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Sample records for twa lead concentration

  1. The TWA 3 Young Triple System: Orbits, Disks, Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, Kendra [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Prato, L.; Avilez, I.; Wasserman, L. H.; Levine, S. E.; Bosh, A. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schaefer, G. H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Ruíz-Rodríguez, D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli (Greece); Guenther, E. W. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Neuhäuser, R. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, FSU Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird; Hinz, Phil; Males, Jared R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa, E-mail: kkellogg@uwo.ca, E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We have characterized the spectroscopic orbit of the TWA 3A binary and provide preliminary families of probable solutions for the TWA 3A visual orbit, as well as for the wide TWA 3A–B orbit. TWA 3 is a hierarchical triple located at 34 pc in the ∼10 Myr old TW Hya association. The wide component separation is 1.″55; the close pair was first identified as a possible binary almost 20 years ago. We initially identified the 35-day period orbital solution using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy that angularly resolved the A and B components. We then refined the preliminary orbit by combining the infrared data with a reanalysis of our high-resolution optical spectroscopy. The orbital period from the combined spectroscopic solution is ∼35 days, the eccentricity is ∼0.63, and the mass ratio is ∼0.84; although this high mass ratio would suggest that optical spectroscopy alone should be sufficient to identify the orbital solution, the presence of the tertiary B component likely introduced confusion in the blended optical spectra. Using millimeter imaging from the literature, we also estimate the inclinations of the stellar orbital planes with respect to the TWA 3A circumbinary disk inclination and find that all three planes are likely misaligned by at least ∼30°. The TWA 3A spectroscopic binary components have spectral types of M4.0 and M4.5; TWA 3B is an M3. We speculate that the system formed as a triple, is bound, and that its properties were shaped by dynamical interactions between the inclined orbits and disk.

  2. THE COOLEST ISOLATED BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE MEMBER OF TWA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Qc H3C 3J7 (Canada); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Cruz, Kelle, E-mail: jonathan.gagne@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: jfaherty17@gmail.com [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We present two new late-type brown dwarf candidate members of the TW Hydrae association (TWA): 2MASS J12074836-3900043 and 2MASS J12474428-3816464, which were found as part of the BANYAN all-sky survey (BASS) for brown dwarf members of nearby young associations. We obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for both objects (NIR spectral types are respectively L1 and M9), as well as optical spectroscopy for J1207-3900 (optical spectral type is L0γ), and show that both display clear signs of low gravity, and thus youth. We use the BANYAN II Bayesian inference tool to show that both objects are candidate members to TWA with a very low probability of being field contaminants, although the kinematics of J1247-3816 seem slightly at odds with that of other TWA members. J1207-3900 is currently the latest-type and the only isolated L-type candidate member of TWA. Measuring the distance and radial velocity of both objects is still required to claim them as bona fide members. Such late-type objects are predicted to have masses down to 11-15 M {sub Jup} at the age of TWA, which makes them compelling targets to study atmospheric properties in a regime similar to that of currently known imaged extrasolar planets.

  3. ELF Magnetic Fields, Transients and TWA Metrics (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavet, R

    1999-07-01

    Residential measurements of ambient power frequency magnetic fields may serve as surrogates for personal exposures. There are few data available, however, to determine how far back in time this surrogacy holds. A limited amount of research on residential transients suggests that, all other factors being equivalent, larger transients may propagate within VHCC neighbourhoods than within LCC neighbourhoods. However, the presence of a conductive residential ground pathway also appears to be a potentially important factor associated with residential transient activity. The use of the TWA metric was prompted by the need for an exposure score simple enough to summarise an individual's exposure over a prior interval, yet specific to the agent of concern, namely the power frequency magnetic field. To the extent that the TWA exposure is associated with health outcomes in the absence of bias, including confounding, the TWA metric is important. (author)

  4. ELF Magnetic Fields, Transients and TWA Metrics (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavet, R.

    1999-01-01

    Residential measurements of ambient power frequency magnetic fields may serve as surrogates for personal exposures. There are few data available, however, to determine how far back in time this surrogacy holds. A limited amount of research on residential transients suggests that, all other factors being equivalent, larger transients may propagate within VHCC neighbourhoods than within LCC neighbourhoods. However, the presence of a conductive residential ground pathway also appears to be a potentially important factor associated with residential transient activity. The use of the TWA metric was prompted by the need for an exposure score simple enough to summarise an individual's exposure over a prior interval, yet specific to the agent of concern, namely the power frequency magnetic field. To the extent that the TWA exposure is associated with health outcomes in the absence of bias, including confounding, the TWA metric is important. (author)

  5. Comparison of Spot and Time Weighted Averaging (TWA Sampling with SPME-GC/MS Methods for Trihalomethane (THM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don-Roger Parkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected and analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature and trihalomethanes (THMs during the fall of 2014 at two monitored municipal drinking water source ponds. Both spot (or grab and time weighted average (TWA sampling methods were assessed over the same two day sampling time period. For spot sampling, replicate samples were taken at each site and analyzed within 12 h of sampling by both Headspace (HS- and direct (DI- solid phase microextraction (SPME sampling/extraction methods followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. For TWA, a two day passive on-site TWA sampling was carried out at the same sampling points in the ponds. All SPME sampling methods undertaken used a 65-µm PDMS/DVB SPME fiber, which was found optimal for THM sampling. Sampling conditions were optimized in the laboratory using calibration standards of chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, prepared in aqueous solutions from analytical grade samples. Calibration curves for all methods with R2 values ranging from 0.985–0.998 (N = 5 over the quantitation linear range of 3–800 ppb were achieved. The different sampling methods were compared for quantification of the water samples, and results showed that DI- and TWA- sampling methods gave better data and analytical metrics. Addition of 10% wt./vol. of (NH42SO4 salt to the sampling vial was found to aid extraction of THMs by increasing GC peaks areas by about 10%, which resulted in lower detection limits for all techniques studied. However, for on-site TWA analysis of THMs in natural waters, the calibration standard(s ionic strength conditions, must be carefully matched to natural water conditions to properly quantitate THM concentrations. The data obtained from the TWA method may better reflect actual natural water conditions.

  6. Pulsed Accretion in the T Tauri Binary TWA 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    TWA 3A is the most recent addition to a small group of young binary systems that both actively accrete from a circumbinary disk and have spectroscopic orbital solutions. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to test binary accretion theory in a well-constrained setting. To examine TWA 3A’s time-variable accretion behavior, we have conducted a two-year, optical photometric monitoring campaign, obtaining dense orbital phase coverage (∼20 observations per orbit) for ∼15 orbital periods. From U -band measurements we derive the time-dependent binary mass accretion rate, finding bursts of accretion near each periastron passage. On average, these enhanced accretion events evolve over orbital phases 0.85 to 1.05, reaching their peak at periastron. The specific accretion rate increases above the quiescent value by a factor of ∼4 on average but the peak can be as high as an order of magnitude in a given orbit. The phase dependence and amplitude of TWA 3A accretion is in good agreement with numerical simulations of binary accretion with similar orbital parameters. In these simulations, periastron accretion bursts are fueled by periodic streams of material from the circumbinary disk that are driven by the binary orbit. We find that TWA 3A’s average accretion behavior is remarkably similar to DQ Tau, another T Tauri binary with similar orbital parameters, but with significantly less variability from orbit to orbit. This is only the second clear case of orbital-phase-dependent accretion in a T Tauri binary.

  7. BLOOD LEAD CONCENTRATION AND DELAYED PUBERTY IN GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Environmental lead exposure has been linked to alterations in growth and endocrine function. It is not known whether such exposure affects pubertal development.Methods We analyzed the relations between blood lead concentration and pubertal...

  8. Determination of 210Pb activity concentration in lead shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivka, J.; Mrdja, D.; Varga, E.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    210 Pb is concentrated during the separation lead from the ore and therefore it is the main pollutant of lead products. The content of this isotope limits the applicability of lead for low-level shielding of gamma spectrometers. In this paper, a new method for the determination of 210 Pb activity concentration in lead shielding from 46.5 keV gamma line intensity is presented. (author) [sr

  9. Lead concentration in roadside soils and vegetation in Damascus city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Masri, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Seasonal variations of lead concentration in roadside soils and plants in 12 sites in Damascus city have been investigated. Lead concentrations in soil were found to be varied from 78.4 ppm to 832 ppm; lower levels in the wet period than in the dry period were observed. While lead levels in roadside plants varied between 3.39 ppm to 13.28 ppm. The results have also shown that most of the vegetables grown on the roadside of Damascus city have high concentrations of lead and the normal washing does not decrease it to unacceptable level. (author)

  10. Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils at residential lands previously used for auto-mechanic and auto-welding activities in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management.

  11. The effect of interior lead hazard controls on children's blood lead concentrations: a systematic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Erin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Tohn, Ellen; Farr, Nick; Rhoads, George G

    2002-01-01

    Dust control is often recommended to prevent children's exposure to residential lead hazards, but the effect of these controls on children's blood lead concentrations is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials of low-cost, lead hazard control interventions to determine the effect of lead hazard control on children's blood lead concentration. Four trials met the inclusion criteria. We examined mean blood lead concentration and elevated blood lead concentrations (> or = 10 microg/dL, > or = 15 microg/dL, and > or = 20 microg/dL) and found no significant differences in mean change in blood lead concentration for children by random group assignment (children assigned to the intervention group compared with those assigned to the control group). We found no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 10 microg/dL, 29% versus 32% [odds ratio (OR), 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.3], but there was a significant difference in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 15 microg/dL between the intervention and control groups, 6% versus 14% (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.80) and in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 20 microg/dL between the intervention and control groups, 2% versus 6% (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.85). We conclude that although low-cost, interior lead hazard control was associated with 50% or greater reduction in the proportion of children who had blood lead concentrations exceeding 15 microg/dL and > or = 20 microg/dL, there was no substantial effect on mean blood lead concentration.

  12. Temporal stability of blood lead concentrations in adults exposed only to environmental lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delves, H T; Sherlock, J C; Quinn, M J

    1984-08-01

    The temporal stability of blood lead concentrations of 21 health adults (14 men and 7 women) exposed only to environmental lead was assessed by analysis of 253 blood specimens collected serially over periods from 7 to 11 months. The women had lower blood lead concentrations (mean 8.5, range 7.4-10.8 micrograms/100 ml) than did the men (mean 12.2, range 8.6-15.8 micrograms/100 ml). These are within the expected ranges for non-occupationally exposed persons. Blood lead concentrations in the serial specimens from both men and women changed very little over the study period, with standard deviations of less than 0.5 micrograms/100 ml for the majority of individual mean concentrations: for all except low subjects the standard deviations were less than 0.8 micrograms/100 ml. Two subjects showed significant changes in blood lead concentrations during the study. A temporary increase in oral lead intake was identified for one of these subjects. In the absence of substantial changes in lead exposure blood lead levels in adults are remarkably stable and for their environmental monitoring a single blood lead concentration is an excellent biological indicator.

  13. The Management of Lead Concentrate Acquisition in "Trepca"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhiaj, Ahmet; Fan, Maoming; Haxhiaj, Bajram

    Based on the placement of lead and its consumption in industry branches, the paper deals with the composition of lead in the ores of Kopaonik, grinding and flotation recovery of galena. In the flotation process, the flotation machine, the flotation reagents, chemical composition of the flotation concentrates and tailings were discussed in this paper. Verification of the chemical composition of Pb concentrates with Pb, Zn, and Ag, etc. was conducted in this study. It is special that the ratio of Pb to Zn in Kopaonik massive composition is 1.4:1.0. During the flotation, lead tends to float with concentrate more than allowed. In this investigation, effects have been made to minimize the loss of Pb to concentrates. This paper as such gave the first effects in optimizing of these parameters with positive effects in the flotation process in Trepca.

  14. Relationship between soil lead and airborne lead concentrations at Springfield, Missouri, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheets, R W; Kyger, J R; Biagioni, R N; Probst, S [Department of Chemistry, Southwest Missouri State University, 65804 Springfield, MO (United States); Boyer, R; Barke, K [Greene County Health Department, 65802 Springfield, MO (United States)

    2001-04-23

    This study tests whether lead deposited to soil from automobiles during past years in a medium-sized US city (population 150000) may present a current health risk. It examines the relationship between current soil lead concentrations at nine locations within the city of Springfield, Missouri, and airborne lead levels measured at the same locations during years (1975-1981) when lead emissions from automobiles were much greater than at present. A strong, significant correlation is found between soil and airborne lead levels at eight of the sites (r=0.91, P<0.005 for soil lead vs. 1979 airborne lead), in low-traffic areas as well as in areas adjacent to heavy traffic flow. Residual lead concentrations in these soils are relatively low, even for the high-traffic sites, as expected for a medium sized city.

  15. Relationship between soil lead and airborne lead concentrations at Springfield, Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, R W; Kyger, J R; Biagioni, R N; Probst, S; Boyer, R; Barke, K

    2001-04-23

    This study tests whether lead deposited to soil from automobiles during past years in a medium-sized US city (population 150,000) may present a current health risk. It examines the relationship between current soil lead concentrations at nine locations within the city of Springfield, Missouri, and airborne lead levels measured at the same locations during years (1975-1981) when lead emissions from automobiles were much greater than at present. A strong, significant correlation is found between soil and airborne lead levels at eight of the sites (r = 0.91, P lead vs. 1979 airborne lead), in low-traffic areas as well as in areas adjacent to heavy traffic flow. Residual lead concentrations in these soils are relatively low, even for the high-traffic sites, as expected for a medium sized city.

  16. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0–15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15–60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. - Highlights: ► Pb concentrations in highway runoff ranged from 0.5 to 752 mg/L. ► 78% of total lead concentration in highway runoff was in particulate form. ► Pb deposited on highway sites was mostly within 0 to 15 cm of soil column. ► Pb concentration in highway runoff and top soil was strongly correlated. ► Current Pb concentration in highway runoff is up to 11 times lower than late 1980s. - Most Pb deposited on soil near highways is within the top 15 cm. This Pb is the major sources of Pb concentration in highway runoff that has substantially been reduced since lead phase-out era.

  17. Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: We studied 223 cases including 98 control children and 125 patients. All children had lead intoxication. Mean (±SD) blood lead concentration in the control group was 57.1 ± 25.3 (ranged 20-212) μg/dl and in the patient group was 57 ± 20.4 (ranged 10.9-159) μg/dl with no significant difference (P value = 0.713).

  18. Lead concentrations in the bones of city and country doves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegfried, W.R.; Frost, P.G.H.; Redelinghuys, E.P.; van der Merwe, R.P.

    The lead content of bones of laughing doves Streptopelia senegalensis was assayed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A significant difference in the mean lead content was found between two groups of wild doves. The one group was taken in the city of Cape Town, and the other group 50 km away in rural farmland near Stellenbosch. The bones of the urban doves contained on average seven times more lead per unit weight of tissue than those of their rural con-specifics. Concentrations of lead in the bones of rural and urban doves are approximately 70% and 80% below those recorded for corresponding pigeon Columba livia populations in Pennsylvania, USA. These differences between urban and rural populations are believed to reflect the relatively greater degree of lead in the atmosphere of the urban environment, presumably as a result of motor car exhaust emissions. 2 references, 1 table.

  19. Mercury and lead concentrations in six cartilaginous fish species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury and lead concentrations in cartilaginous fishes from Lagos Lagoon and coastal waters of South-West Nigeria were investigated between May and August 2013. There are obvious discharges of toxic heavy metal substances into these waters and which can get to man by bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in ...

  20. Australian atmospheric lead deposition reconstructed using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions of archival lichen and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K.; Wu, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lead concentrations and their isotopic compositions were measured in lichen genera Cladonia and Usnea and fungi genus Trametes from the Greater Sydney region (New South Wales, Australia) that had been collected and archived over the past 120 years. The median lead concentrations were elevated in lichens and fungi prior to the introduction of leaded petrol (Cladonia 12.5 mg/kg; Usnea 15.6 mg/kg; Trametes 1.85 mg/kg) corresponding to early industrial development. During the period of leaded petrol use in Australian automobiles from 1932 to 2002, total median lead concentrations rose: Cladonia 18.8 mg/kg; Usnea 21.5 mg/kg; Trametes 4.3 mg/kg. Following the cessation of leaded petrol use, median total lead concentrations decreased sharply in the 2000s: Cladonia 4.8 mg/kg; Usnea 1.7 mg/kg. The lichen and fungi isotopic compositions reveal a significant decrease in "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb ratios from the end of 19th century to the 1970s. The following decades were characterised by lower allowable levels of lead additive in fuel and the introduction of unleaded petrol in 1985. The environmental response to these regulatory changes was that lichen and fungi "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb ratios increased, particularly from 1995 onwards. Although the lead isotope ratios of lichens continued to increase in the 2000s they do not return to pre-leaded petrol values. This demonstrates that historic leaded petrol emissions, inter alia other sources, remain a persistent source of anthropogenic contamination in the Greater Sydney region. - Highlights: • Total lead and isotopic composition can be measured in historic lichen and fungi. • Historic lichen and fungi samples can distinguish polluted and unpolluted areas. • Former leaded petrol depositions remain a significant environmental contaminant. - Analysis of a 120-year record of lichens and fungi from the Greater Sydney basin reveal marked shifts in total lead concentrations and lead isotope ratios in response to geogenic inputs

  1. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  2. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0-15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15-60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990 s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated lead concentrations in < 250 μm and < 75 μm of deposited dust and< 2000 μm, < 250 μm, and < 75 μm of surface soils at undeveloped residential lands leased to auto-mechanic artisans for a minimum of ten years and estimated exposure risk for children that will reside on the polluted lands after the ...

  4. YOGYAKARTA AIR BORNE QUALITY BASED ON THE LEAD PARTICULATE CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Abidin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Yogyakarta air quality based on concentration of lead particulate using Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA method has been done. The sample was taken 3 times in 16 strategic locations of Yogyakarta city using Hi-Vol air sampler that equipped with cellulose filter TFA 2133. The sample irradiated for 30 min with 14 MeV fast neutron and then counted using gamma spectroscopy (AccuSpec. The result indicated that concentration of Pb-208 along Diponegoro street up to Janti street respectively are minimally (0.689 - 0.775 mg/m3, and maximally:  (1.598 - 1.785 mg/m3. According to DIY governor decree No. 153/2002 about the limited toxicity ambient on Yogyakarta area it is concentration that Pb. The concentration of Pb-208 are still below the permitted value of 2 mg/m3, but in certain areas, the Pb concentration is almost equal to upper limit of permitted concentration of Pb.   Keywords: air borne, neutron generator, FNAA

  5. Neuropsychological studies in children with elevated tooth-lead concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winneke, G.; Hrdina, K.G.; Brockhaus, A.

    1982-12-01

    Tooth-lead concentrations (PbT) provide retrospective information about longterm, cumulative childhood lead-intake. From a basic sample of 458 school age children from the city of Duisburg (FRG), whose lead-concentrations in shed incisor teeth had been measured (anti x = 4.6 ppm; range: 1.4 - 12.7 ppm), two extreme groups of 26 children each (mean age: 8,5 years) with low (anti x = 2.4 ppm) and elevated (anti x = 9.2 ppm) PbT were selected. After pair-matching both groups for age, sex, and father's occupational status, these children were tested under double-blind precautions for intellectual performance (German WISC), for perceptual-motor integration (Goettinger Formreproduktionstest = GFT, Diagnostikum fuer Cerebralschaedigung = DCS, Benton-Test), and for gross motor-coordination (Koerper-Koordinationstest fuer Kinder = KTK). Significant (P < 0.05) inferiority of the lead-children was found in two tests of perceptual-motor integration (increased GFT-errors; lower success rate for DCS). In addition a near significant (P < 0.1) reduction of 5-7 IQ-points was determined in these children. Although this pilot study has provided some evidence for an association between childhood lead-exposure and neuropsychological impairment, this association cannot yet be considered proven, because the observed effects were discrete and statistically confirmed only in part, and because there was a slight prevalence of perinatal risk factors in the lead group. Further research to clarify the issue is necessary.

  6. Neuropsychological studies in children with elevated tooth-lead concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winneke, G; Hrdina, K G; Brockhaus, A

    1982-12-01

    Tooth-lead concentrations (PbT) provide retrospective information about longterm, cumulative childhood lead-intake. From a basic sample of 458 school age children from the city of Duisburg (FRG), whose lead-concentrations in shed incisor teeth had been measured (anti x = 4.6 ppm; range: 1.4 - 12.7 ppm), two extreme groups of 26 children each (mean age: 8,5 years) with low (anti x = 2.4 ppm) and elevated (anti x = 9.2 ppm) PbT were selected. After pair-matching both groups for age, sex, and father's occupational status, these children were tested under double-blind precautions for intellectual performance (German WISC), for perceptual-motor integration (Goettinger Formreproduktionstest = GFT, Diagnostikum fuer Cerebralschaedigung = DCS, Benton-Test), and for gross motor-coordination (Koerper-Koordinationstest fuer Kinder = KTK). Significant (P < 0.05) inferiority of the lead-children was found in two tests of perceptual-motor integration (increased GFT-errors; lower success rate for DCS). In addition a near significant (P < 0.1) reduction of 5-7 IQ-points was determined in these children. Although this pilot study has provided some evidence for an association between childhood lead-exposure and neuropsychological impairment, this association cannot yet be considered proven, because the observed effects were discrete and statistically confirmed only in part, and because there was a slight prevalence of perinatal risk factors in the lead group. Further research to clarify the issue is necessary.

  7. Bio monitoring: lead concentration in Asuncion space characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochmann, S.; Doncel, F.; Ortiz, M.; Insaurralde, A.; Barua de Souberlich, G.

    2001-01-01

    When air has polluting agents, a injurious effects potential to the health exists. Most of Lead, one of the most important pollutants due to the great damage that it causes to the human sort and other living organisms by his extensive diffusion; one is in the Asuncion urban atmosphere, probably located on particle suspended originating of the transmission of automotive vehicles; the same ones, by their greater surface of aggregation, increase the viability of toxic compound adsorption and the dissolution or absorption of gaseous polluting agents. One takes ahead to a preliminary program of Bio monitoring using plants, to establish the relative levels of the polluting agent, in places where the detailed knowledge of the concentration of the same one is not fundamental. In front of direct studies this one is an accessible alternative by its relative low cost and its generalisation possibility. The sampling is made in nucleus Zones selected randomly in Asuncion, taking in consideration the prevalence from movable sources and the continuous and gradual vehicle park increase and its conditions, with the consequent increase of transmissions in the atmosphere. Tillandsia sp. is used and X-rays Fluorescence for the measurements, jointly with the application of suitable statistical tools, since for the characterisation of plans of elements that are in particulate matter, allow to the simultaneous determination of interest elements and correlations significant establishment, applicable to environmental studies. With the collected data it is made the interpolation and extrapolation, with the objective to space characterise the Lead concentration in Asuncion

  8. Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helander, B., E-mail: bjorn.helander@nrm.se [Department of Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Axelsson, J., E-mail: jeanette.axelsson@hgen.slu.se [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Borg, H., E-mail: hans.borg@itm.su.se [Department of Applied Environmental Science/ITM, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Holm, K. [Department of Applied Environmental Science/ITM, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bignert, A., E-mail: anders.bignert@nrm.se [Department of Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (> 6 {mu}g/g d.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition, and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (> 20 {mu}g/g d.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels < 6 {mu}g/g, concentrations were significantly higher in kidney than in liver; in individuals with lead levels > 20 {mu}g/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead (< 6 {mu}g/g d.w.) There were no significant sex or age differences in lead concentrations. A study from the Baltic reported in principle no biomagnification of lead, but background lead concentrations in WSE liver in this study were still four to > 10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. In contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers.

  9. Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsæter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A

    2013-11-01

    Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Saint-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-François and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios (204Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/206Pb are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg-1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg-1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg-1 (Pb, respectively, while the 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10–C50, most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth. The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on floodplains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils.

  11. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, D.; St-Laurent, J.; Hahni, M.; Chapados, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10,C50), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb) were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-Francois and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios ( 204 Pb/ 206 Pb, 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 208 Pb/ 20 '6Pb) are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88?mg kg -1 (As), 0.11 to 0.81?mg kg-1 (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13?mg kg -1 (Pb), respectively, while the 207 Pb/ 206 Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn) were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10,C50), most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth). The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on flood plains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils

  12. Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, B.; Axelsson, J.; Borg, H.; Holm, K.; Bignert, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (> 6 μg/g d.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition, and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (> 20 μg/g d.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels 20 μg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead ( 10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. In contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers.

  13. Lead Concentrations and Risk Exposure Assessment in Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    µm, < 250 µm, and < 75 µm of surface soils at undeveloped residential lands leased to ... mechanic yards may still be point sources of lead ..... therefore need to conduct a source apportionment ... heavy metals in soil profiles of automobile.

  14. Effect of pH, temperature, and lead concentration on the bioremoval of lead from water using Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Yağmur; Taner, Fadime

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the ability of the aquatic plant Lemna minor (duckweed) to remove soluble lead under various laboratory conditions. In a batch process L. minor was exposed to different pH values (4.5-8.0) and temperature (15-35 degrees C) in presence of different lead concentrations (0.1-10.0 mg L(-1)) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period on a dry weight basis, the concentrations of lead in tissue and in medium and net uptake of lead by Lemna all have been determined in each condition. The percentages of lead uptake ratios (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated for these conditions. Bioaccumulated lead concentrations and the PMU were obtained at lowest pH of 4.5, and at 30 degrees C. The highest accumulated lead concentration was found at pH 4.5 as 3.599 mg Pb g(-1) in 10.0 mg L(-1). It decreased to pH 6.0, but it did not change at pH 6.0-8.0 range. The maximum lead accumulation was obtained at 30 degrees C as 8.622 mg Pb g(-1) in 10 mg L(-1) at pH 5.0, and the minimum was at 15 degrees C as 0.291 mg g(-1) in 0.1 mg L(-1). Lead accumulation gradually increased with increasing lead in medium, but the opposite trend was observed for PMU. Lead accumulation increased up to 50 mg L(-1), but did not change significantly in the 50.0-100.0 mg L(-1) range. The lead uptake from water was modeled and the equation fit the experimental data very well

  15. Anthropogenic lead concentrations and sources in Baltic Sea sediments based on lead isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaborska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pb concentrations reach even 147 μg/g at Gdansk Basin sediments. • Marine sediments deposited before 1860 are not contaminated by Pb. • Contemporary inventories of anthropogenic Pb in marine sediments was of 0.5–11 g for m 2 . • The lowest 206 Pb/ 207 Pb (1.165) were measured in sediments deposited between 1970s–90s. • Coal burning was always the most important Pb source in Poland. - Abstract: The Gulf of Gdańsk is influenced by heavy metals of anthropogenic origin. In this study, temporal concentration changes of Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were studied in six, 50 cm long sediment cores. The main aim of the study was to concentrate on the history of Pb fluxes and Pb isotopic composition ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) to trace Pb sources. The lowest Pb concentrations (19 μg g −1 ) were measured in sediments deposited circa 1860, while the highest Pb concentrations (63–147 μg g −1 ) were measured in sediments deposited between 1960s and 70s. Pre-industrial Pb fluxes were 7 Pb m 2 year −1 , while after WWII they reached 199 Pb m 2 year −1 . Highest 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios (∼1.22) were measured in the oldest sediment layers, and the lowest 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios (∼1.165) were measured in the sediments deposited in 1970s–90s. During the period of highest Pb contamination, the anthropogenic Pb fraction reached up to 93%. A general discussion of the Pb sources, emissions, and loads for Poland is included

  16. Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific evidenced by lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in surface waters and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Céline; Ranville, Mara A; Conaway, Christopher H; Landing, William M; Buck, Clifton S; Morton, Peter L; Flegal, A Russell

    2011-12-01

    Recent trends of atmospheric lead deposition to the North Pacific were investigated with analyses of lead in aerosols and surface waters collected on the fourth Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Contaminant Baseline Survey from May to June, 2002. Lead concentrations of the aerosols varied by 2 orders of magnitude (0.1-26.4 pmol/m(3)) due in part to variations in dust deposition during the cruise. The ranges in lead aerosol enrichment factors relative to iron (1-119) and aluminum (3-168) were similar, evidencing the transport of Asian industrial lead aerosols across the North Pacific. The oceanic deposition of some of those aerosols was substantiated by the gradient of lead concentrations of North Pacific waters, which varied 3-fold (32.7-103.5 pmol/kg), were highest along with the Asian margin of the basin, and decreased eastward. The hypothesized predominance of Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific was further corroborated by the lead isotopic composition of ocean surface waters ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.157-1.169; (208)Pb/(206)Pb = 2.093-2.118), which fell within the range of isotopic ratios reported in Asian aerosols that are primarily attributed to Chinese industrial lead emissions.

  17. A technology for production of a ''Cureless'' paste containing a high concentration of tetrabasic lead sulfate and a low concentration of free lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, David P.; Loosemore, Daniel [Hammond Lead Products, Division of Hammond Group Inc., 6544 Osborn Avenue, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    The conventional paste used to produce plates for lead-acid batteries comprises a mixture of leady oxide, water and sulfuric acid. Fibre and other additives, such as expander in negative plates, are added to improve paste properties and battery performance. Following pasting of the plates, they have to be cured to provide the correct chemical composition and crystal morphology, and to oxidize any residual free lead metal to lead monoxide. The desired result of the curing process is a positive plate with a high concentration of uniformly sized tetrabasic lead sulfate (4BS) crystals and with both positive and negative plates having a low concentration of free lead. Curing is a time-consuming and expensive process, which requires large numbers of chambers capable of being heated to 85 C and containing an atmosphere with a relative humidity greater than 95%. This process adds significant cost to the battery. (author)

  18. Lead concentration and isotopic composition in the Pacific sclerosponge (Acanthochaetetes wellsi) reflects environmental lead pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmori, Kazuto; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Shirai, Kotaro

    2014-01-01

    We measured Pb/Ca and Pb isotopes with high resolution in the high-Mg calcite skeleton of a Pacific sclerosponge (Acanthochaetetes wellsi) collected from the reef edge off the western coast of Kume Island (East China Sea), to investigate its potential to he used as a proxy for lead contamination in the environment, and atmospheric transportation and fallout over the last few decades. Skeletal Pb/Ca ranged from 58 to 1642 nmol/mol, 10x higher than that of the aragonite skeleton of Pacific cora...

  19. Investigation on the optimal magnetic field of a cusp electron gun for a W-band gyro-TWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; He, Wenlong; Donaldson, Craig R.; Cross, Adrian W.

    2018-05-01

    High efficiency and broadband operation of a gyrotron traveling wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) require a high-quality electron beam with low-velocity spreads. The beam velocity spreads are mainly due to the differences of the electric and magnetic fields that the electrons withstand the electron gun. This paper investigates the possibility to decouple the design of electron gun geometry and the magnet system while still achieving optimal results, through a case study of designing a cusp electron gun for a W-band gyro-TWA. A global multiple-objective optimization routing was used to optimize the electron gun geometry for different predefined magnetic field profiles individually. Their results were compared and the properties of the required magnetic field profile are summarized.

  20. X-ray radiometric analysis of lead and zinc concentrates using germanium radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajgachev, A.A.; Mamysh, V.A.; Mil'chakov, V.I.; Shchekin, K.I.; Berezkin, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    The results of determination of lead, zinc and iron in lead and zinc concentrates by the X-ray-radiometric method with the use of germanium semiconductor detector are presented. In the experiments the 57 Co source and tritium-zirconium target were used. The activity of 57 Co was 2 mc. The area of the germanium detector employed was 5g mm 2 , its thickness - 2.3 mm. In lead concentrates zinc and iron were determined from the direct intensity of K-series radiation. In the analysis of zinc concentrates the same conditions of recording and excitation were used as in the case of lead concentrates, but the measurements were conducted in saturated layers. It is demonstrated that the use of germanium semiconductor detectors in combination with the suggested methods of measurements makes it possible to perform determination of iron, zinc and lead in zinc and lead concentrates with permissible error

  1. Blood lead concentrations as a result of retained lead pellets in the craniomaxillofacial region in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edetanlen, B E; Saheeb, B D

    2016-06-01

    Patients who survive gunshot wounds often retain pellets in their bodies, which cause delayed morbidity from lead poisoning, and even death. Our aim was to find out whether there is a high concentration of lead in the blood of patients who have asymptomatic retention of lead pellets in the craniomaxillofacial region. We prospectively studied 28 patients who were admitted to our hospital with gunshot injuries to the region, and 28 control subjects. Each was originally recruited three days after injury. The control subjects were chosen from people who lived in the same household or worked in the same place as the patients. Any previous exposure to lead was excluded. Blood samples were collected three days and three months after injury and analysed for the presence of lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean (SD) age for both patients and control subjects was 33 (12) years. The mean (SD) and range of concentrations of lead in patients three days after injury was 0.11 (0.07), range 0.01-0.32μmol/L, while those of the control subjects were 0.03 (0.02) and 0-0.06, respectively. Three months after injury, the mean (SD) and range of concentrations of the patients were 0.30 (0.11) and 0.12-0.59μmol/L, while those of the control subjects were 0-1.25 and 0.12 (0.006) μmol/L, respectively (p= 0.000). The study showed a higher mean blood lead concentration in patients with gunshot injuries than in control subjects, but lower than the threshold values published by the Centers for Disease Control/Occupational Health and Safety Administration in the United States. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue lead concentration during chronic exposure of Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) to lead nitrate in aquarium water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, Eric G; Spur, Bernd W; Smith, Holly; Kemp, Francis W; Bogden, John D

    2006-11-01

    The fathead minnow is a useful species for evaluating the toxicity of wastewater effluents. While this fish is widely used for "survival" studies of metal toxicity, little or no work has been done on the tissue distribution of metals in fathead minnows. To determine the distribution of tissue lead, aquarium studies were conducted for several weeks with fish maintained in soft synthetic freshwater. Lead- (II) nitrate was added to three aquaria attaining concentrations of 20-30 ppb (aquarium B), 100-140 ppb (aquarium C), and roughly 200 ppb (aquarium D). Results were compared to controls (aquarium A). During the initial week, the majority of aquarium D fish died, whereas few deaths occurred in the other groups. Lead accumulation was dose- and tissue-dependent, with highest uptake by the gills. Gill concentrations of aquarium D fish averaged about 4-fold higherthan in skeleton or skin and muscle. In vitro, lead (2.5-25 ppm) caused dose-dependent reductions in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in gills incubated in physiological buffer. These findings demonstrate that fathead minnow gills bind and accumulate waterborne lead rapidly and preferentially and raise the possibility that gill lipid peroxidation contributes to lead toxicity at low water hardness.

  3. Lead concentration in meat from lead-killed moose and predicted human exposure using Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindboe, M; Henrichsen, E N; Høgåsen, H R; Bernhoft, A

    2012-01-01

    Lead-based hunting ammunitions are still common in most countries. On impact such ammunition releases fragments which are widely distributed within the carcass. In Norway, wild game is an important meat source for segments of the population and 95% of hunters use lead-based bullets. In this paper, we have investigated the lead content of ground meat from moose (Alces alces) intended for human consumption in Norway, and have predicted human exposure through this source. Fifty-two samples from different batches of ground meat from moose killed with lead-based bullets were randomly collected. The lead content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The lead intake from exposure to moose meat over time, depending on the frequency of intake and portion size, was predicted using Monte Carlo simulation. In 81% of the batches, lead levels were above the limit of quantification of 0.03 mg kg(-1), ranging up to 110 mg kg(-1). The mean lead concentration was 5.6 mg kg(-1), i.e. 56 times the European Commission limit for lead in meat. For consumers eating a moderate meat serving (2 g kg(-1) bw), a single serving would give a lead intake of 11 µg kg(-1) bw on average, with maximum of 220 µg kg(-1) bw. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the median (and 97.5th percentile) predicted weekly intake of lead from moose meat was 12 µg kg(-1) bw (27 µg kg(-1) bw) for one serving per week and 25 µg kg(-1) bw (45 µg kg(-1) bw) for two servings per week. The results indicate that the intake of meat from big game shot with lead-based bullets imposes a significant contribution to the total human lead exposure. The provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 25 µg kg(-1) bw is likely to be exceeded in people eating moose meat on a regular basis. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has recently concluded that adverse effects may be present at even lower exposure doses. Hence, even occasional consumption of big game meat with lead levels as

  4. Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wan; Liu Xiande; Zhao Liwei; Guo, Dongfa; Tian Xiaodan; Adams, Freddy

    2006-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206 Pb / 207 Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206 Pb / 207 Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206 Pb / 207 Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level

  5. Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence University’s campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly

  6. Concentrations of chromium, manganese, and lead in air and in avian eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Embryo exposure was not directly related to tropospheric levels of chromium, manganese or lead. - The expansion of urbanization introduces air pollution to wildlife areas. Some metal contaminants occurring in concentrations too small to have any measurable impact on adult birds may seriously affect embryos that are more sensitive to contaminants than the adult. Chromium, manganese, and lead are toxic and can be passed from the hen to the egg. This study relates the concentrations of these metals in eggs to their concentrations in air in three cities. Rock dove eggs were sampled and air pollution records were examined in the California cities of Riverside, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. The eggs from San Francisco did not differ from those of Los Angeles in lead concentration but the air did differ. The eggs collected in Los Angeles in 1998 had concentrations of chromium greater than in those from Riverside and from Los Angeles 1999 but the air had concentrations of chromium that did not differ among those three collections. Concentrations of manganese did not differ among the eggs but did differ among the air samples of the three cities. Exposures of embryos to chromium and manganese in this study were not at levels warranting concern. Although the concentration at which lead in eggs impairs avian health is not established, the highest concentrations found in this study exceed estimated safe concentrations. There is no indication that embryo exposure is directly related to atmospheric levels of these metals in the cities of this study

  7. Drosophila subobscura flies adapted to low lead concentration carry no fitness cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalajdzic, Predrag; Kenig, Bojan; Andjelkovic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    As a response to the long-term presence of heavy metals in the environment, populations can evolve resistance. Its maintenance may have detrimental effect on population's fitness, causing a fitness cost. Lead is one of the widely distributed elements in the environment exhibiting high toxicity on organisms. By analyzing developmental stages viability and developmental time, we evaluated fitness cost in Drosophila subobscura flies adapted to low lead concentration and control flies derived from the same wild population, as well as their hybrids. Significant changes in specific developmental stages viability were detected in both lines, as well as their hybrids, suggesting complex response to low lead concentration. The results show that a long-term exposure to low lead concentration may have a significant impact on a population's survival, especially in a changing environment conditions. - Highlights: • We analyzed fitness cost in Drosophila subobscura flies reared on lead (Pb) for 37 generations. • Two fitness components, developmental stages viability and developmental time, were analyzed. • A long-term exposure to low lead concentration exhibits a complex adaptation response in D. subobscura flies. • A long-term exposure to low lead concentration decreases viability of population in a changing environment condition. - This study suggests that wild species under a long-term exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals could be in increased risk of population reduction under changing environments

  8. Concentrations of heavy metals (lead, manganese, cadmium) in blood and urine of former uranium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolova, D.; Pavlova, S.; Paskalev, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium ores contain heavy metals and other stable chemical elements as oxides, hydro-carbonates, sulphates, etc. During chemical processing of ore they could be transformed into compounds soluble in biologic liquids. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined intoxication of uranium miners and millers by heavy metals and radiation. Heavy metal (lead, manganese and cadmium) concentrations in blood and urine od 149 former uranium miners and millers were determined by AAS method. Data of significantly increased lead and manganese concentration in blood (p<0.05) of two groups were established in comparison with a control group. There is no statistical significant differences in the cadmium concentrations. The lead and manganese blood levels at the uranium millers were significant higher than those of the uranium miner group (p<0.05). Tendency towards increased blood lead concentrations of uranium millers depending on the length of service was established

  9. In vivo x-ray fluorescence estimation of bone lead concentrations in Queensland adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.; Baddeley, H.; Kenardy, J.A.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    A group of 200 Queensland adults without known health problems had in-vivo estimation of finger bone lead concentrations using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). Forty of these subjects had elevated levels of bone lead of 25 ppm or more, consistent with exposure to the metal. Although the correlation between Queensland residence during childhood and raised bone lead levels was not significant, there were significant correlations between childhood residence in a painted wooden house and raised levels, and between occupational exposure and raised levels. Of the 40 subjects with elevated lead levels only two had neither a history of occupational exposure or childhood residence in a wooden house, whereas 11 of the 25 who had a history of both occupational and residential exposure were positive. The data are consistent with lead in housepaint, or absorbed during occupational exposure, being the two major sources of raised bone lead concentrations. (author)

  10. Lead, zinc and pH concentrations of Enyigba soils in Abakaliki Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were quantitatively determined in surface and sub-surface soils in Enyigba, Ebonyi State, Nigerian's major lead mining area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. pH status of the soils was similarly determined. The survey was conducted to establish a base line pollution ...

  11. Sulfide precursor concentration and lead source effect on PbS thin films properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddek, L.; Messaoudi, M.; Attaf, N.; Aida, M.S.; Bougdira, J.

    2016-01-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) thin films were synthesized using chemical bath deposition (CBD). Bath solutions are formed of various concentrations of thiourea, sulfide source, ranged from 0.6 to 1.2 M and two different salts as Pb source (lead acetate and lead nitrate). From the growth mechanism, we inferred that PbS is formed through the ion by ion process when using acetate lead source, while, using nitrate source yields to films growth through the complex-decomposition process. Due to the difference in the involved growth process, lead acetate produces films with larger crystallite size (from 4 to 16 nm), smooth and dense films. However, lead nitrate produces rough films with smaller crystallite size (from 1 to 4 nm). Increasing the thiourea concentration results in crystallinity improvement when using lead acetate and, oppositely, in crystallinity degradation when using lead nitrate. Due to the quantum effect caused by the small crystallite sizes, the films optical gap is varied from 0.5 to 0.9 eV. - Highlights: • PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition. • Ion by ion is the growth process when using the acetate lead source. • Deposition process is by complex-decomposition when using nitrate source. • Lead acetate yields to dense films with larger crystallite size. • Lead nitrate produces rough films with smaller crystallite size.

  12. Sulfide precursor concentration and lead source effect on PbS thin films properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddek, L.; Messaoudi, M.; Attaf, N. [Laboratoire Couche Minces et Interfaces, Université frères Mentouri Constantine, 25000, Constantine (Algeria); Aida, M.S., E-mail: aida_salah2@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Couche Minces et Interfaces, Université frères Mentouri Constantine, 25000, Constantine (Algeria); Bougdira, J. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198, Vandoeuvre 54506 (France)

    2016-05-05

    Lead sulfide (PbS) thin films were synthesized using chemical bath deposition (CBD). Bath solutions are formed of various concentrations of thiourea, sulfide source, ranged from 0.6 to 1.2 M and two different salts as Pb source (lead acetate and lead nitrate). From the growth mechanism, we inferred that PbS is formed through the ion by ion process when using acetate lead source, while, using nitrate source yields to films growth through the complex-decomposition process. Due to the difference in the involved growth process, lead acetate produces films with larger crystallite size (from 4 to 16 nm), smooth and dense films. However, lead nitrate produces rough films with smaller crystallite size (from 1 to 4 nm). Increasing the thiourea concentration results in crystallinity improvement when using lead acetate and, oppositely, in crystallinity degradation when using lead nitrate. Due to the quantum effect caused by the small crystallite sizes, the films optical gap is varied from 0.5 to 0.9 eV. - Highlights: • PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition. • Ion by ion is the growth process when using the acetate lead source. • Deposition process is by complex-decomposition when using nitrate source. • Lead acetate yields to dense films with larger crystallite size. • Lead nitrate produces rough films with smaller crystallite size.

  13. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanar-Escorza, M.A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T.; Navarro, L.; Maldonado, M.; Arevalo, B.; Calderon-Salinas, J.V.

    2007-01-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ )-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 ± 21.9 μg/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 ± 2 μg/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 ± 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P 2+ -Mg 2+ )-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers

  14. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  15. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL, 4.4 (2.4 μg/L, 10.9 (9.2 μg/L, and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L, respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01. After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car, the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01. Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations.

  16. Total lead concentration in new decorative enamel paints in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Scott; Speranskaya, Olga; Brosche, Sara; Gonzalez, Hebe; Solis, Daniela; Kodeih, Naji; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Lead concentrations in new enamel decorative paints were determined in three countries in different areas of the world where data were not previously available. The average total lead concentration of the enamel decorative paints purchased in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia was 24,500ppm (ppm, dry weight), more than 270 times the current limit of 90ppm in Canada and in the United States. Sixty-three percent of these paints contained concentrations greater than 90ppm. Fifty-nine percent contained concentrations greater than 600ppm, the current limit in some countries. The maximum concentrations found were 236,000ppm in Lebanon, 169,000ppm in Paraguay and 52,900ppm in Russia. An average of 29% of the samples contained exceedingly high lead concentrations, >=10,000ppm. Five brands of paint were sampled in each of Lebanon and Paraguay and seven in Russia. Three colors from each brand were analyzed. For five of the six samples of the two brands in Lebanon with affiliations outside the country, the lead concentrations ranged from 1360ppm to 135,000ppm. In Lebanon the maximum concentration in the Egypt-affiliated brand (Sipes) was 135,000ppm and the maximum for the USA-affiliated brand (Dutch Boy) was 32,400ppm. Lead was not detected in any paints from the three of the four brands of paint purchased in Paraguay that had headquarters/affiliations in other countries (Brazil-Coralit), Germany (Suvinil) and USA (Novacor)). Two of the three paints from each of the other Paraguay brands contained high levels of lead with the maximum concentrations of 108,000 and 168,000ppm; one of these brands was manufactured under a license from ICI in the Netherlands. All of the paints purchased in Russia were from Russian brands and were manufactured in Russia. All three paints from one brand contained below detection levels of lead. The maximum levels of lead in the other six brands in Russia ranged from 3230 to 52,900ppm. The two brands with the highest lead concentration, TEKS and LAKRA

  17. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

  18. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p < 0.05. However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64. Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC.

