Olthuis, G.J.; Siebelink, M.; Gerritsen, R; Heurn, E. van

    2017-01-01

    - The multidisciplinary guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia' was published in March 2017 at request of the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport.- This guideline provides recommendations for the organisation and implementation of a request to donate organs expressed by a patient who asks

  8. The nuclear codes and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonter, M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers problems faced by the mining industry when implementing the nuclear codes of practice. Errors of interpretation are likely. A major criticism is that the guidelines to the codes must be seen as recommendations only. They are not regulations. Specific clauses in the guidelines are criticised

  9. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  10. Journal of Wildlife Management guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Frank R. Thompson; Dawn Hanseder; Allison Cox; Anna Knipps

    2011-01-01

    These Guidelines apply to all Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM, The Journal) submissions. Publishing a professional manuscript proceeds most smoothly if authors understand the policy, procedures, format, and style of the outlet to which they are submitting a manuscript. These instructions supersede all previous guidelines. Manuscripts that clearly deviate from this...

  11. PIAAC Technical Standards and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) will establish technical standards and guidelines to ensure that the survey design and implementation processes of PIAAC yield high-quality and internationally comparable data. This document provides a revised version of the technical standards and guidelines originally…

  12. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  13. Fertility Preservation for Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diane; Simons, Lisa; Johnson, Emilie K; Lockart, Barbara A; Finlayson, Courtney

    2017-07-01

    To describe fertility preservation (FP) utilization by transgender adolescents within a pediatric gender clinic between July 2013 and July 2016. A retrospective chart review was conducted to abstract demographic and clinical information among adolescents initiating gender-affirming hormones, including patient age at initial FP consultation, birth-assigned sex, race/ethnicity, and outcome of FP consultation. In our sample of 105 transgender adolescents, a total of 13 (seven transgender men and six transgender women) between the age of 14.2 and 20.6 years were seen in formal consultation for FP before initiating hormones. Of these adolescents, four completed sperm cryopreservation and one completed oocyte cryopreservation. Rates of FP utilization among transgender youth were low, which is consistent with a recently published report of FP utilization among transgender youth at another pediatric institution. Identified barriers to FP in our sample included cost, invasiveness of procedures, and desire not to delay medical transition. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Job strain and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  15. [Hormone regulation of male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, J G

    1975-01-01

    An innocuous, sure, reversible means of male fertility control which does not disturb the libido is being sought. 20 healthy volunteers from ages 20 to 36 participated, using a 2nd form of protection when necessary. 10 received implants of 60 mg testosterone equally divided into 3 tubes, and began oral ingestion of 100 mg weekly, divided into daily doses, of R2323 (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-gonen 4,9,11, trien-3-one) until the sperm became ineffective. Then oral doses were given according to personal requirements from 50 to 25 mg. The 2nd series of 10 received no testosterone implants, but followed the same scheme for oral ingestion. All patients but 1 reduced their sperm count and 80% were low enough to consider the sperm inactive. For those who used the hormone treatment as the only protection against pregnancy, no pregnancy occurred. Of the 1st group, 2 had excessive weight gain, 3 felt their libido reduced, and 1 had pain in the nipples and 1 had pain in the hepatic region. Recuperation of normal sperm characteristics was slow, especially motility and vitality. The spermogram is so altered during treatment that any accidental pregnancy could result in a defective egg and serious complications. It should definitely be avoided.

  16. Zinc fertilization in cowpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Brito Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants, due to its role as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor in a large number of enzymes. The element is necessary for the synthesis of tryptophan, which is a precursor of indoleacetic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two cowpea cultivars fertilized with four doses of Zn (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg of Zn ha-1 regarding dry grain yield (PGS, in addition to quantifying leaf and grain Zn content and grain crude protein. The experiment was conducted in the town of Brejo, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A 4 x 2 factorial scheme was used with four replications. Response functions were adjusted by calculating the Zn doses which provided a maximum technical efficiency for each genotype. The tested cultivars of cowpea showed no great difference regarding Zn demand applied to the soil, ranging from 3.2 to 3.4 kg of Zn ha-1 for BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba, respectively. Concerning Zn use efficiency, BRS Guariba was more responsive than was BRS Tumucumaque, i.e. the same dose of Zn produced 70 kg grain and 2.1 kg crude protein per hectare.

  17. Testing post-editing guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2014-01-01

    guidelines to use in translator training programmes. Recently, the first set of publicly available industry-focused PE guidelines (for ‘good enough’ and ‘publishable’ quality) were developed by Translation Automation User Society (TAUS) in partnership with the Centre for Global Intelligent Content (CNGL......), which can be used as a basis on which to instruct post-editors in professional environments. This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigates how trainee translators on an MA course, which is aimed at preparing the trainees for the translation industry, interpret these PE guidelines...... for publishable quality. The findings suggest trainees have difficulties interpreting the guidelines, primarily due to trainee competency gaps, but also due to the wording of the guidelines. Based on our findings we propose training measures to address these competency gaps. Furthermore, we provide post...

  18. Guidelines on Building Regulations 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thse guidelines clarify and intepret the provisions of the Building Regulations of 2008 (BR08). The Guidelines, which match BR08 in terms of organisation into Parts, are accompanied by the full text of the regulations and the explanatory notes issued by the Danish Enterprise and Construction...... Authority. The Guidelines refer the reader to sources such as relevant standards, instructions and other background material which provides more detailed information. The Guidelines cover the same ground as BR08, including building control regulations, layout, fitting out, structures, fire safety, indoor...... climate, energy consumotion and services. The Guidelines are aimed at all professionals involved in building projects, particularly building design consultants, contractors and municipal application officers....

  19. ESUR prostate MR guidelines 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barentsz, Jelle O; Richenberg, Jonathan; Clements, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to develop clinical guidelines for multi-parametric MRI of the prostate by a group of prostate MRI experts from the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), based on literature evidence and consensus expert opinion. True evidence-based guidelines could not be formulated......, but a compromise, reflected by "minimal" and "optimal" requirements has been made. The scope of these ESUR guidelines is to promulgate high quality MRI in acquisition and evaluation with the correct indications for prostate cancer across the whole of Europe and eventually outside Europe. The guidelines...... provides guidelines for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate cancer. Clinical indications, and minimal and optimal imaging acquisition protocols are provided. A structured reporting system (PI-RADS) is described....

  20. Air quality model guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, A.; Spurrell, F.

    2009-06-01

    Alberta Environment has developed a guidelines for operations and proposed operations that require approvals under the province's Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act or that operate under a code of practice for emissions to the atmosphere. In an effort to ensure consistency in the use of dispersion models for regulatory applications in Alberta, this document provided detailed guidance on suitable methods and approaches that should be employed to assess air quality from emission sources, specifically, information required to demonstrate that a source meets the Alberta ambient air quality objectives. The document outlined the statutory authority and provided an overview of the approach. It provided detailed advice on the types and uses of dispersion models with particular reference to the modelling protocol, input data, and output interpretation. Guidance on the application of regulatory models were also presented. Various models were described and their intended uses were explained. Internet addresses for different modelling resources were also offered. Last, some information about regional modelling in the province of Alberta was discussed. 40 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs., 3 appendices.

  1. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D Storrick

    2007-01-01

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I and C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions

  2. [French guidelines on electroencephalogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    André-Obadia, N; Sauleau, P; Cheliout-Heraut, F; Convers, P; Debs, R; Eisermann, M; Gavaret, M; Isnard, J; Jung, J; Kaminska, A; Kubis, N; Lemesle, M; Maillard, L; Mazzola, L; Michel, V; Montavont, A; N'Guyen, S; Navarro, V; Parain, D; Perin, B; Rosenberg, S D; Sediri, H; Soufflet, C; Szurhaj, W; Taussig, D; Touzery-de Villepin, A; Vercueil, L; Lamblin, M D

    2014-12-01

    Electroencephalography allows the functional analysis of electrical brain cortical activity and is the gold standard for analyzing electrophysiological processes involved in epilepsy but also in several other dysfunctions of the central nervous system. Morphological imaging yields complementary data, yet it cannot replace the essential functional analysis tool that is EEG. Furthermore, EEG has the great advantage of being non-invasive, easy to perform and allows control tests when follow-up is necessary, even at the patient's bedside. Faced with the advances in knowledge, techniques and indications, the Société de Neurophysiologie Clinique de Langue Française (SNCLF) and the Ligue Française Contre l'Épilepsie (LFCE) found it necessary to provide an update on EEG recommendations. This article will review the methodology applied to this work, refine the various topics detailed in the following chapters. It will go over the summary of recommendations for each of these chapters and underline proposals for writing an EEG report. Some questions could not be answered by the review of the literature; in those cases, an expert advice was given by the working and reading groups in addition to the guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Wind and tornado guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Project is to provide guidance and criteria for design of new facilities and for evaluation of existing ones subjected to extreme winds, earthquakes, and floods. This paper describes the treatment of wind and tornado hazards. Four facility-use categories are defined which represent increasing levels of risk to personnel or the environment in the event of a high wind event. Facilities are assigned to a particular category, depending on their mission, value, or toxic material content. The assigned facility-use category determines the design and evaluation criteria. The criteria are based on probabilistic hazard assessment. Performance goals are also specified for each facility-use category. A uniform approach to design wind loads, based on the ANSI A58.1-1982 standard, allows treatment of high winds and hurricane and tornado winds in a similar manner. Based on the wind hazard models, some sites must account for the possibility of tornadoes while others do not. Atmospheric pressure changes and missiles must be taken into account when considering tornadoes. The design and evaluation guidelines are designed to establish consistent levels of risk for different natural phenomena hazards and for facilities at different geographical locations

  4. Dam safety operating guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, E.; Leung, T.; Kirkham, A.; Lum, D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of Ontario Hydro's dam structure assessment program, the hydraulic design review of several river systems has revealed that many existing dam sites, under current operating procedures, would not have sufficient discharge capacity to pass the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) without compromising the integrity of the associated structures. Typical mitigative measures usually considered in dealing with these dam sites include structural alterations, emergency action plans and/or special operating procedures designed for extreme floods. A pilot study was carried out for the Madawaska River system in eastern Ontario, which has seven Ontario Hydro dam sites in series, to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of the Dam Safety Operating Guidelines (DSOG). The DSOG consist of two components: the flood routing schedules and the minimum discharge schedules, the former of which would apply in the case of severe spring flood conditions when the maximum observed snowpack water content and the forecast rainfall depth exceed threshold values. The flood routing schedules would identify to the operator the optimal timing and/or extent of utilizing the discharge facilities at each dam site to minimize the potential for dam failures cased by overtopping anywhere in the system. It was found that the DSOG reduced the number of structures overtopped during probable maximum flood from thirteen to four, while the number of structures that could fail would be reduced from seven to two. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Guideline level-3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofsen, P.M.; Van der Steen, J.