  19. Performance and exposure indices of rats exposed to low concentrations of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory-Slechta, D A; Weiss, B; Cox, C

    1985-04-01

    To further characterize the lower end of the function relating lead exposure and biological exposure indices to behavior, male weanling rats were exposed chronically to drinking solutions containing 25 ppm sodium acetate (controls) or 25 ppm lead acetate. Behavioral training began when the animals reached 50 days of age, and performance on a fixed-interval 1-min schedule of food reinforcement was then assessed over 90 experimental sessions (136 days). This exposure produced overall response rate increases over the first 40 sessions that were similar to those observed previously with higher concentrations of lead. Response rates of the two groups tended to merge subsequently. The increased overall response rates in the treated group derived primarily from an increased frequency of shorter interresponse times (IRTs) and increased running rates (calculated without the postreinforcement interval). Blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) values were determined following sessions 30, 60, and 90. PbB values of the lead-exposed group averaged 15 to 20 micrograms/dl throughout the study; ZPP did not differ. The mean brain lead value of the treated group was 0.07 micrograms Pb/g. Blood-brain ratios (1.38 to 4.06) were substantially greater than those previously observed at higher exposures. These data extend to even lower exposures, and lower blood lead concentrations, the effective concentration for behavioral effects, and further emphasize the importance of the sensitivity of the endpoint in assessing behavioral toxicity.

  20. Lead Concentration in Primary School Soil-Dust in Nigeria, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwumemgbo P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead in soil has been recognized as a public health problem, particularly among children. In recent years, attention has been directed to cumulative adverse effects of lead at low levels of intake. Leadcontaminated soil and dust have been identified as important contributors to blood lead levels. This work examines the total concentration of lead in primary school soil-dust in Nigeria. Soil-dusts were collected randomly from six geopolitical areas of Nigeria, digested and analysed for total lead concentration by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The mean lead concentration in the dry season for the North East (NE, North West (NW, North Central (NC, South South (SS, South East (SE, South West (SW were 131.60 ± 70.98 mg/kg, 108.04 ± 47.33 mg/kg, 72.94 ± 55.45 mg/kg, 66.14 ± 43.9 mg/kg, 45.98 ± 34.60 mg/kg and 67.98 ± 34.89 mg/kg respectively. In the raining season the mean lead concentration were 130.78 ± 70.80 mg/kg, 106.24 ± 47.02 mg/kg, 70.96 ± 55.52 mg/kg, 64.12 ± 48.00 mg/kg, 44.58 ± 28.90 mg/kg, and 66.26 ± 41.87 mg/kg respectively. This analysis is necessary to provide scientific data base for the loading of lead in classroom soil-dust in each zone. The authors recommend measurement and surveillance of lead blood level of the primary school children and a clean-up of both classrooms and the school environment.

  1. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical environment at the shooting range. This was an environmental case study of 58 male and female shooters from two indoor shooting ranges with assumed different ventilation and cleaning conditions. Information was obtained on general conditions including age, gender, tobacco and alcohol use, and shooting conditions: weapon type, number of shots fired, frequency of stays at the shooting range and hygiene habits. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine blood lead concentrations; 14 non-shooters were included as controls. Almost 60% of the shooters, hereof five out of 14 women, had a blood lead concentration above 0.48 micromol/l, a level causing long-term health concern. All controls had blood lead values below 0.17 micromol/l. Independent significant associations with blood lead concentrations above 0.48 micromol/l were found for shooting at a poorly ventilated range, use of heavy calibre weapons, number of shots and frequency of stays at the shooting range. A large proportion of Danish recreational indoor shooters had potentially harmful blood lead concentrations. Ventilation, amounts of shooting, use of heavy calibre weapons and stays at the shooting ranges were independently associated with increased blood lead. The technical check at the two ranges was performed by the Danish Technological Institute and costs were defrayed by the Danish Rifle Association. To pay for the analyses of blood lead, the study was supported by the The Else & Mogens Wedell-Wedellsborg Foundation. The Danish Regional Capital Scientific Ethics Committee approved the study, protocol number H-4-2010-130.

  2. Relative effects of climate and source strength on atmospheric lead concentrations in Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, H. C.; de Freitas, C. R.; Hay, J. E.

    1992-06-01

    Atmospheric lead levels were examined to assess the consequences of the 46 percent reduction in the lead content of premium grade petrol in New Zealand. Since this change was implemented in July 1986 observed levels of atmospheric lead decreased by 38 percent, but all or part of this reduction may have been due to factors other than fluctuations in lead emissions, notably variations in climate. Analysis of detailed atmospheric lead, meteorological and traffic data measured contemporaneously provided insight into the atmospheric processes influencing lead levels in Auckland and formed the basis of a statistical model capable of predicting monthly lead concentrations. The model was used to predict lead levels in Auckland for the period July 1986 through to July 1989 in the absence of any reduction in the lead content of petrol. Comparison with values observed for the same period showed that all of the reduction in atmospheric lead levels since July 1986 can be attributed to the reduction in the lead content of petrol. Policy planning implications of such a finding are considered.

  3. Liver lead concentrations in raptors in New Jersey, USA, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansley, William; Murphy, Lisa A

    2011-08-01

    Lead exposure in New Jersey raptors was assessed by analyzing liver samples from carcasses obtained from wildlife rehabilitators. Samples were collected from 221 individuals representing 13 species. Concentrations were within the range of normal background exposure in 12 species. One red-tailed hawk had a liver lead concentration consistent with clinical poisoning (7.4 μg/g wet weight), which represents an incidence of 1% (1/104) in that species and 0.5% (1/221) in the overall sample. A second red-tailed hawk had a liver lead concentration consistent with subclinical exposure (2.1 μg/g wet weight). The combined incidence of elevated exposure (subclinical exposure + clinical poisoning) was 2% (2/104) in red-tailed hawks and 1% (2/221) in the overall sample.

  4. Oxygen concentration diffusion analysis of lead-bismuth-cooled, natural-circulation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Sakai, Takaaki

    2001-11-01

    The feasibility study on fast breeder reactors in Japan has been conducted at JNC and related organizations. The Phase-I study has finished in March, 2001. During the Phase-I activity, lead-bismuth eutectic coolant has been selected as one of the possible coolant options and a medium-scale plant, cooled by a lead-bismuth natural circulation flow was studied. On the other side, it is known that lead-bismuth eutectic has a problem of structural material corrosiveness. It was found that oxygen concentration control in the eutectic plays an important role on the corrosion protection. In this report, we have developed a concentration diffusion analysis code (COCOA: COncentration COntrol Analysis code) in order to carry out the oxygen concentration control analysis. This code solves a two-dimensional concentration diffusion equation by the finite differential method. It is possible to simulate reaction of oxygen and hydrogen by the code. We verified the basic performance of the code and carried out oxygen concentration diffusion analysis for the case of an oxygen increase by a refueling process in the natural circulation reactor. In addition, characteristics of the oxygen control system was discussed for a different type of the control system as well. It is concluded that the COCOA code can simulate diffusion of oxygen concentration in the reactor. By the analysis of a natural circulation medium-scale reactor, we make clear that the ON-OFF control and PID control can well control oxygen concentration by choosing an appropriate concentration measurement point. In addition, even when a trouble occurs in the oxygen emission or hydrogen emission system, it observes that control characteristic drops away. It is still possible, however, to control oxygen concentration in such case. (author)

  5. Lead concentrations: bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R.

    1979-03-01

    Lead concentrations in two species of bats and three species of terrestrial small mammals (meadow voles, short-tailed shrews, and white-footed mice) collected near a heavily travelled highway are compared. Roosting bats away from the parkway contained as much or more lead as the terrestrial mammals that were collected within 18 m of the road. Estimated doses of lead ingested by little brown bats, shrews, and voles equal or exceed doses that have caused mortality or reproductive impairment in domestic mammals. (24 references, 3 tables)

  6. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Salem George; Mikati Mohamed; Kouzi Sarah; Muwakkit Samar; Nabulsi Mona; Nuwayhid Iman; Ariss Majd

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–...

  7. Determining lead concentration in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merey, R.; Al-Ghali, M.; Mortada, S.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the fact that lead is a relatively common element in nature and one of the most pollutant elements which man kind is exposed to in densely populated cities that have a large number of vehicles using leaded petrol which has bad effects on human health particularly children, it is found necessary to scan the health situation related to lead exposure in Damascus. The present work focuses on determining the concentration of lead in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and some schools in the suburbs of Damascus. 546 blood samples were collected from school children in Damascus city and 183 blood samples from school children in the suburbs of Damascus. Parameters such as student's environmental, social and behavioral information were taken into consideration and correlate with lead concentration in students blood samples. Results showed that 76.3% of the samples have more than 10 μg/100 ml of lead in the blood. Which has lead to the following health effects: Decrease in hemoglobin and vitamin-D, Effects on central nervous system, Deterioration in children growth, decreasing in IQ, and kidney failure. (Authors)

  8. Determining lead concentration in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merey, R.; Galee, M.; Mortada, S.

    2005-05-01

    Due to the fact that lead is a relatively common element in nature and one of the most pollutant elements which man kind is exposed to in densely populated cities that have a large number of vehicles using leaded petrol which has bad effects on human health particularly children, it is found necessary to scan the health situation related to lead exposure in Damascus. The present work focuses on determining the concentration of lead in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and some schools in the suburbs of Damascus. 546 blood samples were collected from school children in Damascus city and 183 blood samples from school children in the suburbs of Damascus. Parameters such as student's environmental, social and behavioral information were taken into consideration and correlate with lead concentration in students blood samples. Results showed that 76.3% of the samples have more than 10 μg/100 ml of lead in the blood. Which has lead to the following health effects: Decrease in hemoglobin and vitamin-D, Effects on central nervous system, Deterioration in children growth, decreasing in IQ, and kidney failure. (Authors)

  9. Concentration of lead and zinc in greenhouse cucumbers of Hamadan province in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z BigMohammadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils is a major environmental problem that can affect plant production, food safety and human health. Soil contamination with heavy metals occurs as a result of human activities. Heavy metals can easily accumulate in edible tissues of leafy vegetables, fruits and seeds. Few studies have been conducted on heavy metals concentration in soil and greenhouse crops. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in greenhouse cucumbers produced in Hamadan province. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured using atomic emission method. Results showed that the mean concentrations of Pb and Zn in cucumber samples were 0.33 and 3.14 mg/kg, respectively. Also the results of the statistical analysis revealed a negative correlation between the measured concentrations. Moreover, the concentration of Zn in the samples obtained from Hamadan greenhouses and lead concentration in Tuyserkan, Famenin, as well as Malayer samples were above the recommended limits. Daily intake amounts of Pb and Zn from vegetables consumption for three age categories (children, adolescents, and adults were calculated. In conclusion, daily intake of Pb and Zn were determined below the recommended limits.

  10. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon‐Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid‐June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  11. Reaction of winter oilseed rape varieties to elevated concentrations of lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreščanin Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remediation methods allow the removal of metals from contaminated soil, and phytoremediation a technology for cleaning contaminated soil and waste material by plants, is becoming increasingly used. Brassica napus L., as one of the main oilcrops and high-biomass producing species, is becoming more and more interesting for the use in phytoextraction as it is proved to be tolerant to higher concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to examine the specific responses of three commercial winter rapeseed varieties, Banaćanka, Slavica and Kata, to the increased concentrations of lead in vitro. Significant reduction in root length of plants treated with lead was observed only in the variety Slavica, indicating susceptibility of this variety to the increased concentrations of this heavy metal. As in variety Kata a significant reduction in the length of the above-ground part due to the treatment with lead was detected, it could be concluded that the variety Banaćanka is the most tolerant to the applied concentrations of lead since there were no significant changes in the growth and biomass accumulation in all treatments except one, and could be recommended for further use in phytoremediation studies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31025 i br. III43007

  12. Effect of testosterone administration on lead induced zincprotoporphyrin in blood concentration in castrated male rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    The influence of testosterone propionate on the concentration of zincprotoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) of castrated lead treated rabbits was investigated. The experimental design allowed comparison of the relative ZPP increase (RZI) in testosterone treated and non testosterone treated rabbits. Testosterone was administered by subcutaneous injection of 3 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days directly prior to the lead exposure, which was performed by subcutaneous injection of 0.50 mg lead acetate/kg body weight, three times a week for 7 weeks. No effect was found on the hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) and on the increase of body weight during the experiment. But the increase of RZI in the non testosterone treated rabbits was significantly steeper and earlier than in the testosterone treated group. The possible consequences of the findings had been further commented on.

  13. Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

  14. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  15. Effects of calcium disodium EDTA and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on tissue concentrations of lead for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, James B; Ko, Kam W

    2003-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of calcium disodium EDTA (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in reducing concentrations of lead in selected tissues for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis. 19 sexually intact male Holstein calves that weighed 35 to 60 kg. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: group 1, control calves; group 2, lead only; group 3, lead and EDTA; group 4, lead and DMSA; and group 5, lead, EDTA, and DMSA. Calves in groups 2 to 5 were dosed daily with lead (5 mg/kg, PO) for 10 days. Doses of EDTA (100 mg/kg) and DMSA (25 mg/kg) were administered IV once daily for 4 consecutive days beginning on day 11. Effects of the chelators on lead concentrations in the liver, kidneys, testes, muscles, bones, and brain were compared among the various groups. Compared with the effects of EDTA, DMSA greatly reduced lead concentrations in renal and hepatic tissues. We did not detect significant differences for the effects of EDTA or DMSA on lead concentrations in the testes; there was an adverse interaction of EDTA with DMSA that caused an increase in lead concentrations in the testes. DMSA is much more effective than EDTA in removing lead from renal and hepatic tissues in calves. Use of DMSA in calves with lead intoxication appears to be a viable treatment option. Combining DMSA and EDTA as a treatment modality in calves did not offer any advantages.

  16. Lead concentrations in fresh water, muscle, gill and liver of catla catla (hamilton) from keenjhar lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korai, A.L.; Sahato, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study of the abundance and distribution of lead in water and freshwater fish Catla catla (Ham.) from Keenjhar Lake was conducted during January 2003 to December 2005. The lead content was determined in water and in muscle, gill and liver tissue of Catla catla (Ham.) by using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead concentrations in water samples were in the range of 0.076 and 0.225 macro g L-1 during the years of 2003, 2004 and 2005. The lead concentrations in the tissues of Catla catla (Ham.) varied, with liver > gill > muscle. The concentrations in muscle, gill and liver were in the range of 0.7-2.39 micro g g/sub -1/, 0.74-2.25 micro g g/sub -1/ and 0.89-2.68 micro g g/sub -1/ (dry weight) during 2003, 2004 and 2005. 9.87 % did not exceed the UK limit of 1.0 micro g g/sub -1/ (1979), 45.67 % were lower than the (USFDA) level of 1.3 micro g g/sub -1/ (USEPA 1997) and remaining 44.46 % were well below than 4.88 micro g g/sub -1/ (USEPA 1990). The levels in the water samples were also below the permissible level of less then 50 micro g L/sub -1/ recommended by (WHO 1984). (author)

  17. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood lead concentrations in 1-3 year old Lebanese children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-04-15

    Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb >or= 100 microg/L) among 1-3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997-98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb >or= 100 microg/L were compared to those with B-Pb or= 100 microg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children.

  19. Neuropsychological studies in children with elevated tooth-lead concentrations. II. Extended study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winneke, G; Kraemer, U; Brockhaus, A; Ewers, U; Kujanek, G; Lechner, H; Janke, W

    1983-01-01

    Results from neuropsychological tests, collected under double-blind-precautions, were evaluated for 115 schoolage children (mean age: 9.4 years) living in a lead smelter area (Stolberg, FRG). Tooth-lead concentrations (PbT) from shed incisor teeth as measures of longtime lead-exposure were available for these children (mean . 6.16 ppm; range: 1.9-38.5 ppm), and for 83 of them blood-lead concentrations (PbB) were available as well (mean . 14.3 micrograms/dl; range: 6.8-33.8 micrograms/dl). The following functional capacities were tested: intelligence (German WISC), perceptual-motor integration (Goettinger Formreproduktionstest . GFT, Diagnosticum for Cerebralschaedigung . DCS), reaction performance (Wiener Determinationsgeraet), finger-wrist tapping-speed, and repetitive cancellation-performance (Differentieller Leistungstest). In addition standardized behavior ratings were obtained by the examiners, the mothers, and the teachers. Multiple stepwise regression-analysis (forced solution) was calculated for outcome-variables and Pb-tooth, including age, sex, duration of labor, and socio-hereditary background as covariates. The results are discussed within the framework of attention-deficit disorder, and compared to neurobehavioral Pb-effects from animal-experiments, which provide suggestive evidence for a causal relationship between developmental lead-exposure and certain neurobehavioral deficits.

  20. Effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead acid battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of lead acid battery in tropical countries normally faces the problem of water decomposition. This phenomenon is due to the factor of charge-discharge reaction in the battery and heat accumulation caused by hot tropical climate and heat generated from engine compartment. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead-acid battery. Gas separation membranes, prepared through wet-dry phase inversion method and using various polysulfone concentrated formulations, were applied on the battery vent holes, for the purpose of preventing electrolyte from evaporating to the atmosphere. The best membrane, which retains the most electrolyte, will be chosen to be applied on the soon-to-be-developed “membrane-assisted maintenance- free battery”. This maintenance-free battery will need no topping up of deionized water every time the electrolyte level goes low.

  1. Grinding in lead-zinc concentrator Sasa – choice between different grinding media

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris

    2004-01-01

    In this paper will be present result obtained from investigation in the grinding circuit of the lead-zinc concentrator Sasa,using differen grindng media: • Litzkhun-Niederwipper Forged Steel grinding balls; • GSI LUCCHINI Moly-Cop Forged Steel grinding balls; • Cast steel grinding balls from Ukraina and Bulgaria; In the same time will be shown comparation between obtained parameters using different grinding balls specially: • Capacity of the grinding mill; • Particle size; ...

  2. [The intelligence quotient and malnutrition. Iron deficiency and the lead concentration as confusing variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Franco, L; Mejía, A M; Robles, B; Moreno, L; Pérez, Y

    1991-11-01

    This study gave us the opportunity to know the roles iron deficiency and the presence of lead in blood play, as confounding variables, in relation to the state of malnutrition and the intellect of those children. A sample of 169 school children were classified according to their state of nutrition, their condition in reference to serum iron and lead concentrations. In addition, their intelligence was evaluated. The results confirmed that those children with lower weights and heights registered lesser points of intelligence; in fact, iron deficiency cancels out the difference in favor of those taller and weighing more. Lead did not contribute as a confounding variable, but more than half of the children showed possible toxic levels of this metal.

  3. The Effect of Acceptor and Donor Doping on Oxygen Vacancy Concentrations in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouka, Christoph; Kainz, Theresa; Navickas, Edvinas; Walch, Gregor; Hutter, Herbert; Reichmann, Klaus; Fleig, Jürgen

    2016-11-22

    The different properties of acceptor-doped (hard) and donor-doped (soft) lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics are often attributed to different amounts of oxygen vacancies introduced by the dopant. Acceptor doping is believed to cause high oxygen vacancy concentrations, while donors are expected to strongly suppress their amount. In this study, La 3+ donor-doped, Fe 3+ acceptor-doped and La 3+ /Fe 3+ -co-doped PZT samples were investigated by oxygen tracer exchange and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to analyse the effect of doping on oxygen vacancy concentrations. Relative changes in the tracer diffusion coefficients for different doping and quantitative relations between defect concentrations allowed estimates of oxygen vacancy concentrations. Donor doping does not completely suppress the formation of oxygen vacancies; rather, it concentrates them in the grain boundary region. Acceptor doping enhances the amount of oxygen vacancies but estimates suggest that bulk concentrations are still in the ppm range, even for 1% acceptor doping. Trapped holes might thus considerably contribute to the charge balancing of the acceptor dopants. This could also be of relevance in understanding the properties of hard and soft PZT.

  4. The Effect of Acceptor and Donor Doping on Oxygen Vacancy Concentrations in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Slouka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The different properties of acceptor-doped (hard and donor-doped (soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT ceramics are often attributed to different amounts of oxygen vacancies introduced by the dopant. Acceptor doping is believed to cause high oxygen vacancy concentrations, while donors are expected to strongly suppress their amount. In this study, La3+ donor-doped, Fe3+ acceptor-doped and La3+/Fe3+-co-doped PZT samples were investigated by oxygen tracer exchange and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to analyse the effect of doping on oxygen vacancy concentrations. Relative changes in the tracer diffusion coefficients for different doping and quantitative relations between defect concentrations allowed estimates of oxygen vacancy concentrations. Donor doping does not completely suppress the formation of oxygen vacancies; rather, it concentrates them in the grain boundary region. Acceptor doping enhances the amount of oxygen vacancies but estimates suggest that bulk concentrations are still in the ppm range, even for 1% acceptor doping. Trapped holes might thus considerably contribute to the charge balancing of the acceptor dopants. This could also be of relevance in understanding the properties of hard and soft PZT.

  5. Spatial distribution of lead concentrations in urban surface soils of New Orleans, Louisiana USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Michael T; Suedel, Burton; Presley, Steven M; Rainwater, Thomas R; Austin, Galen P; Cox, Stephen B; McDaniel, Les N; Rigdon, Richard; Goebel, Timothy; Zartman, Richard; Leftwich, Blair D; Anderson, Todd A; Kendall, Ronald J; Cobb, George P

    2010-10-01

    Immediately following hurricane Katrina concern was raised over the environmental impact of floodwaters on the city of New Orleans, especially in regard to human health. Several studies were conducted to determine the actual contaminant distribution throughout the city and surrounding wetlands by analyzing soil, sediment, and water for a variety of contaminants including organics, inorganics, and biologics. Preliminary investigations by The Institute of Environmental and Human Health at Texas Tech University concluded that soils and sediments contained pesticides, semi-volatiles, and metals, specifically arsenic, iron, and lead, at concentrations that could pose a significant risk to human health. Additional studies on New Orleans floodwaters revealed similar constituents as well as compounds commonly found in gasoline. More recently, it has been revealed that lead (Pb), arsenic, and vanadium are found intermittently throughout the city at concentrations greater than the human health soil screening levels (HHSSLs) of 400, 22 (non-cancer endpoint) and 390 μg/g, respectively. Of these, Pb appears to present the greatest exposure hazard to humans as a result of its extensive distribution in city soils. In this study, we spatially evaluated Pb concentrations across greater New Orleans surface soils. We established 128 sampling sites throughout New Orleans at approximately half-mile intervals. A soil sample was collected at each site and analyzed for Pb by ICP-AES. Soils from 19 (15%) of the sites had Pb concentrations exceeding the HHSSL threshold of 400 μg/g. It was determined that the highest concentrations of Pb were found in the south and west portions of the city. Pb concentrations found throughout New Orleans in this study were then incorporated into a geographic information system to create a spatial distribution model that can be further used to predict Pb exposure to humans in the city.

  6. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem George

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3 with 39 (14% children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74, residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59, summer season (OR: 4.39, using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96, exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40, and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01. Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children.

  7. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  8. Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-12-10

    The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking).

  9. Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) Concentrations in Marine Gastropod Strombus Canarium in Johor Coastal Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikhah Sabri; Mohd Ismid Mohd Said; Shamila Azman

    2014-01-01

    Strombus canarium is a popular food source with high commercial value in southern part of Peninsular Malaysia. As a deposit feeder, Strombus canarium can accumulate pollutants especially heavy metals in their system. Study on this species was conducted at Teluk Sengat and Mersing, Johor where samples of seawater and Strombus canarium were collected during spring low tides around 0 to 0.2 meters. Lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were investigated to determine pollution status in the area. Samples from Teluk Sengat showed that Zn has higher concentration in both water and S. canarium with 0.055 mg/ L and 20.257 mg/ kg wet weight respectively. However the concentrations were within permissible limit of Malaysia Marine Water Quality Criteria and Standard (MMWQS). In contrast, Pb concentration at Teluk Sengat exceeded the MMWQS and its concentration in soft tissues of S. canarium also exceeded the permissible limit recommended by Food and Agriculture Organisation (0.5 mg/ kg wet weight) and World Health Organisation (0.2 mg/ kg wet weight). (author)

  10. Effective radium concentration in topsoils contaminated by lead and zinc smelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, Frédéric, E-mail: girault@ipgp.fr [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, Paris, France. (France); Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Isambert, Aude [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, Paris, France. (France); Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Orléans, France. (France); Clozel-Leloup, Blandine [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Villeurbanne, France. (France); Douay, Francis [Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo Environnement, ISA Lille, Lille, France. (France)

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements (TE) are indicative of industrial pollution in soils, but geochemical methods are difficult to implement in contaminated sites with large numbers of samples. Therefore, measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been used to map TE pollutions, albeit with contrasted results in some cases. Effective radium concentration (EC{sub Ra}), product of radium concentration by the emanation factor, can be measured in a cost-effective manner in the laboratory, and could then provide a useful addition. We evaluate this possibility using 186 topsoils sampled over about 783 km{sup 2} around two former lead and zinc smelters in Northern France. The EC{sub Ra} values, obtained from 319 measurements, range from 0.70 ± 0.06 to 12.53 ± 0.49 Bq·kg{sup −1}, and are remarkably organized spatially, away from the smelters, in domains corresponding to geographical units. Lead-contaminated soils, with lead concentrations above 100 mg·kg{sup −1} < 3 km from the smelters, are characterized on average by larger peak EC{sub Ra} values and larger dispersion. At large scales, away from the smelters, spatial variations of EC{sub Ra} correlate well with spatial variations of MS, thus suggesting that, at distance larger than 5 km, variability of MS contains a significant natural component. Larger EC{sub Ra} values are correlated with larger fine fraction and, possibly, mercury concentration. While MS is enhanced in the vicinity of the smelters and is associated with the presence of soft ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite, it does not correlate systematically with metal concentrations. When multiple industrial and urban sources are present, EC{sub Ra} mapping, thus, can help in identifying at least part of the natural spatial variability of MS. More generally, this study shows that EC{sub Ra} mapping provides an independent and reliable assessment of the background spatial structure which underlies the structure of a given contamination. Furthermore, EC{sub Ra

  11. Effective radium concentration in topsoils contaminated by lead and zinc smelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Isambert, Aude; Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie; Clozel-Leloup, Blandine; Douay, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements (TE) are indicative of industrial pollution in soils, but geochemical methods are difficult to implement in contaminated sites with large numbers of samples. Therefore, measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been used to map TE pollutions, albeit with contrasted results in some cases. Effective radium concentration (EC_R_a), product of radium concentration by the emanation factor, can be measured in a cost-effective manner in the laboratory, and could then provide a useful addition. We evaluate this possibility using 186 topsoils sampled over about 783 km"2 around two former lead and zinc smelters in Northern France. The EC_R_a values, obtained from 319 measurements, range from 0.70 ± 0.06 to 12.53 ± 0.49 Bq·kg"−"1, and are remarkably organized spatially, away from the smelters, in domains corresponding to geographical units. Lead-contaminated soils, with lead concentrations above 100 mg·kg"−"1 < 3 km from the smelters, are characterized on average by larger peak EC_R_a values and larger dispersion. At large scales, away from the smelters, spatial variations of EC_R_a correlate well with spatial variations of MS, thus suggesting that, at distance larger than 5 km, variability of MS contains a significant natural component. Larger EC_R_a values are correlated with larger fine fraction and, possibly, mercury concentration. While MS is enhanced in the vicinity of the smelters and is associated with the presence of soft ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite, it does not correlate systematically with metal concentrations. When multiple industrial and urban sources are present, EC_R_a mapping, thus, can help in identifying at least part of the natural spatial variability of MS. More generally, this study shows that EC_R_a mapping provides an independent and reliable assessment of the background spatial structure which underlies the structure of a given contamination. Furthermore, EC_R_a may provide a novel index to identify soils

  12. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-01-01

    To make up for the lack of data on 210 Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23±0.02 mBq m -3 during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall ( -2 y -1 . This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana

  13. High blood lead levels are associated with lead concentrations in households and day care centers attended by Brazilian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Silva, Júlia Prestes; Salles, Fernanda Junqueira; Leroux, Isabelle Nogueira; da Silva Ferreira, Ana Paula Sacone; da Silva, Agnes Soares; Assunção, Nilson Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Sayuri Sato, Ana Paula; Barbosa, Fernando; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro

    2018-08-01

    A previous study observed high blood lead levels (BLL) in preschool children attending 50 day care centers (DCC) in São Paulo, Brazil. To identify whether lead levels found in both homes and DCC environments are associated with high blood lead levels. Children attending 4 DCCs, quoted here as NR, VA, PS and PF, were divided into two groups according to BLL: high exposure (HE: ≥13.9 μg/dL; 97.5 percentile of the 2013 year sample) and low exposure (LE: 600 μg/g, whereas such levels were observed in 77.1% of NR playground measurements. In VA DCC, 22% and 23% of the measurements in the building and in the playgrounds had levels higher than 600 μg/g, respectively. The percentage of high lead levels in the children's houses of the LE group was 5.9% (95% CI: 4.3-7.6%) and 13.2 (95% CI: 8.3-18.0%) in the HE group. Moreover, a significant association was found between high BLLs and lead levels found both in households and DCCs (p < 0.001). Most of the high lead measurements were found in tiles and playground equipment. Lead exposure estimated from the DCCs, where children spend about 10 h/day, can be as relevant as their household exposure. Therefore, public authorities should render efforts to provide a rigorous surveillance for lead-free painting supplies and for all objects offered to children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Corrosion behavior of steels in liquid lead bismuth with low oxygen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yuji; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Saito, Shigeru

    2008-02-01

    Corrosion tests in pots were conducted to elucidate corrosion behavior of various steels in liquid lead-bismuth for 3000 h under the condition of an oxygen concentration of 5 × 10 -8 wt% at 450 °C and an oxygen concentration of 3 × 10 -9 wt% at 550 °C, respectively. Significant corrosion was not observed at 450 °C for ferritic/martensitic steels, F82H, Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel, 410SS, 430SS except 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Pb-Bi penetration into steels and dissolution of elements into Pb-Bi were severe at 550 °C even for ferritic/martensitic steels. Typical dissolution attack occurred for pure iron both at 550 °C without surface Fe 3O 4 and at 450 °C with a thin Fe 3O 4 film. Ferritization due to dissolution of Ni and Cr, and Pb-Bi penetration were recognized for austenitic stainless steels, 316SS and 14Cr-16Ni-2Mo steel at both temperatures of 450 °C and 550 °C. The phenomena were mitigated for 18Cr-20Ni-5Si steel. In some cases oxide films could not be a corrosion barrier in liquid lead-bismuth.

  15. Regional and long-term patterns of lead concentrations in fluvial, marine and terrestrial systems and humans in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2000-07-01

    Lead contamination of abiotic and biotic systems has been studied closely since the early 1970s, when lead was firstly perceived as an environmental problem. Lead emission reduction policies were implemented throughout Europe during that time. Nonetheless, analyses of lead loads in aquatic systems, such as the river Elbe, showed no decline over time in either suspended matter or surface sediments. Regional differences in lead concentrations of fluvial systems were found, due to tidal influence, runoff and local emissions. Lead contamination of sediments from the North Sea was highest in estuaries. Concentrations in sediment cores were quite stable down to the depth of background values, due to bioturbation, flow, waves and meandering channels. Terrestrial soils in Europe were highly polluted in industrial and ore mining areas and large cities. No decline in lead concentrations was evident in foraminifers, bladder wrack or fish. It was found that contamination in sediments, mammals and fish was higher in coastal zones than in the open sea. In contrast to in aquatic organisms, positive impacts of lead reduction regulations were detected in terrestrial plants, which adsorbed or took up lead mainly through atmospheric lead deposition. European lead concentrations in plants decreased coincidently with lead emissions. That trend could also be identified in the blood lead levels of the human population in Europe: since 1979 they have declined in every group of the population. Mainly influenced by age, sex and the living environment, overall, the lead loads of humans had never been high enough to cause health danger. (orig.)

  16. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 μg/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (pdrug consumption were higher than those who did not (plead concentration (plead concentration (plead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (plead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the general adult population in Korea has decreased over time from 45.8 μg/l (1999) to 19.7 μg/l (2008). Although it is still higher than in other countries such as the United States and Canada, it is rapidly decreasing. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol drinking status, herbal medication and drug consumption, education level, living area and occupation were significantly related to the blood lead concentrations in Korea. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead at low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Should coolant accidentally be lost to the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) blanket and target, and the decay heat in the target be deposited in the surrounding blanket by thermal radiation, temperatures in the blanket modules could exceed structural limits and cause a physical collapse of the blanket modules into a non-coolable geometry. Such a sequence of unmitigated events could result in some melting of the APT blanket and create the potential for the release of mercury into the target-blanket cavity air space. Experiments were conducted which simulate such hypothetical accident conditions in order to measure the rate of vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead to quantify the possible severe accident source term for the APT blanket region. Molten pools of from 0.01% to 0.10% mercury in lead were prepared under inert conditions. Experiments were conducted, which varied in duration from several hours to as long as a month, to measure the mercury vaporization from the lead pools. The melt pools and gas atmospheres were held fixed at 340 C during the tests. Parameters which were varied in the tests included the mercury concentration, gas flow rate over the melt and agitation of the melt, gas atmosphere composition and the addition of aluminum to the melt. The vaporization of mercury was found to scale roughly linearly with the concentration of mercury in the pool. Variations in the gas flow rates were not found to have any effect on the mass transfer, however agitation of the melt by a submerged stirrer did enhance the mercury vaporization rate. The rate of mercury vaporization with an argon (inert) atmosphere was found to exceed that for an air (oxidizing) atmosphere by as much as a factor of from ten to 20; the causal factor in this variation was the formation of an oxide layer over the melt pool with the air atmosphere which served to retard mass transfer across the melt-atmosphere interface. Aluminum was introduced into the melt to

  18. Blood Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in Multiple Sclerosis Patients from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliomrani, Mehdi; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Since industrial revolution heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) have been extensively dispersed in environment which, unknown biological effects and prolong biological half-life make them as a major hazard to human health. In addition, the sharp increase in Multiple sclerosis incidence rateshas been recorded in Iran. The propose of this study was to measuring blood lead and cadmium concentration and their correlation with smoking habit in a group of 69 RRMS patients and 74 age/gender-matched healthy individuals resident in Tehran as most polluted city in Iran. All subjects were interviewed regarding age, medical history, possible chemical exposure, acute or chronic diseases, smoking and dietary habits. Blood Pb and Cd levels were measured by double beam GBC plus 932 atomic absorption spectrometer. Our result indicated a significant difference in Cd level (p = 0.006) in which, MS patients had higher blood concentration (1.82 ± 0.13 μg/L) in comparison with healthy individuals (1.47 ± 0.11 μg/L). A comparable blood Cd level to similar recent study (1.78 µg/L vs.1.82 µg/L) was observed. With respect to Pb there was no significant difference between cases and controls, however the geometric means of blood Pb concentration were considerably higher in males than in females in MS patients (57.1 ± 33.7 μg/L vs . 36.7 ± 21.9 μg/L. P = 0.02). Taking into consideration tobacco smoking, an elevated contents of each metal were observed in smoker subjects (p<0.0001). A significant correlation between cigarette smoking and risk of multiple sclerosis was shown before. Thus, high level of Cd in smokers might affect the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and could increase the risk of disease development.

  19. Apparatus and methods for monitoring the concentrations of hazardous airborne substances, especially lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2004-07-13

    Air is sampled at a rate in excess of 100 L/min, preferably at 200-300 L/min, so as to collect therefrom a substantial fraction, i.e., at least 20%, preferably 60-100%, of airborne particulates. A substance of interest (analyte), such as lead, is rapidly solubilized from the the collected particulates into a sample of liquid extractant, and the concentration of the analyte in the extractant sample is determined. The high-rate air sampling and particulate collection may be effected with a high-throughput filter cartridge or with a recently developed portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler. Rapid solubilization of lead is achieved by a liquid extractant comprising 0.1-1 M of acetic acid or acetate, preferably at a pH of 5 or less and preferably with inclusion of 1-10% of hydrogen peroxide. Rapid determination of the lead content in the liquid extractant may be effected with a colorimetric or an electroanalytical analyzer.

  20. Concentration dependence of surface properties and molar volume of multicomponent system indium-tin-lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashev, R; Kutuev, R [Complex Science Research Institute of the Science Academy of the Chechen Republic, 21 Staropromisl. shosse, Grozny 364096 (Russian Federation); Elimkhanov, D [Science Academy of the Chechen Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: edzhabrail@mail.ru

    2008-02-15

    The results of an experimental research of surface properties of the four-component system indium-tin-lead-bismuth are presented. The researches under discussion were carried out in a combined device in which the surface tension ({sigma}) is measured by the method of maximum pressure in a drop, and density ({rho}) is measured by advanced aerometry. Measurement errors are 0.7 % for surface tension measurement, and 0.2 % for density measurement. The study of the concentration dependence of {sigma} in this system has revealed the influence of the third and fourth components upon the characteristics of surface tension isotherms of the binary system indium-tin. It was found out that with an increase in the content of the third and fourth components the depth of the minimum on the surface tension isotherms of the indium-tin system {sigma} decreases. On the basis of the concentration dependence of the phenomenon of concentration bufferity is revealed. It is shown that despite the complex character, isotherms of {sigma} on beam sections of a multicomponent system do not contain qualitatively new features in comparison with the isotherms of these properties in lateral binary systems.

  1. The Feasibility of Using Lead in Hair Concentration in Monitoring Environmental Exposure in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Pieters, H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of lead in hair as an indicator of lead exposure has been compared to that of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels in 1-3 year-old children living within 1 km of a lead smelter. Lead exposure was measured as lead in house dust, outdoor and indoor lead in air

  2. 75 FR 76336 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... studies are located in Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2006-0735. II. How does this information relate to the.... Modeling results show aircraft engine run-up is the most important source contribution to the maximum lead concentration. Sensitivity analysis shows that engine run-up time, lead concentration in aviation gasoline, and...

  3. Purification and concentration of lead samples in biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rahimi-Froushani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Lead is an important environmental constituent widely used in industrialprocesses for production of synthetic materials and therefore can be released in the environmentcausing public exposure especially around the industrial residence area. For evaluation of humanexposure to trace toxic metal of Pb (II, environmental and biological monitoring are essentialprocesses, in which, preparation of such samples is one of the most time-consuming and errorproneaspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has grown and is a fertiletechnique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquidextraction (LLE. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing sample pretreatmentfor trace analysis of lead in biological samples for evaluation of occupational exposure.Method :To evaluate factors influencing quantitative analysis scheme of lead, solid phaseextraction using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized with regard to sample pH,ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume (up to 500 ml, elutionvolume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences.Results :Lead was retained on solid sorbent and eluted followed by simple determination ofanalytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of the metal ionwere more than 92%. The amount of the analyte detected after simultaneous pre-concentrationwas basically in agreement with the added amounts. The optimized procedure was also validatedwith three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over sixconsecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. The developed method promised to beapplicable for evaluation of other metal ions present in different environmental and occupationalsamples as suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation (less than 10%.Conclusion:This optimized method can be considered to be

  4. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R; Franson, J Christian

    2014-04-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  5. The distribution of lead concentrations and isotope compositions in the eastern Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgestock, Luke; Rehkämper, Mark; van de Flierdt, Tina; Paul, Maxence; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions have dominated marine Pb sources during the past century. Here we present Pb concentrations and isotope compositions for ocean depth profiles collected in the eastern Tropical Atlantic Ocean (GEOTRACES section GA06), to trace the transfer of anthropogenic Pb into the ocean interior. Variations in Pb concentration and isotope composition were associated with changes in hydrography. Water masses ventilated in the southern hemisphere generally featured lower 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios than those ventilated in the northern hemisphere, in accordance with Pb isotope data of historic anthropogenic Pb emissions. The distributions of Pb concentrations and isotope compositions in northern sourced waters were consistent with differences in their ventilation timescales. For example, a Pb concentration maximum at intermediate depth (600-900 m, 35 pmol kg-1) in waters sourced from the Irminger/Labrador Seas, is associated with Pb isotope compositions (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1818-1.1824, 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4472-2.4483) indicative of northern hemispheric emissions during the 1950s and 1960s close to peak leaded petrol usage, and a transit time of ∼50-60 years. In contrast, North Atlantic Deep Water (2000-4000 m water depth) featured lower Pb concentrations and isotope compositions (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1762-1.184, 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4482-2.4545) indicative of northern hemispheric emissions during the 1910s and 1930s and a transit time of ∼80-100 years. This supports the notion that transient anthropogenic Pb inputs are predominantly transferred into the ocean interior by water mass transport. However, the interpretation of Pb concentration and isotope composition distributions in terms of ventilation timescales and pathways is complicated by (1) the chemical reactivity of Pb in the ocean, and (2) mixing of waters ventilated during different time periods. The complex effects of water mass mixing on Pb distributions is particularly apparent in seawater in the

  6. EDXS and XRD Analyses of Coleus with Different Concentration Selenium Supplements Under Lead Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Hui-yuan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the changes of the morphologies and element composition in Coleus hlumei Benth(Coleusroots and leaves under1.0 mmol·L-1 Pb2+ stress with selenium ( Setreatments, and to preliminarily investigate the relief mechanism of Se level on lead toxicity from the perspective of spectroscopy, Coleus was cultivated in nutrient solutions with different concentrations of Se. The results showed that the content of C, K and Ca elements in roots decreased, while 0, Mg, Al, Si, Fe and Pb elements increased under Pb stress with Se treatments. In addi-tion, the content of C, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca and Fe elements in leaves decreased, while 0 and Cl elements increased. The element species and its contents in roots were changed obviously under Pb stress with Se treatments, and crystalline solid and crystal phase in roots were correspond-ingly changed.

  7. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette E-mail: melieres@glaciog.ujf-grenoble.fr; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-07-01

    To make up for the lack of data on {sup 210}Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23{+-}0.02 mBq m{sup -3} during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall (<15 cm per 15-day), while this correlation is masked by strong fluctuations at high rainfall. The estimated mean annual deposition over the last ten years is 163{+-}75 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana.

  8. Determination of the concentrations of lead in raw milk in the Valley of Toluca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas Vilchis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The object of the present work, undertaken under the program of Regional and Cooperative Agreement for Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America (ARCAL IV), was to determine the amounts of lead found in raw milk using the analytic techniques of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX); so as to aid in solving problems of public health originating from elevated amounts of heavy metals in foods of animal origin. A total of thirty samples of raw milk were collected in the Valley of Toluca in Mexico, where heavy metal contaminants in the environment due to effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization, are known to have entered the food chain. The methodology, consisting in destroying organic matter in the samples by calcination, and included, in the case of AAS and ICP-AES, acid digestion. In the case of FRX, lead was extracted by ammonium 1-pyrrolidine carboditioate (APDC). The equipment to be used was calibrated and both blank and working solutions prepared in order to perform quantitative analysis. The concentrations of lead which were found in all the milk samples ranged from <0.03 to 0.31 μg/ml milk. These amounts within the maximum permissible limits, 0.5 μg/ml for all types of milk, established by the FDA. In the analysis ICP-AES gave best results as to sensitivity, precision and accuracy, followed by AAS which gave reliable results. FRX failed to detect lower limits and was, therefore, less reliable. (Author)

  9. Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South East Asia, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.

  10. Concentration trends for lead and calcium-normalized lead in fish fillets from the Big River, a mining-contaminated stream in southeastern Missouri USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; McKee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005–2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005–2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  11. Concentration Trends for Lead and Calcium-Normalized Lead in Fish Fillets from the Big River, a Mining-Contaminated Stream in Southeastern Missouri USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J; McKee, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005-2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005-2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  12. Lead concentrations in small mammals (Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus) in urban and rural regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuth, M.; Streit, B.

    1989-01-01

    Lead concentrations in liver and femurs of 188 rodent and insectivorous mammals (Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus) were measured using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer for the analysis of solid materials. The animals were caught in two separate habitats: I. a large suburban mixed forest, adjoining a heavily-used highway; and II. a rural habitat with a seasonally-used nearby automobile racetrack. Environmental influences such as lead emissions from automobiles are important in determining lead concentrations as well as species specific and organspecific differences in accumulating lead, resource differences among habitats, and differences in metabolic rate. (orig.)

  13. Ultrastructural study of liver and lead tissue concentrations in young mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after ingestion of single lead shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Plouzeau, Eric; Fernandez, Béatrice; Quellard, Nathalie; Levillain, Pierre; Guillard, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) represents a serious threat to wildlife and ecosystems. The aim of this study was to examine the subcellular effects of dietary Pb pellet ingestion on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) livers. After ingestion of a single Pb shot (LS4 size class: 0.177 ± 0.03 g) in 41 mallard ducks (22 males and 19 females) versus 10 controls (5 males and 5 females), all 7-week old, a morphologic study was conducted by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) of liver at the subcellular level. The results in treated mallards showed at a magnification of 2500 X that hepatic parenchyma was altered as evidenced by intralysosomal electron-dense deposits, which are compatible with Pb deposits. Further, at a higher magnification (15,000 X) in both genders, deterioration of mitochondria was observed in which the crests and, to a lesser extent, outer membrane were lysed. While the rough endoplasmic reticulum was fragmented, intracytoplasmic electron-dense material compatible with Pb deposits was maximally visible, thereby underscoring the deeply destructive effect of this metal on the subcellular architecture of the liver. In addition, applying an optimized and validated method in a clean room using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) with Zeeman background correction, the objective was to improve and refine certain indispensable measurements pertaining to Pb impregnation in tissues other than liver such as kidneys, bones, and feathers of mallards. Data demonstrated show that compared with controls, Pb accumulation increases significantly, not only in the liver (3-fold), but also in the bones and the feathers (14-fold). No significant difference was noted between males and females. Bearing in mind the marked subcellular toxicity attributed to Pb, this study reinforces present-day arguments advocating limitation of game consumption.

  14. The spectrographic determination of minor and trace elements in copper, lead, and zinc concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, R.L.; Russell, G.M.; Watson, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    This report deals with the development of a method for the determination, by an emission-spectrographic technique, of magnesium, manganese, aluminium, silver, calcium, chromium, cobalt, titanium, antimony, cadmium, molybdenum, zirconium, nickel, boron, vanadium, arsenic, beryllium, tin, germanium, and bismuth in copper, lead, and zinc sulphide concentrates. The method involves the preparation of complex standards in which the volatile elements arsenic, antimony, cadmium, tin, and bismuth are incorporated as sulphide compounds at temperatures of 800 degrees Celsius in evacuated silica tubes together with a synthetic sulphide matrix. These standards are then mixed with the other minor and trace elements to form composite standards. The conditions for excitation with a direct-current arc, and the analytical lines for the elements and internal standards, are given. The procedure is rapid and convenient, and involves the minimum of sample preparation. The accuracy is about 10 per cent, and the method has a coefficient of variation for the various elements of between 2 and 13 per cent

  15. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safira, Nabila, E-mail: safira.nabila@ymail.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: tjandra@sith.itb.ac.id [School of Life Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung – Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre–Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  16. Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C. Scott; Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant; Nycz, Zuleica; Hambartsumyan, Amalia; Astanina, Lydia; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying

    2014-01-01

    Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm 2 ) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90 ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600 ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000 ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700 ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600 ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000 ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (<9 ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the

  17. Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. Scott, E-mail: clarkcs@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati (United States); International POPS Elimination Network (IPEN), San Francisco (United States); Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant [Toxics Link, New Delhi (India); Nycz, Zuleica [APROMAC Environmental Protection Association and Toxisphera Environmental Health Association, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Hambartsumyan, Amalia [Greenwomen, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Astanina, Lydia [Khazer Ecological and Cultural Non-Governmental Organization, Yerevan (Armenia); Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm{sup 2}) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90 ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600 ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000 ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700 ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600 ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000 ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (<9 ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the

  18. Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal–fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal–fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

  19. [Estimation of maximum acceptable concentration of lead and cadmium in plants and their medicinal preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitkevicius, Virgilijus; Savickiene, Nijole; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Masteiková, Rūta; Chalupova, Zuzana; Dagilyte, Audrone; Baranauskas, Algirdas

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metals (lead, cadmium) are possible dashes which quantity is defined by the limiting acceptable contents. Different drugs preparations: infusions, decoctions, tinctures, extracts, etc. are produced using medicinal plants. The objective of this research was to study the impurities of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in medicinal plants and some drug preparations. We investigated liquid extracts of fruits Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and herbs of Echinacea purpurea Moench., tinctures--of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. The raw materials were imported from Poland. Investigations were carried out in cooperation with the Laboratory of Antropogenic Factors of the Institute for Biomedical Research. Amounts of lead and cadmium were established after "dry" mineralisation using "Perkin-Elmer Zeeman/3030" model electrothermic atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETG AAS/Zeeman). It was established that lead is absorbed most efficiently after estimation of absorption capacity of cellular fibers. About 10.73% of lead crosses tinctures and extracts, better cadmium--49.63%. Herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. are the best in holding back lead and cadmium. About 14.5% of lead and cadmium crosses the tincture of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. We estimated the factors of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in the liquid extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Echinacea purpurea Moench., tincture of Leonurus cardiaca L. after investigations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in drugs and preparations of it. The amounts of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) don't exceed the allowable norms in fruits of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. and Echinacea purpurea Moench. after estimation of lead and cadmium extraction factors, the maximum of acceptable daily intake and the quantity of drugs consumption in day.

  20. Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Tan, Mingguang; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guilin; Zhang, Yuanmao; Shan, Zuci

    The stable lead (Pb) isotope ratios and the concentrations of 23 elements, including heavy metals and toxic elements, were measured in the PM 10 airborne particle samples collected at seven monitoring sites in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the current elemental compositions and local airborne Pb isotope ratio characteristics. Some source-related samples, such as cement, coal and oil combustion dust, metallurgic dust, vehicle exhaust particles derived from leaded gasoline and unleaded gasoline, and polluted soils were analyzed for their Pb content and isotope ratio and compared to those observed in PM 10 samples. Airborne Pb concentration ranged from 167 to 854 ng/m 3 in the seven monitored sites with an average of 515 ng/m 3 in Shanghai, indicating that a high concentration of Pb remains in the air after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Lead isotopic compositions in airborne particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8608±0.0018; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.105±0.005) are clearly distinct from the vehicle exhaust particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8854±0.0075; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.145±0.006), suggesting that the automotive lead is not currently the major component of Pb in the air. By using a binary mixing equation, a source apportionment based on 207Pb/ 206Pb ratios, indicates that the contribution from automotive emission to the airborne Pb is around 20%. The Pb isotope ratios obtained in the source-related samples confirmed that the major emission sources are metallurgic dust, coal combustion, and cement.

  1. Separation of Rhenium from Lead-Rich Molybdenite Concentrate via Hydrochloric Acid Leaching Followed by Oxidative Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead-rich molybdenite is a typical rhenium-bearing molybdenum resource in China, which has not been efficiently utilized due to its high contents of lead and gangue minerals. In this study, hydrochloric acid was used for preliminarily removing lead and calcite from a lead-rich molybdenite concentrate. Oxidative roasting-ammonia leaching was then carried out for separation of rhenium and extraction of molybdenum. The hydrochloric acid leaching experiments revealed that 93.6% Pb and 97.4% Ca were removed when the leaching was performed at 95 °C for 10 min with HCl concentration of 8 wt. % and liquid-solid ratio of 5 (mL/g. The results of direct oxidative roasting indicated that 89.3% rhenium was volatilized from the raw concentrate after roasting at 600 °C for 120 min in air. In contrast, the rhenium volatilization was enhanced distinctly to 98.0% after the acid-leached concentrate (leaching residue was roasted at 550 °C for 100 min. By the subsequent ammonia leaching, 91.5% molybdenum was leached out from the calcine produced from oxidative roasting of the acid-leached concentrate, while only 79.3% Mo was leached from the calcine produced by roasting molybdenite concentrate without pretreatment.

  2. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical...

  3. Genotypic and environmental variation in chromium, cadmium and lead concentrations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Fanrong; Mao Ying; Cheng Wangda; Wu Feibo; Zhang Guoping

    2008-01-01

    Genotypic and environmental variation in Cr, Cd and Pb concentrations of rice grains and the interaction between these metals were investigated by using 138 rice genotypes grown in three contaminated soils. There were significant genotypic differences in the three heavy metal concentrations of rice grains, with the absolute difference among 138 genotypes in grain Cr, Cd and Pb concentrations being 24.5-, 9.1- and 23.8-folds, respectively, under the slightly contaminated soil (containing 4.61 mg kg -1 Cr, 1.09 mg kg -1 Cd and Pb 28.28 mg kg -1 , respectively). A highly significant interaction occurred between genotype and environment (soil type) in the heavy metal concentrations of rice grains. Cr concentration in rice grains was not correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. However, there was a significant correlation between Cd and Pb in slightly and highly contaminated soils. The results suggest the possibility to develop the rice cultivars with low Cd and Pb concentrations in grain. - Some rice genotypes had consistently low grain Cr, Cd and Pb concentrations under the soil with differently contaminated levels

  4. Relationship between maternal sodium intake and blood lead concentration during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yo A; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ki Nam; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Mina; Kim, Yangho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-03-14

    Pb is released from bone stores during pregnancy, which constitutes a period of increased bone resorption. A high Na intake has been found to be negatively associated with Ca and adversely associated with bone metabolism. It is possible that a high Na intake during pregnancy increases the blood Pb concentration; however, no previous study has reported on the relationship between Na intake and blood Pb concentration. We thus have investigated this relationship between Na intake and blood Pb concentrations, and examined whether this relationship differs with Ca intake in pregnant Korean women. Blood Pb concentrations were analysed in 1090 pregnant women at mid-pregnancy. Dietary intakes during mid-pregnancy were estimated by a 24 h recall method covering the use of dietary supplements. Blood Pb concentrations in whole-blood samples were analysed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Multiple regression analysis performed after adjustment for covariates revealed that maternal Na intake was positively associated with blood Pb concentration during pregnancy, but only when Ca intake was below the estimated average requirement for pregnant Korean women (P= 0·001). The findings of the present study suggest that blood Pb concentration during pregnancy could be minimised by dietary recommendations that include decreased Na and increased Ca intakes.

  5. Genotypic and environmental variation in chromium, cadmium and lead concentrations in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanrong; Mao, Ying; Cheng, Wangda; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

    2008-05-01

    Genotypic and environmental variation in Cr, Cd and Pb concentrations of rice grains and the interaction between these metals were investigated by using 138 rice genotypes grown in three contaminated soils. There were significant genotypic differences in the three heavy metal concentrations of rice grains, with the absolute difference among 138 genotypes in grain Cr, Cd and Pb concentrations being 24.5-, 9.1- and 23.8-folds, respectively, under the slightly contaminated soil (containing 4.61mgkg(-1) Cr, 1.09mgkg(-1) Cd and Pb 28.28mgkg(-1), respectively). A highly significant interaction occurred between genotype and environment (soil type) in the heavy metal concentrations of rice grains. Cr concentration in rice grains was not correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. However, there was a significant correlation between Cd and Pb in slightly and highly contaminated soils. The results suggest the possibility to develop the rice cultivars with low Cd and Pb concentrations in grain.

  6. The effect of high lead concentrations on the mortality, mass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-02-02

    Feb 2, 1998 ... distilled water, The solutions of lead nitrate were sprayed on the leaves (SO g dry .... costs to resist a contaminant by avoidance (Danker 1992), thereby leaving .... kineses. taxes and compass reactions. Dover Publications,.

  7. Application of extraction-chromatographic concentration to atomic absorption determination of lead and cadmium in drinking and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shova, T.A.; Agapkina, G.I.; Ershova, N.I.; Narankho, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    To increase the detection limits for lead and cadmium atomic-absorption determination in natural waters methods of extraction-chromatographic concentration of these metals using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is developed. Chromatograpy was carried out from 1.5-2.0 M HBr solutions. For cadmium and lead elution acetic acid was used. It is shown that extraction-chromatographic concentration permits to decrease limits of metal atomic-absorption detection by 10 3 with the 500 ml volume sample analysis

  8. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Explore Backyard Gardening Practices and Soil Lead Concentrations in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri; Cardona, Dalila; Davis, Jeremy; Gramling, Benjamin; Hamilton, Chelsea; Hoffmann, Ray; Ruis, Sabrina; Soldat, Doug; Ventura, Steve; Yan, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is a serious health threat for children. Soil is an important exposure pathway, primarily through ingestion and inhalation. Urban agriculture is increasing. Potential environmental health risks associated with residential gardening may not be well known to community residents. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was implemented to explore the relationship between urban residential vegetable gardening and lead exposure in children. The primary objectives were to characterize local backyard vegetable gardening practices, measure residential and commercial soil lead concentrations and spatial distributions, and identify priorities for individual and collective action. Participants were recruited in two stages. In phase 1, adult gardeners participated in structured interviews. In phase 2, a multistage representative sampling approach was implemented to recruit adult gardeners for interviews and soil testing. Twenty adults participated in gardening practice interviews. Adults perceive many benefits from backyard gardening and initially expressed few concerns about lead exposure risk. Results indicate that children are actively involved in backyard gardening. Total soil lead concentrations from 17 residential properties ranged from 7 to 3,234 mg kg-1(median, 187; mean, 432). Commercial soils had lead concentrations that ranged from 6 to 13 mg kg(-1) (median, 6.5; mean, 7.6). Nonparametric Mann-Whitney comparisons indicated a significant difference in lead concentration between commercial soil and residential soil (p<0.0001). Advocacy for resources needed to eliminate dangerous levels of lead from the environment, especially in communities where divestment has occurred, is enhanced through CBPR. Increasing access to soil testing is an important action step.

  9. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  10. Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

  11. Measurements of total lead concentrations and of lead isotope ratios in whole blood by use of inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delves, H.T.; Campbell, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are described for the accurate and precise determination of total lead and its isotopic composition in whole blood using inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sensitivities of up to 3 x 10 6 counts s -1 for 208 Pb at a total lead concentration of 5 μmol l -1 (1 μg ml -1 ) enabled total blood lead levels to be measured in 4 min per sample, with a detection limit of 0.072 μmol l -1 (15 μg l -1 ). The agreement between ICP-MS and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for this analysis was excellent: ICP-MS 0.996 x AAS -0.0165 μmol l -1 ; r 0.994. Isotope ratio measurements required 15 min to achieve the required accuracy and precision both of which were generally better than 0.5% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb and 208 Pb: 206 Pb isotopic lead ratios. The ICP-MS data for these ratios in ten quality control blood specimens has a mean bias relative to isotope dilution mass spectrometry of -0.412% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb ratios and of +0.055% for the 208 Pb: 206 Pb ratios. This level of accuracy and that of the total blood lead measurements is sufficient to permit application of these ICP-MS methods to environmental studies. (author)

  12. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan; Christie, Peter; Frey, Beat

    2008-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

  13. Airborne concentrations of toxic metals resulting from the use of low melting point lead alloys to construct radiotherapy shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, E.C.; Senjem, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Determinations of airborne concentrations of lead, cadmium, bismuth, and tin were made above vessels containing a fusible lead alloy (158 0 F melting point) commonly used for construction of radiotherapy blocks. Fume concentrations were determined by collection on a membrane filter and analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Samples were obtained for alloy temperatures of 200 0 , 400 0 , and 600 0 F. In all instances, concentrations were much lower than the applicable occupational limits for continuous exposure. The results of this study indicate that the use of a vented hood as a means of reducing air concentrations of toxic metals above and near vessels containing low temperature melting point lead allows commonly used in construction of radiotherapy shields appears unjustifiable. However, proper handling procedures should be observed to avoid entry into the body via alternate pathways (e.g., ingestion or skin absorption). Transmission data of a non-cadmium containing lead alloy with a melting point of 203 0 F was ascertained and is reported on

  14. Stabilization of arsenic and lead by magnesium oxide (MgO) in different seawater concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Yohey; Ok, Yong Sik

    2018-02-01

    Ongoing sea level rise will have a major impact on mobility and migration of contaminants by changing a number of natural phenomena that alter geochemistry and hydrology of subsurface environment. In-situ immobilization techniques may be a promising remediation strategy for mitigating contaminant mobility induced by sea level rise. This study investigated the reaction mechanisms of magnesium oxide (MgO) with aqueous Pb and As under freshwater and seawater using XAFS spectroscopy. Initial concentrations of Pb and As in freshwater strongly controlled the characteristics of the reaction product of MgO. Our study revealed that i) the removal of aqueous Pb and As by MgO was increased by the elevation of seawater concentration, and ii) the removal of As was attributed primarily to (inner-sphere) surface adsorption on MgO, independent on seawater concentrations, and iii) the retention mechanism of Pb was dependent on seawater concentrations where formations of Pb oxides and adsorption on the MgO surface were predominant in solutions with low and high salinity, respectively. The release of As fixed with MgO significantly increased in seawater compared to freshwater, although the amount of As desorbed accounted for <0.2% of total As. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Separation and concentration of lead, uranium and copper using polystyrene resins functionalised with azobenzylphosphonic acid ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kazumasa; Sato, Yuko; Yoshimura, Osamu; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu

    1988-01-01

    Two polystyrene resins functionalised with azobenzylphosphonic acid ligands were synthesised and applications for the concentration, separation and determination of micro- or milligram concentrations of metal ions were studied. Physical and chemical properties such as specific mass, water content and ion-exchange capacity were measured and the characteristics of the resins were examined. The resins were especially useful for the concentration of Pbsup(II), Usup(VI) and Cusup(II) by batch and column operations, and effective separations of Pbsup(II) from Group VIII and IIB ions could be achieved by selecting the eluents. Trace amounts of Pbsup(II), Usup(VI), Cusup(II), Mnsup(II), Znsup(II) and Fesup(III) were quantitatively retained on the resin columns at neutral pH and easily recovered by elution with 2M HCl and 2M HNO 3 . The resins were successfully applied to the concentration of trace amounts of metals in river and sea waters prior to spectroscopic determinations. (author)

  16. Variations of lead isotopes and airborne particulate concentrations from the Kozani basin, West Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampides, G; Manoliadis, O; Triantafyllou, A

    2002-03-01

    The spread and variation in 206Pb/207Pb ratios make Pb isotopes a powerful tool when it comes to detecting trends in airborne particulates originating mainly from power plants. This study was conducted to determine the source of pollution in Kozani area, an affected industrial area. Lead isotopic ratios of air filters under certain meteorological conditions were compared to Pb isotope analyses sampled from lignite mines, but also to Pb isotope analyses of cultivations in soil originating from the reclamation of old abandoned lignite-mines. The particles taken into consideration have an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10). The measurements were carried out in a central part of the town of Kozani, West Macedonia, for one year observation period. The lead isotope values of air filters and of wheat in the Kozani area are between the values of lignite Pb and of Greek gasoline.

  17. Root growth of Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica collected from motorways at different concentrations of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M H; Lau, W M

    1985-04-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on the roadside vegetation at three different sites: Tai Po, a commercial and residential area (average annual daily traffic (AADT) = 23730; and Shek O and Wu Kai Sha, recreational areas (AADT = 1590 and 20, respectively). Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica were the two most dominant species recorded. The Tai Po site had higher Pb contents in both soil and plant, followed by Shek O, and then Wu Kai Sha. Tillers of C. dactylon and E. indica from the three sites were subjected to a series concentrations of Pb(NO3)2. By comparing their indexes of tolerance and values of 14-day EC50 (effective concentration reducing the normal root growth by 50%), roadside populations of the two grasses collected from Tai Po and Shek O, especially the former one, were more tolerant to elevated levels of Pb compared with those collected from Wu Kai Sha.

  18. COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten Morill; Hansen, Pernille Bl

    2011-01-01

    It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP m...... osmolality in COX-2(-/-) mice irrespective of gender. Hypothalamic AVP mRNA level increased and was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. AVP peptide content was higher in COX-2(-/-) compared with WT. At baseline, plasma AVP concentration was elevated in conscious chronically catheterized COX-2......(-/-) mice, but after WD plasma AVP was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT mice (43 ± 11 vs. 70 ± 16 pg/ml). Renal V2 receptor abundance was downregulated in COX-2(-/-) mice. Medullary interstitial osmolality increased and did not differ between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2; cortex...

  19. Effects of lead on Na+, K+-ATPase and hemolymph ion concentrations in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Shea, Damian; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants such as lead (Pb) and studies are urgently needed to assess their health and condition to guide conservation efforts. A 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern elliptio mussels (Elliptio complanata) was conducted to determine uptake kinetics and to assess the toxicological effects of Pb exposure. Test mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a water-only control and five concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 245 mu g/L in a static renewal test with a water hardness of 42 mg/L. Endpoints included tissue Pb concentrations, hemolymph Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations, and Na+, K+-ATPase enzyme activity in gill tissue. Mussels accumulated Pb rapidly, with tissue concentrations increasing at an exposure-dependent rate for the first 2 weeks, but with no significant increase from 2 to 4 weeks. Mussel tissue Pb concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 898 mu g/g dry weight, were strongly related to Pb in test water at every time interval (7, 14, 21, and 28 days), and did not significantly increase after day 14. Hemolymph Pb concentration was variable, dependent on exposure concentration, and showed no appreciable change with time beyond day 7, except for mussels in the greatest exposure concentration (245 mu g/L), which showed a significant reduction in Pb by 28 days, suggesting a threshold for Pb binding or elimination in hemolymph at concentrations near 1000 mu g/g. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the gill tissue of mussels was significantly reduced by Pb on day 28 and was highly correlated with tissue Pb concentration (R2 = 0.92; P = 0.013). The Na+, K+-ATPase activity was correlated with reduced hemolymph Na+ concentration at the greatest Pb exposure when enzyme activity was at 30% of controls. Hemolymph Ca2+ concentration increased significantly in mussels from the greatest Pb exposure and may

  20. Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine in relation to ALA-D activity after intravenous infusion of Ca-EDTA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, N; Shiojima, S; Hasegawa, K

    1984-01-01

    Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine, urinary ALA concentration, and ALA-D activity in blood were studied for four hours in two male lead workers during and after a one hour infusion of Ca-EDTA 2Na. Urinary and plasma lead concentrations increased as a result of administering Ca-EDTA 2Na, and the ratios of lead concentrations in plasma to those in urine were greatly increased. The increase of plasma lead concentration was not due to the haemolytic effect of Ca-EDTA ...

  1. Modelling drivers and distribution of lead and zinc concentrations in soils of an urban catchment (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L E; Bishop, T F A; Birch, G F

    2017-11-15

    The human population is increasing globally and land use is changing to accommodate for this growth. Soils within urban areas require closer attention as the higher population density increases the chance of human exposure to urban contaminants. One such example of an urban area undergoing an increase in population density is Sydney, Australia. The city also possesses a notable history of intense industrial activity. By integrating multiple soil surveys and covariates into a linear mixed model, it was possible to determine the main drivers and map the distribution of lead and zinc concentrations within the Sydney estuary catchment. The main drivers as derived from the model included elevation, distance to main roads, main road type, soil landscape, population density (lead only) and land use (zinc only). Lead concentrations predicted using the model exceeded the established guideline value of 300mgkg -1 over a large portion of the study area with concentrations exceeding 1000mgkg -1 in the south of the catchment. Predicted zinc did not exceed the established guideline value of 7400mgkg -1 ; however concentrations were higher to the south and west of the study area. Unlike many other studies we considered the prediction uncertainty when assessing the contamination risk. Although the predictions indicate contamination over a large area, the broadness of the prediction intervals suggests that in many of these areas we cannot be sure that the site is contaminated. More samples are required to determine the contaminant distribution with greater precision, especially in residential areas where contamination was highest. Managing sources and addressing areas of elevated lead and zinc concentrations in urban areas has the potential to reduce the impact of past human activities and improve the urban environment of the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elemental concentrations and bioaccessibilities in beached plastic foam litter, with particular reference to lead in polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Lau, Kwan S

    2016-11-15

    Seventy samples of foamed plastic collected from a high-energy, sandy beach in SW England have been characterised by FTIR and XRF. Most samples were polyurethane (PU; n=39) or polystyrene (PS; n=27) that were associated with variable concentrations of Br-Cl, Fe and Zn, indicative of the presence of halogenated flame retardants, iron oxides and Zn-based additives, respectively. Many samples of rigid PU contained Pb, historically used as a catalyst, at concentrations of up to 16,000μgg -1 . A physiological extraction test that simulates the conditions in the gizzard of plastic-ingesting seabirds was applied to selected samples and results revealed that while Br and Zn were not measurably bioaccessible, Pb mobilisation progressed logarithmically over a period of time with maximum accessibilities after 220h of ~10% of total metal. Foamed PU is a source of bioaccessible Pb in the marine environment that has not previously been documented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lead Concentrations in Soils and Some Wild Plant Species Along Two Busy Roads in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Noreen; Hussain, Mumtaz; Young, Hillary S; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hameed, Mansoor; Ahmad, Rashid

    2018-02-01

    This study assessed the level of Pb in soil and five wild plant species (Calotropis procera, Datura alba, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cenchrus ciliaris and Ricinus communis) during all the four seasons. Two busy roads varying in age and traffic volume were selected i.e., Faisalabad-Sargodha road (FSR) and Pindi Bhattian to Lillah (M-2) in the Punjab, Pakistan. Results showed raised levels of Pb in both plants and soil samples along both roads. The range of Pb concentration in plants was 0.08-3.98 and 1.95-4.74 mg kg - 1 for soil. Higher Pb contamination was recorded along FSR road as compared to M-2. Among seasons, the higher Pb concentration was found during summer, probably due to very high temperature. Among all the plants studied, Calotropis procera accumulated the highest level (3.98 mg kg - 1 dry wt.) of Pb; Thus, it can be used as good biomonitor/phytoremediator at Pb contaminated areas.

  4. Comparison of nevirapine plasma concentrations between lead-in and steady-state periods in Chinese HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Kou

    Full Text Available To investigate the potential of nevirapine 200 mg once-daily regimen and evaluate the influence of patient characteristics on nevirapine concentrations.This was a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 532 HIV-infected patients receiving nevirapine as a part of their initial antiretroviral therapy. Plasma samples were collected at trough or peak time at the end of week 2 (lead-in period and week 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 (steady-state period, and nevirapine concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC method. Potential influencing factors associated with nevirapine concentrations were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression.A total of 2348 nevirapine plasma concentrations were collected, including 1510 trough and 838 peak values. The median nevirapine trough and peak concentration during the lead-in period were 4.26 µg/mL (IQR 3.05-5.61 and 5.07 µg/mL (IQR 3.92-6.44 respectively, which both exceeded the recommended thresholds of nevirapine plasma concentrations. Baseline hepatic function had a moderate effect on median nevirapine trough concentrations at week 2 (4.25 µg/mL v.s. 4.86 µg/mL, for ALT <1.5 × ULN and ≥ 1.5 × ULN, respectively, P = 0.045. No significant difference was observed in median nevirapine trough concentration between lead-in and steady-state periods in patients with baseline ALT and AST level ≥ 1.5 × ULN (P = 0.171, P = 0.769, which was different from the patients with ALT/AST level <1.5ULN. The median trough concentrations were significantly higher in HIV/HCV co-infected patients than those without HCV at week 48 (8.16 µg/mL v.s. 6.15 µg/mL, P = 0.004.The 200 mg once-daily regimen of nevirapine might be comparable to twice-daily in plasma pharmacokinetics in Chinese population. Hepatic function prior to nevirapine treatment and HIV/HCV coinfection were significantly associated with nevirapine concentrations.

  5. Extractability of added lead in soils and its concentration in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, A J; Halstead, R L; Finn, B J

    1969-01-01

    The concentrations of Pb in five species of plants were found to increase with proximity of the sampling sites to a well-travelled highway. The Pb content of oats and alfalfa grown in four soils pretreated with PbCl/sub 2/ in pot tests varied inversely with the organic matter content and pH of the soils. The amounts of Pb taken up by the plants were reduced upon addition of phosphate or of lime to the acid soils. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of organic matter, phosphate and lime in reducing Pb in the plants were usually in accord with corresponding reductions in extractable Pb in the soils as measured in 1 N neutral ammonium acetate and 0.1 M CaCl/sub 2/. 11 references, 6 tables.

  6. Total lead (Pb) concentration in oil shale ash samples based on correlation to isotope Pb-210 gamma-spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu (Estonia); Bitjukova, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Estonian oil shale consists of organic matter and mineral material and contains various amounts of heavy metals as well as natural radionuclides (from the U-238 and Th-232 series and K-40). Previous research has shown that burning oil shale in the large power plants causes these radionuclides to become enriched in different ash fractions and be partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of these nuclides in different oil shale ash fractions vary significantly. This is influenced by the boiler parameters and combustion conditions - prevailing temperatures, pressure, ash circulating mechanisms, fly ash particle size, chemical composition of ash and coexistence of macro and micro components. As with radionuclides, various heavy metals remain concentrated in the ash fractions and are released to the atmosphere (over 20 tons of Pb per year from Estonian oil shale power plants). Lead is a heavy metal with toxic influence on the nervous system, reproductive system and different organs in human body. Depending on the exposure pathways, lead could pose a long term health hazard. Ash samples are highly heterogeneous and exhibit great variability in composition and particle size. Determining the lead concentration in ash samples by modern methods like inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and other techniques often requires time consuming, multistage and complex chemical sample preparation. The list of possible methods to use is lengthy, but it is a challenge to choose a suitable one to meet measurement needs and practical considerations. The detection limits, capital costs and maintenance expenses vary between the instruments. This work presents the development of an alternative measurement technique for our oil shale ash samples. Oil shale ash was collected from different boilers using pulverized fuel

  7. Lack of oil and gas resources leads to concentration on coal and nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-20

    The Bulgarian energy sector is characterised by a marked shortage of domestic resources. The country has no oil to speak of, no gas, relatively little hydro potential compared with its neighbours, and the one resource it does have in fair abundance - coal - is of the poorest quality. This poverty of resources has led to an extraordinary dependence on the Soviet Union for supplies of every resource and for technology to utilise them. Most oil, all gas, some electricity and even significant quantities of coal are all imported from the USSR. There is little Bulgaria can do about its oil needs for the transport sector, but otherwise current policy is to concentrate development in the nuclear and coal sectors. One of the main thrusts of the energy policy is to continue expansion of coal, largely opencast lignite deposits, in order to feed thermal power stations and, when clean coal technology is developed, to use coal in CHP plants. The country uses a small amount of natural gas but no development is foreseen; instead district heating is considered a more efficient use of resources. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Determination of lead and zinc concentrations in the blood and liver of the captive common green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Russell P; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2009-09-01

    Heavy metal toxicosis is a well-known phenomenon in wild, captive-animal, and domestic animal medicine. However, the occurrence among reptiles is not well documented. One reason for this is the lack of information regarding reference blood and tissue levels of heavy metals in reptiles. To determine normal blood lead, plasma zinc, and liver lead and zinc concentrations, blood and liver samples were collected from 4 adult and 16 juvenile, healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Lead and zinc levels were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using the mean +/- two SD as the normal reference range, the present study suggests the following for captive common green iguana: 1) whole blood lead level: 0.06 +/- 0.06 microg/ml; 2) plasma zinc level: 2.68 +/- 1.66 microg/ml; 3) liver lead level (wet-weight basis): <1.0 +/- 0.0 microg/g; 4) liver lead level (dry-weight basis): <3.0 +/- 0.0 microg/g; 5) liver zinc level (wet-weight basis): 24.9 +/- 11.6 microg/g; and 6) liver zinc level (dry-weight basis): 83.4 +/- 44.6 microg/g. These values are fairly consistent with published reference levels in other mammalian and avian species.

  9. Lead, Nickel and Copper Concentration and Related Factors in Some Uncooked Vegetables Irrigated by Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshad Ganjo Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population density of Erbil City, Northern Iraq (where this work was carried out estimated as more than 2 million. The sewage discharge of the city may reach 77760m3/ day during low level and 108000m3/ day during high-level periods. About 225 hectares of scattered farmlands are used by local farmers for production of uncooked vegetables for local need, all of which are irrigated by untreated sewage water. In the present work, about 28 physical and chemical variables those related to sewage water quality were assessed on fortnightly bases for 7 months. Some toxic heavy metals, namely; Pb, Ni and Cu bioaccumulation rates in sewage, soil and some uncooked vegetables in five different locations/ farms were followed up (only bioaccumulation rates of Pb, Ni and Cu in lettuce, cress, dill and radish are given here (Full data can be obtained from both authors. Onset results revealed that Pb, Ni and Cu bioaccumulation rates calculated for lettuce, cress, dill and radish were surpassed maximum permissible levels (MPL. However, the bioaccumulation ranges calculated for lettuce, cress, dill and radish respectively were; lead (3.01-6.72mg/ kg/ dwt, (3.03-6.52mg/ kg/ dwt, (0.48-2.74mg/ kg/ dwt and (0.41-3.00mg/ kg/ dwt; nickel (1.01-3.92mg/ kg/ dwt, (4.03-7.99mg/ kg/ dwt, (0.37-3.98mg/ kg/ dwt and (1.00-3.95mg/ kg/ dwt and copper (8.02-15.26mg/ kg/ dwt, (7.20-13.62mg/ kg/ dwt,(6.35-10.37mg/ kg/ dwt, (2.01-5.94mg/ kg/ dwt. The studied vegetables were showed different modes concerning heavy metal accumulation rates.

  10. Studies on different concentration of lead (Pb and sewage water on Pb uptake and growth of Radish (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudratullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the accumulation of lead (Pb by radish (Raphanus sativus cultivars a study was carried out at Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan, during 2012. Two radish varieties i.e., exotic and local, were used. The treatments included sewage water and different concentrations of Pb @ 25, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1. The results showed that the total biomass of both the radish varieties were nonsignificantly influenced by the applied Pb concentrations and sewage water, except for root diameter which were significantly greater in the local cultivar (3.261 cm.Pb treatments significantly reduced the growth and yield of both the cultivars. While the Pb uptake by the root and leaf of radish plants was increased by the increasing the applied Pb levels, with the highest value for root (19.008 mg kg-1 and leaf (16.134 mg kg-1 in the treatment receiving the highest applied Pb concentrations. The total biomass, fresh weight of root and root diameter was found significantly higher except for Pb @ 400 mg L-1, in the plants receiving sewage water as compared to the control and different levels of Pb. The interaction amongst the varieties and treatments were found significantly different for various parameters. Thus, it can be concluded, that the use of sewage water and Pb contaminated wastewater results in higher metal concentration in the radish root and may lead to different types of health problems to consumers.

  11. Effects of pH, initial Pb2+ concentration, and polyculture on lead remediation by three duckweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Chen, Chunxia; Chen, Lei; Daroch, Maurycy; Cui, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Various geographical duckweed isolates have been developed for phytoremediation of lead. The Pb 2+ removal efficiency of Lemna aequinoctialis, Landoltia punctata, and Spirodela polyrhiza was investigated in monoculture and polyculture at different levels of pH and initial Pb 2+ concentrations. L. aequinoctialis was not sensitive to the tested pH but significantly affected by initial Pb 2+ concentration, whereas synergistic effect of pH and initial Pb 2+ concentration on removal efficiency of L. punctata and S. polyrhiza was found. Although the majority of polycultures showed median removal efficiency as compared to respective monocultures, some of the polycultures achieved higher Pb 2+ removal efficiencies and can promote population to remove Pb 2+ . Besides, the three duckweed strains could be potential candidates for Pb 2+ remediation as compared to previous reports. Conclusively, this study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed phytoremediation.

  12. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation the concentration of mercury, zinc, arsenic, lead and cobalt in the Ilam city water supply network and resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of heavy metals in water resources above threshold levels can be toxic and carcinogenic for consumers. This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals in the drinking water distribution network and resources of the city of Ilam in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study from 6 sources of water supply and also, different parts of the water supply system of Ilam city, samples were collected based on standard sampling methods. The samples were tested with a BRAIC atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data was analyzed using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results: The concentration of zinc in all water sources of the city of Ilam was higher than WHO guidelines and Iranian standard 1053. Contamination by cobalt, arsenic and lead from Ilam dam, Pich-e Ashoori well and Haft Cheshmeh well was higher than national and international standards. The amount of cobalt and mercury at Ilam dam was significantly different from the levels at other sources (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The use of pesticides in the agricultural sector, contamination of water by human waste and aged and worn water pipes are the likely sources of the increased concentrations of heavy metals, especially lead and arsenic. Because there is a cumulative effect from these metals, appropriate measures are necessary by the relevant agencies to address this problem.

  14. Investigation of the lead-, mercury- and cadmium concentration found in red deer, deer and chamois in an tyrolian preserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, E.

    1984-05-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals, lead, mercury and cadmium were tested in liver, kidney and rib samples taken from 43 red deer, 24 deer and 42 chamois between June 1982 and June 1983. Since the free living animals aquire the damaging substances through food, water and air intake, the determined sediments found in the bodies give information on the environmental pollution. The lead content in liver and kidney showed minimal values averraging between 0.001 and 0.014 ppm in all three animal types. Ribs, as well as all bones, due to the effect of time, served as reservoirs for lead with average values of 0.2-0.4ppm. In two chamois livers the maximal values of 3.007 and 1.006 ppm were detected and can be accounted for in a secondary contaminated originating from the lethal projectile. In reference to age and sex, no differences could be seen. A seasonal dependency was determined such that the concentration increased in spring and summer in examined livers and kidneys. The rumen content and grazing habit analysis showed minimal residue amounts as in the indicator organs. This lies in connection with the locality of the hunting grounds compared to the road. The mercury content in liver and kidney was of the maximal value 0.449 ppm. Deer showed the greatest contamination in the kidneys, which were surprisingly high in the fall. After rumen content and grazing analysis, the high value can be accounted for the deer's preference to eat mushrooms in the fall which contained an average 1.029 ppm Hg. Changes in concentrations could not be determined to be sex and age dependet. The cadmium concentration was highest in the kidney cortex in all three animal types. A highly significant dependency should be observed in the cadmium concentration. Deer showed the greatest amounts in each age class, which can be referred back to the grazing habits, to the preferred herbs and mushrooms which have high cadmium contents. Due to the strong influence of the age factor in cadmium storage

  15. Thermal lens study of thermo-optical properties and concentration quenching of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate based glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C. C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Rocha, U. [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Brazil; Guedes, Ilde [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Vermelho, M. V. D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Jacinto, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have used the thermal lens technique combined with conventional spectroscopy to characterize the thermo-optical properties of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses. More precisely, we have investigated and quantified experimentally the fluorescence quantum efficiencies of the Er3+ levels, and we describe the role of concentration quenching effects. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 level is very high when compared to other phosphate glasses, while that of the green-coupled levels is very small. Other important photonic materials parameters, such as the thermal diffusivity and temperature coefficient of the optical path length change, were obtained and compared with those of other glass systems. The cumulative results obtained here for the Er-doped lead pyrophosphate glass show that this material is a good candidate for photonic applications with a characteristic Er3+ infrared emission around 1550 nm.

  16. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (price samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation Between the Concentration of Lead in the Blood of Dogs and People Living in the Same Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monkiewicz Jerzy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies, conducted between 2010 and 2012, involved 102 dogs and 505 people from Lower Silesia (LS, 104 dogs and 578 people from the Legnica - Głogów Copper Mining Region (LGCMR, and 101 dogs and 897 people from the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (USIR. A significant positive correlation between blood lead concentration (BLC in dogs and people living in the same environment was found. Moreover, the data revealed an increase in BLC in dogs and people with the progressive aging of the body. The highest average BLC in dogs and humans were reported in the LGCMR followed by USIR and LS.

  18. Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in Yerba mate commercialized in Southern Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisia Maria Gobbo dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: “Mate” or “Yerba Mate” (Ilex paraguariensis is a native South American plant, commonly consumed in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil. Recent research has detected the presence of many vitamins and metals in this plant. Theses metals are also part of yerba mate’s mineral composition, due to soil and water contamination by pesticides and fertilizers, coal and oil combustion, vehicle emissions, mining, smelting, refining and the incineration of urban and industrial waste. Regardless of their origin, some inorganic elements, such as arsenic, cadmium and lead, are considered toxic, since they accumulate in all plant tissues and are, thus, introduced into the food chain. In this context, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare arsenic, cadmium, lead concentrations in 104 samples of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis marketed, and consumed in three southern Brazilian States, namely Paraná (PR, Santa Catarina (SC and Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Each element was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, on a Nexion 300D equipment (Perkin Elmer. As, Cd and Pb concentrations in yerba mate leaves ranged from 0.015 to 0.15mg kg-1, 0.18 to 1.25mg kg-1 and 0.1 to 1.20mg kg-1, respectively. Regarding Cd, 84% of the samples from RS, 63% from PR and 75% from SC showed higher concentrations than the maximum permissible limit of 0.4mg kg-1 established by the Brazilian National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, while 7% of the samples from RS and 5% from PR were unsatisfactory for Pb. Concentrations were below the established ANVISA limit of 0.6mg kg-1 for all samples.

  19. Lead and cadmium in human teeth from Jordan by atomic absorption spectrometry: Some factors influencing their concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alomary, A. [Department of Chemistry, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan)]. E-mail: ahmedalomary1000@hotmail.com; Al-Momani, I.F. [Department of Chemistry, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan); Massadeh, A.M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in human teeth and to investigate the affecting factors. Teeth samples (n = 268) were collected from people living in different cities in Jordan including Amman, Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Irbid and analyzed for Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). A questionnaire was used to gather information on each person, such as age, sex, place where the patient lives, smoking, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and whether the patient uses toothpaste or not. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 28.91 {mu}g/g and 0.44 {mu}g/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is a clear relation between Pb and Cd concentrations and the presence of amalgam fillings, smoking, and place of living. Pb was sex-dependent, whereas Cd was not. Our results show that Pb and Cd concentrations in samples obtained from Al-Mafraq and Irbid are higher than those obtained from Amman and Zarqa. Pb was highest in Mafraq, whereas Cd was highest in Irbid. The Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth from smokers (means: Pb = 31.89 {mu}g/g, Cd = 0.49 {mu}g/g) were significantly higher than those from nonsmokers (means: Pb = 24.07 {mu}g/g, Cd = 0.37 {mu}g/g). Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth of patients with amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 31.02 {mu}g/g and Cd = 0.52 {mu}g/g) were significantly higher than those from patients without amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 26.87 {mu}g/g and Cd = 0.41 {mu}g/g). Our results show that brushing the teeth daily with toothpaste does not significantly decrease the concentration of both Pb and Cd. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd do not vary significantly between the ages 20-30, 31-40, and 41-50, but both increased rapidly at age 51-60.

  20. Lead and cadmium in human teeth from Jordan by atomic absorption spectrometry: Some factors influencing their concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomary, A.; Al-Momani, I.F.; Massadeh, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in human teeth and to investigate the affecting factors. Teeth samples (n = 268) were collected from people living in different cities in Jordan including Amman, Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Irbid and analyzed for Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). A questionnaire was used to gather information on each person, such as age, sex, place where the patient lives, smoking, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and whether the patient uses toothpaste or not. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 28.91 μg/g and 0.44 μg/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is a clear relation between Pb and Cd concentrations and the presence of amalgam fillings, smoking, and place of living. Pb was sex-dependent, whereas Cd was not. Our results show that Pb and Cd concentrations in samples obtained from Al-Mafraq and Irbid are higher than those obtained from Amman and Zarqa. Pb was highest in Mafraq, whereas Cd was highest in Irbid. The Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth from smokers (means: Pb = 31.89 μg/g, Cd = 0.49 μg/g) were significantly higher than those from nonsmokers (means: Pb = 24.07 μg/g, Cd = 0.37 μg/g). Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth of patients with amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 31.02 μg/g and Cd = 0.52 μg/g) were significantly higher than those from patients without amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 26.87 μg/g and Cd = 0.41 μg/g). Our results show that brushing the teeth daily with toothpaste does not significantly decrease the concentration of both Pb and Cd. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd do not vary significantly between the ages 20-30, 31-40, and 41-50, but both increased rapidly at age 51-60

  1. Combining tree-ring metal concentrations and lead, carbon and oxygen isotopes to reconstruct peri-urban atmospheric pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Doucet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analysed the tree-ring metal concentrations and isotope ratios of five stands located in three contrasted settings to infer the diffuse air pollution history of the northern part of the Windsor–Québec City Corridor in eastern Canada. Tree-ring series show that the Cd and Zn accumulation rates were higher between 1960 and 1986 and that the long-term acidification of the soil (Ca/Al series was likely induced by NOx and SOx deposition (δ15N and δ13C trends as proxy. The Pb concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb ratios indicate that the dominant source of lead from 1880 to the 1920s was the combustion of north-eastern American coal, which was succeeded by the combustion of leaded gasoline from the 1920s to the end of the 1980s. Our modelling approach allows separating the climatic and anthropogenic effects on the tree-ring δ13C and δ18O responses. Diffuse air pollution caused an enrichment in 13C in all stands and a decrease of the δ18O values only in three of the stands. This study indicates that dendrogeochemistry can show contrasted responses to environmental changes and that the combination of several independent indicators constitutes a powerful tool to reconstruct the air pollution history in the complex context of peri-urban regions.

  2. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass

  3. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk.

  4. Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong

    2013-06-15

    Lead (Pb) contamination of soil poses severe health risks to humans through vegetable consumption. The variations of Pb concentration in different parts of rootstalk vegetables (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Pb treatments (125 mg kg(-1) and 250 mg kg(-1) for Ferralsols; 150 mg kg(-1) and 300 mg kg(-1) for Cambisols) in a pot experiment. The Pb concentration in edible parts was higher in Ferralsols under two Pb treatments, with range from 0.28 to 4.14, 0.42-10.66 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) respectively, and all of them exceeded the food safety standard (0.1 mg kg(-1)) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO. The Pb concentration in edible parts was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and the interaction between these two factors. The variation of Pb concentration in different cultivars was partially governed by Pb absorption and the transfer of Pb from aerial to edible part. The results revealed that caution should be paid to the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables in Pb-contaminated Ferralsols without any agronomic management to reduce Pb availability and plant uptake. For Cambisols with slight to moderate Pb contamination, growing potato cultivar Shandong No.1 and Chongqing No.1 was effective in reducing the risk of Pb entering human food chain. The results suggest the possibility of developing cultivar- and soil-specific planting and monitoring guidelines for the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables on slight to moderate Pb-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Zinc, copper and lead contents of wines. Comparison between the total concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry and the concentrations of the free ions by polarography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Fournier

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction of this article, some examples of the use of trace element data in the characterisation of viticultural produce are reminded. This paper described the determination of zinc, copper and lead by two techniques based on radically different principles. The atomic absorption spectrometry, applied after the mineralisation of the samples by wet process, allows the determination of the total element contents in wine. The polarography allows the analysis of the concentrations of these elements that are under labile chemical forms, and which are dissolved under the ionic forms Zn++, Cu++ and Pb++. The wines analysed in this study were produced from three different parcels chosen in relation to their geological qualities. The vines implanted on these parcels are strictly identical, and three fermentation techniques were applied to each lots of grapes. The results obtained shows that the copper is only under ionic form and that the temperature of the fermentation influences the total copper level in the final wine. At the opposite, there is no ion Pb++ in the samples, but a long duration of maceration increases the lead content. Concerning zinc, only the ions Zn++ are present in the wine in case of a short duration of the maceration. When this duration increases, some other chemical forms of zinc are dissolved in addition to the ions Zn++ which are instantaneously dissociated in aqueous solutions. The problem of the contamination of grapes by the materials used, the phytosanitary treatments and the atmospheric pollution is discussed. The knowledge of the proportion of a trace element that is under ionic forms is indispensable to evaluate the bio-availability of the considered element and the toxicologic risks. The advent and the expansion of the electrochemical methods is expected as an important advance in this field of research.

  6. The effect of lead concentration on the corrosion susceptibility of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel in a lead-lithium liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, B.D.; Edwards, G.R.; Hoffman, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    The intergranular penetration of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel by lead-lithium liquids containing 0, 17.6, and 53 w/o lead has been investigated at temperatures from 300 0 C to 600 0 C for times up to 1000 hours. Limited tests using a 99.3 w/o lead-lithium liquid were also conducted. Tempering was found to remove the susceptibility of as-quenched 21/4Cr-1Mo steel to penetration at 500 0 C by lead-lithium liquids containing up to 53 w/o lead. Penetration by the 99.3 w/o lead-lithium liquid in 1000 hours at 500 0 C was found to be negligible even when the steel was in the as-quenched condition. An Arrhenius analysis yielded the same low initial activation energy (approx. equal to25 kJ/mole) for liquids containing 0, 17.6, and 53 w/o lead. The initial penetration rate for lead-free lithium was significantly greater than that for the lead-bearing liquids, a factor thought to be related to the effect of lead on the wettability of the liquid. The same secondary activation energy (approx. equal to120 kJ/mole) was also found for the three liquids. Furthermore, the secondary penetration rate was found to be insensitive to lead content. Anomalous behavior at 500 0 C, observed in this study as well as in previous studies, is discussed, and a hypothetical explanation for the behavior is presented. (orig.)