    1993-09-01

    For several applications of radioactive materials calculations must be executed to determine the radiation risk for the population. A guideline for the risk calculation method of two main sources: nuclear power plants, and other intended and unintended activities with radioactive materials, is given. The standards, recommendations and regulations in this report concern mainly the analysis of the radiological (external) consequences of nuclear power plant accidents, classified as level-3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis). Level-3 PSA falls within the scales 5-7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The standards, etc., focus on the risks for groups of people and the so-called maximum individual risk. In chapter two the standards and regulations are formulated for each part of level-3 PSA: the source term spectrum, atmospheric distribution and deposition, exposure to radiation doses and calculation of radiation doses, dose-response relationships, measures to reduce the effect of radiation doses, design basis accidents, and finally uncertainty analysis. In chapter four, modelled descriptions are given of the standards and regulations, which could or should be used in a calculation program in case of level-3 PSA. In chapter three the practical execution of a probabilistic consequences analysis, the collection of input data and the presentation of the results are dealt with. 2 figs., 14 tabs., 64 refs

  6. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Not an option if there is a high risk of ovarian metastases. Discuss with your doctor. b ... an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility preservation options for children diagnosed with ...

  7. Fertilization failure after IVF in 304 couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Maria; Prior, Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of total fertilization failure (TFF) and thereby optimize the primary allocation of patients with no well-defined male factor to either IVF or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI). Further, to evaluate the long-term fertility prognosis of couples experiencing...... TFF. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study including 304 couples with TFF and 304 controls with fertilization after IVF during a 10-year period from year 2000-2010. The controls were the patients with minimum one fertilized oocyte just prior to the cases. Multiple logistic regression...... analysis was used to evaluate the predictors of TFF. RESULTS: The multiple regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of TFF: female smoking, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.3), non-tubal factor AOR 2.2 (95% CI 1.5-3.4), progressive motile spermatozoa after preparation...

  8. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Kesmodel, Ulrik S

    2016-01-01

    . RESULTS: A total of 60 440 pregnancies were included, and 0.8% of the children developed epilepsy.The primary analyses showed no association between parental infertility or fertility treatment, and the overall risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard rate ratios (HRs); 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.08 (0......BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility treatment...

  9. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and the ability to ... after chemotherapy in male and female survivors of childhood cancer treated between 1970 and 1999: a report ...

  10. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. © 2013.

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You ... Discussing fertility preservation is important. These key points can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment ...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer ... study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility preservation options for ...

  13. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and the ability to have a ... treatment and your child’s immediate health. You may feel uncomfortable discussing issues of reproduction with your child. ...

  14. Organic Fertilizer: The Underestimated Component in Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... been on chemical fertilizer while the impact of the bio-organic input has been neglected. ... Key words: Organic input, environmental remediation, food security, small-holder rural farmers, sustainable agriculture, agricultural transformation ...

  15. Pedological characteristics, general fertility and classification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedological characteristics, general fertility and classification of some benchmark ... on existing soils information coupled with reconnaissance field soil survey. ... systems i.e. the United States Department of Agriculture Soil Taxonomy and the ...

  16. Plant nutrition and soil fertility manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, J. Benton

    2012-01-01

    .... With over 70 percent new material, the second edition of the Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Manual discusses the principles determining how plants grow and the elements essential for successful...

  17. Ovulation monitoring and fertility knowledge: Their relationship to fertility experience in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righarts, Antoinette; Dickson, Nigel P; Parkin, Lianne; Gillett, Wayne R

    2017-08-01

    Various aspects of fertility knowledge, including the timing of the fertile window, have consistently been found to be poor. Limited evidence also suggests ovulation monitoring to time intercourse could be common. However, there have been no studies that compare these two aspects of fertility and women's fertility/infertility experiences. To examine the frequency of ovulation monitoring and its relationship with fertility knowledge and experience. A cross-sectional study of women aged 25-50 years resident in southern New Zealand was undertaken in 2011. Randomly selected women were asked to complete a fertility questionnaire. Outcome prevalence measures were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and associations investigated using χ 2 tests and Poisson regression. Ovulation monitoring was common, having ever been undertaken by 31.4% (95% CI: 28.5-34.3%) of the 1034 participants. However, knowledge was poor, particularly regarding the fertile window. More women who had ever monitored ovulation correctly identified the fertile window, although the proportion was still very low (18.4 vs 13.1% in those who had not, P = 0.027). Regression modelling showed ovulation monitoring was independently associated with seeking medical help to conceive, education and fertility experience, but not with knowledge. This study confirms ovulation monitoring was commonly undertaken. However, many women, including those who had monitored their ovulation, had poor fertility knowledge and failed to identify the fertile window. Poor fertility knowledge needs to be addressed, especially among women intending to conceive. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Unrealized fertility: Fertility desires at the end of the reproductive career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Casterline

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: 'Unrealized fertility' is a failure to achieve desired fertility. Unrealized fertility has been examined in low-fertility societies but, with the exception of research on infertility, has been neglected in research on non-Western societies. Objective: We conduct a multicountry investigation of one form of unrealized fertility, namely a reproductive career which ends with the woman desiring further children. Methods: We analyze 295,854 women aged 44‒48 in 252 surveys (DHS, RHS, PAP conducted in the period 1986-2015 in 78 countries. Two indicators of unrealized fertility are constructed: (i a comparison of ideal versus actual number of children; (ii the desire for another child. We estimate multilevel regressions with covariates at individual and aggregate levels. Results: Unrealized fertility is far more prevalent according to the first indicator than the second. It is more common among women with fewer living children and women whose first birth occurs after age 20, and it is distinctly higher in sub-Saharan Africa and lower in South Asia. The evidence on trend over the course of fertility transition is mixed: for the second indicator but not the first, the net effect is a reduction in the prevalence of unrealized fertility as fertility declines. Conclusions: Unrealized fertility occurs frequently in most societies and therefore deserves more rigorous research, especially on its consequences for emotional, social, economic, and demographic outcomes. Contribution: We provide the first comprehensive documentation of the prevalence of unrealized fertility across a broad set of contemporary non-Western societies.

  19. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify the...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this subpart...

  1. 10 CFR 960.4 - Postclosure guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postclosure guidelines. 960.4 Section 960.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4 Postclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify the...

  2. Should fertility clinics divest themselves of pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Some commentators object to the way in which fertility clinics make pornography available to men as an aid to masturbation when those men produce sperm for evaluation, storage or IVF. These objections typically rely on claims that pornography is generally harmful to women, unnecessary and dissociates sexual acts from conception. In light of these objections, certain commentators want fertility clinics to divest themselves of pornography, but these objections to pornography are not morally con...

  3. Research on the Fertility Of Bulgarian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. KALOYANOV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on the dynamics of fertility for women in Bulgaria has been carried out through analyzing the distributions of the age-specific fertility rates. For this purpose we have used all four parameters of the statistical distribution - the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, the coefficient of asymmetry and the coefficient of excess. The experimental research has been carried out as an aggregate for all children and separately for the first, the second and the third birth-order.

  4. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Wyns, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extens...

  5. Radiological impact of use of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Chinnaesakki, S.; Sartandel, S.J.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Puranik, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the results of gamma spectrometric measurements of 238 U, 233 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in rock phosphates and various types of phosphate fertilizers and by-products. The increase in soil natural radioactivity has been assessed for major Indian crops. No significant increase in soil natural radioactivity is expected due to the application of phosphate fertilizers for agricultural productions. (author)

  6. Female relative wages, household specialization and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Falling fertility rates have often been linked to rising female wages. However, over the last 40 years the US total fertility rate has been rather stable while female wages have continued to grow. Over the same period, women's hours spent on housework have declined, but men's have increased. I propose a model in which households are not perfectly specialized, but both men and women contribute to home production. As the gender wage gap narrows, the time allocations of men and women converge, a...

  7. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  8. Effects of partial fertilizer substitution by organic fertilizer on growth of peanut at seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Jian; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    In response to the Ministry of agriculture’s action plan for chemical fertilizer reductions and organic fertilizers instead of fertilizersand discuss the optimum consumption and proportion of peanut biochar-based fertilization.Six different fertilization treatments were set up:C40, C50(standard consumption), C60, C40+M, C30+M and C20+M. Seelding height, chlorophyll content and total biomass were also measured on 6th, 2017. The results showed that C20+M treatment had the highest plant height and the highest biomass in Peanut Seedlings, while the content of chlorophyll increased with the amount of biochar applied.

  9. Effect of Various Organic Fertilizers Substitute Chemical Fertilizer on Cucumber Productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadang, Nattayana; Ratanapanit, Sittisuk; Chaowanklang, Pratuang; Ratanapanit; Nadtinee; Jaipakdee, Putinee; Ongsakitboriboon

    2006-09-01

    The effect of using the various organic fertilizer to substitute on the chemical fertilizer on cucumber, was carried out at Tambol Pattananikom, Amphur Pattananikom, Lopburi, Thailand, from December 1, 2005 to February 1, 2006 By using Randomized Comp let Block Design (RCBD), Contain with 4 treatments, chemical fertilizer: 16-16-16: 40 Kg/rai (Control), Pillet organic fertilizer: 50 Kg/rai, Bio extract from cow milk: 300 cc./ water 20 Ltr,.+ compost mixed in soil and bio fertilizer from the office of Atomic Energy Peace : 300 cc./water 20 Ltr. + campost mixed in soil (15 m. 2 /plot) were compared. Experiment result indicate that there were no significant differences on the yield. The highest yield of 25.91 kg/plot (27663.73 kg/rai) was obtained from chemical fertilizer, Fertilizer, followed by pillet organic fertilizer 22.88 kg/plot (2440.53 kg/rai), bio fertilizer 22.34 kg/pot (2382.93 kg/rai) and bio extract 19.03 kg/plot) (2029.87 kg/rai.