  7. Concentrations of arsenic and lead in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Iran: A systematic review and carcinogenic risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Bjørklund, Geir; Bandpei, Anoushiravan Mohseni; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Keramati, Hassan; Hosseini Pouya, Rokhsane; Asadi, Anvar; Amanidaz, Nazak; Sarafraz, Mansour; Sheikhmohammad, Amir; Alipour, Mohamadreza; Baninameh, Zahra; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Seyed Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    Exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in either the short or the long term can cause cancers in humans. Dietary intake and consumption of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is increasing in Iran, and several studies on the concentration of heavy metals in rice have been carried out in this country in recent years. In this perspective, the main objective of the present study was to investigate, even via a meta-analysis of the existing literature, the presence of As and Pb in rice from many geographical areas in Iran, as well as to estimate the carcinogenic risk of these heavy metals in rice consumers. The results of the present ten years-spanning systematic review indicate that 21 reports, collecting a total of 2088 samples, were performed between 2008 and October 2017. The minimum and maximum concentration of As was observed in the Golestan area (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg d.w) and the Gillan region (3 mg/kg d.w); and Pb in the Shahrekord (0.07 ± 0.02 mg/kg d.w) and Mazandaran (35 mg/kg d.w). The meta-analysis of data showed that pooled concentration of As in the rice was 0.04 (95%CI: 0.02-0.06 mg/kg d.w), which resulted lower than the National Standard (NS) limits. However, the pooled concentration of Pb in the rice was 0.38 (95%CI: 0.25-0.5 mg/kg d.w), i.e., higher than NS limits. The heterogeneity was significant between As (I 2  = 63%, P value = .003) and Pb (I 2  = 96%, P value rice content of As and Pb are at considerable carcinogenesis risk (ILCR > 10 -3 ). Therefore a decreased level of heavy metals in rice cultivation should be encouraged and performed in next planning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal exposure to lead and cognitive deficit in 7- and 14-year-old children in the presence of concomitant exposure to similar molar concentration of methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal

    2011-01-01

    1986-1987 from whom lead was measured in cord-blood. A total of 896 cohort subjects participated in a clinical examination at age 7 and 808 subjects in a second examination at age 14. We evaluated the association between cord-blood lead concentrations and cognitive deficits (attention/working memory......, language, visuospatial, and memory) using multiple regression models. Overall, the lead concentration showed no clear pattern of association. However, in subjects with a low methylmercury exposure, after inclusion of statistical interaction terms, lead-associated adverse effects on cognitive functions were...

  9. Automatic on-line pre-concentration system using a knotted reactor for the FAAS determination of lead in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Anderson S.; Brandao, Geovani C.; Santos, Walter N.L. dos; Lemos, Valfredo A.; Ganzarolli, Edgard M.; Bruns, Roy E.; Ferreira, Sergio L.C.

    2007-01-01

    An automatic on-line pre-concentration system is proposed for lead determination in drinking water using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Lead(II) ions are retained as the 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complex in the walls of a knotted reactor, followed by an elution step using 0.50 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid solution. Optimisation involving the sampling flow rate, pH and buffer concentration factors was performed using a Box-Behnken design. Other factors were established considering results of previous experiments. The procedure allows the determination of lead with a 0.43 μg L -1 detection limit (3σ/S) and precisions (expressed as relative standard deviation) of 4.84% (N = 7) and 2.9% (N = 7) for lead concentrations of 5 and 25 μg L -1 , respectively. The accuracy was confirmed by the determination of lead in the NIST SRM 1643d trace elements in natural water standard reference material. The pre-concentration factor obtained is 26.5 and the sampling frequency is 48 h -1 . The recovery achieved for lead determination in the presence of several ions demonstrated that this procedure could be applied to the analysis of drinking water samples. The method was applied for lead determination in drinking water samples collected in Jequie City, Brazil. The lead concentration found in 25 samples were always lower than the permissible maximum levels stipulated by World Health Organization

  10. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of lead induces metabolic disorder and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jizhou; Jin, Cuiyuan; Pan, Zihong; Sun, Liwei; Fu, Zhengwei; Jin, Yuanxiang

    2018-08-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most prevalent toxic, nonessential heavy metals that can contaminate food and water. In this study, effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of Pb on metabolism and gut microbiota were evaluated in mice. It was observed that exposure of mice to 0.1mg/L Pb, supplied via drinking water, for 15weeks increased hepatic TG and TCH levels. The levels of some key genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver increased significantly in Pb-treated mice. For the gut microbiota, at the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes changed obviously in the feces and the cecal contents of mice exposed to 0.1mg/L Pb for 15weeks. In addition, 16s rRNA gene sequencing further discovered that Pb exposure affected the structure and richness of the gut microbiota. Moreover, a 1 H NMR metabolic analysis unambiguously identified 31 metabolites, and 15 metabolites were noticeably altered in 0.1mg/L Pb-treated mice. Taken together, the data indicate that chronic Pb exposure induces dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and metabolic disorder in mice. Chronic Pb exposure induces metabolic disorder, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and hepatic lipid metabolism disorder in mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations. Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with

  12. Correlation between heavy metal ions (copper, zinc, lead concentrations and root length of Allium cepa L. in polluted river water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Moreno Palacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed using the common onion (Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator of toxicity of heavy metals in river water. The test waters were collected at two sampling sites: at the beginning and the end of the Toledo River. The bulbs of A. cepa L. were grown in test water with nine concentration levels of copper, zinc and lead from 0.1 to 50 ppm. In the laboratory, the influence of these test liquids on the root growth was examined during five days. For test liquids containing below 0.03-ppm dissolved Cu the root growth was reduced by 40% However, the same reduction occurred for 1-ppm dissolved Zn. For dissolved Pb, results reveal toxicity above 0.1 and 0.6 ppm at the beginning and the end of the Toledo river water, respectively.O presente trabalho foi realizado utilizando a cebola comum (Allium cepa L. como bioindicador da toxicidade de metais pesados em água de rio. As águas de teste foram coletadas em dois locais: na nascente e na foz do rio Toledo. Os bulbos de A. cepa L. foram cultivados em água de teste com nove níveis de concentração de cobre, zinco e chumbo de 0,1 a 50 ppm. Em laboratório a influência destes líquidos de teste em crescimento de raiz foi examinada durante cinco dias. Em todos os líquidos de teste o metal dissolvido contido foi medido pela técnica TXRF. Para líquidos de teste contendo 0,1-ppm de Cu dissolvido o crescimento da raiz foi reduzido em 50%. Entretanto, ocorreu a mesma redução para 1-ppm de Zn dissolvido. Para Pb dissolvido, o método do Allium teste revela toxidade acima de 0,1 e 0,5 ppm para a nascente e a foz do rio Toledo, respectivamente.

  13. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J., E-mail: ljbinkowski@gmail.com [Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland); Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.sawicka-kapusta@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Strzyżewska, Emilia, E-mail: emijel@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Felsmann, Mariusz, E-mail: felsmann.mariusz@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n = 60) and Coot (n = 50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006–2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n = 5) and high concentrations (Mallards n = 18 and Coots n = 17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions. - Highlights: ► High levels of Cd and Pb were found in liver and kidneys of Mallard and Coot. ► Lower concentrations were found in young birds. ► Amount of metals exceeded the safety threshold established for edible poultry. ► Histopathological alterations were found in studied tissues. ► Lesions in birds with the highest concentrations of metals were numerous.

  14. Lead concentration in blood of school children from copper mining area and the level of somatic development at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sławińska-Ochla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the relations between lead intoxication in children at younger school age and the level of somatic development at birth. Materials and Methods. The research includes 717 children and adolescents 7–15 years old from LegnickoGłogowski copper mining region, which live in the vincity of „Głogów”, „Legnica” copper industrial plants and flotation tank reservoir „Żelazny most”. The analysis contained measures such as birth height, birth weight, Apgar score points, and blood lead level in 2007 and 2008. The whole blood lead level (Pb-B was indicated using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS with electrothermic atomization by certified The Foundation for Children From The Copper Basin laboratory. Results.Rural childrenwere noted forsignificantly higher blood lead levelsthan urban peers. Also boysin comparison to girls had higher blood lead levels. Regardless of gender and place of residence there were no significant correlation between blood lead level and body mass at birth. Conclusion. The biological state of the organism at the moment of birth has no connection with the susceptibility to absorption of lead in the later phases of ontogenesis: the earlier school age and adlescence.

  15. Association of lead concentration in colostrum, maternal and cord blood with newborn weight in polluted vs. non-polluted areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmohammadi T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning has proven to be one of the most important environmental health problems among developing countries with both direct and indirect effects on human life. Lead is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and accumulates in soft and hard tissues. Lead can be excreted in urine, stool, milk, sweat, nails and saliva. During pregnancy and lactation, lead is released from bones into the blood along with Ca2+. The toxic effects of lead on various human tissues have been studied extensively, but few studies have addressed its impact on fetal development during pregnancy. Blood levels of lead are higher in people living in lead-polluted regions. It has been reported that Tehran (central and southern parts is the most problematic city in terms of lead poisoning.Methods: From 86 sets of mothers and newborns in a non-polluted area of rural Rasht, Iran, we examined specimens of maternal blood, cord blood and colostrum (86×3=258 and specimens from 85 sets of mothers and newborns in a polluted area of Tehran, Iran (85×3=255 for lead levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS and analyzed the results by t-test, SPSS, and linear regression.Results: The mean blood lead concentrations of mothers, cord blood of newborns and colostrum were 7.6±4.1, 5.9±3 and 4.2±2.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the non-polluted area and 9.1±8.4, 6.5±5.2 and 5.8±5.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the polluted area. The mean weights of the newborns in non-polluted and polluted areas were 3.2±0.5 kg and 3.2±4.5 kg, respectively.Conclusions: Our data revealed an association between mean concentrations in blood lead of mothers and newborns and between mean concentrations of colostrum lead and newborn blood lead in both areas (p=0.01. There was no association between mean blood lead concentration of mothers with the weight of their newborns (p=0.89.

  16. Concentrations and Origins of Atmospheric Lead and Other Trace Species at a Rural Site in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wen, Tianxue; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yuesi; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyze the ambient levels of lead and other trace species in the bulk aerosol samples from a rural site approx.70 km ESE of Beijing in spring 2005. Lead (0.28+/-0.24 micro-g/cu m, average +/- standard deviation), along with several pollution \\related trace elements, was enriched by over 100 fold relative to the Earth's crust. The ambient lead levels showing large synoptic variations were well-correlated with other anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., CO and SO2). The Unmix receptor model resolved four factors in the aerosol composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol source, and a dust source. The first three sources were strongest in weak southerly winds ahead of cold fronts, while the dust source peaked in strong northerly winds behind cold fronts. The second source, primarily representing emissions from industrial processes and relatively small \\scale coal burning such as in home and institutional heating, was identified as the main source of ambient lead in this study. Mobile sources might also contribute to this factor, but there was no distinct evidence of emissions due to combustion of leaded gasoline, despite a correlation between lead and CO. Potential source contribution function, calculated from backward trajectories and aerosol composition, further reveals that lead observed in this study was predominantly from the populated and industrialized areas to the south and SW of Xianghe, rather than Beijing to the west. Our results and several recent studies show that the lead levels in suburban areas near big cities in China, although generally lower than those in industrial districts and urban areas, are substantial (near or above 0.15 micro-g/cu m). More extensive studies on airborne lead and its emission sources in China are called for.

  17. Element Distribution in the Oxygen-Rich Side-Blow Bath Smelting of a Low-Grade Bismuth-Lead Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xiao, Hui; Chen, Lin; Chen, Wei; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen-rich side-blow bath smelting (OSBS) technology offers an efficient method for processing complex bismuth-lead concentrates; however, the element distributions in the process remain unclear. This work determined the distributions of elements, i.e., bismuth, lead, silver, copper, arsenic and antimony, in an industrial-scale OSBS process. The feed, oxidized slag and final products were collected from the respective sampling points and analyzed. For the oxidative smelting process, 65% of bismuth and 76% of silver in the concentrate report to the metal alloy, whereas less lead reports to the metal ( 31%) than the oxidized slag ( 44%). Approximately 50% of copper enters the matte, while more than 63% of arsenic and antimony report to the slag. For the reductive smelting process, less than 4.5% of bismuth, lead, silver and copper in the oxidized slag enter the reduced slag, indicating high recoveries of these metal values.

  18. Use of neutron activation analysis to determine arsenic and antimony concentrations in creosote bushes collected near a lead smelter in El Paso, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardea-Torresdey, J.; Tiemann, K.J.; Parsons, J.G.; Landsberger, S.; O'Kelly, D.

    2001-01-01

    It his been found that some soils adjacent to a lead smelter in El Paso, Texas possess lead and copper concentrations as high as 5,067 mg/kg (parts per million) and 4,955 mg/kg, respectively. These concentrations are at least one order of magnitude higher than naturally occurring levels. The objective of this work is to determine the amount of metal accumulation within creosote bush, as it is found naturally growing in metal contaminated soils through analysis of soil and plant tissue samples. (R.P.)

  19. A pre-concentration procedure using coprecipitation for determination of lead and iron in several samples using flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saracoglu, S.; Soylak, M.; Peker, D.S. Kacar; Elci, L.; Santos, W.N.L. dos; Lemos, V.A.; Ferreira, S.L.C.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper proposes a pre-concentration procedure for determination of lead and iron in several samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In it, lead(II) and iron(III) ions are coprecipitated using the violuric acid-copper(II) system as collector. Afterwards, the precipitate is dissolved with 1 M HNO 3 solution and the metal ions are determined. The optimization step was performed using factorial design involving the variables: pH, violuric acid mass (VA) and copper concentration (Cu). Using the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed procedure allows the determination these metals with detection limits of 0.18 μg L -1 for iron and 0.16 μg L -1 for lead. The effects of foreign ions on the pre-concentration procedure were also evaluated and the results demonstrated that this method could be applied for determination of iron and lead in several real samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of seawater, urine, mineral water, soil and physiological solution samples. The concentrations of lead and iron achieved in these samples agree well with others data reported in the literature

  20. Ketamine coadministration attenuates morphine tolerance and leads to increased brain concentrations of both drugs in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilius, T O; Jokinen, V; Neuvonen, M S; Niemi, M; Kalso, E A; Rauhala, P V

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The effects of ketamine in attenuating morphine tolerance have been suggested to result from a pharmacodynamic interaction. We studied whether ketamine might increase brain morphine concentrations in acute coadministration, in morphine tolerance and morphine withdrawal. Experimental Approach Morphine minipumps (6 mg·day–1) induced tolerance during 5 days in Sprague–Dawley rats, after which s.c. ketamine (10 mg·kg–1) was administered. Tail flick, hot plate and rotarod tests were used for behavioural testing. Serum levels and whole tissue brain and liver concentrations of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, ketamine and norketamine were measured using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Key Results In morphine-naïve rats, ketamine caused no antinociception whereas in morphine-tolerant rats there was significant antinociception (57% maximum possible effect in the tail flick test 90 min after administration) lasting up to 150 min. In the brain of morphine-tolerant ketamine-treated rats, the morphine, ketamine and norketamine concentrations were 2.1-, 1.4- and 3.4-fold, respectively, compared with the rats treated with morphine or ketamine only. In the liver of morphine-tolerant ketamine-treated rats, ketamine concentration was sixfold compared with morphine-naïve rats. After a 2 day morphine withdrawal period, smaller but parallel concentration changes were observed. In acute coadministration, ketamine increased the brain morphine concentration by 20%, but no increase in ketamine concentrations or increased antinociception was observed. Conclusions and Implications The ability of ketamine to induce antinociception in rats made tolerant to morphine may also be due to increased brain concentrations of morphine, ketamine and norketamine. The relevance of these findings needs to be assessed in humans. PMID:25297798

  1. A prospective study of bone lead concentration and death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in the VA Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Jain, Nitin; Nie, Huiling; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood lead concentration has been associated with mortality from different causes in several studies. Many effects of lead exposure that might increase risk of death are likely to result from cumulative exposure, for which bone lead is a better biomarker than blood lead. The association between bone lead levels and mortality has not been explored. Methods and Results We prospectively assessed the association between both blood lead and bone lead—analyzed using K-x-ray fluorescence—and mortality among 868 men in the Normative Aging Study. We identified 241 deaths over an average of 8.9 (sd=3.9) years of follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards. Compared to the lowest tertile of patella bone lead, the fully adjusted HR in the highest tertile for all cause and cardiovascular mortality (n=137 deaths) were 2.52 (95% CI: 1.17–5.41) and 5.63 (95% CI: 1.73–18.3), respectively. The age, smoking, and race-adjusted HR for ischemic heart disease mortality (n=62 deaths) in the highest tertile was 8.37 (95% CI: 1.29–54.4). Results were similar for tibia lead. Bone lead was not associated with cancer, and blood lead was not associated with any mortality category. Conclusions We found bone lead to be associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in an environmentally-exposed population with low blood lead levels. This study suggests that cumulative lead exposure from prior decades of high environmental exposures continues to significantly impact risk of death despite recent declines in environmental lead exposure. PMID:19738141

  2. Senegalese artisanal gold mining leads to elevated total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in soils, sediments, and rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline R. Gerson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest source of global mercury (Hg anthropogenic inputs to the environment is derived from artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM activities in developing countries. While our understanding of global Hg emissions from ASGM is growing, there is limited empirical documentation about the levels of total mercury (THg and methylmercury (MeHg contamination near ASGM sites. We measured THg and MeHg concentrations in soil (n = 119, sediment (n = 22, and water (n = 25 from four active ASGM villages and one non-ASGM reference village in Senegal, West Africa. Nearly all samples had THg and MeHg concentrations that exceeded the reference village concentrations and USEPA regulatory standards. The highest median THg concentrations were found in huts where mercury-gold amalgams were burned (7.5 μg/g, while the highest median MeHg concentrations and percent Hg as MeHg were found in river sediments (4.2 ng/g, 0.41%. Median river water concentrations of THg and MeHg were also elevated compared to values at the reference site (22 ng THg/L, 0.037 ng MeHg/L in ASGM sites. This study provides direct evidence that Hg from ASGM is entering both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems where it is converted in soils, sediment, and water to the neurotoxic and bioavailable form of MeHg.

  3. Hujjiyah Nazariyah Saddiaz-Żarāiʻfī al-Fiqh al- Islāmywatatbīquhāfī Qadāyāal-Maʹkȗlātwa al- Mashrȗbātwa al-Malbȗsāt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Sujoko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This  study  entitled:HujjiyahNazariyahSaddiaz-Żarāiʻfī  al-Fiqh  al-IslāmywatatbīquhāfīQadāyāal-  Maʹkȗlātwa  al-Mashrȗbātwa  al-Malbȗsāt,  deal  with  the  theory  ofSaddiaz-Żarāi.  The  study  tries  to  explore  its  meaning,  concept,  and  its  legality  in  Islamic  jurisprudence,  and  how  it  could  be  implemented in the cases of food, drink and clothing. Food, drink and clothing are the primary need  of  human,  but  there  are  some  cases  faced  by  Muslim  related  to  the  food,  drink  and  clothing.  For  example a Muslim will consume a product of food or drink or clothingthat produced from the non  Muslim country which they do not mind about the material; halal or haram. Should Muslim stops  from using those product, based on the theory of Saddiaz-Żarāiʻ?. The study found that the theory of  Saddiaz-Żarāiʻ,is a one of the Islamic resources regarding to the majority of Muslim scholar, event  there  are  some  differences  among  them  related  to  its  implementation.  And  some  Muslim  scholar  does  not  recognize  Saddiaz-Żarāiʻ  as  Islamic  resources.  But  for  those  who  agree  with  the  theory  ofSaddiaz-Żarāiʻ,they should understand the regulation of Saddiaz-Żarāiʻ. The methodology of study  is library study which is referring to the Islamic references such as texts of Qur’an and hadis and its  exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence books both classic and modern book, and fatwa of modern Muslim scholarsDOI: 10.15408/insaniyat.v2i1.6591

  4. Concentrations of Mercury, Lead, Chromium, Cadmium, Arsenic and Aluminum in Irrigation Water Wells and Wastewaters Used for Agriculture in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Mousavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water by toxic chemicals has become commonly recognized as an environmental concern. Based on our clinical observation in Mashhad, northeastern Iran, many people might be at risk of exposure to high concentrations of toxic heavy metals in water. Because wastewater effluents as well as water wells have been commonly used for irrigation over the past decades, there has been some concern on the toxic metal exposure of crops and vegetables irrigated with the contaminated water. Objective: To measure the concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium in irrigation water wells and wastewaters used for agriculture in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. Methods: 36 samples were taken from irrigation water wells and a wastewater refinery in North of Mashhad at four times—May 2008, March 2009, and June and July 2010. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of toxic metals. Graphite furnace was used for the measurement of lead, chromium, cadmium and aluminum. Mercury and arsenic concentrations were measured by mercury/hydride system. Results: Chromium, cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations in the samples were within the standard range. The mean±SD concentration of mercury in irrigation wells (1.02±0.40 μg/L exceeded the FAO maximum permissible levels. The aluminum concentration in irrigation water varied significantly from month to month (p=0.03. All wastewater samples contained high mercury concentrations (6.64±2.53 μg/L. Conclusion: For high mercury and aluminum concentrations, the water sources studied should not be used for agricultural use. Regular monitoring of the level of heavy metals in water and employing the necessary environmental interventions in this area are strongly recommended.

  5. No relationship found between mercury and lead concentrations in muscle and scales of chub Squalius cephalus L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valová, Zdenka; Hudcová, H.; Roche, Kevin Francis; Svobodová, J.; Bernardová, I.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 185, č. 4 (2013), s. 3359-3368 ISSN 0167-6369 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mercury * Lead * Chub * Nonlethal methods * Scales Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.679, year: 2013

  6. Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec): a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Julie; Dewailly, Éric; Benedetti, Jean-Louis; Pereg, Daria; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Background Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada) using the data obtained from two broad scale health surveys, and to identify sources of exposure in 2004. Methods In 2004, 917 adults aged between 18 and 74 were recruited in the 14 communities of Nunavik to participate to a broad scale health survey. Blood samples were collected and analysed for metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and dietary and life-style characteristics were documented by questionnaires. Results were compared with data obtained in 1992, where 492 people were recruited for a similar survey in the same population. Results Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Mercury blood concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20; p < 0.0001), and the most important source of exposure to mercury was marine mammal meat consumption (partial r2 = 0.04; p < 0.0001). In 2004, mean blood concentration of lead was 0.19 μmol/L and showed a 55% decrease since 1992. No strong associations were observed with any dietary source, and lead concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20.; p < 0.001). Blood cadmium concentrations showed a 22% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Once stratified according to tobacco use, means varied between 5.3 nmol/L in never-smokers and 40.4 nmol/L in smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations were mainly associated with tobacco smoking (partial r2 = 0.56; p < 0.0001), while consumption of caribou liver and kidney remain a minor source of cadmium exposure among never-smokers. Conclusion Important decreases in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure

  7. Fish Protein Concentrate Fortification Siam Patin on Amplang Snack Products and Mi Sago Instant Product as a Leading Regional Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Buchari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To enhance fish consumption in the community especially children, fortification on processed fish product is conducted. The processed fish products are developed to fill the requirements as the fish based food products that own characterizations such as ready to eat, easy to carry, and less time to cook. Amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles are defined as the products that fills the requirements. The research was aimed to process catfish into fish protein concentrate to become amplang snack and instant sagoo noodles. These products were designed as the effort to develop the local priority products in Riau by using diversification and fortification methods. Experimental method with fortification treatments on Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC extract from Catfish that generate products of amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles and fish tofu were carried out. The fortified products were examined by organoleptics test that involved panelists. The results showed that the proximate analysis on fortified Catfish Protein Concentrate products were presented as following :1. water contents of 3,13 %, ash of 2,85 %, protein content of 16,13 % and fat content of 18, 66 % for ampang snacks; and 2. water contents of 11,77 %, ash of 1,30 %, protein content of 12,35 % and fat content of 1,86 % for instant sagoo nodles. All fortified FPC products filled the Indonesian Nasional Standard (SNI.Keywords: Fortification, Catfish, and Fish Protein Concentrate

  8. Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Schutze, G.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in risks/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms/processes and plants) and (ii) human health or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The

  9. Purification and Concentration of PCR Products Leads to Increased Signal intensities with Fewer Allelic Drop-Outs and Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria Irlund Pedersen, Line; Stangegaard, Michael; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2011-01-01

    and the quality of the DNA profiles without re-amplification of the sample. We have validated and implemented an automated method to purify and 2-fold concentrate PCR products resulting in allelic peaks with higher intensity (a median height across all loci from 130 to 404 RFU), fewer allelic dropouts...

  10. DETERMINATION OF LEAD (Pb, IRON (Fe AND MANGANESE (Mn CONCENTRATION IN SEWAGE WATER AND VEGETABLE LEAF SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Hayat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of waste water for irrigation purposes has increased over the past years. This waste water contains high amounts of trace elements and heavy metals.Many of these are non-essential and toxic to plants, animals and human beings. The use of polluted water in the immediate surroundings of big cities in Pakistan is a common practice for growing of vegetables. When this water applied for long time in irrigation, these heavy metals may accumulate in soil and that may be toxic to plants and also cause deterioration of soil. The present study revealed that heavy metal content was above the toxicity level in leafy vegetables grown in the area of Lahore. This study showed that among the different tested plant species, the amount of heavy metals was more in leaves than fruits. Plants whose fruits grow below the soil showed higher concentration of heavy metals while other showed less concentration whose edible portion was above the ground level. Leafy vegetables (spinach, cabbage, coriander etc showed higher concentration in leaves than in fruits. The concentration of heavy metals in upper layer of soil (0 -15 cm is higher than the lower layer (15-30 cm. The reason behind is that the upper layer was receiving sewage water permanently while the penetration of sewage water below 15 cm was less. The increase in heavy metal accumulation in different plant species and their different parts is not constant and is not in proportion to the increase in heavy metal concentration in soil irrigated with sewage wastewater.

  11. Analysis of anomalous high concentration of lead and selenium and their origin in the main minable coal seam in the Junger coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Sheng-sheng; Ren De-yi [State Administration of Work Safety, Beijing (China)

    2006-07-01

    The concentration, occurrence, and geological origin of lead and selenium in the main minable coal seam from the Junger coalfield were studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CICP-MS), instrumental neutron activation analysis (CINAA), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), and optical microscope. The results show that the average concentrations of Pb and Se are as high as 35.7 {mu}g/g and 8.2 {mu}g/g, respectively, which are much higher than those of coals from North China, Guizhou, China, and USA. In addition, their enrichment factors are up to 2.4 and 68.1, respectively. Lead and selenium are significantly enriched in the seam. Lead and selenium mainly exist in galena, clausthalite, and selenio-galena which occur as cell-filling of coal-forming plants and are of chemical-sedimentary origin. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Determination of lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in different organs of Barbus grypus and Liza abu of Karoon River in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ghorbani ranjbary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of heavy metals in fish body causes the destruction of soft tissues and suppression of immune system. Moreover, consumption of contaminated fish causes several consequences in humans. This survey was conducted to determine the concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in muscle tissue, gill as well as liver of Barbus grypus and Liza abu. These two species are native fishes of Karoon River in Ahvaz area. A total number of 80 sample was obtained during the winter of 2010. After preparation and chemical digestion of fish samples, the amounts of heavy metals were determined by spectrophotometer method. According to the results, the overall lead concentration in different organs of the two species was more than mercury and cadmium concentrations. Furthermore, the accumulation of heavy elements in gills was estimated higher than the other organs. Although a significant difference (P

  13. Increasing phosphorus concentration in the extraradical hyphae of Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198 leads to a concomitant increase in metal minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Caiyun; Zhou, Jiachao; Declerck, Stéphane; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu

    2016-11-01

    Plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) acquire phosphorus via roots and extraradical hyphae. How soil P level affects P accumulation within hyphae and how P in hyphae influences the accumulation of metal minerals remains little explored. A bi-compartmented in vitro cultivation system separating a root compartment (RC), containing a Ri T-DNA transformed carrot root associated to the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198, from a hyphal compartment (HC), containing only the extraradical hyphae, was used. The HC contained a liquid growth medium (i.e., the modified Strullu-Romand medium containing P in the form of KH 2 PO 4 ) without (0 μM) or adjusted to 35, 100, and 700 μM of KH 2 PO 4 . The accumulation of P and metal minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn) within extraradical hyphae and AMF-colonized roots, and the expression of the phosphate transporter gene GintPT were assessed. The expression of GintPT in the extraradical hyphae did not differ in absence of KH 2 PO 4 or in presence of 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC but was markedly reduced in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 . Hyphal P concentration was significantly lowest in absence of KH 2 PO 4 , intermediate at 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 and significantly highest in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC. The concentrations of K, Mg, and Na were positively associated with the concentration of P in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC. Similarly, P concentration in extraradical hyphae in the HC was related to P concentration in the growth medium and influenced the concentration of K, Mg, and Na. The accumulation of the metal mineral K, Mg, and Na in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC was possibly related to their function in neutralizing the negative charges of PolyP accumulated in the hyphae.

  14. Modelling the effect of temperature and free acid, silver, copper and lead concentrations on silver electrorefining electrolyte conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Aji, Arif T.; Kalliomäki, Taina; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Aromaa, Jari; Lundström, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Conductivity is one of the key physico-chemical properties of electrolyte in silver electrorefining since it affects the energy consumption of the process. As electrorefining process development trends towards high current density operation, having electrolytes with high conductivities will greatly reduce the energy consumption of the process. This study outlines investigations into silver electrorefining electrolyte conductivity as a function of silver, free acid, copper and lead concentrati...

  15. Determination of the geographic origin of rice by chemometrics with strontium and lead isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Miyuki; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-02-22

    The objective of this study was to develop a technique for determining the country of origin of rice in the Japanese market. The rice samples included a total of 350 products grown in Japan (n = 200), the United States (n = 50), China (n = 50), and Thailand (n = 50). In this study, (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Pb isotope ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) ratios and multielement concentrations (Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Ba) were determined by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. By combining three chemometric techniques based on different principles and determination criteria, the countries of origin of rice were determined. The predictions made by 10-fold cross-validation were around 97% accurate. The presented method demonstrated the effectiveness of determining the geographic origin of an agricultural product by combining several chemometric techniques using heavy element isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

  16. CADMIUM, COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN LOW QUALITY WINES AND ALCOHOL CONTAINING DRINKS FROM ITALY, BULGARIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muchacka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in low quality wines produced in Bulgaria and Italy and in alcohol containing multi-fruit drinks produced in Poland. All the metals were present in tested products. Cadmium was not detected in Italian and Polish products. In one of the Bulgarian wines cadmium was detected in concentration of 0.004 mg•l-1. Italian wines were not contaminated with Pb. Its concentration was the highest in Polish drinks (0.88±0.52 mg•l-1. The largest and statistically significant differences occurred between Cu and Zn contents. Both metals had the highest concetrations in Italian wines (Cu - 0.13±0.05 mg•l-1; Zn - 0.83±0.56 mg•l-1, and the lowest in Polish products (Cu - 0.04±0.001 mg•l-1; Zn -0.18±0.16 mg•l-1.

  17. Comparison of the concentrations of metal elements and isotopes of lead found in rice and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shouhui; Yang, Hui; Yang, Lan; Wang, Fuhua; Du, Ruiying; Wen, Dian

    2014-08-01

    Very few studies have investigated the difference in the distribution of metal elements between rice and rice bran samples. In this study, the concentrations of 27 metal elements (Li, Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, and U) in 56 polished rice and their corresponding bran samples were determined. A significant difference in concentrations of all elements except Ag and Cd was found between rice and bran (P rice ratios of 1.21 to 36.3. High concentrations of metal elements, especially that of the heavy metal Cr, in bran samples present a potential safety issue for bran products, such as food and feed containing bran. Pb isotope ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) ratios also were determined. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in bran were generally higher than those in rice (P rice and bran samples were distinctly different from each other, indicating that Pb isotope composition is an effective for discriminating between bran and rice samples.

  18. Mixture models reveal multiple positional bias types in RNA-Seq data and lead to accurate transcript concentration estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tuerk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy of transcript quantification with RNA-Seq is negatively affected by positional fragment bias. This article introduces Mix2 (rd. "mixquare", a transcript quantification method which uses a mixture of probability distributions to model and thereby neutralize the effects of positional fragment bias. The parameters of Mix2 are trained by Expectation Maximization resulting in simultaneous transcript abundance and bias estimates. We compare Mix2 to Cufflinks, RSEM, eXpress and PennSeq; state-of-the-art quantification methods implementing some form of bias correction. On four synthetic biases we show that the accuracy of Mix2 overall exceeds the accuracy of the other methods and that its bias estimates converge to the correct solution. We further evaluate Mix2 on real RNA-Seq data from the Microarray and Sequencing Quality Control (MAQC, SEQC Consortia. On MAQC data, Mix2 achieves improved correlation to qPCR measurements with a relative increase in R2 between 4% and 50%. Mix2 also yields repeatable concentration estimates across technical replicates with a relative increase in R2 between 8% and 47% and reduced standard deviation across the full concentration range. We further observe more accurate detection of differential expression with a relative increase in true positives between 74% and 378% for 5% false positives. In addition, Mix2 reveals 5 dominant biases in MAQC data deviating from the common assumption of a uniform fragment distribution. On SEQC data, Mix2 yields higher consistency between measured and predicted concentration ratios. A relative error of 20% or less is obtained for 51% of transcripts by Mix2, 40% of transcripts by Cufflinks and RSEM and 30% by eXpress. Titration order consistency is correct for 47% of transcripts for Mix2, 41% for Cufflinks and RSEM and 34% for eXpress. We, further, observe improved repeatability across laboratory sites with a relative increase in R2 between 8% and 44% and reduced standard deviation.

  19. Short-term exposure with high concentrations of pristine microplastic particles leads to immobilisation of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehse, Saskia; Kloas, Werner; Zarfl, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies revealed that freshwaters are not only polluted by chemicals, but also by persistent synthetic material like microplastics (plastic particles pollutants or release additives. Although there is rising concern about the pollution of freshwaters by microplastics, knowledge about their potential effects on organisms is limited. For a better understanding of their risks, it is crucial to unravel which characteristics influence their effects on organisms. Analysing effects by the mere particles is the first step before including more complex interactions e.g. with associated chemicals. The aim of this study was to analyse potential physical effects of microplastics on one representative organism for limnic zooplankton (Daphnia magna). We investigated whether microplastics can be ingested and whether their presence causes adverse effects after short-term exposure. Daphnids were exposed for up to 96 h to 1-μm and 100-μm polyethylene particles at concentrations between 12.5 and 400 mg L(-1). Ingestion of 1-μm particles led to immobilisation increasing with dose and time with an EC50 of 57.43 mg L(-1) after 96 h. 100-μm particles that could not be ingested by the daphnids had no observable effects. These results underline that, considering high concentrations, microplastic particles can already induce adverse effects in limnic zooplankton. Although it needs to be clarified if these concentrations can be found in the environment these results are a basis for future impact analysis, especially in combination with associated chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal evolution of cadmium, copper and lead concentration in the Venice Lagoon water in relation with the speciation and dissolved/particulate partition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Corami, Fabiana; Turetta, Clara; Toscano, Giuseppa; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2018-04-01

    In order to study the role of sediment re-suspension and deposition versus the role of organic complexation, we investigated the speciation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in samples collected in the Venice Lagoon during several campaigns from 1992 to 2006. The increment in Cd and Pb concentration in the dissolved phases, observed in the central and northern basins, can be linked to important alterations inside the lagoon caused by industrial and urban factors. The study focuses on metal partition between dissolved and particulate phases. The analyses carried out in different sites illustrate the complex role of organic matter in the sedimentation process. While Cd concentration in sediments can be correlated with organic matter, no such correlation can be established in the case of Pb, whose particulate concentration is related only to the dissolved concentration. In the case of Cu, the role of organic complexation remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Relationship between vibratory sense threshold and blood lead concentration in ceramic color workers and transfer printing manufacturers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Y; Matsumoto, T; Fujiwara, N; Tokudome, S

    1995-08-01

    We measured vibratory sense thresholds (VSTs) at 63Hz and 125Hz on the third fingertip of the right hand and on the third toe of the right foot of 74 male workers. The subjects were workers engaged in manufacturing ceramic color and transfer printing paper, whose blood lead (Pb-B) levels were 2-58 micrograms/dl. They were divided into three groups according to the Pb-B levels, namely, below 9, 10-19, and 20 micrograms/dl or more. For statistical analysis, simple and partial correlations, and Scheffé's multiple comparison between the least squares means were used. The VSTs on the fingertip as well as on the toe showed a significant correlation with age. The VSTs at 125Hz on the fingertip were also significantly correlated with alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Controlling for age, systolic blood pressure, alcohol consumption and smoking habit, a significant dose-effect relationship was observed between the VSTs at not only 63Hz but at 125Hz on the fingertip, and each of the corresponding Pb-B levels. A similar tendency was also observed at the two frequencies on the toe. The measurement of VSTs was considered to be an effective screening test for sensory nerve disorders caused by lead poisoning.

  2. Cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations and their influence on morphological parameters in blood donors from different age groups from southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Monika; Binkowski, Łukasz J; Błaszczyk, Martyna; Paluch, Joanna; Wojtaś, Włodzimierz; Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Due to industrial development, environmental contamination with metals increases which leads to higher human exposure via air, water and food. In order to evaluate the level of the present exposition, the concentrations of metals can be measured in such biological materials as human blood. In this study, we assessed the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in blood samples from male blood donors from southern Poland (Europe) born in 1994 (n=30) and between 1947 and 1955 (n=30). Higher levels of Pb were seen in the group of older men (4.48 vs 2.48μg/L), whereas the Hg levels were lower (1.78 vs 4.28μg/L). Cd concentrations did not differ between age groups (0.56μg/L). The levels of Cd and Pb in older donors were significantly correlated (Spearman R 0.5135). We also observed a positive correlation between the number of red blood cells (RBC) and Hg concentrations in the older group (Spearman R 0.4271). Additionally, we noted numerous correlations among morphological parameters. Based on our results, we can state that metals influence the blood morphology and their concentrations in blood vary among age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  4. Effect of increasing concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, or zinc on lettuce grown in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Teicher, K.; Venter, F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine concentrations at which excess symptoms could be expected, which kind of damage symptoms appear and in which amount the heavy metals are enriched in roots and leaves. The following results were revealed. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.) can tolerate amounts of Cd below 1 ppm, of Ni below 2 ppm and of Pb below 20 ppm in the nutrient solution without any symptoms of excess. The growth of lettuce was mostly influenced by Cd, least of all by Pb. Only Ni caused specific poisoning symptoms. Heavy metals were enriched in different amounts in roots and leaves. The contents of Cd and Ni were more than twice as high as those of Pb. The heavy metals influenced the uptake and distribution of macro-elements more (nitrogen) or less (potassium) vigorously.

  5. Anesthetic Overdose Leading to Cardiac Arrest Diagnosed by End-Tidal Inhalant Concentration Analysis in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hofmeister

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old male-castrated Cocker Spaniel presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Georgia for a total ear canal ablation. Premedication was with carprofen 2.2 mg/kg SQ, hydromorphone 0.1 mg/kg IM, diazepam 0.2 mg/kg IM, and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg IM. The patient was induced with lidocaine 2 mg/kg IV and etomidate 1 mg/kg IV and maintained with sevoflurane and a constant rate infusion consisting of lidocaine 0.05 mg/kg/min. Before surgery start, the patient’s systolic arterial blood pressure was 110 mmHg, heart rate (HR was 85 beats/min, respiratory rate was 8 breaths/min, end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was 3.2%, and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2 was 23 mmHg. As a scrub was being performed, the patient’s HR abruptly dropped to 20 beats/min over the course of 2 minutes. His ETCO2 simultaneously decreased to 16 mmHg. At this time, cardiopulmonary arrest was diagnosed. After two minutes of resuscitation, a spontaneous heart beat was obtained and the patient was successfully recovered and discharged without further incident. The cardiac arrest in this case is most likely attributable to an overdose of inhalant anesthesia, which was diagnosed by an anesthetic inhalant concentration monitor. A gas analyzer may be a helpful contribution to the small animal practitioner, particularly those performing more lengthy or complex procedures.

  6. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-07-16

    To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Population-based cross-sectional study. South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) µg/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1 h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) µg/L, and for those exposed for more than 1 h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) µg/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1 h and more exposed group, and the 1 h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50 µg/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. High concentrations of lead and barium in hair of the rural population caused by water pollution in the Thar Jath oilfields in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz; Stieglitz, Klaus; Runge, Hella; Runow, Klaus-Dietrich; Quig, David; Osborne, Robert; Runge, Christian; Ariki, John

    2017-05-01

    In the oil fields of Thar Jath, South Sudan, increasing salinity of drinking water was observed together with human incompatibilities and rise in livestock mortalities. Hair analysis was used to characterize the toxic exposure of the population. Hair samples of volunteers from four communities with different distance from the center of the oil field (Koch 23km, n=24; Leer 50km, n=26; Nyal 110km, n=21; and Rumbek 220km, n=25) were analyzed for altogether 39 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Very high concentrations and a toxic health endangerment were assessed for lead and barium. The concentration of lead increased steadily with decreasing distance from the oil field from Rumbek (mean 2.8μg/g) to Koch (mean 18.7μg/g) and was there in the same range as in highly contaminated mining regions in Kosovo, China or Bolivia. The weighting materials in drilling muds barite (BaSO 4 ) and galena (PbS) were considered to be the sources of drinking water pollution and high hair values. The high concentrations of lead and barium in hair demonstrate clearly the health risk caused by harmful deposition of toxic industrial waste but cannot be used for diagnosis of a chronic intoxication of the individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined micro-droplet and thin-film-assisted pre-concentration of lead traces for on-line monitoring using anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotsky, Inessa; Gridin, Vladimir V; Schechter, Israel; Yarnitzky, Chaim N

    2003-02-01

    An improved analytical method for airborne lead traces is reported. It is based on using a Venturi scrubber sampling device for simultaneous thin-film stripping and droplet entrapment of aerosol influxes. At least threefold enhancement of the lead-trace pre-concentration is achieved. The sampled traces are analyzed by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method was tested by a series of pilot experiments. These were performed using contaminant-controlled air intakes. Reproducible calibration plots were obtained. The data were validated by traditional analysis using filter sampling. LODs are comparable with the conventional techniques. The method was successfully applied to on-line and in situ environmental monitoring of lead.

  9. Combined micro-droplet and thin-film-assisted pre-concentration of lead traces for on-line monitoring using anodic stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belostotsky, Inessa; Gridin, Vladimir V.; Schechter, Israel; Yarnitzky, Chaim N. [Department of Chemistry, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 32000, Haifa (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    An improved analytical method for airborne lead traces is reported. It is based on using a Venturi scrubber sampling device for simultaneous thin-film stripping and droplet entrapment of aerosol influxes. At least threefold enhancement of the lead-trace pre-concentration is achieved. The sampled traces are analyzed by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method was tested by a series of pilot experiments. These were performed using contaminant-controlled air intakes. Reproducible calibration plots were obtained. The data were validated by traditional analysis using filter sampling. LODs are comparable with the conventional techniques. The method was successfully applied to on-line and in situ environmental monitoring of lead. (orig.)

  10. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an

  11. SU-F-T-239: Evaluation of Plastic Scintillator Light Output for Various Lead Doping Concentrations: Towards LET Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusrat, H; Pang, G; Sarfehnia, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work seeks to develop a beam quality meter using multiple differently doped plastic scintillators that are thus intrinsically beam-quality dependent. Plastic scintillators spontaneously emit visible light upon irradiation; the amount of light produced is dependent on stopping power (closely related to LET) according to Birks’ law. Doping plastic scintillators can be used to tune their sensitivity to specific LET ranges. Methods: GEANT4.10.1 Monte Carlo (MC) was used to evaluate the response of various scintillator dopant combinations. MC radiation transport and scintillator light response were validated against previously published literature. Current work involves evaluating detector response experimentally; to that end, a detector prototype with interchangeable scintillator housing was constructed. Measurement set-up guides light emitted by the scintillator to a photomultiplier tube via a glass taper junction coupled to an optical fiber. The resulting signal is measured by an electrometer, and normalized to dose readout from a diode. Measurements have been done using clinical electron and orthovoltage beams. MC response (simulated scintillator light normalized to dose scored inside the scintillating volume) was evaluated for four different LET radiations for an undoped and 1%Pb doped scintillator (σ=0.85%). Simulated incident electrons included: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 6, 12, and 18 MeV; these energies correspond to a range of stopping power (related to LET) values ranging from 1.824 to 11.09 MeVcm"2g"−"1 (SCOL from NIST-ESTAR). Results: Initial MC results show a distinct divergence in scintillator response as LET increases. The response for undoped plastic scintillator indicated a 35.0% increase in signal when going from 18 MeV (low LET) to 0.05 MeV (high LET) while 1%-Pb doped scintillator indicated a 100.9% increase. Conclusion: After validating MC against measurement, simulations will be used to test various concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%) of different

  12. SU-F-T-239: Evaluation of Plastic Scintillator Light Output for Various Lead Doping Concentrations: Towards LET Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusrat, H [Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pang, G; Sarfehnia, A [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work seeks to develop a beam quality meter using multiple differently doped plastic scintillators that are thus intrinsically beam-quality dependent. Plastic scintillators spontaneously emit visible light upon irradiation; the amount of light produced is dependent on stopping power (closely related to LET) according to Birks’ law. Doping plastic scintillators can be used to tune their sensitivity to specific LET ranges. Methods: GEANT4.10.1 Monte Carlo (MC) was used to evaluate the response of various scintillator dopant combinations. MC radiation transport and scintillator light response were validated against previously published literature. Current work involves evaluating detector response experimentally; to that end, a detector prototype with interchangeable scintillator housing was constructed. Measurement set-up guides light emitted by the scintillator to a photomultiplier tube via a glass taper junction coupled to an optical fiber. The resulting signal is measured by an electrometer, and normalized to dose readout from a diode. Measurements have been done using clinical electron and orthovoltage beams. MC response (simulated scintillator light normalized to dose scored inside the scintillating volume) was evaluated for four different LET radiations for an undoped and 1%Pb doped scintillator (σ=0.85%). Simulated incident electrons included: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 6, 12, and 18 MeV; these energies correspond to a range of stopping power (related to LET) values ranging from 1.824 to 11.09 MeVcm{sup 2}g{sup −1} (SCOL from NIST-ESTAR). Results: Initial MC results show a distinct divergence in scintillator response as LET increases. The response for undoped plastic scintillator indicated a 35.0% increase in signal when going from 18 MeV (low LET) to 0.05 MeV (high LET) while 1%-Pb doped scintillator indicated a 100.9% increase. Conclusion: After validating MC against measurement, simulations will be used to test various concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%) of

  13. A new insight to adsorption and accumulation of high lead concentration by exopolymer and whole cells of lead-resistant bacterium Acinetobacter junii L. Pb1 isolated from coal mine dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Anamika; Rani, Radha; Kumar, Sanjay; Thomas, Tarence; David, Arun Alfred; Ahmed, Meraz

    2017-04-01

    A lead-resistant bacterial strain was isolated from coal mine dump and identified as Acinetobacter junii Pb1 on basis of 16S rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) gene sequencing. The minimum inhibitory concentration of lead for the strain was 16,000 mg l -1 and it showed antibiotic and multi metal resistance. In aqueous culture, at an initial lead (Pb(II)) concentration of 100 and 500 mg l -1 , lead adsorption and accumulation by the isolate was 100 and 60%, at pH 7 at 30 °C after 48 and 120 h, respectively. The two fractions of exopolysaccharide (EPS), loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bound EPS (bEPS), and whole cells (devoid of EPS) showed high binding affinity towards Pb(II). The binding affinity of laEPS towards Pb(II) (1071 mg Pb g -1 ) was three times higher than that of bEPS (321.5 mg Pb g -1 ) and 6.5 times higher than that of whole cells (165 mg Pb g -1 ). The binding affinity of EPS and whole cells with Pb(II), reported in the current study, is considerably higher as compared to that reported in the literature, till date. SEM analysis, showed an increase in thickness of cells on exposure to Pb(II) and TEM analysis, revealed its accumulation (interior of cell) and its adsorption (with the external cell surface). The isolate was also found to be positive for indole acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase production which helps in promoting plant growth. Thus, this study provides a new understanding towards Pb(II) uptake by A. junii Pb1, highlighting its potential on the restoration of Pb(II) contaminated repositories.

  14. Predictors of cadmium and lead concentrations in the blood of residents from the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Karavoltsos, Sotirios; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Dedoussis, George; Chrysohoou, Christina; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Cd and Pb blood contents of healthy adult subjects who are non-occupationally exposed and living in the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece) have not been assessed thus far. Additionally, Greeks rank first among EU27 in terms of smoking habits. To fill the existing gap, we aimed to evaluate the predictors and propose reference values (RVs) of the Cd (CdB) and Pb (PbB) blood concentrations in residents of the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece). Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, educational status and nutritional habits were used as variables, with an emphasis on smoking. CdB and PbB determinations were performed directly by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the appropriate dilution of the samples with Triton-X-100. The RVs of CdB and PbB proposed for the general adult population of the Metropolitan area of Athens, Greece (upper limit of the 95% CI of the 95th percentile of the distribution of values), were 2.3 and 88 μg L"− "1 (P95: 1.8 and 77 μg L"− "1; 95% CI (P95): 1.5–2.3 and 70–88 μg L"− "1), respectively. Males had a higher median CdB (0.69 μg L"− "1) than females (0.55 μg L"− "1). Subjects aged < 40 years had a lower median CdB (0.51 μg L"− "1) than the elderly (≥ 60 years; 0.60 μg L"− "1). The CdB in smokers (1.2 μg L"− "1) was almost threefold higher than in non-smokers (0.46 μg L"− "1). The PbB levels were higher in males (31 μg L"− "1) than females (20 μg L"− "1). Subjects aged < 40 years had a lower median PbB (17 μg L"− "1) than the elderly (≥ 60 years; 32 μg L"− "1). A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the predictor variables for the CdB levels were the standardized beta weight, smoking, age, alcohol consumption, and intake of leafy vegetables, whereas for the PbB levels they were sex and age. - Highlights: • Data on toxic metals levels in blood of Athens population are limited • Reference values for Cd and Pb in whole blood were 2.3 and 88

  15. Predictors of cadmium and lead concentrations in the blood of residents from the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini, E-mail: esakel@chem.uoa.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Division III, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, Zografou, Panepistimiopolis, 157 84 Athens (Greece); Karavoltsos, Sotirios [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Division III, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, Zografou, Panepistimiopolis, 157 84 Athens (Greece); Kalogeropoulos, Nick [Harokopio University, Department of Nutrition Science and Dietetics, Laboratory of Chemistry-Biochemistry-Physical Chemistry of Foods, 176 71 Athens (Greece); Theodorou, Dimitrios [School of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechneiou 9, Athens 15780 (Greece); Dedoussis, George [Harokopio University, Department of Nutrition Science and Dietetics, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, 176 71 Athens (Greece); Chrysohoou, Christina [First Cardiology Clinic, Hippokration Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Division III, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, Zografou, Panepistimiopolis, 157 84 Athens (Greece)

    2016-10-15

    The Cd and Pb blood contents of healthy adult subjects who are non-occupationally exposed and living in the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece) have not been assessed thus far. Additionally, Greeks rank first among EU27 in terms of smoking habits. To fill the existing gap, we aimed to evaluate the predictors and propose reference values (RVs) of the Cd (CdB) and Pb (PbB) blood concentrations in residents of the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece). Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, educational status and nutritional habits were used as variables, with an emphasis on smoking. CdB and PbB determinations were performed directly by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the appropriate dilution of the samples with Triton-X-100. The RVs of CdB and PbB proposed for the general adult population of the Metropolitan area of Athens, Greece (upper limit of the 95% CI of the 95th percentile of the distribution of values), were 2.3 and 88 μg L{sup −} {sup 1} (P95: 1.8 and 77 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}; 95% CI (P95): 1.5–2.3 and 70–88 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}), respectively. Males had a higher median CdB (0.69 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}) than females (0.55 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}). Subjects aged < 40 years had a lower median CdB (0.51 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}) than the elderly (≥ 60 years; 0.60 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}). The CdB in smokers (1.2 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}) was almost threefold higher than in non-smokers (0.46 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}). The PbB levels were higher in males (31 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}) than females (20 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}). Subjects aged < 40 years had a lower median PbB (17 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}) than the elderly (≥ 60 years; 32 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}). A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the predictor variables for the CdB levels were the standardized beta weight, smoking, age, alcohol consumption, and intake of leafy vegetables, whereas for the PbB levels they were sex and age. - Highlights: • Data on

  16. Development and optimization of a nuclear method to determine the lead concentration as an ultra-trace element in ultra-pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amara, A.; Giovagnoli, A.; Barrandon, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Here we intend to perfect a nuclear analytical technique for the determination of lead concentration as an ultra-trace element in ultra-pure water Inmost cases the analysis of an aqueous solution is made by non-nuclear methods, therefore methods which are sensitive to the chemical form of the element to be determined. To ovoid this problem we developed a nuclear technique using a cyclotron,which allows the determination of the lead concentration in any of its chemical forms. We studied the possibilities of several incident beams, like neutral particles and charged particles. Proton activation showed to be the most sensitive of all the irradiation procedures. Several points have though be studied and developed: - an irradiation cell for liquids irradiation under a strong proton current; - the bismuth chemical separation. This element has two radio-isotopes allowing the determination of lead;-optimize the experimental irradiation and measurements parameters in order to reach the lower detection limit. At last an intercomparison of several techniques has been made for different standards. It clearly showed that, contrary to atomic,potentiometric or mass spectrometry methods,only activation technique give accurate and reproducible results. (author).1 fig., 2 tabs., 4 refs

  17. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  18. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  19. Differential changes in serum uric acid concentrations in sibutramine promoted weight loss in diabetes: results from four weeks of the lead-in period of the SCOUT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Brendorp, Bente

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated levels of serum uric acid are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The response of uric acid to weight loss therapy (lifestyle plus sibutramine) in an overweight and obese cardiovascular high risk population was studied....... METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from a four week single-blind lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) study were analyzed. 2584 patients (24%) had diabetes mellitus (DM) only, 1748 (16%) had cardiovascular disease (CVD) only and 6397 (60%) had both DM + CVD. Uric acid concentrations...... significantly more in patients without DM (p sibutramine induced lower uric acid levels...

  20. Determination of the Lead, Cadmium, and Chromium Concentration in Mineral Feeds and Supplements for Cattle Produced in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigarini, Keyla Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Adriana Paiva; Martins, Daiane Lima; Brasil, Alexandre Silva; de Oliveira, Kamila Cristina; Villa, Ricardo Dalla

    2017-05-01

    This work aimed to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in mineral feeds and supplements for cattle produced in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Three different lots of nine mineral supplements and eleven mineral feeds were collected, and the samples were prepared by wet decomposition and quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.18 to 0.64 mg kg -1 and 0.54 to 1.94 mg kg -1 , respectively. Cr concentrations varied from lower than the LQI to 11.9 mg kg -1 , and all samples presented values below the maximum recommended by the National Research Council (NRC) and European Union (EU). Cd concentrations varied from lower than the LQI to 6.1 mg kg -1 , and 100 % of the mineral supplements and 60 % of the mineral feed showed Cd concentrations above the recommended by the EU (1.0 mg kg -1 ). Pb concentrations ranged from lower than the LQI to 33.1 mg kg -1 , and 100 % of the mineral supplements and 90 % of the mineral feed showed Pb concentrations above the recommended by the EU (5.0 mg kg -1 ). All samples presented values below the maximum recommended by the NRC for Cd and Pb (10 and 100 mg kg -1 , respectively). A large scatter of results was observed in the different samples for the three elements analyzed. This can be attributed to inhomogeneous impurity levels between batches of phosphate rocks used in the mineral feeds and supplements. A strict control of such mineral feeds and supplements should be implemented.

  1. Associations between soil lead concentrations and populations by race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2013-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (≤ 6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ≤ 6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils.

  2. High-Concentrate Diet-Induced Change of Cellular Metabolism Leads to Decreases of Immunity and Imbalance of Cellular Activities in Rumen Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyan Lu

    2018-03-01

    alterations of cellular metabolism promote the alterations in cellular immunity, repair, and homeostasis in the rumen epithelium, thereby leading to the switch of concentrate effects from positive to negative with regard to animal production and health.

  3. High-Concentrate Diet-Induced Change of Cellular Metabolism Leads to Decreases of Immunity and Imbalance of Cellular Activities in Rumen Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyan; Shen, Hong; Shen, Zanming

    2018-01-01

    immunity, repair, and homeostasis in the rumen epithelium, thereby leading to the switch of concentrate effects from positive to negative with regard to animal production and health. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in plaster and mortar from structures in Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri (Tri-State Mining District)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Phyllis M [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Pavlik, Jeffrey W [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Sheets, Ralph W [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Biagioni, Richard N [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States)

    2005-01-05

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate anecdotal evidence that within Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri, two counties within the Tri-State Mining District, granular mine tailings were commonly used in place of river sands in wall plasters and mortar. Interior wall plaster and mortar samples from structures in this mining district were analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and compared to samples from Springfield, MO (comparison site). The Jasper and Newton County samples showed elevated concentrations of the three elements, consistent with the inclusion of mine tailings, with a number of samples containing lead and cadmium at concentrations greater than EPA remediation targets for yard soil. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of the zinc ore minerals, sphalerite and hemimorphite, in high level samples. Thin section optical studies identified the major component of the aggregate as chert, a mineral abundant within the tailing piles. Because dust from crumbling plaster and mortar could represent an avenue for significant heavy metal exposure to building occupants, we suggest that there may be associated health consequences that should be further evaluated.

  5. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in plaster and mortar from structures in Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri (Tri-State Mining District)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, Phyllis M.; Pavlik, Jeffrey W.; Sheets, Ralph W.; Biagioni, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate anecdotal evidence that within Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri, two counties within the Tri-State Mining District, granular mine tailings were commonly used in place of river sands in wall plasters and mortar. Interior wall plaster and mortar samples from structures in this mining district were analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and compared to samples from Springfield, MO (comparison site). The Jasper and Newton County samples showed elevated concentrations of the three elements, consistent with the inclusion of mine tailings, with a number of samples containing lead and cadmium at concentrations greater than EPA remediation targets for yard soil. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of the zinc ore minerals, sphalerite and hemimorphite, in high level samples. Thin section optical studies identified the major component of the aggregate as chert, a mineral abundant within the tailing piles. Because dust from crumbling plaster and mortar could represent an avenue for significant heavy metal exposure to building occupants, we suggest that there may be associated health consequences that should be further evaluated

  6. Lead in blood and eggs of the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from the Eastern Pacific: Concentration, isotopic composition and maternal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Calderon-Campuzano, M.F.; Soto-Jimenez, M.F.; Ruelas-Inzunza, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of lead were assessed in the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from a nesting colony of the Eastern Pacific. Twenty-five female turtles were sampled and a total of 250 eggs were collected during the 'arribada' event of the 2005-2006 season. Considering the nesting season, the maternal transfer of lead (Pb) via egg-laying, in terms of metal burden in whole body, was 0.5%. Pb concentrations (in dry weight) in blood (0.95 ± 0.18 μg g -1 ) and egg samples (yolk, 0.80 ± 0.10 μg g -1 ; albumen, 1.08 ± 0.20 μg g -1 ; eggshell, 1.05 ± 0.20 μg g -1 ) were comparable or even lower than those found in other sea turtles. The isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb) in blood (1.183 ± 0.0006 and 2.452 ± 0.0006, respectively) were comparable to that of natural Pb-bearing bedrock in Mexico (1.188 ± 0.005 and 2.455 ± 0.008, respectively). According to international norms of Pb, the health of this population and its habitats is acceptable for Pb and corresponds to basic levels of a nearly pristine environment.

  7. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  8. Factors affecting the simultaneous determination of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in human head hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of analysis of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc content in human hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) have been established. Sample digestion using using the mixture HCI; H 2 O 2 ;HNO 3 in the ratio 2:1:40 by volume gave the best wet-ashing procedure. The peak currents and peak potentials of zinc, cadmium and lead, copper were maximum at pH 6-7 and 1-3 respectively, when excess H 2 O 2 was eliminated with subsequent addition of hydroxyamine hydrochloride. Matrix concentration effects were minimized by digesting weights not exceeding 50 mg per sample. The effect of selenium (IV) was negligible and was ignored. The detection limit of 0.0036 ng/cm 3 for Cd + 2 was obtained while the values for zinc, lead and copper were 0.0230, 0.0287 and 0.0269 ng/cm 3 respectively at the 95% confidence limit. The observed DPASV condition of analysis of these metals are useful for routine determination of the metals in human hair and should complement the conventional flame absorption spectrophotometry method. (author)

  9. Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Pat E. [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Levesque, Christine [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H. David [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Jones-Otazo, Heather [Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada, 180 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 3L7 (Canada); Petrovic, Sanya [Contaminated Sites Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g{sup −1}) and metal loadings (μg m{sup −2}) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for dust and μg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 580) were significantly lower (p < .001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p < .003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29 ≥ p ≤ .97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005 ≥ p ≤ .038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15 ≥ p ≤ .97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p < .001) but not for the other four metals (.14 ≥ p ≤ .87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p < .001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p < .001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust – concentration, load, and loading rate – in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates

  10. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  11. Design and realization of the AMANDA software trigger for the TWA data readout system; Entwurf und Realisierung des AMANDA-Softwaretriggers fuer das TWR-Datenauslese-System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messarius, Timo

    2006-07-15

    The thesis begins with a short introduction in the theory of astroparticle physics. Especially the processes, which lead to signal respectively background events in neutrino detectors, are discussed. Thereafter follows the descripotion of the basing detection principle and the detectors AMANDA and IceCube. The following chapter considers the two data-acquisition systems of the AMANDA detector and explains the motivation for the construction of a new data-acquisition system. The newly designed trigger system is then extensively treated. First a completely on software basing system is discussed, and then the implemented version is considered more detailedly. A procedure to detect and to mark events from atmospheric muons directly on trigger level is presented.

  12. Interactions between cadmium and lead with acidic soils: Experimental evidence of similar adsorption patterns for a wide range of metal concentrations and the implications of metal migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, O.S.; Probst, A.; Leviel, E.; Liao, B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adsorption experiments of Cd and Pb in acid soils (China, France). ► Large pH conditions and large range of metal concentrations were considered. ► Similar dependencies between metals concentration in solution and metal adsorbed on the surface were predicted using Langmuir and Freundlich equations and surface complexation model (SCM). ► No competition between Cd and Pb detected at pH 5. ► Metal adsorption capacity is two orders of magnitude higher than limit value for soil protection. - Abstract: The importance of high- and low-affinity surface sites for cadmium and lead adsorption in typical European and Asian soils was investigated. Adsorption experiments on surface and deep horizons of acidic brown (Vosges, France) and red loess soils (Hunan, China) were performed at 25 °C as a function of the pH (3.5–8) and a large range of metal concentrations in solution (10 −9 –10 −4 mol l −1 ). We studied the adsorption kinetics using a Cd 2+ -selective electrode and desorption experiments as a function of the solid/solution ratio and pH. At a constant solution pH, all samples exhibited similar maximal adsorption capacities (4.0 ± 0.5 μmol/g Cd and 20 ± 2 μmol/g Pb). A constant slope of adsorbed–dissolved concentration dependence was valid over 5 orders of magnitude of metal concentrations. Universal Langmuir and Freundlich equations and the SCM formalism described the adsorption isotherms and the pH-dependent adsorption edge over very broad ranges of metal concentrations, indicating no high- or low-affinity sites for metal binding at the soil surface under these experimental conditions. At pH 5, Cd and Pb did not compete, in accordance with the SCM. The metal adsorption ability exceeded the value for soil protection by two orders of magnitude, but only critical load guarantees soil protection since metal toxicity depends on metal availability.

  13. Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, J.L., E-mail: ppmasb@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, EPS, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Villa, M. [Servicio de Radioisotopos, Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, ETS de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Hurtado, S. [Servicio de Radioisotopos, Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, ETS de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polluted sediment and NORM samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient yet fast process allowing multi-parametric determinations in <3 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace element concentrations, Pb, Th and U isotope ratios with a single instrument. - Abstract: This work focuses on the monitoring of the potential pollution in scenarios that involve NORM-related industrial activities (environmental or in-door scenarios). The objective was to develop a method to determine extent and origin of the contamination, suitable for monitoring (i.e. simple, fast and economical) and avoiding the use of too many different instruments. It is presented a radiochemical method that allows the determination of trace element concentrations and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb/{sup 208}Pb, {sup 238}U/{sup 234}U and {sup 232}Th/{sup 230}Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA{sup Registered-Sign} extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area.

  14. The intake of water containing a mix of pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to defensive response deficit in male C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; de Faria, Denise Braga Gomes; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Estrela, Fernanda Neves; Chagas, Thales Quintão; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2018-07-01

    Previous studies have individually confirmed the toxic effects from different pollutants on mammals. However, effects resulting from the exposure of these animals to multi-pollutant mixes have not been studied so far. Thus, the aim of the current study is to assess the effect from the chronic exposure (105days) of C57Bl/6J mice to a mix of pollutants on their response to potential predators. In order to do so, the following groups were formed: "control", "Mix 1× [compounds from 15 pollutants identified in surface waters at environmentally relevant concentration (ERC)]", "Mix 10×" and "Mix 25×" (concentrations 10 and 25 times higher than the ERC). From the 100th experimental day on, the animals were subjected to tests in order to investigate whether they showed locomotor, visual, olfactory and auditory changes, since these abilities are essential to their anti-predatory behavior. Next, the animals' behavior towards potential predators (Felis catus and Pantherophis guttatus) was assessed. The herein collected data did not show defensive response from any of the experimental groups to the predatory stimulus provided by P. guttatus. However, the control animals, only, presented anti-predatory behavior when F. catus was introduced in the apparatus, fact that suggests defensive response deficit resulting from the treatments. Thus, the current study is pioneer in showing that the chronic intake of water containing a mix of pollutants (even at low concentrations) leads to behavioral disorders able to affect the survival and population dynamics of mammalian species at ecological level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of thermal conductivity for liquid lead lithium alloys at various Li concentrations based on measurement and evaluation of density, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi, E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nr.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Nakajima, Yuu; Tsuji, Mitsuyo [Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Nozawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasyo-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: Thermal diffusivities and thermal conductivities of liquid Pb–Li alloys (Pb–5Li, Pb–11Li and Pb–17Li). - Highlights: • The densities and specific heats of liquid Pb–Li alloys are evaluated based on the previous studies, and mathematically expressed in the equations with the functions of temperature and Li concentration. • The thermal diffusivities of liquid Pb–Li alloys (i.e., Pb–5Li, Pb–11Li and Pb–17Li) are obtained by laser flash method, and mathematically expressed in the equations with the functions of temperature and Li concentration. • The thermal conductivities of liquid Pb–Li alloys were evaluated and mathematically expressed in the equations with the functions of temperature and Li concentration. - Abstract: The thermophysical properties of lead lithium alloy (Pb–Li) are essential for the design of liquid Pb–Li blanket system. The purpose of the present study is to make clear the density, the thermal diffusivity and the heat conductivity of the alloys as functions of temperature and Li concentration. The densities of the solid alloys were measured by means of the Archimedean method. The densities of the alloys at 300 K as a function of Li concentration (0 at% < χ{sub Li} < 28 at%) were obtained in the equation as ρ{sub (300} {sub K)} [g/cm{sup 3}] = −6.02 × 10{sup −2} × χ{sub Li} + 11.3. The density of the liquid alloys was formulated as functions of temperature and Li concentration (0 at% < χ{sub Li} < 30 at%), and expressed in the equation as ρ [g/cm{sup 3}] = (9.00 × 10{sup −6} × T − 7.01 × 10{sup −2}) × χ{sub Li} + 11.4 − 1.19 × 10{sup −3}T. The thermal diffusivity of Pb, Pb–5Li, Pb–11Li and Pb–17Li were measured by means of laser flash method. The thermal diffusivity of Pb–17Li was obtained in the equation as α{sub Pb–17Li} [cm{sup 2}/s] = 3.46 × 10{sup −4}T + 1.05 × 10{sup −1} for the temperature range between 573 K and 773 K. The thermal conductivity of

  16. Progress on the development of H-concentration probes in eutectic lead-lithium: Synthesis and characterization of electrochemical sensor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llivina, L.; Colominas, S. [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Reyes, G. [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Industrial Engineering Department, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Abella, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.es [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Dynamic tritium concentration measurement in lithium-lead eutectic (17% Li-83% Pb) is of major interest for a reliable tritium testing program in ITER TBM and for an experimental proof of tritium self-sufficiency in liquid metal breeding systems. Potentiometric hydrogen sensors for molten lithium-lead eutectic have been designed at the Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS) at Barcelona and are under development and qualification. The probes are based on the use of solid state electrolytes and works as Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM). In this work, the following compounds have been synthesized in order to be tested as PEM H-probes: BaCeO{sub 3}, BaCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}}, SrCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Sr(Ce{sub 0.9}-Zr{sub 0.1}){sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{delta}}. Potentiometric measurements of the synthesized ceramic elements have been performed at different hydrogen concentrations at 500 Degree-Sign C. In this campaign, a fixed and known hydrogen pressure has been used in the reference electrode. The sensors constructed using the proton conductor elements BaCeO{sub 3}, SrCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Sr(Ce{sub 0.9}-Zr{sub 0.1}){sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{delta}} exhibited quite stable output potential and its value was quite close to the theoretical value calculated with the Nernst equation (deviation less than 100 mV). Unstable measurement was obtained using BaCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a solid state electrolyte in the sensor.

  17. Repeat exposure to ciguatoxin leads to enhanced and sustained thermoregulatory, pain threshold and motor activity responses in mice: relationship to blood ciguatoxin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottein Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine; Rezvani, Amir H; Gordon, Christopher J; Levin, Edward D; Ramsdell, John S

    2008-04-03

    Ciguatera is a common illness in tropical and subtropical regions that manifests in complex and long-lived symptoms which are more severe in subsequent exposures. This study measures central and peripheral neurologic signs, in parallel with blood toxin levels, in mice exposed once or twice (at 3 days interval) to a sublethal dose of ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 (0.26ng/g via i.p.). Mice were implanted with radiotransmitters to monitor motor activity and core temperature. A single exposure to ciguatoxin elicited an immediate and transient decrease in motor activity and temperature, and subsequent long-lasting thermoregulatory dysfunction resulting in stabilized body temperature around 36.0 degrees C with no observable circadian rhythm. The hypothermic response and the reduced activity were enhanced with a second exposure with 30% of the mice dying within 7h. Measurement of the peripheral nervous system by the tail flick assay revealed increased latency with a single ciguatoxin exposure, and a greater effect following the second exposure. Toxin was measurable in blood up to 3 days following the first exposure; at the 1h time point the concentrations were significantly elevated after a second exposure. These findings indicate an early response to ciguatoxin manifest in a central response to lower body temperature and reduce motor activity and a more persistent effect on the peripheral system leading to spinal heat antinociception and delayed fever-like response. The greater neurological response to a second ciguatoxin exposure was associated with elevated concentrations of ciguatoxin in the blood solely over the first hour of exposure. In conclusion, a single exposure to toxin exerts a significant neurological response which may be enhanced with subsequent exposure.

  18. Separation and Pre-concentration of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc by Solid-Liquid Extraction of their Cocrystallized Naphthalene Dithizone Chelate in Saline Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Antônio C. Spínola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for separation and pre-concentration of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in brine samples has been proposed. It is based on the adsorption of metal ions onto dithizone co-crystallized with microcrystalline naphthalene, in the pH range 8.5-9.1. Nitric acid is used to back-extract the cations from the solid phase, which are measured by ICP-OES. Various parameters, such as the effect of pH, stirring time, and amounts of solid phase, have been studied in detail, to optimize the conditions for the determination of trace amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in synthetic brine samples. The limits of detection values expressed in mug L-1 are 44 (Zn, 11 (Ni, 30 (Cd, 47 (Pb and 11 (Cu. The precision of the procedure was determined by running 10 replicate samples, each one containing 250 mug L-1 of each element and the relative standard deviations were 2.71 % (Cd, 2.15 % (Cu, 1.53 % (Pb, 2.47 % (Ni, and 2.78 % (Zn. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by applying the analyte additions method and the results indicated that quantitative recoveries (superscript three 95 % were obtained.

  19. Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, J.L.; Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polluted sediment and NORM samples. ► An efficient yet fast process allowing multi-parametric determinations in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb/ 208 Pb, 238 U/ 234 U and 232 Th/ 230 Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA ® extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area.

  20. Differential changes in serum uric acid concentrations in sibutramine promoted weight loss in diabetes: results from four weeks of the lead-in period of the SCOUT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterson Ian D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Elevated levels of serum uric acid are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The response of uric acid to weight loss therapy (lifestyle plus sibutramine in an overweight and obese cardiovascular high risk population was studied. Methods and results Data from a four week single-blind lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT study were analyzed. 2584 patients (24% had diabetes mellitus (DM only, 1748 (16% had cardiovascular disease (CVD only and 6397 (60% had both DM + CVD. Uric acid concentrations (mean ± standard deviation at screening were significantly higher among patients with CVD compared to patients without CVD (p Conclusion A four week daily intake of sibutramine and life style changes was associated with significant reductions in mean uric acid levels. Changes in renal glucose load in diabetes seem to counteract a potential uricosuric effect of sibutramine. Trial Registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov number: NCT00234832.

  1. Comparative analysis of concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk, as well as persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in maternal milk samples from Germany and Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanmardi, F.

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood and breast milk has been studied. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury was determined using the flow-injection hydride technique. According to the concentrations of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons we ascertained for the region of Rendsburg, the toxic risk for infants relative to the consumption of contaminated maternal milk can be viewed as very slight. (orig.) [de

  2. Blood erythrocyte concentrations of cadmium and lead and the risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma: a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are hypothesised to be risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, a group of haematological malignancies with a suspected environmental aetiology. Within the EnviroGenoMarkers study we utilised pre-diagnostic erythrocyte concentrations of Cd and Pb to determine whether exposure was associated with risk of B-cell NHL and multiple myeloma. METHODS: 194 incident cases of B-cell NHL and 76 cases of multiple myeloma diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were identified from two existing cohorts; EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Cases were matched to healthy controls by centre, age, gender and date of blood collection. Cd and Pb were measured in blood samples provided at recruitment using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association with risk. Analyses were stratified by cohort and gender and by subtype where possible. RESULTS: There was little evidence of an increased risk of B-cell NHL or multiple myeloma with exposure to Cd (B-cell NHL: OR 1.09 95%CI 0.61, 1.93, MM: OR 1.16 95% CI: 0.40, 3.40 or Pb (B-cell NHL: 0.93 95% CI 0.43, 2.02, multiple myeloma: OR 1.63 95%CI 0.45, 5.94 in the total population when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of exposure. However, gender and cohort specific differences in results were observed. In females the risk of B-cell NHL was more than doubled in those with a body burden of Cd >1 µg/L (OR 2.20 95%CI; 1.04, 4.65. CONCLUSIONS: This nested case-control study does not support a consistent positive association between Cd or Pb and NHL, but there is some indication of a gender specific effect suggesting further research is warranted.

  3. Investigation of the isotopic composition of lead and of trace elements concentrations in natural uranium materials as a signature in nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedkauskaite-LeGore, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania); Mayer, K.; Millet, S.; Nicholl, A.; Rasmussen, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Baltrunas, D. [Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2007-07-01

    Lead is contained as trace element in uranium ores and propagates throughout the production process to intermediate products like yellow cake or uranium oxide. The lead isotopes in such material originate from two sources: natural lead and radiogenic lead. The variability of the isotopic composition of lead in ores and yellow cakes was studied and the applicability of this parameter for nuclear forensic investigations was investigated. Furthermore, the chemical impurities contained in these materials were measured in order to identify characteristic differences between materials from different mines. For the samples investigated, it could be shown, that the lead isotopic composition varies largely from mine to mine and it may be used as one of the parameters to distinguish between materials of different origins. Some of the chemical impurities show a similar pattern and support the conclusions drawn from the lead isotope data. (orig.)

  4. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  5. Lead concentration distribution and source tracing of urban/suburban aquatic sediments in two typical famous tourist cities: Haikou and Sanya, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhicheng; Bao, Zhengyu; Wu, Guoai; Fu, Yangrong; Yang, Yi

    2010-11-01

    The content and spatial distribution of lead in the aquatic systems in two Chinese tropical cities in Hainan province (Haikou and Sanyan) show an unequal distribution of lead between the urban and the suburban areas. The lead content is significantly higher (72.3 mg/kg) in the urban area than the suburbs (15.0 mg/kg) in Haikou, but quite equal in Sanya (41.6 and 43.9 mg/kg). The frequency distribution histograms suggest that the lead in Haikou and in Sanya derives from different natural and/or anthropogenic sources. The isotopic compositions indicate that urban sediment lead in Haikou originates mainly from anthropogenic sources (automobile exhaust, atmospheric deposition, etc.) which contribute much more than the natural sources, while natural lead (basalt and sea sands) is still dominant in the suburban areas in Haikou. In Sanya, the primary source is natural (soils and sea sands).

  6. Impact of soil properties on critical concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, and mercury in soil and soil solution in view of ecotoxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Wim; Lofts, Steve; Tipping, Ed; Meili, Markus; Groenenberg, Jan E; Schütze, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment for metals in terrestrial ecosystems, including assessments of critical loads, requires appropriate critical limits for metal concentrations in soil and soil solution. This chapter presents an overview of methodologies used to derive critical (i) reactive and total metal concentrations in soils and (ii) free metal ion and total metal concentrations in soil solution for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg, taking into account the effect of soil properties related to ecotoxicological effects. Most emphasis is given to the derivation of critical free and total metal concentrations in soil solution, using available NOEC soil data and transfer functions relating solid-phase and dissolved metal concentrations. This approach is based on the assumption that impacts on test organisms (plants, microorganisms, and soil invertebrates) are mainly related to the soil solution concentration (activity) and not to the soil solid-phase content. Critical Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg concentrations in soil solution vary with pH and DOC level. The results obtained are generally comparable to those derived for surface waters based on impacts to aquatic organisms. Critical soil metal concentrations, related to the derived soil solution limits, can be described as a function of pH and organic matter and clay content, and varying about one order of magnitude between different soil types.

  7. IS THE MEAT OF WILD WATERFOWL FIT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION? PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF CADMIUM AND LEAD CONCENTRATION IN PECTORAL MUSCLES OF MALLARDS AND COOTS SHOT IN 2006 IN SOUTHERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Jakub Binkowski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of cadmium and lead in pectoral muscles of mallards (N = 15 and coots (N = 15 shot on fishponds in Zator area (southern Poland, Europe were determined with the graphite furnace AAS. Samples were dried and wet digested in the mixture of HNO3 and HClO4. Median concentration of cadmium was 0.0616 µg.g-1d.w. among mallards and 0.0868 µg.g-1d.w. among coots. Concentrations of lead were higher and median run to 0.1898 µg.g-1d.w. in mallards and to 0.2637 µg.g-1d.w. in coots. No differences in heavy metals concentrations between species were statistically significant. According to the thresholds for foodstuff given by European Commission, meat of all birds was edible in the aspect of cadmium concentration (only meat of one coot contained cadmium near the given border. In the aspect of lead, 26% of researched birds have concentration beyond the safety limit and their meat was not fit for human consumption. Considering the annually number of shot birds, any kind of monitoring must be planned to assess potential consumers’ safety.

  8. Analysis of Blood Concentrations of Zinc, Germanium, and Lead and Relevant Environmental Factors in a Population Sample from Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements, including zinc (Zn and germanium (Ge, are essential for health; deficiency or excess levels of trace elements results is harmful. As a result of industrial and agricultural production, Pb widely exists in people’s living environment. It is absorbed mainly through the respiratory and digestive tracts, producing systemic harm. Reference values for a normal, healthy population are necessary for health assessment, prevention and treatment of related diseases, and evaluation of occupational exposures. Reference ranges for the Chinese population have not been established. From March 2009 to February 2010; we collected data and blood samples (n = 1302 from residents aged 6–60 years living in Shandong Province, China. We measured blood concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine reference ranges. Results were stratified by factors likely to affect the concentrations of these trace elements: sex, use of cosmetics or hair dye, age, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and consumption of fried food. The overall geometric mean (GM concentrations (95% confidence interval were 3.14 (3.08–3.20 mg/L for Zn, 19.9 (19.3–20.6 μg/L for Ge, and 24.1 (23.2–25.1 μg/L for Pb. Blood Zn concentrations were higher in women than in men (p < 0.001, while the opposite was found for Pb (p < 0.001 and sex did not influence Ge (p = 0.095. Alcohol use was associated with higher blood concentrations of Zn (p = 0.002, Ge (p = 0.002, and Pb (p = 0.001. The GM concentration of Zn was highest in 20–30-year-olds (p < 0.001, while Pb concentrations were highest in 12–16-year-olds (p < 0.001. Use of hair dye was associated with lower blood concentrations of Ge (p < 0.05. GM blood concentrations of Pb differed significantly between those who consumed fried foods 1–2 times/month (18.7 μg/L, 1–2 times/week (20.9 μg/L, and every day (28.5 μg/L; p < 0.001. Blood Pb concentrations were higher in subjects

  9. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, G.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Cook, G.T.; Pulford, I.D.; Duncan, H.J.; Scott, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: → A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. → Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. → Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg -1 in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg -1 in 2010. → Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

  10. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jordi; Peig, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Borras, Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats

  11. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jordi [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jtorres@ub.edu; Peig, Jordi [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eira, Catarina [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Borras, Miquel [Unitat de Toxicologia Experimental i Ecotoxicologia. Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats.

  12. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  13. Tuning the relative concentration ratio of bulk defects to surface defects in TiO2 nanocrystals leads to high photocatalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ming; Li, Yuanzhi; Chen, Xiong; Tian, Tingting; Fang, Pengfei; Zheng, Feng; Zhao, Xiujian

    2011-10-19

    TiO(2) nanocrystals with tunable bulk/surface defects were synthesized and characterized with TEM, XRD, BET, positron annihilation, and photocurrent measurements. The effect of defects on photocatalytic activity was studied. It was found for the first time that decreasing the relative concentration ratio of bulk defects to surface defects in TiO(2) nanocrystals could significantly improve the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes, thus significantly enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency.

  14. Directional growth of Ag nanorod from polymeric silver cyanide: A potential substrate for concentration dependent SERS signal enhancement leading to melamine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anindita; Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Bhattacharya, Tara Shankar; Agarwal, Ratnesh; Pal, Tarasankar

    2017-08-01

    Attention has been directed to prepare exclusive one-dimensional silver nanostructure from the linear inorganic polymer AgCN. Successive color change from yellow to orange, to red and finally to green reflects the evolution of high yielding Ag nanorods (NRs) from well-known -[Ag-CN]- chains of polymeric AgCN at room temperature. The parental 1D morphology of AgCN is retained within the as-synthesized Ag NRs. So we could successfully exploit the Ag NR for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies for sensing a popular milk adulterant melamine down to picomolar level. We observed interesting concentration dependent selective SERS band enhancement of melamine. The enhanced 1327 cm- 1 SERS signal intensity at lower concentration (10- 9 and 10- 12 M) of melamine speaks for the preferential participation of -C-N of melamine molecule with Ag surface. On the other hand, '-NH2' group together with ring 'N' participation of melamine molecule onto Ag surface suggested an adsorptive stance at higher (10- 3-10- 7 M) concentration range. Thus the binding modes of the molecule at the Ag surface justify its fluxional behavior.

  15. Mapping airborne lead contamination near a metals smelter in Derbyshire, UK: spatial variation of Pb concentration and 'enrichment factor' for tree bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, D; Cox, A J; Staton, I; McLeod, C W; Satake, K

    2001-10-01

    Samples of tree bark, collected over an area of 4 km2 near a small non-ferrous metals smelter in Derbyshire, UK, were analysed for Pb and Al by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Analyte concentrations varied from 100 to over 25,000 mg kg-1 and 5 to 1000 mg kg-1, respectively. While an inverse relationship between the Pb content of bark and distance from the smelter was observed, concentrations fluctuated, indicating a variability in sample collection efficiency and problems in standardization. To overcome these effects, the Pb/Al ratio was calculated and subsequently normalized to the average Pb/Al ratio in continental crust (0.00015). On the assumption that the time-averaged concentration of airborne Al in this area is relatively constant and derived principally from wind-blown soil, the measurement represents an anthropogenic 'enrichment factor' (PbEF). PbEF varied from 10,000 to over 1,000,000, and showed a consistent reduction with distance from the smelter. Isolines of equal PbEF were subsequently defined on a map of the sampled area. Pb contamination was greatest in the vicinity of the smelter, and preferential transport along the NW-SE axis of the valley (in which the smelter is situated) was observed. The use of enrichment factors thus proved valuable in defining the relative level of airborne-derived Pb pollution.

  16. Environmental cadmium and lead concentrations in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina. Potential toxic effects of Cd and Pb on crab larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferrer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bahía Blanca Estuary includes a large tidal plain with an area close to 1150 km2. Mud is predominant in its sediments, where a significant population of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata lives during the whole year. Moreover, there are important urban and industrial discharges into this environment. Cd and Pb concentrations were determined in samples of water (for both dissolved and suspended particulate matter and surface sediments (total and 63 µm fractions. Organic matter was analysed in the sediments, while temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured in the estuarine water. The metal concentrations determined in this study were: 1.47 ± 1.08 µg Cd g–1 and 14.68 ± 4.31 µg Pb g–1 in surface sediments; 2.21 ± 1.33 µg Cd g–1 and 25.70 ± 7.09 µg Pb g–1 in the –1 and below the analytical detection limit of Pb in suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, dissolved Cd and Pb were lower than the norms for marine and estuarine waters (2 µg dm–3 for Cd and 5 µg dm–3 for Pb, E.P.A.. Simultaneously, the effects of Cd and Pb were studied on recently hatched larvae of Ch. granulata, through 96-hour semi-static acute assays. Viability was the criterion assessed in the assays. LC50 (96 h for Cd was 46.43 µg dm–3 (36.92 - 56.34 µg dm–3, whilst that for Pb was 1.00 mg m–3 (0.79 - 1.23 mg dm–3, which demonstrates that Cd is more toxic towards larvae. Finally, both LC50 values determined for Cd and Pb were higher than the corresponding metal concentrations measured in the Bahía Blanca environment.

  17. Development of a highly precise ID-ICP-SFMS method for analysis of low concentrations of lead in rice flour reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Inagaki, Kazumi; Yarita, Takashi; Chiba, Koichi

    2008-07-01

    Microwave digestion and isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-SFMS) has been applied to the determination of Pb in rice flour. In order to achieve highly precise determination of low concentrations of Pb, the digestion blank for Pb was reduced to 0.21 ng g(-1) after optimization of the digestion conditions, in which 20 mL analysis solution was obtained after digestion of 0.5 g rice flour. The observed value of Pb in a non-fat milk powder certified reference material (CRM), NIST SRM 1549, was 16.8 +/- 0.8 ng g(-1) (mean +/- expanded uncertainty, k = 2; n = 5), which agreed with the certified value of 19 +/- 3 ng g(-1) and indicated the effectiveness of the method. Analytical results for Pb in three brown rice flour CRMs, NIST SRM 1568a, NIES CRM 10-a, and NIES CRM 10-b, were 7.32 +/- 0.24 ng g(-1) (n = 5), 1010 +/- 10 ng g(-1) (n = 5), and 1250 +/- 20 ng g(-1) (n = 5), respectively. The concentration of Pb in a candidate white rice flour reference material (RM) sample prepared by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) was observed to be 4.36 +/- 0.28 ng g(-1) (n = 10 bottles).

  18. Dithizone-modified graphene oxide nano-sheet as a sorbent for pre-concentration and determination of cadmium and lead ions in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam Zadeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadvand, Parvaneh; Behbahani, Ali; Amini, Mostafa M; Sayar, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide nano-sheet was modified with dithizone as a novel sorbent for selective pre-concentration and determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in food. The sorbent was characterised by various analytical methods and the effective parameters for Cd(II) and Pb(II) adsorption were optimised during this work. The high adsorption capacity and selectivity of this sorbent makes the method capable of fast determinations of the Cd(II) and Pb(II) content in complicated matrices even at μg l(-1) levels using commonly available instrumentation. The precision of this method was < 1.9% from 10 duplicate determinations and its accuracy verified using standard reference materials. Finally, this method was applied to the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in common food samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  19. Extensive changes in innate immune gene expression in obese Göttingen minipigs do not lead to changes in concentrations of circulating cytokines and acute phase proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Moesgaard, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    not been studied in Göttingen minipigs. Therefore, we studied the expression of innate immune genes in liver and adipose tissues as well as serum concentrations of cytokines and acute phase proteins in obese vs. lean Göttingen minipigs. In the liver, of 35 investigated genes, the expression of nine...... was significantly different in obese pigs (three up-regulated, six down-regulated). Of 33 genes in adipose tissues, obesity was associated with changed expression of 12 genes in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (three up-regulated), 11 in the abdominal retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT) (seven of these up......-regulated) and eight in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the neck (five of which were up-regulated). Obesity-associated expression changes were observed for three genes in all adipose tissues, namely chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 1 (up-regulated), CD200 molecule (down-regulated) and interleukin 1...

  20. Elevation of serum insulin concentration during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies leads to similar activation of insulin receptor kinase in skeletal muscle of subjects with and without NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, H H; Vestergaard, H; Kotzke, G

    1995-01-01

    The role of skeletal muscle insulin receptor kinase in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated. Muscle biopsies from 13 patients with NIDDM and 10 control subjects at fasting serum insulin concentrations and approximately 1,000 pmol/l steady-state serum...... insulin during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were immediately frozen. The biopsies were then solubilized, and the receptors were immobilized to anti-insulin receptor antibody-coated microwells. Receptor kinase and binding activities were consecutively measured in these wells. The increase in serum...... and control groups, respectively). Moreover, by selecting only the receptors that bound to anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, we found similar hyperinsulinemia-induced increases of this receptor fraction and its kinase activity in both study groups. In vitro activation of the immobilized receptors with 2 mmol...

  1. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in edible molluscs from near the Cape of Good Hope: sources of variability in polonium-210 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, M.; Cherry, R.D.; Oschadleus, H.-D.; Cherry, M.I.; Sealy, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the natural radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb in mussels, squid and oysters from near the Cape of Good Hope are reported and compared with previously published 210 Po and 210 Pb data from Northern Hemisphere organisms in the same taxa. Emphasis is laid on discussing the causes of variability in the concentrations of 210 Po in marine organisms. No systematic evidence is found for a 'latitude' effect, but allometric effects, intertaxon differences, change of diet with animal size and regional effects are all significant for 210 Po. The consequences for human radiation dose calculations of variability of 210 Po levels in seafoods are discussed briefly; particular reference is made to the case of a Stone Age mussel-eating community in South Africa. (author)

  2. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  3. Effects of wheat-flour biscuits fortified with iron and EDTA, alone and in combination, on blood lead concentration, iron status, and cognition in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhouch, Raschida R; El-Fadeli, Sana; Andersson, Maria; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Chabaa, Laila; Zeder, Christophe; Kippler, Maria; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Sedki, Azzedine; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    Lead is a common neurotoxicant and its absorption may be increased in iron deficiency (ID). Thus, iron fortification to prevent ID in populations is a promising lead mitigation strategy. Two common fortificants are ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4 ) and ferric sodium EDTA (NaFeEDTA). EDTA can chelate iron and lead. Our study objective was to determine the effects of iron and EDTA, alone and in combination, on blood lead (BPb) concentration, iron status, and cognition. In this 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 457 lead-exposed Moroccan children were stratified by school and grade and randomly assigned to consume biscuits (6 d/wk at school) containing 1) ∼8 mg Fe as FeSO 4 , 2) ∼8 mg Fe as NaFeEDTA that contained ∼41 mg EDTA, 3) ∼41 mg EDTA as sodium EDTA (Na 2 EDTA), or 4) placebo for 28 wk. The primary outcome was BPb concentration; secondary outcomes were iron status and cognitive outcomes from subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. These outcomes were measured at baseline and endpoint. All data were analyzed by intention-to-treat. The adjusted geometric mean BPb concentration at baseline was 4.3 μg/dL (95% CI: 4.2, 4.3 μg/dL), and at endpoint these values were 3.3 μg/dL (95% CI: 3.1, 3.5 μg/dL) for FeSO 4 , 2.9 μg/dL (95% CI: 2.7, 3.0 μg/dL) for NaFeEDTA, 3.3 μg/dL (95% CI: 3.1, 3.5 μg/dL) for EDTA, and 3.7 μg/dL (95% CI: 3.5, 3.9 μg/dL) for placebo. We found an effect of iron (P = 0.009) and EDTA (P = 0.012) for reduced BPb concentrations at endpoint, but no iron × EDTA interaction. Iron fortification improved iron status, but there were no positive effects of iron or EDTA on cognitive test scores. Food fortification with iron and EDTA additively reduces BPb concentrations. Our findings suggest that NaFeEDTA should be the iron fortificant of choice in lead-exposed populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01573013. © 2016 American Society for

  4. Ablation of the Galnt3 gene leads to low-circulating intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23) concentrations and hyperphosphatemia despite increased Fgf23 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Sorenson, Andrea H; Austin, Anthony M; Mackenzie, Donald S; Fritz, Timothy A; Moh, Akira; Hui, Siu L; Econs, Michael J

    2009-06-01

    Familial tumoral calcinosis is characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), Klotho (KL), and uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3). In vitro studies indicate that GALNT3 O-glycosylates a phosphaturic hormone, FGF23, and prevents its proteolytic processing, thereby allowing secretion of intact FGF23. In this study we generated mice lacking the Galnt3 gene, which developed hyperphosphatemia without apparent calcifications. In response to hyperphosphatemia, Galnt3-deficient mice had markedly increased Fgf23 expression in bone. However, compared with wild-type and heterozygous littermates, homozygous mice had only about half of circulating intact Fgf23 levels and higher levels of C-terminal Fgf23 fragments in bone. Galnt3-deficient mice also exhibited an inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Furthermore, renal expression of sodium-phosphate cotransporters and Kl were elevated in Galnt3-deficient mice. Interestingly, there were sex-specific phenotypes; only Galnt3-deficient males showed growth retardation, infertility, and significantly increased bone mineral density. In summary, ablation of Galnt3 impaired secretion of intact Fgf23, leading to decreased circulating Fgf23 and hyperphosphatemia, despite increased Fgf23 expression. Our findings indicate that Galnt3-deficient mice have a biochemical phenotype of tumoral calcinosis and provide in vivo evidence that Galnt3 plays an essential role in proper secretion of Fgf23 in mice.