  10. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  11. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Shekelle, Paul; Schünemann, Holger J; Woolf, Steven

    2012-07-04

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development.

  12. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  13. Fertility in patients treated for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Erika; Skrbinc, Breda; Zakotnik, Branko

    2010-09-01

    Testicular cancer affects men mostly in their reproductive age with a cure rate over 90% and fertility is one of the main concerns of survivors. To further elucidate the question of fertility after treatment for testicular cancer, we performed a survey in patients treated in our institution. We sent a questionnaire to patients treated for testicular cancer at our institute from 1976 to 2002 (n = 490) of whom 297 (60.6%) responded. We considered the patients to have conserved fertility if they had children after treatment without assisted reproductive technologies. Before treatment 119/297 (40.1%) of patients and after treatment 150/297 (50.5%) of patients tried to have children (p = 0.019). Of 119 patients who tried to have children before treatment for testicular cancer 98 (82.4%) succeeded and 74/150 (49.3%) were successful after treatment (p years. The post-treatment fatherhood in patients treated with surgery only (orchidectomy +/- retroperitoneal lymphnode dissection-RPLND) was 59%, in those with additional radiotherapy 68%, and chemotherapy 50% (p = 0.233). Fertility rate in patients where a non nerve sparing RPLND was performed was only 37%, 62% in patients with nerve sapring RPLND, and 77% in patients where RPLND was not performed (p Fertility rate after treatment for testicular cancer is reduced. From our data, the most important treatment modality that influences fertility is non nerve sparing RPLND that should be avoided whenever possible in order improve the quality of life our patients.

  14. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  15. Bio energy production in birch and hybrid aspen after addition of residue based fertilizers - establishment of fertilization trials; Bioenergiproduktion hos bjoerk och hybridasp vid tillfoersel av restproduktbaserade goedselmedel - etablering av goedslingsfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans Fenix AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    increases. But, tree growth response should be studied before any conclusions can be drawn regarding biomass production in the experiments. The similarities in plant response to Ashes+N and NPK suggests that Ashes+N can be used as a P and K resource in the fertilization of young stands of birch and hybrid aspen. If the Ashes+N treatment results in increased N availability due to the pH increase, possibly the N dose could be lowered in order to decrease the risks for N leaching without negative effects on tree N uptake. Tools for the prediction of N mineralization need to be developed. The energy harvest for fertilized birch and hybrid aspen appear to be at least as high as for fertilized Norway spruce. Intensive cultivation including fertilization of young stands appears to be energy efficient: the energy input is a small fraction of the increase in energy harvest. Residue based fertilization appears to be more energy efficient than fertilization with NPK. If production systems other than the ones currently applied are more efficient in terms of sustainable energy production it is important to review the funding of research and development within the field. Which species or species mixtures are most efficient under which soil and climatic condition? Management programs and harvesting techniques need to be developed. More studies on fertilization response and energy harvest in deciduous species with and without the use of residue based fertilizers are needed in order to develop guidelines for the sustainable production of forest bio energy. Empirical studies should be combined with modeling studies in order to improve the understanding of the systems and predictability of management measures. Residue based fertilization appears to be attractive both environmentally and economically, but it is important that such systems are evaluated closely in terms of growth response, nutrient leaching, carbon and metal balances, etc. in comparison with conventional fertilization

  16. Effects of mineral and organic fertilizers on crop productivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other two fields grown with the same crops without fertilizer application served as control treatment. In addition, a greenhouse experiment was run to ... It was concluded that biophysical factors (field location and initial soil fertility status) greatly influenced crop yield and fertilizer. Keywords: Bean, maize, fertilizer response, ...

  17. Interracial-Interethnic Unions and Fertility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Vincent Kang

    2008-01-01

    How does the fertility of interracial and interethnic couples compare to the fertility of endogamous couples? If exogamous couples have transcended the boundary between them, then exogamy should not affect fertility. Alternatively, opposition to the relationship from the couple's family and friends may reduce fertility. This study uses 2000-2005…

  18. Egg donation brokers: an analysis of agency versus in vitro fertilization clinic websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwell, Eve; Keehn, Jason; Leu, Cheng-shiun; Sauer, Mark V; Klitzman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To compare websites of agencies that broker the services of women who provide human eggs for in vitro fertilization versus clinics that recruit egg providers. We examined 207 websites, of which 128 were egg provider agency 40%) or clinic (60%) websites that recruited providers online. We compared them regarding several variables related to adherence to American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) guidelines. According to their respective websites, agencies were more likely than clinics to mention ASRM guidelines, be located in the West/Pacific, indicate compensation, offer a fee range, set their minimum > $5,000, specify preferable traits, cap provider age at 31, require an education minimum, allow both parties to meet, discuss short-term risks, and not acknowledge a possible cancer risk. Only 25.5% of agencies and 19.5% of clinics mention psychological/emotional risks, and 11.8% and 5.2%, respectively, mention risk to future fertility. This research, the first to systematically compare several key aspects of egg provider agencies versus clinics, suggests it significant differences in adherence to guidelines, raising several concerns and suggesting needs for consideration of improved monitoring and regulation by ASRM or others.

  19. Coevolution of interacting fertilization proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel L Clark

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive proteins are among the fastest evolving in the proteome, often due to the consequences of positive selection, and their rapid evolution is frequently attributed to a coevolutionary process between interacting female and male proteins. Such a process could leave characteristic signatures at coevolving genes. One signature of coevolution, predicted by sexual selection theory, is an association of alleles between the two genes. Another predicted signature is a correlation of evolutionary rates during divergence due to compensatory evolution. We studied female-male coevolution in the abalone by resequencing sperm lysin and its interacting egg coat protein, VERL, in populations of two species. As predicted, we found intergenic linkage disequilibrium between lysin and VERL, despite our demonstration that they are not physically linked. This finding supports a central prediction of sexual selection using actual genotypes, that of an association between a male trait and its female preference locus. We also created a novel likelihood method to show that lysin and VERL have experienced correlated rates of evolution. These two signatures of coevolution can provide statistical rigor to hypotheses of coevolution and could be exploited for identifying coevolving proteins a priori. We also present polymorphism-based evidence for positive selection and implicate recent selective events at the specific structural regions of lysin and VERL responsible for their species-specific interaction. Finally, we observed deep subdivision between VERL alleles in one species, which matches a theoretical prediction of sexual conflict. Thus, abalone fertilization proteins illustrate how coevolution can lead to reproductive barriers and potentially drive speciation.

  20. Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nathalie; O'Driscoll, Teresa; Becker, Gisela; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-08-01

    To describe the needs and evidence-based practice specific to care of the pregnant adolescent in Canada, including special populations. Healthy pregnancies for adolescent women in Canada, with culturally sensitive and age-appropriate care to ensure the best possible outcomes for these young women and their infants and young families, and to reduce repeat pregnancy rates. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library on May 23, 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Pregnancy in Adolescence) and key words (e.g., pregnancy, teen, youth). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Results were limited to English or French language materials published in or after 1990. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to July 6, 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, national and international medical specialty societies, and clinical practice guideline collections. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). BENEFITS/HARMS/COSTS: These guidelines are designed to help practitioners caring for adolescent women during pregnancy in Canada and allow them to take the best care of these young women in a manner appropriate for their age, cultural backgrounds, and risk profiles. 1. Health care providers should adapt their prenatal care for adolescents and offer multidisciplinary care that is easily accessible to the adolescent early in the pregnancy, recognizing that adolescents often present to care later than their adult counterparts. A model that provides an opportunity to address all of these needs at one site may be the preferred model of care for pregnant adolescents. (II-1A) 2. Health

  1. Preservation of Fertility Potential for Gender and Sex Diverse Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emilie K; Finlayson, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Gender and sex diverse individuals-transgender individuals and those with disorders of sex development (DSD)-both face medical treatments that may impair biological fertility potential. Young DSD patients also often have abnormal gonadal development. Fertility preservation for these populations has historically been poorly understood and rarely addressed. Future fertility should be discussed with gender and sex diverse individuals, particularly given recent advances in fertility preservation technologies and evolving views of fertility potential. Key ethical issues include parental proxy decision-making and uncertainty regarding prepubertal fertility preservation technologies. Many opportunities exist for advancing fertility-related care and research for transgender and DSD patients.

  2. Guidelines for District Heating Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The present guidelines contain a set of recommendations focusing on planning, installation, use and maintenance of district heating (DH) substations within district heating systems throughout Europe. The recommendations were developed in order to enable readers to develop well-functioning substations and an effective heat and domestic warm water delivery. These guidelines are intended to give the most effective overall solutions for various parts of the customer installation. The guidelines are not meant to specify the different components of the substation such as meters or heat exchangers. The guidelines deal with a wide variety of issues concerning both present systems of today and district heating systems of the future. Specific handling and maintenance recommendations are mainly focused on present modern systems but are also intended to cover the future situation as much as is feasible. For this reason, certain existing systems are not dealt with in these guidelines. For instance, these guidelines do not cover steam systems, systems with temperatures exceeding 110 deg C and pressure levels above 1.6 MPa. The guidelines include a chapter on the heat meter, as the meter and especially the meter installation is always installed simultaneously with the rest of the substation. These guidelines aim to provide best-practice and easy-to-handle recommendations for: - those who are responsible for relations between district heating utilities and customers; - those who own or maintain a building connected to the district heating network; - those who manufacture, plan, purchase, test and install substations. These guidelines do not deal with investment or cost aspects, but in general, Euroheat and Power recommends looking at the lifetime cost of all components of the substation, instead of investment costs alone. An example of this is provided in Chapter 7.8. The Guidelines were developed based on the most optimal operating principles of substations and meters

  3. Singapore Paediatric Resuscitation Guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Gene Yong Kwang; Chan, Irene Lai Yeen; Ng, Agnes Suah Bwee; Chew, Su Yah; Mok, Yee Hui; Chan, Yoke Hwee; Ong, Jacqueline Soo May; Ganapathy, Sashikumar; Ng, Kee Chong

    2017-07-01

    We present the revised 2016 Singapore paediatric resuscitation guidelines. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation's Pediatric Taskforce Consensus Statements on Science and Treatment Recommendations, as well as the updated resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council released in October 2015, were debated and discussed by the workgroup. The final recommendations for the Singapore Paediatric Resuscitation Guidelines 2016 were derived after carefully reviewing the current available evidence in the literature and balancing it with local clinical practice. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  4. Implementation guidelines for seismic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Ovidiu; Samaddar, Sujit; Hibino, Kenta; )

    2014-01-01

    The presentation was devoted to development of guidelines for implementation of a seismic PSA. If successful, these guidelines can close an important gap. ASME/ANS PRA standards and the related IAEA Safety Guide (IAEA NS-G-2.13) describe capability requirements for seismic PSA in order to support risk-informed applications. However, practical guidance on how to meet these requirements is limited. Such guidelines could significantly contribute to improving risk-informed safety demonstration, safety management and decision making. Extensions of this effort to further PSA areas, particularly to PSA for other external hazards, can enhance risk-informed applications

  5. Guidelines for Reporting Medical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mathilde; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2016-01-01

    As a response to a low quality of reporting of medical research, guidelines for several different types of study design have been developed to secure accurate reporting and transparency for reviewers and readers from the scientific community. Herein, we review and discuss the six most widely...... accepted and used guidelines: PRISMA, CONSORT, STROBE, MOOSE, STARD, and SPIRIT. It is concluded that the implementation of these guidelines has led to only a moderate improvement in the quality of the reporting of medical research. There is still much work to be done to achieve accurate and transparent...... reporting of medical research findings....

  6. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers.

  7. Metric Guidelines Inservice and/or Preservice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Dolores

    1978-01-01

    Guidelines are given for designing teacher training for going metric. The guidelines were developed from existing guidelines, journal articles, a survey of colleges, and the detailed reactions of a panel. (MN)

  8. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  9. Pretreatment fertility counseling and fertility preservation improve quality of life in reproductive age women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Joseph M; Ebbel, Erin E; Katz, Patricia P; Katz, Audra; Ai, Wei Z; Chien, A Jo; Melisko, Michelle E; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2012-03-15

    The post-treatment quality of life (QOL) impacts of receiving precancer-treatment infertility counseling and of pursuing fertility preservation have not been described in large-scale studies of reproductive age women with cancer. In total, 1041 women who were diagnosed between ages 18 and 40 years responded to a retrospective survey and reported whether they received infertility counseling before cancer treatment and whether they took action to preserve fertility. Five cancer types were included: leukemia, Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Validated QOL scales were used: the Decision Regret Score, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and the brief World Health Organization QOL questionnaire. Overall, 560 women (61%) who received treatment that potentially could affect fertility were counseled by the oncology team, 45 (5%) were counseled by fertility specialists, and 36 (4%) took action to preserve fertility. Pretreatment infertility counseling by a fertility specialist and an oncologist resulted in lower regret than counseling by an oncologist alone (8.4 vs 11.0; P fertility preservation (6.6 vs 11.0; P fertility specialist counseling (23.0 vs 19.8; P = .09) or preserving fertility (24.0 vs 19.0; P = .05). Receiving specialized counseling about reproductive loss and pursuing fertility preservation is associated with less regret and greater QOL for survivors, yet few patients are exposed to this potential benefit. Women of reproductive age should have expert counseling and should be given the opportunity to make active decisions about preserving fertility. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  10. New advances in ovarian autotransplantation to restore fertility in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Mahmoud; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2015-12-01

    Human ovary autotransplantation is a promising option for fertility preservation of young women and girls undergoing gonadotoxic treatments for cancer or some autoimmune diseases. Although experimental, it resulted in at least 42 healthy babies worldwide. According to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic literature review was performed for all relevant full-text articles published in English from 1 January 2000 to 01 October 2015 in PubMed to explore the latest clinical and research advances of human ovary autotransplantation. Human ovary autotransplantation involves ovarian tissue extraction, freezing/thawing, and transplantation back into the same patient. Three major forms of human ovary autotransplantation exist including (a) transplantation of cortical ovarian tissue, (b) transplantation of whole ovary, and (c) transplantation of ovarian follicles (artificial ovary). According to the recent guidelines, human ovary autotransplantation is still considered experimental; however, it has unique advantages in comparison to other options of female fertility preservation. Human ovary autotransplantation (i) does not need prior ovarian stimulation, (ii) allows immediate initiation of cancer therapy, (iii) can restore both endocrine and reproductive ovarian functions, and (iv) may be the only fertility preservation option suitable for prepubertal girls or for young women with estrogen-sensitive malignancies. As any other fertility preservation option, human ovary autotransplantation has both advantages and disadvantages and may not be feasible for all cases. The major challenges facing this option are how to avoid the risk of reintroducing malignant cells and how to prolong the lifespan of ovarian transplant as well as how to improve artificial ovary results.

  11. Guidelines for a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    This manual presents guidelines for hospitals on a radiology quality assurance and dose measurement audit program and a system of planned actions that monitor and record the performance and effectiveness of the radiological service

  12. ASSET guidelines. Revised 1991 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The present publication is an updated version of the IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) Guidelines, IAEA-TECDOC-573, published in 1990. Sections 5 and 6 include revised definitions and investigation guidelines for identification of both direct and root causes. These revisions were recommended by a Consultants Meeting held in Vienna on 3-7 December 1990. This guidance is not intended to infringe an expert's prerogative to investigate additional items. Its main purpose is to provide a basic structure and ensure consistency in the assessments. Use of the ASSET guidelines should also facilitate comparison between the observations made in different nuclear power plants and harmonize the reporting of generic ASSET results. The guidelines should always be used with a critical attitude and a view to possible improvements

  13. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  14. Guidelines for direct radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettich, J.; Colarinha, P.; Fischer, S.; Hahn, K.; Porn, U.; Froekier, J.; Gordon, I.; Kabasakal, L.; Mann, M.; Mitjavila, M.; Olivier, P.; Piepsz, A.; Roca, I.; Sixt, R.; Velzen, J. van

    2002-01-01

    These ''Empfehlungen'' are the german translation of the Guidelines on MIBG-Scintigraphy in Children, which were published by the Paediatric Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. (orig.) [de

  15. Lupus nephritis management guidelines compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Suzanne; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bertsias, George K; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Gordon, Caroline; Lightstone, Liz; Tesar, Vladimir; Jayne, David R

    2016-06-01

    In the past years, many (randomized) trials have been performed comparing the treatment strategies for lupus nephritis. In 2012, these data were incorporated in six different guidelines for treating lupus nephritis. These guidelines are European, American and internationally based, with one separate guideline for children. They offer information on different aspects of the management of lupus nephritis including induction and maintenance treatment of the different histological classes, adjunctive treatment, monitoring of the patient, definitions of response and relapse, indications for (repeat) renal biopsy, and additional challenges such as the presence of vascular complications, the pregnant SLE patient, treatment in children and adolescents and considerations about end-stage renal disease and transplantation. In this review, we summarize the guidelines, determine the common ground between them, highlight the differences and discuss recent literature. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  16. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  17. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frommen Joachim G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. Results In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. Conclusion This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  19. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  20. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  1. Declining world fertility: trends, causes, implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, A O; Bogue, D J

    1978-10-01

    This Bulletin examines the evidence that the world's fertility has declined in recent years, the factors that appear to have accounted for the decline, and the implications for fertility and population growth rates to the end of the century. On the basis of a compilation of estimates available for all nations of the world, the authors derive estimates which indicate that the world's total fertility rate dropped from 4.6 to 4.1 births per woman between 1968 and 1975, thanks largely to an earlier and more rapid and universal decline in the fertility of less developed countries (LDCs) than had been anticipated. Statistical analysis of available data suggests that the socioeconomic progress made by LDCs in this period was not great enough to account for more than a proportion of the fertility decline and that organized family planning programs were a major contributing factor. The authors' projections, which are compared to similar projections from the World Bank, the United Nations, and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, indicate that, by the year 2000, less than 1/5 of the world's population will be in the "red danger" circle of explosive population growth (2.1% or more annually); most LDCs will be in a phase of fertility decline; and many of them -- along with most now developed countries -- will be at or near replacement level of fertility. The authors warn that "our optimistic prediction is premised upon a big IF -- if (organized) family planning (in LDCs) continues. It remains imperative that all of the developed nations of the world continue their contribution to this program undiminished."

  2. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    often acidosis. This paper presents and integral description of cattle diet management according to phases, and a new approach to cattle diet with respect to fertility observed in reproduction over a longer time period at large diary cow farms.

  3. FDH radiological design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsap, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    These guidelines discuss in more detail the radiological design review process used by the Project Hanford Management Contractors as described in HNF-PRO-1622, Radiological Design Review Process. They are intended to supplement the procedure by providing background information on the design review process and providing a ready source of information to design reviewers. The guidelines are not intended to contain all the information in the procedure, but at points, in order to maintain continuity, they contain some of the same information

  4. FDH radiological design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millsap, W.J.

    1998-09-29

    These guidelines discuss in more detail the radiological design review process used by the Project Hanford Management Contractors as described in HNF-PRO-1622, Radiological Design Review Process. They are intended to supplement the procedure by providing background information on the design review process and providing a ready source of information to design reviewers. The guidelines are not intended to contain all the information in the procedure, but at points, in order to maintain continuity, they contain some of the same information.