  5. Simultaneous Pre-Concentration of Cadmium and Lead in Environmental Water Samples with Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and Determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salahinejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME method for determination of Pb+2 and Cd+2 ions in the environmental water samples was combined with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC, chloroform and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent and disperser solvent, respectively. Some effective parameters on the microextraction and the complex formation were selected and optimized. These parameters included extraction and disperser solvent type as well as their volume, extraction time, salt effect, pH, sample volume and amount of the chelating agent.   Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factor of 75 and 105 for Cd+2 and Pb+2 ions respectively was obtained from only 5.00mL of water sample. The detection limit (S/N=3 was 12 and 0.8ngmL−1 for Pb and Cd respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSDs for five replicate measurements of 0.50 mgL−1 of lead and cadmium was 6.5 and 4.4 % respectively. Mineral, tap, river, sea, dam and spiked water samples were analyzed for Cd and Pb amount.

  6. Subtoxic Concentrations of Hepatotoxic Drugs Lead to Kupffer Cell Activation in a Human In Vitro Liver Model: An Approach to Study DILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Kegel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug induced liver injury (DILI is an idiosyncratic adverse drug reaction leading to severe liver damage. Kupffer cells (KC sense hepatic tissue stress/damage and therefore could be a tool for the estimation of consequent effects associated with DILI. Aim of the present study was to establish a human in vitro liver model for the investigation of immune-mediated signaling in the pathogenesis of DILI. Hepatocytes and KC were isolated from human liver specimens. The isolated KC yield was 1.2±0.9×106 cells/g liver tissue with a purity of >80%. KC activation was investigated by the measurement of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI, DCF assay and cell activity (XTT assay. The initial KC activation levels showed broad donor variability. Additional activation of KC using supernatants of hepatocytes treated with hepatotoxic drugs increased KC activity and led to donor-dependent changes in the formation of ROI compared to KC incubated with supernatants from untreated hepatocytes. Additionally, a compound- and donor-dependent increase in proinflammatory cytokines or in anti-inflammatory cytokines was detected. In conclusion, KC related immune signaling in hepatotoxicity was successfully determined in a newly established in vitro liver model. KC were able to detect hepatocyte stress/damage and to transmit a donor- and compound-dependent immune response via cytokine production.

  7. Subtoxic Concentrations of Hepatotoxic Drugs Lead to Kupffer Cell Activation in a Human In Vitro Liver Model: An Approach to Study DILI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Victoria; Pfeiffer, Elisa; Burkhardt, Britta; Liu, Jia L.; Zeilinger, Katrin; Nüssler, Andreas K.; Seehofer, Daniel; Damm, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is an idiosyncratic adverse drug reaction leading to severe liver damage. Kupffer cells (KC) sense hepatic tissue stress/damage and therefore could be a tool for the estimation of consequent effects associated with DILI. Aim of the present study was to establish a human in vitro liver model for the investigation of immune-mediated signaling in the pathogenesis of DILI. Hepatocytes and KC were isolated from human liver specimens. The isolated KC yield was 1.2 ± 0.9 × 106 cells/g liver tissue with a purity of >80%. KC activation was investigated by the measurement of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI, DCF assay) and cell activity (XTT assay). The initial KC activation levels showed broad donor variability. Additional activation of KC using supernatants of hepatocytes treated with hepatotoxic drugs increased KC activity and led to donor-dependent changes in the formation of ROI compared to KC incubated with supernatants from untreated hepatocytes. Additionally, a compound- and donor-dependent increase in proinflammatory cytokines or in anti-inflammatory cytokines was detected. In conclusion, KC related immune signaling in hepatotoxicity was successfully determined in a newly established in vitro liver model. KC were able to detect hepatocyte stress/damage and to transmit a donor- and compound-dependent immune response via cytokine production. PMID:26491234

  8. Evaluation of structure, dielectric and electrical properties of (Li/Ta/Sb modified (Na, K NbO3 lead-free ceramics with excess Na concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kashif Shamim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline perovskite structured (Li0.04 (Na0.54+x K0.460.96 (Nb0.81Ta0.15 Sb0.04 O3 ceramics with x=0.00, 0.005 and 0.01 mole excess Na concentration were prepared by solid state sintering method. The present study relates the role of excess Na addition with the stoichiometry, density, structure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern exhibits single phase orthorhombic structure. The characteristic Raman modes were observed due to translational modes of cations and vibrational modes of NbO6 octahedra and no structural phase transition were observed. This confirms the formation of single phase perovskite structure and is consistent with XRD results. The dielectric permittivity increases about two times, while dielectric loss decreases by four times for x=0.01 composition. The electrical measurements carried by Complex Impedance spectroscopic analysis suggest negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR behavior.

  9. Parental exposure to environmental concentrations of diuron leads to aneuploidy in embryos of the Pacific oyster, as evidenced by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranger, Audrey; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Dégremont, Lionel; Burgeot, Thierry; Akcha, Farida

    2015-02-01

    Changes in normal chromosome numbers (i.e. aneuploidy) due to abnormal chromosome segregation may arise either spontaneously or as a result of chemical/radiation exposure, particularly during cell division. Coastal ecosystems are continuously subjected to various contaminants originating from urban, industrial and agricultural activities. Genotoxicity is common to several families of major environmental pollutants, including pesticides, which therefore represent a potential important environmental hazard for marine organisms. A previous study demonstrated the vertical transmission of DNA damage by subjecting oyster genitors to short-term exposure to the herbicide diuron at environmental concentrations during gametogenesis. In this paper, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to further characterize diuron-induced DNA damage at the chromosomal level. rDNA genes (5S and 18-5.8-28S), previously mapped onto Crassostrea gigas chromosomes 4, 5 and 10, were used as probes on the interphase nuclei of embryo preparations. Our results conclusively show higher aneuploidy (hypo- or hyperdiploidy) level in embryos from diuron-exposed genitors, with damage to the three studied chromosomal regions. This study suggests that sexually developing oysters are vulnerable to diuron exposure, incurring a negative impact on reproductive success and oyster recruitment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental exposure to environmental concentrations of diuron leads to aneuploidy in embryos of the Pacific oyster, as evidenced by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranger, Audrey, E-mail: audrey.barranger@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, SG2M, Laboratory of Genetics and Pathology of Marine Molluscs, Avenue de Mus du Loup, 17390 La Tremblade (France); Ifremer, Department of Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Benabdelmouna, Abdellah, E-mail: abdellah.benabdelmouna@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, SG2M, Laboratory of Genetics and Pathology of Marine Molluscs, Avenue de Mus du Loup, 17390 La Tremblade (France); Dégremont, Lionel [Ifremer, SG2M, Laboratory of Genetics and Pathology of Marine Molluscs, Avenue de Mus du Loup, 17390 La Tremblade (France); Burgeot, Thierry; Akcha, Farida [Ifremer, Department of Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • FISH was realized on oyster embryos from diuron-exposed genitors. • rDNA genes were used as probes on the interphase nuclei of embryo preparations. • Higher aneuploidy level was observed in embryos from diuron-exposed genitors. • Hypo- and hyperdiploid (triploid) nuclei were detected. - Abstract: Changes in normal chromosome numbers (i.e. aneuploidy) due to abnormal chromosome segregation may arise either spontaneously or as a result of chemical/radiation exposure, particularly during cell division. Coastal ecosystems are continuously subjected to various contaminants originating from urban, industrial and agricultural activities. Genotoxicity is common to several families of major environmental pollutants, including pesticides, which therefore represent a potential important environmental hazard for marine organisms. A previous study demonstrated the vertical transmission of DNA damage by subjecting oyster genitors to short-term exposure to the herbicide diuron at environmental concentrations during gametogenesis. In this paper, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to further characterize diuron-induced DNA damage at the chromosomal level. rDNA genes (5S and 18-5.8-28S), previously mapped onto Crassostrea gigas chromosomes 4, 5 and 10, were used as probes on the interphase nuclei of embryo preparations. Our results conclusively show higher aneuploidy (hypo- or hyperdiploidy) level in embryos from diuron-exposed genitors, with damage to the three studied chromosomal regions. This study suggests that sexually developing oysters are vulnerable to diuron exposure, incurring a negative impact on reproductive success and oyster recruitment.

  11. Parental exposure to environmental concentrations of diuron leads to aneuploidy in embryos of the Pacific oyster, as evidenced by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranger, Audrey; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Dégremont, Lionel; Burgeot, Thierry; Akcha, Farida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • FISH was realized on oyster embryos from diuron-exposed genitors. • rDNA genes were used as probes on the interphase nuclei of embryo preparations. • Higher aneuploidy level was observed in embryos from diuron-exposed genitors. • Hypo- and hyperdiploid (triploid) nuclei were detected. - Abstract: Changes in normal chromosome numbers (i.e. aneuploidy) due to abnormal chromosome segregation may arise either spontaneously or as a result of chemical/radiation exposure, particularly during cell division. Coastal ecosystems are continuously subjected to various contaminants originating from urban, industrial and agricultural activities. Genotoxicity is common to several families of major environmental pollutants, including pesticides, which therefore represent a potential important environmental hazard for marine organisms. A previous study demonstrated the vertical transmission of DNA damage by subjecting oyster genitors to short-term exposure to the herbicide diuron at environmental concentrations during gametogenesis. In this paper, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to further characterize diuron-induced DNA damage at the chromosomal level. rDNA genes (5S and 18-5.8-28S), previously mapped onto Crassostrea gigas chromosomes 4, 5 and 10, were used as probes on the interphase nuclei of embryo preparations. Our results conclusively show higher aneuploidy (hypo- or hyperdiploidy) level in embryos from diuron-exposed genitors, with damage to the three studied chromosomal regions. This study suggests that sexually developing oysters are vulnerable to diuron exposure, incurring a negative impact on reproductive success and oyster recruitment

  12. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration leads to increased whole-plant isoprene emission in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Niinemets, Ülo; Hüve, Katja; Rasulov, Bahtijor; Noe, Steffen M

    2013-05-01

    Effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] on plant isoprene emissions are controversial. Relying on leaf-scale measurements, most models simulating isoprene emissions in future higher [CO2] atmospheres suggest reduced emission fluxes. However, combined effects of elevated [CO2] on leaf area growth, net assimilation and isoprene emission rates have rarely been studied on the canopy scale, but stimulation of leaf area growth may largely compensate for possible [CO2] inhibition reported at the leaf scale. This study tests the hypothesis that stimulated leaf area growth leads to increased canopy isoprene emission rates. We studied the dynamics of canopy growth, and net assimilation and isoprene emission rates in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) grown under 380 and 780 μmol mol(-1) [CO2]. A theoretical framework based on the Chapman-Richards function to model canopy growth and numerically compare the growth dynamics among ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2]-grown plants was developed. Plants grown under elevated [CO2] had higher C : N ratio, and greater total leaf area, and canopy net assimilation and isoprene emission rates. During ontogeny, these key canopy characteristics developed faster and stabilized earlier under elevated [CO2]. However, on a leaf area basis, foliage physiological traits remained in a transient state over the whole experiment. These results demonstrate that canopy-scale dynamics importantly complements the leaf-scale processes, and that isoprene emissions may actually increase under higher [CO2] as a result of enhanced leaf area production. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. EMA: a developmentally regulated cell-surface glycoprotein of CNS neurons that is concentrated at the leading edge of growth cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, N L; Parkinson, D; Wayne, D B; Heuser, J E; Pearlman, A L

    1992-08-01

    To identify cell-surface molecules that mediate interactions between neurons and their environment during neural development, we used monoclonal antibody techniques to define a developmentally regulated antigen in the central nervous system of the mouse. The antibody we produced (2A1) immunolabels cells throughout the central nervous system; we analyzed its distribution in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is expressed on cells very soon after they complete mitosis and leave the periventricular proliferative zone. Expression continues into adult life. The antibody also labels the epithelium of the choroid plexus and the renal proximal tubules, but does not label neurons of the peripheral nervous system in the dorsal root ganglia. In dissociated cell culture of embryonic cerebral cortex, 2A1 labels the surface of neurons but not glia. Immunolabeling of neurons in tissue culture is particularly prominent on the edge of growth cones, including filopodia and the leading edge of lamellipodia, when observed with either immunofluorescence or freeze-etch immunoelectron microscopy. Immunopurification with 2A1 of a CHAPS-extracted membrane preparation from brains of neonatal mice produces a broad (32-36 kD) electrophoretic band and a less prominent 70 kD band that are sensitive to N-glycosidase but not endoglycosidase H. Thus the 2A1 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated, neuronal cell surface glycoprotein (or glycoproteins) with complex N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. We have termed the glycoprotein antigen EMA because of its prominence on the edge membrane of growth cones. EMA is similar to the M6 antigen (Lagenaur et al: J. Neurobiol. 23:71-88, 1992) in apparent molecular weight, distribution in tissue sections, and immunoreactivity on Western blots, suggesting that the two antigens are similar or identical. Expression of EMA is a very early manifestation of neuronal differentiation; its distribution on growth cones suggests a role in mediating the

  14. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone.

  15. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone. PMID:3970881

  16. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with lead solder . Although new building codes require ... lead in their bodies when they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow those ...

  17. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  18. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. I. Concentrations and loads of iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during flood periods in the 1978-1979 wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; Davies, S.H.R.; Thomas, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    In order that realistic effluent standards may be established for the Ranger uranium operations at Jabiru, Northern Territory, it is necessary that there be a clear and detailed knowledge of the pre-mining levels of trace metals and their behaviour within the Magela Creek system. During the wet season, floodwaters were sampled for conductivity, suspended solids and the trace metals, iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. All concentrations were found to be very low, as were the denudation rates for the trace metals and suspended materials

  19. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  20. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... o Do not use glazed ceramics, home remedies, cosmetics, or leaded-crystal glassware unless you know that they are lead safe. o If you live near an industry, mine, or waste site that may have contaminated ...

  1. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  2. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do renovation and repair projects using lead-safe work practices to avoid creating more lead dust or ... in a dangerous area? Yes. If you are working in a potentially harmful environment with exposure to lead dust or fumes: Wash ...

  3. Lead Contamination and Microbial Lead Tolerance in Soils at Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead pollution and lead tolerance levels of microbes in soil at major road junctions in Benin City were investigated. Results revealed that distance from the road junctions affected the concentrations of lead in soil, as well as the microbial population density and types of microbes present in the soil. The highest concentrations ...

  4. Lead in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Pain, Deborah J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  5. A statistical evaluation of asbestos air concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, J.H. [Envirosafe Training and Consultants, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Both area and personal air samples collected during an asbestos abatement project were matched and statistically analysed. Among the many parameters studied were fibre concentrations and their variability. Mean values for area and personal samples were 0.005 and 0.024 f cm{sup -}-{sup 3} of air, respectively. Summary values for area and personal samples suggest that exposures are low with no single exposure value exceeding the current OSHA TWA value of 0.1 f cm{sup -3} of air. Within- and between-worker analysis suggests that these data are homogeneous. Comparison of within- and between-worker values suggests that the exposure source and variability for abatement are more related to the process than individual practices. This supports the importance of control measures for abatement. Study results also suggest that area and personal samples are not statistically related, that is, there is no association observed for these two sampling methods when data are analysed by correlation or regression analysis. Personal samples were statistically higher in concentration than area samples. Area sampling cannot be used as a surrogate exposure for asbestos abatement workers. (author)

  6. A statistical evaluation of asbestos air concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Both area and personal air samples collected during an asbestos abatement project were matched and statistically analysed. Among the many parameters studied were fibre concentrations and their variability. Mean values for area and personal samples were 0.005 and 0.024 f cm - - 3 of air, respectively. Summary values for area and personal samples suggest that exposures are low with no single exposure value exceeding the current OSHA TWA value of 0.1 f cm -3 of air. Within- and between-worker analysis suggests that these data are homogeneous. Comparison of within- and between-worker values suggests that the exposure source and variability for abatement are more related to the process than individual practices. This supports the importance of control measures for abatement. Study results also suggest that area and personal samples are not statistically related, that is, there is no association observed for these two sampling methods when data are analysed by correlation or regression analysis. Personal samples were statistically higher in concentration than area samples. Area sampling cannot be used as a surrogate exposure for asbestos abatement workers. (author)

  7. Leading Democratically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  8. Leading change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    In response to feedback from nursing, midwifery and other care staff who wanted to understand better how the Leading Change, Adding Value framework applies to them, NHS England has updated its webpage to include practice examples.

  9. Presence of lead in opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmoud; Khazaeli, Payam; Behnam, Behzad; Rezazadehkermani, Mohammad; Ashraf-Ganjooei, Narges

    2008-09-01

    Opium addiction is a common form of addiction in Middle East countries such as Iran. Recently several reports suggested some kinds of pathologic findings such as abdominal pain, nephropathy, and anemia in opium addict patients. Such pathologic findings suggest lead poisoning in the patients. In this study, the concentration of lead in 10 opium samples was evaluated. The mean concentration of lead in the opium samples was 1.88 ppm. This may explain some of the pathologic findings found in addict patients. The authors would suggest further investigations to evaluate the lead concentration in opium addicts' sera and also routine screening for lead poisoning in opium addict patients.

  10. Simultaneous extraction and determination of lead, cadmium and copper in rice samples by a new pre-concentration technique: Hollow fiber solid phase microextraction combined with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es' haghi, Zarrin, E-mail: z_eshaghi@pnu.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Payame Noor University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalili, Maryam; Khazaeifar, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Payame Noor University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-30

    In the present work, a novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique using a hollow fiber-supported sol-gel combined with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, coupled with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was employed in the simultaneous extraction and determination of lead, cadmium and copper in rice. In this technique, an innovative solid sorbent containing mixture of carbon nanotube and a composite microporous compound was developed by the sol-gel method via the reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol (TRIS). The growth process was initiated in basic condition (pH 10-11). Afterward this sol was injected into a polypropylene hollow fiber segment for in situ gelation process. The main factors influencing the pre-concentration and extraction of the metal ions; pH of the aqueous feed solution, extraction time, aqueous feed volume, agitation speed, the role of carbon nanotube reinforcement (as-grown and functionalized MWCNT) and salting effect have been examined in detail. Under the optimized conditions, linear calibration curves were established for the concentration of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) in the range of 0.05-500, 0.05-500 and 0.01-100 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively. Detection limits obtained in this way are, 0.01, 0.025 and 0.0073 ng mL{sup -1} for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were found to be less than 5% (n = 5, conc.: 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}).

  11. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc measured near the peak of the 1999 snowmelt-runoff hydrographs for 42 water-quality stations, Coeur d'Alene River basin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    2000-01-01

    The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the Spokane River Basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington included extensive data-collection activities to determine the nature and extent of trace-element contamination within the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and implemented synoptic sampling of the 1999 snowmelt-runoff event at 42 water- quality stations during the 1999 water year. The distribution of the 42 stations was as follows: North Fork Coeur d’Alene River and tributaries, 4 stations; South Fork Coeur d’Alene River, 13 stations; Canyon, Ninemile, and Pine Creeks, 4 stations each; other tributaries to South Fork Coeur d’Alene River, 10 stations; and main stem Coeur d’Alene River, 3 stations. The objective was to synoptically collect discharge and water-quality data in order to significantly improve the estimation of trace-element loads from multiple contributing source areas during the snowmelt-runoff event. Discharge and water-quality data were collected near the peak discharge during late May 1999. Each station was sampled for whole-water recoverable and dissolved concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc.

  12. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  13. Transport and concentration controls for chloride, strontium, potassium and lead in Uvas Creek, a small cobble-bed stream in Santa Clara County, California, U.S.A. 1. Conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, V.C.; Jackman, A.P.; Zand, S.M.; Zellweger, G.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Stream sediments adsorb certain solutes from streams, thereby significantly changing the solute composition; but little is known about the details and rates of these adsorptive processes. To investigate such processes, a 24-hr. injection of a solution containing chloride, strontium, potassium, sodium and lead was made at the head of a 640-m reach of Uvas Creek in west-central Santa Clara County, California. Uvas Creek is a cobble-bed pool-and-riffle stream draining the eastern slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains. By September 12, 1973, after a long dry season, Uvas Creek had a low (0.0215 m3s-1 average) flow which varied diurnally, from 0.018 to 0.025 m3s-1. Because stream discharge varied while the injection rate was constant, the concentration of tracers (injected solutes), after mixing in the stream, varied inversely with discharge. Chloride, a nonreactive solute, served as a tracer of water movement. Analysis of extensive chloride concentration data at five sites below the injection point during and after the injection demonstrated that there was considerable underflow of water through the stream gravels; however, the extent of underflow varied greatly within the study reach. Pre-injection water, displaced by tracer-laden water percolating through the gravels, diluted tracers in the stream channel, giving the mistaken impression of groundwater inflow at some points. Accurate measurement of total discharge in such streams requires prolonged tracer injection unless a reach can be found where underflow is negligible. Strontium and potassium were adsorbed by the bed sediments to a moderate extent and lead was strongly adsorbed. A high proportion of these metals could be removed by adsorption from percolating underflow because of extensive and intimate contact with bed sediments. After channel clearing following injection cutoff, 51% of the added strontium and 96% of the lead remained in the study reach, whereas only 19% of the chloride remained. Packets of sized

  14. Manurial properties of lead nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R A

    1924-01-01

    Water culture, pot and field experiments were conducted in order to determine the toxic and stimulating limit of lead nitrate in solution. Oats and rye grass were evaluated for evidence of lead poisoning. Results indicate that except in solutions of fairly high concentration, soil adsorbs the lead and destroys the toxicity of soluble lead salts. There was evidence to show that the addition of lead salts increased the rate of nitrification in soil.

  15. Secondary lead production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, R.G.

    1990-10-16

    This invention is concerned with the efficient recovery of soft lead from the paste component of used automobile lead-acid storage batteries. According to the invention, a scrap which contains lead oxide, lead sulfate, and antimony in an oxidized state is processed in the following steps to recover lead. A refractory lined reaction vessel is continuously charged with the scrap, along with a reductant effective for reducing lead oxide. The charged material is melted and agitated by means of a submerged lance at 900-1150{degree}C whereby some of the lead oxide of the scrap is reduced to form molten lead. A slag layer is then formed above the molten lead, and an amount of lead oxide is maintained in the slag layer. The molten lead, now containing under 0.5 wt % of antimony, is removed, and the antimony oxide in the scrap is concentrated as oxide in the slag layer. Preferred embodiments of the invention result in the production, in a single step, of a soft lead substantially free of antimony. The slag may be subsequently treated to reduce the antimony oxide and produce a valuable antimony-lead product. Further advantages of the process are that a wet battery paste may be used as the feed without prior drying, and the process can be conducted at a temperature 100-150{degree}C lower than in previously known methods. In addition, a smaller reactor can be employed which reduces both capital cost and fuel costs. The process of the invention is illustrated by descriptions of pilot plant tests. 1 fig.

  16. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  17. Characterization of naturally occurring airborne diacetyl concentrations associated with the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacetyl, a suspected cause of respiratory disorders in some food and flavorings manufacturing workers, is also a natural component of roasted coffee. We characterized diacetyl exposures that would plausibly occur in a small coffee shop during the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee. Personal (long- and short-term and area (long-term samples were collected while a barista ground whole coffee beans, and brewed and poured coffee into cups. Simultaneously, long-term personal samples were collected as two participants, the customers, drank one cup of coffee each per h. Air sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with OSHA Method 1012. Diacetyl was detected in all long-term samples. The long-term concentrations for the barista and area samples were similar, and ranged from 0.013–0.016 ppm; long-term concentrations for the customers were slightly lower and ranged from 0.010–0.014 ppm. Short-term concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection (<0.0047 ppm–0.016 ppm. Mean estimated 8 h time-weighted average (8 h TWA exposures for the barista ranged from 0.007–0.013 ppm; these values exceed recommended 8 h TWA occupational exposure limits (OELs for diacetyl and are comparable to long-term personal measurements collected in various food and beverage production facilities. The concentrations measured based on area sampling were comparable to those measured in the breathing zone of the barista, thus exceedances of the recommended OELs may also occur for coffee shop workers who do not personally prepare coffee (e.g., cashier, sanitation/maintenance. These findings suggest that the practicality and scientific basis of the recommended OELs for diacetyl merit further consideration.

  18. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Waldron, H. A. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 195-199. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication. Use has been made of data collected over a number of years from workers exposed to a lead hazard in a motor-car factory. The correlations between various parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication were computed, including blood and urine lead concentrations, urinary coproporphyrin, ALA and PBG concentrations, and haemoglobin concentration. In all, 15 correlation coefficients were calculated, of which only six showed a statistically significant result (i.e., Plead and urine lead (r = 0·38, Plead and coproporphyrin (r = 0·42, Plead and ALA (r = 0·43, Plead and PBG (r = 0·19, P<0·05). PMID:5572689

  19. Lead Contamination and Microbial Lead Tolerance in Soils at Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    ABSTRACT: Lead pollution and lead tolerance levels of microbes in soil at major road junctions in Benin. City were investigated. Results revealed that distance from the road junctions affected the concentrations of lead in soil, as well as the microbial population density and types of microbes present in the soil. The highest ...

  20. Lead Intoxication in Children in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, P. R.; Astley, R.; Raine, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    Of 38 children investigated between 1966 and 1971 who had a blood lead concentration greater than 37 μg/100 ml eight had encephalopathy and one died; all these eight had a blood lead concentration of 99 μg/100 ml or above. Blood lead levels are related to haemoglobin concentrations and anaemia is common in children with blood lead concentrations of 37-60 μg/100 ml, levels previously accepted as harmless. Children with blood lead concentrations greater than 60 μg/100 ml show radiological evidence of lead intoxication, and treatment for this should be considered when blood lead concentration exceeds 37 μg/100 ml. Children presenting with unexplained encephalopathy should be radiographed for evidence of lead intoxication. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 1 PMID:4691065

  1. Water quality criteria for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report is one in a series that establishes water quality criteria for British Columbia. The report sets criteria for lead to protect a number of water uses, including drinking water, freshwater and marine aquatic life, wildlife, livestock, irrigation, and recreation. The criteria are set as either maximum concentrations of total lead that should not be exceeded at any time, or average concentrations that should not be exceeded over a 30-day period. Actual values are summarized.

  2. Lead in teeth from lead-dosed goats: Microdistribution and relationship to the cumulative lead dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Jones, Joseph; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth are commonly used as a biomarker of long-term lead exposure. There appear to be few data, however, on the content or distribution of lead in teeth where data on specific lead intake (dose) are also available. This study describes the analysis of a convenience sample of teeth from animals that were dosed with lead for other purposes, i.e., a proficiency testing program for blood lead. Lead concentration of whole teeth obtained from 23 animals, as determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, varied from 0.6 to 80 μg g -1 . Linear regression of whole tooth lead (μg g -1 ) on the cumulative lead dose received by the animal (g) yielded a slope of 1.2, with r 2 =0.647 (p -1 , were found in circumpulpal dentine. Linear regression of circumpulpal lead (μg g -1 ) on cumulative lead dose (g) yielded a slope of 23 with r 2 =0.961 (p=0.0001). The data indicated that whole tooth lead, and especially circumpulpal lead, of dosed goats increased linearly with cumulative lead exposure. These data suggest that circumpulpal dentine is a better biomarker of cumulative lead exposure than is whole tooth lead, at least for lead-dosed goats

  3. Neurophysiological effects of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, I.; Wildt, K.; Gullberg, B.; Berlin, M.

    1983-10-01

    A series of neurophysiological variables was measured for men occupationally exposed to lead. The results were related to the degree of lead exposure and to the concentrations of lead and zinc protoporphyrin in blood. A small but significant correlation was observed between lead exposure and motor and sensory conduction velocities in the lower limbs, the conduction velocities of slow motor fibers in the upper limbs, and also sensory nerve action potentials. It is suggested that a neurophysiological examination should be considered in the surveillance of the health of lead workers.

  4. Measurement of lead compound in stack gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y; Hori, M; Tanikawa, N

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and particle-size distribution of lead compounds in the exhaust gas from various stationary sources are examined. The stationary sources concern lead production from battery scraps, lead smelting of cable mold, steel production from iron scraps, plastic combustion furnace, and a heavy oil boiler. A lead concentration of 0.2-100 mg/cu m in exhaust gas is detected. Furthermore, exhaust gas lead compounds are affected by the raw materials used.

  5. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  6. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  7. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  8. Uptake and accumulation of lead by plants from the Bo Ngam lead mine area in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotkittikhun, P.; Kruatrachue, M.; Chaiyarat, R.; Ngernsansaruay, C.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Paijitprapaporn, A.; Baker, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A field survey of terrestrial plants growing on Bo Ngam lead mine area, Thailand, was conducted to identify species accumulating exceptionally high concentrations of lead. Plant and soil samples were collected from five areas. Lead concentrations in surface soil ranged from 325 to 142 400 mg/kg. The highest lead concentration in soil was found at the ore dressing plant area and lowest at a natural pond area. In different areas, the concentrations of lead in plants were different when comparing various study sites. A total of 48 plant species belonging to 14 families were collected from five sampling sites. Twenty-six plant species had lead concentrations more than 1000 mg/kg in their shoots. Three species (Microstegium ciliatum, Polygala umbonata, Spermacoce mauritiana) showed extremely high lead concentrations in their shoots (12 200-28 370 mg/kg) and roots (14 580-128 830 mg/kg). - Uptake and accumulation of lead by plants

  9. In vivo x-ray fluorescence of bone lead in the study of human lead metabolism: Serum lead, whole blood lead, bone lead, and cumulative exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cake, K.M.; Chettle, D.R.; Webber, C.E.; Gordon, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, clinical studies of lead's effect on health have relied on blood lead levels to indicate lead exposure. However, this is unsatisfactory because blood lead levels have a half-life of approximately 5 weeks, and thus reflect recent exposure. Over 90% of the lead body burden is in bone, and it is thought to have a long residence time, thus implying that measurements of bone lead reflect cumulative exposure. So, measurements of bone lead are useful in understanding the long-term health effects of lead. Ahlgren reported the first noninvasive measurements of bone lead in humans, where γ-rays from 57 Co were used to excite the K series x-rays of lead. The lead detection system at McMaster University uses a 109 Cd source which is positioned at the center of the detector face (HPGe) and a near backscatter (∼160 degrees) geometry. This arrangement allows great flexibility, since one can sample lead in a range of different bone sites due to a robust normalization technique which eliminates the need to correct for bone geometry, thickness of overlying tissue, and other related factors. The effective radiation dose to an adult during an x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement is extremely low, being 35 nSv. This paper addresses the issue of how bone, whole blood, and serum lead concentrations can be related in order to understand a person's lead exposure history

  10. Blood lead and lead-210 origins in residents of Toulouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, J.; Delapart, M.

    1981-01-01

    Blood lead and lead-210 analyses were performed on blood samples from non-smoking residents of Toulouse (city of 400,000 inhabitants). Simultaneous surface soil lead content determinations were carried out by the same procedure on rural zone samples of southwestern France. The observed isotopic ratios were compared in order to evaluate food chain contamination. For an average of 19.7 +- 5.8 μg 100 cc -1 of lead in blood, atmospheric contamination amounts to 20%, estimated as follows: 6% from direct inhalation and 14% from dry deposits on vegetation absorbed as food. The natural levels carried over by the food chain reach 14.9 μg 100 cc -1 and have a 210 Pb/Pb concentration ratio of 0.055 dpmμg -1 . These results lead to a maximum value of 15 μg 100 cc -1 for natural lead in human blood according to the ICRP model. (author)

  11. Dietary exposure to lead in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon PE; te Biesebeek JD; van Donkersgoed G; VVH; V&Z

    2017-01-01

    Uptake from the soil is the main route by which lead ends up in food. Lead in soil has its origin in both natural and anthropogenic sources. The lead concentration in food has decreased over the last decennia by the use of unleaded petrol and paint, and the replacement of lead water pipes.

  12. Erythrocyte fluorescence and lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K G

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples from people exposed to inorganic lead were examined by fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin. With continued lead absorption, fluorescent erythrocytes appeared in the circulation of workers handling this metal or its compounds, and they progressively increased in number and brilliance. These changes ensued if the blood lead concentration was maintained above 2-42 mumol/l (50 mug/100 ml), and preceded any material fall in the haemoglobin value. At one factory, 62-5% of 81 symptomless workers showed erythrocyte fluorescence attributable to the toxic effects of lead. Excess fluorocytes were found in blood samples from a child with pica and three of her eight siblings. These four were subsequently shown to have slightly increased blood lead concentrations (2-03 to 2-32 mumol/l). Fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin is a sensitive method for the detection of chronic lead intoxication. A relatively slight increase in the blood lead is associated with demonstrabel changes in erythrocyte porphyrin content. The procedure requires little blood, and may be performed upon stored samples collected for lead estimation. The results are not readily influenced by contamination, and provide good confirmatory evidence for the absorption of biochemically active lead. PMID:963005

  13. Lead sources in human diet in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert

    2004-01-01

    Although blood lead levels have declined in Greenland, they are still elevated despite the fact that lead levels in the Greenland environment are very low. Fragments of lead shot in game birds have been suggested as an important source of dietary exposure, and meals of sea birds, particularly eider......, contain high concentrations of lead. In a cross-sectional population survey in Greenland in 1993-1994, blood lead adjusted for age and sex was found to be associated with the reported consumption of sea birds. Participants reporting less than weekly intake of sea birds had blood lead concentrations...... of approximately 75 microg/L, whereas those who reported eating sea birds several times a week had concentrations of approximately 110 microg/L, and those who reported daily intake had concentrations of 170 microg/L (p = 0.01). Blood lead was not associated with dietary exposure to other local or imported food...

  14. Photocatalyzed removal of lead ion from lead-chelator solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Hyun; Na, Jung Won; Sung, Ki Woung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the influence of such chelating agents on the ease and speed of photocatalyzed metal removal and deposition. With excess EDTA, the free EDTA competes with Pb for oxidation, and at a ten fold excess, no lead oxidation (hence removal) occurs. With insufficient EDTA, the corresponding initial concentration of Pb-EDTA is decreased; after its destruction, the remaining Pb{sup 2+} is removed more slowly, at rates found with lead nitrate solution. The net result is that the maximum rate of lead deposition occurs at the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 EDTA : Pb{sup 2+}.

  15. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  16. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  17. Lead concentration and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery residues Teores e alocação de chumbo em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado por resíduos de baterias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de S Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a very stable metal in soil and is highly toxic to humans and animals. Exposure to Pb occurs via inhalation of particles from industry and soil, as well as household dust, water, and contaminated food. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate Pb contents and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery recycling wastes. Eight plant species were studied: tomato, sweet pepper, beet, carrot, cabbage, green collards, eggplant, and okra. The experiment was set up in blocks at random with four replicates. The results showed that carrot, green collards, beet, and okra were the most Pb tolerant species, while the others were very Pb-sensitive, since they did not complete their cycle. The decreasing order for Pb accumulation in the vegetables crops was: carrot > okra > tomato > eggplant > sweet pepper > green collards > cabbage > beet. Taking into account the Pb allocation in plants, the order was: root > stems > leaves > edible parts. Although carrot translocated the lowest Pb amount into the edible part, such level exceeded the legal limit.O chumbo (Pb é um elemento extremamente estável no solo e altamente tóxico para seres humanos e animais. A contaminação com chumbo geralmente ocorre pela exposição decorrente da inalação de partículas oriundas de indústrias ou do solo, ou ainda, pela ingestão de poeira doméstica, água e alimentos de origem animal e vegetal contaminados. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar os teores e a alocação de Pb em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado com resíduos de reciclagem de baterias. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação com delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam a oito hortaliças: tomate, pimentão, beterraba, cenoura, repolho, couve manteiga, berinjela e quiabo. Os resultados mostraram que as espécies mais tolerantes ao Pb foram cenoura, couve-manteiga, beterraba e

  18. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  19. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Ushio, K.

    1982-05-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate. It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilized into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol and 107 mumol CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol to 120 mumol in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 0.3-2.9 mumol/kg. There were linear relationships between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale.

  20. Biosorption of lead phosphates by lead-tolerant bacteria as a mechanism for lead immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Viridiana; Guzmán-Moreno, Jesús; Rodríguez-González, Vicente; Flores-de la Torre, Juan Armando; Ramírez-Santoyo, Rosa María; Vidales-Rodríguez, Luz Elena

    2017-08-01

    The study of metal-tolerant bacteria is important for bioremediation of contaminated environments and development of green technologies for material synthesis due to their potential to transform toxic metal ions into less toxic compounds by mechanisms such as reduction, oxidation and/or sequestration. In this study, we report the isolation of seven lead-tolerant bacteria from a metal-contaminated site at Zacatecas, México. The bacteria were identified as members of the Staphylococcus and Bacillus genera by microscopic, biochemical and 16S rDNA analyses. Minimal inhibitory concentration of these isolates was established between 4.5 and 7.0 mM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 in solid and 1.0-4.0 mM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 in liquid media. A quantitative analysis of the lead associated to bacterial biomass in growing cultures, revealed that the percentage of lead associated to biomass was between 1 and 37% in the PbT isolates. A mechanism of complexation/biosorption of lead ions as inorganic phosphates (lead hydroxyapatite and pyromorphite) in bacterial biomass, was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. Thus, the ability of the lead-tolerant isolates to transform lead ions into stable and highly insoluble lead minerals make them potentially useful for immobilization of lead in mining waste.

  1. EPA Leads the Way on Lead Exposure Science and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers have developed a modeling approach that improves our understanding of the relationship between lead concentrations of various sources (drinking water, soil and dust, food, and air) and children’s blood-lead levels.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the concentrations of lead, cadmium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job Mwamburi

    2015-06-04

    Jun 4, 2015 ... and changing lake water levels are environmental threats of concern in this ..... hardness, low suspended matter levels, high redox potential and low ..... International Labour Organisation, and the World Health. Organization ...

  3. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  4. Correlation between airborne manganese concentration at the workstations in the iron foundry and manganese concentration in workers’ blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manganese (Mn used as raw material for melting process in the ferrous foundry is considered as hazardous neurotoxic substance because it accumulates in the central nervous system and may cause neurological disorders. The furnace-men and melting department workers are potentially exposed to manganese particles or fume in the workplace. The objective of the research has been to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in the foundry by correlation of blood-manganese (B-Mn and air-manganese (air-Mn measurement. Material and Methods: Air-Mn and Mn of blood serum were measured involving workers who worked in a big-sized foundry during 1 year. The standard method of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA ID-121 was used for air and blood assessment and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS was carried out for air and blood sample analysis. Results: The air sampling results have revealed that there is a high exposure to manganese (4.5 mg/m3 in the workplace as compared to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH time weighted average (the reference time-weighted average (TWA = 1 mg/m3. The average blood serum Mn concentration was 2.745 μg/l for subjects working for shorter than 3 months and 274.85 μg/l for subjects working 3–12 months. Conclusions: Against the research hypothesis there was no correlation between the air-Mn concentration and the B-Mn (serum level of manganese in the serum of the exposed subjects. It may be due to short time of air sampling of manganese airborne particles, and a real-time monitoring of airborne manganese particles is suggested for any future study. Med Pr 2017;68(4:449–458

  5. A study of airborne chrysotile concentrations associated with handling, unpacking, and repacking boxes of automobile clutch discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, George C T; Madl, Amy K; Ingmundson, Kelsey J; Murbach, Dana M; Fehling, Kurt A; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L

    2008-06-01

    concentrations at bystander locations ranged from 0.002+/-0.001 f/cc and 0.004+/-0.002 f/cc when 1 or 2 boxes of clutches were handled, respectively. Estimated 8-h TWA asbestos exposures for a worker handling 1 or 2 boxes of clutches over a workday ranged from 0.002 to 0.006 f/cc. The 30-min PCM adjusted average airborne asbestos concentration for a worker continuously stacking unopened boxes of clutches was 0.212+/-0.014 f/cc; the 8-h TWA was 0.013 f/cc. Additionally, 30-min PCM adjusted average airborne asbestos concentrations following cleanup and clothing handling were 0.002+/-0.001 f/cc and 0.002+/-0.002 f/cc, respectively, both resulting in estimated 8-h TWA asbestos exposures of 0.0001 f/cc. The results of this study indicate that the handling, unpacking, and repacking of clutches, and the subsequent cleanup and clothes handling by a worker within a short-term period or over the entire workday, result in exposures below the historical and current short-term and 8-h occupational exposure limits for asbestos.

  6. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  7. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  8. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... billion people had toxic (poisonous) blood lead levels. Food Sources Lead can be found in canned goods if there is lead solder in the ... to bottled water for drinking and cooking. Avoid canned goods from foreign ... cans goes into effect. If imported wine containers have a lead foil ...

  9. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A M; Teo, R K

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  10. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.M.; Teo, R.K.

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  11. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  12. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  13. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  14. Bulk diffusion and solubility of silver and nickel in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenzou-Badrour, H.; Moya, G.; Bernardini, J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study of solubility and bulk diffusion of /sup 110/Ag and /sup 63/Ni in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions in the temperature range 220 to 88 0 C are reported. Owing to the low solubility of silver and nickel in lead, Fick's solution corresponding to the boundary condition of a constant concentration of solute at the surface has been used. Depth profile concentration analysis suggests a fundamental difference between the diffusion mechanisms of silver and nickel. Since silver penetration profiles in pure lead give diffusion coefficients independent of the penetration depth and silver concentration, it is suggested that slight decreases of silver diffusivity in lead-silver solid solutions have no significance. This implies that the interstitial silver atoms do not associate significantly with each other to form Ag-Ag dimers. In contrast, different behaviors of /sup 63/Ni depth profile concentration in pure lead and saturated PbNi solid solutions agree with a Ni-Ni interaction leading to the formation of less mobile dimers near the surface in pure lead

  15. Determining tissue-lead levels in large game mammals harvested with lead bullets: human health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; VanSpronsen, E P; Liberda, E N

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the use of lead isotope ratios has definitively identified lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people, but the isotope ratios for lead pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden; however, few studies have determined if lead bullet fragments are present in big game carcasses. We found elevated tissue-lead concentrations (up to 5,726.0 microg/g ww) in liver (5/9) and muscle (6/7) samples of big game harvested with lead bullets and radiographic evidence of lead fragments. Thus, we would advise that the tissue surrounding the wound channel be removed and discarded, as this tissue may be contaminated by lead bullet fragments.

  16. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  17. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Andersen, H.H.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  19. Effect on blood lead of airborne lead particles characterized by size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Uk; Paik, Nam-Won

    2002-03-01

    Worker exposure to airborne lead particles was evaluated for a total of 117 workers in 12 work-places of four different industrial types in Korea. The particle sizes were measured using 8-stage cascade impactors worn by the workers. Mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) were determined by type of industry and percentage of lead particles as a fraction of airborne lead (PbA) concentration was determined by particle size. Blood lead (PbB) levels of workers who matched airborne lead samples were also examined. A Scheffé's pairwise comparison test showed that MMAD and the fractions of each of respirable particles and lead particles lead particles lead particles (r = 0.82) than that between concentrations of small particles and PbA (r = 0.61). A simple linear regression indicated that PbB correlated better with respirable lead concentration (r2 = 0.35, P = 0.0001) than with PbA concentration and had a higher slope coefficient. Controlling for respirable lead concentration reduced the partial correlation coefficient between PbA concentration and PbB level from 0.56 to 0.20 (P = 0.053). The results indicate that the contribution of respirable lead particles to lead absorption would be greater than that of PbA. This study concludes that the measurement of PbA only may not properly reflect a worker's exposure to lead particles with diverse characteristics. For the evaluation of a worker's exposure to various types of lead particles, it is recommended that respirable lead particles as well as PbA be measured.

  20. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dua, S.K.; Roelant, David; Kumar, Sachin

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste

  1. Lead, arsenic, and copper content of crops grown on lead arsenate-treated and untreated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, D

    1972-01-01

    Increased lead and arsenic concentrations in the surface soil (0-15 cm), resulting from applications of lead arsenate (PbHAs0/sub 1/), increased both lead and arsenic levels in crops grown on treated plots. The lead levels in some crops approached or exceeded the Canadian residue tolerance of 2.0 ppM. Lead arsenate soil treatments did not affect copper absorption by crops. On areas such as old orchard land contaminated with lead arsenate residues it may be advisable to ascertain crops, and also to determine the lead affinity and arsenic sensitivity of the plants to be grown.

  2. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  3. Uranium-lead systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickman, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    The method of Levchenkov and Shukolyukov for calculating age and time disturbance of minerals without correction for original lead is generalized to include the cases when (1) original lead and radiogenic lead leach differently, and (2) the crystals studied consist of a core and a mantle. It is also shown that a straight line obtained from the solution of the equations is the locus of the isotopic composition of original lead. (Auth.)