  5. Agroforestry: A second soil fertility paradigm? A case of soil fertility management in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mango, Nelson; Hebinck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the claim whether agro-forestry is a second soil fertility
    paradigm. The answer to this question, however, is not unequivocal. Farmers in
    Western Kenya generally do not apply fertiliser and rather rely on many soil fertility replenishment (SFR) strategies. Scientists

  6. Assessment of testicular volume: A comparison of fertile and sub-fertile West African men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Tijani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Testicular volume on scrotal ultrasound correlates well with severity of oligospermia in men with sub-fertility. While the critical mean testicular volume necessary for adequate spermatogenesis has not been determined, it appears there is an optimal testicular volume of 18–20 ml at which spermatogenesis is at its peak in sub-fertile Nigerian men.

  7. Impact of child mortality and fertility preferences on fertility status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the effects of child mortality and fertility preference on fertility status in rural Ethiopia. Design: Case-referent where the cases were women with number of children ever born alive was less than five and controls were women with number of children ever born alive greater or equal to five.

  8. Effect of N fertilizer and foliar-applied Fe fertilizer at various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrSohrabi

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... yield component and chemical composition of soybean. (Glycine ... fertilizer are the main source of meeting the nitrogen (N) ... influence grain yield and protein concentration (Haq and .... The data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System ... application and interaction of Fe and N fertilizers had no.

  9. Fertilizer nitrogen leaching in relation to water regime and the fertilizer placement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, A.T.A.; Khadr, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Sids Experimental Station, Ministry of Agriculture, Middle Egypt, to evaluate the effect of the water regime and fertilizer placement method on the leaching of urea fertilizer under field conditions. Ordinary and heavy irrigations were the water regimes, while side-banding and surface broadcasting were the fertilizer placement methods. Wheat (Giza 158, local variety) was planted, and urea labelled with 15 N at the rate of 100 kg N/ha was added at planting. The data obtained showed that in general the leaching process of urea fertilizer, as evaluated from the amounts of fertilizer nitrogen residues, is not uniform even within replicates. This is despite the fact that the average total amount of fertilizer nitrogen residues in the soil profile to a depth of 125 cm is almost the same in the different treatments. Data also show that the bulk of fertilizer nitrogen residues is accumulated in the surface soil layers, especially at 0-25 cm. Only 10% of the fertilizer nitrogen is detected below 75 cm and up to 125 cm depth of the soil profile. It could be concluded that urea leaching (amount and depth) under these conditions is affected mainly by the soil characteristics, namely soil pores. This is in addition to some other factors that cause variable concentrations in the soil solution leaving the root zone. (author)

  10. Public safety around dams guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, T [Canadian Dam Association, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed Canadian and international initiatives for improving dam safety and described some of the drivers for the development of new Canadian Dam Association (CDA) public safety guidelines for dams. The CDA guidelines were divided into the following 3 principal sections: (1) managed system elements, (2) risk assessment and management, and (3) technical bulletins. Public and media responses to the drownings have called for improved safety guidelines. While the public remains unaware of the hazards of dams, public interaction with dams is increasing as a result of interest in extreme sports and perceived rights of access. Guidelines are needed for dam owners in order to provide due diligence. Various organizations in Canada are preparing technical and public safety dam guidelines. CDA guidelines have also been prepared for signage, booms and buoys, and audible and visual alerts bulletins. Working groups are also discussing recommended practices for spill procedures, spillways and the role of professional engineers in ensuring public safety. Methods of assessing risk were also reviewed. Managed system elements for risk assessment and public interactions were also discussed, and stepped control measures were presented. tabs., figs.

  11. Mexican Asthma Guidelines: GUIMA 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Larenas-Linnemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The need for a national guideline, with a broad basis among specialists and primary care physicians was felt in Mexico, to try unifying asthma management. As several high-quality asthma guidelines exist worldwide, it was decided to select the best three for transculturation. Methods: Following the internationally recommended methodology for guideline transculturation, ADAPTE, a literature search for asthma guidelines, published 1-1-2007 through 31-12-2015 was conducted. AGREE-II evaluations yielded 3/40 most suitable for transculturation. Their compound evidence was fused with local reality, patient preference, cost and safety considerations to draft the guideline document. Subsequently, this was adjusted by physicians from 12 national medical societies in several rounds of a Delphi process and 3 face-to-face meetings to reach the final version. Results: Evidence was fused from British Thoracic Society Asthma Guideline 2014, Global Initiative on Asthma 2015, and Guía Española del Manejo del Asma 2015 (2016 updates included. After 3 Delphi-rounds we developed an evidence-based document taking into account patient characteristics, including age, treatment costs and safety and best locally available medication. Conclusion: In cooperation pulmonologists, allergists, ENT physicians, paediatricians and GPs were able to develop an evidence-based document for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of asthma and its exacerbations in Mexico.

  12. Misguided guidelines for managing labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review we expressed concerns about new guidelines for the assessment and management of labor recommended jointly by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). These guidelines are based heavily on a new concept of how cervical dilatation and fetal descent progress, derived from the work of Zhang et al. In their Viewpoint article they have addressed, but not allayed, the concerns we described in our review. We assert that the dilatation curve promulgated by Zhang et al cannot be reconciled with direct clinical observation. Even if they were correct, however, it still does not follow that the ACOG/SMFM guidelines should recommend replacing the coherent system of identifying and managing labor aberrations described by Friedman. That system is grounded in well-established clinical principles based on decades of use and the objectively documented association of some labor abnormalities with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Recommendations for new clinical management protocols should require the demonstration of superior outcomes through extensive, preferably prospective, assessment. Using untested guidelines for the management of labor may adversely affect women and children. Even if those guidelines were to reduce the currently excessive cesarean delivery rate, the price of that benefit is likely to be a trade-off in harm to parturients and their offspring. The nature and degree of that harm needs to be documented before considering adoption of the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental protection foliar fertilization in areas subject to limitation of fertilizers use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavriluta, I.; Alexandrescu, A; Budoi, G.; Bireescu, L.; Bireescu, G.

    1999-01-01

    Significant increases of plant productivity have been recorded in field experiments conducted between 1991 - 1994 using general purpose complex foliar fertilizers as well as aminoacid containing complex foliar fertilizers. These increases at the same time had positive environmental effects against chemical pollution, especially with nitrates. As a rule, the greater the degree of nutrient efficiency, especially of nitrate, the lower are the losses, which are subject to transfer to the environment. So in the light of environmental protection against chemical pollution using foliar fertilization is certainly beneficial for crops and for all other components of the agricultural environment giving rise to its significant improvement. Both, foliar and soil fertilization in areas with limitation of fertilizer use should be carried out under a continuous and strict analytical check of plant, soil and water. Refs. 14 (author)

  14. Farmers behavior on using fertilizer in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Tomy; Renaldy, Eddy; Utami, Hesty Nurul; Sadeli, Agriani Hermita; Mahra Arari, H.; Ginanjar, Tetep; Ajeng Sesy N., P.; Fernianda Rahayu, H.; Sanjaya, Sonny

    2018-02-01

    Fertilizer is one of the important materials in farming system to improve quality and quantity of harvest. Most of farmers in Indonesia using fertilizer, one of substantial fertilizer is NPK that contain of complex nutrient, there are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. There are tendency for farmers using NPK based on quality products and speed of decomposition. Nowadays, market size for NPK fertilizer has been dramatically increase and it will impact on intensify of fertilizer use. The potential requirement in marketing does not balanced with consumer behavior analysis. Meanwhile, agricultural sector (include horticulture, floriculture, bio-pharmacy and plantation) have been wieldly increase of the farming system annualy. This research is study case which is analyzed local NPK fertilizer competitive advantage compared to imported NPK fertilizer through consumer point of view towards product quality in four districts in West Java province, i.e., West Bandung, Garut, Bogor and Cianjur District with target respondents are farmers who use NPK fertilizer. NPK fertilizer qualities are based on product attributes, which are; availability, nutrient content, price, basic ingredients, form of fertilizer, speed of decomposition, label, color, type, design and size of packaging. It was analyzed using sematic differential attitude models and multi attribute attitude snake diagram model. The evaluation ranking of consumers interests towards fertilizer attribute characteristics showed that consumer intention before deciding to buy or use a NPK fertilizer will consider nutrient content, speed of decomposition, form of fertilizer and availability of products. Consumer's attitude towards all NPK fertilizer attribute quality illustrated that imported fertilizer is considered to be more positive than local fertilizer. Fertilizer companies or industries should be able to maintain their fertilizer production especially concerning nutrient content and availability of products through a

  15. Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the

  16. Implementation strategy for achieving replacement level fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The recommendation of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development at the ESCAP regional conference was to adopt strategies for attaining replacement-level fertility of 2.1 or 2.2 children by 2010. East Asian countries, except Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the Southeast Asian countries Singapore and Thailand have already reached replacement-level fertility. Most larger Oceanic countries have also done so. Only South Asian Sri Lanka and southern India have attained replacement level. The following conditions slow or hinder the goal, but they do not provide an "absolute" barrier to fertility decline: social welfare schemes and old age security, son preference, lack of government family planning, poverty, relatively high mortality, low status of women, and education status. Theories of demographic transition have postulated that economic and social development initially brings a decline in mortality, and later brings a decline in fertility; and high fertility was an adaptation to high mortality. Policy gets caught in the lag between mortality and fertility decline. Eventually the cultural motives for high fertility are undercut by social and economic development. Although the generalization that economic growth slows fertility is true for South Asia, the correlation is uneven. Forceful government-sponsored family planning programs in Bangladesh and China may lead the way to strategies for decline in ESCAP region. A Thailand study suggested important factors were fundamental social change, the increased cost of children, cultural acceptance of birth control, a latent demand for fertility control, and government efforts in family planning. ESCAP countries have in common relatively high morality and inadequate public health programs, patriarchal structures, and limited female autonomy, poverty and landlessness, lack of community cohesiveness, and inadequate family planning programs. Weaknesses in programs are attributed to

  17. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF LOW FERTILITY IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Helena Cruz; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2017-11-01

    An increasing number of developing countries are experiencing below replacement fertility rates. Although the factors associated with low fertility in developed countries have been widely explored in the literature, studies of low fertility in middle- and low-income countries continue to be rare. To help fill this gap, Brazil was used as a case study to assess whether human development, gender equality and the ability of mothers with young children to work are associated with the likelihood of married or cohabiting women to have a child. For this purpose, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated using the 1991, 2000 and 2010 Brazilian Demographic Censuses. It was found that human development was negatively associated with fertility in the three periods analysed. Gender equality and the ability of mothers with young children to work were positively associated with the odds of having higher order births in Brazil in 2000 and 2010. In 1991, these variables were not associated with higher order births, and gender equality was negatively associated with first births. The positive association found in 2000 and 2010 may constitute a reversal of the relationship that in all likelihood prevailed earlier in the demographic transition when gender equality was most likely negatively correlated with fertility levels.

  18. Bulgaria: Ethnic differentials in rapidly declining fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Philipov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides a detailed description of the fertility changes in Bulgaria during recent decades and discusses possible reasons and consequences. It also gives an overview of the steps that the government has undertaken to offset the considerable decline in fertility. Before the fall of communism, fertility trends in Bulgaria were stable and characterized by a nearly universal entry into parenthood, dominance of a two-child family model, an early start and early end of childbearing, stable mean ages at entry into childbearing and marriage, and low percentages of non-marital births. During the 1990s and in the first years of the new century, we observe a marked, rapid change in fertility behaviour. Together with the severe decline in overall fertility rates, demographic data reveal a significant postponement of entry into motherhood and marriage, a decline of the two-child family model, and an emergence of new family forms. Most research attributes these changes to the particular political and social situation in Bulgaria since 1989.

  19. Balancing guava nutrition with liming and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava response to liming and fertilization can be monitored by tissue testing. Tissue nutrient signature is often diagnosed against nutrient concentration standards. However, this approach has been criticized for not considering nutrient interactions and to generate numerical biases as a result of data redundancy, scale dependency and non-normal distribution. Techniques of compositional data analysis can control those biases by balancing groups of nutrients, such as those involved in liming and fertilization. The sequentially arranged and orthonormal isometric log ratios (ilr or balances avoid numerical bias inherent to compositional data. The objectives were to relate tissue nutrient balances with the production of "Paluma" guava orchards differentially limed and fertilized, and to adjust the current patterns of nutrient balance with the range of more productive guava trees. It was conducted one experiment of 7-yr of liming and three experiments of 3-yr with N, P and K trials in 'Paluma' orchards on an Oxisol. Plant N, P, K, Ca and Mg were monitored yearly. It was selected the [N, P, K | Ca, Mg], [N, P | K], [N | P] and [Ca | Mg] balances to set apart the effects of liming (Ca-Mg and fertilizers (N-K on macronutrient balances. Liming largely influenced nutrient balances of guava in the Oxisol while fertilization was less influential. The large range of guava yields and nutrient balances allowed defining balance ranges and comparing them with the critical ranges of nutrient concentration values currently used in Brazil and combined into ilr coordinates.

  20. Fertility Adaptation of Child Migrants to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the fertility behavior of immigrant women arriving to Canada before age 19 using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian Census from 1991 through 2006. Findings show that fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in their late teens. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin or whether the mother tongue of the migrant is an official language in Canada or not. We do not find a ‘critical age’ at which the behavior of migrants with and without official mother tongue start to diverge by more, even though the fertility of migrants without official mother tongue is always higher on average. Formal education matters as the fertility of immigrants who arrived to Canada before adulthood and graduated from college is similar to that of their native peers regardless of their age of arrival. However, the fertility of those with less than tertiary education increasingly diverges with age at migration from similarly educated Canadians. PMID:23800074

  1. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  2. Fertilizer application and root development analyzed by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the development of the soybean root system under different application of fertilizer applying neutron imaging technique. When neutron beam was irradiated, the root image as well as fertilizer imbedded in a thin aluminum container was clearly projected, since water amount in roots are higher than that in soil. Through image analysis, the development of root system was studied under different application of the fertilizer. The development of a main root with lateral roots was observed without applying fertilizer. When the fertilizer was homogeneously supplied to the soil, the morphological development of the root showed the similar pattern to that grown without fertilizer, in different to the amount of the fertilizer. In the case of local application of the fertilizer, lateral position or downward to the main root, the inhibition of the root growth was observed, suggesting that the localization of the fertilizer is responsible for reduction of the soybean yield. (author)

  3. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  4. The significance of clinical practice guidelines on adult varicocele detection and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Shridharani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicoceles are the most common correctable etiology of male factor infertility. However, the detection and management of varicoceles have not been standardized. This has led to decades of debate regarding the effect of varicocele on male infertility and subsequently whether repair leads to an improved fertility status. The current body of evidence investigating the role of varicocele and varicocelectomy is weak and conflicting. The stance taken by the AUA and ASRM suggests that there is insufficient outcomes data to support evidenced-based guidelines, citing evidence used to provide current recommendations are generally of a low quality level. On the other hand, the EAU Guidelines give a level 1a of evidence for management of varicoceles that are clinically palpable, associated with subnormal semen analyses and having otherwise unexplained fertility. Besides aiding with clinical varicocele detection and management, clinical practice opinion statements and guidelines aim to direct and strengthen the infrastructure of future studies. We review the current status of opinion statements and guidelines in varicocele and management detection with focus on their application in practice.

  5. The significance of clinical practice guidelines on adult varicocele detection and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Anand; Owen, Ryan C; Elkelany, Osama O; Kim, Edward D

    2016-01-01

    Varicoceles are the most common correctable etiology of male factor infertility. However, the detection and management of varicoceles have not been standardized. This has led to decades of debate regarding the effect of varicocele on male infertility and subsequently whether repair leads to an improved fertility status. The current body of evidence investigating the role of varicocele and varicocelectomy is weak and conflicting. The stance taken by the AUA and ASRM suggests that there is insufficient outcomes data to support evidenced-based guidelines, citing evidence used to provide current recommendations are generally of a low quality level. On the other hand, the EAU Guidelines give a level 1a of evidence for management of varicoceles that are clinically palpable, associated with subnormal semen analyses and having otherwise unexplained fertility. Besides aiding with clinical varicocele detection and management, clinical practice opinion statements and guidelines aim to direct and strengthen the infrastructure of future studies. We review the current status of opinion statements and guidelines in varicocele and management detection with focus on their application in practice.

  6. Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines 2013 for the treatment of uterine body neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Yasuhiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Mikami, Mikio; Nagase, Satoru; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Kato, Hidenori; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Takamatsu, Kiyoshi; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The third version of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of uterine body neoplasms was published in 2013. The guidelines comprise nine chapters and nine algorithms. Each chapter includes a clinical question, recommendations, background, objectives, explanations, and references. This revision was intended to collect up-to-date international evidence. The highlights of this revision are to (1) newly specify costs and conflicts of interest; (2) describe the clinical significance of pelvic lymph node dissection and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, including variant histologic types; (3) describe more clearly the indications for laparoscopic surgery as the standard treatment; (4) provide guidelines for post-treatment hormone replacement therapy; (5) clearly differentiate treatment of advanced or recurrent cancer between the initial treatment and the treatment carried out after the primary operation; (6) collectively describe fertility-sparing therapy for both atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (corresponding to G1) and newly describe relapse therapy after fertility-preserving treatment; and (7) newly describe the treatment of trophoblastic disease. Overall, the objective of these guidelines is to clearly delineate the standard of care for uterine body neoplasms in Japan with the goal of ensuring a high standard of care for all Japanese women diagnosed with uterine body neoplasms.

  7. Measurements of natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, K.G.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Papachristodoulou, C.A.; Tzialla, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The natural radioactivity, mainly due to radium ( 226 Ra), in phosphate fertilizers used in north-western Greece has been measured by γ-spectroscopy. Also radioactivity measurements were performed in soil samples and were compared to samples from undisturbed soils. 226 Ra belongs to the 238 U chain and is the precursor of radon gas ( 222 Rn). The radon concentrations in warehouses, where large quantities of fertilizers are kept, were measured with CR-39 SSNTDs. The radium concentrations in the fertilizers ranged from 0 to 4584 Bq kg -1 and the radon concentrations in warehouses were measured 540-3320 Bq m -3 . The results are discussed from the radiation protection point of view

  8. Mature Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tina; Motan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, advances in cancer treatment have led to a dramatic improvement in long term survival. This has led to an increasing focus on quality of life after surviving cancer treatment, with fertility being an important aspect. Given the known reproductive risks of cancer therapies, there has been a growing interest in the field of fertility preservation (also referred to as oncofertility). Mature oocyte cryopreservation is no longer considered experimental and has become a realistic option for reproductive aged women prior to undergoing cancer treatment. Additionally, as cryopreservation techniques improve, mature oocyte cryopreservation is increasing being marketed to healthy women without cancer wishing to delay child bearing, also termed "social egg freezing". This chapter provides a review of the current technology, use, and outcomes of mature oocyte cryopreservation. It also outlines the ethical debate surrounding social egg freezing and directions for future research in female fertility preservation.

  9. Transformation of fertilizer nitrogen in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soechting, H.

    1980-01-01

    Pot experiments are described in which the transformations between nitrogen added as fertilizer urea, plant-assimilated nitrogen, and different chemical fractions of soil or added straw nitrogen were studied with 15 N as a tracer. The data indicated that: (a) The transformation of added fertilizer nitrogen to immobilized amide nitrogen is decreased with added decomposable organic carbon. The transformation to immobilized α-amino N is increased, on the other hand, by the addition of decomposable organic carbon. (b) The freshly immobilized amide nitrogen is more readily remineralized than the α-amino form. The immobilization of added nitrogen continues in the presence of growing plants. (c) Mineralization of nitrogen added as 15 N-labelled straw is also increased with increasing fertilizer-nitrogen additions. (author)

  10. Male Fertility After Inguinal Hernia Mesh Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Andreas Pagh; Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To determine whether patients who receive an inguinal hernia repair father the same number of children as the background population. BACKGROUND:: Although the effect of inguinal hernia repair on male fertility has previously been investigated through indirect measures, no previous...... studies have evaluated the final measure of male fertility, which is the number of children fathered by patients. METHODS:: Prospectively collected data on 32,621 male patients between the ages of 18 and 55 years who received 1 or more inguinal hernia repairs during the years 1998 to 2012 were found in 5...... hernia repair using Lichtenstein technique or laparoscopic approach did not father fewer children than expected. Thus, inguinal hernia repair using Lichtenstein or laparoscopic approach did not impair male fertility....

  11. Kinship and the decline of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y

    1996-01-01

    China's family planning and population control policies, together with the move toward a more market-oriented economy since the 1980s, have led to significant change in people's reproductive values and behavior and a substantial decline in fertility. Traditional kinship in China, its terminology, and the impact of fertility decline on kinship in China and Chinese society are discussed. The decline in fertility is affecting or will affect China's kinship system, the corresponding pattern of terminology, and the social structure. In the more market-oriented economy which has been developing in China, the simplification of the kinship system will help change the structure of Chinese society and weaken the traditional patriarchal culture. A more individualized, contractualized social structure and relationships will result.

  12. Total fertilization failure and idiopathic subfertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goverde Angelique J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain more insight in whether failure of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment in patients with idiopathic subfertility could be related to diminished fertilization, the aim of this study is to compare the fertilization of an initial IVF procedure after six cycles of IUI and the fertilization of an initial IVF procedure without preceding IUI cycles in couples with idiopathic subfertility. Methods We performed a complimentary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, in which the number of total fertilization failure (TFF in the first IVF procedure after unsuccessful IUI was compared to those of IVF without preceding IUI in patients with idiopathic subfertility. These patients participated in a previous study that assessed the cost effectiveness of IUI versus IVF in idiopathic subfertility and were randomized to either IUI or IVF treatment. Results 45 patients underwent IVF after 6 cycles of unsuccessful IUI and 58 patients underwent IVF immediately without preceding IUI. In 7 patients the IVF treatment was cancelled before ovum pick. In the IVF after unsuccessful IUI group TFF was seen in 2 of the 39 patients (5% versus 7 of the 56 patients (13% in the immediate IVF group. After correction for confounding factors the TFF rate was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.08, OR 7.4; 95% CI: 0.5–14.9. Conclusion Our data showed that TFF and the fertilization rate in the first IVF treatment were not significantly different between couples with idiopathic subfertility undergoing IVF after failure of IUI versus those couples undergoing IVF immediately without prior IUI treatment. Apparently, impaired fertilization does not play a significant role in the success rate of IUI in patients with idiopathic subfertility.

  13. Third world programs confront adolescent fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Recently, there have been efforts to identify workable youth programs and effective research projects that could deal with the problem of adolescent fertility. Typical objectives identified at various conferences concerned with this problem included the following: 1) focus attention on the adverse medical and socioeconomic efforts of early pregnancy; 2) draw attention to the current dimensions of adolescent fertility and its changing patterns; 3) encourage development of programs; and 4) impress decision makers with the importance of programs for adolescents. These conferences express a sense of urgency in developing programs before teen-age pregnancy reaches epidemic proportions. Most of the projects already underway are still pilot efforts and have an impact on a very small sector of the population. Yet, they are positive steps toward a solution of the rising problems of adolescent fertility and help to identify workable solutions. A few of these projects -- underway in Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Cost Rica, Guatemala and Mexico -- are reviewed. The consensus of all conferences held to date has been that cross-cultural interchanges is crucial to the spread of programs and ideas that can be adapted to local conditions. 2 key recommendations have emerged from a meeting of donor and support agencies held in Washington, D.C. in May: 1) a major conference should take place during the International Year of the Child (1979) that would focus on early sexual activity and fertility and 2) an Adolescent Fertility Council should be appointed. An Adolescent Fertility Council would provide a structure to correlate and stimulate interaction, while recognizing that country and culture specific programs are essential.

  14. Decomposing trends in nonmarital fertility among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeone, Felicia Yang; Lichter, Daniel T; Strawderman, Robert L

    2009-09-01

    For Latinos, high rates of nonmarital fertility reinforce economic inequality and slow the pace of social and economic incorporation into American society. Changes in the nonmarital fertility ratio--nonmarital births as a percentage of all births (NMFR)--among women aged 15-44 over the period 1994-2005 were partitioned into three components: changes in marital and in nonmarital fertility, and in the proportion of women who were married. Annual birth data were drawn from the national Natality Detail File, and population estimates were drawn from the Current Population Surveys. Analyses were conducted for blacks, whites and Latinas, as well as for selected subgroups of Latinas; differences in NMFRs between racial and ethnic groups were also calculated. NMFRs were largely unchanged between 1994 and 2002, and then began to rise; they averaged 43% for Latinas, 69% for blacks and 23% for whites over the study period. In 2005, 48% of births to Latinas were nonmarital. Most of the rise in Latinas' NMFR was linked to a decline in marriage. Among foreign-born Latinas, a six-percentage-point increase in the NMFR was due mostly to a rise in nonmarital fertility and a decline in marital fertility, which offset the beneficial effects of a rising marriage rate. The difference between Latinas' and whites' NMFRs was largely attributed to Latinas' higher nonmarital fertility, whereas the difference between blacks' and whites' NMFRs was driven mostly by lower marriage rates among blacks. Efforts to reduce out-of-wedlock childbearing among Latinas are needed, and programs should promote healthy marriages, especially among foreign-born Latinas.

  15. Index-TB Guidelines: Guidelines on extrapulmonary tuberculosis for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Ryan, H.; Khaparde, Sunil; Sachdeva, K. S.; Singh, Achintya D.; Mohan, Alladi; Sarin, Rohit; Paramasivan, C N; Kumar, Prahlad; Nischal, Neeraj; Khatiwada, Saurav; Garner, Paul; Tharyan, Prathap

    2017-01-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is frequently a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a common opportunistic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus and malnutrition. There is a paucity of data from clinical trials in EPTB and most of the information regarding diagnosis and management is extrapolated from pulmonary TB. Further, there are no formal national or international guidelines on EPTB. To address these concerns, Indian EPTB guidelines were developed under the auspices of Central TB Division and Directorate of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The objective was to provide guidance on uniform, evidence-informed practices for suspecting, diagnosing and managing EPTB at all levels of healthcare delivery. The guidelines describe agreed principles relevant to 10 key areas of EPTB which are complementary to the existing country standards of TB care and technical operational guidelines for pulmonary TB. These guidelines provide recommendations on three priority areas for EPTB: (i) use of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis, (ii) use of adjunct corticosteroids in treatment, and (iii) duration of treatment. The guidelines were developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria, which were evidence based, and due consideration was given to various healthcare settings across India. Further, for those forms of EPTB in which evidence regarding best practice was lacking, clinical practice points were developed by consensus on accumulated knowledge and experience of specialists who participated in the working groups. This would also reflect the needs of healthcare providers and develop a platform for future research. PMID:28862176

  16. Index-TB guidelines: Guidelines on extrapulmonary tuberculosis for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra K Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is frequently a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a common opportunistic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus and malnutrition. There is a paucity of data from clinical trials in EPTB and most of the information regarding diagnosis and management is extrapolated from pulmonary TB. Further, there are no formal national or international guidelines on EPTB. To address these concerns, Indian EPTB guidelines were developed under the auspices of Central TB Division and Directorate of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The objective was to provide guidance on uniform, evidence-informed practices for suspecting, diagnosing and managing EPTB at all levels of healthcare delivery. The guidelines describe agreed principles relevant to 10 key areas of EPTB which are complementary to the existing country standards of TB care and technical operational guidelines for pulmonary TB. These guidelines provide recommendations on three priority areas for EPTB: (i use of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis, (ii use of adjunct corticosteroids in treatment, and (iii duration of treatment. The guidelines were developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria, which were evidence based, and due consideration was given to various healthcare settings across India. Further, for those forms of EPTB in which evidence regarding best practice was lacking, clinical practice points were developed by consensus on accumulated knowledge and experience of specialists who participated in the working groups. This would also reflect the needs of healthcare providers and develop a platform for future research.

  17. Guidelines for Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Authors cumhuriyet theology journal  reguires writers to use the The Chicago Manual of Style “notes and bibliography” system of referencing.First citation: author(s first name and last name, title, (if applicable first and last name of translator or editor, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page number.Subsequent citations: author’s last name, the short title, and the page number should be indicated in all subsequent citations. Footnote citations should conform to the following examples.References: References should be placed at the end of the text in alphabetical order. If a source has more than one author, the surname and name of the first author should be written, and the other authors should be indicated by et.al. The titles of books and journals should be italicized; article titles and book chapters should be placed in quotation marks. Translator’s and editor’s names (if there are any should follow the title of the work: BOOKa One Author: 
1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006, 99–100.2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.Bibliography: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.  b Two Authors1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007, 52.2. Ward and Burns, War, 59–61. Bibliography: Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.c Three or More Authors
For three or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”:1. Mitchell L. Eisen, Jodi A. Quas, and Gail S. Goodman, eds., Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview (Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Assoicates, 2002, 65.2. Eisen and et al., Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview, 67.Bibliography: Eisen, Mitchell

  18. Fertility Effects on Female Labor Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundborg, Petter; Plug, Erik; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF induced fertility variation in childless families to estimate the causal effect of having children on female labor supply using IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF...... treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Our IV estimates indicate that fertility effects are: (a) negative, large and long lasting; (b) much stronger at the extensive margin than at the intensive margin, and (c) similar for mothers, not treated with IVF, which suggests that IVF...

  19. Is glycosylated haemoglobin a marker of fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, T K; Bonde, J P

    1999-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study of time to pregnancy in a population of first-time pregnancy planners without previous reproductive experience. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss a finding of a strong relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and fertility. A total...... concentration of inhibin A. No association was found between HbA1C and psychosocial distress. The reduced fertility among women with high HbA1C may be due to an association with subclinical polycystic ovaries as indicated by the hormonal profile....

  20. [Environment and lifestyle: Impacts on male fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendayan, M; Alter, L; Swierkowski-Blanchard, N; Caceres-Sanchez, L; Selva, J; Robin, G; Boitrelle, F

    2018-01-01

    In this last century, an increase of men infertility has been registered. It has been suggested that environmental factors could a negative impact over sperm quality. Among these factors, impact of environmental toxicant has been spread by media. In this review of scientific literature, we identify several environmental factors that could impact men fertility in a negative way. These factors are tobacco, marijuana, weight, body mass index, heat, nutritional state, electromagnetic waves and altitude. For each of these factors, the impact over men fertility, their mechanism, as well their influence over the use of Assisted Reproductive Technics are reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  2. Fertility behavior in rural and urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, D; Newlon, B; Sigit, H

    1982-06-01

    The cross-sectional picture of urban and rural fertility which emerges from recently published Indonesian national level data from the 1976 Intercensal Survey are described. The data reveal only small differences in the average numbers of children ever born or children surviving of ever married women (or mothers) in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. In urban areas, ever married mothers had a standardized average of 3.4 children ever born, and in rural areas 3.3 These averages cannot reveal any differences in past and present childbearing levels. The fertility of urban women, as opposed to rural women, appeared more highly associated with indicators which tend to directly or indirectly depress the average number of children ever born: a higher age at 1st marriage; a higher level of "sterility;" a higher survival ratio of children born; and a higher level of educational attainment. At least some of these factors might be regarded as associated with modernizing trends in the urban areas: increased accessibility to educational facilities; the opening of female opportunities outside the home so that marriage occurs later in life; and a better health environment so that there is less pregnancy wastage and time spent in bearing children. These factors help to provide an incentive to women to limit their fertility; knowledge of contraception methods provides a means. The depressing factors most highly associated with average rural fertility do not appear associated with modernization but with traditional folk customs regarding acceptable behavior. The inflating effects of early marriage are offset by a greater prevalence of marital disruption. This may reflect a cultural acceptability. The reasons may include adolescent or true sterility leading to disunion, the outmigration of a partner, or some other form of disharmony. Female labor force participation is more prevalent in rural than urban areas. There are both traditional and modern aspects to be seen in its

  3. 7 CFR 622.5 - Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines. 622.5 Section 622.5 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.5 Guidelines. Guidelines for carrying out... Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies issued by...

  4. 36 CFR 910.67 - Square guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Square guidelines. 910.67... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.67 Square guidelines. Square Guidelines establish the Corporation's...

  5. 28 CFR 42.306 - Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidelines. 42.306 Section 42.306... PROCEDURES Equal Employment Opportunity Program Guidelines § 42.306 Guidelines. (a) Recipient agencies are... guidelines under their equal employment opportunity program which will correct, in a timely manner, any...

  6. 28 CFR 2.36 - Rescission guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rescission guidelines. 2.36 Section 2.36... guidelines. (a) The following guidelines shall apply to the sanctioning of disciplinary infractions or new... such period of confinement has resulted from initial parole to a detainer). These guidelines specify...

  7. 28 CFR 42.404 - Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidelines. 42.404 Section 42.404... Guidelines. (a) Federal agencies shall publish title VI guidelines for each type of program to which they extend financial assistance, where such guidelines would be appropriate to provide detailed information...

  8. 36 CFR 1191.1 - Accessibility guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility guidelines... COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES; ARCHITECTURAL BARRIERS ACT (ABA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES § 1191.1 Accessibility guidelines. (a) The...

  9. Raising the Bar with Trades Staffing Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the APPA's Trades Staffing Guidelines Task Force for college campus building maintenance and presents descriptions of the proposed guideline levels and a matrix of indicators for the Trades Staffing Guidelines. The levels and matrix are intended to mimic features of the custodial staffing guidelines. (GR)

  10. 78 FR 38102 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Costs and Benefits The primary estimates of the costs and benefits of the proposed guidelines are shown... quantify the benefits of the proposed guidelines due to the nature of the benefits. The proposed guidelines..., transportation, public accommodation, and leisure. The proposed guidelines would enable these individuals to...

  11. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  12. Development of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Steven D; Areán, Patricia A; Craske, Michelle G; Crawford, Kermit A; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Magnavita, Jeffrey J; Ollendick, Thomas H; Sexton, Thomas L; Spring, Bonnie; Bufka, Lynn F; Galper, Daniel I; Kurtzman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to improve mental, behavioral, and physical health by promoting clinical practices that are based on the best available evidence. The American Psychological Association (APA) is committed to generating patient-focused CPGs that are scientifically sound, clinically useful, and informative for psychologists, other health professionals, training programs, policy makers, and the public. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2011 standards for generating CPGs represent current best practices in the field. These standards involve multidisciplinary guideline development panels charged with generating recommendations based on comprehensive systematic reviews of the evidence. The IOM standards will guide the APA as it generates CPGs that can be used to inform the general public and the practice community regarding the benefits and harms of various treatment options. CPG recommendations are advisory rather than compulsory. When used appropriately, high-quality guidelines can facilitate shared decision making and identify gaps in knowledge.

  13. Heat exchanger performance monitoring guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, N.; Closser, W. Jr.; Mollerus, F.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fouling can occur in many heat exchanger applications in a way that impedes heat transfer and fluid flow and reduces the heat transfer or performance capability of the heat exchanger. Fouling may be significant for heat exchanger surfaces and flow paths in contact with plant service water. This report presents guidelines for performance monitoring of heat exchangers subject to fouling. Guidelines include selection of heat exchangers to monitor based on system function, safety function and system configuration. Five monitoring methods are discussed: the heat transfer, temperature monitoring, temperature effectiveness, delta P and periodic maintenance methods. Guidelines are included for selecting the appropriate monitoring methods and for implementing the selected methods. The report also includes a bibliography, example calculations, and technical notes applicable to the heat transfer method

  14. Fertility assessment in thalassemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ansari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility in β-thalassemia patients is typically considered to be the consequence of iron deposition in the endocrine glands. Adult male patients with β-thalassemia, on regular blood transfusions, are prone to developing acquired hypogonadism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility indicators in male patients with β-thalassemia major and intermedia. In this study we evaluated testicular volume, semen parameters and serum FSH, LH, and Testosterone concentrations in 62 male patients in reproductive age, with major and intermedia thalassemia, at a tertiary care hospital in Tehran, Iran. The range of serum ferritin level in our patients was from 182 to 11053 ng/mL (mean 2067 ng/mL. The mean concentration of sperm was 61.04 million per milliliter. The mean volume of right and left testes was 11.4 cc and 11.7 cc, respectively. Those patients who had lower testicular volumes significantly had lower sperm concentration, lower percents of motile and also lower percents of normal morphologic sperms (P=0.04. The frequency of hypogonadism was significantly higher in patients whose testicular volume was lower (P=0.02. Hypogonadism and hypothyroidism were seen in 22.6% and 17.7% of patients, respectively. Patients with hypogonadism had significantly lower ejaculate volume, lower sperm concentration, lower percents of motile and progressively motile sperms and also lower percents of normal morphologic sperms (P=0.001. This study suggests that in thalassemic men, concentrations of serum testosterone, LH, FSH has significant correlation with sperm parameters and testicular volume.   β地中海贫血患者中的男性不育症通常被认为是内分泌腺中铁沉积的结果。成年男性β地中海贫血患者在常规输血时易发生获得性性腺功能减退。本研究旨在评估男性重型和中间型β地中海贫血患者的生育指标。在本研究中,我们在伊朗德黑兰的一家三级保健医院对62名处于

  15. Economics worksheet for builder guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Builder Guidelines package is used to analyze space heating in residential design. Alternative designs are compared in engineering units (e.g., Btu) with the aid of four simple worksheets. Evaluating designs in economic terms would enhance understanding of decisions to be made in the consideration of several energy efficiency measures. An additional worksheet is proposed for Builder Guidelines. Six easy steps take the user through a simplified economic evaluation, based on auxiliary heating performance. Annual space heating cost, avoided costs, and years to payback are calculated in the procedure

  16. New guidelines for case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Delgado-Noguera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The case report or case reports are a frequent type of narrative article in the biomedical literature. Case reports are useful to describe unusual clinical cases, identify adverse effects or benefits of therapies. They are also useful for the description of presentation of rare diseases for educational or scientific purposes. Several groups have worked on reporting guidelines for other designs such as the case of clinical trials (CONSORT Statement or observational studies (STROBE Statement and this journal has been adopted as the guide for authors. Recently, there were presented the Guidelines for writing CAseREports (CARE Statement. The aim of this article is to make them known and comment.

  17. PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.J.; Blomgren, J.C.; Fackelmann, J.M.

    1982-10-01

    Steam generators in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced tubing degradation by a variety of corrosion-related mechanisms which depend directly on secondary water chemistry. As a result of this experience, the Steam Generator Owners Group and EPRI have sponsored a major program to provide solutions to PWR steam generator problems. This report, PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines, in addition to presenting justification for water chemistry control parameters, discusses available analytical methods, data management and surveillance, and the management philosophy required to successfully implement the guidelines

  18. World Fertility Survey: Major Findings and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Fertility Survey, London (England).

    A survey was conducted in 42 developing countries and in 20 developed countries to determine fertility practices and trends. Both individual and household questionnaires were used by interviewers to gather data. Findings concerning marriage patterns, contraception, reproductive motivation, childspacing, breastfeeding, maternal and child health,…

  19. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents. Cancer Treat Res. 2007;138:201-217. Redig AJ, Brannigan R, Stryker SJ, et al. Incorporating fertility preservation into the care of young oncology patients. Cancer. 2010;117:4- ...