  4. Some studies of maternal and infant lead exposure in Glasgow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M.R.; Goldberg, A.; Pocock, S.J.; Meredith, A.; Stewart, I.M.; MacAnespie, H.; Lees, R.; Low, A.

    1982-04-01

    In two studies in the city of Glasgow, 236 mothers and their newly born infants and 117 mothers and their 6-weeks old children's environmental lead exposure were examined. In both studies blood lead concentrations were found to correlate significantly with the cube root of the domestic water lead concentrations. In the first study, multiple regression analyses of maternal blood lead and cord blood lead concentrations on other variables showed a significant negative correlation with gestational age. It was also noted that there was an annual fluctuation in maternal blood lead concentration with highest values in the autumn. In the second study, similar relationships were found. Although there was no association between blood lead and sex, age, place of birth or feeding method, as in the previous study, a significant association between social class and blood lead was found. This could be explained on the basis of the significant correlation between water lead and social class. In those mothers who breast fed, breast milk lead concentrations were found to correlate significantly with blood lead concentrations where breast milk lead was around one tenth of blood lead concentration. These studies emphasise the importance of water lead in the economy of environmental lead exposure to mothers and their unborn and newly born infants.

  5. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  6. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  7. Air pollution from lead added to gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingeon, B; Collombel, C

    1973-01-01

    General hygienic and toxicological problems of lead added to gasoline are discussed. Lead emitted by motor vehicles pollutes the air especially in cities and along highways, and is accumulated by soil and plants. The lead levels found in the blood of subjects living in cities and near highways was significantly higher than in rural dwellers. Close correlation between the atmospheric lead concentration and the carbon monoxide concentration as well as the traffic density was established, indicating traffic as the source of atmospheric lead. The effect of traffic on the atmospheric lead concentration extended over a distance of up to 4 km. The lead, emitted by motor vehicles in the form of submicron particles, is retained in the organism at rates of 5-10 percent following ingestion, and at rates of 30-50 percent when inhaled. Lead is partially excreted by the liver, kidney, hair, and nails. Some 95 percent of the retained lead is found in the blood, and accumulation in the bones with potential mobilization due to increases in the corticosteroid level was observed. Exposure to lead can be diagnosed by basophil granulation test, urine delta-aminolevulinic acid test, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase test.

  8. High human exposure to lead through consumption of birds hunted with lead shot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, P.; Asmund, G.; Riget, F.

    2004-01-01

    Lead shot contaminates the edible parts of birds so that tolerable human lead intake is exceeded. - We assess lead contamination of Greenland seabirds killed with lead shot having studied thick-billed murre and common eider, the two most important species in the diet. The lead concentration is very high in meat of eiders killed with lead shot (mean 6.1 μg/g-wet wt, 95% CL 2.1-12). This level is about 44 times higher than in drowned eiders and eight times higher than in shot murres. Analyzing whole breasts instead of sub-samples reveals about seven times higher lead levels in birds' meat. We conclude that in some cases the lead intake by Greenland bird eaters will largely exceed the FAO/WHO tolerable lead intake guideline and that lead shot is a more important source of lead in the diet than previously estimated

  9. Superconductivity in nanostructured lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Anca; Bleiweiss, Michael; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Saygi, Salih; Dimofte, Andreea; Yin, Ming; Iqbal, Zafar; Datta, Timir

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanoscale structures of lead were fabricated by electrodeposition of pure lead into artificial porous opal. The size of the metallic regions was comparable to the superconducting coherence length of bulk lead. Tc as high as 7.36 K was observed, also d Tc/d H was 2.7 times smaller than in bulk lead. Many of the characteristics of these differ from bulk lead, a type I superconductor. Irreversibility line and magnetic relaxation rates ( S) were also studied. S( T) displayed two maxima, with a peak value about 10 times smaller than that of typical high- Tc superconductors.

  10. Lead shot from hunting as a source of lead in human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Poul; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Asmund, Gert; Riget, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the intake of birds hunted with lead shot and the lead concentration in human blood. Fifty adult men from Nuuk, Greenland took part in the study. From September 2003 to June 2004 they regularly gave blood samples and recorded how many birds they ate. We found a clear relationship between the number of bird meals and blood lead and also a clear seasonal variation. The concentration was highest in mid-winter when bird consumption is at its highest. Blood lead was low (15 μg/L, mean concentration) among the participants reporting not eating birds. Among those reporting to eat birds regularly, blood lead was significantly higher, up to 128 μg/L (mean concentration). Concentrations depended on the frequency of bird meals: the more the bird meals, the higher the resulting blood lead. This clear relationship points to lead shot as the dominating lead source to people in Greenland. - Birds hunted with lead shot and consumed are a source of lead in human blood

  11. Lead shot from hunting as a source of lead in human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk (Greenland); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-07-15

    This study investigates the relationship between the intake of birds hunted with lead shot and the lead concentration in human blood. Fifty adult men from Nuuk, Greenland took part in the study. From September 2003 to June 2004 they regularly gave blood samples and recorded how many birds they ate. We found a clear relationship between the number of bird meals and blood lead and also a clear seasonal variation. The concentration was highest in mid-winter when bird consumption is at its highest. Blood lead was low (15 {mu}g/L, mean concentration) among the participants reporting not eating birds. Among those reporting to eat birds regularly, blood lead was significantly higher, up to 128 {mu}g/L (mean concentration). Concentrations depended on the frequency of bird meals: the more the bird meals, the higher the resulting blood lead. This clear relationship points to lead shot as the dominating lead source to people in Greenland. - Birds hunted with lead shot and consumed are a source of lead in human blood.

  12. Radiation effects on lead silicate glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.W.; Zhang, L.P.; Borgen, N.; Pannell, K.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in the microstructure of lead silicate glass were investigated in situ under Mg K α irradiation in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lead-oxygen bond breaking resulting in the formation of pure lead was observed. The segregation, growth kinetics and the structural relaxation of the lead, with corresponding changes in the oxygen and silicon on the glass surfaces were studied by measuring the time-dependent changes in concentration, binding energy shifts, and the full width at half maximum. A bimodal distribution of the oxygen XPS signal, caused by bridging and non-bridging oxygens, was found during the relaxation process. All experimental data indicate a reduction of the oxygen concentration, a phase separation of the lead from the glass matrix, and the metallization of the lead occurred during and after the X-ray irradiation. (author)

  13. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  14. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-02-01

    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  15. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  16. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  17. Distribution of exposure concentrations and doses for constituents of environmental tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States); Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; James, A.C. [A.C. James and Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dourson, M.L.; Felter, S.P. [TERA (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, the authors describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions for the workplace exposure. Next, they present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, they derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).

  18. Quantification of atmospheric lead emissions from 70 years of leaded petrol consumption in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Louise Jane

    2015-06-01

    Lead is a persistent pollutant and the subject of many environmental studies, yet, in Australia, the extent of atmospheric lead emissions from the use of leaded petrol is unquantified. This paper details the first comprehensive account of leaded petrol sales and its lead concentrations over the 70 years of use in Australia. The resulting atmospheric lead emissions are calculated to provide the most complete understanding of the volume of lead released to the Australian continent from the consumption of leaded petrol. Atmospheric emissions of lead to the entire Australian continent from leaded petrol are calculated to total 240,510 tonnes over seven decades of use, peaking at 7869 tonnes in 1974. Total emissions for individual states and territories range from 1745 to 67,893 tonnes, with New South Wales responsible for the largest emissions. The effect of regulations on allowable concentrations of tetraethyl-lead additives are observed in the reduction of lead emissions in New South Wales and Victoria. The consequences to human health and the environment of leaded petrol consumption in Australia's populous cities are examined against historical air quality data and blood lead levels.

  19. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E; Kubin, R

    1949-01-01

    Diagnosis was made from clinical observation and laboratory examination of nine cases. A successful treatment is described based on the similarity of the metabolism of lead and calcium, the lead being deposited in the bones where it is harmless, if it remains there. Details are given of the treatment.

  20. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  1. Leading Educational Change Wisely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews Christopher Branson's book entitled "Leading Educational Change Wisely". The book provides an alternative and engaging perspective on leading educational change. Branson utilises "wisdom" as its central conceptual device to present a thought-provoking and philosophical account on how leaders are able to build a…

  2. Impacts of aerosol lead to natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Yoshida, Katsumi

    1982-01-01

    Impacts of aerosol lead have changed the concentration and isotopic ratios of the element circulating in remote ecosystems in the Hidaka and Tarumae mountains. Concentrations of lead in successive each 10 years ring veneer of Cercidiphyllum Japonica show that amount of the element residing on the bark and supwood layers has increased by a factor of 2 or more in comparison with that of the core part. The isotopic ratios of lead in the basement rocks and soils under the ecosystems converge to a certain narrow spot along the isochron Iine of the element, and distinguish their geochronogical characteristics from other leads of different sources. In these ecosystems, however, the lead isotopic ratios of materials exposed to the atmosphere are similar to those of foreign and anthropogenic aerosol lead but are evidently dissimilar to those of the rocks and soils. Furthermore, the lead isotopic ratios in yearly ring veneers of Ceridiphyllum Japonica and Ostrya Japonica show a certain differentiation towards the bark from the core, i.e., an approach to those of anthropogenic aerosol lead from those of the basement rocks and soils, as listed in Table 7. The lead burden per hectare in these remote ecosystems has increased to 4 g by the impact of 2 g of aerosol lead. (author)

  3. Mortality study of lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W C; Gaffey, W R

    1975-01-01

    The mortality of 7,032 men employed for one or more years in lead production facilities or battery plants was followed over a 23-year period, 1947-70. Lead absorption in many of these men was greatly in excess of currently accepted standards based upon urinary and blood lead concentrations available for a portion of the group. There were 1,356 deaths reported. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes was 107 for smelter workers and 99 for battery plant workers. Death from neoplasms were in slight excess in smelters, but not significantly increased in battery plants. There were no excess deaths from kidney tumors. The SMR for cardiovascular-renal disease was 96 for smelter workers and 101 for battery plant workers. There was definitely no excess in deaths from either stroke or hypertensive heart disease; however, deaths classified as other hypertensive disease and unspecified nephritis or renal sclerosis were higher than expected. The life expectancy of lead workers was calculated to be approximately the same as that of all U.S. males.

  4. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Ushio, K

    1982-01-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA). It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilised into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol (20 mg) and 107 mumol (40 mg) CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol (0.8 mg) to 120 mumol (24.9 mg) (mean 37 mumol (7.7 mg) in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 0.3-2.9 mumol/kg (6-60 microgram/100 g) (mean 1.4 mumol/kg (29 microgram/100 g)). There were linear relationships between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale. PMID:6802167

  5. Lead-free piezoceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-04

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  6. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  7. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    isotherm and maximum sorption capacity of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan sorbent was 1·755 g/kg with 85–. 90% lead .... C by applying Lagergren first ... Lead (II) ions concentrations were determined by using an .... following equation.

  8. Lead in Construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Although Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for occupational lead exposure have been in effect since 1971 for the construction and general industries, the agency regulations for general industry in 1978...

  9. Radiation shielding lead shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei, Shoichi.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns lead shields for radiation shielding. Shield boxes are disposed so as to surround a pipeline through which radioactive liquids, mists or like other objects are passed. Flanges are formed to each of the end edges of the shield boxes and the shield boxes are connected to each other by the flanges. Upon installation, empty shield boxes not charged with lead particles and iron plate shields are secured at first at the periphery of the pipeline. Then, lead particles are charged into the shield boxes. This attains a state as if lead plate corresponding to the depth of the box is disposed. Accordingly, operations for installation, dismantling and restoration can be conducted in an empty state with reduced weight to facilitate the operations. (I.S.)

  10. Sensor-triggered sampling to determine instantaneous airborne vapor exposure concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip A; Simmons, Michael K; Toone, Phillip

    2018-06-01

    It is difficult to measure transient airborne exposure peaks by means of integrated sampling for organic chemical vapors, even with very short-duration sampling. Selection of an appropriate time to measure an exposure peak through integrated sampling is problematic, and short-duration time-weighted average (TWA) values obtained with integrated sampling are not likely to accurately determine actual peak concentrations attained when concentrations fluctuate rapidly. Laboratory analysis for integrated exposure samples is preferred from a certainty standpoint over results derived in the field from a sensor, as a sensor user typically must overcome specificity issues and a number of potential interfering factors to obtain similarly reliable data. However, sensors are currently needed to measure intra-exposure period concentration variations (i.e., exposure peaks). In this article, the digitized signal from a photoionization detector (PID) sensor triggered collection of whole-air samples when toluene or trichloroethylene vapors attained pre-determined levels in a laboratory atmosphere generation system. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of whole-air samples (with both 37 and 80% relative humidity) collected using the triggering mechanism with rapidly increasing vapor concentrations showed good agreement with the triggering set point values. Whole-air samples (80% relative humidity) in canisters demonstrated acceptable 17-day storage recoveries, and acceptable precision and bias were obtained. The ability to determine exceedance of a ceiling or peak exposure standard by laboratory analysis of an instantaneously collected sample, and to simultaneously provide a calibration point to verify the correct operation of a sensor was demonstrated. This latter detail may increase the confidence in reliability of sensor data obtained across an entire exposure period.

  11. Characterization of naturally occurring airborne diacetyl concentrations associated with the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Abelmann, Anders; Lotter, Jason T; Comerford, Chris; Keeton, Kara; Finley, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    Diacetyl, a suspected cause of respiratory disorders in some food and flavorings manufacturing workers, is also a natural component of roasted coffee. We characterized diacetyl exposures that would plausibly occur in a small coffee shop during the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee. Personal (long- and short-term) and area (long-term) samples were collected while a barista ground whole coffee beans, and brewed and poured coffee into cups. Simultaneously, long-term personal samples were collected as two participants, the customers, drank one cup of coffee each per h. Air sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with OSHA Method 1012. Diacetyl was detected in all long-term samples. The long-term concentrations for the barista and area samples were similar, and ranged from 0.013⿿0.016 ppm; long-term concentrations for the customers were slightly lower and ranged from 0.010⿿0.014 ppm. Short-term concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection (barista ranged from 0.007⿿0.013 ppm; these values exceed recommended 8 h TWA occupational exposure limits (OELs) for diacetyl and are comparable to long-term personal measurements collected in various food and beverage production facilities. The concentrations measured based on area sampling were comparable to those measured in the breathing zone of the barista, thus exceedances of the recommended OELs may also occur for coffee shop workers who do not personally prepare coffee (e.g., cashier, sanitation/maintenance). These findings suggest that the practicality and scientific basis of the recommended OELs for diacetyl merit further consideration.

  12. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  13. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  14. Both physiology and epidemiology support zero tolerable blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefa, Syeda T; Héroux, Paul

    2017-10-05

    Inorganic lead is one of the most common causes of environmental metal poisonings, and its adverse effects on multiple body systems are of great concern. The brain, along with the kidneys, are critically susceptible to lead toxicity for their hosting of high affinity lead binding proteins, and very sensitive physiology. Prolonged low-lead exposure frequently remains unrecognized, causes subtle changes in these organ systems, and manifests later at an irreversible stage. With the repeated documentation of "no safe blood lead level", the pernicious effects of lead at any measurable concentration need to be emphasized. In this review, we surveyed articles on chronic low-level lead exposures with a blood lead concentrations lead on both nervous and renal systems were obvious at a blood lead concentration of 2μg/dL, with the absence of any detectable threshold. The deleterious effect of lead on two different organ systems at such low concentrations drew our attention to the various extracellular and intracellular events that might be affected by minimal concentration of body lead, especially blood lead. Is there a true common ground between low-level lead toxicity in both the nervous system and the kidney? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence of lead poisoning in calves in Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, J R

    1964-08-01

    The concentrations of lead in kidneys of slaughtered calves from three slaughterhouses in Northern Ireland were analyzed for lead content to determine the frequency of lead-poisoning-attributable deaths. It was found that about 4% of the calves had concentrations of lead exceeding 25 ppm in the kidney, a level generally accepted to indicate lethality. This finding is substantially higher than previous estimates. 6 references, 1 table.

  16. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  17. Role of Airborne Lead in Increased Body Burden of Lead in Hartford Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepow, Martha L.; Bruckman, Leonard; Rubino, Robert A.; Markowitz, Steven; Gillette, Marybeth; Kapish, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The ingestion of airborne lead fallout is the mechanism responsible for increased lead body burdens found in 10 urban Connecticut children. The mean indoor lead levels found in housedust was 11,000 μg/g; highest concentrations occurred on windowsills and in floor dust. The mean lead content of Hartford street dirt was 1,200 μg/g; levels were highest near the street and next to the buildings. The mean lead concentration of hand samples taken from the subject children was 2,400 μg/g; the mean weight of hand samples was 11 mg. The concentration of lead in dirt and househould dust was high enough to theoretically result in excessive lead accumulation in young children who are putting their dusty, dirty hands in their mouths during play. While we believe that lead emitted from automobiles contributes significantly to air, dirt and dust lead levels the environmental impact of reducing or eliminating lead from gasoline is not yet completely understood. PMID:4133903

  18. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J G [Univ. of Glasgow; Lyon, T D.B.

    1977-07-01

    The levels of lead in city street dirt and in soil from various locations in Glasgow were investigated during spring 1976. Lead concentrations in street dirt ranged from 150 to 2300 ppM, mean 960 ppM, and were significantly elevated with respect to the observed ''natural'' level of 78 ppM. Lead derived from anti-knock compounds in petrol and introduced to the environment via automobile exhausts was clearly implicated as the main source of lead pollution in a series of soil lead measurements at the centre and periphery of eight Glasgow parks. Various chemical leaching techniques were employed and compared. Less than 5 percent of street dirt and soil lead was found to be associated with the organic phase.

  19. [Lead intoxication in a group of workers in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, R F; Felgenhauer, N; Eyer, F; Buters, J T; Zilker, T

    2009-12-01

    Seventeen East-European workers with a suspected lead-intoxication presented themselves to the Department of Toxicology. All of them had worked on the renovation of pylons of a high-tension line. The old paint, known to contain lead was removed with needle descalers. The patients had blood lead concentrations between 325 and 1124 microg/l, but no specific symptoms. The workers neglected the protective measures at their working-place. 12 of 17 workers had lead-concentrations above 400 microg/l (Reference lead-concentration above 700 microg/l were treated with the chelating agent meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) 3 x 200 mg/d for nine days. The patients with lead concentrations between 400 and 700 microg/l were treated which DMSA 3 x 100 mg/d. After the DMSA-treatment the lead-concentrations had dropped (p lead concentration in their blood due to occupational exposure. The high blood lead levels showed that the workers had not been protected adequately. This examplifies that occupational lead exposure still occurs, also in Germany. By patients with unspecific symptoms connected with lead exposure a biomonitoring for lead is necessary.

  20. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  1. First studies of lead pollution in Guanabara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Branquinho, C.L. da.

    1973-01-01

    The main sources of direct lead intake are studied, and metal concentrations in several medium are examined. Lead was extracted by dithizone in C Cl 4 , being determined by optical spectrophotometry. 2 1 2 Pb was used as a radioactive tracer in low concentration measurements of the metal, and analysis of its 239 KeV peak was done by a Ge-Li detector. In blood samples, the metal was complexed and extracted with APDC in MIBK, being measured by flame less atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Air samples were also collected for periods of 24 hours and 90 minutes. Representative street dust samples were examined, showing a strict correlation with lead in air. It was also estimated the amount of lead in some human blood samples. (author)

  2. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  3. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  4. Comparison of the radiological and chemical toxicity of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.; Mott, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report estimates the worst-case radiological dose to an individual from ingested lead containing picocurie levels of radionuclides and then compares the calculated radiological health effects to the chemical toxic effects from that same lead. This comparison provides an estimate of the consequences of inadvertently recycling, in the commercial market, lead containing nominally undetectable concentrations of radionuclides. Quantitative expressions for the radiological and chemical toxicities of lead are based on concentrations of lead in the blood stream. The result shows that the chemical toxicity of lead is a greater health hazard, by orders of magnitude, than any probable companion radiation dose.

  5. Comparison of the radiological and chemical toxicity of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.; Mott, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report estimates the worst-case radiological dose to an individual from ingested lead containing picocurie levels of radionuclides and then compares the calculated radiological health effects to the chemical toxic effects from that same lead. This comparison provides an estimate of the consequences of inadvertently recycling, in the commercial market, lead containing nominally undetectable concentrations of radionuclides. Quantitative expressions for the radiological and chemical toxicities of lead are based on concentrations of lead in the blood stream. The result shows that the chemical toxicity of lead is a greater health hazard, by orders of magnitude, than any probable companion radiation dose

  6. Leading Indian Business-Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandrovna Vorobyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the evolution of the leading Indian business-groups under the conditions of economical liberalization. It is shown that the role of modern business-groups in the Indian economy is determined by their high rate in the gross domestic product (GDP, huge overall actives, substantial pert in the e[port of goods and services, as well as by their activities in modern branch structure formatting, and developing labor-intensive and high-tech branches. They strongly influence upon economical national strategies, they became a locomotive of internationalization and of transnationalization of India, the basis of the external economy factor system, the promoters of Indian "economical miracle" on the world scene, and the dynamical segment of economical and social development of modern India. The tendencies of the development of the leading Indian business groups are: gradual concentration of production in few clue sectors, "horizontal" structure, incorporation of the enterprises into joint-stock structure, attraction of hired top-managers and transnationaliziation. But against this background the leading Indian business-groups keep main traditional peculiarities: they mostly still belong to the families of their founders, even today they observe caste or communal relations which are the basis of their non-formal backbone tides, they still remain highly diversificated structures with weak interrelations. Specific national ambivalence and combination of traditions and innovations of the leading Indian business-groups provide their high vitality and stability in the controversial, multiform, overloaded with caste and confessional remains Indian reality. We conclude that in contrast to the dominant opinion transformation of these groups into multisectoral corporations of the western type is far from completion, and in the nearest perspective they will still possess all their peculiarities and incident social and economical

  7. Occupational exposure to lead--granulometric distribution of airborne lead in relation to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, G; Masci, O; Altieri, A; Castellino, N

    1999-07-01

    The amount of airborne lead absorbed by the body during occupational exposure depends not only on lead concentration in workplace air, but also on the granulometric distribution of the aerosol. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) set the lead Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) at 50 micrograms/m3 on the basis of Bernard's model and a number of assumptions, including assumption "C", which predicts that the first 12.5 micrograms/m3 are made up of fine particles (aerodynamic diameter 1 micron. Occupational exposure to airborne lead at a concentration of 50 micrograms/m3 and a granulometric distribution calculated according to the above mentioned assumption, leads, in the model, to a mean blood level of 40 micrograms/dl. In the present study, we tested the validity of assumption "C" in the environmental air of a factory that manufactured crystal glassware containing 24% lead oxide. An 8-stage impactor was used to measure the particle size of airborne dust collected from personal and area samplings. Results indicate that, on the whole, assumption "C" cannot be considered valid in the work environment investigated in this study. As a result, lead absorption levels in exposed workers may be noticeably different from those predicted by the OSHA model. We therefore suggest that in order to make a correct evaluation of the risk of occupational exposure to lead, it is essential to integrate total airborne lead concentration with a measurement of the granulometric distribution of the aerosol.

  8. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems.24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance and the low-lead animal feed (diet administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS.There are significant differences (p<0.05 in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204Pb/(206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204Pb/(206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group.The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204Pb/(206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  9. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  10. Learn about Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... it has some beneficial uses, it can be toxic to humans and animals causing of health ... some types of industrial facilities, and past use of lead-based paint ...

  11. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than half of all people in the United States either will have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. Common symptoms are: Blurry vision Colors that seem faded Glare Not being able to ...

  12. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    covers the opposite view, where a company actively searches and involves lead users, however, with limited success also. Based on both cases, we analyze how, in these emerging processes of relating, meaning is co-created in a way that narrows the shared conceptual space for imagination and collaboration...

  13. Girls Leading Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  14. Leading through Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  15. Lead Time Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    1979, the number of titanium fabrications dropped from 16 to 4, primarily because of the sponge shortage and EPA and OSHA requirements. Non-military...East - Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong. In addition, a significant amount of ceramic parts, lead frames and high technology

  16. Lead pollution in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Khatoon, N.; Ishaque, M.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-01-01

    Lead pollution of urban area emanating from the vehicular exhaust alone is being labeled as one of the worst form of environmental degradation attracting our attention for remediation. For factual assessment samples were collected from different areas of Islamabad. These samples consisted of tree scrapings / peelings, which were dried and ground before undertaking analysis for the lead content. The samples were digested with an acid mixture to remove the organic matter and analyzed using GFAAS technique. A total of 81 samples have been analyzed. The results sowed a lead content varying in the range of 8-474 Mu g g/sup -1/) and 23 samples with Pb content <50 Mu g g-1 (8.0-50.0 Mu g g/sup -1/). Most of the samples also contained some growth which consisted of bacterial, algae and fugal cells and the results have been explained on the basis of Pb absorption by these cells. The procedure followed in this study is recommended for evaluation of lead pollution in urban areas. (author)

  17. EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSOFT

    increase in the production of poultry meat at a reasonable cost (Alam et al., ...... 36(4): 537-541. Taggart MA, Figuerola J, Green AJ, Mateo R, Deacon C, Osborn D, ... selenium, lead and copper levels in the livers and bones of five waterfowl ...

  18. Intoxication for lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, Ruben Dario; Tamayo, Margarita Maria

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of a hospitalized girl with bronchopneumonia, who needed mechanic ventilation. Also she had a developmental delay and Burtons border in gums. Radiological studies showed dense transverse metaphiseal bands in long bones and hyperdensity in basal ganglia. We found high serum lead levels

  19. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  20. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Results: The primary form of lead toxicity is by oxidative stress mechanisms, apoptosis and necrosis involving ... néfastes sur la reproduction à l'avenir. Résultats:La forme ... prostate cancers, abnormal sexual ..... ensure this work is a success.

  1. Scientometry Leading us Astray

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 82 (2010), s. 8-8 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : scientometry Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en82/european-scene/ scientometry -leading-us-astray

  2. Remediation of lead-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

    1992-01-01

    Excavation and transport of soil contaminated with heavy metals has generally been the standard remediation technique for treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. This approach is not a permanent solution; moreover, off-site shipment and disposal of contaminated soil involves high expense, liability, and appropriate regulatory approval. Recently, a number of other techniques have been investigated for treating such contaminated sites, including flotation, solidification/stabilization, vitrification, and chemical extraction. This paper reports the results of a laboratory investigation determining the efficiency of using chelating agents to extract lead from contaminated soils. Lead concentrations in the soils ranged from 500 to 10,000 mg/kg. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were examined for their potential extractive capabilities. Concentrations of the chelating agents ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 M. The pH of the suspensions in which the extractions were performed ranged from 4 to 12. Results showed that the removal of lead using NTA and water was ph-dependent, whereas the removal of lead using EDTA was ph-insensitive. Maximum removals of lead were 68.7%,19.1%, and 7.3% using EDTA, NTA, and water, respectively (as compared with initial lead concentrations)

  3. Lead poisoning in whooper and tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Tetsuya; Tomura, Yoshihiro; Jin, Kazuo; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Mutsuki; Kikkawa, Aya; Miyagi, Kunitaro; Uchida, Eiji; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Mukai, Takeshi; Shirasawa, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Mamoru

    2005-01-01

    Six weak whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) and two weak tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were found at Swamp Miyajima (Hokkaido, Japan) in May 1998. Anorexia, depression, green watery feces, pale conjunctiva, and anemia were observed. Radiographs showed from six to 38 suspected lead pellets in the gizzard. Blood lead concentrations were 2.5-6.7 microg/g (mean+/-SD=4.6+/-1.14 microg/g) on day 1. After blood collection, the birds were treated with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA) given intravenously and force fed. Despite treatment, seven birds died the next day. Green, bile-stained livers and pale or green kidneys were observed on necropsy. Microscopically, bile pigment was widespread in the liver and acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in renal tubular epithelium. Lead concentrations in livers and kidneys were 14.0-30.4 microg/g and 30.2-122 microg/g wet weight, respectively. Only one bird survived and this whooper swan continued to be treated with CaEDTA and activated charcoal. No lead shot was observed in the proventriculus and gizzard by radiography on day 64 and the blood lead concentration decreased from 2.9 microg/g to 0.09 microg/g during that same period. After 4 mo of rehabilitation, the whooper swan was returned to the wild. Lead intoxication continues to be a problem at Swamp Miyajima.

  4. Effect of lead on heme synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, A.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a fair amount of work has been done on the effect of lead on porphobilinogen dehydratase, which has been used as a sensitive indicator of lead poisoning. How far this is in itself harmful depends on the Michaelis constants of both the aminolaevulinic synthetase and of the dehydratase, and in addition on the relative activities of the two enzymes in a cell and also on the tissue concentration of glycine. Information on some of these points is still fragmentary, and a reliable judgement is at the present not very easy. Another step in the heme synthesis, which is sensitive to low concentrations of lead, is the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin. Inhibition of this step may be important in accounting to a large extent for the anaemia found in individuals with lead poisoning. Reduction in the tissue concentration of heme or of heme-like compounds may also explain, through the mechanism of de-repression, the excretion of increased amounts of aminolaevulinic acid in the urine observed in cases of lead poisoning. A third step in heme synthesis, which might be sensitive to lead, is the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrin to protoporphyrin, and this may explain why the former derivative is excreted in the urine. Recent work of the Harvard Medical School has indicated that greatly reduced levels of ALA dehydratase may be found in most cases of severe liver damage due to alcoholism. In most of these cases the level of lead in the blood is within normal limits, and there is no history of exposure to toxic amounts of lead. We therefore have to assume that a reduction in the blood level of this enzyme is not necessarily an indication of lead poisoning.

  5. Safety and Health Topics: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ammunition, pipes, cable covering, building material, solder, radiation shielding, collapsible tubes, and fishing weights. Lead is also ... lead linings in tanks and radiation protection, leaded glass, work involving soldering, and other work involving lead ...

  6. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  7. Lead identification in soil surrounding a used lead acid battery smelter area in Banten, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adventini, N; Santoso, M; Lestiani, D D; Syahfitri, W Y N; Rixson, L

    2017-01-01

    A used lead acid battery smelter generates particulates containing lead that can contaminate the surrounding environment area. Lead is a heavy metal which is harmful to health if it enters the human body through soil, air, or water. An identification of lead in soil samples surrounding formal and informal used lead acid battery smelters area in Banten, Indonesia using EDXRF has been carried out. The EDXRF accuracy and precision evaluated from marine sediment IAEA 457 gave a good agreement to the certified value. A number of 16 soil samples from formal and informal areas and 2 soil samples from control area were taken from surface and subsurface soils. The highest lead concentrations from both lead smelter were approximately 9 folds and 11 folds higher than the reference and control samples. The assessment of lead contamination in soils described in C f index was in category: moderately and strongly polluted by lead for formal and informal lead smelter. Daily lead intake of children in this study from all sites had exceeded the recommended dietary allowance. The HI values for adults and children living near both lead smelter areas were greater than the value of safety threshold 1. This study finding confirmed that there is a potential health risk for inhabitants surrounding the used lead acid battery smelter areas in Banten, Indonesia. (paper)

  8. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There are significant differences (pblood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204)Pb/(206)Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  9. Battery lead recycling and environmental pollution hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collivignarelli, C; Urbini, G; Riganti, V

    1986-01-01

    In Italy, lead recycling from discarded electric storage batteries has been developing on an industrial scale, with a yield of approximately 98% and a saving of 37% on lead imports. Moreover, battery plastic coverings can also be profitably recycled. However, the recovery industry has proved to be very polluting, as shown by the recent example of a factory sited in a vast agricultural area south of Milan, Italy. Lead in the atmosphere affects workers exposed to lead concentrations above A.C.G.I.H. standards while lead in wastewaters and fumes from smelting furnaces is the cause of environmental pollution. In particular, pollution over large tracts of cultivated lands surrounding such factories is shown by the considerable quantity of lead in forage which is harmful to cattle fed on it. Tests on dead oxen have revealed lead concentrations in kidneys and liver ranging from 9.1 to 17.4 mg/kg and 6 to 7 mg/kg respectively. Quantities exceeding safety limits have been found also in cattle blood and milk, with maximum values of 51 ..mu..g/100 ml and 0.072 mg/1 respectively. These results prove the need for extremely efficient control systems in this particular recovery industry. (author).

  10. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  11. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  12. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  13. Leading change: 3--implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    The potential for all staff to contribute to service improvement, irrespective of discipline, role or function, is outlined in the 2011 NHS leadership framework. This advocates developing the skills of the entire workforce to create a climate of continuous service improvement. As nurses are often required to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice, this final article in a three-part series focuses on implementing ande potentia reviewing change.

  14. Anomalous bioaccumulation of lead in the earthworm Eisenoides lonnbergi (Michaelsen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Codling, Eton E.; Rutzke, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Lead concentrations in soil organisms are usually well below those in the associated soil and tend to decrease with each higher trophic level in a food chain. Earthworms of the species Eisenoides lonnbergi provide an exception to this observation, accumulating very high concentrations of lead from acidic soils. Earthworms belonging to this species were collected from strongly to extremely acidic soils at 16 sites on a wildlife refuge in Maryland, USA. A lead concentration as high as 766 mg/kg, dry weight, was detected in depurated E. lonnbergi collected from soil containing only 17 mg/kg of lead. Concentration factors (ratio of lead concentration in earthworms to lead concentration in soil, dry wt) were highly variable at the sites, from 1.0 to 83. As suggested previously, lead absorption by earthworms is enhanced in low-calcium soils. The anomalously high concentrations of lead found in E. lonnbergi are more closely correlated with the uptake of calcium from acidic soils than with bioaccessibility of soil lead

  15. Lead-210, polonium-210, and stable lead in the food-chain lichen, reindeer and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.

    1972-01-01

    The measurements of stable lead and the natural fallout radionuclides lead-210 and polonium-210 in communities of lichen (Cladonia alpestris) in central Sweden from 1961 to 1970 indicate a quite constant level. The average lead-210 content per unit area in lichen carpets was found to be 15 +- 2 nCi m -2 , the average lead-210 activity concentration 6.7 +- 0.9 nCi per kg dry weight and the lead-210 specific activity 630 +- 60 nCi per g of stable lead. The polonium-210/lead-210 activity ratio was about 0.9 +- 0.1. The vertical distribution of lead-210 in the lichen carpet showed a maximum concentration in the top layer. The distribution was similar during 1967 and 1968 but the low amount of precipitation during 1968 and 1969 disturbed the distribution pattern in 1969 and 1970. The transfer of lead-210, polonium-210 and stable lead through the food chain: lichen, reindeer, and man was characterized. The absorbed dose rate in Lapps due to polonium-210 was estimated to be about 6 to 8 mrad per year in gonads and 8 to 20 mrad per year in bone tissues. This is about ten percent of their entire absorbed dose contribution from all natural radiation sources. (U.S.)

  16. Stable lead isotopic analyses of historic and contemporary lead contamination of San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, P.I.; Bouse, R.M.; Flegal, A.R.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Variations in stable lead isotopic composition (240Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) in three sediment cores from the San Francisco Bay estuary document temporal changes in sources of lead during the past two centuries. Sediment, with lead from natural geologic sources, and relatively homogeneous lead isotopic compositions are overlain by sediments whose isotopic compositions indicate change in the sources of lead associated with anthropogenic modification of the estuary. The first perturbations of lead isotopic composition in the cores occur in the late 1800s concordant with the beginning of industrialization around the estuary. Large isotopic shifts, toward lower 206Pb/207Pb, occur after the turn of the century in both Richardson and San Pablo Bays. A similar relationship among lead isotopic compositions and lead concentrations in both Bays suggest contamination from the same source (a lead smelter). The uppermost sediments (post 1980) of all cores also have a relatively homogenous lead isotopic composition distinct from pre-anthropogenic and recent aerosol signatures. Lead isotopic compositions of leachates from fourteen surface sediments and five marsh samples from the estuary were also analyzed. These analyses suggest that the lead isotopic signature identified in the upper horizons of the cores is spatially homogeneous among recently deposited sediments throughout the estuary. Current aerosol lead isotopic compositions [Smith, D.R., Niemeyer, S., Flegal, A.R., 1992. Lead sources to California sea otters: industrial inputs circumvent natural lead biodepletion mechanisms. Environmental Research 57, 163-175] are distinct from the isotopic compositions of the surface sediments, suggesting that the major source of lead is cycling of historically contaminated sediments back through the water column. Both the upper core sediments and surface sediments apparently derive their lead predominantly from sources internal to the estuary. These results support the idea that

  17. Lead elimination by ICRF 158 in rats after chronic lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witting, U; Hultsch, E

    1981-02-01

    Lead elimination by ICRF 158, a lipophilic derivative of ethylene-diaminetetra-acetate (EDTA), was investigated in rats after chronic lead exposure. The animals had received a lead concentration of 550 ppm in their drinking water for 140 days. Subsequent treatment with ICRF 158 for 30 days led to increased mobilization and elimination of incorporated lead, and the lead-induced inhibition of hemosynthesis was removed. ICR 158 produced no renal damage in excess to lead-induced tubular nephrosis. Separate toxicity tests in mice demonstrated that is less toxic than CaNa/sub 2/EDTA. ICRF 158 does not form stable complexes with lead ions in vitro. The mechanism of action of this lipophilic EDTA derivative is compared to that of its hydrophilic correspondent, the chelating agent CaNa/sub 2/EDTA.

  18. Childhood lead exposure and uptake in teeth in the Cleveland area during the era of leaded gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, Norman; Zhang, Zhong-Fa; Sun, Jiayang; Ketterer, Michael E.; Lalumandier, James A.; Shulze, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood uptake of lead from exposure to atmospheric leaded gasoline in the United States has been studied using mainly blood lead levels. Since reliable blood lead techniques were used only after the peak use of leaded gasoline, the prior exposure history is unclear. The well-documented decline in blood lead levels after the mid-1970s could represent the continuation of a historic steady decline in exposure from many sources. Alternatively, the post-1970s decline might represent the declining phase of a unimodal rise and fall corresponding closely to usage of leaded gasoline. To assess these possibilities, lead concentration and 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were measured in the enamel of permanent molar teeth formed between 1936 and 1993 in mainly African-American donors who grew up in the Cleveland area. Tooth enamel preserves the lead concentration and isotope ratio that prevails during tooth formation. Historical trends in enamel lead concentration were significantly correlated with surrogates of atmospheric lead exposure: lead in sediments of two dated Lake Erie cores, and lead consumed in gasoline. About two-thirds of the total lead uptake into enamel in this period was attributable to leaded gasoline, and the remainder to other sources (e.g. paint). Enamel 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were similar to those of one lake sediment. Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlation in neighborhoods with higher levels of traffic, and including lake sediment data, accounted for 53% of the variation in enamel lead levels. Enamel lead concentration was highly correlated with reported African-American childhood blood levels. The extrapolated peak level of 48 μg/dL (range 40 to 63) is associated with clinical and behavioral impairments, which may have implications for adults who were children during the peak gasoline lead exposure. In sum, leaded gasoline emission was the predominant source of lead exposure of African-American Cleveland children during the latter

  19. Lead levels in roadside soils and vegetation of Damascus city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Masri, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Seasonal variations of lead concentration in roadside soils and plants in 12 sites in Damascus city have been investigated. Lead concentrations in soil were found to be varied from 78.4 ppm to 832 ppm; lower levels in the wet period than in the dry period were observed. While lead levels in roadside plants varied between 3.39 ppm to 13.28 ppm. The results have also shown that most of the vegetables grown on the roadside of Damascus city have high concentrations of lead and the normal washing does not decrease it to An acceptable level. (author)

  20. Lead pollution, disease, and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryce-Smith, D; Waldron, H A

    1974-01-01

    Sources and health effects of atmospheric lead pollution are reviewed. Most of the Pb in gasoline is emitted in the exhaust gases as an aerosol containing particles of inorganic Pb. Some organic Pb is present, but the amount is usually less than 10% of the total. The size of these particles (0.18 to 0.90 micron) ensures maximum pulmonary penetration and absorption. The fallout of airborne particles produces very high concentrations of Pb in city dust, both inside and outside houses. Unpolluted soil contains about 15 ppM Pb, but samples of city dust contain 1000 to 6000 ppM. A daily intake of as little as 30 mg of dust containing 3% Pb produces clinical Pb poisoning in a few months. There is clear evidence to support the thesis that current levels in the environment are capable of producing behavioral abnormalities of types associated with educational disorders and delinquency, and also evidence that delinquents tend to have abnormal lead metabolism.

  1. Behavior of active deposit of lead (Teisinger) in the Japanese free from occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S

    1973-12-01

    Intravenous infusion of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) was given to 45 Japanese adults without occupational exposure to lead for 1 hr at a dosage of 20 mg/kg body weight in 250 ml of 5 percent glucose solution. The urinary excretion of lead was estimated for 24 hr before, and for 2 hr and 24 hr after the administration. The least variation of the lead content was recognized in the 24-hour urinary excretion after the injection of CaEDTA. No sexual difference was noted in the creatinine-corrected lead concentration. By multiple linear regression and correlation analyses, age was found to be significant in determining positively the lead level mobilized in 24-hour urine samples. Height was significant in determining positively the spontaneous 24-hour urinary lead excretion. Certain significant correlations existed among lead in blood, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in erythrocytes, delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine, coproporphyrin in urine, lead in urine, and lead mobilized by CaEDTA. The existence of active body burden of lead was suggested in human subjects under usual urban conditions where the total ambient lead concentration averaged 1.7 micrograms/cm m of air. Based on a few assumptions, it was calculated that about 3 micrograms of lead was retained on the average per day by a Japanese adult. Daily retention of lead by Japanese adults was formularized as lead in micrograms equals a constant (K) times daily creatinine excretion in grams, where K is 1.77 in men and 2.73 in women. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  2. Process for lead removal from rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollat, A.; Sabot, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    An aqueous solution of rare earth chlorides and lead chlorides, with a chloride concentration of at least 2 moles/liter and a pH between 2 and 4, is extracted by an alkylphosphonic acid ester and rare earth(s) is (are) recovered from the organic phase [fr

  3. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Casteel, Stan W; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A; Nichols, John R; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen L; Rattner, Barnett A; Schultz, Sandra L

    2018-01-29

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  4. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Casteel, Stan W.; Friedrichs, Kristen R.; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A.; Nichols, John W.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schultz, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  5. Lead diffusion in monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, E.

    2006-06-01

    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO 4 monocrystals and in Nd 0.66 Ca 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 polycrystals from Nd 0.66 Pb 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 thin films to investigate Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol -1 and log(D 0 (m 2 s -1 )) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  6. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  7. Leading change: 2--planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance.

  8. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View.

  9. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  10. Remediation of lead contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1992-01-01

    Lead contaminated soil in urban area is of major concern because of the potential health risk to children. Many studies have established a direct correlation between lead in soil and elevated blood lead levels in children. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mielke et al. (1983) reported that 50% of the Hmong children with lead poisioning were in areas where soil lead levels were between 500 and 1000 micrograms per gram (ug/g), and 40% of the children suffering from lead poisioning lived in areas where soil lead levels exceeded 1000 ug/g. In urban areas, lead pollution in soil has come from many different sources. The sources include lead paint, lead batteries and automobile exhaust. Olson and Skogerbee (1975) found the following lead compounds in soils where the primary source of pollution was from automobiles: lead sulfate, lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead sulfide, and metallic lead. The primary form of lead found was lead sulfate. Lead sulfate, lead tetraoxide, white lead, and other forms of lead have been used in the manufacture of paints for houses. At present, two remediation techniques, solidification and Bureau of Mines fluosilicic acid leaching, are available for lead-contaminated sites. The objective of the present investigation at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), Edison, was to try to solubilize the lead species by appropriate reagents and then recover the contaminants by precipitation as lead sulfate, using environmentally acceptable methods. The apparatus used for mixing was a LabMaster mixer, with variable speed and high-shear impeller. Previous work had used nitric acid for dissolving metallic lead. Owing to the environmental concerns, it was decided to use acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The theoretical justification for this approach is the favorable redox potential for the reaction between metallic lead, acetic acid, and gaseous oxygen

  11. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment on Rana sphenocephala tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Krest, S.K.; Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.

    2006-01-01

    We exposed larval southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to lead-contaminated sediments to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of this metal. Tadpoles were laboratory-raised from early free-swimming stage through metamorphosis at lead concentrations of 45, 75, 180, 540, 2360, 3940, 5520, and 7580 mg/kg dry weight in sediment. Corresponding pore water lead concentrations were 123, 227, 589, 1833, 8121, 13,579, 19,038, and 24,427 ug/L. Tadpoles exposed to lead concentrations in sediment of 3940 mg/kg or higher died within 2 to 5 days of exposure. At lower concentrations, mortality through metamorphosis ranged from 3.5% at 45 mg/kg lead to 37% at 2360 mg/kg lead in sediment. The LC50 value for lead in sediment was 3728 mg/kg (95% CI=1315 to 72,847 mg/kg), which corresponded to 12,539 ug/L lead in pore water (95% CI= 4000 to 35,200 ug/L). Early growth and development were depressed at 2,360 mg/kg lead in sediment (8100 ug/L in pore water) but differences were not evident by the time of metamorphosis. The most obvious effect of lead was its pronounced influence on skeletal development. Whereas tadpoles at 45 mg/kg lead in sediment did not display permanent abnormalities, skeletal malformations increased in frequency and severity at all higher lead concentrations. By 2360 mg/kg, 100% of surviving metamorphs displayed severe spinal problems, reduced femur and humerus lengths, deformed digits, and other bone malformations. Lead concentrations in tissues correlated positively with sediment and pore water concentrations.

  12. The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Fenni; Hu Qingyuan

    2009-01-01

    The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors has been studied in this paper. First existence of the optimum lead thickness is explained theoretically. Then the optimum lead thickness is obtained by two methods, MCNP5 calculation and mathematical estimation. At last factors which affect the optimum lead thickness are discussed. It turns out that the optimum lead thickness is irrelevant to incident neutron energies. It is recommended 2.5 cm generally.

  13. The leaching of lead from lead-based paint in landfill environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadanambi, Lakmini; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2008-08-30

    Lead leaching from lead-based paint (LBP) was examined using standardized laboratory protocols and tests with leachate from actual and simulated landfill environments. Two different LBP samples were tested; leaching solutions included leachates from three municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and three construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were also performed. Lead concentrations were many times higher using the TCLP compared to the SPLP and the landfill leachates. No significant difference (alpha=0.05) was observed in leached lead concentrations from the MSW landfill and C&D debris landfill leachates. The impact of other building materials present in LBP debris on lead leaching was examined by testing mixtures of LBP (2%) and different building materials (98%; steel, wood, drywall, concrete). The type of substrate present impacted lead leaching results, with concrete demonstrating the most dramatic impact; the lowest lead concentrations were measured in the presence of concrete under both TCLP and SPLP extractions.

  14. Who will lead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, R P; Schlosser, J R

    1997-01-01

    A recent survey conducted by the UCLA Center for Health Services Management and the Physician Executive Practice of Heidrick & Struggles, an executive search firm, sheds light on the emerging physician executive's role. The goal of the research was to identify success factors as a means of evaluating and developing effective industry leaders. Respondents were asked to look at specific skills in relation to nine categories: Communication, leadership, interpersonal skills, self-motivation/management, organizational knowledge, organizational strategy, administrative skills, and thinking. Communication, leadership, and self-motivation/management emerged, in that order, as the three most important success factors for physician executives. An individual's general competencies, work styles, and ability to lead others through organizational restructuring defines his or her appropriateness for managerial positions in the health care industry.

  15. Lead toxicity on hematological parameters in workers with occupational exposure to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, N.; Koese, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lead on hematological parameters were studied in lead exposed male workers occupied for 17.84+-4.22 years in a metal powder producing factory in Kayseri, Turkey and control male workers in same city. Blood lead and plasma zinc levels were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and hematological parameters by Culture Counter S. The lead exposure workers had higher lead levels (13.81+- 9.21 mug/dl) as compared to control subjects (2.37+-0.10 mug/dl). No difference was observed in the plasma zinc levels of both groups. As indices of lead exposure, red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) values significantly decreased. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly increased except MCV. There was also an increase in MCV, but it was not significant. (author)

  16. Characteristics of transplacental lead transfer in rat dams and fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopfler, F.C.; Miller, R.G.; Kowal, N.E.; Kelty, K.C.; Doerger, J.U.; Mills, T.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitate the dose resulting from lead exposure during the critical periods of brain development during gestation by determining: (1) if blood lead concentration in rat dams is affected by pregnancy status or duration of lead exposure, (2) if lead concentration in fetuses is associated with the duration of dam exposure, (3) the rates of lead absorption and elimination in pregnant and nonpregnant dams; and (4) the effect that prebreeding exposure on lead kinetics in the dam and upon fetus blood lead concentrations. The results of experiments in which the dams' drinking water contained 50 mg/L lead indicate blood lead levels (after normalizing by water consumption on a body weight basis) of pregnant rats are significantly higher than blood lead levels of non-pregnant rats. Statistical differences in blood lead levels were observed by day 15 of gestation and continue through day 20 of gestation. These blood lead differences are not due to lead treatment prior to breeding as seen when comparing Figure 1 and Figure 2. The blood lead levels of the fetuses at day 20 of gestation were 50-60% higher than that of the corresponding dams. The results from the latter two phases were ambiguous, due to large variability in individual animal absorption and elimination rates. However, the following observations can be made. Preexposure to lead does not affect the percent of lead transferred from the dams' blood to the fetuses. The rate of elimination of lead from the dams' blood does not appear to be affected by prebreeding exposure to lead or by the status of pregnancy. The fraction of the 203 Pb dose transferred to the fetus increases dramatically toward the end of gestation. The data suggest that lead absorption from the gut of pregnant rats is higher than that for nonpregnant rats

  17. Effects of lead on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiussello, N.; Molinari, M.T.

    1973-01-01

    The poisonousness of lead nitrate to seedlings of several plant species has been tested in Petri dishes, with 10/sup -1/, 10/sup -2/, 10/sup -3/, 10/sup -4/ M conc. Distilled water and KNO/sub 3/ solutions 2 X 10/sup -1/, 2 X 10/sup -2/, 2 X 10/sup -3/, 2 X 10/sup -4/ M were employed as controls. The tested species show a decreasing sensitivity: Capsicum annum > Beta vulgaris > Phalaris canariensis > Vicia sativa > Helianthus annuus > Oryza sativa > Triticum vulgare Avena sativa > Pisum sativum. Avena sativa shows a diminution of 34% in ww, 23% in dw, 26% in chlorophyll content in comparison with the controls after 21 days 10/sup -4/ M lead nitrate. The chlorophyll content, referred to dry weight, is related to lead concentration. Since the early stages of chlorophyll biosynthesis are similar, if not identical, with those for Haemoglobin, lead could interfere as it does in haemoglobin synthesis.

  18. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the contribution of environmental exposures to lead in the development of cytogenetic damage detected as the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in children. The other aim was to apply the MN assay in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization...... age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...... was determined by the cytokinesis-block MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed using a specific pan-centromeric probe. Environmental exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased levels of PbB (5.29 +/- 2.09 versus 3.45 +/- 1.20 microg/dl in controls), although the average level...

  19. Iodide-assisted total lead measurement and determination of different lead fractions in drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ng, Ding-Quan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2012-07-01

    Lead and its compounds are toxic and can harm human health, especially the intelligence development in children. Accurate measurement of total lead present in drinking water is crucial in determining the extent of lead contamination and human exposure due to drinking water consumption. The USEPA method for total lead measurement (no. 200.8) is often used to analyze lead levels in drinking water. However, in the presence of high concentration of the tetravalent lead corrosion product PbO(2), the USEPA method was not able to fully recover particulate lead due to incomplete dissolution of PbO(2) particles during strong acid digestion. In this study, a new procedure that integrates membrane separation, iodometric PbO(2) measurement, strong acid digestion and ICP-MS measurement was proposed and evaluated for accurate total lead measurement and quantification of different lead fractions including soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2) in drinking water samples. The proposed procedure was evaluated using drinking water reconstituted with spiked Pb(2+), spiked particulate Pb(II) carbonate and in situ formed or spiked PbO(2). Recovery tests showed that the proposed procedure and the USEPA method can achieve 93-112% and 86-103% recoveries respectively for samples containing low PbO(2) concentrations (0.018-0.076 mg Pb per L). For samples containing higher concentrations of PbO(2) (0.089-1.316 mg Pb per L), the USEPA method failed to meet the recovery requirement for total lead (85-115%) while the proposed method can achieve satisfactory recoveries (91-111%) and differentiate the soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2).

  20. Isotope systematic of contaminant leads in Monterey Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flegal, A.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Stephenson, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of stable lead ( 204 Pb, 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 208 Pb) were utilized to identify a lead slag deposit as the principal source of contaminant lead in Monterey Bay. This point source had been indicated by anomalously high lead concentrations in native mussels (Mytilus californianus) near that deposit, which were orders of magnitude above the base-line concentration of the species (0.5 μg/g). Subsequent analyses revealed that the lead concentrations of both transplanted mussels and intertidal sediments were positively correlated with their proximity to the slag deposit. Complementary lead isotopic compositions substantiated those empirical correlations by demonstrating that the slag was the predominant source of contaminant lead in both the mussels and the sediments. Analyses of the digestive tracts of mussels from the slag deposit indicated that ingested slag particulates accounted for their elevated lead concentrations, while analyses of their gonads indicated that dissolved lead from other industrial sources was also being bioaccumulated by passive adsorption on exposed surfaces. Therefore, this study has demonstrated the potential of lead isotope systematics both to identify sources of lead contamination in marine organisms and to trace its biogeochemical cycle in the marine environment. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  1. Lead in New York City Community Garden Chicken Eggs: Influential Factors and Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Taylor, Owen; Shayler, Hannah A.; Greene, Virginia; Oglesby, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Raising chickens for eggs in urban areas is becoming increasingly common. Urban chickens may be exposed to lead, a common urban soil contaminant. We measured lead concentrations in chicken eggs from New York City (NYC) community gardens and collected information on factors that might affect those concentrations. Lead was detected between 10 and 167 μg/kg in 48% of NYC eggs. Measures of lead in eggs from a henhouse were significantly associated (plead concentrations in soil. The association between soil and egg lead has been evaluated only once before, by a study of a rural region in Belgium. In our study, the apparent lead soil-to-egg transfer efficiency was considerably lower than that found in Belgium, suggesting that there may be important geographic differences in this transfer. We developed models that suggested that, for sites like ours, lead concentrations in >50% of eggs from a henhouse would exceed store-bought egg concentrations (lead concentrations >120 mg/kg, and that the concentration in one of six eggs from a henhouse would exceed a 100 μg/kg guidance value at soil lead concentrations >410 mg/kg. Our models also suggested that the availability of dietary calcium supplements was another influential factor that reduced egg lead concentrations. Estimates of health risk from consuming eggs with the lead concentrations we measured generally were not significant. However, soil lead concentrations in this study were lead transfer to chicken eggs and associated exposure are recommended for urban chicken keepers. PMID:24287691

  2. Lead phytotoxicity in soils and nutrient solutions is related to lead induced phosphorus deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheyns, Karlien; Peeters, Sofie; Delcourt, Dorien; Smolders, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study was set up to relate lead (Pb) bioavailability with its toxicity to plants in soils. Tomato and barley seedlings were grown in six different PbCl 2 spiked soils (pH: 4.7–7.4; eCEC: 4.2–41.7 cmol c /kg). Soils were leached and pH corrected after spiking to exclude confounding factors. Plant growth was halved at 1600–6500 mg Pb/kg soil for tomato and at 1900–8300 mg Pb/kg soil for barley. These soil Pb threshold were unrelated to soil pH, organic carbon, texture or eCEC and neither soil solution Pb nor Pb 2+ ion activity adequately explained Pb toxicity among soils. Shoot phosphorus (P) concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tomato grown in hydroponics at either varying P supply or at increasing Pb (equal initial P) illustrated that shoot P explained growth response in both scenarios. The results suggest that Pb toxicity is partially related to Pb induced P deficiency, likely due to lead phosphate precipitation. - Highlights: ► Tomato and barley shoot growth was affected by Pb toxicity in six different soils. ► Soil properties did not explain differences in plant Pb toxicity among soils. ► Neither soil solution Pb nor Pb 2+ ion activity explained Pb toxicity among soils. ► Shoot phosphorus concentration decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. ► Lead induced a P deficiency in plants, likely due to lead phosphate precipitation. - Soil properties did not explain differences in plant lead toxicity among different soils. Shoot phosphorus concentration decreased with increasing soil lead concentrations.

  3. Lead and lead-based alloys as waste matrix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arustamov, A.E.; Ojovan, M.I.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Metals and alloys with relatively low melting temperatures such as lead and lead-based alloys are considered in Russia as prospective matrices for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel in containers in preparation for final disposal in underground repositories. Now lead and lead-based alloys are being used for conditioning spent sealed radioactive sources at radioactive waste disposal facilities

  4. OCCUPATIONAL LEAD EXPOSURE AND COGNITION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinka Nestorova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neurotoxicity of lead is a major problem in all countries around the world. Long-term exposure to lead in the environment has recently become of interest as a possible risk factor for cognitive impairment in workers exposed to lead. The consequences for the brain after cessation of the exposure are also subject to research. The aims of our study were: to investigate and analyze cognitive impairment in workers in professional contact with lead. For the purpose of the study, a total of 72 workers in chronic professional contact with lead aerosols were examined. The investigated men (n = 72 were aged 39.4 ± 10.4 (19 - 58 years with an average duration of service of 13.0 ± 8.7 (1 - 33 years and mean lead concentration in blood of 43.4 ± 9.0 μg / dl. The screening set included a subjective cognitive impairment survey, a depression scale, a set of cognitive tests (MMSE, IST, DRT, CDT, and a scale for activities of daily living (4-IADL Score. With the increase of lead levels in the blood, a statistically reliable trend is observed for decrease of MMSE, IST and CDT scores. Eleven of the screened individuals (15.28% achieved a score of <7 which determines them as positively screened according to DRT. Possible mild cognitive impairment manifesting with disturbance of construction praxis, planning, short-term memory and concentration could probably be attributed to the toxic effects of lead and has a potential to be a subclinical marker.

  5. Varietal response to lead by lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, M.K.

    1977-06-01

    Nine lettuce varieties were hydroponically grown at six substrate Pb concentrations to 50 ppM in substrate. Top and root tissue Pb concentration, amounts assimilated, and translocation to edible tissue were dependent on the variety as well as substrate lead and exposure duration. Even though Pb in substrate was in a precipitated form, lettuce plants could assimilate and translocate Pb. Differential response of varieties with similar morphology indicated genetical regulated physiological mechanisms of Pb assimilation and translocation. This evidence suggests varietal selection could minimize human and animal dietary intake of Pb via food plants. While early growth of some varieties was stimulated by low concentrations of Pb, and high solution concentrations suppressed growth of several varieties, genetic variation also included non-significant response of growth.

  6. Lead transfer in maternal milk, and the absorption, retention, distribution and excretion of lead in suckling mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Charles Arthur [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Biology and Biophysics

    1980-01-01

    Suckling mice were found to absorb and retain a greater fraction of an oral lead dose than did adult mice. Pinocytotic activity and lead uptake (in vivo) were found to be greatest in the distal small intestinal tissue. Cortisone pretreatment results in precocious cessation of pinocytotic activity in the intestine of suckling mice. Cortisone pretreatment of adult mice had no effect on whole body lead retention or intestinal tissue content of lead following an oral dose. The data indicate that the distal small intestine is the site of active pinocytosis of lead, and that pinocytosis is the major mechanism involved in lead absorption in suckling mice. Developmental differences were also observed in the percentage of lead retained in the whole body. Both groups exhibited dose-independent lead retention, indicating a first-order absorption process for each age group. Lead distribution and elimination from organs also differed between suckling and adult mice. Developmental differences were observed in organ lead concentration for kidneys and brain following oral doses. Relative distribution of lead to the brains of suckling mice were greater than to adult brains. Whole body and bone lead elimination rates were reduced in suckling compared to adult mice. Brain lead elimination rates did not differ in suckling and adult mice. A lactating mouse model was developed to study lead transfer to suckling offspring. Lead was transferred in milk to suckling offspring from mothers which had previously ingested lead in the drinking water. Relative lead transfer to suckled offspring during lactation greatly exceeded transfer to fetuses during gestation. Lactation resulted in an increased rate of maternal lead elimination. Lead concentration in milk exceeded plasma concentration by a factor of approximately 25. (ERB)

  7. Lead action on activity of some enzymes of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolyov, A.N.; Koshkaryova, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Lead action on activity of some enzymes of young plants of barley double-row (Hordeum distichon L.) families of cereals (Grominea). It is established that activity urease, catalase, ascorbatoxidase is in dependence as from a lead dose in a nutritious solution, and term ontogenesis. At later stages ontogenesis the increase in concentration of lead in an inhabitancy leads to sharp decrease in activity ascorbatoxidase. In the same conditions activity urease and catalase raises.

  8. Lead poisoning in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J E

    1964-01-01

    Over a three-year period a farmer lost seven calves in their second month of age. One year ago a tentative diagnosis of rabies was given and a brain was submitted to the Health of Animals Division for examination. No Negri bodies were found. The owner stated that the calves first appeared listless and later exhibited severe nervous signs. Deaths occurred in from one to 24 hours after onset of signs. Appetite and bowel movements were normal. There was no increase in temperature. The calf would lie quietly for an interval, then rise, run down the alley, press against a wall, and go into a convulsion. It acted as if it were in severe pain and during one of the intermittent convulsions, it jumped over a three-foot partition. This calf was sent to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory at Brighton for necropsy. The calf had been dead for 72 hours when submitted to the laboratory. The only gross findings were of mild pleurisy and hemorrhage on the kidney. A tentative diagnosis of lead poisoning was offered and specimens sent to the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ontario Veterinary College.

  9. To study the concentration of natural radionuclides (uranium, thorium) and certain toxic trace elements (arsenic, mercury, antimony, lead) in hair of persons living in industrial and agricultural areas of Byelorussia. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear methods in health-treated monitoring of trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.

    1983-03-01

    Hair samples were collected from male and female donors living in selected industrial or agricultural areas of Byelorussia. Samples were analysed by INAA for As, Hg, Pb and Sb, while Th and U were determined by the solid track detector (STD) method. Overall, concentrations of the elements monitored were low with the exception of Pb for which relatively high concentrations were observed in industrial areas. No significant differences in the concentrations of the elements surveyed were observed between industrial and agricultural areas nor between male and female donors

  10. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollander, Barbro; Widemo, Fredrik; Ågren, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether game meat may contain nanoparticles of lead from ammunition. Lead nanoparticles in the range 40 to 750 nm were detected by ICP-MS in single particle mode in game shot with lead-containing bullets. The median diameter of the detected nanoparticles was around 60 nm....... The particle mass concentration ranged from 290 to 340 ng/g meat and the particle number concentrations from 27 to 50 million particles/g meat. The size limit of detection strongly depended on the level of dissolved lead and was in the range of 40 to 80 nm. In game meat sampled more than 10 cm away from...... the wound channel, no lead particles with a diameter larger than 40 nm were detected. In addition to dissolved lead in meat that originated from particulates, the presence of lead nano particles in game meat represents a hitherto unattended source of lead with a largely unknown toxicological impact...

  11. Lead and osteoporosis: Mobilization of lead from bone in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergeld, E.K. (Environmental Defense Fund, WA (USA)); Schwartz, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA)); Mahaffey, K. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Although it has been known that humans accumulate lead in bone, mineralized tissue has been considered primarily as a sequestering compartment and not as a site of toxic action for lead. However, experimental data indicate that bone lead can be released during conditions of demineralization, such as pregnancy and lactation. We have examined lead status in women, before and after menopause, using the NHANES II dataset compiled between 1976 and 1980. In 2981 black and white women there was a highly significant increase in both whole blood and calculated plasma lead concentrations after menopause. The results indicate that bone lead is not an inert storage site for absorbed lead. Moreover, lead may interact with other factors in the course of postmenopausal osteoporosis, to aggravate the course of the disease, since lead is known to inhibit activation of vitamin D, uptake of dietary calcium, and several regulatory aspects of bone cell function. The consequences of this mobilization may also be of importance in assessing the risks of maternal lead exposure to fetal and infant health.

  12. Lead remediation and changes in human lead exposure: some physiological and biokinetic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, Paul

    2003-02-15

    This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the various aspects of lead remediation effectiveness with particular reference to human health risk assessment. One of the key elements of lead remediation efforts at such sites as those under the Superfund program deals with populations at elevated exposure and toxicity risk in the proximity of, or at, the site of remediation, especially remediation workers, workers at other tasks on sites that were remediated down to some action level of lead concentration in soils, and groups at risk in nearby communities. A second element has to do with how one measures or models lead exposure changes with special reference to baseline and post-remediation conditions. Various biomarkers of lead exposure can be employed, but their use requires detailed knowledge of what results using each means. The most commonly used approach is measurement of blood lead (Pb-B). Recognized limitations in the use of Pb-B has led to the use of predictive Pb exposure models, which are less vulnerable to the many behavioral, physiological, and environmental parameters that can distort isolated or 'single shot' Pb-B testings. A third aspect covered in this paper presents various physiological factors that affect the methods by which one evaluates Pb remediation effectiveness. Finally, this article offers an integrated look at how lead remediation actions directed at one lead source or pathway affect the total lead exposure picture for human populations at elevated lead exposure and toxicity risk.

  13. Quantitative analysis of lead in polysulfide-based impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Silva Braga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Permlastic® is a polysulfide-based impression material widely used by dentists in Brazil. It is composed of a base paste and a catalyzer containing lead dioxide. The high toxicity of lead to humans is ground for much concern, since it can attack various systems and organs. The present study involved a quantitative analysis of the concentration of lead in the material Permlastic®. The lead was determined by plasma-induced optical emission spectrometry (Varian model Vista. The percentages of lead found in the two analyzed lots were 38.1 and 40.8%. The lead concentrations in the material under study were high, but the product’s packaging contained no information about these concentrations.

  14. Chronology of lead pollution contained in banded coral skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R E; Gilbert, T R

    1984-08-01

    The possibility of the annual skeletal growth bands of reef-building corals containing a record of lead additions to the marine environment was investigated using coral skeletons from St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Concentrations of lead within a coral from a polluted reef averaged 395 ng/g, five fold higher than within a coral from a pristine site, 87 ng/g. The lead chronologies of both corals showed a significant increase in concentration towards the present during the past 26 yr. The increase in lead concentration in the coral from the pristine site is suggested to represent the increase in lead availability from global pollution. Coral skeletons offer the probability of development into tools for long term chemical recorders of levels of lead and possibly other metals or compounds in seawater. 50 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  15. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Vernon G., E-mail: vthomas@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Bond, Della E. [Metals Toxicology Laboratory, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003. The lead content of bones was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and corresponding stable lead isotopes (Pb204, 206, 207, 208) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the Glendye (N = 111) and Invermark (N = 85) estates, relatively few birds (5.4% and 3.5%, respectively) had highly elevated bone lead concentrations (> 20 mug/g dry weight). In bones of these highly exposed birds, a combination of Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios was consistent with ingestion of lead gunshot available in Europe. By contrast, Yorkshire grouse experienced a high incidence (65.8%) of bone lead > 20 mug/g. The Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios in bones of these highly exposed birds were consistent with a combined exposure to ingested lead gunshot and lead from galena mining in the region. Lead isotope ratios also indicated that lead from UK gasoline combustion and fallout from atmospheric particles was not a likely source of elevated lead in bones of either Scottish or Yorkshire grouse. Suggested management options for the three moors include adopting nontoxic shot for all game shooting on the estates, allowing heather (Calluna vulgaris) vegetation to grow tall in lead shot fall-out zones to reduce physical access to high densities of lead shot already present, and provision of calcareous grit across moors to reduce lead assimilation from all ingested sources of lead.

  16. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Bond, Della E.

    2009-01-01

    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003. The lead content of bones was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and corresponding stable lead isotopes (Pb204, 206, 207, 208) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the Glendye (N = 111) and Invermark (N = 85) estates, relatively few birds (5.4% and 3.5%, respectively) had highly elevated bone lead concentrations (> 20 mug/g dry weight). In bones of these highly exposed birds, a combination of Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios was consistent with ingestion of lead gunshot available in Europe. By contrast, Yorkshire grouse experienced a high incidence (65.8%) of bone lead > 20 mug/g. The Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios in bones of these highly exposed birds were consistent with a combined exposure to ingested lead gunshot and lead from galena mining in the region. Lead isotope ratios also indicated that lead from UK gasoline combustion and fallout from atmospheric particles was not a likely source of elevated lead in bones of either Scottish or Yorkshire grouse. Suggested management options for the three moors include adopting nontoxic shot for all game shooting on the estates, allowing heather (Calluna vulgaris) vegetation to grow tall in lead shot fall-out zones to reduce physical access to high densities of lead shot already present, and provision of calcareous grit across moors to reduce lead assimilation from all ingested sources of lead.

  17. Lead and zinc intoxication in companion birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Although the toxicity of lead and zinc to birds is widely recognized by veterinarians and bird owners, these metals are frequently found in the environments of pet and aviary birds, and intoxications are common. Clinical signs exhibited by intoxicated birds are often nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead and zinc analyses of whole blood and serum or plasma, respectively, are readily available and inexpensive; elevated concentrations can confirm intoxication. Once diagnosed, intoxication can be effectively treated by (1) preventing further exposure, (2) administering chelating drugs, and (3) providing symptomatic and supportive care.

  18. Drowning: a leading killer!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Domingos Garrido

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drowning kills at least 372,000 people worldwide every year and is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional death, accounting for 7% of all deaths stemming from accidents (WHO, 2014. Conceptually, “drowning” is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, characterized as a chain of events (Bierens, 2006. Drowning is defined as the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from immersion or submersion in liquid. Research on drowning as a phenomenon presents several difficulties - most of all, that global data concerning the number of occurrences are not accurate. Nevertheless, detailed analysis of the registered incidents allows the identification of risk factors of drowning. An in-depth analysis of the risk factors is the basis for the creation of targeted and effective strategies to prevent drowning. Due to variability of situations which could lead to a drowning episode, experts suggest the adoption of a multi-layer prevention model, rather than opting for isolated measures, since no single measure can prevent all deaths and injuries caused by submersion. Among the preventive measures we would like to emphasize instruction in swimming and water safety. So, what does "knowing how to swim" really mean? Some authors define mastery of this competence as swimming a given distance, while others put the emphasis on how this/any given distance is swum (Stallman, Junge, & Blixt, 2008. It has long been realized that there is no contradiction between learning those competencies which make a person less susceptible to drowning and those competencies which prepare the path towards higher levels of performance and competition. Aquatic movement researchers and practitioners and drowning prevention researchers and practitioners, share in the responsibility for drowning prevention though they are often unaware of it. The question “What should be taught to children?” is too infrequently asked. There remains great variation in what is taught and programs

  19. Leading Your Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    life is good. More often when an unbelievably difficult test fails, we are left with a very long discussion of why and what was wrong in the design or execution of the test. Make sure that the test is well defined. Even then, it is important to explain to your leaders what inherent accuracy (or error) the test conditions or equipment have and what the assumptions or initial conditions were for the test. Test results without a good understanding of the test's accuracy or the pedigree of the test assumptions are worth very little. Finally, there is flight test data. Always limited, never at the edge of the envelope, it still shows how the real hardware works in a combined environment. Flight experience is dangerous because it typically doesn't show how close to the edge of the cliff the equipment is operating, but it does demonstrate how the hardware really works. A flight test is the ultimate test, again taken with the knowledge that it is probably not the extreme but something more like the middle of the environmental and systems performance. Good understanding of a problem and its solution always relies on a combination of all these methods. Be sure to lead your leaders by using all the tools you have at your disposal. At the end of the day, decisions in space flight always come down to a risk trade. Our business is not remotely safe, not in the sense that the public, the media, or our legislators use the term. Everything we do has a risk, cost, schedule, or performance trade-off. For your leaders to make an appropriate decision, you need to educate them, lead them, talk with them, and engage them in the discussion until full understanding takes place. It's your job. *

  20. Lead pollution: poisonous effects on plants. [Phalanis canariensis; Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiussello, N

    1973-01-01

    Lead alkyl additives in motor gasoline emitted into the atmosphere are responsible for the high levels of lead in soil and plants near roads. The A has tested the poisonousness of lead salts against the germination and growth of wheat, oats and Phalaris canariensis. Concentrations of 10-/sup 2/ M lead nitrate inhibit, in part, wheat germination and totally oats and P. - canariensis germination. In sand cultures with a lead content of 200 p.p.m. there is a diminution of fresh weight, of dry weight and of the chlorophyll content. Water plants (Lemna minor) are remarkably damaged by lead nitrate (200 p.p.m. conc.). 5 references.

  1. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  2. Modeling the effect of succimer (DMSA; dimercaptosuccinic acid) chelation therapy in patients poisoned by lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Olie, J Daniël N; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister; de Vries, Irma; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2017-02-01

    Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA) chelation therapy on blood lead concentrations. We integrated a two-compartment kinetic succimer model into an existing PBPK lead model and produced a Chelation Lead Therapy (CLT) model. The accuracy of the model's predictions was assessed by simulating clinical observations in patients poisoned by lead and treated with succimer. The CLT model calculates blood lead concentrations as the sum of the background exposure and the acute or chronic lead poisoning. The latter was due either to ingestion of traditional remedies or occupational exposure to lead-polluted ambient air. The exposure duration was known. The blood lead concentrations predicted by the CLT model were compared to the measured blood lead concentrations. Pre-chelation blood lead concentrations ranged between 99 and 150 μg/dL. The model was able to simulate accurately the blood lead concentrations during and after succimer treatment. The pattern of urine lead excretion was successfully predicted in some patients, while poorly predicted in others. Our model is able to predict blood lead concentrations after succimer therapy, at least, in situations where the duration of lead exposure is known.

  3. Short- and Long-Term Lead Release after Partial Lead Service Line Replacements in a Metropolitan Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshommes, Elise; Laroche, Laurent; Deveau, Dominique; Nour, Shokoufeh; Prévost, Michèle

    2017-09-05

    Thirty-three households were monitored in a full-scale water distribution system, to investigate the impact of recent (sampling over a period of 1-20 months. Point-of-entry filters were installed to capture sporadic release of particulate lead from the lead service lines (LSLs). Mean concentrations increased immediately after PLSLRs and erratic particulate lead spikes were observed over the 18 month post-PLSLR monitoring period. The mass of lead released during this time frame indicates the occurrence of galvanic corrosion and scale destabilization. System-wide, lead concentrations were however lower in households with PLSLRs as compared to those with no replacement, especially for old PLSLRs. Nonetheless, 61% of PLSLR samples still exceeded 10 μg/L, reflecting the importance of implementing full LSL replacement and efficient risk communication. Acute concentrations measured immediately after PLSLRs demonstrate the need for appropriate flushing procedures to prevent lead poisoning.

  4. Drinking Water Contamination Due To Lead-based Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, N.; Bartelt, E.; Cuff, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of lead in drinking water creates many health hazards. Exposure to lead-contaminated water can affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys, causing such problems as mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. One way in which lead can contaminate our water supply is through the use of lead solder to join pipes. Lead solder was widely used in the past because of its ease of application as well as its low cost. Lead contamination in residential areas has previously been found to be a particularly serious problem in first-draw samples, of water that has sat stagnant in pipes overnight. To investigate the time-dependence of drinking water lead contamination, we analyzed samples taken hourly of water exposed to lead solder. While our preliminary data was insufficient to show more than a rough correlation between time of exposure and lead concentration over short periods (1-3 hours), we were able to confirm that overnight exposure of water to lead-based solder results in the presence high levels of lead. We also investigated other, external factors that previous research has indicated contribute to increased concentrations of lead. Our analysis of samples of lead-exposed water at various pH and temperatures suggests that these factors can be equally significant in terms of their contribution to elevated lead concentration levels. In particular, water that is slightly corrosive appears to severely impact the solubility of lead. As this type of water is common in much of the Northeast United States, the presence of lead-based solder in residential areas there is especially problematic. Although lead-based solder has been banned since the 1980s, it remains a serious concern, and a practical solution still requires further research.

  5. Elution of lead from lead zirconate titanate ceramics to acid rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Takaaki; Takezawa, Shuhei; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    The amount of lead that eluted from lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics to artificial acid rain was evaluated. Four kinds of PZT ceramics, namely, pure PZT at MPB composition, CuO-added PZT, PZT with 10 mol % substitution of Ba for Pb, and CuO-added PZT with 10 mol % substitution of Ba for Pb, were used as samples of the elution test. These PZT ceramics of 8 mm2 and 1.1-1.2 mm thickness were suspended in 300 ml of H2SO4 solution of pH 4.0. The concentration of lead eluted from PZT was in the range from 0.2 to 0.8 ppm. It was found that both liquid phase formation by the addition of CuO and the substitution of Ba for Pb were effective to reduce the amount of lead that eluted. By fitting the leaching out curve with a classical equation, a master curve assuming no sampling effect was obtained. The lead concentration evaluated from the amount of lead that eluted from a commercial PZT plate to H2SO4 solution of pH 5.3 was almost the same as the limit in city water. It is concluded that PZT is not harmful to health and the environment and the amount of lead that eluted from PZT can be controlled by modifying PZT composition.

  6. Skin toxicology of lead species evaluated by their permeability and proteomic profiles: a comparison of organic and inorganic lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Fang, Jia-You

    2010-08-01

    Lead compounds are known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Lead absorption by the skin is an important route through which this metal enters the body. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the skin permeability and toxicological profiles of two lead species, lead acetate and lead nitrate. This study assessed lead-induced toxicity mechanisms by focusing on the histopathology, proteomics, cell growth, and cellular ATP. In vitro skin permeation assays showed that there was no significant difference of lead accumulation within and across the skin between the two lead species. The presence of simulated sweat reduced the skin uptake of lead. The skin deposition of lead acetate was greater than that of lead nitrate with in vivo topical application. On the other hand, lead nitrate produced greater changes in the skin's histology and proteomic profiles compared to lead acetate. Four protein spots which showed significant changes were identified and are discussed in this study. These included glucose-related protein precursor (GRP) 78, K14, alpha-actin, and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2). These proteins are respectively associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, wound healing, and proliferation. Lead presented a biphasic pattern on cell growth and intracellular ATP content, with a stimulating effect at low concentrations and an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation at higher concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lead isotopes as seepage indicators around a uranium tailings dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.; Mizon, K.J.; Korsch, M.J.; Noller, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations have been measured in water from 26 bores around the Ranger uranium tailings dam, Northern Territory, Australia, and from the dam itself to determine possible migration of lead derived from the radioactive decay of uranium. Lead isotope compositions have also been measured for the particulates retained on selected filters. The concentration of lead in the bore waters is extremely low (usually 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio measured in the bore waters differs by more than a factor of 100 from that in the tailings dam and shows no evidence of lead derived from a significant uranium accumulation. It may be possible to distinguish between lead from the tailings dam and that derived from a nearby uranium ore body

  8. Delayed appearance of tracer lead in facial hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, M.; Wetherill, G.; Kopple, J.

    1976-01-01

    Three adult men were fed 204 Pb--a rare, stable isotope of lead--daily for about 100 days. Simultaneous blood and facial hair measurements of this tracer and of total lead concentrations were made by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. Although the blood showed an immediate response to the intake of the tracer, the facial hair showed a more gradual response and a delay of approximately 35 days. Since the pattern of appearance of lead in hair does not appear to represent a simple time delay of blood lead concentration, the existence of a physiological pool of lead fed by the blood and giving rise to the content in hair is suggested. Hair lead values should therefore, be interpreted as the integral of the blood lead values over the mean life of this intermediate pool--about 100 days

  9. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Haggar, S.M.; Saad, S.G.; Saleh, S.K.; El-Kady, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  10. Heart rate variability in workers chronically exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa

    2004-07-01

    Lead is a strong neurotoxin. The effects of lead on the activity of the autonomic nervous system, assessed by the use of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, have not yet been established. To assess the effects of occupational chronic lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system activity. The study group consisted of 22 copper foundry workers (mean age 41.8+/-8.7 years) who had elevated parameters of lead overload and were admitted to the hospital for chelate therapy. The control group consisted of 13 age-matched healthy males. Lead concentration was measured with the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and concentration of free protoporphyrins in erythrocytes (FEP) using a fluorometric method. Each patient underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and standard short-term as well as long-term HRV parameters were obtained. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in HRV parameters. In the control group, HRV parameters correlated with age. In patients, a significant negative correlation between lead concentration and some short-term HRV parameters calculated during the night was found: SDNN (r=-0.48, p<0.05), TP (r=-0.48, p<0.01) and LF (r=-0.48, p<0.01). In patients, a negative correlation between lead concentration and HFnight/HFday index was found (r=-0.47 p<0.01), whereas in controls this correlation was positive (r=0.66 p<0.05). Overall HRV indices are similar in subjects exposed to lead and in healthy controls. A decrease in the physiological elevation of HF values during the night, together with an increase in lead blood concentration and lack of relationship between age and HRV parameters in workers chronically exposed to lead may suggest disturbances of the autonomic system. In subjects not exposed to lead a decrease in heart rate with an increase in FEP concentration was observed.

  11. Transport of lead to crack tips in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, G.D.; Marks, C.R.; Fruzzetti, K.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which lead is transported from its ultimate source to steam generator tubes and into cracks are not well understood and, to date, a comprehensive evaluation of possible mechanisms has not previously been performed. Specifically, local lead concentrations up to 20 wt. percent have been measured at crack tips, and it is not fully understood how lead concentrations of this magnitude occur, since lead concentrations in SG feedwater are typically quite low (on the order of a few parts per trillion). Additionally, there is evidence that at secondary side conditions, lead is essentially entirely adsorbed onto solid surfaces. Furthermore, if lead were present in the liquid phase, it would not be expected to be in a form that would facilitate concentration in a crevice (crack) by electrochemical means. There has previously been some speculation that lead transport to crack tips may occur through surface diffusion of adsorbed species. It has also been postulated that lead transport may occur via diffusion through the oxide layer along crack walls or via diffusion of lead out of the bulk Alloy 600 to grain boundaries exposed to secondary water by advancing cracks. However, there have been no critical evaluations of these hypotheses. With the current state of knowledge, it is difficult for utilities to determine whether additional efforts to further reduce the inventory of lead in the secondary system are justified. Furthermore, specific sources of lead that are especially likely to accelerate SCC cannot be identified (e.g., significant masses of lead are present in SG deposits, but it is not known if this lead can be transported to crack tips). The work presented in this paper quantitatively evaluates (based on the published literature, not new experimental work) a number of hypothesized lead transport mechanisms, including: Liquid phase diffusion; Electrochemically influenced diffusion of cations and anions; Bulk alloy diffusion; Surface diffusion; Solid

  12. Leaded gasoline - an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    2001-01-01

    In the European countries it is a clear trend towards the increasing consumption of unleaded gasolines. Driving force of this trend is, on the one hand the high toxicity of lead compounds and on the other, the necessity of purification of exhaust gases by catalytic converters, for which the lead represent a catalyst poison. In Macedonia, the limit lead content in the leaded gasolines is relatively high (0,6 g/l), as well as the consumption of the leaded gasolines. Rapid and complete transition to unleaded gasolines can be realized by the concept of step by step reduction of lead in our gasolines. (Original)

  13. Experimental lead poisoning in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silven, L.

    1967-01-01

    Poisoning of water fowl due to the intake of lead shot is not rare in the USA. In order to study this kind of poisoning more closely domestic fowl were given varying amounts of lead shot and lead powder. This treatment did not provoke any symptoms of poisoning. Chemical analyses of different organs, muscles, skeleton and eggs yielded low lead values. It is concluded that the low toxicity of lead administered as lead shot to the domestic fowl is due to a low absorption rate from the gastro-intestinal tract.

  14. Decontamination and coating of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Bush, S.P.; Lyon, C.E.; Walker, V.

    1988-01-01

    Technology is being developed to decontaminate lead used in shielding applications in contaminated environments for recycle as shieldings. Technology is also being developed to coat either decontaminated lead or new lead before it is used in contaminated environments. The surface of the coating is expected to be much easier to decontaminate than the original lead surface. If contamination becomes severely embedded in the coating and cannot be removed, it can be easily cut with a knife and removed from the lead. The used coating can be disposed of as radioactive (hot hazardous) waste. The lead can then be recoated for further use as a shielding material

  15. Lead pollution and its sources along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. UNSAL

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution and its sources have been investigated in the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea. Surficial sediments and mussels were collected in different seasons of the year from the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea and analysed for their lead contents. In the south-eastern Black Sea sediments from the easternmost and from the central stations contained the highest lead concentrations. Sediments contained 8 to 10 times the lead concentrations of sediments from the south-west. Samples taken from rivers, streams and effluents had especially high lead concentrations. The highest lead concentrations were found in sediments collected in October and December. Lead concentrations in mussels from the south-eastern coast were comparatively lower compared to those from the south-western coast. The highest average values occurred in December and in October. In the south-western Black Sea, the highest lead concentrations in sediments were obtained in those from Inebolu, followed by those from around Zonguldak. The concentrations increased from the middle to the west of the southern Black Sea coast, possibly due to the effect of the Danube River. Sediments taken in September had the highest lead concentrations, followed by samples taken in December. Very high lead concentrations (> 10 μ g g-1 were observed in mussels from those stations where the sediments also contained high concentrations. Mussels had their highest lead concentrations in January and April.

  16. Development of an airborne lead analysis kit and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Borisut, Pornchulee; Yoosook, Witaya; Osiri, Pramuk; Rojanavipart, Piangchan

    2010-11-01

    We developed a method to analyze airborne lead concentrations in the field. It was a modification of the colorimetric method using the reaction between 4(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) and lead with cyanex302 in an acid medium to reduce interfering metals. The lead concentration was detected with a photometer made in Thailand. The developed method uses an impinger containing 1% nitric acid solution as an absorbing agent to collect airborne lead at a flow rate of less than or equal to one liter/minute. Cyanex302 solution in toluene was used to extract metals from the samples and 0.1M nitric acid was used to extract just lead. The lead solution was reacted in 0.5 ml of 0.03% PAR solution, with 1 ml ammonium chloride buffer; the absorption of this solution was measured by a photometer. The results show the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 mg/l. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.03 mg/l. The percent recovery of the lead concentrations of 0.05 - 3.0 mg/l was 94.0 to 103.5%. The precision presented as %CV ranged from 0.65 to 10.27%. Lead concentration in a lead smelting factory detected by this method was not significantly different from that detected by the NIOSH method: 7,303 at a 95% confidence level.

  17. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, A.L.M.; Braune, B.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bond, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  18. Tendencia de los niveles de plomo en la atmósfera de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de México: 1988-1998 Trends in atmospheric concentrations of lead in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City: 1988-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Cortez-Lugo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las tendencias del plomo atmosférico asociadas a la eliminación paulatina del plomo de la gasolina y el uso de convertidores catalíticos en el auto transporte de la Ciudad de México, de 1988 a 1998. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de series de tiempo que incluye las mediciones atmosféricas de plomo que se obtuvieron, entre 1988 y 1998, de nueve estaciones de la red manual de monitoreo atmosférico de la Ciudad de México. Las intervenciones evaluadas fueron la introducción de gasolina Magnasin, el uso de convertidores catalíticos y el descenso en la concentración de plomo hasta su eliminación total de la gasolina utilizada en los auto transportes. Se describen las tendencias de plomo por monitor, por zona geográfica, utilizando un modelo de regresión que incorpora una estructura de auto-correlación. RESULTADOS: La introducción de gasolina sin plomo y de los convertidores catalíticos se asoció con un descenso en la concentración de plomo atmosférico en 23%, la reducción paulatina del plomo en la gasolina ocasionó una reducción acumulada de 89% en todas las zonas estudiadas. CONCLUSIONES: La introducción de la gasolina sin plomo ha logrado abatir las concentraciones ambientales de este contaminante de una manera importante.OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in airborne lead levels and their association with the control measures implemented from 1988 to 1998 to phase out lead from gasoline that included the introduction of a lead-free gasoline and the use of catalytic converters in automobiles in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data of atmospheric lead levels were obtained from the 9 field stations included in the local air quality monitoring network (RMMA. Trends for airborne lead are shown by monitor, monitoring area and for the entire metropolitan zone. Analysis of data was performed using linear regression models including autocorrelation analysis. The models were validated by standard diagnostic

  19. Forming lead-based anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogorodnichuk, V I; Voitsekhovich, R I

    1972-01-01

    Lead-based anodes can be produced by forming a layer of lead dioxide by chemical treatment in a solution of sulfuric acid in potassium permanganate at 80 to 100/sup 0/. The solution is mixed by compressed air. (RWR)

  20. Common ECG Lead Placement Errors. Part I: Limb Lead Reversals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison V. Rosen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrocardiography (ECG is a very useful diagnostic tool. However, errors in placement of ECG leads can create artifacts, mimic pathologies, and hinder proper ECG interpretation. It is important for members of the health care team to be able to recognize the common patterns resulting from lead placement errors. Methods: 12-lead ECGs were recorded in a single male healthy subject in his mid 20s. Six different limb lead reversals were compared to ECG recordings from correct lead placement. Results: Classic ECG patterns were observed when leads were reversed. Methods of discriminating these ECG patterns from true pathologic findings were described. Conclusion: Correct recording and interpretation of ECGs is key to providing optimal patient care. It is therefore crucial to be able to recognize common ECG patterns that are indicative of lead reversals.

  1. Blood lead and carboxyhemoglobin levels in chainsaw operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Brubaker, R L; Mackenzie, C J; Godolphin, W J

    1987-06-01

    Fallers in the British Columbia west coast lumber industry often work in climatic and local conditions where little ventilation in their immediate environment is possible. Under these conditions carbon monoxide (CO) and lead fumes from exhaust gases could build up and become a serious occupational hazard. This study monitored the environmental exposure of six fallers to carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and lead under conditions where buildup of these agents would be expected. At the same time blood samples were taken to correlate these environmental concentrations to carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and blood lead levels. Although there was a highly significant difference between the fallers and the controls regarding the exposure to CO and lead as well as their corresponding COHb and blood lead levels, the environmental and blood concentration of the agents in question did not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations. Temporary short fluctuations in carboxyhemoglobin levels were not monitored in this study and cannot be ruled out as a potential occupational hazard.

  2. Blood lead and carboxyhemoglobin levels in chainsaw operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Netten, C.; Brubaker, R.L.; Mackenzie, C.J.; Godolphin, W.J.

    1987-06-01

    Fallers in the British Columbia west coast lumber industry often work in climatic and local conditions where little ventilation in their immediate environment is possible. Under these conditions carbon monoxide (CO) and lead fumes from exhaust gases could build up and become a serious occupational hazard. This study monitored the environmental exposure of six fallers to carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and lead under conditions where buildup of these agents would be expected. At the same time blood samples were taken to correlate these environmental concentrations to carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and blood lead levels. Although there was a highly significant difference between the fallers and the controls regarding the exposure to CO and lead as well as their corresponding COHb and blood lead levels, the environmental and blood concentration of the agents in question did not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations. Temporary short fluctuations in carboxyhemoglobin levels were not monitored in this study and cannot be ruled out as a potential occupational hazard.

  3. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  4. Cytotoxic action of lead nitrate on cytomorphology of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    OpenAIRE

    CHOUDHARY, Sana; ANSARI, Mohammad Yunus Khalil; KHAN, Zeba; GUPTA, Honey

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the mutagenic potential of lead on the cytomorphology of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and to determine the maximum concentration of lead nitrate that induces maximum genetic variability. The seeds were treated with 6 different concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm) of lead nitrate. The higher concentrations of lead nitrate significantly reduced plant height, number of branches per plant, pollen fertility, and yield; higher concent...

  5. Highly concentrating Fresnel lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.; Friesem, A.A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of concave Fresnel lens capable of concentrating solar radiation very near the ultimate concentration limit is considered. The differential equations that describe the lens are solved to provide computed solutions which are then checked by ray tracing techniques. The performance (efficiency and concentration) of the lens is investigated and compared to that of a flat Fresnel lens, showing that the new lens is preferable for concentrating solar radiation. (author)

  6. Lead user projects in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Gutstein, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Earlier research on the lead user method is focused on individual case studies and how the method was applied in a specific context. In this paper, we take a broader approach, analyzing a sample of 24 lead user projects, which included working with 188 lead users. These projects were analyzed...

  7. Lead poisoning in domestic ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rac, R; Crisp, C S

    1954-05-01

    The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.

  8. A study on lead equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guanxin

    1991-01-01

    A study on the rules in which the lead equivalent of lead glass changes with the energy of X rays or γ ray is described. The reason of this change is discussed and a new testing method of lead equivalent is suggested

  9. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  10. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg