WorldWideScience

Sample records for tva hydro plants

  1. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  2. Unit-sizing of hydro power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruzewski, P.; Rogeaux, C.; Laurier, P.

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries with great and unexploited renewable energy potential, Governments can exploit local resources for electricity supply, substantial energy savings and sustainable socio-economic development of these own countries. The decision-making process regarding the choice of renewable energy sources for energy supply in these countries is multidimensional, made up of a number of aspects at different levels such as economic, technical, environmental, and social. Therefore, reaching clear and unambiguous solutions may be very difficult. It is from this difficulty that the need arises to develop a tool for the design of hydro energy sources for electricity. The work involved in seeking a compromise solution requires an adequate technical assessment based on multiple criteria methods. One of the criteria is the assessment of the appropriate size of the hydropower plant. This paper presents the state-of-art of preliminary sizing of hydropower plant for the given renewable energy potential. The main step consists of carefully selecting and sizing the innovative hydraulic units based upon the suitability of the flow and head range. Since the flow and head data have now been confirmed, the potential annual energy generation can be properly assessed.

  3. Simulation Model of Hydro Power Plant Using Matlab/Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Sattouf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower has now become the best source of electricity on earth. It is produced due to the energy provided by moving or falling water. History proves that the cost of this electricity remains constant over the year. Because of the many advantages, most of the countries now have hydropower as the source of major electricity producer. The most important advantage of hydropower is that t is green energy, which mean that no air or water pollutants are produced, also no greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide are produced which makes this source of energy environment-friendly. It prevents us from the danger of global warming. This paper describes a generalized model which can be used to simulate a hydro power plant using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The plant consists of hydro turbine connected to synchronous generator, which is connected to public grid. Simulation of hydro turbine and synchronous generator can be done using various simulation tools, In this work, SIMULINK/MATLAB is favored over other tools in modeling the dynamics of a hydro turbine and synchronous machine. The SIMULINK program in MATLAB is used to obtain a schematic model of the hydro plant by means of basic function blocks. This approach is pedagogically better than using a compilation of program code as in other software programs .The library of SIMULINK software programs includes function blocks which can be linked and edited to model. The main objectives of this model are aimed to achieve some operating modes of the hydro plant and some operating tests.

  4. Hydro power plants on the Middle Sava River section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryzanowski, A; Horvat, A; Brilly, M [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Hajdrihova 28, Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: andrej.kryzanowski@geateh.si

    2008-11-01

    Construction of a chain of hydro power plants is planned on the Sava River from Medvode to the Slovenian-Croatian border which will, apart from the chain of HPPs on the Drava River, represent the linchpin of renewable energy production within the Slovenian power system. The mentioned chain of HPPs will also be one of the country's main renewable energy sources that can still be developed for power generation. Three hydro power plants, Moste, Mavccice and Medvode, are already operating on the Upper Sava River section. Construction of the chain is underway in the lower part of the stream where Vrhovo and Bosstanj HPPs are already in operation; HPP Blanca is under construction and the site planning procedures are taking place for Krsko, Brezice and Mokrice HPPs. The planned HPPs on the Middle Sava River section between Medvode and Zidani most will connect the HPPs on the Upper and Lower Sava River into a closed chain which will operate on the principle of run-of-river type power plants with daily storage. Completion of all stages will enable optimal development of available hydro potential. Apart from the energy effects, also other beneficial effects of hydro power plant construction in the region can be expected: flood protection; better water supply; waste water treatment; development of transport and energy networks as well as positive economic and social effects.

  5. Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

  6. Hydro-responsive curling of the resurrection plant Selaginella lepidophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-27

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli.

  7. Optimal design of axial hydro turbine for micro hydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, S.; Kasaeian, N.

    2012-11-01

    In our country we have enormous low head potation flows in agricultures and aquacultures with almost fix flow rates that can be used as micro hydro power plants for producing energy. But the main problem is the high capital price per kW. Therefore there is needed to design a simple machine with a good runner for covering the various potential flows. In this paper an axial hydro turbine has designed for some low heads micro potential flow with flow rates ranged from 50 lit/sec to 150 lit/sec and heads ranged from 1 m to 5 m. The initial runner designed using classical methods and then the runner geometry has been optimized by evolutionary optimization algorithms. The final design has been simulated by a commercial flow solver in a various blade positions. The results showed a wide range characteristic curve with a wide range high efficiency.

  8. About the Use of Induction Generators for Micro Hydro Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Silaghi Alexandru Marius; Silaghi Helga Maria; Pantea Mircea; Costea Claudiu

    2009-01-01

    Induction machine with short circuited rotoris the simplest, robust and lowest cost electricalmachine.Existing experience regarding interconnectedwith the general electro energetic system micro hydroplants, already established the use in such cases ofsimple and economic hydro mechanical, electricitygenerating, control and automation equipment wascreated by that kind of machine. This paper illustratespossibilities of the hydro energy potential utilization forhydro power plants construction on ...

  9. Stability Analysis of DC-link Voltage Control on Autonomous Micro Hydro Power Plant System

    OpenAIRE

    Feri Yusivar; M. Shanizal; A. Subiantoro; Gunawan, R

    2014-01-01

    Micro Hydro Power Plant has become one of the interesting topics to be researched nowadays. This paper deals with the stability analysis on control system of excitation voltage in Micro Hydro Power Plant. The control of this voltage can be achieved by controlling the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) with particular algorithm so the voltage on the DC-link part of the system can be controlled. Without knowing the exact specification of system parameters, the system will be most likel...

  10. Efficiency measurements in low head hydro power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdal, Jorgen

    2011-07-01

    The work presented in this thesis involves efficiency measurements performed with the thermodynamic method and the pressure time method. The thermodynamic method has limitations with regards to the power plant head, as uncertainty will increase as the head becomes low. The Pressure-Time method has limitations concerning geometrical properties of the waterways, as it demands a certain length of closed conduit with uniform area. Both methods are considered to cause relatively short downtime for turbines to be measured, an dit is therefore of interest, for economical reasons, to expand the use of the methods to more power plants. In the thermodynamic method, a large source of errors and uncertainties comes from flow and temperature variations in the draft tube outlet. To investigate if this source of errors and uncertainties could be reduced, a setup with multipoint temperature and velocity measurements was installed in a low head hydro power plant. The general conclusion is that a multipoint measurement is beneficial in connection with low head measurements.Uncertainty from temperature variations in the water from the reservoir, and difference in the energy at the inlet is also discussed. For the Pressure-Time method, this thesis presents investigations made with shorter distances between measurement cross sections than prescribed in the standards, and with bends between the measurement cross sections. The investigations were performed both in laboratory and in a field measurement. For laboratory experiments it was also investigated if developed models for unsteady friction could be used to correct the flow estimates. The general conclusions are: Measurements with short distances should not introduce large errors, but the uncertainty and spread of measured points will increase. Bends give an underestimation of the flow rate that, under certain circumstances, is constant independent of initial velocity. How large the underestimation ratio will be can yet not be

  11. Penstock failure detection system at the "Valsan" hydro power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, A. M.; Coşoiu, C. I.; Alboiu, N.; Hlevca, D.; Tataroiu, R.; Popescu, O.

    2012-11-01

    "Valsan" is a small Hydro Power Plant, 5 MW, situated at about 160 km north of Bucharest, Romania, on the small "Valsan" river in a remote mountainous area. It is equipped with a single Francis turbine. The penstock is located in the access shaft of the HPP. "Hidroelectrica", the Romanian company that operates the HPP, was trying to implement a remote penstock failure detection system. Starting from a classic hydraulic problem, the authors of the paper derived a method for failure detection and localization on the pipe. The method assumes the existence of 2 flow meters and 2 pressure transducers at the inlet and outlet of the pressurized pipe. Calculations have to be based on experimental values measured in a permanent regime for different values of the flow rate. The method was at first tested on a pipe, in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest. Pipe failure was modelled by opening of a valve on a tee branch of the analyzed pipe. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with theoretical ones. The penstock of the "Valsan" HPP, was modelled in EPANET, in order to: i) test the method at a larger scale; ii) get the right flow and pressure transducers that are needed to implement it. At the request of "Hidroelectrica" a routine that computes the efficiency of the turbine was added to the monitoring software. After the system was implemented, another series of measurements were performed at the site in order to validate it. Failure was modelled by opening an existing valve on a branch of the penstock. Detection of the failure was correct and almost instantaneous, while failure location was accurate within 5% of the total penstock length.

  12. Mechanism of emergence of intense vibrations of turbines on the Sayano-Shushensk hydro power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzin, V. B.; Seleznev, V. S.

    2010-07-01

    It is demonstrated that the level of vibrations of turbines on the Sayano-Shushensk hydro power plant is enhanced by the capability of a compressible fluid to perform its own hydroacoustic oscillations (which can be unstable) in the turbine duct. Based on the previously obtained results of solving the problem of natural hydroacoustic oscillations in the turbine duct and some ideas about turbine interaction with an unsteady compressible fluid flow, results of full-scale studies of turbine vibrations and seismic monitoring of the dam of the Sayano-Shushensk hydro power plant before and during the accident are analyzed.

  13. Stability Analysis of DC-link Voltage Control on Autonomous Micro Hydro Power Plant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feri Yusivar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro Hydro Power Plant has become one of the interesting topics to be researched nowadays. This paper deals with the stability analysis on control system of excitation voltage in Micro Hydro Power Plant. The control of this voltage can be achieved by controlling the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM with particular algorithm so the voltage on the DC-link part of the system can be controlled. Without knowing the exact specification of system parameters, the system will be most likely unstable. The DC-link control system is modeled, simulated, and mathematically analyzed so the parameter specification for the stable system can be obtained.

  14. Larvicidal activities of hydro-ethanolic extracts of three Cameroonian medicinal plants against Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankeu Nzufo Francine

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The present study shows that the hydro-ethanolic extracts of S. guineense, Monodora myristica and Z. heitzii tested have significant larvicidal activity. These preliminary results are of great interest and some of these plant species can be proposed for the formulation of new bioinsecticides to control Ae. albopictus populations.

  15. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotouh-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the ‘‘reservoir” type of hydro-power plants (HPP) is to determine the installation capacity of the HPPs and estimate its annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented. A computer program has been developed to analyze energy calculation...

  16. Operational optimization of a remote controlled hydro electric power plant by micro processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismer, F.; Fruechtenicht, J.

    1985-10-01

    To comply with the demand of an even down-stream discharge of a peak hydro power plant, water must be discharged from the bottom outlet into the balancing basin parallel to the turbine system. A special program was developed, to enable the exact positioning of the bottom drain sluice and to carry out other monitoring tasks. (orig.).

  17. Optimal Installation Capacity of Medium Hydro-Power Plants Considering Technical, Economic and Reliability Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S. M. H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the reservoir type of Medium Hydro-Power Plants (MHPP) is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the MHPP and estimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented to calculate the annual energy. A computer program has...

  18. Variable speed drive as an alternative solution for a micro-hydro power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Malik Usman

    2012-01-01

    This diploma work is mainly focused on developing the control strategy for avariable speed drive as an alternative solution to a micro-hydro power plant. The detailed mathematical model for a micro-hydro system including a Kaplan turbine, mechanical shaft and electrical machines is presented and validated through simulations. A control strategy for an autonomous operation of a doubly-fed induction machine-based drive is developed for a wide range of speed. The drive can operate at a unity pow...

  19. About the Use of Induction Generators for Micro Hydro Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Alexandru Marius

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction machine with short circuited rotoris the simplest, robust and lowest cost electricalmachine.Existing experience regarding interconnectedwith the general electro energetic system micro hydroplants, already established the use in such cases ofsimple and economic hydro mechanical, electricitygenerating, control and automation equipment wascreated by that kind of machine. This paper illustratespossibilities of the hydro energy potential utilization forhydro power plants construction on the Bihor countyrivers , experiences on how to build and operate asmall hydropower , induction generators use andsustainable solutions for small hydropower by inBihor county, Romania.

  20. DAILY SCHEDULING OF SMALL HYDRO POWER PLANTS DISPATCH WITH MODIFIED PARTICLES SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinvaldo Rodrigues Moreno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for short-term hydro power scheduling of reservoirs using an algorithm-based Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. PSO is a population-based algorithm designed to find good solutions to optimization problems, its characteristics have encouraged its adoption to tackle a variety of problems in different fields. In this paper the authors consider an optimization problem related to a daily scheduling of small hydro power dispatch. The goal is construct a feasible solution that maximize the cascade electricity production, following the environmental constraints and water balance. The paper proposes an improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, which takes advantage of simplicity and facility of implementation. The algorithm was successfully applied to the optimization of the daily schedule strategies of small hydro power plants, considering maximum water utilization and all constraints related to simultaneous water uses. Extensive computational tests and comparisons with other heuristics methods showed the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Guaranteed capacity of hydro power plants in Germany and Austria; Gesicherte Leistung der Wasserkraft in Deutschland und Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Markus [VERBUND Hydro Power GmbH, Wien (Austria); Ernst, Hans-Peter; Engels, Klaus [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Sparte Wasserkraft, Landshut (Germany); Metzka, Rudolf [Technische Hochschule Deggendorf (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Balancing fluctuations caused by renewable energy play an important role in the current transition of energy supply systems. Hydro power plants provide both: guaranteed capacity as well as renewability. In Germany and Austria definitions of how to quantify the guaranteed capacity of hydro power plants are well established to calculate the guaranteed capacity for an individual power plant. The definitions are challenged against real examples.

  2. SMALL HYDRO PLANTS IN LAND USE SYSTEM PLANNING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bernatek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower plants are present in the land use system planning in Poland. At the national level the important role of spatial planning in the development of renewable energy was highlighted, included small hydroplants. However, it seems that at the regional level this demand has not been realized. The necessity of developing small hydroplants as a renewable energy was highlighted, but negative environmental impact was not indicated. At local level legal instrument of small hydropower plants is specified.

  3. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  4. Numerical Study of Cavitation in Francis Turbine of a Small Hydro Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Gohil; Rajeshwer Saini

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation is undesirable phenomena and more prone in reaction turbines. It is one of the challenges in any hydro power plant which cause vibration, degradation of performance and the damage to the hydraulic turbine components. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out a numerical analysis to investigate the cavitation effect in a Francis turbine. Three dimensional numerical study approach of unsteady and SST turbulence model are considered for the numerical a...

  5. Techno-economics of micro-hydro power plants for remote villages in Uttaranchal in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouni, M.R.; Mullick, S.C.; Kandpal, T.C. [Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, New Delhi (India); Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2005-07-01

    Results of a techno-economic feasibility evaluation of some micro-hydro power (MHP) plants being planned and implemented for remote village power supply in the state of Uttaranchal in India are presented. The capital cost of MHP plants in the capacity range of 20-100 kW (including cost of local transmission and distribution system), investment requirement per unit of rated capacity, and relative cost of different components of MHP plants have been analysed. Unit cost of delivered electricity from the MHP plants has been estimated. Discounted payback period, benefit cost ratio, net present value and internal rate of return for an MHP plant have also been determined. Breakeven values for useful life, plant load factor, and unit cost of electricity to the user for the same MHP plant have also been estimated. (Author)

  6. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  7. Proposing a new advanced control technique for micro hydro power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanmandlu, M.; Goyal, Himani [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-05-15

    Micro hydropower plants are emerging as a major renewable energy resource today as they do not encounter the problems of population displacement and environmental problems associated with the large hydro power plants. However, they require control systems to limit the huge variation in input flows expected in rivulets over which these are established to produce a constant power supply. This paper proposes an electric servomotor as a governor for a micro hydro power plant especially those plants that are operated in isolated mode. An advanced controller is developed combining four control schemes for the control of the governor following the concept that the control action can be split up into linear and non-linear parts. The linear part of this controller contains an adaptive fast transversal filter (FTF) algorithm and normalized LMS (nLMS) algorithm. The non-linear part of the controller incorporates Fuzzy PI and a neural network. The concept behind splitting the control action is reasoned out and the conditions for stability of the controller are proved. The new controller has a superior performance compared to other control schemes. (author)

  8. An approach to the investment analysis of small and medium hydro-power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Hosseini, S.M.H.; Vakilian, M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydro-power plants, as a part of infrastructure projects, play an important role in the economic-social development of countries. Sincea large amount of investment is needed for construction of these power plants, which appeared to be an obstacle in these developments,however it is possible...... to finance these infrastructure plants by assigning these affairs to private sectors by using build operate transfer(BOT) method, which is quite well-known all around the world. This paper reviews the structure of BOT contracts and through aneconomic evaluation based on different percentage of investments...... of private sector in providing the expenses of small and mediumhydro-power plants (S&M-HPP) (e.g. MHPP in ‘‘Bookan, Iran’’ and SHPP in ‘‘Nari, Iran’’), demonstrates that by increasing thepercentage the share of the private sector in the investment, the economic indices B/C and NPV improve substantially...

  9. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotouh-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the ‘‘reservoir” type of hydro-power plants (HPP) is to determine the installation capacity of the HPPs and estimate its annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented. A computer program has been developed to analyze energy calculation...... the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the installation capacity of an HPP. By applying the above-mentioned algorithm to an existing HPP named ‘‘Bookan” (located in the westnorth of Iran); the capacity of 30 MW is obtained....

  10. Integrity and life estimation of turbine runner cover in a hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sedmak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents integrity and life estimation of turbine runner cover in a vertical pipe turbines, Kaplan 200 MW nominal output power, produced in Russia, and built in six hydro-generation units of hydroelectric power plant „Đerdap 1” in Serbia. Fatigue and corrosion-fatigue interaction have been taken into account using experimentally obtained material properties, as well as analytical and numerical calculations of stress state, to estimate appropriate safety factors. Fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, was also calculated, indicated that internal defects of circular or elliptical shape, found out by ultrasonic testing, do not affect reliable operation of runner cover.

  11. Automatic Generation Control Using PI Controller with Bacterial Foraging for both Thermal and Hydro Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Hooda,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The load-frequency control (LFC is used to restore the balance between load and generation in each control area by means of speed control. In power system, the main goal of load frequency control (LFC or automatic generation control (AGC is to maintain the frequency of each area and tie- line power flow within specified tolerance by adjusting the MW outputs of LFC generators so as to accommodate fluctuating load demands. In this paper, attempt is made to make a scheme for automatic generation control within a restructured environment considering effects of contracts between DISCOs and GENCOs to make power system network in normal state where, GENCO used are hydro plants as well as thermal plants. The bacterial foraging optimization technique is being developed, which is applied to AGC in an interconnected four area system.The performance of the system is obtained by MATLAB Simulink tool. The results are shown in frequency and power response for four area AGC system. In this paper we have shown practical work by using thermal and hydro both system at Genco’s side.As reheated system transfer function is being used.

  12. Effect of turbine materials on power generation efficiency from free water vortex hydro power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritram, P.; Treedet, W.; Suntivarakorn, R.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of turbine materials on power generation efficiency from the water free vortex hydro power plant made of steel and aluminium. These turbines consisted of five blades and were twisted with angles along the height of water. These blades were the maximum width of 45 cm. and height of 32 cm. These turbines were made and experimented for the water free vortex hydro power plant in the laboratory with the water flow rate of 0.68, 1.33, 1.61, 2.31, 2.96 and 3.63 m3/min and an electrical load of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 W respectively. The experimental results were calculated to find out the torque, electric power, and electricity production efficiency. From the experiment, the results showed that the maximum power generation efficiency of steel and aluminium turbine were 33.56% and 34.79% respectively. From the result at the maximum water flow rate of 3.63 m3/min, it was found that the torque value and electricity production efficiency of aluminium turbine was higher than that of steel turbine at the average of 8.4% and 8.14%, respectively. This result showed that light weight of water turbine can increase the torque and power generation efficiency.

  13. ENERGY EFFICIENT FLOW AND LEVEL CONTROL IN A HYDRO POWER PLANT USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selwin Mich Priyadharson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective and an innovative design of this work is to improve the energy efficiency by controlling the variables flow and level in a hydroelectric power plant using Programmable Logic Control (PLC-Human Machine Interface (HMI and fuzzy logic approach. This project will focus on design and development of flow and level controller for small scale hydro generating units by implementing gate control based on PLC-HMI and Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC. So far there is no other better performing control scheme, with uncomplicated approach, in order to match and satisfy the dynamic changes in load demand. In this project, FLC will be applied to flow and level control for small scale hydro generating units is proposed. A lab scale experimental setup is made-up as prototype model for flow and level control and simulation outputs were achieved, using PLC-HMI based fuzzy controller scheme. The hardware set up is designed with 5 stages in the tank 1 and 2 stages in the tank 2. Based on the outputs of the level sensors from tanks 1 and 2, the ladder logic will perform. B&R Industrial Automation PLC inbuilt with 24 digital inputs and provides 16 potential free outputs is used to perform control action. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated by simulation results by comparing with conventional controllers output using the data collected from the hydroelectric power plant. The merits of the proposed Fuzzy scheme over the conventional method are spotlighted.

  14. Larvicidal activities of hydro-ethanolic extracts of three Cameroonian medicinal plants against Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tankeu Nzufo Francine; Biapa Nya Prosper Cabral; Pieme Constant Anatole; Moukette Moukette Bruno; Nanfack Pauline; Ngogang Yonkeu Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the larvicidal activity of Syzygium guineense (Myrtaceae) (S. guineense), Monodora myristica and Zanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) (Z. heitzii) ex-tracts against Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus). Methods: The larvicidal activity of the hydro-ethanolic extracts from these plant species was assessed at three different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/L) on first-instar of Ae. albopictus larvae in comparison with untreated controls. Mortality rate was recorded daily for a period of 12 days. The values of LC50 and lethal time killing 50%of the tested individuals (LT50) were calculated using the log-probit analysis. Results: The root extract of S. guineense exhibited the best activity with 100%mortality after 8 days of treatment at 200 mg/L, followed by the fruit extract of Z. heitzii with 83.33%mortality at the same concentration. Nonetheless, larvae were most susceptible to the fruit extract of Z. heitzii both in terms of LC50 (39.89 mg/L) and LT50 (145.68 h). A statistically significant difference between the control and the group treated at 200 mg/L was noticed in all the extracts. Conclusions: The present study shows that the hydro-ethanolic extracts of S. guineense, Monodora myristica and Z. heitzii tested have significant larvicidal activity. These pre-liminary results are of great interest and some of these plant species can be proposed for the formulation of new bioinsecticides to control Ae. albopictus populations.

  15. Evaluation of Energy Contribution for Additional Installed Turbine Flow in Hydro Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Bozinovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology for analysis of energy value of existing hydro power plant (HPP comparing with the same HPP upgraded with additional power. The additional power can be added with installed turbine flows of existing unit(s or with installing the new additional unit(s. The paper treated the energy evaluation of the storage HPP Spilje which is under installed HPP comparing the technical parameters, water reservoir, turbine discharge and water inflow. The analyses have been made based on the statistical analysis of the input parameters of hydrology through a series of hydrological inflow data for a long period of years with monthly distribution. The hydrological data (from 1970 until 2014 which covers extremely wet and extremely dry hydrological periods, which is important in order to get statistics of expected values with appropriate probabilities of occurrence – data from monthly inflow values [1]. The results from analysis can be applied in determining the expected hydro production, or appropriate expected revenue of the electricity generated from the HPP. The additional turbine flow in existing units or installing the new unit(s can benefit with increased income coming as the result of avoiding spilling water and generating additional peak energy instead of base one.

  16. Field experiments of NR-PSS for large synchronous generators on a 300MW machine in Baishan Hydro Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiang; MEI ShengWei; ZHENG ShaoMing

    2007-01-01

    To verify the performance of NR-PSS (Nonlinear Robust Power System Stabilizer) for large synchronous generators, field experiments were carried out on a 300 MW generator in Baishan Hydro Plant of Northeast China Power Grid. The experiment results show that NR-PSS can improve the generator damping and enhance system stability remarkably.

  17. Long-term changes of Daugava River ice phenology under the impact of the cascade of hydro power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apsîte Elga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study of long-term changes of Daugava River ice phenology, i.e. the freeze-up date, the break-up date, and the duration of ice cover from 1919/1920 to 2011/2012, under the impact of the cascade of hydro power plants. The long-term changes of ice phenology were determined by global climate warming at the turn of the 20th and the 21st centuries and anthropogenic activities after the year 1939. The Mann-Kendall test showed that the ice freeze-up date has a positive trend, while the ice break-up date and the duration of ice cover had negative trends. The changes were statistically significant. Data series covering twenty years before and after construction of the hydro power plants were used for assessing the impact of each hydro power plant on changes of Daugava River ice phenology parameters. The study results showed that the duration of ice cover was significantly longer in water reservoirs, i.e. the freeze-up date was earlier and the break-up date was later. Downstream of dams duration of ice cover was shorter with later freeze-up dates and earlier break-up dates. The impact of hydro power plants on ice phenology parameters gradually decreased with distance down from the dams.

  18. A Risk Analysis of Small-Hydro Power (SHP Plants Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cunha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in electricity consumption has led to a sharp increase in energy demand which rose environmental and sustainability concerns. To address this issue, there has been an incentive to resource to renewable energy sources for electricity production. Departing from a real case study, the investment appraisal of a SHP project under the present market conditions is described, followed by a sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main sources of risk. The main results obtained showed that in the context of a regulated tariff the project is worthwhile due to a positive NPV. However, if electricity had to be sold at market prices, the project becomes unprofitable. Theresults put also in evidence the vulnerability of the investment to an adverse change in interest rates. Future SHP plant investments should take into account the need to operate in a free market and to compete with technologies based on fossil fuels or large hydro.

  19. Mitigation of Vibration on Bulb Turbine in Small Hydro Electric Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sridharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Hydro Power (SHP development is being increasingly undertaken all over the world, especially in the developing countries, because of their various merits, varied application, and flexibility of utilization. Handling of large hydropower-generating units and keeping the size of the turbine generator sets are economically beneficial, which require higher running speeds and results in greater pressure differences between the two sides of the vanes of a turbine runner. These forces also cause vibrations of the stator, which are transmitted through the frame to any adjoining structure and causes damage to the bearing, stator, and rotor winding as well as reduces the lifetime of the entire machine. Furthermore, cavitations due to discharge cause the major vibration effects in most of the hydroelectric power plants. With modified Concrete support in the stay column, a smooth operation of the turbine generator sets can be achieved.

  20. Designing Of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine For Applications In Small Hydro Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Sharma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The need of the hour, as we all genuinely know from the global scenario is the production of electricity from the renewable resources of energy. Most widely used among them are the solar and the wind potential. Besides these, the hydroelectric resources also play a remarkable role as hydroelectricity accounts for a major share in the energy sector throughout the world. The trend at present is of the stand alone hydro power plants wherein the turbine used is the Hydrokinetic turbine , which works with the speed of flow of the water stream. Permanent magnet synchronous machines, known for their robust nature, variable speed, and high power to weight ratio are the most suitable ones for the construction of the turbine for low speed operation. This paper presents the design of permanent magnet synchronous machine and the machine has been modeled and simulated in RMXprt and Ansys Maxwell.

  1. Feasibility study of a Green Power Plant. Final report. [Offshore pumped hydro storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This project is a technical evaluation and a feasibility study of a concept called the Green Power Plant (GPP), developed by Seahorn Energy Aps. The Green Power Plant is an offshore pumped hydro storage facility constructed from prefabricated elements and with integrated renewable energy production. Pumped hydro storage is a known technology with a proven roundtrip energy storage efficiency of 80%. The focus of the GPP project is on simplifying and industrializing the construction of the reservoir wall, thereby achieving a cost efficient solution. The reservoir structure is dependent on the site on which the reservoir is established, thus Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea has been chosen as basis for the technical evaluation. As soil conditions vary, the technical evaluations have been based on a general soil profile. A water depth of 25m has been chosen as basis for the evaluation. A reservoir with a diameter of 2 km has been evaluated as baseline scenario. Feasibility of the GPP was evaluated based on the cost and income estimates. For the baseline scenario an internal rate of return of 6.6% was found for a period of 35 years. A sensitivity analysis reveals internal rates of return over 35 years varying from 4.9% to 10.9%. Especially larger reservoir diameters increase profitability of the GPP. The results from this project will be utilized in raising funds for further development of the GPP concept. Seahorn Energy Aps aims at optimizing the wind turbine integration, the steel pile wall structure and the pump-turbine integration in a future project towards construction of a demonstration facility. (LN)

  2. Sub-acute toxicity of a hydro-ethanolic whole plant extract of Synedrella nodiflora (L Gaertn in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adjei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Synedrella nodiflora (L Gaertn (family Asteraceae is traditionally used in Ghana for the management of epilepsy, hiccup and threatened abortion. The anticonvulsant and other related neuro-pharmacological effects of a hydro-ethanolic extract in murine models have been established. To this end, we evaluated a sub-acute toxicity of the hydro-ethanolic whole plant extract in rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of a continuous 14-day oral administration of the extract (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg on haematological and serum biochemical parameters were measured. Results: The extract produced no mortality in the rats treated during the study period. The extract also did not significantly affect any of the haematological and serum biochemical indices measured. Conclusion: This result suggests that a 14-day oral administration of the hydro-ethanolic extract of Synedrella nodiflora is relatively safe in Sprague-Dawley male rats under the present laboratory conditions.

  3. Numerical Study of Cavitation in Francis Turbine of a Small Hydro Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gohil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is undesirable phenomena and more prone in reaction turbines. It is one of the challenges in any hydro power plant which cause vibration, degradation of performance and the damage to the hydraulic turbine components. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out a numerical analysis to investigate the cavitation effect in a Francis turbine. Three dimensional numerical study approach of unsteady and SST turbulence model are considered for the numerical analysis under multiphase flow such as cavitating flow. The performance parameters and cavitating flow under different operating conditions have been predicted using commercial CFX code. Three different operating conditions under cavitation and without cavitation with part load and overload conditions of the turbine for a plant sigma factor are investigated. The results are presented in the form of efficiency, pressure fluctuation, vortex rope and vapor volume fraction. It has been observed that variation in efficiency and vapor volume fraction is found to be nominal between cavitation and without cavitation conditionsat rated discharge and rated head. Turbine efficiency loss and vapor bubbles formation towards suction side of the runner blade are found to be maximum under overload condition. However, the pressure pulsation has been found maximum under part load condition in the draft tube. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with model test results for efficiency. The locations of cavitating zone observed wellwith the result of previous studies.

  4. Transaction Costs in Constructing Small and Medium Hydro Power Plants in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Miti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the transaction costs helps knowing which are the real costs of starting a new business, finding bottlenecks, can serve to reduce inefficiencies and encourage more effective reforms. In  this article we analyze the impact of transaction costs in interactions between firms and public authority, when firms participate in the bidding procedure for constructing new hydropower plants until the stage of producing electricity. In the first years, after granting the concession right, firms face many difficulties due to a complex normative regulation, contractual conditions and  bureaucracy. Although in the majority of the cases, winning firms are provided by the public authority with the  concessionary permit within the legal deadlines, they fail to start producing electricity within the declared  timetable. Even though direct transaction costs computed by measuring the actual costs that firms or individuals face during these procedures may be relatively low, fairly 1-2 % of the total cost of investment, opportunity costs considering the potential loss in the revenues due to delays in producing and selling electricity, in some cases,  can be equal to the total cost of constructing the implant. Keywords: transaction costs, concessions, hydro power constructing, regulation.

  5. Commercial Impact and Optimum Capacity Determination of Pumped Storage Hydro Plant for a Practical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, P. G.; Anand, S. R.; Imthias, Ahamed T. P.; Sreejith, P. S., Dr.

    2013-06-01

    This paper attempts to study the commercial impact of pumped storage hydro plant on the operation of a stressed power system. The paper further attempts to compute the optimum capacity of the pumped storage scheme that can be provided on commercial basis for a practical power system. Unlike the analysis of commercial aspects of pumped storage scheme attempted in several papers, this paper is presented from the point of view of power system management of a practical system considering the impact of the scheme on the economic operation of the system. A realistic case study is presented as the many factors that influence the pumped storage operation vary widely from one system to another. The suitability of pumped storage for the particular generation mix of a system is well explored in the paper. To substantiate the economic impact of pumped storage on the system, the problem is formulated as a short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem involving power purchase which optimizes the quantum of power to be scheduled and the duration of operation. The optimization model is formulated using an algebraic modeling language, AMPL, which is then solved using the advanced MILP solver CPLEX.

  6. Economic Analysis of Cikaso Mini Hydro Power Plant as a CDM Project for Increasing IRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irhan Febijanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy fueled power generations are few developed by private sector in Indonesia. High-cost investment and low electricity selling price to PT PLN as a single buyer is main barriers for private sector to involve in the development of renewable energy fueled power generations. In this project, the economic feasibility of Mini Hydro Power Plant of Cikaso with capacity of 5.3 MW, located at Sukabumi Regency, West Java province was assessed. This project utilized revenue generated from carbon market to increase the economic feasibility. Procedure to register the project to United Nation for Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC as a Clean Development Mechanism project was explained in detail. Approved Consolidation Methodology (ACM 0002 Version 12.3.0 was used to calculate grid emission factor in Jawa-Bali-Madura the grid electricity system. It was calculated that the grid emission factor is 0.833 (t-CO2/MWh, and the carbon emission reduction generated for this project is 21,982 ton/year. From the analysis result, it can be proven that the additional revenue from carbon credit could increase the project IRR from 10.28% to 13.52%.

  7. Determination and modeling of the influence of the fluid-dynamics in hydro-treating bench scale plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, T.

    1999-09-16

    At an industrial scale, the hydro-treating of oil fractions is carried out in multiphase fixed bed reactors. The oil and hydrogen cross the catalyst bed, usually in co-current downflow. Since the product specifications are steadily becoming more severe, the testing of new catalysts and of modified operating conditions in pilot plants becomes increasingly important. Although these pilot plants are frequently by a factor of 100 000 smaller than the industrial units, they still have to allow the up-scaling to industrial units. In the literature relatively low conversion degrees in pilot plants are frequently reported, especially in downflow. The significantly lower fluid velocities in pilot plants seem to be responsible for such differences, as the influence of fluid-dynamic non-idealities and of the extra-particle mass transfer phenomena increases with a decrease of the fluid velocities. In the present work, the influence of important fluid-dynamic non-idealities on the hydro-treating of gas oil fractions in pilot plants was examined. This was done on the one hand in experiments with different pilot plants and on the other hand by simulations with an especially developed multiphase model. The phenomena were considered as well in an isolated manner. In order to examine any interactions with the chemical reactions, they were also studied in a reactive system. This methodology was applied to the phenomena, 'axial dispersion'and 'gas-liquid mass transfer'. (author)

  8. TVA's 500-kV electric and magnetic fields: measurements and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 500-kV electric and magnetic fields data project, performed by the Electrical Systems Group of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The objectives of the project were to measure, record, and analyze electric and magnetic fields in the vicintiy of TVA's 500-kV transmission lines. Also the effects of transmission line fields on the growth and development of selected agricultural and forest plant species were to be investigated. This report contains only the categorization and the statistical analysis of the fields data.

  9. Modelling energy production by small hydro power plants in collective irrigation networks of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Nicotra, Angelo; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Marcello Zimbone, Santo

    2017-04-01

    The availability of geodetic heads and considerable water flows in collective irrigation networks suggests the possibility of recovery potential energy using small hydro power plants (SHPP) at sustainable costs. This is the case of many Water Users Associations (WUA) in Calabria (Southern Italy), where it could theoretically be possible to recovery electrical energy out of the irrigation season. However, very few Calabrian WUAs have currently built SHPP in their irrigation networks and thus in this region the potential energy is practically fully lost. A previous study (Zema et al., 2016) proposed an original and simple model to site turbines and size their power output as well as to evaluate profits of SHPP in collective irrigation networks. Applying this model at regional scale, this paper estimates the theoretical energy production and the economic performances of SHPP installed in collective irrigation networks of Calabrian WUAs. In more detail, based on digital terrain models processed by GIS and few parameters of the water networks, for each SHPP the model provides: (i) the electrical power output; (iii) the optimal water discharge; (ii) costs, revenues and profits. Moreover, the map of the theoretical energy production by SHPP in collective irrigation networks of Calabria was drawn. The total network length of the 103 water networks surveyed is equal to 414 km and the total geodetic head is 3157 m, of which 63% is lost due to hydraulic losses. Thus, a total power output of 19.4 MW could theoretically be installed. This would provide an annual energy production of 103 GWh, considering SHPPs in operation only out of the irrigation season. The single irrigation networks have a power output in the range 0.7 kW - 6.4 MW. However, the lowest SHPPs (that is, turbines with power output under 5 kW) have been neglected, because the annual profit is very low (on average less than 6%, Zema et al., 2016). On average each irrigation network provides an annual revenue from

  10. Conceptual Design of Solar-micro Hydro Power Plant to Increase Conversion Efficiency for Supporting Remote Tribal Community of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmona Shabnam Pranti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is endowed with people along with limited primary energy sources and low electrification rate. Most of the hilly areas are out of the coverage of national grid where tribal people, a significant part of the country, are dwelling. The economic development of the whole country depends upon their advancement which is related to the electrification rate. Available micro hydro potential in hilly region could be a solution for this crisis if modified design is used. This paper deals with a new design of water power potential conversion efficiency increment of a micro hydro power plant to 95% from about 50% by using solar power for heating the water. In this proposed hybrid design, a parabolic reflector is considered to be used after comparative solar intensity analysis on different micro hydro power sites in Bangladesh to increase the velocity as well as the flow rate through penstock by heating the water to increase power production and efficiency. The main purpose of this concept is to supply electricity to more people, especially, remote tribal community by available renewable energy sources for economic development.

  11. Long-term changes of Daugava River ice phenology under the impact of the cascade of hydro power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Apsîte Elga; Elferts Didzis; Latkovska Inese

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study of long-term changes of Daugava River ice phenology, i.e. the freeze-up date, the break-up date, and the duration of ice cover from 1919/1920 to 2011/2012, under the impact of the cascade of hydro power plants. The long-term changes of ice phenology were determined by global climate warming at the turn of the 20th and the 21st centuries and anthropogenic activities after the year 1939. The Mann-Kendall test showed that the ice freeze-up date has a ...

  12. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.; Waymire, Russell L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  13. DECREASE IN DUST EMISSIONS BY ADDING CYCLONES IN THE CATCHING ASH DEVICE AT NOVOCHERKASSK HYDRO POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkova T. G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After silage of ash captured by the electrostatic precipitator, we installed the cyclone of NIIOGAZ CN-15-500 for exhaust gas pre-treatment of the ash resulting from the process of burning solid fuels (coal of Donetsk in boilers of Novocherkassk hydro power plant. The plant cyclone examination was performed in a production environment of Novocherkassk hydro power station comprising 4 cylindrical cyclone element diameters of 500 mm, and is defined by its real effectiveness, which amounted to 91%. After the cyclone, the gas enters the two-bag filter FRKI-90KP3-2-2 designed to trap solid ash residues and installed over the silo dry ash. Filters are manufactured in climatic design for temperate and cold climate with the accommodation category 4. The article shows the characteristic of the test results and bag filters FRKI- 90K-P3-2-2 before and after the cyclone in the cleaning system. The work presents the analysis of the composition of the ash and compares it with published data. It is experimentally proved that the inclusion of Cyclone CN-15-500 in the process diverting gas purification scheme allowed more efficient operation of fabric filters, reducing the dust significantly for the input gases

  14. Design, development and commissioning of ultra micro hydro power plant for rural energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subba Rao, P.M.V. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In contrast to the historical tendency to dam rivers for large-scale electricity production, current trends suggest that small-scale hydro systems will be able to provide a sufficient amount of sustainable energy at greatly reduced costs. In many parts of India, rivers flow all throughout the year. Therefore, the objective is to harness the energy producing potential of these rivers. In the North Indian Gangetic Plains, the small-scale hydro potential is approximately 0.4 megawatts, which favors comparably with other countries. This presentation focused on the revival of the negligent water wheel with high efficiencies. Its micro-size is comparable to that of reaction turbines used for micro power generation, but with less manufacturing and installation costs. The presentation discussed the design of a new and efficient ultra micro-hydel turbine, developed at the Indian Institute of Technology at Delhi. When considering the various social, economical and engineering features of the Indian subcontinent, the application of small-scale hydro is a viable alternative energy source.

  15. Determination of the optimal installation capacity of small hydro-power plants through the use of technical, economic and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Rahimpoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning Small Hydro-Power Plants (SHPPs) of the ‘‘run-off river’’ type is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the SHPP andestimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a methodto calculate the annual energy is presented, as is the prog......One of the most important issues in planning Small Hydro-Power Plants (SHPPs) of the ‘‘run-off river’’ type is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the SHPP andestimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a methodto calculate the annual energy is presented...

  16. Optimal bidding in Turkey day ahead electricity market for wind energy and pumped storage hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Yıldız

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrical grid; when the demand power increases energy prices increase, when the demand decreases energy prices decrease. For this reason; to increase the total daily income, it is required to shift generations to the hours that high demand power values occurred. Wind Power Plants (WPP have unstable and uncontrollable generation characteristic. For this reason, energy storage systems are needed to shift the generations of WPPs in time scale. In this study, four wind power plants (WPP which are tied to the Turkish interconnected grid and a pumped hydro storage power plant (PSPP that meets the energy storage requirement of these power plants are investigated in Turkey day ahead energy market. An optimization algorithm is developed using linear programming technique to maximize the day ahead market bids of these plants which are going to generate power together. When incomes and generations of the plants that are operated with optimization strategy is analyzed, it is seen that annual income increased by 2.737% compared with WPPs ‘s alone operation and generations are substantially shifted to the high demand power occurred hours.

  17. Impact on the aquatic environment of hydro-peaking in hydroelectric plants; Impact sur le milieu aquatique de la gestion par eclusees des usines hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaton, C.; Lauters, F.; Valentin, S.

    1996-12-31

    There are a number of types of hydroelectric installations on French rivers. Some of these intermittently turbine water stored in dammed reservoirs, in order to use available reserves at the most opportune moment for power generation. These plants, run under `hydro-peaking` management procedures, cause variations in discharge in river sections downstream of the restitution, on a daily or weekly scale. To answer questions concerning the impact of such variations in discharge on the aquatic environment, EDF launched a research program aimed at describing and better understanding the physical and biological phenomena related to hydro-peaking and assessing the possible impact of this type of plant management on French streams. Seven sites subjects to hydro-peaking were studied on rivers with mean flow rates lower than 20 m{sup 3}/s (which corresponds to over 65 % of EDF hydro-peaking sites). Four themes in particular were examined: hydraulic characterization of hydro-peaking, modifications in thermal regime and water quality, response of benthic invertebrates and response of fish populations to hydro-peaking. For fish as well as for invertebrates, the role of the base discharge - in the absence of peaking flow - and that of the morphology of the river bed (and, in particular, the presence of shelter for fish) during periods of strong discharge were clearly highlighted. Impact assessment requires a precise diagnosis of the state of biocenoses. To carry out such a diagnosis, one must reason in terms of species, life phase (particularly the most sensitive phases) and population structure as well as the type of stream and the faunizone involved. A risk assessment is possible by means of simultaneous study of the morphology of the river bed and the response of the signal generated by hydro-peaking in terms of hydrology and physical characteristics downstream of the restitution. (authors). 25 refs.

  18. [Characterization and properties of two dehydroquinate hydro-lyases in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, A M; Lécussan, R; Boudet, A

    1975-01-01

    Two dehydroquinate hydro-lyases (E.C. 4.2.1.10) have been routinely separated from different organs of Zea mays L. by chromatography on Cellex-D Bio-Rad or hydroxypatite using linear salt gradients. Dehydroquinate hydro-lyase 1 is associated with shikimate: NADP(+) oxidoreductase (E.C. 1.1.1.25). DHQase 2 is a free constitutive enzyme; in this respect it differs from the inducible enzyme of microorganisms which appears only when dehydroquinate or quinate is the principal carbon source. DHQase 1 and DHQase 2 have a similar apparent Michaelis constant and pH optimum, but they differ in their molecular weight, thermal stability and sensitivity to metabolic effectors. DHQase 2 is specifically activated by shikimic acid. This strong activation and the channeling properties of the complex involved in the shikimate pathway can provide an effective means of control in the utilization of dehydroquinate between two different pathways. The significance of such a system involving both a specific regulation of isoenzymes and a molecular compartmentation by means of an enzymatic complex is discussed.

  19. Testing attention: comparing the ANT with TVA-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2014-03-01

    Posner's attention network model and Bundesen's theory of visual attention (TVA) are two influential accounts of attention. Each model has led to the development of a test method: the attention network test (ANT) and TVA-based assessment, respectively. Both tests have been widely used to investigate attentional function in normal and clinical populations. Here we report on the first direct comparison of the ANT to TVA-based assessment. A group of 68 young healthy participants were tested in three consecutive sessions that each contained standard versions of the two tests. The parameters derived from TVA-based assessment had better internal reliability and retest reliability than did those of the standard version of the ANT, where only the executive network score reached comparable levels. However, when corrected for differences in test length, the retest reliability of the orienting network score equaled the least reliable TVA parameters. Both tests were susceptible to practice effects, which improved performance for some parameters while leaving others constant. All pairwise correlations between the eight attention parameters measured by the two tests were small and nonsignificant, with one exception: A strong correlation (r = 0.72) was found between two parameters of TVA-based assessment, visual processing speed and the capacity of visual short-term memory. We conclude that TVA-based assessment and the ANT measure complementary aspects of attention, but the scores derived from TVA-based assessment are more reliable.

  20. The Albisser small hydro-power plant on the Gettnau mill canal; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Albisser Muehlekanal Gettnau (LU). Auflage und Konzessionsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenberger, P.

    2007-04-15

    This technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work involved in obtaining a new concession for the use of the water in the mill canal in Gettnau, Switzerland. The author states that the existing concession for use is not optimal and should be optimised. The paper discusses how the production of electrical energy can be increased. The history of the use of the canal's waters for the supply of mechanical and, later, electrical power is discussed and the existing Albisser installation is described. Details of existing conduits and the installed power of the existing installation are presented. The measures proposed for the renewal of the hydro-power plant are described. An annex includes a copy of the application for a new concession and plans associated with.

  1. Simultaneous transient operation of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station in the same hydraulic scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Cervantes, M. J.; Cǎlinoiu, C.; Isbǎşoiu, E. C.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an on-site experimental analysis of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station, in an interconnected complex hydraulic scheme during simultaneous transient operation. The investigated hydropower site has a unique structure as the pumping station discharges the water into the hydropower plant penstock. The operation regimes were chosen for critical scenarios such as sudden load rejections of the turbines as well as start-ups and stops with different combinations of the hydraulic turbines and pumps operation. Several parameters were simultaneously measured such as the pumped water discharge, the pressure at the inlet pump section, at the outlet of the pumps and at the vane house of the hydraulic power plant surge tank. The results showed the dependence of the turbines and the pumps operation. Simultaneous operation of the turbines and the pumps is possible in safe conditions, without endangering the machines or the structures. Furthermore, simultaneous operation of the pumping station together with the hydropower plant increases the overall hydraulic efficiency of the site since shortening the discharge circuit of the pumps.

  2. The activity of some oxidoreductases in Hordeum vulgare L. plants treated with ethylmethanesulfonate and Rosmarinus officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogu Gheorghita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the activity of some oxidoreductases (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide- dismutase in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. after 6 hours of seeds treatment with different concentrations (0,01 – 0,50% of ethyl-methane-sulfonate and 12 hours with hydro-alcoholic 0,5% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (EHR. The EMS treatments led to an obvious increase of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in plants, while the application of the hydro-alcoholic rosemary extract, after the EMS treatment, led to a significant decrease of the activities of these enzymes, since the rosemary extract has an obvious antioxidant effect.

  3. Laser Surface Treatment of Hydro and Thermal Power Plant Components and Their Coatings: A Review and Recent Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, B. S.

    2015-11-01

    High-power diode laser (HPDL) surface modification of hydro and thermal power plant components is of the utmost importance to minimize their damages occurring due to cavitation erosion, water droplet erosion, and particle erosion (CE, WDE, and PE). Special emphasis is given on the HPDL surface treatment of martensitic and precipitate-hardened stainless steels, Ti6Al4V alloy, plasma ion nitro-carburized layers, high pressure high velocity oxy-fuel and twin-wire arc sprayed coatings. WDE test results of all these materials and coatings in `untreated' and `HPDL- treated at 1550 °C' conditions, up to 8.55 million cycles, are already available. Their WDE testing was further continued up to 10.43 million cycles. The X20Cr13 and X10CrNiMoV1222, the most common martensitic stainless steels used in hydro and thermal power plants, were HPDL surface treated at higher temperature (1650 °C) and their WDE test results were also obtained up to 10.43 million cycles. It is observed that the increased HPDL surface temperature from 1550 to 1650 °C has resulted in significant improvement in their WDE resistances because of increased martensitic (ά) phase at higher temperature. After conducting long-range WDE tests, the correlation of CE, WDE, and PE resistances of these materials and protective coatings with their mechanical properties such as fracture toughness and microhardness product, ultimate resilience, modified resilience, and ultimate modified resilience has been reviewed and discussed. One of the edges of a 500 MW low pressure steam turbine moving blade (X10CrNiMoV1222 stainless steel) was HPDL surface treated at 1550 °C and its radii of curvatures and deflections were measured. These were compared with the data available earlier from a flat rectangular sample of similar composition and identical HPDL surface temperature.

  4. Application of multi-model control with fuzzy switching to a micro hydro-electrical power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salhi, Issam; Doubabi, Said [Laboratory of Electric Systems and Telecommunications (LEST), Faculty of Sciences and Technologies of Marrakesh, Cadi Ayyad University, BP 549, Av Abdelkarim Elkhattabi, Gueliz, Marrakesh (Morocco); Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz [CReSTIC, Reims University, 9, rue de Quebec B.P. 396, F-10026 Troyes cedex (France)

    2010-09-15

    Modelling hydraulic turbine generating systems is not an easy task because they are non-linear and uncertain where the operating points are time varying. One way to overcome this problem is to use Takagi-Sugeno (TS) models, which offer the possibility to apply some tools from linear control theory, whereas those models are composed of linear models connected by a fuzzy activation function. This paper presents an approach to model and control a micro hydro power plant considered as a non-linear system using TS fuzzy systems. A TS fuzzy system with local models is used to obtain a global model of the studied plant. Then, to combine efficiency and simplicity of design, PI controllers are synthesised for each considered operating point to be used as conclusion of an electrical load TS Fuzzy controller. The latter ensures the global stability and desired performance despite the change of operating point. The proposed approach (model and controller) is tested on a laboratory prototype, where the obtained results show their efficiency and their capability to ensure good performance despite the non-linear nature of the plant. (author)

  5. Dynamic modeling, simulation and control design of an advanced micro-hydro power plant for distributed generation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, J.L. [Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina); Molina, M.G. [CONICET, Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina); Pacas, J.M. [Institut fuer Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebe, Universitaet Siegen, Fachbereich 12 Hoelderlinstr 3, D 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    A small-scale hydropower station is usually a run-of-river plant that uses a fixed speed drive with mechanical regulation of the turbine water flow rate for controlling the active power generation. This design enables to reach high efficiency over a wide range of water flows but using a complex operating mechanism, which is in consequence expensive and tend to be more affordable for large systems. This paper proposes an advanced structure of a micro-hydro power plant (MHPP) based on a smaller, lighter, more robust and more efficient higher-speed turbine. The suggested design is much simpler and eliminates all mechanical adjustments through a novel electronic power conditioning system for connection to the electric grid. In this way, it allows obtaining higher reliability and lower cost of the power plant. A full detailed model of the MHPP is derived and a new three-level control scheme is designed. The dynamic performance of the proposed MHPP is validated through digital simulations and employing a small-scale experimental set-up. (author)

  6. System identification and automatic tuning of the controller in hydro power plants; Systemidentifikation und Reglerselbsteinstellung in Wasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anz, R.

    2002-07-01

    In this work a method is presented to generate dynamic nonlinear models for speed and power controlled hydro Power plants. The models are identified automatically with measured data during operation. The models can be used for optimisation of the parameters of the controller. In this approach local linear neuro-fuzzy models are used. They seem very suitable for modelling nonlinear static and dynamic Systems. For a given set of measured data the structure and the parameters of the model are generated with the LOLIMOT-algorithm which is well known from literature. Several modifications of this algorithm are investigated during application on hydro power stations. Unfortunately not sufficient measured data from real power plants were available therefore theoretical models based on physical law and equations had to be used instead. The parameters for speed and power control are optimises using a global optimisation method. Other optimisation and design methods can be used and are discussed. The controllers which are optimised with the experimentally generated local linear neuro-fuzzy model are tested with the theoretical model. A clear improvement of the controller can be confirmed. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, mit dem dynamische Modelle von drehzahl- und leistungsgeregelten Wasserkraftanlagen aus gemessenen Betriebsdaten automatisch bestimmt werden koennen. Diese Modelle koennen fuer den Entwurf oder zur Optimierung von Reglerparametern herangezogen werden. Bei dem dynamischen Modell handelt es sich um ein lokal lineares Neuro-Fuzzy Netz. Dieser Ansatz ist geeignet, nichtlineare statische und dynamische Systeme abzubilden. Fuer einen gegebenen Satz gemessener Daten erfolgt die Modellerstellung weitgehend automatisch mit dem aus der Literatur bekannten LOLIMOT-Algorithmus. Verschiedene Varianten und Abaenderungen des Verfahrens werden am Beispiel von Wasserkraftanlagen in dieser Arbeit untersucht. Leider standen fuer die

  7. Underground hydro scheme for Ullapool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Scoltish and Southern Energy has awarded a contract for a new hydropower plant Scotland, the company's first hydro project since the 1960s. The S6 million scheme will be built by Miller Civil Engineering Services Ltd.

  8. Experiments on optimization and standardising of turbines for small-scale hydro-power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of small scale hydropower plants in the field of power generation increases worldwide. For an economic power generation a standard program for small scale turbines has been developed. Exhaustive test results were the basis for optimizing those turbines hydraulically. Simple, mature and well proven designs ensure troublefree and maintenancefree operation. The advantages of standardization in connection with available hydraulic test results and experience in design make the use of small and even smallest hydropower plants economically efficient.

  9. Electrification Using Decentralized Micro-Hydro Power Plants in Northern Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Bhandari

    2015-03-01

    In order to identify the operational status of installed MHP plants in four North-eastern provinces (i.e. Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh and Takhar and to assess their socio-economic impacts, an extensive field monitoring had been carried out. The major parameters studied were spatial distribution of MHP plants, investment costs, operational models, end user electricity tariffs, productive use of electricity, community satisfaction, etc. Altogether, 421 MHP installations (about 11 MW installed capacity were visited. The outcomes obtained from those surveys are presented in detail in this paper.

  10. Modelling and Simulation of Hydro Power Plant using MATLAB & WatPro 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnvi Tiwari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increase in demand of electricity and clean drinking water has produced a chronic need of a promising and reliable technology for the supply of both commodities, which should be entirely based on renewable sources of energy. The authors, in their previous work, had proposed a design of a hybrid power plant which used graphene membrane for power generation using reverse osmosis process. The proposal included removal of arsenic, poorly biodegradable pollutants using TiO2 nanoparticles. Chlorine production using the process of electrolysis. The plant was also electronically implemented and included pump control, fouling detection modules and decision module for the volume of effluents to be discharged. The performance of a power system is essential to be analyzed for control, stabilization and efficient modelling. In the present research paper, simulation model of the hybrid plant is analyzed. The chemical behavior is analyzed with 'Watpro 3.0' industrial software and turbine governance system is studied via MATLAB. This plant is a potential replacement of chemical purification techniques with high overhead and excess cost. It is a better, efficient, safe and reliable system to produce clean and safe drinking water and electricity simultaneously.

  11. Electrification Using Decentralized Micro-Hydro Power Plants in Northern Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchandra Bhandari; Anita Richter; Andre Möller; Rolf.-P. Oswianoski

    2015-01-01

    Electricity supply database from the Afghan national authority for electricity supply shows that about only 20% of the population in Afghanistan had access to grid electricity by 2010. The national utility has a total capacity of about 842 MW, out of which about 696 MW was operational. Additionally, many decentralized units (microhydro power (MHP) plants, diesel generators and solar home systems) supply electricity to about 7% of the population. The donors supported National Solidarity Progra...

  12. Hydro-peaking at Tonstad power plant in Norway Modelled effects on currents, temperatures and ice cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjomsland, Torulv; Bakken, Tor Haakon.

    2012-07-01

    Hydro-peaking ing was done by pumping water from Sirdalsvatn to Homstoelvatn by night and using it for production the following day. The effect of the hydro-peaking was simulated by mathematical modelling. Hydro-peaking led to considerably changes in water level in Homstoelvatn, 3.5 m up and down each day. For Sirdalsvatn the difference was around 3/4 m. Hydro-peaking increased the current speed and current pattern especially near the openings of the tunnels in Sirdalsvatn and Homstoelvatn. The vertical mixing was increased throughout the lake. In Sirdalsvatn the hydro-peaking led to reduced temperatures near surface and increased temperatures at greater depths due to increased vertical mixing, especially during the autumn and the first part of winter. The circulation period was delayed and prolonged by a week or two. In Sirdalsvatn hydro-peaking resulted in a shorter period with ice cover. In both Sirdalsvatn and Homstoelvatn reduced ice cover formation may be connected to areas near the tunnel due to increased current velocities. Rapid water level changes may break up continuous ice cover along the shores.(Author)

  13. The First Israeli Hydro-Electric Pumped Storage Power Plant Gilboa PSPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruzewski, P., Dr.; Sautereau, T.; Sapir, Y.; Barak, H.; Hénard, F.; Blaix, J.-C.

    2016-11-01

    The Israeli Public Utilities Authority, PUA, decided to increase the instantaneous power available on the grid by adding Pumped Storage Power Plants, PSPP, to the existing generation capacity. PSP Investments Ltd. is a private investor that decided to develop the Gilboa PSPP. Its capacity is 300MWe. The project performance has to comply with PUA regulation for PSPP, and with all relevant Israeli laws and IECo standards. This paper itemizes an overview of the Gilboa PSPP through short summaries of units’ components from design step to manufacturing processes.

  14. Reactivation or expansion of Hotel Baker Hydro plant. Feasibility assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The Hotel Baker Hydroelectric Power plant, built in 1928 at St. Charles, IL., has two generating units which until 1970 supplied the hotel with 100 kW output at 6 ft. head. The feasibility of reactivating, upgrading, or replacing these units to again supply power for the hotel was evaluated considering installation and operating costs, financing requirements, environmental impacts, and regulatory requirements. It was concluded that the reactivation project is marginally attractive only with full use of the power output by an expanded hotel and if electric utility rates increase at 8% per year. (LCL)

  15. The Hetex small-scale hydro plant; KWKW Hetex Vorstudie. Hetex Faerberei AG, Niederlenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentert, P.; Boller, F.; Wanner, A.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the 400 kW small hydroelectric power plant (SHP) installed on the Aabach stream in Niederlenz, Switzerland. With a maximum water-flow of 4.5 m{sup 3}/s, the turbine can produce about 1.5 GWh of electricity per year. In spring 2005, bearing damage necessitated substantial renovation to the turbine and the generator. This study examines the state of the rest of the plant noted during maintenance work. It also focuses on the feeding of the electricity produced into the grid, the effects of increased residual water-flow, the option of using the Hallwilersee lake as a buffer, upstream flood evacuation and the possibility of green electricity certification. The calculation of the amount of water available is discussed. Due to inconsistent data, a corrected flow-duration curve was used. For the local river authorities, the through passage for fish from the Aare river up to the Hallwilersee has a high priority. The Hetex SHP weir is one of nine barriers to a direct connection. The planning of a fish-pass to be built in 2006 is discussed.

  16. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the theory of visual attention (TVA) can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: the visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top–down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a) neglect and simultanagnosia, (b) reading disturbances, (c) aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d) neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method’s most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research. PMID:25852607

  17. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the theory of visual attention (TVA) can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: the visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top-down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a) neglect and simultanagnosia, (b) reading disturbances, (c) aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d) neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method's most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research.

  18. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHabekost

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: The visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top-down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a neglect and simultanagnosia, (b reading disturbances, (c aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method’s most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research.

  19. 18 CFR 1304.208 - Shoreline stabilization on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shoreline stabilization... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS TVA-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.208 Shoreline... landowners to stabilize eroding shorelines on TVA-owned residential access shoreland. TVA will determine...

  20. Small-scale hydro-power plant in Quinto - Preliminary project; Progetto minicentrale idroelettrica, Ri Secco - Quinto. Programma piccole centrali idrauliche. Progetto di massima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, R. [Reali e Guscetti SA, Ambri (Switzerland); Rosselli, P. [Celio Engineering SA, Ambri (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the alpine stream 'Ri Secco' in the municipality of Quinto, southern Switzerland. The Ri Secco partly flows in a steep canyon. The elevation difference of 810 or 620 m (depending on the location of the water deviation from the stream) is favorable to the installation of a small-scale high-head power plant. The report presents details on the hydrological data and the dimensioning of the installation. Several variants are considered, which also include two possible penstock diameters for each weir location. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.

  1. Preliminary design study of Underground Pumped Hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH, Appendix D: Power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine power plant arrangements for a single stage reversible pump turbine two step underground pumped hydro (UPH) installation and for a multi-stage reversible pump turbine single step (MSRPT) UPH installation. Arrangements consist of: the underground powerhouses; transformer galleries; associated mechanical and electrical equipment; the administration and control building; hoist head frames; the access; draft tube and bus tunnels; and the switchyard. Primary considerations including the number and size of pump turbine and motor generator units, starting methods, transformers, high voltage connections, geotechnical and construction aspects and safety were studied. A feasibility analysis to minimize costs was conducted. The study led to the selection of suitable equipment and layouts for the powerhouses, transformer galleries, and associated facilities. The material presented and also the cost estimates are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  2. Regulation effects of the German renewable energy act on the ecological upgrade of hydro-power plants. Results of a survey; Lenkungswirkung der Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetze (EEG 2004 und 2009) fuer die oekologische Modernisierung von Wasserkraftanlagen. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderer, Pia [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Naumann, Stephan [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Germany lacks a unified register containing data on the equipment of hydropower stations with environmental facilities or of those subject to requirements for reducing the environmental impact on the status of waters. Thanks to the cooperation of the hydro-power plant operators, our survey allowed us for the first time to gain insight into the regulation effects of the German Renewable Energy Act (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz; EEG) as well as into the ecological upgrade potential of German hydro-power plants. EEG 2004 and 2009 funded measures implemented at hydro-power stations are focused on ensuring a minimum flow as well as on longitudinal connectivity. This priority is consistent with the water management requirement of achieving the goals of the Water Framework Directive in this area. (orig.)

  3. Wind-hydro combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stregger, D.L.; Fisher, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic viability of a generalized system composed of a wind-electric and hydroelectric system interacting together to provide firm power to a grid, and to determine limits in the extent to which such a combination can be effected. Several scenarios were considered, including: a farm of horizontal axis wind turbines with various generator ratings, generating into a grid; the same wind turbine generator used to pump water into a hydroelectric plant reservoir; and a cursory examination of mechanical pumping with wind energy to increase the water supply of a hydroelectric project. The review of the state-of-the-art indicated that the scenarios investigated represent the most practical utility applications of wind-hydro combinations. The present state-of-the-art is more advanced for multi-megawatt horizontal axis tubines than for vertical axis wind turbines. The utilization factor, on a monthly determination, of the firm wind energy varies with the shape of the hydrograph, load and the wind regimes. Across Canada it was found to vary from a low of 79% to a maximum of 100%. The most important parameter in the economic evaluation of the break-even costs of wind-hydro generation is the cost of alternative supplies of energy. The regions of Canada where wind-hydro combinations appear to be within economic limits at present cost levels are Newfoundland, assuming a oil-fired thermal alternative, and isolated areas such as the Northwest Territories, assuming a diesel alternative. 67 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Increased installation in existing hydro power plants. Potentials and costs; Oekt installasjon i eksisterende kraftverk. Potensial og kostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, Kjell Erik (ed.)

    2011-06-15

    This report seeks to highlight the costs associated with increased installed capacity of existing hydropower plants. Five selected power plant is further studied. Furthermore, given an overview of the technical possibilities of power expansions in Norway. (AG)

  5. Repetition priming in selective attention: A TVA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-09-01

    Current behavior is influenced by events in the recent past. In visual attention, this is expressed in many variations of priming effects. Here, we investigate color priming in a brief exposure digit-recognition task. Observers performed a masked odd-one-out singleton recognition task where the target-color either repeated or changed between subsequent trials. Performance was measured by recognition accuracy over exposure durations. The purpose of the study was to replicate earlier findings of perceptual priming in brief displays and to model those results based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). We tested 4 different definitions of a generic TVA-model and assessed their explanatory power. Our hypothesis was that priming effects could be explained by selective mechanisms, and that target-color repetitions would only affect the selectivity parameter (α) of our models. Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure that estimated 4-15 free parameters, depending on the particular model. We draw two main conclusions. Color priming can be modeled simply as a change in selectivity between conditions of repetition or swap of target color. Depending on the desired resolution of analysis; priming can accurately be modeled by a simple four parameter model, where VSTM capacity and spatial biases of attention are ignored, or more fine-grained by a 10 parameter model that takes these aspects into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. TRAVME IZ OTROŠTVA IN NJIHOVE POSLEDICE

    OpenAIRE

    Majerič, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Tema diplomskega dela so travme iz otroštva in njihove posledice. Namen je bil teoretično proučiti najpogostejše travme v predšolskem obdobju ter posledice, nastale zaradi njih. Teoretično so proučeni tudi znaki, ki so značilni za travmatiziranega otroka, ter naloge vzgojiteljice pri otroku s posledicami travm. Eden izmed glavnih namenov je bil ta, da se teoretično prouči, ali so starši eden od povzročiteljev travm pri otrocih. Metodološko plat teoretičnega diplomskega dela predstavlja deskri...

  7. ZADAĆA RUBRIKE „RIJEČ UREDNIŠTVA"

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Prema Statutu Hrvatskoga šumarskog društva, u čl. 2. stoji da je cilj HŠD-a okupljanje inženjera i tehničara šumarstva, drvne tehnologije, kemijske prerade drva i prometa drvnim proizvodima, te drugih stručnjaka s najmanje srednjom stručnom spremom, koji rade na poslovima iz navedenih djelatnosti, a radi promicanja i zaštite interesa struke i članstva, unapređenja struke, promicanja inženjerskog i tehničarskog poziva, tehničkoga razvoja i istraživanja, obrazovanja (srednjeg i visokog) i staln...

  8. Knowledge management, case example operation of hydro-electric power plants; Knowledge management am Beispiel des Betreibens von Wasserkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demel, S.; Neunhoeffer, P. [Verbund-Austrian Hydro Power AG, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    With the beginning of the 21{sup st} century, industrial companies are confronted with a completely changed social and economical framework. Today the environmental and jurisdictional questions are the big challenges, where unconventional, innovative strategies are demanded. By means of the innovative solution of the VERBUND-Austrian Hydro Power AG, FORELLE, a network application of data bases which support the operators requirements, an unconventional approach to the subject knowledge management are shown. During several environmental audits in 2003 the functionality of FORELLE in practice was demonstrated in an impressive way. (orig.) [German] Als Industriebetrieb am Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts findet man sich heute in einem Spannungsfeld wieder, das primaer durch die sich immer rascher aendernden Markt- und Rahmenbedingungen bestimmt wird. Heute sind es mehr und mehr rechtliche wie auch umweltbezogene Fragestellungen, die innovative Bewaeltigungstrategien erfordern und dabei technische Themen in den Schatten stellen. Das Know-how, die Handhabung wie auch die Weitergabe desselben wird zu einem der zentralen Themen, um auch in Zukunft in einem liberalisierten Markt reuessieren zu koennen. Anhand des Loesungsansatzes der VERBUND-Austrian Hydow Power AG zum Thema Knowledge Management, der Datenbankanwendung FORELLE, soll gezeigt werden, dass es durchaus innovative Ideen gibt. (orig.)

  9. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone...

  10. 18 CFR 1301.18 - TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.18 TVA review of request for...

  11. Managing the risks of operating a hydro playground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, G.D.; Blackburn, P.C. (Van Ness, Feldman Curtis, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-04-01

    An integral part of most hydro projects is some recreational opportunity for the public. As a result, plant owners need to be aware of and manage their exposure to recreational liability. This article discusses liability and the measures that hydro plant owners can take to reduce their risk.

  12. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  13. Small-scale hydro-power plant in Anzonico - Preliminary project; Progetto microcentrale idroelettrica, Anzonico. Programma Centrali idrauliche. Progetto di massima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, R. [Reali e Guscetti SA, Ambri (Switzerland); Rosselli, P. [Celio Engineering SA, Ambri (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant in the municipality of Anzonico, southern Switzerland. The water of a small alpine stream is to be used for power generation and vineyard irrigation as well as for the creation of an additional water resource for fire fighting in this sensitive region. The report is foreseen to support the request for a water usage concession to the authorities of the Canton of Ticino. It presents details on the hydrological data for the river and the dimensioning of the installation. The hydrological installations and the turbine foreseen are described and discussed, as is the removal of river sediment. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project. Synergies exist with the local electricity utility that will renew and improve its power distribution and telecommunication system when the penstock will be mounted in the underground.

  14. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  15. Hydro-economic performances of streamflow withdrawal strategies: the case of small run-of-river power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Stefano; Lazzaro, Gianluca; Schirmer, Mario; Botter, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    River flows withdrawals to supply small run-of-river hydropower plants have been increasing significantly in recent years - particularly in the Alpine area - as a consequence of public incentives aimed at enhancing energy production from renewable sources. This growth further raised the anthropic pressure in areas traditionally characterized by an intense exploitation of water resources, thereby triggering social conflicts among local communities, hydropower investors and public authorities. This brought to the attention of scientists and population the urgency for novel and quantitative tools for assessing the hydrologic impact of these type of plants, and trading between economic interests and ecologic concerns. In this contribution we propose an analytical framework that allows for the estimate of the streamflow availability for hydropower production and the selection of the run-of-river plant capacity, as well as the assessment of the related profitability and environmental impacts. The method highlights the key role of the streamflow variability in the design process, by showing the significance control of the coefficient of variation of daily flows on the duration of the optimal capacity of small run-of-river plants. Moreover, the analysis evidences a gap between energy and economic optimizations, which may result in the under-exploitation of the available hydropower potential at large scales. The disturbances to the natural flow regime produced between the intake and the outflow of run-of-river power plants are also estimated within the proposed framework. The altered hydrologic regime, described through the probability distribution and the correlation function of streamflows, is analytically expressed as a function of the natural regime for different management strategies. The deviations from pristine conditions of a set of hydrologic statistics are used, jointly with an economic index, to compare environmental and economic outcomes of alternative plant

  16. Binding of more than one Tva800 molecule is required for ASLV-A entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Eleanor R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the mechanism by which viruses enter their target cell is an essential part of understanding their infectious cycle. Previous studies have focussed on the multiplicity of viral envelope proteins that need to bind to their cognate receptor to initiate entry. Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus Envelope protein (ASLV Env mediates entry via a receptor, Tva, which can be attached to the cell surface either by a phospholipid anchor (Tva800 or a transmembrane domain (Tva950. In these studies, we have now investigated the number of target receptors necessary for entry of ASLV Env-pseudotyped virions. Results Using titration and modelling experiments we provide evidence that binding of more than one receptor, probably two, is needed for entry of virions via Tva800. However, binding of just one Tva950 receptor is sufficient for successful entry. Conclusions The different modes of attachment of Tva800 and Tva950 to the cell membrane have important implications for the utilisation of these proteins as receptors for viral binding and/or uptake.

  17. Vibration analysis of a hydro generator for different operating regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haţiegan, C.; Pădureanu, I.; Jurcu, M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Hamat, C. O.; Chioncel, C. P.; Trocaru, S.; Vasile, O.; Bădescu, O.; Micliuc, D.; (Filip Nedeloni, L.; Băra, A.; (Barboni Haţiegan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Based on experimental measurements, this paper presents the vibration analysis of a hydro generator that equips a Kaplan hydraulic turbine of a Hydropower plant in Romania. This analysis means vibrations measurement to different operating regimes of the hydro generator respectively before installing it and into operation, namely putting off load mode (unexcited and excited) respectively putting on load mode. By comparing, through the experimental results obtained before and after the operation of hydro aggregates are observed vibrations improvements.

  18. COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND OBSERVED SEISMIC ACCELERATIONS IN COMPOSITE-TYPE ROCK-FILL DAM OF THE DNESTROVSKAYA HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT DURING EXPERIMENTAL EXPLOSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Matvienko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in earth dams has been developed within the framework of seismic resistance wave theory. In this case we take into account an influence of the dam foundation and seismic wave emission into it. The methodology is based on numerical solution of the dynamic problem while using a finite difference method. A software program SGD “Determination of seismic acceleration in the earth dam” has been prepared on the basis of the developed methodology. The program allows to evaluate ordinates of calculation orthographic representations for acceleration throughout the dam height for all time moments. Thus, it is possible to obtain the most dangerous acceleration orthographic representations at direct and reverse seismic actions. The papers presents verification (compliance test of calculated and observed seismic accelerations for the rock-fill dam of the Dnestrovskaya Hydro-Electric Power Plant No 1. The observed seismic accelerations have been obtained during experimental explosions. The calculated seismic accelerations have been obtained in accordance with the proposed methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in the earth dams. A comparative analysis of calculation results with the data of field observations has demonstrated that a maximum difference between extreme accelerations obtained by calculation, and during field observations, do not exceed 10.11 % for the dam crest, and 6.56 % for its bottom. The obtained results permit to recommend the developed program for engineering calculations of seismic accelerations in the earth dams. The program application will make it possible to determine seismic acceleration in the earth dam with sufficient reliability.

  19. Challenging hydro-hegemony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Hydro-hegemonic praxis defines much of Israel’s occupation that has continued since the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993. Two empirical case studies of hydro-hegemony and counter-hegemony at local level are compared in this paper: the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights and the Israeli-occupied West...

  20. Induction of the tod Operon by Trichloroethylene in Pseudomonas putida TVA8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, Justin T.; Applegate, Bruce M.; Nagel, Aaron C.; Bienkowski, Paul R.; Sayler, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Bioluminescence, mRNA levels, and toluene degradation rates in Pseudomonas putida TVA8 were measured as a function of various concentrations of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE). TVA8 showed an increasing bioluminescence response to increasing TCE and toluene concentrations. Compared to uninduced TVA8 cultures, todC1 mRNA levels increased 11-fold for TCE-treated cultures and 13-fold for toluene-treated cultures. Compared to uninduced P. putida F1 cultures, todC1 mRNA levels increased 4.4-fold for TCE-induced cultures and 4.9-fold for toluene-induced cultures. Initial toluene degradation rates were linearly correlated with specific bioluminescence in TVA8 cultures. PMID:9835608

  1. Adapting the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to model auditory attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical and computational models have provided useful insights into normal and impaired visual attention, but less progress has been made in modelling auditory attention. We are developing a Theory of Auditory Attention (TAA), based on an influential visual model, the Theory of Visual...... Attention (TVA). We report that TVA provides a good fit to auditory data when the stimuli are closely matched to those used in visual studies. In the basic visual TVA task, participants view a brief display of letters and are asked to report either all of the letters (whole report) or a subset of letters (e.......g., the red letters; partial report). For the auditory task, we used dichotic, concurrently-presented synthesised vowels. These auditory stimuli are closely-matched to the visual stimuli, in that they are simultaneous, separated in space, and unchanging over time. We found that TVA could successfully model...

  2. Campbell Creek TVA 2010 First Year Performance Report July 1, 2009 August 31, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    This research project was initiated by TVA in March 2008 and encompasses three houses that are of similar size, design and located within the same community - Campbell Creek, Farragut TN with simulated occupancy. This report covers the performance period from July 1, 2009 to August 31, 2010. It is the intent of TVA that this Valley Data will inform electric utilities future residential retrofit incentive program.

  3. Surface energy evaluation of unhydrogenated DLC thin film deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, R.; Dinca, V.; Musa, G.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this paper is concerned with the surface energy evaluation by contact angle measurements of DLC films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) on different substrates: glass plate, zinc foil, stainless steel and alumina foil. TVA is an original method based on a combination of the evaporation by electron bombardment and anodic arc. The evaluation of the surface free energy has been carried out by surface energy evaluation system (SEE System). The influence of the experimental conditions is also investigated.

  4. Functional testing of a fish sluice, Buchholz small hydro plant - Final report; Funktionskontrolle Fischschleuse, KWKW Buchholz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhle, Ch. [Buero fuer Jagd- und Fischereifragen, Schmerikon (Switzerland); Scherrer, I. [Entegra Wasserkraft AG, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Since more than 100 years the diversion hydropower plant of Buchholz at the river Glatt (canton Saint Gall) has been out of operation. With its reactivation as run-of-river scheme, the river meadow, originated due to sedimentation in the former storage basin, with its beaver habitat, could be preserved. For the first time in Switzerland, a fish lock was implemented for the upstream passage way for fish. The fish lock was built directly into for stability reasons newly constructed secondary concrete at the downstream side of the old dam. At the upper lock opening a weir basked is installed, where the migrating fish are recorded. The examination proofed that the fish lock in principle is working for strong swimming fish species (qualitative proof of the performance control). In case of flood caused drift, the migrating fish seem to accept the fish passage. The attempt to quantify the proportion of the migrating willing fish which actually swim through the lock (quantitative proof of the performance control) did not produce satisfactory results. (authors)

  5. Novel Control Strategy for Multiple Run-of-the-River Hydro Power Plants to Provide Grid Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanpurkar, Manish; Luo, Yusheng; Hovsapian, Rob; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Koritarov, Vladimir

    2017-07-12

    Hydropower plant (HPP) generation comprises a considerable portion of bulk electricity generation and is delivered with a low-carbon footprint. In fact, HPP electricity generation provides the largest share from renewable energy resources, which include wind and solar. Increasing penetration levels of wind and solar lead to a lower inertia on the electric grid, which poses stability challenges. In recent years, breakthroughs in energy storage technologies have demonstrated the economic and technical feasibility of extensive deployments of renewable energy resources on electric grids. If integrated with scalable, multi-time-step energy storage so that the total output can be controlled, multiple run-of-the-river (ROR) HPPs can be deployed. Although the size of a single energy storage system is much smaller than that of a typical reservoir, the ratings of storages and multiple ROR HPPs approximately equal the rating of a large, conventional HPP. This paper proposes cohesively managing multiple sets of energy storage systems distributed in different locations. This paper also describes the challenges associated with ROR HPP system architecture and operation.

  6. Novel Control Strategy for Multiple Run-of-the-River Hydro Power Plants to Provide Grid Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanpurkar, Manish; Luo, Yusheng; Hovsapian, Rob; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Koritarov, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    Electricity generated by Hydropower Plants (HPPs) contributes a considerable portion of bulk electricity generation and delivers it with a low carbon footprint. In fact, HPP electricity generation provides the largest share from renewable energy resources, which includes solar and wind energy. The increasing penetration of wind and solar penetration leads to a lowered inertia in the grid and hence poses stability challenges. In recent years, breakthrough in energy storage technologies have demonstrated the economic and technical feasibility of extensive deployments in power grids. Multiple ROR HPPs if integrated with scalable, multi time-step energy storage so that the total output can be controlled. Although, the size of a single energy storage is far smaller than that of a typical reservoir, cohesively managing multiple sets of energy storage distributed in different locations is proposed. The ratings of storages and multiple ROR HPPs approximately equals the rating of a large, conventional HPP. The challenges associated with the system architecture and operation are described. Energy storage technologies such as supercapacitors, flywheels, batteries etc. can function as a dispatchable synthetic reservoir with a scalable size of energy storage will be integrated. Supercapacitors, flywheels, and battery are chosen to provide fast, medium, and slow responses to support grid requirements. Various dynamic and transient power grid conditions are simulated and performances of integrated ROR HPPs with energy storage is provided. The end goal of this research is to investigate the inertial equivalence of a large, conventional HPP with a unique set of multiple ROR HPPs and optimally rated energy storage systems.

  7. The concept of externality: Implications for TVA Environmental Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, T.H.

    1994-06-01

    Pollution of the environment is a result of the economic activities of production and consumption. And although the market system is touted as the superior method of organizing and operating an economic system, society frequently is dissatisfied with some of the side effects. In these cases of market failure, a cry for intervention often is raised to obtain more socially-desirable solutions. Environmental pollution is one symptom of market failure. If the TVA Environmental Research Center is to focus on defining solutions to environmental problems and designing policy options for implementing such solutions, its efforts should benefit from an understanding of why the market fails and how it may be adjusted to produce more socially-desirable results. The purposes of this report are to: (1) promote an appreciation for and understanding of the concept of externality; (2) demonstrate the utility of the concept in the design and packaging of policy and technology for improved environmental performance; (3) provide a brief summary of the externality valuation issue currently being debated by the electric power industry; and (4) identify environmental research and development agenda opportunities or strategic considerations suggested for the Center by this review.

  8. Realisation of a small hydro power plant in the new water reservoir of the water supply of the San Abbondio municipality; Realizzazione di una microcentrale nel nuovo serbatoio dell'acquedotto del comune di S. Abbondio. Progetto definitivo nuovo serbatoio. Progetto di massima e studio varianti microcentrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, M.

    2008-12-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the construction project of a new water reservoir including a micro-scale hydro power plant in the drinking-water supply of the municipality of San Abbondio, Switzerland. Following the development of residential areas a new water reservoir located at higher elevation is needed. A former preliminary study had demonstrated the feasibility of a micro-scale hydro power plant in the water supply. The adaptation of the plant design to the new situation is described. Investment cost is estimated and several variants are compared. Recommendations are given to the authorities.

  9. Contract for new Scottish hydro station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A£4M (US$6M) Contract has been awarded to Miller Civil Engineering Services for the construction of Scottish and Southern Energy's new 3MW hydro power station on the river Cuileig, near Ullapoot in Scotland, The plant will be the pow, er company's first new hydroelectric station since the 1960s. Construction is set to take 12 months, beginning in mid November,

  10. WaterHydro_LKBSPRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The WaterHydro_LKBSPRE layer consists of drainage basins for water bodies of approximately five or more acres. The data was digitized from 1:24,000 (or 1:25,000)...

  11. Wind / hydro complementary seasonal regimes in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarante, O.A.C. do [CAMARGO SCHUBERT Engenharia Eolica, Curitiba PR (Brazil); Schultz, D.J. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, R.M. [CHESF - Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco, Recife PE (Brazil); Rocha, N.A. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-08-01

    In the last decades, wind power generation has proven its suitability to the Gigawatt scale, necessary to an effective contribution to electric systems. This paper demonstrates, from existing data, the wind / hydro seasonal complementarity in the relevant areas of Brazil, and discusses its possible effect on the feasibility of seasonal stabilization of the energy supply in the Brazilian interconnected grid, taking advantage of the country's large natural resources available. Case studies for the southern/southeastern and the northeastern regions of Brazil are presented. A brief analysis is included regarding the geographic location of the interconnected grid, main hydro power plants, and estimated promising wind farm areas in Brazil. (orig.)

  12. Modelling auditory attention: Insights from the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, K. L.; Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    , and that there is a ‘race’ for selection and representation in visual short term memory (VSTM). In the basic TVA task, participants view a brief display of letters and are asked to report either all of the letters (whole report) or a subset of the letters (e.g., the red letters; partial report). Fitting the model......We report initial progress towards creating an auditory analogue of a mathematical model of visual attention: the ‘Theory of Visual Attention’ (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). TVA is one of the best established models of visual attention. It assumes that visual stimuli are initially processed in parallel...... been used to model normal visual attention, as well as identifying how the different parameters are affected by changes across the lifespan (McAvinue et al., 2012) and by attentional deficits such as neglect (Duncan et al., 1999). An auditory analogue would allow these same parameters to be measured...

  13. TVA's experience with the SUNYA lightning detection network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.; Driggans, R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Since 1987 the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has had access to real-time data on cloud-to-ground lightning strikes in its service area through the Lightning Detection Network (LDN) operated by the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA). Lightning data are displayed in real-time on personal computer workstations connected to SUNYA via satellite link and are recorded for later analysis. TVA is using these data to analyze transmission line outages (real-time and historical), provide warning of approaching lightning to line crews, develop ground flash density maps to replace isokeraunic maps previously used in designing transmission lines for lightning protection, and to learn more about lightning and its effect on TVA's transmission system. Lightning flashes that cause particular line outages have been identified and their current and multiplicity characteristics studied. This information may be used to allow more cost-effective transmission line design in the future.

  14. Innovative private micro-hydro power development in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigaht, Maurice; Van der Plas, Robert J. [MARGE-Netherlands, Brem 68, 7577 EW Oldenzaal (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    Under the 'Private Sector Participation in Micro-Hydro Development Project in Rwanda', four newly registered Rwandan companies are each constructing a micro-hydro electricity plant (100-500 kW) and building a low-voltage distribution grid. These companies financed their plants through their own equity and debt with support from the PSP Hydro project. This support comprised a subsidy of 30-50% of investment costs, technical and business development assistance, project monitoring and financial controlling. The experiences gained so far have important implications for similar future micro-hydro energy sector development projects and this paper puts forward three key messages: (1) institutional arrangements rather than technical quality determine the success of such projects; (2) truly sustainable rural electrification through micro-hydro development demands a high level of local participation at all levels and throughout all project phases, not just after plant commissioning; and (3) real impact and sustainability can be obtained through close collaboration of local private and financial sector firms requiring only limited external funds. In short, micro-hydro projects can and will be taken up by local investors as a business if the conditions are right. Applying these messages could result in an accelerated uptake of viable micro-hydro activities in Rwanda, and in the opinion of the authors elsewhere too. (author)

  15. Development of genetically flexible mouse models of sarcoma using RCAS-TVA mediated gene delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Kabaroff

    Full Text Available Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal malignancies and unfortunately there are limited functional genomics platforms to assess the molecular pathways contributing to sarcomagenesis. Thus, novel model systems are needed to validate which genes should be targeted for therapeutic intervention. We hypothesized that delivery of oncogenes into mouse skeletal muscle using a retroviral (RCAS-TVA system would result in sarcomagenesis. We also sought to determine if the cell type transformed (mesenchymal progenitors vs. terminally differentiated tissues would influence sarcoma biology. Cells transduced with RCAS vectors directing the expression of oncoproteins KrasG12D, c-Myc and/or Igf2 were injected into the hindlimbs of mice that expressed the retroviral TVA receptor in neural/mesenchymal progenitors, skeletal/cardiac muscle or ubiquitously (N-tva, AKE and BKE strains respectively. Disrupting the G1 checkpoint CDKN2 (p16/p19-/- resulted in sarcoma in 30% of p16/p19-/- xN-tva mice with a median latency of 23 weeks (range 8-40 weeks. A similar incidence occurred in p16/p19-/- xBKE mice (32%, however, a shorter median latency (10.4 weeks was observed. p16/p19-/- xAKE mice also developed sarcomas (24% incidence; median 9 weeks yet 31% of mice also developed lung sarcomas. Gene-anchored PCR demonstrated retroviral DNA integration in 86% of N-tva, 93% of BKE and 88% of AKE tumors. KrasG12D was the most frequent oncogene isolated. Oncogene delivery by the RCAS-TVA system can generate sarcomas in mice with a defective cell cycle checkpoint. Sarcoma biology differed between the different RCAS models we created, likely due to the cell population being transformed. This genetically flexible system will be a valuable tool for sarcoma research.

  16. Podjetniška aktivnost, aspiracije in odnos do podjetništva

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav REBERNIK; Tominc, Polona; Crnogaj, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Čeravno se glede na posamezne razvojne stopnje gospodarstva in družbe spreminja pomen in vpliv različnih tipov podjetništva, je podjetništvo vselej pomembno, saj zagotavlja in omogoča razvoj. Proučevanje podjetništva zato pomeni predvsem proučevanje temeljne gonilne sile, to je podjetnika in njegovih ambicij, inovativnosti in podjetnosti, pa tudi strahov in razlogov, ki preprečujejo, da bi se usposobljeni posamezniki usmerili v podjetništvo. Globalni podjetniški monitor (GEM) , ki proučuje sv...

  17. Človeški vidik varnosti računalništva v oblaku

    OpenAIRE

    Maraž, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Magistrska naloga obravnava človeške aspekte varnosti računalništva v oblaku. Predstavljen je pregled literature na področju oblačnih storitev oziroma računalništva v oblaku. Podan je tudi pregled uporabe oblačnih storitev z vidika posameznika in organizacij, še posebej pri storitvah v bančništvu. Zaradi čedalje večje uporabe oblačnih storitev v bančništvu je opredeljen pristop ohranjanja informacijske varnosti, ki jih zagotavljajo tri glavne dimenzije. Navedene so tudi trenutno veljavne regu...

  18. Retrofitting the small-scale hydro power plant 'La Chocolatiere' in Echandens-Bussigny, Switzerland; Rehabilitation de la petite centrale de la Chocolatiere (Echandens - Bussigny)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a project study for the retrofitting of a small-scale hydro power plant installed on the River Venoge, between the communities of Echandens and Bussigny, western Switzerland. At this site, hydro power is used since the 18{sup th} century. A permanent license to use at most 3 m{sup 3}/s is available. The study concludes that the maximum flow rate of 6 m{sup 3}/s would be more advantageous, implying a 35 cm higher dam on the river. Two turbines could then be installed, leading to the maximum electric power of 177 kW and the power production of 727,000 kWh/y. From the detailed inventory of the retrofitting work and the installation of the new turbines - including a new fish ladder according to the legislation in force - the authors conclude that electricity could be generated at a cost amounting to about CHF 0.24/kWh. It is recommended to request the modification of the water use license in order to be able to use up to 6 m{sup 3}/s.

  19. Micro-hydro power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraenkel, P.; Paish, O. (IT Power, Eversley (United Kingdom)); Harvey, A.; Brown, A.; Edwards, R. (Intermediate Technology Development Group Ltd., Rugby (GB)); Bokalders, V. (Stockholm Environment Inst. (SE))

    1991-01-01

    This guide is specifically addressed to the practical needs of development workers. An overview of micro-hydro is given, and preliminary studies are discussed. Hydrology and site surveys are considered and civil works, penstocks, turbines, governing, drive systems, electrical power, basic economics, commissioning and testing, and operation and maintenance are reviewed in detail. (U.K.).

  20. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Channel excavation on... Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION... excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland. (a) Excavation of individual boat channels shall be...

  1. The 'Les iles' small-hydro power plant - Summary analysis; Analyse sommaire. Petite centrale hydroelectrique de Sombeval 'Les iles' - Rapport 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, M.

    2008-01-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the River Suze in the Swiss Jura Mountains. The installation is to be made at the site of a small dam that previously provided water for a water-wheel-driven sawmill. A fish-pass at the site is also foreseen. The report presents details on the hydrological data for the river and the dimensioning of the installation. The hydrological installations and the turbine foreseen are described and discussed, as are the regulation of water levels and the removal of river sediment. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.

  2. Numerical flow analysis of hydro power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    For the hydraulic engineering and design of hydro power stations and their hydraulic optimisation, mainly experimental studies of the physical submodel or of the full model at the hydraulics laboratory are carried out. Partially, the flow analysis is done by means of computational fluid dynamics based on 2D and 3D methods and is a useful supplement to experimental studies. For the optimisation of hydro power stations, fast numerical methods would be appropriate to study the influence of a wide field of optimisation parameters and flow states. Among the 2D methods, especially the methods based on the shallow water equations are suitable for this field of application, since a lot of experience verified by in-situ measurements exists because of the widely used application of this method for the problems in hydraulic engineering. As necessary, a 3D model may supplement subsequently the optimisation of the hydro power station. The quality of the results of the 2D method for the optimisation of hydro power plants is investigated by means of the results of the optimisation of the hydraulic dividing pier compared to the results of the 3D flow analysis.

  3. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  4. Feasibility study for the installation of a small hydro electric power plant; Etude de faisabilite. Petite centrale hydro-electrique au lieu dit 'Sous les Roches' a Sonceboz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, N. [MHyLab, Mini-Hydraulics Laboratory, Montcherand (Switzerland); Hausmann, H. [Hans Hausmann, Bevilard (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents a technical, economical and ecological analysis of the feasibility of a small hydroelectric power plant at Sonceboz, in the Swiss Jura mountains. The power of the planed plant would typically be 500 kW for a water head of about 10 m. The study shows that, compared to one single turbine, a pair of Kaplan type turbines would be operational over a larger range of the river's water flow rate. This solution would be a little bit more costly but offer more flexibility for maintenance. Two maximum water flow rates are considered, 4.5 and 6 m{sup 3}/s respectively. According to the economical study, done with current electric kWh prices, both configurations are viable while the largest flow rate leads to a larger profit. The report is rounded up by a sensitivity analysis considering variations in annual power generation, electro-mechanical and construction cost as well as turbine efficiency. It indicates that this last factor could be crucial for the overall profitability. [French] Ce rapport est le resultat detaille de l'analyse technico-economique et ecologique de faisabilite de la realisation d'une petite centrale hydroelectrique basse chute qui pourrait exploiter une denivellation d'environ 10 m pour une puissance de l'ordre de 500 kW pres de Sonceboz dans le Jura suisse. L'etude montre que le couplage de deux turbines Kaplan offrirait une possibilite de fonctionnement sur une plus grande plage de flux ainsi qu'une plus grande flexibilite de maintenance, ceci pour un cout legerement superieur a l'option a une seule turbine. Les debits de 4.5 et 6 m{sup 3}/s sont consideres. L'etude economique montre que le debit de 6 m{sup 3}/s est plus rentable au prix de vente actuel du kWh. L'article se termine par une analyse de sensibilite sur les incertitudes concernant la production annuelle, les prix de l'electromecanique et du genie civil et le rendement des

  5. Fouling in small hydro projects; Verschmutzung von Kleinwasserkraftwerken - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgottspon, A.; Staubli, T.

    2010-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at fouling problems encountered in small hydro installations. The report is based on ten interviews made with operators of small hydro power stations in Switzerland. A parallel project carried out in Germany is mentioned. A large variation in the degree of fouling in the various hydro power stations is noted. Sources such as leaves in autumn and algae are discussed, as are the various rinsing procedures used to clear the turbines of fouling. Power losses are discussed and measures that can be taken to prevent fouling are described. Measurements made at an installation in Freienstein, Switzerland, are presented and discussed. The report is completed with an appendix containing calculations, details on the Freienstein power plant and the results of interviews made with the ten hydro power installations examined.

  6. Hydro, thermal and photovoltaic power plants: A comparison between electric power generation, environmental impacts and CO2 emissions in the Brazilian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana D’ Angela Mariano, Francielle Rocha Santos, Gabriel Wolanski Brito, Jair Urbanetz Junior, Eloy Fassi Casagrande Junior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of sustainability is present in electricity generation. The sources should be renewable, and production should respect the environment and all forms of life. Being the main energy sources in Brazil, hydroelectric and thermal power plants have drawbacks when considering environmental impacts. In contrast, the use of photovoltaic energy is a sustainable alternative, pollution-free in its operating phase and with significantly less impact in its construction phase. The purpose of this article is to make a relation between the electricity generated by the hydroelectric Itaipu plant, the thermoelectric complex Jorge Lacerda, the Eletronuclear plant, and the analysis of a photovoltaic plant proposal for these three scenarios. The relation between the production of electricity in Itaipu, Jorge Lacerda, and Eletronuclear power plants, and the projected energy production of a photovoltaic plant for each scenario was obtained through calculations according to the area of each plant, generating a comparison between the installed power of the referred plants, and the estimated installed capacity for the projected photovoltaic plant. The environmental impacts were assessed for the different scenarios, and CO2 emissions were quantified. The calculated results show that the installed power of the projected photovoltaic plant was significantly higher than the installed power of the existing plants. The photovoltaic plant’s capacity factor, for the proposed study, was of 15%, and the projected annual photovoltaic energy for the respective areas presented significantly higher values, of approximately 330,180.40 TWh in comparison to Itaipu plant, while in comparison to Jorge Lacerda plant, for instance, it was of approximately 428,229.23 TWh, whereas to Eletronuclear it was 0.0288 TWh. The results of this study show that photovoltaic plants with equivalent areas of Itaipu and Jorge Lacerda power plants, could generate higher annual energy

  7. 18 CFR 1309.17 - What is the procedure for hearings and issuance of TVA decisions required by this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thereof by TVA's Board of Directors shall be conducted in conformity with this part and in accordance with... by the parties and opportunity shall be given to refute facts and arguments advanced on either...

  8. Alstom launches new mini hydro range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    LSTOM POWER HYDRO has announced the launch of a complete mini hydro solution. Named Mini-Aqua, the product has been developed to integrate the hydro turbine, generator and control system in a single and optimised product.

  9. Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) applied to mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, Ciarán Martin; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker; Andreasen T., Jesper

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is widely used to measure rodent attentional functions. In humans, many attention studies in healthy and clinical populations have used testing based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to estimate visual processing speeds...... and other parameters of attentional capacity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to bridge these research fields by modifying the 5-CSRTT's design and by mathematically modelling data to derive attentional parameters analogous to human TVA-based measures. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were tested in two 1-h sessions...... thresholds and motor response baselines. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time how 5-CSRTT performance in mice can be mathematically modelled to yield estimates of attentional capacity that are directly comparable to estimates from human studies....

  10. UČENJE I POUČAVANJE PRIRODE I DRUŠTVA NA OTVORENIM PROSTORIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Anđić, Dunja

    2007-01-01

    Učenje i poučavanje o prirodi i društvu na otvorenim prostorima ili izvanučionička nastava prirode i društva sastavni je dio nastavnog rada učitelja u osnovnim školama. Vrijednosti i značenje stjecanja iskustava na otvorenim prostorima i u okolišu, o različitim elementima prirode i društva iz neposredne blizine, odnosno sudjelovanje u aktivnostima te iskustva iz "prve ruke" mogu biti snažan čimbenik motivacije i interesa učenika i učitelja za takvo učenje. Istraživanjem stanja u praksi odg...

  11. Risk Evaluation and Capital Allocation Based on TVaR and EVaR with Copula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghai FENG; Lixin SONG; Zhineng FU

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the expressions of tail value of risk (TVaR) and exponential tail value of risk (EVaR) for the total risk portfolio are given,which are splitted into two cases:the bivariate case and the multivariate case according to the number of the insurances.Then the risk contributions of the insurances portfolio and the credit portfolio are also obtained.Further more,for clarifying the above results,a numerical example is given.

  12. Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  13. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Main report and Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reeves, Kelly S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brizzee, Julie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lee, Randy D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carroll, Gregory R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  14. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Appendix B - Assessment results by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in Appendix B. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  15. Usability of a theory of visual attention (TVA) for parameter-based measurement of attention I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Kathrin; Bublak, Peter; Krummenacher, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the usability of whole and partial report of briefly displayed letter arrays as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of attentional functions. The tool is based on Bundesen’s (1990, 1998, 2002; Bundesen et al., 2005) theory of visual attention (TVA), which assumes f...... clinical tests measuring similar constructs. The empirical independence of the four TVA parameters is suggested by nonsignificant or, in the case of processing speed and working memory storage capacity, only modest correlations between the parameter values.......The present study investigated the usability of whole and partial report of briefly displayed letter arrays as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of attentional functions. The tool is based on Bundesen’s (1990, 1998, 2002; Bundesen et al., 2005) theory of visual attention (TVA), which assumes...... of these parameters. The present study was designed to examine whether (a) a shortened procedure bears sufficient accuracy and reliability, (b) whether the procedures reveal attentional constructs with clinical relevance, and (c) whether the mathematically independent parameters are also empirically independent...

  16. Lifting hydro's potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihach, N.

    1980-12-01

    The advantages of hydroelectric power, in terms of capital, operating and maintenance costs and in terms of fuel and environmental considerations, are causing an upgrading of existing installations to provide more generating capacity. Hydrocapacity supplies 1/8 of the U.S. electric energy and will probably increase from 50 to 100% by the early 2000's as the price of other forms of energy rises. Ways of increasing output are: better water control, uprating of hydrogenerators, standardization of turbines, and methods of pumped hydro, an energy storage technique. An obstacle to this aim is the cumbersome licensing process of competing federal agencies which places a particular burden on small projects.

  17. Hydro-energy; Energie hydraulique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Tardieu, B. [Coyne et Bellier, 92 - Gennevilliers (France)

    2005-07-01

    The first part of this study concerns the different type of hydraulic works. The second part presents the big hydro-energy, its advantages and disadvantages, the industrial risks, the electric power transport network, the economy and the development perspectives. The third part presents the little hydro-energy, its advantages and disadvantages, the decentralized production and the development perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  18. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 11: Plant design. UPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The plant design for an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and energy storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal heat of 5000 ft. is presented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single-stage reversible pump-turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. The surface facilities and upper reservoir, shafts and hoists, penstocks and hydraulic tunnels, powerhouses, and intermediate and lower reservoirs are described. Details of the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump-turbine and motor-generator units, are given. The development of the site is outlined together with the construction methods and schedule. The cost estimates and a cost-risk analysis are presented. Plant operation, including unit operation, two-step operation, plant efficiency, and availability, is outlined.

  19. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear..., construction, operation and maintenance of the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000), the APR1400...

  20. 75 FR 17706 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC, Respondents; Notice of Complaint March 29, 2010. Take notice that on March 26.... 803 and 825(e), FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Great...

  1. Small-scale hydro power plant on the main drinking water line La Rippaz in Bex, Switzerland - Feasibility study; Petite centrale hydraulique. Aduction d'eau potable La Rippaz. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapallaz, J.-M. [Jean-Marc Chapallaz, Ingenieur EPFL/SIA, Baulmes (Switzerland); Meylan, D. [Perret-Gentil et Rey et Associes SA, Ingenieurs civils et Ingenieurs Conseil EPF/SIA, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study for the replacement work of the drinking-water supply line from the location of the spring water collection to a water reservoir belonging to the rock-salt mining company 'Hotel des Salines' in Bex, Switzerland. Built 1887 and following years this water supply system has already been designed for power generation as well. However, a 40 kW micro-scale turbine has only been installed 2005 in the lower part of the water supply system (hydraulic head: 115 m). The new project includes the replacement of the existing piping by a penstock, the construction of a new water collection reservoir at the highest point, the construction of a new 300 kW hydro power plant using the upper part of the water supply system (hydraulic head: 520 m), and some improvements of the existing lower power plant. The available water flow rate lies in the range 57-70 l/s, all the year round. The question arising is whether this construction project could be financed by the benefit from the sale of electricity that could be produced by the two power plants. The authors of the study estimate the power production to be 2.5 kWh/y. If the electricity can be sold at least at CHF 0.20/kWh for 25 years this could finance the whole project that has an estimated cost of CHF 7,000,000.

  2. Renewal of the small hydro power plant 'La Foulaz' on the river Orbe in Vallorbe, Switzerland; Rehabilitation de la petite centrale hydroelectrique de la Foulaz sur l'Orbe a Vallorbe. Etude d'avant projet - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenal, R.; Denis, V. [La Foulaz Energies SA, Vallorbe (Switzerland); Chuat, O. [RWB Eau et Environnement SA, Cernier (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    For now nearly four centuries, hydro power is used on the site named 'La Foulaz' on the river Orbe in the Vallorbe municipal territory. The existing small-scale hydro power plant is under neglect since 1970, although it enjoys a permanent water usage concession of 4.2 m{sup 3}/s. Since June 2008 the company 'La Foulaz Energie SA' owns the site and the water concession and is planning the renewal of the hydro power plant. The plan is to replace the existing permanent water flow rate usage concession by a higher water flow rate usage one of reasonable but limited duration. Reliable hydrological data are available from the Swiss Federal Administration as well as from the electricity utility 'Romande Energie SA' that operates the 'La Dernier' hydro power plant located up-stream. According to these data the design flow rate of 10 m{sup 3}/s has been selected for the new 'La Foulaz' plant. The available water head for the turbine is in the range 1.46 to 3-00 m, depending on the flow rate in the river Orbe. The average annual power production is estimated to 708,000 kWh. The peak electrical power would be 164 kW. With a cost recovery time of 25 years the production cost is estimated to 25 Swiss cents/kWh. This just enables to balance the budget. (author)

  3. Preverjanje znanja računalništva, pridobljenega z aktivnostmi za učenje računalništva brez računalnika

    OpenAIRE

    Zaviršek, Manca

    2015-01-01

    V magistrskem delu obravnavamo ugotavljanje računalniškega znanja, ki ga učenci pridobijo z aktivnostmi Računalništvo brez računalnika. Najprej opredelimo, kaj sploh je računalniško znanje in kaj so računalniški koncepti, ter se posvetimo sodobnim pristopom k poučevanju računalništva, kjer je v ospredju reševanje problemov, uresničujemo pa jih lahko z aktivnostmi Računalništvo brez računalniki in z nalogami s tekmovanja Bober. V empiričnem delu nas zanima, ali je ugotavljanje znanja, pridoblj...

  4. Modular small hydro configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  5. Retrofitting the small-scale hydro power plant of Chable, municipality of Vionnaz, Switzerland - Feasibility study; Rehabilitation de la petite centrale de Chable, Commune de Vionnaz (VS) - Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    A small-scale 200 kW hydro power plant has been installed 1988 on the drinking water supply system of the municipality of Vionnaz, Switzerland. It uses the elevation difference of 700 m between the springs in the mountains and the village in the Rhone river valley. A full refurbishment is suggested to improve the system efficiency and increase the water volume delivered to the turbine. The current status of the system has been evaluated. The replacement of the turbine is proposed. The water supply network of the mountain resort of Torgon located on the territory of Vionnaz should be connected to the existing reservoir ahead of the penstock. The penstock itself should be partly or totally replaced. In this way the yearly power production of 1,430 MWh could be increased by up to a factor of 2 at the attractive cost of CHF 0.06 to 0.09 per kWh, depending on the implemented variant.

  6. DEFINIRANJE PODRUČJA I POTENCIJAL RAZVOJA SOCIJALNOG PODUZETNIŠTVA HRVATSKE U KOMPARATIVNOM KONTEKSTU

    OpenAIRE

    Vincetić, Vlatka; Babić, Zdenko; Baturina, Danijel

    2013-01-01

    Socijalno poduzetništvo i socijalna ekonomija u protekla se tri desetljeća kontinuirano razvijaju na globalnoj razini, kako u razvijenim zemljama, ako i u zemljama u razvoju. Socijalno poduzetništvo prestavlja kišobran termin za velik raspon inovativnih i dinamičnih internacionalnih praksi i diskursa u socijalnom i ekološkom području. Za neke je paradigma socijalnog poduzetništva panaceja rješavanju problema tržišnih neuspjeha, dok je za druge manifestacija dodatne ekspanzije i dominacije pos...

  7. Application of the Aero-Hydro-Elastic Model, HAWC2-WAMIT, to Offshore Data from Floating Power Plants Hybrid Wind- and Wave-Energy Test Platform, P37

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellew, Sarah; Yde, Anders; Verelst, David Robert

    2014-01-01

    numerical models, which can combine the aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, structural exibility and mooring components. Very little oshore data exists, however, in order to validate these numerical models. Floating Power Plant are the developers of a oating, hybrid wind- and wave-energy device. The device uses...... full-scale prototype, the P80, which has a width of 80 m. As part of the development, Floating Power Plant have completed 4 oshore test-phases (totalling over 2 years oshore operation) on a 37 m wide scaled test device, the P37. This paper focuses on the comparison of one of the leading numerical...... the pitching wave energy devices, not only to increase and smooth the power output from the platform, but also to take the energy from the waves in a controlled manner, resulting in a stable platform for the wind turbine and a safe harbour for O&M. They are currently developing the nal design for their rst...

  8. Hydro-mechanical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laouafa, F.; Kazmierczak, J.B. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique ALATA, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (France); Armand, G. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Lab. de Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Vaunat, J. [Catalonia UPC- Technical Univ., Barcelona (Spain); Jobmann, M.; Polster, M. [DBETEC- DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Su, K.; Lebon, P.; Plas, F.; Armand, G.; Abou-Chakra Guery, A.; Cormery, F.; Shao, J.F.; Kondo, D. [ANDRA - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Souley, M. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), 54 - Nancy (France); Coll, C.; Charlier, R.; Collin, F.; Gerard, P. [Liege Univ., Dept. ArGEnCo (Belgium); Xiang Ling, Li [ESV EURIDICE, SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Collin, F. [Liege Univ., Charge de Recherches FNRS (Belgium); Pellet, F.L.; Fabre, G. [University Joseph Fourier, Laboratory 3S-R, 38 - Grenoble (France); Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.; Rey, M. [AITEMIN - Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarrollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales, Madrid (Spain); Mayor, J.C. [ENRESA - Empresa Nacional des Residuos Radioactivos, Madrid (Spain); Castellanos, E.; Romero, E.; Lloret, A.; Gens, A. [Catalunya Univ. Politecnica, UPC (Spain); Villar, M.V. [CIEMAT - Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain); Chambon, R. [Laboratoire 3S, UJF-INPG-CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Czaikowski, O.; Lux, K.H. [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Professorship for Waste Disposal and Geomechanics, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Van Geet, M.; Bastiaens, W.; Volckaert, G.; Weetjens, E.; Sillen, X. [SCK-CEN, Waste and Disposal dept., Mol (Belgium); ONDRAF/NIRAS, Brussel (Belgium); Imbert, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DPC/SCCME/LECBA), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 13 articles dealing with: three-dimensional and time stepping modelling of the whole Meuse/Haute-Marne ANDRA URL (F. Laouafa, J.B. Kazmierczak, G. Armand, J. Vaunat, M. Jobmann, M. Polster); a constitutive model for a deep argillaceous rock using Hoek-Brown criteria (K. Su, C. Chavant, M. Souley); the long term behaviour of the Boom clay: influence of viscosity on the pore pressure distribution (C. Coll, R. Charlier, X.L. Li, F. Collin); the microstructural changes induced by viscoplastic deformations in argillaceous rocks (F.L. Pellet, G. Fabre, K. Su, P. Lebon); the engineered barrier experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory (J.L. Garcia-Sineriz, M. Rey, J.C. Mayor); the chemical influence on the Hydro-Mechanical behaviour of high-density FEBEX bentonite (E. Castellanos, M.V. Villar, E. Romero, A. Lloret, A. Gens); the influence of water exchanges on the gallery convergence (P. Gerard, R. Charlier, R. Chambon, F. Collin); a new method for ageing resistant storage of argillaceous rock samples to achieve reproducible experimental results even after long intermediate storage times (O. Czaikowski, K.H. Lux); the installation and evaluation of a large-scale in-situ shaft seal experiment in Boom clay the RESEAL project M. Van Geet, W. Bastiaens, G. Volckaert, E. Weetjens, X. Sillen, A. Gens, M.V. Villar, Ch. Imbert, M. Filippi, F. Plas); the hydro-Mechanical response of the Callovo-Oxfordian mud-stone around a deep vertical drift (J. Vaunat, B. Garitte, A. Gens, K. Su, G. Armand); the sensitivity of total stress to changes in externally applied water pressure in KBS-3 buffer bentonite (J.F. Harrington, D.J. Birchall, P. Sellin); the comparison of the poro-elastic behavior of Meuse/Haute Marne and Tournemire argillites: effect of loading and saturation states (E. Bemer, A. Noiret, F. Homand, A. Rejeb); and the multi-scale modelling of the argillites mechanical behaviour (A. Abou-Chakra Guery, F. Cormery, K. Su, J.F. Shao, D. Kondo)

  9. Hydro-abrasive erosion: Problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, K.

    2014-03-01

    The number of hydro power plants with hydro-abrasive erosion is increasing worldwide. An overall approach is needed to minimize the impact of this phenomenon. Already at the start of the planning phase an evaluation should be done to quantify the erosion and the impact on the operation. For this, the influencing parameters and their impact on the erosion have to be known. The necessary information for the evaluation comprises among others the future design, the particle parameters of the water, which will pass the turbine, and the power plant owner's framework for the future operation like availability or maximum allowable efficiency loss, before an overhaul needs to be done. Based on this evaluation of the erosion, an optimised solution can then be found, by analysing all measures in relation to investments, energy production and maintenance costs as decision parameters. Often a more erosion-resistant design, instead of choosing the turbine design with the highest efficiency, will lead to higher revenue. The paper will discuss the influencing parameters on hydro-abrasive erosion and the problems to acquire this information. There are different optimisation possibilities, which will be shown in different case studies. One key aspect to reduce the erosion and prolong the operation time of the components is to coat all relevant parts. But it is very important that this decision is taken early in the design stage, as the design has to be adapted to the requirements of the coating process. The quality of coatings and their impact on the operation will be discussed in detail in the paper as due to the non-availability of standards many questions arise in projects.

  10. Best Practices for Sustainable Development of Micro Hydro Power in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Khennas, Smail; Barnett, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This report synthesizes the experience of micro hydro developments in Sri Lanka, Peru, Nepal, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique. It attempts to draw out the Best Practice from this experience. Micro hydro plants are defined as having a capacity of between 10 kW and 200 kW. The report provides a rigorous comparative microeconomic analysis of the cost and financial returns of a sample of plants acros...

  11. trans-11 18:1 Vaccenic Acid (TVA Has a Direct Anti-Carcinogenic Effect on MCF-7 Human Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Na Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trans vaccenic acid (TVA; trans-11 18:1 is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and it is the predominant trans isomer found in ruminant fats. TVA can be converted into cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA, a CLA isomer that has many beneficial effects, by stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 in the mammary gland. The health benefits associated with CLA are well documented, but it is unclear whether trans fatty acids (TFAs from ruminant products have healthy effects. Therefore, the effects of TVA on the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells and MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells were investigated in the present study. Results showed that TVA inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells but not MCF-10A cells by down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 as well as procaspase-9. In addition, the suppressive effect of TVA was confirmed in SCD1-depleted MCF-7 cells. Our results suggested that TVA exerts a direct anti-carcinogenic effect on MCF-7 cells. These findings provided a better understanding of the research on the anti-carcinogenic effects of TVA and this may facilitate the manufacture of TVA/c9, t11-CLA fortified ruminant products.

  12. Neural markers of individual and age differences in TVA attention capacity parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Theory of Visual Attention’ quantifies an interindividual’s capacity of attentional resources in parameters visual processing speed C and vSTM storage capacity K. Distinct neural markers of interindividual differences in these functions were identified by combining TVA-based assessment with ...... with K-values only in the older group. Our findings specify age-related reorganization of attentional brain networks underlying decline and reserve and furthermore show that the distinctiveness of both functions is preserved (or even increased) in older age.......The ‘Theory of Visual Attention’ quantifies an interindividual’s capacity of attentional resources in parameters visual processing speed C and vSTM storage capacity K. Distinct neural markers of interindividual differences in these functions were identified by combining TVA-based assessment...... to investigate neural underpinnings of age-related changes in attentional capacities, the ERP markers of individual differences in processing speed and storage capacity were validated also in the older group. Furthermore, additional components were related to performance exclusively in elderly: Anterior N1...

  13. The possible negative consequences of underground dam and reservoir construction and operation in coastal karst areas: an example of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla near Dubrovnik (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roje-Bonacci, T.; Bonacci, O.

    2013-08-01

    The Ombla Spring represents a typical abundant coastal karst spring located in the vicinity of the town of Dubrovnik (Croatia). Its outlet is at an altitude of 2.5 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) and the water from it immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The minimum and maximum measured discharges are 3.96 m3 s-1 and 117 m3 s-1, respectively. The Trebišnjica River traverses through its catchment. The mean annual discharge, after the canalization of over 60 km of its watercourse with spray concrete (in the time span 1981-2011), is 24.05 m3 s-1. Before massive civil engineering work which took place during 1968-1980, the mean annual discharge was 28.35 m3 s-1. There is a project for construction of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla, which will exclusively use groundwater from the Ombla Spring karst aquifer. The underground dam will be constructed about 200 m behind the existing karst spring outflow in the karst massif, by injecting a grout curtain. The top of the grout curtain is planned to be at an altitude of 130 m a.s.l. This karst system is complex, sensitive, vulnerable and ecologically extremely valuable. The grout curtain, as well as the HEPP Ombla development, could lead to extremely dangerous technical and environmental consequences. In this paper some probable, negative consequences of the HEPP Ombla construction and development are explained. The HEPP Ombla could result in many large and hard-to-predict negative consequences which are specific for this particular HEPP, for example (1) severe spring discharge change; (2) unpredictable regional groundwater redistribution; (3) threatening of endemic fauna; (4) induced seismicity; (5) induced sinkholes; (6) occurrence of landslides; (7) conflict regarding internationally shared karst aquifers; (8) intensification of karst flash floods; (9) sea water intrusion in coastal karst aquifer; etc.

  14. The possible negative consequences of underground dam and reservoir construction and operation in coastal karst areas: an example of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP Ombla near Dubrovnik (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Roje-Bonacci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ombla Spring represents a typical abundant coastal karst spring located in the vicinity of the town of Dubrovnik (Croatia. Its outlet is at an altitude of 2.5 m above sea level (m a.s.l. and the water from it immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The minimum and maximum measured discharges are 3.96 m3 s−1 and 117 m3 s−1, respectively. The Trebišnjica River traverses through its catchment. The mean annual discharge, after the canalization of over 60 km of its watercourse with spray concrete (in the time span 1981–2011, is 24.05 m3 s−1. Before massive civil engineering work which took place during 1968–1980, the mean annual discharge was 28.35 m3 s−1. There is a project for construction of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP Ombla, which will exclusively use groundwater from the Ombla Spring karst aquifer. The underground dam will be constructed about 200 m behind the existing karst spring outflow in the karst massif, by injecting a grout curtain. The top of the grout curtain is planned to be at an altitude of 130 m a.s.l. This karst system is complex, sensitive, vulnerable and ecologically extremely valuable. The grout curtain, as well as the HEPP Ombla development, could lead to extremely dangerous technical and environmental consequences. In this paper some probable, negative consequences of the HEPP Ombla construction and development are explained. The HEPP Ombla could result in many large and hard-to-predict negative consequences which are specific for this particular HEPP, for example (1 severe spring discharge change; (2 unpredictable regional groundwater redistribution; (3 threatening of endemic fauna; (4 induced seismicity; (5 induced sinkholes; (6 occurrence of landslides; (7 conflict regarding internationally shared karst aquifers; (8 intensification of karst flash floods; (9 sea water intrusion in coastal karst aquifer; etc.

  15. Hydro investment analysis under new market conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard

    2010-07-01

    Full text: A future energy system with stronger coupling to Europe and with an increased share of non-regulated renewables will lead to increasing variability of the demand faced by the hydro system. In a market based system these variations will be reflected by larger daily price variations, both in the Elspot day ahead market, the Elbas intraday market and in the balancing market. With its unique regulation capabilities, hydro power will be very well positioned to handle these variations. However, existing model concepts for long term hydro scheduling were not developed for this framework, and do not take the new market conditions into account to a sufficient degree. Therefore hydro scheduling tools used for upgrading and investment analysis as well as analysing consequences of new environmental demands need adaptation to a finer temporal resolution, and to perform optimisation under varying constraints and uncertain input data for inflow and electricity prices. Focus is on investment analysis for a river system or power producer. Existing models can be grouped in the long-term (scheduling models with a time horizon up to 5 years) EOPS (Vansimtap), EOPS-ST (SimtapEffekt) and ProdRisk, and the shortterm scheduling models with a typical time horizon up to a few weeks, but focus on 1-2 days (SHOP and ID-SIM). A perfect tool in the present context would combine the properties of the long term stochastic optimisation models with the modelling details of SHOP and/or ID-SIM. However, this is probably not possible and simplifications will be necessary. Some important deficiencies in the present long term models are: Insufficiently realistic plant models in the relevant optimization models; Time delays are not handled; Handing of flexible / state dependent constraints; Handling of ramping constraints; Modelling of the cost of frequent regulations (wear and tear); Reserve markets As a result of these deficiencies the investment analysis does not adequately assess the value

  16. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 8: Appendices HYDRO, IRD, LTM, NUTS, PAR, PMR, QAPD, RBP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    Geohydrologic data have been collected in the Los Medanos area at the US Department of Energy`s proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico since 1975 as part of a study evaluating the feasibility of storing defense-associated nuclear wastes within the bedded salt of the Salado Formation of Permian age. Drilling and hydrologic testing have identified three principal water-bearing zones above the Salado Formation and one below that could potentially transport wastes to the biosphere if the proposed facility were breached. The zones above the Salado are the contact between the Rustler and Salado Formations and the Culebra and Magenta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation of Permian age. The zone below the Salado Formation consists of channel sandstones in the Bell Canyon Formation of the Permian Delaware Mountain Group. Determinations of hydraulic gradients, directions of flow, and hydraulic properties were hindered because of the negligible permeability of the water-bearing zones. Special techniques in drilling, well completion, and hydraulic testing have been developed to determine the hydrologic characteristics of these water-producing zones.

  17. 76 FR 4892 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, FFP Missouri 3, LLC, Allegheny 3 Hydro, LLC, Three Rivers Hydro...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, FFP Missouri 3, LLC, Allegheny 3 Hydro, LLC..., Pennsylvania.\\1\\ The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, for Project No. 13740-000,...

  18. WaterHydro_WBD8VT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — WaterHydro_WBD8VT was extracted (using ArcInfo DISSOLVE command) from WaterHydro_WBD12VT polygons, and includes Subbasins within Vermont (HUC8 level hydrologic unit...

  19. Hydro power development in Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.D. [ed.] [Department of Civil Engineering, Regional Engineering College, Hamirpur (India)

    1998-12-31

    Forty papers in 8 sessions and 3 late received papers of the title conference are presented. The subjects of the sessions are (1) Investigation of hydro-power projects (6 papers); (2) Planning of hydro-power projects and financial aspects (7 papers); (3) Dam foundation problems and construction management (2 papers); (4) Underground construction (3 papers); (5) Environment impact statement (6 papers); (6) Rock engineering design, rock tunneling and power house caverns (6 papers); (7) Modern tunnel support techniques (4 papers); and (8) Operation and performance monitoring (6 refs.)

  20. Lessons learned from reheater replacements TVA Gallatin Fossil Plant units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, P.S.; Stangarone, R.J. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Gallatin Units 1 and 2 have experienced a long history of problems in the reheat front inlet platens and front outlet pendants. Cracks were discovered at lug welds on the reheat inlet platen assemblies after six years of operation. During the next ten years cracking at lugs continued to be a problem in both the inlet platen and front outlet assemblies. Solutions included changing tube material and spacing, and redesigning lugs. None of the solutions were successful. In 1980, a fuel switch to washed coal was made to reduce boiler slagging. Within two years of the fuel change, liquid phase corrosion began to attack the tubes. The corrosion became severe and elements were replaced at seven year intervals. During this time, EPRI sought utilities with boilers experiencing liquid phase corrosion to test new corrosion resistant materials. Gallatin Unit 2 was selected as one of the test units. Probes containing a number of different alloys were inserted into the furnace and subjected to the corrosion attacks. After a five year study, HR3C was selected as the alloy from which to build a complete set of elements for further testing. Reheat assemblies were manufactured from HR3C and installed in Unit 2 and Unit 1 Shortly after Unit 1 returned to service, swages between the front pendant and inlet platen elements failed by brittle fracture due to the cold swaging operation used in fabrication. Cracks were discovered after two years of operation at the tube to lug welds and the new elements were experiencing the same liquid phase corrosion as in the past. The attempt to resolve the liquid phase corrosion problem in Gallatin Units 1 and 2 pendant reheater revealed that past replacements did not address the root cause of the problems. HR3C is a relatively brittle material and manufacturers used traditional methods to design and fabricate the elements. Inadequate fabrication and erection procedures have led to several in-service problems not associated with liquid phase corrosion.

  1. 77 FR 37031 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...-001] Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission... Minor License. b. Project No.: 14367-001. c. Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W. Gilbert... W. Gilbert and DeAnn G. Somonich, Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC, 1805 Grace Power Plant...

  2. Reversible pumped hydro - benefits and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Torbjoern K.; Walseth, Eve C.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The Norwegian hydro power system is dominated with high head turbines, Pelton and Francis with high capacity in the reservoirs. Originally they were built for secure energy supply. In the system there are also reversible pump turbine (RPT) plants where in times with spare energy, made it possible to pump water from the lower reservoir to the higher. Again the idea was to secure energy supply, which meant pumping in early autumn to fill the reservoirs for winter. In the recent years, a more active use of the RPT plants has been actualized. The free market made price difference between night and day interesting, hence a more frequent pumping was desirable. In the coming years, new-renewable energy sources will utterly enhance a more active use of the RPT plants. More active use of the RPT plants means more frequent starts and stops, both in pumping and in turbine mode. There are a lot of challenges in adopting a new strategy for operating the machinery. More effective start equipment is required. The machinery will be exposed to more frequent dynamic loads; the turbines will be run at part- and full load. The existing RPT plants are connected to huge reservoirs. That means the RPTs are not only for short sighted power regulations, as many RPT-plants in Europe, but are also capable for a substantial energy production. In Norway, the nature is very suitable for RPT plants, both in connection with existing power plants, were reservoirs and conduits are already established, and standing alone with a minimum of energy production. RPTs are, as a design, a compromise between effective generating and stable as well as effective pumping. Stable pumping often results in very steep flow-speed characteristics when operating as a turbine. When dealing with hydraulic transients these characteristics cause a higher change in flow and torque leading to instability during start-up and possible off-design operation point. The instability slows down the synchronization

  3. Torque model of hydro turbine with inner energy loss characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the result and analysis of the composition of energy loss occurring in the hydro turbine. Two new types of energy losses,namely the hydraulic loss in the flow channel and the impact loss,are defined. All losses within the hydro turbine are divided into four types and the loss coefficients are defined accordingly. Expressions or characteristic descriptions of these losses as well as the calibration method of the loss coefficients are presented. Furthermore,the torque model of the hydro turbine where the inner energy loss takes place is established. The developed model has been used to calculate the power loss due to the mechanical friction generated by the units’ rotation to solve the difficulty of measurements of the mechanical friction loss in the hydro turbine. The definition of the impact loss explains the phenomenon that the loss of no-load is greater than that of the rated operation. A set of conversion coefficients are defined using the characteristic parameters at the rated operation,which are used to transform the parameters in the torque model into those that are easily measured. Therefore,the expression of the hydro turbine power is converted into a function that has the main servomotor displacement as its single variable. This makes the proposed model be convenient to use. Finally,the proposed model and methods are calibrated and verified using the measured data of a hydropower plant. Good agreement between the modeled results and the measurements indicates that the proposed model can represent the inner energy loss characteristics of the hydro turbine.

  4. Energy supply technologies. Hydro, ocean, wave and tidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenhann, J.; Larsen, Hans [Risoe National Lab. - DTU (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    This chapter presents an overview of current hydro, ocean, wave and tidal initiatives. Large hydro remains one of the lowest-cost generating technologies, although environmental constraints, resettlement impacts and the limited availability of sites have restricted further growth in many countries. Large hydro supplied 16 % of global electricity in 2004, down from 19 % a decade ago. Large hydro capacity totalled about 720 GW worldwide in 2004 and has grown historically at slightly more than 2 % annually. China installed nearly 8 GW of large hydro in 2004, taking the country to number one in terms of installed capacity (74 GW). With the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, China will add some 18.2 GW of hydro capacity in 2009. The socio-economic benefits of hydro include improved flood control and water supply. The socio-economic benefits of hydro include improved flood control and water supply. The socio-economic cost of hydro includes displacements and submergence. Further hydro can improve peak-capacity management. Ocean currents, some of which runs close to European coasts, carry a lot of kinetic energy. Part of this energy can be captured by sub-marine windmills and converted into electricity. These are more compact than the wind turbines used on land, simply because water is much denser than air. The main European countries with useful current power potential are France and the UK. Ocean tides are driven by the gravitational pull of the moon. With one high tide every 12 hours, a tidal power plant can operate for only four or five hours per cycle, so power from a single plant is intermittent. A suitably-designed tidal plant can, however, operate as a pimped storage system, using electricity during periods of low demand to store energy that can be recovered later. The only large, modern example of a tidal power plant is the 240 MW La Rance plant, built in France in the 1960s, which represents 91 % of the world tidal power capacity. Wave energy can be seen as

  5. Investigation of the SiC thin films synthetized by Thermionic Vacuum Arc method (TVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, V.; Vladoiu, R.; Lungu, C. P.; Dinca, V.; Contulov, M.; Mandes, A.; Popov, P.; Prodan, G.

    2012-04-01

    Thermionic Vacuum Arc method (TVA) was used for the first time to prepare SiC thin films. This method is very suitable for deposition of high purity thin films with compact structure and extremely smooth in vacuum conditions. The nanocomposites were investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses provided with HR-TEM and SAED facilities. The structure of the films can be indexed as following three forms: cubic structure of SiC (F4-3m) a = 0.4348 nm, cubic Si (Fd3m) a = 0.54307 nm and graphite (P63/mmc) a = 0.2456 nm; c = 0.6696 nm. The morphology, topography, wettability and wear properties were also performed by SEE system and by Raman Spectroscopy, increasing the interest for emerging applications.

  6. Structural and electrical properties of N doped SiC nanostructures obtained by TVA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, Victor; Lungu, Cristian P.; Vladoiu, Rodica; Prodan, Gabriel C.; Antohe, Stefan; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Stanescu, Iuliana; Jepu, Ionut; Iftimie, Sorina; Belc, Marius; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Vasile, Eugeniu; Zarovski, Valeriu; Nicolescu, Virginia; Caraiane, Aureliana

    2015-08-01

    Ionized nitrogen doped Si-C thin films at 200°C substrate temperature were obtained by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. To increase the energy of N, C and Si ions, -400V, -600V and -1000V negative bias voltages was applied on the substrate. The 400nm, 600nm and 1000nm N-SiC coatings on glass was deposed. To characterize the structure of as-prepared N-SiC coatings, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), X-Ray and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques was performed. Electrical conductivity was measured comparing the potential drop on the structure with the potential drop on a series standard resistance in a constant current mode. To justify the dependence of measured electrical conductivity by the temperature, we assume a thermally activated electrical transport mechanism.

  7. Detailed feasibility study of a small-hydro power plant in Zerni on the municipal drinking water supply; Etude detaillee de faisabilite pour l'installation d'une petite centrale sur l'adduction d'eau potable de Zerni - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reul, B. [MHyLab, Montcherand (Switzerland); Perruchoud, A. [SierreEnergie SA, Sierre (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the municipal drinking water supply of the city of Sierre, Switzerland. The installation is to be made at the site of a new reservoir in Zerni. The report presents details on the hydrological data and the dimensioning of the installation. The hydrological installations and the turbine foreseen are described and discussed, as are the applicable water regulations. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.

  8. Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (≈2 m−2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m−2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m−2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

  9. High hopes for Indian small hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, I.M.

    2001-02-01

    This article highlights the Indian government's steps to encourage the development of small-scale hydroelectric power plants, the funding of demonstration schemes involving the upgrading of water-driven mills for local and domestic power generation, and the installation of portable micro hydro-sets. Details are given of the implementation of a small-scale hydroelectric power project, funded by the United Nations Development Programme, to optimise development in the sub-Himalayan region, and the work done to-date and the achievements of the project are discussed. The sharing of the experience gained with other countries having similar hilly remote areas is considered, and hurdles that may slow down the progress of small hydroelectric programmes are listed.

  10. Role of pump hydro in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, R.; Moreira, C.; Silva, B.; Filipe, J.; Fulgêncio, N.

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the expected role that variable speed hydro power plants can have in future electric power systems characterized by a massive integration of highly variable sources. Therefore, it is discussed the development of a methodology for optimising the operation of hydropower plants under increasing contribution from new renewable energy sources, addressing the participation of a hydropower plant with variable speed pumping in reserve markets. Complementarily, it is also discussed the active role variable speed generators can have in the provision of advanced frequency regulation services.

  11. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  12. 基于RCAS-TVA技术的哺乳动物模型%Mammalian Models Based on RCAS-TVA Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛屹东; 梁蜀龙

    2008-01-01

    近年来,鸟类逆转录病毒载体(RCAS)及其受体(TVA)系统在哺乳动物转基因模型中得到广泛应用.本文对转tv-a基因小鼠的制备、特异性启动子选择、RCAS载体的改进等方面进行综述,展示近来RCAS-TVA系统在哺乳动物所取得的成果,并对RCAS-TVA基因转移技术的应用前景作一展望.%The retroviral vector (RCAS) has been widely used in avian system to study development and diseases, but is not suitable for mammals which do not produce the retrovirus receptor TVA. In this review, we trace the current uses of RCAS-TVA approach in mammalian system with improved strategies, including generation of tv-a transgenic mice, use of soluble TVA receptor and retroviral receptor-ligand fusion proteins, improvement of RCAS vectors, and compare a series of mammalian models in variant studies of gene function, development, oncogenesis and gene therapy. All those studies demonstrate that the RCAS-TVA based mammalian models are powerful tools for understanding the mechanisms and target treating of human diseases.

  13. Usability of a theory of visual attention (TVA) for parameter-based measurement of attention I: evidence from normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Kathrin; Bublak, Peter; Krummenacher, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the usability of whole and partial report of briefly displayed letter arrays as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of attentional functions. The tool is based on Bundesen's (1990, 1998, 2002; Bundesen et al., 2005) theory of visual attention (TVA), which assumes f...... clinical tests measuring similar constructs. The empirical independence of the four TVA parameters is suggested by nonsignificant or, in the case of processing speed and working memory storage capacity, only modest correlations between the parameter values.......The present study investigated the usability of whole and partial report of briefly displayed letter arrays as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of attentional functions. The tool is based on Bundesen's (1990, 1998, 2002; Bundesen et al., 2005) theory of visual attention (TVA), which assumes...... of these parameters. The present study was designed to examine whether (a) a shortened procedure bears sufficient accuracy and reliability, (b) whether the procedures reveal attentional constructs with clinical relevance, and (c) whether the mathematically independent parameters are also empirically independent...

  14. Norsk Hydro's R&D organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Mossige, Eldri Coll

    2011-01-01

    The problem definition for this master thesis is formulated in collaboration with Hydro representatives, and is related to Hydro’s CROC project. The thesis aims to critically review Hydro’s R&D organisation, and reveal factors which hinder synergies from being realised, and innovation to take place. A proposal for improvement has also been prepared.A broad literature study on the topic “Radical innovation in mature organisations” provides the theoretical foundation for...

  15. Characterization of nitrogen doped silicon-carbon multi-layer nanostructures obtained by TVA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, Victor; Vasile, Eugeniu; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Prodan, Gabriel C.; Lungu, Cristian P.; Vladoiu, Rodica; Jepu, Ionut; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Caraiane, Aureliana; Nicolescu, Virginia; Dinca, Paul; Zaharia, Agripina

    2016-09-01

    Ionized nitrogen doped Si-C multi-layer thin films used to increase the oxidation resistance of carbon have been obtained by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. The 100 nm thickness carbon thin films were deposed on silicon or glass substrates and then seven N doped Si-C successively layers on carbon were deposed. To characterize the microstructure, tribological and electrical properties of as prepared N-SiC multi-layer films, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDXS), electrical and tribological techniques were achieved. Samples containing multi-layer N doped Si-C coating on carbon were investigated up to 1000°C. Oxidation protection is based on the reaction between SiC and elemental oxygen, resulting SiO2 and CO2, and also on the reaction involving N, O and Si-C, resulting silicon oxynitride (SiNxOy) with a continuously vary composition, and because nitrogen can acts as a trapping barrier for oxygen. The tribological properties of structures were studied using a tribometer with ball-on-disk configuration from CSM device with sapphire ball. The measurements show that the friction coefficient on the N-SiC is smaller than friction coefficient on uncoated carbon layer. Electrical conductivity at different temperatures was measured in constant current mode. The results confirm the fact that conductivity is greater when nitrogen content is greater. To justify the temperature dependence of conductivity we assume a thermally activated electrical transport mechanism.

  16. TVA-based assessment of visual attentional functions in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eBogon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate whether an impairment of visual attentional functions constitutes an additional or even an isolated deficit of developmental dyslexia (DD. Especially performance in tasks that require the processing of multiple visual elements in parallel has been reported to be impaired in DD. We review studies that used parameter-based assessment for identifying and quantifying impaired aspect(s of visual attention that underlie this multi-element-processing deficit in DD. These studies used the mathematical framework provided by the ‘theory of visual attention’ (TVA; Bundesen, 1990 to derive quantitative measures of general attentional resources and attentional weighting aspects on the basis of behavioral performance in whole- and partial-report tasks. Based on parameter estimates in children and adults with DD, the reviewed studies support a slowed perceptual processing speed as an underlying primary deficit in DD. Moreover, a reduction in visual short term memory storage capacity seems to present a modulating component, contributing to difficulties in written language processing. Furthermore, comparing the spatial distributions of attentional weights in children and adults suggest that having limited reading and writing skills might impair the development of a slight leftward bias, that is typical for unimpaired adult readers.

  17. The little hydro-electricity: the boosting?; Petit hydraulique: la relance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunier, S. [Helianthe, Espace Information Energie de l' Ain (France); Najac, C. [Groupement de Producteurs d' Energie Hydroelectrique, 75 - Paris (France); Roussel, A.M. [Electricite Autonome Francaise (EAF), 92 - Le Plessis Robinson (France); Claustre, R [Comite de Liaison Energies Renouvelables (CLER), 93 - Montreuil (France); Baril, D. [Delegue Regional du Conseil Superieur de la Peche, Languedoc Roussillon, PACA, Corse (France); Marty, D.; Lefevre, P. [Hydro-M, 31 - Toulouse (France); Arnould, M. [WWF - Programme Rivieres vivantes, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France)

    2007-05-15

    The hydraulic energy could be easily developed in France to reach the objectives of the european directive on the renewable energies. This development can be assured by the construction of power plants perfectly integrated in their environment and respecting the rivers and assured also by the increase of the capacities of existing power plants as it is allowing by the new regulations. This document presents the place and the capacity of the hydro-electricity in France, the implementing of a green electricity, the existing regulation, the river biological continuation, the ecosystems and the little hydro-electricity and the example of the hydro-electric power plant of Scey-sur-Saone. (A.L.B.)

  18. Reliable and cost effective micro hydro power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-03-01

    A 14 kW hydroelectric power plant in British Columbia that generates enough power to run a small farm was described. It was developed as an alternative to bringing in power from BC Hydro, which would have cost about the same initially, but would also have entailed about $300 per month of utility bills. The system operates at a fraction of its capacity at practically no operating cost and the capital outlay will have been recovered in six to seven years. The system uses a Lima generator directly coupled to a pelton turbine. Some 1,400 feet of five inch PCV pipe running down a hillside provides 136 psi of static pressure. The pressurized water in the pipeline squirts through a nozzle and the jet of water strikes the buckets of the pelton turbine. The energy in the water is transferred to the turbine and provides the shaft power to drive the generator. Two electrically heated dwellings, a workshop and a barn containing 300 pigs are supplied by the power plant.

  19. 75 FR 11153 - Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On November 6, 2009, Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC (Hydro Energy Technologies) filed an application...-hours. Hydro Energy Technologies: Anthony J. Marra Jr., President, Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC.,...

  20. Micro hydro-electric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monition, L.; Le Nir, M.; Roux, J.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a discussion of all aspects of hydro-power exploitation using micro-power stations. It offers guidance to techniques for assessing the power available from a given stream, designing and building siteworks, selecting the appropriate turbine types for given conditions, and measuring and controlling environmental hazards associated with micro-hydro installations.

  1. Realisation of a small-scale hydro-power plant between two drinking water reservoirs in the municipality of Vira Gambarogno - Feasibility study; Realizzazione di una microcentrale idroelettrica sulla condotta di adduzione tra il serbatoio Monti di Fosano e il serbatoio Fosano. Programma piccole centrali idrauliche. Studio di fattibilita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2009-02-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the drinking water supply in the municipality of Vira Gambarogno, southern Switzerland. The old conduit connecting two drinking water reservoirs has to be replaced. The elevation difference of 260 m is favorable to the installation of a turbine near the lower reservoir. The report presents details on the hydrological data and the dimensioning of the installation. Several variants are considered, which also include the possible reconstruction of the lower reservoir and/or an increased water flow rate from the springs. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.

  2. Source reliability in a combined wind-solar-hydro system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traca de Almeida, A.; Martins, A.; Jesus, H.; Climaco, J.

    1983-06-01

    The results of an examination of the feasibility of using coupled wind-solar-hydro power generation systems to provide all of Portugal's electricity by the year 2000 are reported. Portugal used 15.6 TWh of electricity in 1981, of which hydro supplied 10 TWh. Demand is expected to reach 34 TWh in 2000 AD. The full development of hydropower resource would furnish 18 TWh and a storage capacity of 4.5 TWh. The installed hydro system could meet the peak demand of 6 GW, while solar cells and wind turbines must produce 16 TWh annually plus a reserve. The Growian wind turbine, 100 m tall, is considered for its 2.2 MW output. A coastal strip of wind turbines 150 x 20 km, with 1 km spacing between the machines, would be needed to produce 5.4 GW of power. Partially tracking solar cell arrays generating 9.4 GW of electricity would require an area of 100 sq km. Computer simulations of the annual rainfall, combined with projections of the variations in wind-solar output, demonstrates that a reserve margin of 1.20 will be necessary. The costs of installation of the renewable energy converters are estimated at about three times that currently necessary for obtaining the same capacity from fission power plants, although the situation may change due to import and technical considerations.

  3. Multiple objective optimization of hydro-thermal systems using Ritz's method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnáu L. Bayón

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the applicability of the Ritz method to multi-objective optimization of hydro-thermal systems. The algorithm proposed is aimed to minimize an objective functional that incorporates the cost of energy losses, the conventional fuel cost and the production of atmospheric emissions such as NO x and SO 2 caused by the operation of fossil-fueled thermal generation. The formulation includes a general layout of hydro-plants that may form multi-chains of reservoir network. Time-delays are included and the electric network is considered by using the active power balance equation. The volume of water discharge for each hydro-plant is a given constant amount from the optimization interval. The generic minimization algorithm, which is not difficult to construct on the basis of the Ritz method, has certain advantages in comparison with the conventional methods.

  4. Preventive Maintenance Prioritization by Fuzzy Logic for Seamless Hydro Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. K.; Adhikary, P.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Preventive maintenance prioritization is one of the most important criteria for the electricity generation planners to minimize the down time and production costs. Break down of equipments increases costs and plant down time results in loss of business. This work focuses on prioritizing the preventive maintenance for seamless hydro power generation considering (24 × 7) client's power demand using fuzzy logic. The main task involves prioritizing the maintenance work considering constraints of varied power demand and hydro turbine plant breakdown. Fuzzy logic is used to optimize the preventive maintenance prioritization under the main constraints. Manual fuzzy arithmetic is used to develop the model and MATLAB Fuzzy Inference System editor used to validate the same. This novel fuzzy logic approach of preventive maintenance prioritizing for hydro power generation is absent in renewable power generation and industrial engineering literatures due to its assessment complexity.

  5. 78 FR 52571 - Tennessee Valley Authority, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Applications and Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Applications and Amendments to... (TVA or the licensee), for operation of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN) Unit 1, located in Alabama...

  6. Impacts of nuclear plant shutdown on coal-fired power generation and infant health in the Tennessee Valley in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severnini, Edson

    2017-04-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 generated deep public anxiety and uncertainty about the future of nuclear energy. However, differently to fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants produce virtually no greenhouse gas emissions or air pollutants during power generation. Here we show the effect on air pollution and infant health in the context of the temporary closure of nuclear plants by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the 1980s. After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission intensified inspections throughout the nation, leading to the shutdown of two large nuclear power plants in the TVA area. In response to that shutdown, electricity generation shifted one to one to coal-fired power plants within TVA, increasing particle pollution in counties where they were located. Consequently, infant health may have deteriorated in the most affected places, indicating deleterious effects to public health.

  7. Ekonomika prava industrijskog vlasništva: primjena geografskog podrijetla kao marketinške strategije za konkurentnost u podsektoru vinarstva u Republici Makedoniji

    OpenAIRE

    Nacka, Marina; Georgiev, Nenad; Dabovic - Anastasovska, Jadranka

    2013-01-01

    U radu se analizira značenje prava industrijskog vlasništva i konkurentnosti podsektora vinarstva u četiri regije koje se koje se bave proizvodnjom vina, kako bi se prikazalo geografsko podrijetlo kao snažna marketinška strategija za konkurentnost. U makedonskom poljoprivrednom sektoru vrlo je niska svijest o ekonomskim pogodnostima koje donosi pravo industrijskog vlasništva. Makedonija ima konkurentan vinarski sektor, što proizlazi iz čimbenika uvjeta, posebice tradicije, geografskih i klima...

  8. Patient assessment based on a theory of visual attention (TVA): subtle deficits after a right frontal-subcortical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas; Bundesen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who complained of reduced awareness in the left visual field, but showed no visual neglect or extinction in clinical testing. By MR scanning, the brain damage was localized to the right basal ganglia, also involving structures in right frontal cortex. Using psychophysical testing and mathematical modeling based on Bundesen's theory of visual attention [TVA; Psychol. Rev. 97 (1990) 523], the patient's subjective experience of attentional disturbance was confirmed, and the deficit was specified into several components. At very short exposure durations, two effects were shown. The detection threshold was elevated, particularly in the left visual field, and stimuli in this side were given less attentional weight. In addition, the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) was markedly reduced in both visual fields. The robustness of the test results was evaluated by bootstrap analysis. The study demonstrates the sensitivity and specificity gained by combining psychophysical testing with TVA modeling in the analysis of visual attention disorders. Extending the results of a pioneer study of parietal neglect patients by Duncan et al. [J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen. 128 (1999) 450], this study demonstrates the strength of the method in a single case, with a lesion outside parietal cortex, and only minor clinical symptoms.

  9. Hydro-Priming and Re-Drying Effects on Germination, Emergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Experiments were conducted in the field and laboratory during the 2011 wet ... 100g of rice contains energy of about 1,527KJ (365Kcal), ..... Effect of hydro-priming and drying duration on plant height and dry matter accumulation ...

  10. China expreses interest in philippine hydro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    MEMBERS OF A CHINESE trade mission which visited the Philippines in December 2000 have said they are prepared to invest up to US$ 19M in the Philippines' energy sector, and are particularly interested in hydro power projects.

  11. The bottom line on hydro development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, I.M.

    2000-08-01

    The financial investment behind some of India's current hydro projects is summarised. The three institutions financing the Indian hydro sector are: Power Finance Corporation (PFC), Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) and the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA). The terms of reference of each of the organisations, together with the role of the State Bank of India, have recently been rationalised (by the Federal Ministry of Power) and they are discussed. Both the federal and state governments offer the hydro industry support in the form of equity and soft loans. The scope for private participation and equity (available since 1991) are discussed. Although financial consultants have worked at making easier the financing of hydro in India, they have achieved only mixed results.

  12. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  13. WaterHydro_WBD12VT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — WaterHydro_WBD12VT was developed by NRCS. The boundaries on consistent with Vermont's Hydrography Dataset (VHD). This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary...

  14. Hydro-energy to Rondonia State, Brazil; energia hidraulica para Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lascio, Marco Alfredo; Di Lascio, Vania Lucia; Avila, Clayton Jacques P. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico

    1993-12-31

    The use of the hydro-electric potential in the Brazilian state of Rondonia, as a main factor to the self-sustained development. Actually after the construction of the Usina Hidro-eletrica de Samuel, only the city of Porto Velho has a moderate electric power supply. In the inter land these attend is made by small generators groups, by diesel fuel, which in the rainy periods, when the roads are impassable and the lack of diesel is rationing the electric supply. The article analyses the substitution of the generator by fossil fuel to small hydro-electric power plants to solve this problem 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Multiple objective optimization of hydro-thermal systems using Ritz's method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bayón Arnáu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the applicability of the Ritz method to multi-objective optimization of hydro-thermal systems. The algorithm proposed is aimed to minimize an objective functional that incorporates the cost of energy losses, the conventional fuel cost and the production of atmospheric emissions such as NOx and SO2 caused by the operation of fossil-fueled thermal generation. The formulation includes a general layout of hydro-plants that may form multi-chains of reservoir network.

  16. Wind power and micro-hydro generation: proceedings of the East Midland Universities Renewable Energy Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twidell, J. [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    This document introduces the proceedings of the East Midland Universities Renewable Energy Group, a forum for young post-graduate students. The conference included papers on wind power and small-scale hydroelectric power as sources for electric power, including theoretical investigations of wind turbine structures and control and analysis of electric motors adapted as generators for micro-hydro sets, the strategy for micro-hydro developments and the integration of wind and photovoltaic power, backed up by combined heat and power plant. (UK)

  17. 78 FR 56224 - Hydro Nelson, Ltd.; Hydro-WM, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Nelson, Ltd.; Hydro-WM, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By... in Nelson County, Virginia. The transfer of an exemption does not require Commission approval. \\1\\...

  18. 78 FR 2985 - Moretown Hydro Energy Company; Ampersand Moretown Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moretown Hydro Energy Company; Ampersand Moretown Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 25,...

  19. Is Ontario Hydro for sale? Provincial commission recommends dissolving Utility`s 90-year monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-06-01

    The possible breakup and privatization of Ontario Hydro was discussed, triggered by the recent release of the Macdonald Commission report which found that `there is no longer a sound economic rationale for allowing a large monopoly to dominate the electricity system`. The essence of the Committee`s recommendation was (1) to allow all electricity generators, including out-of-province suppliers to compete on equal terms for Ontario business;, (2) operate Ontario Hydro`s four nuclear generation plants as separate competing entities and keep them in public ownership, (3) provide open non-discriminatory access to Ontario`s transmission system, (4) move responsibility for managing Ontario Hydro`s high-voltage transmission assets to an independent {sup T}ransmission Grid Company`, (5) reduce the number of distribution utilities from the current total of 307, and (6) create community-based organizations to serve remote communities that are not connected to the transmission system. The expectation is that competition will lead to lower energy prices and more choice for consumers. No action from the Ontario government is expected for several months, and not without extensive consultation with the industry and consumers.

  20. Performance Analysis of Grid Integrated Hydro and Solar Based Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeka Meshram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy systems (RESs are an attractive option to electrify the community as they are environment friendly, free of cost, and all-pervading. The efficiency of these energy systems is very low and can be improved by integrating them in parallel. In this paper, hydro (7.5 kW and solar systems (10 kW are taken as RESs and connected with the utility grid. Due to the intermittent nature of both the hydro and photovoltaic energy sources, utility grid is connected to the system for ensuring the continuous power flow. The hydro power generation system uses the self excited induction generator (SEIG and converters. The AC/DC/AC converter is used as interface to connect the hydro turbine to the utility grid to adjust the generated voltage to the utility grid voltage. The solar generation system is the combination of PV array, boost converter, and solar inverter. The control of both the hydro and solar power plants is provided through the constant current controller. The analysis has been done to verify the existence of the proposed system. Results demonstrate that the proposed system is able to be put into service and can feed the community.

  1. Small hydro in Ukraine: To invest or not to invest?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loechen, Liv Arntzen

    2011-07-01

    The vast and unexploited renewable energy potential and the introduction of green tariffs in 2009 have made Ukraine an attractive location for investors within the renewable energy sector. The Green Tariff system offers developers and investors the highest feed-in tariffs in Eastern Europe, and thus far covers alternative energy production from biomass, biogas, wind power plants and hydropower plants. Ukraine has a history in both large- and small hydro production. Whereas the potential of the country's big rivers is now to a great extent exploited, this is not the case for the smaller watercourses. Ukraine is well endowed with small rivers, approximately 60,000 of which can be classified as 'very small'. Most of these are located in the western part of the country, near the Carpathian Mountains. However, despite the natural potential, foreign investors should be aware of the potential risks and hurdles. The country has a huge problem with corruption, and the process of obtaining licenses is not straight forward. On the whole, it can be worthwhile exploring the possibilities of small hydro production in Ukraine for those who can deal with a high level of risk and uncertainty. If not, one would be better advised to look for investment locations elsewhere.(auth)

  2. Intronic deletions of tva receptor gene decrease the susceptibility to infection by subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The group of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) in chickens contains six highly related subgroups, A to E and J. Four genetic loci, tva, tvb, tvc and tvj, encode for corresponding receptors that determine the susceptibility to the ASLV subgroups. The prevalence of ASLV in hosts may have imposed...

  3. A comparison of the aquatic impacts of large hydro and small hydro projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lara A.

    The expansion of small hydro development in British Columbia has raised concerns surrounding the effects of these projects, and the provincial government's decision to proceed with Site C has brought attention to the impacts of large hydro. Together, these decisions highlight that there are impacts associated with all energy development. My study examines the aquatic effects of large and small hydro projects using two case study sites: Site C and the Upper Harrison Water Power Project. I first determine the aquatic effects of each of the case study sites. Next, I use existing literature and benefits transfer to determine the monetary value of these effects. My results suggest that, with mitigation, small hydro projects have less of an effect on the environment than a large hydro project per unit of electricity. I also describe the implications of my study in the context of current British Columbia energy policy. Keywords: hydropower; aquatic effects. Subject Terms: environmental impact assessment; benefits transfer.

  4. TVA/DOE integrated onfarm alcohol production system. Phase II. Progress report, October 1981-February 1982. Circular Z-134

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.; Pile, R.S.; Burch, D.W.; Mays, D.A.; Lewis, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Equipment and procedures necessary for using a grain (corn) feedstock for onfarm alcohol production were refined and documented to provide benchmark data. Also, significant progress was made in developing technology to convert other agricultural crops into 190-proof alcohol with the farm-sized alcohol production facility. This was achieved by modifying the base alcohol-from-grain facility to process the nongrain feedstocks (Irish potatoes, sweet sorghum, sweet potatoes, sugar beets, fodder beets, and Jerusalem artichokes) being evaluated in field production trials by TVA. Alcohol production capacities of cull potatoes, water chestnuts, and cull apples were also tested. A computerized investment model was refined to predict rapidly the economic implications for alcohol production levels, feedstocks, and various system components.

  5. Analysis of the Collector Ring’s Wear of the Hydro-generator in Daqiao Power Plant%大桥电厂水轮发电机集电环磨损分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车久华; 刘建刚

    2015-01-01

    水轮发电机的集电环在运行十年后,其外圆直径减少两厘米多,而且负极滑环的磨损较正极滑环严重,正极碳刷的损耗较负极碳刷的损耗稍快。在直流电流的强迫作用下,接正极的材料因失去电子被氧化而从单质变为离子,接负极的材料则因得到电子而被还原,仍以单质形式存在,这就是腐蚀电池原理。利用该特性,可以对阴极材料进行保护。%Having run for ten years, the outer diameter of hydro-generator collector ring reduced more than two centimeters, the wear of negative slip ring was more serious than that of the positive slip ring, and, the wastage of the anode carbon brush was more quickly than that of the cathode carbon brush. Under the effect of direct current, the galvanic cell’s anode material was oxidized because of lost electrons and changes into ions from elementary substance, however, the cathode material is restored because of getting electronic and still exists as elemental, this is called the Corrosive Cell Principle. Using this feature, the cathode materials can be protected.

  6. Alexela ostab Hydro Texaco tanklaketi / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2006-01-01

    Kütusefirma Alexela Oil teatas, et ostab tanklaketi Hydro Texaco kõik Balti riikide tanklad. Diagramm: Alexela ja Hydro Texaco majandusnäitajad. Vt. samas: Statoili juht: ühinemine turul muutusi ei too

  7. Alexela ostab Hydro Texaco tanklaketi / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2006-01-01

    Kütusefirma Alexela Oil teatas, et ostab tanklaketi Hydro Texaco kõik Balti riikide tanklad. Diagramm: Alexela ja Hydro Texaco majandusnäitajad. Vt. samas: Statoili juht: ühinemine turul muutusi ei too

  8. Integrated Model for the Hydro-Mechanical Effects of Vegetation Against Shallow Landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro González-Ollauri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shallow landslides are instability events that lead to dramatic soil mass wasting in sloping areas and are commonly triggered by intense rainfall episodes. Vegetation may reduce the likelihood of slope failure through different hydro-mechanical mechanisms that take place at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. However, while vegetation’s mechanical contribution has been widely recognized, its hydrological effects have been poorly quantified. In addition, most of the existing models lack a holistic approach, require difficult to measure parameters or are commercially based, making them hardly transferable to land planners and other researchers.In this paper an integrated, robust and reproducible model framework is proposed and evaluated with the aim of assessing the hydro-mechanical effects of different vegetation types on slope stability using easily measureable and quantifiable input parameters. The output shows that the model framework is able to simulate the hydro-mechanical effects of vegetation in a realistic manner and that it can be readily applied to any vegetation, soil and climate types. It also demonstrates that vegetation has positive hydro-mechanical effects against shallow landslides, where plant biomass and evapotranspiration play an important role.

  9. Lac Courte Oreilles Hydro Dam Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Jason [Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, WI (United States); Meyers, Amy [Kiser Hydro, LLC, Norway, MI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The main objective of this project was to investigate upgrading the existing hydro power generating system at the Winter Dam. The tribe would like to produce more energy and receive a fair market power purchase agreement so the dam is no longer a drain on our budget but a contributor to our economy. We contracted Kiser Hydro, LLC Engineering for this project and received an engineering report that includes options for producing more energy with cost effective upgrades to the existing turbines. Included in this project was a negotiation of energy price sales negotiations.

  10. Hydro-Jet technology in urologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarriz, Bijan

    2005-05-01

    Hydro-Jet technology utilizes an extremely thin, high-pressure stream of water. This technology has been routinely used in industry as a cutting tool for different materials such as metal, ceramic, wood and glass. Recently, Hydro-Jet technology has been used for dissection and resection during open and laparoscopic surgical procedures. A high-pressure jet of water allows selective dissection and isolation of vital structures such as blood vessels and nerves. This has resulted in improved dissection and decreased complication rate in recent experimental and clinical studies. This technology has been successfully applied during open and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, cholecystecomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy.

  11. Market Power in Mixed Hydro-Thermal Electric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    M. Soledad Arellano

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that, unlike what has been found in other papers, a hydro reservoir is an effective tool to exercise market power. Its appealing as a tool is enhanced by the fact that there is no need to constrain total hydro production - a practice too easy to detect -; it suffices to distort the intertemporal allocation of hydro production over time. A hydro-producer may increase his profits by exploiting differences in price elasticity of demand across periods, allocating too little suppl...

  12. Master plan: Guntersville Reservoir Aquatic Plant Management. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, Congress provided funding to start a five-year comprehensive project to manage aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir, to be jointly implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). TVA serves as the overall project coordinator and is the lead agency for this project. Known as the Joint Agency Guntersville Project (JAGP), the project will test and demonstrate innovative management technologies, and incorporate the most effective technologies into a comprehensive aquatic plant management plan for Guntersville Reservoir. The JAGP is intended to serve as a National Demonstration Project for aquatic plant management. As part of this JAGP, the Master Plan for Aquatic Plant Management for the Guntersville Reservoir Project, Alabama-Tennessee is authorized by Corps Contract Number DACW62-90-C-0067.

  13. 75 FR 5354 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental Assessment...-68, issued to Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, the licensee), for operation of the Browns Ferry...

  14. 75 FR 71104 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Missouri 7, LLC; Dashields Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ...; Project No. 13779-000] Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Missouri 7, LLC; Dashields Hydro, LLC; Notice of... Intervene November 15, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, FFP Missouri 7, LLC, and... (877) 556-6566 x711. FFP Missouri 7, LLC's project (Project No. 13756-000) would consist of: (1)...

  15. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII, FFP Project 92, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 24, LLC; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII, FFP Project 92, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 24.... 14262-000, FFP Project 92, LLC for Project No. 14276-000, and Riverbank Hydro No. 24, LLC for Project...

  16. Small hydro policy and potential in Spain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Spain has 662 small hydro installations, as registered in the “Speciaf Regimen” of 31 December 1999, with 1,271,573 kW of instaffed power producing the equivalent of the electricity consumed by 1.1 million families, avoiding emissions of 2.6 million tonnes of CO2 per year and substituting 250,000 toe.

  17. Pico-hydro for affordable village power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-15

    This project developed and disseminated 'off-the-shelf' hydro generator units of up to 5kW that are: directly affordable by villagers in remote communities of developing counties; financially viable through fuel savings and income generation; and suitable for local manufacture and use in adverse conditions. Work was undertaken in Nepal, Colombia and Peru. (author)

  18. Micro hydro demo in the Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Philippine department of Energy (DOE) has signed a memorandum of agreement with the Japanese government for a P33.SM (US$0.67M) demonstration project. The 65kW micro hydro power system will benefit about 200 households in Leyte.

  19. Inventory studies of hydroelectric power plants: the methodological differences for small and large power plants; Estudos de inventario de usinas hidreletricas: as diferencas metodologicas para pequenas e grandes centrais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia; Martinez, Carlos Barreira [Faculdade de Engenharia Civil de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    The hydroelectric potential handbook produced by ELETROBRAS provides procedures to guides the hydro power studies of river sites. In this paper, a critical analysis of these procedures is carried out, for both large and small hydro power plants, pin pointing the plant`s planning/design interface there, several proposals are put forward in the order to adapt these procedures to small hydro plants, optimizing their planning and design for the several situation, found in Brazilian reality. (author) 5 refs.

  20. Construction of a micro-hydro power plant upon Reinstadt Creek at Kahla/Thuringen - Pilot project. Final report; Bau einer Kleinstwasserkraftanlage am Reinstaedter Bach bei Kahla/Thueringen - Demonstrationsvorhaben. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilling, A.

    2003-12-01

    Historically, Reinstadt has been the site of 8 watermills, which is a sure sign of a useable hydropower potential. The project comprises the following tasks: Construction of a hydropower plant to demonstrate the economic efficiency of hydropower development even on a micro scale; Use of the plant as a demonstration plant, especially in the German state of Thuringia; Investment of the reimbursement for grid power supply for sustainable regional projects. The project has been in planning for several years and is to enhance the use of renewable energy sources. (orig.) [German] Historisch sind im Reinstaedter Grund 8 Wassermuehlenstandorte nachweisbar aber nicht mehr funktionstuechtig. Diese Aussage ist ein Hinweis darauf, dass lokal ein gewisses nutzbares Wasserkraftpotenzial zur Verfuegung steht. Ziel des Projektes 'Bau und Betrieb einer Kleinstwasserkraftanlage am Reinstaedter Bach bei Bibra' ist es: a) fuer die dezentrale Erschliessung auch von kleinsten Wasserkraftpotenzialen vor allem im Bundesland Thueringen am Beispiel zu werben; b) die Kleinstwasserkraftanlage fuer Bildungsprojekte zu nutzen; c) die erzielten Gewinne aus dem Stromverkauf fuer die Umwelt schonende, nachhaltige und eigenstaendige Entwicklung der Region zu verwenden. Das Vorhaben wurde seit mehreren Jahren geplant und entstand mit dem Hintergrund, einen Beitrag fuer das satzungsgemaesse Ziel des Vereins - Foerderung von erneuerbaren Energien - zu leisten. (orig.)

  1. Realisation of a small hydro power plant in the water supply of the Gudo municipality; Realizzazione di una microcentrale idroelettrica sulla condotta di adduzione tra le sorgenti Valle del Cugnolo e il serbatoio Sasso Grande - Studio di fattibilita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2008-12-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the feasibility study for the renewal of the drinking-water supply of the Gudo Municipality, Switzerland, including a new micro-scale power plant at the entrance of the main water reservoir. The water quantities available are listed. The investment cost is evaluated. The major cost arises from the replacement of the main pipe connecting the remote spring to the water reservoir by a penstock following a new lie. The project is technically feasible, but economically not. However, considering the age and actual status of the water supply, the authorities will anyway soon have to take adequate measures.

  2. Small hydro Power in Burundi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NTUNZWENIMANAGagarine; NIYONGINGONehemie

    2002-01-01

    BURUNDI has very good cooperation with CHINA especially in technique and Economy.From 1972, CHINA has promised to construct thefirst national SHP plant on the MUGERE river near Bujumbura (8 MW). In 1982, this SHP began to output electricity.Actually CHINA has accepted to finance the MPANDA SHP project (10.4MW).CHINA has also accepted to build a technical university at Bujumbura to increase technical engineer staff. There is manv other works: health, textile industry, roads construction. This good and effective cooperation has been especially confirmed through the two last regular complete revisions of the MUGERE SHP even if some times the security on the field was disturbed. The last one has been supported by the CHINA Government (more than 400,000 US $). Also, two Chinese staffs assisted by three Burundian operators are going on with preventive and curative maintenance of the equipments of this SHP plant. Burundi geographic in formations and economic situation informations are shown in table 1 and table 2.

  3. The Repetitive Detection of Toluene with Bioluminescence Bioreporter Pseudomonas putida TVA8 Encapsulated in Silica Hydrogel on an Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kuncová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Living cells of the lux-based bioluminescent bioreporter Pseudomonas putida TVA8 were encapsulated in a silica hydrogel attached to the distal wider end of a tapered quartz fiber. Bioluminescence of immobilized cells was induced with toluene at high (26.5 mg/L and low (5.3 mg/L concentrations. Initial bioluminescence maxima were achieved after >12 h. One week after immobilization, a biofilm-like layer of cells had formed on the surface of the silica gel. This resulted in shorter response times and more intensive bioluminescence maxima that appeared as rapidly as 2 h after toluene induction. Considerable second bioluminescence maxima were observed after inductions with 26.5 mg toluene/L. The second and third week after immobilization the biosensor repetitively and semiquantitatively detected toluene in buffered medium. Due to silica gel dissolution and biofilm detachment, the bioluminescent signal was decreasing 20–32 days after immobilization and completely extinguished after 32 days. The reproducible formation of a surface cell layer on the wider end of the tapered optical fiber can be translated to various whole cell bioluminescent biosensor devices and may serve as a platform for in-situ sensors.

  4. Retrofitting the potable water supply in Vira Gambarogno, Switzerland - Feasibility study of a small hydro power plant in the Muntin water reservoir; Risanamento dell'acquedotto Monti di Vira. Studio di fattibilita di recupero energetico al serbatoio Muntin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the retrofitting project for the potable water supply in the municipality of Vira Gambarogno, Southern Switzerland. The current status of the scheme and three possible variants are presented, including the technical and financial aspects. In a second part of the report a feasibility study is reported on for the energetic use of the potable water falling down from the springs, located at 1040 m over sea level, and the Muntin water reservoir, located at 460 m about sea level. A small hydroelectric plant can be created at the entry of the reservoir, with an electric power of about 20 kW, depending on the variant considered. Estimated energy yield and cost figures are given.

  5. Minoan and Etruscan Hydro-Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Laureano; Anastasia Zourou; Giovanni De Feo; Andreas N. Angelakis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present water and wastewater technologies used during the Minoan (ca. 3200–1100 BC) and Etruscan (ca. 800–100 BC) civilizations. The basic technologies considered are: water harvesting and distribution systems, cisterns, groundwater and wells as well as drainage and sewerage systems. Minoan water collection and distribution systems primarily consisted of cisterns and pipes. The Etruscans’ hydro-technology also consisted of cisterns and pipes but was developed for u...

  6. Upgrading the dosimetry at Ontario Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1996-12-01

    Ontario Hydro has embarked upon a major programme to replace and upgrade its external dosimetry systems. In two year`s time, the utility expects to have two state-of-the-art dosimetry systems in place: a new TLD dosimetry of legal record that was designed nearly 30 years ago; and an electronic dosimetry system which could eventually replace the TLD as the primary system. (Author).

  7. Upgrading hydro-electric generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulson, D.M.; Villalon, M.

    1987-11-01

    Approximately 1,720,000 kW of installed hydro-electric generating capacity is either owned directly by pulp and paper companies in Canada or is operated principally in their service. The 216 units involved were commissioned between 1902 and 1982. This paper suggests an approach to upgrading the generating units themselves as well as the related electrical and mechanical equipment and civil structures, giving approximate durations and costs. A complete system study is recommended. 2 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Exploring the impact of reduced hydro capacity and lignite resources on the Macedonian power sector development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taseska-Gjorgievskaa Verica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference development pathway of the Macedonian energy sector highlights the important role that lignite and hydro power play in the power sector, each accounting for 40% of total capacity in 2021. In 2030, this dominance continues, although hydro has a higher share due to the retirement of some of the existing lignite plants. Three sensitivity runs of the MARKAL-Macedonia energy system model have been undertaken to explore the importance of these technologies to the system, considering that their resource may be reduced with time: (1 Reducing the availability of lignite from domestic mines by 50% in 2030 (with limited capacity of imports, (2 Removing three large hydro options, which account for 310 MW in the business-as-usual case, and (3 Both of the above restrictions. The reduction in lignite availability is estimated to lead to additional overall system costs of 0.7%, compared to hydro restrictions at only 0.1%. With both restrictions applied, the additional costs rise to over 1%, amounting to 348 M€ over the 25 year planning horizon. In particular, costs are driven up by an increasing reliance on electricity imports. In all cases, the total electricity generation decreases, but import increases, which leads to a drop in capacity requirements. In both, the lignite and the hydro restricted cases, it is primarily gas-fired generation and imports that “fill the gap”. This highlights the importance of an increasingly diversified and efficient supply, which should be promoted through initiatives on renewables, energy efficiency, and lower carbon emissions.

  9. Hydro blues on the Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, C.

    1997-03-24

    Armed with more than 10,000 pages of documents, Hungarian government representatives presented opening arguments earlier this month in a suit with neighboring Slovakia over environmental, financial and political impacts of a $2-billion hydroelectric project on the Danube River. The two countries` 20-year discord over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project has reached a new plateau in the legal battle now before the International Court of Justice in The Hague, The Netherlands. Following a two-week recess that began March 10, the court is set to hear arguments from Slovakia. The trial is expected to take six weeks, and will include an on-site inspection of the now-completed project by judges. The project includes a 15.5-mile-long diversion canal and a 720-Mw hydroelectric dam and power plant at Gabcikovo, now in Slovakia. Downstream in Hungary, Nagymaros Dam, with a 160-Mw powerplant, was to be built to halt surges from Gabcikovo. Hungary opted not to build the project.

  10. An Overview of Power Topologies for Micro-hydro Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nababan, Sabar; Muljadi, E.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an overview of different power topologies of micro-hydro turbines. The size of micro-hydro turbine is typically under 100kW. Conventional topologies of micro-hydro power are stand-alone operation used in rural electrical network in developing countries. Recently, many of micro-hydro...... power generations are connected to the distribution network through power electronics (PE). This turbines are operated in variable frequency operation to improve efficiency of micro-hydro power generation, improve the power quality, and ride through capability of the generation. In this paper our...... discussion is limited to the distributed generation. Like many other renewable energy sources, the objectives of micro-hydro power generation are to reduce the use of fossil fuel, to improve the reliability of the distribution system (grid), and to reduce the transmission losses. The overview described...

  11. StatoilHydro Seeks Business Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ Established on October 1, 2007 with the merger of Norway's national oil company Statoil and the oil and gas operations of Hydro, StatoilHydro (SH) is now a giant enterprise with ambitions for global growth. Ole Johan Lydersen, president of StatoilHydro China, talked about his expectations for growth through powerful partnerships with its Chinese counterparts in a recent interview with news media

  12. Hydro-power in a competitive market; Hydro-Power im Wettbewerbsumfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroefelbauer, H. [VERBUND-Austrian Hydro Power AG, Wien (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    While energy demand continues to rise, European hydro-power is faced with ever more stringent legal provisions and environmental targets. At the same time, the transition from a monopoly situation to a liberalised electricity market has resulted in a shift in emphasis from macro-economic considerations to a business-mangement approach to hydro-power as the classic renewable energy source. Hence, for market operators hoping to position themselves favourable through the offer of new products, such as control and balancing energy, it is essential to recognise emerging technology and energy trends at an early point in time. However, fair competition requires a stable legal framework. (orig.)

  13. 基于模糊理论和遗传算法的梯级水电站短期优化调度%Short-term optimization scheduling of cascaded hydro-plant reservoirs based on fuzzy set and genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙军; 秦雅

    2011-01-01

    The demand of electricity load will be changed with the change of climate and environment and thus has an uncertainty. At present, the formulation of power plan is based on past experience and has high level of deviation between the plan and actual load. Because of this deviation, if production only according to the electricity generating plan will lead to electricity unbalanced and the network will not work in normal condition. To describe this deviation, the the uncertainties of load is described by the fuzzy set, and a model of short-term optimization scheduling based on fuzzy load of cascade hydro-plant reservoirs is proposed. The concept of fuzzyness is used to analyse the various vague confidence level of the hydropower station in the scheduling problems. The water inflow, water discharge, water disposal, water reference, water head and other factor are included, and the relationships among water volume, water disposal, water inflow, water head and their impact for the hydropower station are taken into account. By using quadratic curve which can accurately describe the physical characteristics of hydro power reservoirs, the number of decision variables for optimization can be reduced to help improve the efficiency of the solution. A third-class hydropower station was taken as an example for calculation with this model by the genetic algorithm and using the idea of fuzzy condence intervals. The simulation results prove the accuracy and feasibility of the model for cascade hydro-plants.%电网负荷需求量随着气候、环境的变化而变化,在很大程度上存在着不确定性,而目前制定的发电计划都是根据以往的经验进行制定的,给出的计划出力与实际负荷水平存在较大的偏差.由于存在偏离发电计划的偏差,如果单纯地按照发电计划发电,会导致电能的不平衡,从而影响电网的正常运行.为了描述这种偏差,采用模糊集理论来描述负荷的不确定性,构建了

  14. Growth and characterization of GaN thin film on Si substrate by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundakçı, Mutlu; Mantarcı, Asim; Erdoğan, Erman

    2017-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is an attractive material with a wide-direct band gap (3.4 eV) and is one of the significant III-nitride materials, with many advantageous device applications such as high electron mobility transistors, lasers, sensors, LEDs, detectors, and solar cells, and has found applications in optoelectronic devices. GaN could also be useful for industrial research in the future. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), sputter, and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are some of the methods used to fabricate GaN thin film. In this research, a GaN thin film grown on a silicon substrate using the thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique has been extensively studied. Fast deposition, short production time, homogeneity, and uniform nanostructure with low roughness can be seen as some of the merits of this method. The growth of the GaN was conducted at an operating pressure of 1× {{10}-6} \\text{Torr} , a plasma current 0.6 \\text{A} and for a very short period of time of 40 s. For the characterization process, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to determine the structure and surface morphology of the material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to comprehend the elemental analysis characterization of the film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze the structure of the film. Raman measurements were taken to investigate the phonon modes of the material. The morphological properties of the material were analyzed in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  15. The last great hydro power frontier[Hydro power projects in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, T.

    2001-10-01

    A short article discusses hydro power projects in Myanmar in Southeast Asia. A table lists projects planned and projects under construction in Mandalay, Magwe, Sagaing, Shan, Kayin, Mon, Bago, Thanintharyl and Rakhine. Humanitarianism is said to be Japan's motive for establishing a presence there; the implications of the developments with respect to human rights and the military are mentioned.

  16. Condition indexing of embankment dams : case studies from Manitoba Hydro and Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halayko, K. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Gervais, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Large inventories of earth embankment dams that require regular maintenance and repairs are managed by both Manitoba Hydro and Hydro-Quebec. A rational procedure was developed for the allocation of limited maintenance and repairs funds while still optimizing dam safety objectives. This paper describes a procedure based on the adaptation of the Condition Indexing procedure initially developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, which allows for the allocation of maintenance and repair funds to the components deemed the most important and in the worst condition. The application of the Condition Index procedure was illustrated by examining a sample of different embankment dams operated by Manitoba Hydro and Hydro-Quebec. The primary failure modes are correctly identified by the Condition Index procedure, and it prioritizes the most relevant repair and maintenance activities. This paper describes, and the presents the results of, studies on an embankment dam on limestone foundation, an embankment dam on a clay foundation, and an embankment dam on alluvial soils. 5 refs., 17 tabs.

  17. Standardized CSR and climate performance: why is Shell willing, but Hydro reluctant?; Shell; Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum; Wettestad, Joergen

    2007-06-15

    This report aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion concerning whether CSR merely serves to streamline company rhetoric or also has an influence on actual efforts. We discuss the tangible effects of CSR instruments on the climate-related rules and performances of the two different oil companies Hydro and Shell. First we explore whether similar CSR instruments lead to similar climate-related rules and practices in the two companies. Both Hydro and Shell adhere to the Global Compact (GC), the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) and the Global Gas Flaring Reduction Public-Private Partnership (GGFR). The report concludes that the GC has not rendered any tangible effects in either of the companies. Concerning the other instruments, Hydro has only followed the instrument requirements that fit their initial approach, and refrained from all deviating requirements. Shell has been more malleable, but we have noted few effects on the actual emissions and business portfolio resulting from the instrument adherence. Second, we assess how the differing results of the similar CSR portfolio may be explained. The reluctant attitude of the leaders in Hydro and the strong CSR motivation of Shell's executives result in significant differences. Hydro executives are able to constrain the effects of the instrument adherence. With Shell we note the opposite pattern: Its leaders promoted the instruments to be translated into internal rules, but a general lack of hierarchical structures hinders them from governing the conduct of various sub-organisations. The very diversity of the Shell culture helps to explain why the efforts of its executives have resulted in limited impact. The strength of the Hydro culture makes the corporation resistant to the instruments. Moreover, Hydro is strikingly shielded by virtue of its strong position in Norway. In contrast, Shell is more strongly affected by the global field of petroleum and the global field of CSR

  18. Boosting the assessment of Ungauged small hydro sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Small hydro sites located in mountain environments are often on ungauged streams. A software package called the integrated Method for Power (IMP 4.0) was designed to assist inexperienced, potential developers of smaff hydro sites in situations where the cost of professionaf engineering advice would be prohibitive.

  19. The HYDROS mission: requirements and baseline system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; ONeill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2004-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications.

  20. Integrated monopoly costs Hydro a sale in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    As a result of a recent ruling of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) of the USA made under the reciprocity provisions of 1977, Detroit Edison refused to wheel Ontario Hydro`s power to Ohio as of April 1, 1997. The new FERC ruling overturned earlier rules which had allowed Ontario Hydro to sell electricity to US utility customers who did not have direct transmission links with Ontario. This refusal by Detroit Edison, based on the FERC ruling, puts in danger all of Ontario Hydro`s sales to the US which require intermediate wheeling. The utility claims that the rules could reduce the corporation`s export to the US by as much as a $100 million in gross revenue this year, and up to $250 million in 1998. Ontario Hydro has petitioned the US courts to squash the FERC order. FERC maintains that the order resulted from Ontario Hydro`s adamant refusal to allow other electricity suppliers to sell into the province.

  1. When small is beautiful. Boom time for small hydro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, John

    2002-08-01

    Although small hydropower projects generally contribute a small proportion of most nations' electricity needs their importance often exceeds their size. The author, a freelance industrial journalist considers prospects for small hydro, how such schemes are benefiting communities throughout the world and why some countries are more successfully using small hydro than others. (Author)

  2. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Giesen, N.C.; Hut, R.W.; Selker, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this opinion article, we present the Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO). The goal of TAHMO is to develop a dense network of hydro-meteorological measurement stations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. On average, there will be one station per 1000 km2. The stations will be cost-ef

  3. Mesoscopic hydro-thermodynamics of phonons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea R. Vasconcellos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A generalized Hydrodynamics, referred to as Mesoscopic Hydro-Thermodynamics, of phonons in semiconductors is presented. It involves the descriptions of the motion of the quasi-particle density and of the energy density. The hydrodynamic equations, which couple both types of movement via thermo-elastic processes, are derived starting with a generalized Peierls-Boltzmann kinetic equation obtained in the framework of a Non-Equilibrium Statistical Ensemble Formalism, providing such Mesoscopic Hydro-Thermodynamics. The case of a contraction in first order is worked out in detail. The associated Maxwell times are derived and discussed. The densities of quasi-particles and of energy are found to satisfy coupled Maxwell-Cattaneo-like (hyperbolic equations. The analysis of thermo-elastic effects is done and applied to investigate thermal distortion in silicon mirrors under incidence of high intensity X-ray pulses in FEL facilities. The derivation of a generalized Guyer-Krumhansl equation governing the flux of heat and the associated thermal conductivity coefficient is also presented.

  4. The Atlin Hydro Project : generation for generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S. [Atlin Tlingit Development Corp., Atlin, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation documented the step-by-step process by which the Atlin Hydro Project was developed. The Taku River Tlingit First Nation undertook the Atlin project as part of its vision for responsible resource management, sustainable economic development, and cultural revival. The Atlin Community Energy Plan involved an assessment of electricity demand, a 20-year demand projection, energy efficiency recommendations, and an assessment of power supply options such as wind towers, connection to the Yukon power grid, and hydro. The potential impact on fisheries, hydrology, wildlife habitat, roads and bridges, navigable waters and forests, existing rights, and First Nation archaeology were assessed, along with other factors such as hazards and flood control. A hydrology assessment of the Surprise-Pine Drainage Basin was undertaken, and stream-flow measurements were taken near the intake location on Pine Creek. The project comprises a discharge control structure and a fish ladder; an intake and weir on Pine Creek; a penstock pipeline from intake to powerhouse; a powerhouse with a 2.1 MW Pelton turbine generator and a switch yard; and a power line from the powerhouse to the interconnection with the existing grid. The impacts on fisheries, wildlife, and human movement are expected to be minimal. 28 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Laboratory developments of a diagonal turbine for medium head small hydro power plants (25 - 100 m). Final report; Turbines diagonales. Programme de developpement d'une turbine hydraulique diagonale destinee a equiper les petites centrales a moyenne chute (25 a 100 m) - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choulot, A.; Denis, V.

    2009-11-15

    The first result of the project was the mechanical design of the diagonal turbine and, in particular, the runner and the adjustable blade driving system. The system was designed for the 12-blade runner and is thus suitable for any lower number of blades. With a reference runner diameter of 329.4 mm, the laboratory test model corresponds approximately to the smallest size for a prototype of Diagonal turbine. The mechanical design is thus available for any larger prototype. The complementary use of numerical simulations and laboratory tests provided a deep understanding of the hydraulic behaviour of the Diagonal turbine. Based on this extensive knowledge, the mechanical set-up and hydraulic design was significantly improved. The developments showed that the effect of the gap between the discharge ring and the blades on both the efficiency and cavitation behaviour was significantly enhanced compared to Kaplan turbines. The optimization of this gap together with improvements of the geometry enabled to raise the maximum efficiency from 86.5% with the initial configuration to more than 92%, and to significantly reduce the development of cavitation. The first developed configuration was the 8-blade runner. Various guide vane configurations were tested. The analysis of numerical and experimental results led to the development of an optimal configuration with a maximum efficiency of 92% and a satisfactory cavitation behaviour suitable for heads up to 50 m. The development of the 12-blade runner fully profited from the knowledge gained with the 8 blade configuration. The improved blade design process significantly fastened the development phase necessary to obtain high performances. The maximum efficiency is above 92% and the cavitation behaviour allows 80 m heads. Based on these good results, a first demonstration project was launched to equip the Montsalvens site (Switzerland). The objective is to install a turbine at the foot of the Montsalvens dam of the existing hydro

  6. Behaviour and passage of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla at a small hydropower plant during their downstream migration Comportement et passage de l’anguille argentée (Anguilla anguilla au niveau d’une petite centrale hydroélectrique lors de sa migration de dévalaison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Oliveira E.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Between 2004 and 2007, 116 downstream migrant silver eels (Anguilla anguilla were monitored at a hydropower plant on the Gave de Pau river in South-West France using radio and PIT telemetry. The objectives of the study were: (i to determine the environmental conditions when eels arrived and passed the facility; (ii to determine the rate of eel escapement (passage other than via the turbines; (iii to describe the behaviour of eels faced with the intake structure and the permeability of the intake trashracks for the different sizes of eel; and (iv to determine whether surface bypasses originally designed for salmon could be effective for eels. Five types of behaviour of silver eels in the forebay and at the plant intakes were identified. The study showed the key factor influencing both eel behaviour and the route taken through the plant was variation in river discharge. Escapement rate was related to eel length and the spill flow to river flow ratio, which could be described by a logistic regression model. The surface bypasses originally designed for salmon were found to aid downstream eel migration significantly. At velocities < 0.40 m·s−1, no eels, even the largest, for which the racks are a physical barrier, were found impinged on the trashracks. De 2004 à 2007, une étude sur la migration de dévalaison de l’anguille argentée européenne (Anguilla anguilla a été menée sur la centrale hydroélectrique de Baigts sur le Gave de Pau dans le Sud-Ouest de la France. Cette étude, au cours de laquelle 116 individus ont été suivis par télémétrie PIT et radio, avait pour objectifs : (i de déterminer les conditions de milieu propices à l’arrivée sur site et au franchissement de l’aménagement; (ii de déterminer les taux d’échappement (passages par des voies autres que les turbines; (iii d’analyser le comportement des anguilles devant les ouvrages et la perméabilité des grilles de la prise d’eau en fonction de la taille

  7. Dynamic Model for Hydro-Turbine Generator Units Based on a Database Method for Guide Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A suitable dynamic model of rotor system is of great significance not only for supplying knowledge of the fault mechanism, but also for assisting in machine health monitoring research. Many techniques have been developed for properly modeling the radial vibration of large hydro-turbine generator units. However, an applicable dynamic model has not yet been reported in literature due to the complexity of the boundary conditions and exciting forces. In this paper, a finite element (FE rotor dynamic model of radial vibration taking account of operating conditions is proposed. A brief and practical database method is employed to model the guide bearing. Taking advantage of the method, rotating speed and bearing clearance can be considered in the model. A novel algorithm, which can take account of both transient and steady-state analysis, is proposed to solve the model. Dynamic response for rotor model of 125 MW hydro-turbine generator units in Gezhouba Power Station is simulated. Field data from Optimal Maintenance Information System for Hydro power plants (HOMIS are analyzed compared with the simulation. Results illustrate the application value of the model in providing knowledge of the fault mechanism and in failure diagnosis.

  8. Field establishment and grain yield of maize affected by hydro-priming of differentially aged seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of maize seeds (cv. SC-AR68 with a 100% germination was kept as control, and two other sub-samples were artificially deteriorated at 40 °C for 2 and 3 days, reducing normal germination to 98% and 93%, respectively. Consequently, three seed lots of maize with different levels of vigor were provided. Each seed lot was then divided into four sub-samples, one unprimed and the other three lots were primed in distilled water at 15 °C for 7, 14 and 21 hours, and then dried back to initial moisture content (about 20% at a room temperature of 20–22 °C for 24 hours. The field experiment was arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Although germination percentage of seed lots was not significantly affected by hydro-priming, germination rate and seedling dry weight were considerably enhanced as a result of seed priming. Hydro-priming for 21 hours enhanced seedling emergence rate of all seed lots with different levels of vigor. This hydro-priming duration also increased grain yield of maize by about 32%, although this superiority was not statistically significant. This advantage in grain yield of plants from primed seeds was related with rapid germination and seedling growth and early emergence in the field.

  9. Experimental Hydro-Mechanical Characterization of Full Load Pressure Surge in Francis Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    Full load pressure surge limits the operating range of hydro-electric generating units by causing significant power output swings and by compromising the safety of the plant. It appears during the off-design operation of hydraulic machines, which is increasingly required to regulate the broad integration of volatile renewable energy sources into the existing power network. The underlying causes and governing physical mechanisms of this instability were investigated in the frame of a large European research project and this paper documents the main findings from two experimental campaigns on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine. The multi-phase flow in the draft tube is characterized by Particle Image Velocimetry, Laser Doppler Velocimetry and high-speed visualizations, along with synchronized measurements of the relevant hydro-mechanical quantities. The final result is a comprehensive overview of how the unsteady draft tube flow and the mechanical torque on the runner shaft behave during one mean period of the pressure oscillation, thus defining the unstable fluid-structure interaction responsible for the power swings. A discussion of the root cause is initiated, based on the state of the art. Finally, the latest results will enable a validation of recent RANS flow simulations used for determining the key parameters of hydro-acoustic stability models.

  10. Analysis of a pico tubular-type hydro turbine performance by runner blade shape using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, N. J.; Wata, J. V.; Hwang, Y. C.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, Y. H.

    2012-11-01

    There has been a considerable interest recently in the topic of renewable energy. This is primarily due to concerns about environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Moreover, fluctuating and rising oil prices, increase in demand, supply uncertainties and other factors have led to increased calls for alternative energy sources. Small hydropower, among other renewable energy sources, has been evaluated to have adequate development value because it is a clean, renewable and abundant energy resource. In addition, small hydropower has the advantage of low cost development by using rivers, agricultural reservoirs, sewage treatment plants, waterworks and water resources. The main concept of the tubular-type hydro turbine is based on the difference in water pressure levels in pipe lines, where the energy which was initially wasted by using a reducing valve at the pipeline of waterworks, is collected by turbine in the hydro power generator. In this study, in order to acquire the performance data of a pico tubular-type hydro turbine, the output power, head and efficiency characteristics by different runner blade shapes are examined. The pressure and velocity distributions with the variation of guide vane and runner vane angle on turbine performance are investigated by using a commercial CFD code.

  11. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  12. Video game experience and its influence on visual attention parameters: an investigation using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Torsten; Finke, Kathrin; Redel, Petra; Kluckow, Steffen; Müller, Hermann; Strobach, Tilo

    2015-05-01

    Experts with video game experience, in contrast to non-experienced persons, are superior in multiple domains of visual attention. However, it is an open question which basic aspects of attention underlie this superiority. We approached this question using the framework of Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) with tools that allowed us to assess various parameters that are related to different visual attention aspects (e.g., perception threshold, processing speed, visual short-term memory storage capacity, top-down control, spatial distribution of attention) and that are measurable on the same experimental basis. In Experiment 1, we found advantages of video game experts in perception threshold and visual processing speed; the latter being restricted to the lower positions of the used computer display. The observed advantages were not significantly moderated by general person-related characteristics such as personality traits, sensation seeking, intelligence, social anxiety, or health status. Experiment 2 tested a potential causal link between the expert advantages and video game practice with an intervention protocol. It found no effects of action video gaming on perception threshold, visual short-term memory storage capacity, iconic memory storage, top-down control, and spatial distribution of attention after 15 days of training. However, observations of a selected improvement of processing speed at the lower positions of the computer screen after video game training and of retest effects are suggestive for limited possibilities to improve basic aspects of visual attention (TVA) with practice.

  13. Analysis of hydro power potential with the GIS tool Vapidro-Aste within the EU-project SHARE; Wasserkraftpotentialanalyse mittels des GIS-Tools Vapidro-Aste im Rahmen des EU-Projektes SHARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Josef; Schreiber, Christopher [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft

    2012-07-01

    A GIS software tool was developed, adapted and tested within the EU-project SHARE. The tool allows the determination of the hydro power potential of a region in a structured and quick way. The tool has been developed by the Italian research company RSE. The test has been performed in the catchment area of the river Muerz which is a tributary of the river Mur. The determination of the hydro power potential was successfully validated by the comparison with sites of existing hydro power plants. (orig.)

  14. Aquatic Plant Management Program current status and seasonal workplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, E.R.; Bates, A.L.; Webb, D.H.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the TVA Aquatic Plant Management Program is to support in an environmentally and economically responsible manner, the balanced multiple uses of the water resource of the Tennessee Valley. This is accomplished by following an integrated approach to prevent introduction and spread of noxious species, documenting occurrence and spread of existing species, and suppressing or eliminating problems in designated high use areas. It is not the TVA objective, nor is it biologically feasible and prudent to eliminate all aquatic vegetation. Aerial photography, helicopter reconnaissance, and field surveys are used to assess distributions and abundance of various aquatic macrophytes. Water level fluctuations are supplemented by herbicide applications to control undesirable vegetation. Investigations are conducted to evaluate water level fluctuation schemes, as well as biological, mechanical, and alternative chemical control techniques which offer potential for more environmentally compatible and cost-effective management operations.

  15. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishalay Jana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC 50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC 50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC 50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC 50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Towards a Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou strategy: Outcomes from Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E. Scurrah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Manitoba Hydro is responsible for the continued supply of energy to meet the needs of the province and is committed to protecting the environment when planning the construction and operation of its facilities. Corporate policy dictates ongoing improvement of Environmental Management Systems (EMS in order to meet or surpass regulatory requirements. Environmental objectives are reviewed annually and programs are modified when necessary to address improvements in environmental performance. Manitoba Hydro plans and constructs major transmission projects throughout northern Manitoba which includes areas occupied by boreal woodland caribou. In recognition of the potential issues associated with hydro transmission construction in boreal caribou range, Manitoba Hydro hosted an expert workshop on May 8, 2007 to provide objective advice in the development of a draft corporate strategy that effectively directs targeted monitoring and research for environmental assessment and mitigation. The workshop focused on assessing the potential threats to boreal woodland caribou from a transmission line construction and operation perspective, and identifying appropriate approaches in site selection and environmental assessment (SSEA and long-term monitoring and research. A total of nine threat categories were reviewed to determine the degree and magnitude of potential effects that may result from transmission construction and operation; and of the original nine, five final threat categories were delineated. The main elements of the workshop provided strategic approaches for proactive pre-construction monitoring, research on recruitment and mortality for local populations impacted by ROWs and control areas, and various habitat monitoring, management, and mitigation techniques. Research and monitoring priorities have been identified and continued collaboration with Manitoba Conservation and other land users were also identified.

  17. Hydro-Quebec seeks open access in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, D.; Salaff, S.

    1996-02-01

    Issues relevant to a recent U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) order to Hydro-Quebec to open up access to its transmission system, as a condition of participation by a Hydro-Quebec subsidiary in energy marketing in the United States, were outlined. Hydro-Quebec was reported to be considering its options, and has not yet responded to the order. Hydro-Quebec currently sells its energy at the US border in all export transactions. With the approval of FERC, Energy Alliance Partnership would be in a position to offer its customers choices in selling, buying, borrowing and loaning natural gas , electricity and other fuels, as a wholesaler in the electricity and natural gas business. FERC was concerned that by allowing greater market penetration by Hydro-Quebec and its partners could lead to generation dominance, or affiliate abuse. Hydro-Quebec`s position is that transmission constraints and legal limitations, as well as Hydro-Quebec`s obligation to serve its own provincial load, are extremely unlikely to allow its current 10% share of the U.S.market to increase significantly in the foreseeable future.

  18. Experience of pico/micro hydro based power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, S.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although India has approximately 150,000 megawatts of hydro potential, only a small portion is tapped. There is also significant untapped hydro potential in many developing countries such as Nepal, Bhutan, Vietnam, Indonesia and regions in South America and Africa. Small-scale hydroelectric power systems with capacities of up to a few megawatts are eco-friendly and sustainable. They can be classified based on unit sizes as pico (u pto 10 kilowatts), micro (10-100 kilowatts) and mini (100 kilowatts to a few megawatts) hydro systems. Mini hydro systems are always grid connected while micro can be either grid connected or off grid. Pico is always off grid. In India, there are thousands of favorable sites in this range that should be tapped for distributed power generation to electrify local communities. This need is reflected by the global emphasis on distributed power generation as well as the Government of India's policy to promote this type of power generation. A working stand alone pico-hydro power generating system has been successfully installed in 5 sites in Karnataka. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the technical, managerial and economic feasibility of setting up small hydro projects in remote hilly areas of Karnataka, India and its positive environmental impact. The presentation discussed the site selection criteria; installed sites of pico hydro; system description; parts of the system; the electric load controller; types of electronic load controllers; and a description of the unit and control scheme. tabs., figs.

  19. HydroImage: A New Software for HydroGeophysical and BioGeophysical Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suribhatla, R. M.; Mok, C. M.; Kaback, D.; Chen, J.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical and biogeophysical data integration have recently emerged as cost-effective and rapid techniques for improving subsurface characterization and monitoring. In a Bayesian framework for integration, borehole based data provide prior distribution and geophysical information serve as data to update the prior through likelihood functions obtained from petrophysical models between borehole and cross-well data. We present the application of a Windows-based software called HydroImage that uses this Bayesian framework for data integration and visualization. HydroImage can be used for geostatistical estimation, geophysical tomographic inversion, petrophysical model development, and Bayesian integration. We demonstrate HydroImage using three different field datasets to estimate different subsurface states or parameters. The first example combines wellbore flowmeter test data and crosshole seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) data to estimate hydraulic conductivity at the DOE Bacterial Transport Site in Oyster, Virginia. The second example focuses on using time-lapse radar data to estimate moisture content dynamics associated with a desiccation test performed to remediate the deep vadose zone in Hanford, Washington. The third example demonstrates the use of spectral induced polarization data to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of geochemical parameters that are indicative of the redox state of a contaminated aquifer.

  20. Hydro-Quebec; other times, other challenges; Hydro-Quebec; autres temps, autres defis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belanger, Y.; Comeau, R.

    1995-12-31

    This book provides an overview of the past history and expected future development of Hydro-Quebec through a series of papers presented at a conference in Montreal in 1994. The papers focus on six principal themes: (1) fifty years of history and symbolism, (2) stakes and future choices,(3) economic development and innovation, (4) Quebec northern policy, (5) energy choices and the environment, and (6) the issue of privatizing Hydro-Quebec. The intimate relationship of Hydro-Quebec, long perceived as the major pillar of the economic development of Quebec, and fundamental to the evolution of the idea of a Quebec nation, were also explored. Although the historical approach was clearly preferred by most of the contributors, the uncertain future of the giant utility in the face of the continent-wide movement towards competition and open access, received the bulk of the attention. The special complications introduced by the resistance to hydroelectric power development of Quebec`s native population, environmental concerns, and the quest for sustainable development, also have been treated extensively. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. 76 FR 42124 - River Bounty, Inc.; Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission River Bounty, Inc.; Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By...\\ has been transferred to Renew Hydro, LLC. The project is located on the Susquehanna River in...\\ American Hydro Power Co., 19 FERC ] 62,426 (1982). 2. Renew Hydro, LLC, located at 1800 Route 34, Suite...

  2. The Selection of Cooling systems of Giant Hydro-Generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dingzhong

    2010-01-01

    @@ The selection of cooling system for hydro-generator in Ertan Hydropower Station is reviewed in this pap(ar) The new viewpoint on air-cooled system of hydraul(is)generator of recent years is analyzed and described. That is, "Full air-cooled system is always preferred to inner water cooling system in hydro-generator." Moreov() the decision process and corresponding actions of aircooled system design for hydro-generator in Longtan Hydropower Station, Xiaowan Hydropower Station and Laxiwa Hydropower Station are introduced.

  3. Development of Key Technologies of Large Hydro Unit in HEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Weizhang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction to HEC Harbin Electric Machinery Company Limited (HEC) is a pivotal company that produces large electric machinery and accessorial control equipment in China.The hydro units made by HEC have accounted for about half of the large-and medium-size hydropower units installed in China,while the thermal generator units occupy about one-third of the total thermal capacity of China.HEC has the ability to develop,design and manufacture products independently,and its typical products include hydro turbine,hydro generator,turbo generator and control equipment.

  4. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, Marie E; Chemat, Farid; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2004-07-23

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, hydro-distillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from three aromatic herbs: basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), garden mint (Mentha crispa L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). The essential oils extracted by SFME for 30min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydro-distillation for 4.5 h. The SFME method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material. SFME is a green technology and appears as a good alternative for the extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants.

  5. A research on short-term hydro-wind economic dispatch problem simulated with a modified differential evolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuemin, Wang; Anqiang, Li; Rui, Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Due to the wide construction of wind power and the difficulty for it to join the power grid, a short-term hydro-wind economic dispatch (WHED) problem is proposed. WHED system contains several wind power units and hydropower plants, which are renewable and clean. Combined with hydropower plants, the wind power units can join the power grid stably. Then, a WHED system with four cascaded hydropower plants and two wind units is established, and a modified differential evolution (DE) algorithm with chaotic perturbation is proposed for optimizing. Finally, two cases are simulated and analysed, the dispatch results show that the presented model and algorithm are feasible and effective.

  6. Effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Prangos ferulacea (L. Lindle on histopathology of pancreas and diabetes treatment in STZ- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Soltani band

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The roots´ hydro-alcoholic extract of P.f seems to be capable to regenerate the islets of Langerhans in the treated rats in comparison with the untreated diabetic rats. This property can be due to some components of the plant that can increase insulin secretion.

  7. ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATION OF HYDRAULIC STABILITY OF FRANCIS HYDRO TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xi-de

    2004-01-01

    With the development of large-capacity hydro turbines, the hydraulic instability of bydro turbines has become one of the most important problems that affect the stable operation of the hydro-electric units. The hydraulic vibration and unstable operation of Francis hydro turbines are primarily caused by the unsteady pressure pulsations inside draft tubes.The forced rotating vortex core at the runner exit and the channel vortices inside Francis turbine runners are origins of the unsteady pressure pulsations when operating at partial load. This paper briefly analyzes the hydraulic instability of operation caused by the vortex core and channel vortices at partial load, then, presents a way to estimate the hydraulic stability by calculation of the flow behavior at the runner exit.The validity of estimation is examined by comparison with experimental data. This will be helpful to evaluate the alternative design and predict the hydraulic stability for both the prototype and model hydro turbines.

  8. ArcHydro global datasets for Hawaii StreamStats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a personal geodatabase containing several vector datasets. These datasets may be used with the ArcHydro Tools, developed by ESRI in...

  9. Development of Key Technologies of Large Hydro Unit in HEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to HEC Harbin Electric Machinery Company Limited (HEC) is a pivotal company that produces large electric machinery and accessorial control equipment in China. The hydro units made by HEC have accounted

  10. Investigation of Hydro-Geochemical Characteristics of Groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of Hydro-Geochemical Characteristics of Groundwater In Port Harcourt City, ... Constituents of the heavy metals as shown in this study reveal that, in some ... Microbial analysis of the water samples to determine the presumptive ...

  11. India small hydro funding to foster 110MW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The India Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) hopes to fund 30 to 40 new small hydro projects, totaling about 110MW, from US$110 million available for development of private sector projects in India's northern and central states. The World Bank approved US$135 million in funding to IREDA, of which US$110 million is to be used to develop private sector small hydro projects in India's northern and central states;

  12. Micro hydro power for rural electrification in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gafiye, G.D. [Papua New Guinea Univ. of Technology (Papua New Guinea)

    1996-12-31

    About 85 percent of the population of Papua New Guinea live in remote rural areas. The country has, however, the potential for renewable energy resources such as solar, biomass and hydro power. Due to the ruggedness of the country, the majority of the communities have no access to grid electricity to meet their energy requirements. There is a need to have a reliable electricity supply to these areas. This can be met by the use of micro hydro power and solar systems. Micro hydro has been investigated for many of the stations. Solar will be investigated in the case where micro hydro is not possible. Government policy on rural electrification, and the introduction of micro hydro power is discussed. A number of recommendations are made as to the assistance which could be provided to communities so that they can take advantage of the technology. Those organizations which have expertise in micro hydro power should be encouraged to set up offices in Papua New Guinea and undertake activities such as training, construction and local manufacture. (author). 5 refs.

  13. 75 FR 14437 - North Eastern Wisconsin Hydro Inc. (N.E.W. Hydro); Notice of Intent To File License Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Marinette County, Wisconsin. No Federal lands are occupied by the project works or located within the... Division of Hydropower Licensing approved N.E.W. Hydro's request to use the Traditional Licensing Process...

  14. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Alligatorweed Survey of Ten Southern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    alligatorweed in South America for candidate biocon - trol agents, with funding provided largely by the Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP), CE...Alabama, and Georgia. Control was reported to be unsat- P’ isfactory in Tennessee and the TVA, and no control of alligatorweed by biocon - _ trol insects...to the reduced water levels. None of the biocon - trol agents were collected from any of the sites; however, a native webworm species was found to be

  15. Monitoring Systems for Hydropower Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaschin Pepa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issue in hydro power industry is to determine the necessary degree of automation in order to improve the operation security. Depending upon the complexity of the system (the power plant equipment the automation specialist will build a philosophy of control following some general principals of security and operation. Helped by the modern digital equipment, today is relative easy to design a complete monitoring and supervising system including all the subparts of a hydro aggregate. A series of sensors and transducers specific for each auxiliary installation of the turbine and generator will be provided, together with a PLC or an industrial PC that will run an application software for implementing the security and control algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to offer a general view of these issues, providing a view of designing an automation & control and security system for hydro power plants of small, medium and big power.

  16. Refurbishment of small hydropower plants in Romania; Sanierung von Kleinwasserkraftwerken in Rumaenien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmeinbauer, Joerg [Wien Energie GmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    In 2008 Wien Energie subsidiary Wienstrom GmbH participated in three public auctions of Hidroelectrica S.A. for the sale of old small hydro power plants in Romania. Together with strategic partners Wienstrom could successfully compete against local and international competition and acquired 31 small hydro power plants with a total installed capacity of around 20 MW. The plants were integrated into the newly established Vienna Energy Forta Naturala Srl. and are being completely refurbished at the moment. Wien Energie consequently is already the third largest operator of small hydro power plants in Romania. (orig.)

  17. Minoan and Etruscan Hydro-Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Laureano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present water and wastewater technologies used during the Minoan (ca. 3200–1100 BC and Etruscan (ca. 800–100 BC civilizations. The basic technologies considered are: water harvesting and distribution systems, cisterns, groundwater and wells as well as drainage and sewerage systems. Minoan water collection and distribution systems primarily consisted of cisterns and pipes. The Etruscans’ hydro-technology also consisted of cisterns and pipes but was developed for urban areas and included distinctions between public and private water use. The long-term sustainability of Minoan cisterns is evidenced by the fact that this technique is still practiced today in rural areas of Crete. In addition to cisterns, wells have been used in Crete since Neolithic times, and enjoyed wide-spread use during the Etruscan era. All the Minoan palaces applied strategies to dispose of water and wastewater with open terracotta or stone masonry-conduits, and stone masonry sewers; while, the drainage and sewerage systems developed by the Etruscans were based both on a coordinated and comprehensive planning of the slopes of drainage channels on the sides of streets as well as on a massive use of drainage tunnels.

  18. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  19. Re-potentiation of hydro-generators: a proposal of analysis and implementation methodology; Repotenciacao de hidrogeradores: uma proposta de metodologia de analise e implantacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Fabio Salomao Fernandes

    1996-07-01

    The hydro-generators suffer during its operative useful life a combination of stresses of nature thermal, electric, mechanics and environmental. With the time, they are going losing the capacity to support those stresses and the power plants suffer, more and more frequently, undesirable stops for repair services and maintenance. In function of the high costs incurred with these stopped, the operation of the power plant can be economically impracticable. That unavailability of the generation for the electric system, it results in reduction of the reliability, burdening the politics of load ruling. The re-potentiation is a proposal that seeks to extend the useful life of hydro-generators, at the same time that it try to rescue the reliability and the readiness of the plant, with larger power. The power increase is usually made possible, or for the surplus of the hydro resources in excess, or for the reduction of the losses of all the components of the energy flow. That work proposes a methodology structured starting from the estimate of the potential, of rising of data, of the basic project and of the executive project. Modern techniques of engineering, new processes and new materials, allow the re-potentiation of those hydro-generators returning them new useful life, under conditions economically justifiable.

  20. Numerical simulation of hydro-elastic problems with smoothed particle hydro-dynamics method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘谋斌; 邵家儒; 李慧琦

    2013-01-01

    Violent free surface flows with strong fluid-solid interactions can produce a tremendous pressure load on structures, resu-lting in elastic and even plastic deformations. Modeling hydro-elastic problems with structure deformations and a free surface break-up is difficult by using routine numerical methods. This paper presents an improved Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for modeling hydro-elastic problems. The fluid particles are used to model the free surface flows governed by Navier-Stokes equations, and the solid particles are used to model the dynamic movement and deformation of the elastic solid objects. The impro-ved SPH method employs a Kernel Gradient Correction (KGC) technique to improve the computational accuracy and a Fluid-Solid Interface Treatment (FSIT) algorithm with the interface fluid and solid particles being treated as the virtual particles against their counterparts and a soft repulsive force to prevent the penetration and a corrective density approximation scheme to remove the nume-rical oscillations. Three typical numerical examples are simulated, including a head-on collision of two rubber rings, the dam break with an elastic gate and the water impact onto a forefront elastic plate. The obtained SPH results agree well with experimental obse-rvations and numerical results from other sources.

  1. Overview of Hydrometeorologic Forecasting Procedures at BC Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollor, D.

    2004-12-01

    Energy utility companies must balance production from limited sources with increasing demand from industrial, business, and residential consumers. The utility planning process requires a balanced, efficient, and effective distribution of energy from source to consumer. Therefore utility planners must consider the impact of weather on energy production and consumption. Hydro-electric companies should be particularly tuned to weather because their source of energy is water, and water supply depends on precipitation. BC Hydro operates as the largest hydro-electric company in western Canada, managing over 30 reservoirs within the province of British Columbia, and generating electricity for 1.6 million people. BC Hydro relies on weather forecasts of watershed precipitation and temperature to drive hydrologic reservoir inflow models and of urban temperatures to meet energy demand requirements. Operations and planning specialists in the company rely on current, value-added weather forecasts for extreme high-inflow events, daily reservoir operations planning, and long-term water resource management. Weather plays a dominant role for BC Hydro financial planners in terms of sensitive economic responses. For example, a two percent change in hydropower generation, due in large part to annual precipitation patterns, results in an annual net change of \\50 million in earnings. A five percent change in temperature produces a \\5 million change in yearly earnings. On a daily basis, significant precipitation events or temperature extremes involve potential profit/loss decisions in the tens of thousands of dollars worth of power generation. These factors are in addition to environmental and societal costs that must be considered equally as part of a triple bottom line reporting structure. BC Hydro water resource managers require improved meteorological information from recent advancements in numerical weather prediction. At BC Hydro, methods of providing meteorological forecast data

  2. Assessing Hydro-Ecological Vulnerability from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulis, D.; Andreadis, K.; Granger, S. L.; Fisher, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Behrangi, A.; Das, N. N.; Ines, A.

    2015-12-01

    The main driver of economic growth in East Africa is agriculture. However, climate change and the resulting intensification of the hydrologic cycle will increase water limitation in this already drought-burdened region, and the challenge of ensuring food security is bound to become critical. Efforts must, therefore, be made to develop appropriate adaptation strategies for agriculture in such regions. Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change can advance management and decision support systems that would improve food security and economic development. The current study uses a plethora of multi-year remote sensing earth observations to study the hydro-ecological vulnerability of the various ecosystems in the water-stressed East African region to droughts. More specifically, we assess the hydrologic sensitivity and resilience of soil moisture and vegetation water content (derived from NRL's WindSat radiometer), during dry spells, for different dry-period durations, and for various vegetation categories. Spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of the response of the two aforementioned variables to sustained precipitation deficits (derived from TRMM 3B42 V7), as well as their persistence in maintaining their stability are identified. We also assess changes, in space and time, in the normalized radar surface-backscattering cross-sections from NASA's QuikSCAT Scatterometer, to obtain information on the vegetation regimes, as well as changes in vegetation phenometrics using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from MODIS. Quantifying the response and characterizing the resilience of the two aforementioned major hydrological attributes using various remote sensing techniques that complement each other, can provide critical insight into the region's vulnerability and adaptive capacity with respect to rainfall variability.

  3. Hydro-dissection - A simple Solution in Difficult Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubna, H; Masoom, M R

    2015-07-01

    This Quasi-experimental study was done to assess the effectiveness of hydro-dissection in difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies in Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from April 2012 to March 2014. All consecutive patients who presented with cholelithiasis and planned for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Per-operatively the degree of difficulty of the operation was assessed by Cuschieri's scale after grading; Grade II, III and IV cholecystectomies were included in this study. Hydro dissection with saline jet through 5mm simple irrigation and suction probe was used, Operative findings and the total number of patients, in whom anatomy of calot's triangle was clearly displayed with hydro-dissection, was recorded. A total 55 patients were included in the study after assessing the degree of difficulty per operatively by Cuschieri Scale. Thirty one (31) patients were in Group II, 22 in Group III and 02 were included in group IV of Cuschieri scale in which hydro-dissection was used. This method cleared the obscure anatomy in all patients in Group II but in 3 patients of Group III, dense adhesions required sharp dissection to clear the operative field. Two patients, in whom conversion was required, were grouped in Cuschieri's scale IV. Methods of dissection in difficult cholecystectomies are of paramount importance to avoid iatrogenic injuries. Hydro-dissection using suction irrigation probe is a safe and effective technique to clear the difficult anatomy.

  4. Development of technology in the production of fertilizers in ammoniation-granulation plants. Progress report No. 12, September 1980. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Work conducted to demonstrate procedures and equipment to conserve about 83% of fuel oil used for drying and generating steam in the ammoniation-granulation plants is reported. The general mechanism of granulation is examined. Conventional ammoniation-granulation plants are described and the new pipe-cross reactor system is described and schematics of their design are presented. Results of some demonstration tests reveal that an average of 785,000 Btu's per ton of production is eliminated with the installation of the TVA pipe-cross reactor process. It also reduces atmospheric emissions. Data on investment cost and payback period of the installation of a pipe-cross reactor in an existing TVA granulation fertilizer plant are presented.

  5. [Hydro-Quebec]: Financial profile, 1998--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    Financial information in this publication includes some retrospective data back as far as 1994 as well as some forecasts to 2001. Information is provided on Hydro-Quebec operation (such as electricity sold, numbers of accounts, and installed capacity), comparative data from other North American electric utilities, world electricity prices, Hydro-Quebec rate increases, provincial economic parameters, Hydro-Quebec gross investment, income, revenue, electricity sales outside Quebec, expenditure, financial expenses, credit ratings and financial ratios, needs and sources of financing, debt by repayment currency, interest rates, comparative average cost of debt, average maturity of debt, total debt, and financing programs. Management discussion is also included with respect to the utility's economic performance, system reliability, and integrated management of business risks.

  6. Micro-hydro power: reviewing an old concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alward, R.; Eisenbart, S.; Volkman, J.

    1979-01-01

    This informaion package has been prepared to respond to an increasing number of requests for information on micro-hydro systems. It contains a resource directory, which is an attempt to put the reader in contact with the literature, plans, people, and companies appropriate to needs. On a world-wide basis, small-scale, environmentally benign, mechanical, and electrical hydropower systems are common. These are the systems for individual homes, farm, and shop use and generally have power outputs less than 100 kW. For convenience in terminology, this scale of hydro power is referred to as micro-hydro. A decision tree is first presented followed by information on determining the suitability of th site, equipment, economics, sources for financial assistance, regulatory conflicts, cautions and suggestions for the Do-It-Yourselfer, and the Self-Installer, manufacturers and suppliers, and sources of professional services. An annotated bibliography of 16 references is provided. (MCW)

  7. Characteristics on Hydro-mechanical Transmission in Power Shift Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jibin; WEI Chao; YUAN Shihua; JING Chongbo

    2009-01-01

    To improve the vehicular power and acceleration performance and reduce the shift impact, the study of the characteristics on power shift is necessary. Based on the flexible hydraulic unit of hydro-mechanical transmission, this paper explores the feasibility of shift without power interruption. With the four models concerning displacement ratio, rotational speed, rotational torque and power at ideal shift point, the characteristics on power shift in different running conditions are analyzed, and the rules of power shift are revealed.The theoretical analysis and test results show that the hydro-mechanical transmission can shift without power interruption in different running conditions. Furthermore, there exists an ideal shift point in theory, at which point the cycle power in hydro-mechanical transmission can't be generated, and the impact on the system can be reduced to the minimum. However, if before or after this ideal shift point, a cycle power can be generated.

  8. International Conference on Underground Pumped Hydro and Compressed Air Energy Storage, San Francisco, CA, September 20-22, 1982, Collection of Technical Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Topics discussed include an assessment of the market potential of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, turbocompressor considerations in CAES plants, subsurface geological considerations in siting an underground pumped hydro (UPH) project, and the preliminary assessment of waste heat recovery system for CAES plants. Also considered are CAES caverns design for leakage, simulation of the champagne effect in CAES plants, design of wells and piping for an aquifer CAES plant, various aspects of the Huntor CAES facility, low-pressure CAES, subsurface instrumentation plan for the Pittsfield CAES field test facility, and the feasibility of UPH storage in the Netherlands.

  9. Resonance of electromagnetic and mechanic coupling in hydro-generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Da-kun; ZOU Jing-xiang; QU Da-zhuang; ZHAO Shu-shan; YU Kai-ping

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic and mechanical forces are main reasons of oscillations in hydro-generators. The oscillation is fairly complicated as to the coupling of them. Using the method of multiple scales in nonlinear oscillations, instabilities of hydro-generator rotors caused by the unbalanced magnetic pull, which comes from the eccentricity of the rotor, are discussed. Considering nonlinear properties of the unbalanced magnetic pull, the super-harmonic resonance phenomena are observed as the critical rotating speed of rotors is close to twice of the operating speed. This is verified by a model experiment, and should be considered during the design of hydrogenerator rotors.

  10. Genetically engineered rat gliomas: PDGF-driven tumor initiation and progression in tv-a transgenic rats recreate key features of human brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Nina P; Stokum, Jesse A; Schneider, Craig S; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Xu, Su; Galisteo, Rebeca; Castellani, Rudolph J; Kim, Anthony J; Simard, J Marc; Winkles, Jeffrey A; Holland, Eric C; Woodworth, Graeme F

    2017-01-01

    Previously rodent preclinical research in gliomas frequently involved implantation of cell lines such as C6 and 9L into the rat brain. More recently, mouse models have taken over, the genetic manipulability of the mouse allowing the creation of genetically accurate models outweighed the disadvantage of its smaller brain size that limited time allowed for tumor progression. Here we illustrate a method that allows glioma formation in the rat using the replication competent avian-like sarcoma (RCAS) virus / tumor virus receptor-A (tv-a) transgenic system of post-natal cell type-specific gene transfer. The RCAS/tv-a model has emerged as a particularly versatile and accurate modeling technology by enabling spatial, temporal, and cell type-specific control of individual gene transformations and providing de novo formed glial tumors with distinct molecular subtypes mirroring human GBM. Nestin promoter-driven tv-a (Ntv-a) transgenic Sprague-Dawley rat founder lines were created and RCAS PDGFA and p53 shRNA constructs were used to initiate intracranial brain tumor formation. Tumor formation and progression were confirmed and visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy. The tumors were analyzed using histopathological and immunofluorescent techniques. All experimental animals developed large, heterogeneous brain tumors that closely resembled human GBM. Median survival was 92 days from tumor initiation and 62 days from the first point of tumor visualization on MRI. Each tumor-bearing animal showed time dependent evidence of malignant progression to high-grade glioma by MRI and neurological examination. Post-mortem tumor analysis demonstrated the presence of several key characteristics of human GBM, including high levels of tumor cell proliferation, pseudopalisading necrosis, microvascular proliferation, invasion of tumor cells into surrounding tissues, peri-tumoral reactive astrogliosis, lymphocyte infiltration, presence of numerous tumor

  11. Mechatronics in compressor valves - experience with HydroCOM; Mechatronik in Kompressorventilen - Betriebserfahrungen mit HydroCOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumpold, A. [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2000-03-01

    Optimisation of fluid flow rates is indispensable in piston compressor operation. Messrs. Hoerbiger are producers of continuous control elements which combine mechanical and electronic components. Applications and examples of the HydroCOM control system are presented. High availability permits servicing intervals around 160,000 hours of operation. The longer operating time will improve the competitive standing of piston compressors as compared to turbocompressors and screw compressors. [German] Fuer den Betrieb von Kolbenkompressoren ist eine optimale Liefermengenregelung unverzichtbarer Bestandteil. Im Gegensatz zu herkoemmlichen Verfahren hat Hoerbiger vor zwei Jahren durch die Kombination von Mechanik und Elektronik eine neue Generation von stufenlosen Mengenregelungen auf den Markt gebracht. Anwendungsbeispiele und Betriebserfahrungen mit der HydroCOM Regelung werden vorgestellt. Hohe Verfuegbarkeit erlaubt Wartungsintervalle fuer HydroCOM Aktuatoren von ca. 16000 Betriebsstunden. Und aufgrund der generell verbesserten Standzeiten von Packungen, Kolbenringen und Ventilen erzielt der so geregelte Kolbenkompressor hohe Attraktivitaet gegenueber Turbo- und Schraubenverdichtern. (orig./AKF)

  12. 80 FR 53510 - Owyhee Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-04

    ...-000] Owyhee Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On November 24, 2014, Owyhee Hydro, LLC (Owyhee..., 2015, Owyhee Hydro filed a revised application providing an additional alternative to the...

  13. 78 FR 7770 - Boyce Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Boyce Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...: Amendment to License. b. Project No: 2785-081. c. Date Filed: September 11, 2012. d. Applicant: Boyce Hydro.... Applicant Contact: Lee W. Mueller, Boyce Hydro Power, LLC, 6000 S. M-30, Edenville, MI 48620, (989)...

  14. A new methodology for hydro-abrasive erosion tests simulating penstock erosive flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumelas, V.; Maj, G.; Le Calvé, P.; Smith, M.; Gambiez, B.; Mourrat, X.

    2016-11-01

    Hydro-abrasive resistance is an important property requirement for hydroelectric power plant penstock coating systems used by EDF. The selection of durable coating systems requires an experimental characterization of coating performance. This can be achieved by performing accelerated and representative laboratory tests. In case of severe erosion induced by a penstock flow, there is no suitable method or standard representative of real erosive flow conditions. The presented study aims at developing a new methodology and an associated laboratory experimental device. The objective of the laboratory apparatus is to subject coated test specimens to wear conditions similar to the ones generated at the penstock lower generatrix in actual flow conditions. Thirteen preselected coating solutions were first been tested during a 45 hours erosion test. A ranking of the thirteen coating solutions was then determined after characterisation. To complete this first evaluation and to determine the wear kinetic of the four best coating solutions, additional erosion tests were conducted with a longer duration of 216 hours. A comparison of this new method with standardized tests and with real service operating flow conditions is also discussed. To complete the final ranking based on hydro-abrasive erosion tests, some trial tests were carried out on penstock samples to check the application method of selected coating systems. The paper gives some perspectives related to erosion test methodologies for materials and coating solutions for hydraulic applications. The developed test method can also be applied in other fields.

  15. Hydro-abrasive erosion of hydraulic turbines caused by sediment - a century of research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, D.; Albayrak, I.; Abgottspon, A.; Boes, R. M.

    2016-11-01

    Hydro-abrasive erosion of hydraulic turbines is an economically important issue due to maintenance costs and production losses, in particular at high- and medium-head run-of- river hydropower plants (HPPs) on sediment laden rivers. In this paper, research and development in this field over the last century are reviewed. Facilities for sediment exclusion, typically sand traps, as well as turbine design and materials have been improved considerably. Since the 1980s, hard-coatings have been applied on Francis and Pelton turbine parts of erosion-prone HPPs and became state-of-the-art. These measures have led to increased times between overhauls and smaller efficiency reductions. Analytical, laboratory and field investigations have contributed to a better processes understanding and quantification of sediment-related effects on turbines. More recently, progress has been made in numerical modelling of turbine erosion. To calibrate, validate and further develop prediction models, more measurements from both physical model tests in laboratories and real-scale data from HPPs are required. Significant improvements to mitigate hydro-abrasive erosion have been achieved so far and development is ongoing. A good collaboration between turbine manufacturers, HPP operators, measuring equipment suppliers, engineering consultants, and research institutes is required. This contributes to the energy- and cost-efficient use of the worldwide hydropower potential.

  16. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  17. Modeling Feasibility of a Proposed Renewable Energy System with Wind and Solar Resources and Hydro Storage in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Koracin, D.; Hamilton, R.; Hagen, D.; King, K. C.

    2012-04-01

    High temporal and spatial variability in wind and solar power brings difficulties in integrating these resources into an electricity grid. These difficulties are even more emphasized in areas with complex topography due to complicated flow patterns and cloudiness evolution. This study investigates the feasibility and efficiency of a proposed renewable energy system with wind and solar resources and hydro storages in western Nevada, U.S.A. The state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used for the prediction of wind fields and incoming solar radiation at the ground surface. Forecast winds and solar radiation were evaluated with observational data from four wind masts and four meteorological towers in two months, July 2007 and January 2010. Based on a hypothetical wind farm and an assumed neighboring solar power plant both located near the hydro storage facility, as well as considering local power demand, the efficiency of the renewable energy system is projected. One of the main questions was how to optimize a schedule of activating pump storages according to the characteristics of several available hydro pumps, and wind and/or solar power predictions. The results show that segmentation of the pump-storage channel provides improved efficiency of the entire system. This modeled renewable energy system shows promise for possible applications and grid integration.

  18. Seed Coating with Hydro-Absorbers as Potential Mitigation of Early Season Drought in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorim, Linda; Asch, Folkard

    2017-07-31

    Climate change poses a threat to sorghum production systems by shifting the onset of the rainy season to a later date, increasing the risk of crop failure during crop establishment. The effects of drought on sorghum during seedling establishment have not been determined. Coating seeds with a water absorbing substance offers a way to buffer the seed against insufficient moisture in the surrounding soil. Seeds of two different sorghum varieties were coated with one of two commercially available hydro-absorbers: Stokosorb(®) and Geohumus(®). These hydro-absorbers have the capacity to store water several times their own weight. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the cited hydro-absorbers on early seedling growth of two sorghum landraces under different levels of soil water deficit. Seedlings were grown for 12 days under three water availability levels (Field capacity (FC), 50% of FC, and 25% of FC). The seedlings under water limited treatments were subsequently re-watered. Biomass, root length, plant height, leaf area, and leaf extension rate were monitored in two-day intervals for 24 days. Coating strongly affected seedling growth both under fully watered and water deficit conditions. Sorghum varieties differed in their responses to both soil water deficit and coating materials. In general, Stockosorb improved seedling performance under water limited conditions particularly by promoting root growth, whereas Geohumus did not.

  19. Fuzzy interpolation of hydro power sales data in Simulink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Eliasson, B.

    1994-01-01

    The problem in this case study can be described as a multi-dimensional surface fit to a given set of data. The data are sales figures in MWH/H for a hydro-thermal power generation system. The data are incomplete and not totally reliable. A model with ten fuzzy rules fits the data with a total error...

  20. Parallel, grid-adaptive approaches for relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.; van Marle, A. J.; Delmont, P.; Vlasis, A.; van der Holst, B.

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics provide continuum fluid descriptions for gas and plasma dynamics throughout the visible universe. We present an overview of state-of-the-art modeling in special relativistic regimes, targeting strong shock-dominated flows with speeds approaching the speed

  1. Final Report - Wind and Hydro Energy Feasibility Study - June 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Zoellick; Richard Engel; Rubin Garcia; Colin Sheppard

    2011-06-17

    This feasibility examined two of the Yurok Tribe's most promising renewable energy resources, wind and hydro, to provide the Tribe detailed, site specific information that will result in a comprehensive business plan sufficient to implement a favorable renewable energy project.

  2. Dynamic effects in reversible hydro systems towards safety solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Pedro A.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish general strategies to evaluate the dynamic effects occurring in reversible hydro systems (i.e. turbine/pumping) with long penstocks resulting from the regular operation of the hydro equipments and, most significantly, from accidental events. It is of great importance these particular aspects are considered in the early stages of a design, in order to ensure the best technical, economical and safety operation for each developed solution. This work presents two complementary approaches to the study of dynamic effects associated to reversible hydro systems based on a parametric analysis and a simulation-based procedure, as well as in the definition of design and operation rules to guarantee a safe solution. The first approach establishes the dynamic behavior of the system by means of a parametric analysis of the hydraulic and the hydro mechanical aspects associated to system operation. Based on this methodology, it is possible to estimate the maximum upsurge, the flow variation under turbogenerators runaway conditions and a valve manoeuvre. The second approach consists in the implementation of a numerical model that simulates accurately enough, the interaction between different components of the system during transient flow regimes associated to the hydropower load rejection, pumps shutdown, actuation of upsurge protection devices and wave propagations along the all system. This methodology gathers the necessary tools for the computational transient analysis of a complex reversible system.

  3. The Selection of Cooling Systems of Giant Hydro-Generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The selection of cooling system for hydro-generator in Ertan Hydropower Station is reviewed in this paper. The new viewpoint on air-cooled system of hydraulic generator of recent years is analyzed and described. That is, "Full air-cooled system is always preferred to inner

  4. Virtues of simple hydro-economic optimization: Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellín-Azuara, J; Mendoza-Espinosa, L G; Lund, J R; Harou, J J; Howitt, R E

    2009-08-01

    This paper uses simple hydro-economic optimization to investigate a wide range of regional water system management options for northern Baja California, Mexico. Hydro-economic optimization models, even with parsimonious model formulations, enable investigation of promising water management portfolios for supplying water to agricultural, environmental and urban users. CALVIN, a generalized hydro-economic model, is used in a case study of Baja California. This drought-prone region faces significant challenges to supply water to agriculture and its fast growing border cities. Water management portfolios include water markets, wastewater reuse, seawater desalination and infrastructure expansions. Water markets provide the flexibility to meet future urban demands; however conveyance capacity limits their use. Wastewater reuse and conveyance expansions are economically promising. At current costs desalination is currently uneconomical for Baja California compared to other alternatives. Even simple hydro-economic models suggest ways to increase efficiency of water management in water scarce areas, and provide an economic basis for evaluating long-term water management solutions.

  5. 75 FR 45607 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... Order No. EA-281, which authorized Manitoba to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  6. Analysis of organizational options for the uranium enrichment enterprise in relation to asset divesture. [BPA; TVA; SYNFUELS; CONRAIL; British TELECOM; COMSTAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Dase, J.E.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of the characteristics of some prominent examples of independent government corporations and agencies with respect to the Department of Energy's (DOE) uranium enrichment enterprise. The six examples studied were: the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SYNFUELS); the Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL); the British Telecommunications Corporation (British TELECOM); and the Communications Satellite Organization (COMSAT), in order of decreasing levels of government ownership and control. They range from BPA, which is organized as an agency within DOE, to COMSAT, which is privately owned and free from almost all regulations common to government agencies. Differences in the degree of government involvement in these corporations and in many other characteristics serve to illustrate that there are no accepted standards for defining the characteristics of government corporations. Thus, historical precedent indicates considerable flexibility would be available in the development of enabling legislation to reorganize the enrichment enterprise as a government corporation or independent government agency.

  7. Analysis of organizational options for the uranium enrichment enterprise in relation to asset divesture. [BPA; TVA; SYNFUELS; CONRAIL; British TELECOM; COMSTAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Dase, J.E.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of the characteristics of some prominent examples of independent government corporations and agencies with respect to the Department of Energy's (DOE) uranium enrichment enterprise. The six examples studied were: the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SYNFUELS); the Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL); the British Telecommunications Corporation (British TELECOM); and the Communications Satellite Organization (COMSAT), in order of decreasing levels of government ownership and control. They range from BPA, which is organized as an agency within DOE, to COMSAT, which is privately owned and free from almost all regulations common to government agencies. Differences in the degree of government involvement in these corporations and in many other characteristics serve to illustrate that there are no accepted standards for defining the characteristics of government corporations. Thus, historical precedent indicates considerable flexibility would be available in the development of enabling legislation to reorganize the enrichment enterprise as a government corporation or independent government agency.

  8. The effect of the substrate temperature and the acceleration potential drop on the structural and physical properties of SiC thin films deposed by TVA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, Victor; Lungu, Cristian P.; Vladoiu, Rodica; Prodan, Gabriel C.; Antohe, Stefan; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Stanescu, Iuliana; Jepu, Ionut; Iftimie, Sorina; Prodan, Madalina; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Vasile, Eugeniu; Zarovski, Valeriu; Nicolescu, Virginia

    2014-08-01

    Crystalline Si-C thin films were prepared at substrate temperature between 200°C and 1000°C using Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. To increase the acceleration potential drop a negative bias voltage up to -1000V was applied on the substrate. The 200nm thickness carbon thin films was deposed on glass and Si substrate and then 200-500 nm thickness Si-C layer on carbon thin films was deposed. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical conductivity measurement technique characterized the structure and physical characteristics of as-prepared SiC coating. At a constant acceleration potential drop, the electrical conductivity of the Si-C films deposed on C, increase with increasing of substrate temperature. On the other part, significant increases in the acceleration potential drop at constant substrate temperature lead to a variation of the crystallinity and electrical conductivity of the SiC coatings XPS analysis was performed using a Quantera SXM equipment, with monochromatic AlKα radiation at 1486.6eV. Electrical conductivity of the Si-C coating on carbon at different temperatures was measured comparing the potential drop on the sample with the potential drop on a series standard resistance in constant mode.

  9. Hydro-MRI for abdominal diagnostics in children; Hydro-MRT in der Darmdiagnostik bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, A.; Schunk, K.; Oberholzer, K.; Thelen, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Kessler, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kinderchirurgie

    2001-11-01

    A clinical evaluation of hydro-MRI as an alternative method to barium studies in children with abdominal pain of unknown origin is presented. Patients and Methods: 20 children with abdominal pain of unknown origin aged from 9 - 16 years were examined after oral bowel opacification using 1000 ml of 2.5% mannitol solution with a 1.0T MRI system. The investigation was done in 2 planes (coronal and axial) under breath-hold conditions. Imaging procedures included various sequences (T2W HASTE + FS, contrast-enhanced T1W FLASH FS). Suspicious findings in bowel segments and extra-intestinal changes were assessed. Results: In 21/24 examinations the small bowel was completely visualized, in 15/24 cases colon segments were identified. An accurate assessment of the terminal ileum was not possible in 3/24 procedures. Breathing artefacts occurred in 3/24 examinations. Signs of Crohn's disease were found in 4 examinations, inflammatory changes of the ileum were detected in 3 cases. Inflammation of the colon was demonstrated in 2 children. Furthermore, pathological findings included constipation in one child and inflammation of the ileo-colic and mesenterial lymph nodes were found in another child. Extra-intestinal changes in 3 children were caused by ovarian cysts, and in one case by pleural effusion. In 4 examinations we detected ascites in the absence of other pathological findings. In 5 children there was no pathological correlation in the bowel or extra-intestinal region for the complaints. The children tolerated the hydro-MRI very well. There were no side effects using oral mannitol. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Klinische Evaluation der Hydro-MRT bei Kindern mit unklarer abdomineller Symptomatik als alternative Methode zur fraktionierten Magen-Darm-Passage. Patienten und Methoden: 20 Kinder und Jugendliche im Alter von 9 bis 16 Jahren mit unklaren abdominellen Beschwerden bzw. mit Verdacht auf eine chronisch entzuendliche Darmerkrankung wurden nach einer oralen

  10. A hydro-optical model for deriving water quality variables from satellite images (HydroSat): A case study of the Nile River demonstrating the future Sentinel-2 capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salama, M.S.; Radwan, M.; van der Velde, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a hydro-optical model for deriving water quality variables from satellite images, hereafter HydroSat. HydroSat corrects images for atmospheric interferences and simultaneously retrieves water quality variables. An application of HydroSat to Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM)

  11. Hydro power flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources: an IEA Task 25 collaboration: Hydro power flexibility for power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas-Hernando, Daniel [Department of Energy Systems, SINTEF, Trondheim Norway; Farahmand, Hossein [Department of Electric Power Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim Norway; Holttinen, Hannele [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Kiviluoma, Juha [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Rinne, Erkka [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Söder, Lennart [Department of Electrical Engineering, KTH University, Stockholm Sweden; Milligan, Michael [Transmission and Grid Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory' s National Wind Technology Center, Golden CO USA; Ibanez, Eduardo [Transmission and Grid Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory' s National Wind Technology Center, Golden CO USA; Martínez, Sergio Martín [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Automation and Communications, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete Spain; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Automation and Communications, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete Spain; Estanqueiro, Ana [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology - LNEG, Lisbon Portugal; Rodrigues, Luis [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology - LNEG, Lisbon Portugal; Carr, Luis [Research Association for Energy Economics (FfE GmbH), Munich Germany; van Roon, Serafin [Research Association for Energy Economics (FfE GmbH), Munich Germany; Orths, Antje Gesa [Energinet.dk, Fredericia Denmark; Eriksen, Peter Børre [Energinet.dk, Fredericia Denmark; Forcione, Alain [Hydro Quebec, Montréal Canada; Menemenlis, Nickie [Hydro Quebec, Montréal Canada

    2016-06-20

    Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g., wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid-/long-term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, a detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather-dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as well as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modeling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system, with a large share of other variable renewables. A summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro-dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years, depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include a geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers' flows, and reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion.

  12. A good advertisement for hydro power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.

    1999-02-01

    The generation of hydroelectric power in Iceland continues to be a thriving business. Between 1996 and 2000, Landsvirkjun will increase its supply to customers by 50%: the additional power will be used by the expanding energy-intensive heavy industries. Although prices for construction and operation of industrial plant in Iceland are not always the lowest, the quality is said to be exceptionally high and this attracts outside investors. Iceland continues to uprate old generating plant and build new. Through Landsvirkjun all of Iceland's electricity comes from renewable sources: diesel and gas appear to have little future in Iceland. Nevertheless, Landsvirkjun does not have a total monopoly: permits for new developments are issued to suitable applicants and competition is likely to increase. (UK)

  13. The Effect of Subchronic Administration of the Aqueous and Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Crocus sativus from Estahbanat, Fars Province, on Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In Iranian traditional medicine, Crocus sativus L. has been defined as an exultant plant. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of subchronic administration of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Crocus sativus on mice. Methods: The effect of subchronic i.p. administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg or water and the hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg or water of Crocus sativus stigma on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test in mice. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. The collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Results: The aqueous extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. The hydro-alcoholic extract did not show significant effects on immobility, climbing and swimming behaviors of all studied doses, compared to control group. The aqueous extract of all studied doses and the hydro-alcoholic extract at dose of 1600 mg/kg decreased spontaneous activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the aqueous, but not hydro-alcoholic, extract of Crocus sativus stigma from Estahbanat in Fars province, in subchronic administration possess an antidepressant-like activity which may be mediated through norepinephrine system.

  14. Commercialisation of small hydro through community participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, R.

    1999-07-01

    This report gives details of a project aimed at deriving models for the development of a community owned and managed small hydroelectric power plant in Wales for testing financial and legal structures, and assessing models for the sale of electricity. The formation of the community group, technical assessment of the project, the scoping for environmental effects, and legal and financial options for community renewable energy projects are discussed. Electricity trading options are considered, and the project economics and financing are analysed. (UK)

  15. Alteration of Mesoscopic Properties and Mechanical Behavior of Sandstone Due to Hydro-Physical and Hydro-Chemical Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liping; Wang, Zhechao; Huang, Anda

    2017-02-01

    The hydro-physical and hydro-chemical interactions between groundwater and a rock mass can lead to changes in the mineral composition and structure of the rock (e.g., generation of voids and dissolution pores and an increase in the porosity), thereby altering the macroscopic mechanical characteristics of the rock mass. Sandstone specimens were saturated with distilled water and five aqueous solutions characterized by various ion concentrations and pH values for several months, and their porosity was measured in real time. Simultaneously, the concentration and pH of each aqueous solution were monitored every 30 days. The results indicate that after immersion in the aqueous solutions for 180 days, the porosity of the sandstone specimens and the ion concentrations and pH of the aqueous solutions tended to stabilize. Then, the immersed sandstone specimens were analyzed in thin section and subjected to computerized tomography scanning. It turns out that the mineral composition and structure of the specimens had all changed to various degrees. Finally, the uniaxial compression tests were conducted on the sandstone specimens to analyze the effects of the hydro-physical and hydro-chemical alteration on the macroscopic mechanical characteristics of the rock (e.g., the stress-strain relationship, elastic modulus, and peak strength). The results of this study can serve as a reference for investigations into theories and applications of water-rock interactions and for research in related fields.

  16. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95... Friends Fund XVIII for Project No. 14261-000, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC for Project No. 14268-000,...

  17. 75 FR 75999 - Lock + Hydro Friends Fund XlVI; FFP Missouri 17, LLC; Solia 3 Hydroelectric, LLC; Three Rivers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... 3 Hydroelectric, LLC; Three Rivers Hydro, LLC; Hildebrand Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing..., and Three Rivers Hydro LLC, and on May 19 Hildebrand Hydro, filed applications, pursuant to section 4... of Engineers (Corps) Hildebrand Lock & Dam located on the Monongahela River in Monongahela...

  18. Rejecting hydro-biogeochemical model structures by multi-criteria evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houska, Tobias; Kraft, Philipp; Liebermann, Ralf; Klatt, Steffen; Kraus, David; Haas, Edwin; Santabarbara, Ignacio; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Müller, Christoph; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a novel way for assessing and comparing different hydro-biogeochemical model structures and their performances. We used the LandscapeDNDC modelling framework to set up four models of different complexity, considering two soil-biogeochemical and two hydrological modules. The performance of each model combination was assessed using long-term (8 years) data and applying different thresholds, considering multiple criteria and objective functions. Our results show that each model combination had its strength for particular criteria. However, only 0.01% of all model runs passed the complete rejectionist framework. In contrast, our comparatively applied assessments of single thresholds, as frequently used in other studies, lead to a much higher acceptance rate of 40 to 70%. Therefore, our study indicates that models can be right for the wrong reasons, i.e., matching GHG emissions while at the same time failing to simulate other criteria such as soil moisture or plant biomass dynamics.

  19. Upstream fish migration. Report of the hydro power panel of experts; Fischaufstieg. Bericht aus der Expertengruppe Wasserkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, Sebastian [RWE Innogy GmbH, Essen (Germany). Asset Management Hydro National; Kaefer, Sabine [Verbund Hydro Power AG, Villach (Austria); Ulrich, Jochen [EDH Energiedienst Holding AG, Laufenburg (Switzerland). Oekologie und Werkdienst; Zemanek, Friedrich [evn naturkraft Erzeugungsgesellschaft m.b.H., Maria Enzersdorf (Austria)

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, ecological regulations and environmental demands have steadily increased on European, national, and on Federal State level. One key issue of Federal implementations of the European water framework directive is to achieve the environmental targets by establishing the passability for fish. In support of its member companies, VGB (TC 'Hydro Power Plants') set up a transnational expert group. This group was to analyse, compare, and evaluate different essential guidelines for fish passes and residual flows including the exchange of experience and the provision of practical examples. (orig.)

  20. Neuro-Fuzzy Computational Technique to Control Load Frequency in Hydro-Thermal Interconnected Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this research work, two areas hydro-thermal power system connected through tie-lines is considered. The perturbation of frequencies at the areas and resulting tie line power flows arise due to unpredictable load variations that cause mismatch between the generated and demanded powers. Due to rising and falling power demand, the real and reactive power balance is harmed; hence frequency and voltage get deviated from nominal value. This necessitates designing of an accurate and fast controller to maintain the system parameters at nominal value. The main purpose of system generation control is to balance the system generation against the load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange between neighboring systems are maintained. The intelligent controllers like fuzzy logic, artificial neural network (ANN) and hybrid fuzzy neural network approaches are used for automatic generation control for the two area interconnected power systems. Area 1 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area 2 consists of hydro power plant with electric governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent (ANFIS, ANN and fuzzy) control and conventional PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of controller sliding surface i.e. variable structure control is included. The model of interconnected power system has been developed with all five types of said controllers and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The performance of the intelligent controllers has been compared with the conventional PI and PID controllers for the interconnected power system. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN, Fuzzy and PI, PID based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANFIS over ANN, fuzzy and PI, PID. Thus the hybrid fuzzy neural network controller has better dynamic response i.e., quick in operation, reduced error magnitude and minimized frequency transients.

  1. The Effect of Taraxacum Officinale Hydro Alcoholic Extract on the Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Modaresi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Taraxacum officinaleis a herbaceous perennial plant which has many pharmaceutical effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of this plant on blood cell counts in mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 mature female mice were divided into 5 groups, each group including ten adult female Balb/C mice. The control group did not receive any extract.while the placebo group received 0.5 cc of normal saline, every other day. The three treatment groups intraperitoneally received 50, 100, 200 mg/kg /2day doses of hydro alcoholic extract for 20 days. Normal saline was administered to the control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet and other cells of the animals were counted using full automated cell counter. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The number of RBC and the rate of Hb in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were significantly increased (p<0.05 in all three treatment groups as compared with the control group. The number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg increased, but it was significant in 200 mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with the control group (p<0.05.The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with the control group (p<0.01. Conclusion: The study confirmed the dose dependent efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and WBC. Keywords: Dandelion, Blood Cell, mice

  2. Hydro-Potential Utilization of Cooling Water on the Hydro-Electric Power Plant Dalešice

    OpenAIRE

    Hudec, Martin; Haluza, Miloslav; Kubálek, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Engineering solution of a surplus pressure head in a system of reversible machine unit's cooling water. Current technologies supplemented with Francis turbine or more precisely a centrifugal volute-type pump in turbine mode. It contains the layout for the basic extent of several various high-speeds with regard to maximum coverage of working conditions. Minimization of construction works on the structure of the cooling water inlet. Furthermore it includes an assignment of the annual power prod...

  3. Management of dam safety at BC Hydro: the database tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswell, Terry [BC Hydrom Burnaby, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    BC Hydro has a wide range of dams, which raises a wide range of issues at many unique sites. A dam safety database was developed in 2000 to deal with the complexity and volume of information provided by deficiency investigations and surveillances. The database contains all documented deficiencies and non-conformances identified in the past 10 years. It records the risk ratings assigned to each issue. This paper described the implementation of the database tool, from the characterization of a dam safety issue to the use of the database itself. The dam safety database is now a key tool in managing the dam safety program at BC Hydro and has been useful for the last 10 years or so in prioritizing the program of deficiency investigations and capital projects. The development of a process to rate non-conformances is currently under study and will be implemented soon to aid in more efficient prioritization of maintenance activities.

  4. Digital Manufacture Techniques for Large Hydro Turbine's Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xide; ZHANG Qinghua; ZHOU Yunfei; YAN Sijie

    2006-01-01

    Blades are one of the vital components and most difficulty in manufacturing of large hydro turbines. In order to cost-effectively and productively manufacture these kinds of blades, a series of digital techniques in manufacturing have been developed, which includes digital design of hydro turbine blades based on manufacture' requirements, Computer-aided location and the machined error evaluation by using 3-dimensional digitized measuring, tool path generation strategy to meet requirements of enhancing machining efficiency and controlling deviation in NC machining, tool path generation and NC machining simulation by establishing a virtual NC machining environment for blades, and reasonable and feasible strategy and the systematic scheme for manufacturing of large blades by using 5-axis simultaneous CNC machining. The developed digital manufacture techniques have been successfully applied in manufacturing of both the large Kaplan and Francis hydraulic turbine blades; it shows that higher efficiency and the better surfaces finish accuracy can be achieved.

  5. Design of damping valve for vehicle hydro pneumatic suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingming DONG; Hua HUANG; Lian GU

    2008-01-01

    According to the design features of a hydro pneumatic spring, the necessity of a separate damping valve is proposed. Based on a 1/4 vehicle linear suspension model, the optimum damping coefficient is worked out and the parameters of the damping valve are determined with the equivalent linearization method. A practical structure of the damping valve is proposed having a small size, high flowrate when the valve opens, and the ability of enduring high back pressure. Based on bench tests, the damping valve has been found to properly work and be suitable. The design method and damping valve structure are useful guides for hydro pneumatic suspension, especially for the design of heavy-duty vehicles.

  6. NH4-smectite: Characterization, hydration properties and hydro mechanical behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Leachates in waste landfills are characterized by the presence of ammonium ions in large excess. These ammonium ions can be exchanged with the interlayer cations in clay and modify the physical and chemical properties of clay geochemical barriers in waste landfills and drive to environmental problems. The purpose of this study was to understand the hydro-physical changes of a smectite in the presence of ammonium ions. An ammonium smectite was prepared by cation exchang...

  7. Fracture and springback on Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Forming

    OpenAIRE

    F. Djavanroodi; M. Gheisary

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to establish a basic understanding of Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Form processing of stainless steel deep drawn cups. The method is briefly reviewed by carrying out experimental tests and Finite element analysis. By measuring bulge height in both formed curves by Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and thickness variation specimen by Ulterasonic thickness measurment device (UTM), it has been shown that maximum thinness occured where the bending is maximized. A finite element mod...

  8. Pico hydro power for rural electrification in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, P.; Smith, N.P.A. [Nottingham Trent Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Williams, A.A. [Nottingham Trent Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Pico hydro power is a renewable energy system which has the potential to provide millions of rural people world-wide with a cheap, sustainable source of electricity. The development of new, cost-reducing approaches, including local manufacture and implementation in developing countries, has increased the accessibility of this technology to large numbers of people. The new approaches are investigated and some of the present constraints to wider adoption of this technology are analysed. (Author)

  9. Simulation aided testing of hydro-mechanical processes on clay

    OpenAIRE

    Vaunat J.; Romero E.; Merchán V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study focused on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a plastic clay under partially saturated conditions. Clay remoulded samples were dried using vapour transfer under one-dimensional conditions. Samples underwent an important vertical shrinkage on drying, which progressed along more than one week. To study the time evolution of this phenomenon, simulation aided techniques were used to analyse the progression of suction at local scale and to determine the time requir...

  10. Coupled hydro-mechanical model for expansive clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Tomáš; Krejčí, Tomáš; Kruis, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    The paper deals with the hydro-mechanical model for expansive clayey soils. The complex model is based on the hypoplasticity, which parameters are influenced by suction, and additionally on Schrefler's model for saturated-unsaturated water flow in deforming porous medium. The model has been implemented into the open source software SIFEL and selected results of a simple numerical example are presented in the last section of the paper.

  11. Evaluation of diuretic and laxative activity of hydro-alcoholic extract ofDesmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Upendarrao Golla; Praveen Kumar Gajam; Solomon Sunder Bhimathati

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:In continuation to the growing evidence for therapeutical potential ofDesmostachya bipinnata(Linn)Stapf, the current pharmacological study was carried out to evaluate the diuretic and laxative activity of its hydro-alcoholic extract in rats. METHODS:The hydro-alcoholic extract ofD. bipinnata whole plant was prepared by using Sox-hlet extractor and subjected to analysis by standard preliminary phytochemical tests. Evaluation of both diuretic and laxative activity was carried out using standard methods as reported earlier. Frusemide (20 mg/kg) was served as positive control for diuretic activity and sennosides (10 mg/kg) served as negative control for laxative activity. RESULTS: The hydro-alcoholic extract showed signiifcant diuretic activity and was found to be the most potent in increasing the urinary output at 500 mg/kg when the effect was compared with that of the standard frusemide (P<0.01). Moreover, this extract was found to be most effective in increasing urinary electrolyte concentration (Na+, K+, and Cl-) at both doses tested. Whereas the results for laxative activity showed minimal increase of feces output at the dose of 500 mg/kg and the increase was negligible when compared with that of the standard drug sennosides. CONCLUSION:Altogether, the above signiifcant ifndings validate and support its folkloric diuretic use and lend pharmacological credence to the ethno-medical use of this plant in traditional system of medicine, which demands further studies to investigate its active constituents, as well as its use and safety.

  12. Optimisation of Kinematics for Tracked Vehicle Hydro Gas Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sridhar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern-day armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs are basically tracked vehicles equippedwith hydro gas suspensions, in lieu of conventional mechanical suspensions like torsion barand coil spring bogie suspensions. The uniqueness of hydro gas suspension is that it offersa nonlinear spring rate, which is very much required for the cross-country moveability of atracked vehicle. The AFVs have to negotiate different cross-country terrains like sandy, rocky,riverbed, etc. and the road irregularities provide enumerable problems during dynamic loadingsto the design of hydro gas suspension system. Optimising various design parameters demandsinnovative design methodologies to achieve better ride performance. Hence, a comprehensivekinematic analysis is needed. In this study, a methodology has been derived to optimise thekinematics of the suspension by reorienting the cylinder axis and optimising the loadtransferringleverage factor so that the side thrust on the cylinder is minimised to a greaterextent. The optimisation ultimately increases the life of the high-pressure and high-temperaturepiston seals, resulting in enhanced system life for better dependability.

  13. Fracture and springback on Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Djavanroodi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to establish a basic understanding of Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Form processing of stainless steel deep drawn cups. The method is briefly reviewed by carrying out experimental tests and Finite element analysis. By measuring bulge height in both formed curves by Coordinate measuring machine (CMM and thickness variation specimen by Ulterasonic thickness measurment device (UTM, it has been shown that maximum thinness occured where the bending is maximized. A finite element model is constructed to simulate the Double Bulge Tube Hydro Forming process and asses the influence of friction cofficient, tube Material properties and springback. It has been shown that material hardening coefficient had the most significant influence on formability characteristics during double bulge tube hydroforming. Also it is shown that springback has significant effect on tolerances of formed tube. Finally fracture strain was estimated by analytical method and compared with simulation results, also fracture location was predicted on Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Forming (DBTHF by simulating the process.

  14. Analyzing hydro abrasive erosion in Kaplan turbine:A case study from India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anant Kr. RAI; Arun KUMAR

    2016-01-01

    Sediment flow through hydro turbine causes erosion of hydraulic components resulting in drop of turbine efficiency, parti- cularly in hydropower plants of the Himalayan region. The measurement of erosion and monitoring of sediment flow in turbine are major concerns in erosion study. Attempts have been made to study erosion mainly in Pelton and Francis turbines. In this study, a simple and effective method has been presented to measure erosion in a Kaplan turbine of a run-of-river scheme Chilla hydropower plant in foothills of Himalaya. Recent techniques were used to measure sediment parameters like concentration, size, shape and mineral content. A standard erosion model is applied to estimate the erosion in Kaplan turbine blade, runner chamber and draft tube cone. A calibration factor has been proposed to apply the erosion model for site specific conditions. It has been found that the outer trailing edges of the turbine blade and upper runner chamber are most erosion prone zones. Sediment analysis revealed that effective operation can reduce erosion in turbine components. The estimated erosion values from model are found to be consistent with measu- red values. Finally, suggestions for design improvements and effective operation of erosion affected hydropower plants are given.

  15. Time response of frequency of the hydro-turbine governing system under the coupled action of surge tank and power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z. Y.; Yang, J. D.; Guo, W. C.

    2016-11-01

    For grid connected hydropower plants with surge tanks, the time response of frequency of the hydro-turbine governing system under the coupled action of surge tank and power grid with load disturbance have been examined. On the basis of a mathematical model of a hydro-turbine governing system operating in an isolated grid with a surge tank, a power grid model of the hydro-turbine governing system connected to a grid has been developed. Using Laplace transformation, a comprehensive transfer function, taking the disturbance of the hydro-turbine as the input signal and the speed of the hydro-turbine as the output signal, has been developed for the mathematical model. Finally, by using MATLAB-Simulink to numerically simulate the time response of frequency of the system under the coupled action of the grid at different scales and the surge tank with different sectional areas, the mechanism of the coupled action of the surge tank and the power grid and the effect of grid scale on time response of frequency of system has been analysed. It is concluded that surge tank only affects the tail wave of the time response of frequency, and for surge tanks with large sectional area, the fluctuations in the tail wave are gentler. Hence, the system is easier to become steady. The power grid has an inhibiting effect, which becomes greater for larger grid scale, on both the head wave and the tail wave of the time response of frequency in which the head wave is separated into several wavelets and the tail wave become gentler.

  16. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay; Comportement thermo-hydro-mecanique de l'argile de Boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.T

    2008-01-15

    This thesis studied the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of Boom clay, which was chosen to be the host material for the radioactive waste disposal in Mol, Belgium. Firstly, the research was concentrated on the soil water retention properties and the hydro-mechanical coupling by carrying out axial compression tests with suction monitoring. The results obtained permitted elaborating a rational experimental procedure for triaxial tests. Secondly, the systems for high pressure triaxial test at controlled temperature were developed to carry out compression, heating, and shearing tests at different temperatures. The obtained results showed clear visco-elasto-plastic behaviour of the soil. This behaviour was modelled by extending the thermo-elasto-plastic model of Cui et al. (2000) to creep effect. (author)

  17. Community micro-hydro in LDCs: adoption, management and poverty impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-15

    This project has developed methodologies and action plans through consultation, by which community-based micro-hydro can be implemented in target African countries. This was achieved through the study of the successful adoption of micro-hydro in Nepal and Sri Lanka. The study showed that the success of micro-hydro in Nepal and Sri Lanka depended on using the technology for applications for which people had a strong interest. In Nepal, the demand for mechanical power for food processing led to rapid growth of the micro-hydro industry, while electricity generation proved more attractive in Sri Lanka. Similar factors to those in Nepal are allowing the Ethiopian micro-hydro programme to develop, and this project has enabled key Ethiopian stakeholders to learn from the Nepal experience. There appears to be potential demand for micro-hydro in Uganda, but further investigation is required to find suitable sites and applications for the technology. (author)

  18. Therapeutic efficacy of hydro-kinesiotherapy Programs in lumbar spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria BOTEZAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spondylarthrosis is a degenerative disease that affects the joint structures of the lumbar spine. In the course of time, numerous studies on the role of hydro-kinesiotherapy in the treatment of lumbar spondylosis have been conducted. The aim of this research is motivated by the significantly high number of patients with chronic pain in the lumbar spine due to lumbar spondylosis, as well as by the negative impact on their quality of life through the impairment of the activities of daily living. The prospective longitudinal study was carried out at the Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital Cluj-Napoca. The study included 35 patients with chronic low back pain and mobility limitation in the lumbar spine. The patients were assigned to two groups: the study group formed by 20 patients and the control group consisting of 15 patients aged between 40-70 years. The treatment of the patients included in the study was performed over a two week period and consisted of a hydro-kinesiotherapy program, for the patients of the study group, the duration of a treatment session being 40 minutes. Both the subjects of the study group and of the control group also benefited from sedative massage of the lumbosacral spine, kinesiotherapy, laser therapy of the lumbar spine. The patients were evaluated using Schober’s test, the Visual Analogue Scale, the Oswestry index. These evaluation methods were applied to the patients of both groups at the beginning of the rehabilitation programs and after two weeks. The results of the study demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the medical rehabilitation programs that included hydro-kinesiotherapy programs. The patients of both groups had improvements through a decrease of lumbar pain, an increase in lumbar spine mobility, as well as in the patients’ ability to organize themselves in the activities of daily living. However, the patients of the study group, with a hydro-kinesiotherapy program performed for two weeks, had

  19. Občni zbor Društva za antične in humanistične študije Slovenije (Ljubljana, 3. 12. 2005 – Poročilo odgovornega urednika revije Keria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Hriberšek

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Z letošnjim letom zaključuje naša revija sedmo leto svojega izhajanja. Današnji občni zbor poteka tik pred izidom druge številke sedmega letnika. Prva letošnja številka je izšla meseca maja, druga številka bo izšla 14. decembra. Zadnje poročilo o delovanju uredništva revije je bilo na zadnjem občnem zboru DAHŠ 15. novembra 2003.

  20. Antipyretic activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Shah, Syed Muhammad-Ali; Alam, Muhammad Khurshid; Usmanghani, Khan; Azhar, Iqbal; Akram, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    Pyrexia and inflammation are indicatives of various disorders. Modern medicines are available for treatment of pyrexia, but they have few side effects. Several studies are ongoing Worldwide to search natural antipyretic agents with better efficacy and fewer or no side effects. This study was aimed at evaluating the antipyretic activity of Moringa oleifera bark in rabbits against E. coli induced pyrexia. Rectal temperature was recorded with digital thermometer at 0 h and E. coli suspension was injected. After 1 h again rectal temperature of the animals was recorded and hydro-alcoholic extract were administered to the treatment groups and paracetamol hydro-alcoholic 50 mg/kg orally to the positive control group. Then rectal temperature was recorded at the interval of one h for 4 h. After the drug administration (at h 1), the decrease in body temperature with the dose of 25mg/kg(-1) during next four h ranged between 1.9-2.6of as compared to the negative control. At the dose of 50mg/kg(-1) the decrease in temperature was 1.9-3.0 of. The decrease in body temperature at the dose of 100mg/kg(-1) was high, which ranged from 2.3-3.1of as compared to negative control. Paracetamol, a standard drug , also significantly lowered the temperature but Moringa oleifera at the concentration of 100mg/kg(-1) lowered the body temperature significantly as compared to the negative as well as positive control. Moringa oleifera bark has marked antipyretic activity in animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Moringa oleifera bark as an antipyretic plant.

  1. Linking Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Climate and Food Security: an Initiative of International Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Humans face climatic and hydro-meteorological hazards on different scales in time and space. In particular natural hazards can have disastrous impact in the short term (flood) and in the long term (drought) as they affect human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. They represent a pending danger for vulnerable lifelines, infrastructure and the agricultural systems that depend on the water supply, reservoirs, pipelines, and power plants. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Extreme natural events such as extreme floods or prolonged drought can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. The beginning of the XX1st century has been marked by a significant number of natural disasters, such as floods, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Extreme natural events cause devastation resulting in loss of human life, large environmental damage, and partial or total loss of infrastructure that, in the longer time, will affect the potential for agricultural recovery. Recent catastrophic events of the early 21st century (e.g. floods in Pakistan and Thailand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami) remind us once again that there is a strong coupling between complex solid Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and that even developed countries such as Japan are subject to agricultural declines as a result of disastrous hydro-meteorological events. Scientific community recognizes that communication between the groups of experts of various international organizations dealing with natural hazards and their activity in disaster risk reduction and food security needs to be strengthened. Several international scientific unions and intergovernmental institutions set up a consortium of experts to promote studies of weather, climate and their interaction with agriculture, food and their socio

  2. Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...

  3. Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...

  4. Grey extra-deleting theory-based governor control for hydro-generator unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-dong Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The control effect by using the conventional method is not satisfied because of the grey character caused from time-variant parameters of hydro-generator units and its governor. The grey extra-deleting control theory is applied to the governor design of hydro-generator units in this paper. After the mathematic model of hydro-generator and its governor are founded, the grey extra-deleting controller is designed and its effect is studied compared with the conventional proportional–integral–derivative governor. The simulation results indicate that the grey extra-deleting controller can improve dynamic characteristic of hydro-generator units.

  5. Hydro and nuclear power for African less-carbon development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gazzar, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Yassin Mohamed; Bedrous, Maher Aziz

    2007-07-01

    Though the overall picture reveal availability of enormous energy resources which far exceed energy requirements of Africa, most of these resources are grossly underutilized, particularly hydro and nuclear resources. It suggests that Africa's problem is not lack of energy resources but its development and utilization. The region will remain a major net exporter of energy for several decades to com. In dealing with its energy problems Africa faces a unique set of initial conditions, defined mainly by its level and pattern of economic growth, social and demographic characteristics, energy resource endowment, location distances between supply sources and consumption areas, technological underdevelopment, and poverty-driven energy-environment conflict. A key challenge is the optimal utilization of the Africa's energy resources to facilitate both individual country and regional energy and economic development. Stronger emphasis on a more integrated energy supply network based on more widespread regional initiatives, particularly in electricity is essential to sustainable energy development in Africa. This paper discusses the prospects for hydro and nuclear power in Africa. The continent is the poorest in the world. The lack of reliable, accessible and affordable energy hinders its development. Hydro and nuclear power promises to be the least-carbon energy sources, while being the cheapest and most reliable among all. The role the hydropower can play in securing a sustainable energy future for Africa is highly emphasized. Also, nuclear power has many advantages to Africa. Opportunities for hydropower and nuclear power in Africa are all considered. Advantages and disadvantages are also all discussed. (auth)

  6. Fatigue of reinforcing bars during hydro-demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, C. W. K.; Ouwejan, A.

    2017-05-01

    Reinforcing steel fractured during hydro-demolition of a reinforced concrete pier head due to low cycle flexural fatigue from vibration caused by impact of the high pressure water jet on the exposed length of the bars. Research into the fatigue performance of steel reinforcing steel tends to focus on the high cycle axial performance in reinforced concrete members and re-bending behaviour. However with the increasing use of hydro-demolition of concrete structures as part of remediation works care is required to ensure the steel reinforcement exposed to the high pressure jet of water is not going to suffer relatively low cycle flexural damage that may compromise the designed performance of the completed reinforced concrete structure. This paper describes the failure assessment, fatigue analysis, and metallographic examination that was undertaken. It was found that the rib to flank transition radius on the reinforcement steel was small enough to cause a significant stress concentration effect and was the location of fatigue crack growth. A relatively simple analysis using the maximum unrestrained cantilevered bar length and force exerted by the water jet was used to calculate the maximum expected bending moment. This was compared to the bending capacity at initiation of yielding at the rib flank transition accounting for stress concentration effects. This showed that the observed cyclic reversing ductile crack growth and fracture of the H25 bars was consistent with the loading applied. A method is proposed based on these observations to assess suitable limits for unrestrained bar lengths or maximum working offset of the water jet from the point of bar restraint when undertaking hydro-demolition work. The fatigue critical performance requirements of AS/NZS4671 500E bars are also therefore compared with those of BS4449:2005 and PN EN/ISO 15630-1:2011 for comparable 500C bars

  7. Sweeping changes at Hydro-Quebec : the new electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J-M.

    2001-10-01

    Recent changes in the organization and policies of Hydro-Quebec, which could place the utility giant in front and centre of a possible North American energy common market, are discussed. In this context, the discussion covers the development of the La Grange hydroelectric development in the 1970s and 1980s, the subsequent signing of long-term export contracts with large power grids in the United States, and the more recent developments in opening up of electricity markets. Some implications of these changes, such as the marketing of electricity on electronic stock exchanges at prices that move in step with supply and demand (spot pricing), the establishment of separate generating, transmission and distribution divisions, and the introduction of new operating procedures designed to satisfy the new rules of reciprocity between liberalized electricity markets, are also described. As part of this new set of marketing tools Hydro-Quebec is planning to construct a $185-million power line between Connecticut and Long Island through its subsidiary, TransEnergy US, to boost transmission capacity, which will be allocated by secondary transmission rights. These rights can be sold and traded in financial markets, the first such undertaking in the United States. Unlimited access to US markets for Hydro-Quebec will be also facilitated by Bill 116, enacted by the Quebec Legislature in June 2000, which will give US utilities access to the Quebec wholesale market. These, and other changes of similar magnitude will radically change the energy supply landscape and open up the electricity market in the province to the outside world more than ever in the past. 5 photos.

  8. The Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Leaves of Vitex on the Gestation Indices of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ramezanloo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phytoestrogens are some plant compounds with estrogenic biological effects which are found in many nutritional sources as soybean, flaxseed, and sesame. Vitex agnus-castus, also called Vitex, owns phytoestrogen properties. Studies have shown that phytoestrogens have different impacts on the gestation process and reproduction indices. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Vitex extract on the gestation indices in the male rat as well as studying its histological properties in the rat testicles. Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex (in three doses of 165, 265 and 365 mg/kg, vehicle (normal saline and the hydro-alcoholic powder of soybean (120 mg/kg were respectively given to understudy, vehicle and positive control groups for 49 days. After weighing the rats in the 1st and 49th days, the blood samples of all groups were taken and tested for estradiol levels, testosterones, FSH and LH.Moreover, such reproductive indices as sperm count, sperm motion, and prostate and testicle weight were studied and samples were collected for histological studies. Results: Prescription of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex (in three doses of 165, 265 and 365 mg/kg did not change the rat’s weight, significantly (P-value= 0.06. Hormonal studies reduced the progesterone, LH, and FSH compared to the vehicle group, significantly (P-value<0.05. In addition, the amount of estradiol was significantly more than the vehicle group and the most effect was observed at a dose of 365 mg/kg (P-value=0.02. Histological studies showed a reduction in existing spermatozoa in the seminiferous ducts. Conclusions: This study had shown that the Vitex extract had inhibiting effects on the gestation indices in male rat and due to its destructive effects on the testicle tissues, more studies were required.

  9. Seasonal and diurnal hydro-chemical variations in a recreated reed bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Stratford

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To help stem this decline, wetland areas are now being preserved and where possible created. This study investigated water quality in a recreated reed bed in south-west England designed specifically to provide habitat for birds. Since June 2000, continuous measurements of temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen have been logged. These data enable the partial pressure of CO2 to be calculated. This paper looks at the data collected up to November 2001. Despite similar solar radiation and water temperature conditions in both 2000 and 2001, peak summertime values of dissolved oxygen dropped from >100% to 2 increased from 19.7 to 56.1. Analysis of the diurnal dissolved oxygen curves indicates a decrease in photosynthesis which, in the absence of a change in nutrient concentrations in the water, may result from surface plant growth or from a reduction in submerged plant cover. The implications of these changing hydro-chemical conditions are that the site will be less able to support such a wide diversity of aquatic fauna, which will reduce the effectiveness of the site as a habitat for some bird species. Keywords: wetland, reed bed, hydrochemistry, dissolved oxygen, pH, continuous monitoring, Hamwall, Somerset Levels

  10. Missile target interaction analysis of B747 aircraft using hydro code LSDYNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Hong, Jung Wuk [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    After the 11 September 2011, we newly recognized the importance of intentional aircraft impact on national critical infrastructure such as tall buildings, military facilities, and nuclear power plants. A lot of research has been performed to measure the capability of current nuclear power plants to withstand unusual impact loadings. As a result, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concluded that the impact of a large, commercial aircraft is a beyond design basis event (BDBE). In this paper, we demonstrate the assessment of the impact load of large, commercial B747 aircraft by using the so called missile target interaction analysis method. The results of impact force is compared with the reported impact force time histories of B747. To perform the missile target interaction analysis, an FE mesh model of B747 is developed. Rigid wall impact tests are performed numerically using commercial Hydro code LS DYNA with FE model of B747 to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the rigorous missile target interaction analysis.

  11. Optimal Hydro-Thermal Generation Scheduling Using an Efficient Feedback Neural Network Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sharma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the use of a high-performance feedback neural network optimizer based on a new idea of successive approximation for finding the hourly optimal release schedules of interconnected multi-reservoir power system in such a way to minimize the overall cost of thermal generations spanned over the planning period. The main advantages of the proposed neural network optimizer over the existing neural network optimization models are that no dual variables, penalty parameters or lagrange multipliers are required. This network uses a simple structure with the least number of state variables and has better asymptotic stability. For an arbitrarily chosen initial point, the trajectory of the network converges to an optimal solution of the convex nonlinear programming problem. The proposed optimizer has been tested on a nonlinear practical system consisting of a multi-chain cascade of four linked reservoir type hydro-plants and a number of thermal units represented by a single equivalent thermal power plant and so obtained results have been validated using conventional conjugate gradient method and genetic algorithm based approach.

  12. Integration of Variable Speed Pumped Hydro Storage in Automatic Generation Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgêncio, N.; Moreira, C.; Silva, B.

    2017-04-01

    Pumped storage power (PSP) plants are expected to be an important player in modern electrical power systems when dealing with increasing shares of new renewable energies (NRE) such as solar or wind power. The massive penetration of NRE and consequent replacement of conventional synchronous units will significantly affect the controllability of the system. In order to evaluate the capability of variable speed PSP plants participation in the frequency restoration reserve (FRR) provision, taking into account the expected performance in terms of improved ramp response capability, a comparison with conventional hydro units is presented. In order to address this issue, a three area test network was considered, as well as the corresponding automatic generation control (AGC) systems, being responsible for re-dispatching the generation units to re-establish power interchange between areas as well as the system nominal frequency. The main issue under analysis in this paper is related to the benefits of the fast response of variable speed PSP with respect to its capability of providing fast power balancing in a control area.

  13. Production inefficiency of electricity markets with hydro generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philpott, Andy; Guan, Ziming; Khazaei, Javad; Zakeri, Golbon [Electric Power Optimization Centre (EPOC), Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    Electricity market designs that decentralize decision making for participants can lead to inefficiencies in the presence of nonconvexity or missing markets. This has been shown in the case of unit-commitment problems that can make a decentralized market equilibrium less efficient than a centrally planned solution. Less attention has been focused on systems with large amounts of hydro-electric generation. We describe the results of an empirical study of the New Zealand wholesale electricity market that attempts to quantify production efficiency losses by comparing market outcomes with a counterfactual central plan. (author)

  14. A Full Hydro- and Morphodynamic Description of Breaker Bar Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis considers a coupled modelling approach for hydro- and morphodynamics in the surf zone, which is based on a solution to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) closure for the surf tracking. The basis for the numerical approach is the surface tracking method in the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFoam\\textregistered{}, which is released by OpenCFD\\textregistered{}. This basic version has been extended with the ability for modelling surfa...

  15. Electricity production in a hydro system with a reservoir constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Lars; Skaar, Jostein; Soergard, Lars

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this article is to analyze how market power may affect the allocation of production between seasons (summer and winter) in a hydro power system with reservoir constraints and inflow uncertainty. We find that even without market power the price in the summer season may be lower than the expected price in the winter season. Market power may in some situations lead to higher sales and lower price in summer than the competitive outcome and in other situations to the opposite result. Furthermore, market power may lead to a smaller price difference between summer and winter than in a competitive market. (Author)

  16. Optical ground wire for Hydro-Quebec`s telecommunication network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghannoum, E.; Chouteau, J.P.; Miron, M.; Yaacoub, S. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Yoshida, K.

    1995-10-01

    An extensive telecommunication network of 6,000 km of Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) is currently planned by Hydro-Quebec for progressive installation from 1992 to 2004. By 1994, about 1,600 km of OPGW have already been purchased and installed mostly on new 735 kV lines. This document provides information relative to the OPGW selection, characteristics, design, fabrication, and testing. Other sections are devoted to the installation experience, description of current and future R and D OPGW projects, and Authors` biography.

  17. Hydro-Electric Facilities, (Municpality Name) Hydro-electric Facility, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydro-Electric Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2005. It is...

  18. 76 FR 20974 - Owyhee Hydro, LLC; of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Owyhee Hydro, LLC; of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 18, 2011, Owyhee Hydro, LLC...), proposing to study the feasibility of the Owyhee Pumped Storage Project (project) to be located on...

  19. 78 FR 65305 - Coleman Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coleman Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis... 22, 2011. d. Applicant: Coleman Hydro, LLC. e. Name of Project: Coleman Hydroelectric Project....

  20. Development of an integrated engine-hydro-mechanical transmission control algorithm for a tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghyun Ahn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an integrated engine-hydro-mechanical transmission control algorithm for a tractor considering the engine-hydro-mechanical transmission efficiency. First, the hydro-mechanical transmission efficiency was obtained by network analysis based on the hydrostatic unit efficiency constructed from the test. Using the hydro-mechanical transmission efficiency map and the thermal efficiency of the engine, an engine-hydro-mechanical transmission optimal operating line was obtained, which provides higher total system efficiency. Based on the optimal operating line, an integrated engine-hydro-mechanical transmission control algorithm was proposed, which provides higher total powertrain system efficiency. To evaluate the performance of the proposed control algorithm, an AMESim-MATLAB/Simulink-based co-simulator was developed. From the simulation results for the plow working, it was found that the integrated engine-hydro-mechanical transmission control provides improved fuel economy by 7.5% compared with the existing engine optimal operating line control. The performance of the integrated engine-hydro-mechanical transmission control was also validated using the test bench.

  1. 75 FR 49929 - Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On May 18, 2010, Music Mountain Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Music ] Mountain Pumped...

  2. 76 FR 24014 - Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for..., Renew Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal... be 15,768,000 kilowatt-hours. Applicant Contact: John E. Marciszewski, General Manager, Renew...

  3. 75 FR 65311 - Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Renew Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... July 13, 2010, Renew Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  4. 77 FR 25715 - Mississippi 8 Hydro, LLC; FFP Project 98, LLC, ; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mississippi 8 Hydro, LLC; FFP Project 98, LLC, ; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Mississippi 8 Hydro, LLC--Project No. 13010-002. 2. FFP Project 98,...

  5. 78 FR 64494 - FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC--Project No. 13579-002...

  6. Advances in remote sensing and modeling of terrestrial hydro-meteorological processes and extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing is an indispensable tool for monitoring and detecting the evolution of the Earth’s hydro-meteorological processes. Fast-growing remote sensing observations and technologies have been a primary impetus to advancing our knowledge of hydro-meteorological processes and their extremes ove...

  7. 77 FR 27767 - Milford Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Milford Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for..., Milford Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Milford Dam Hydroelectric Project, which would be...

  8. 77 FR 26796 - HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and... interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of HydroGenetics. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading...

  9. A NOVEL METHOD FOR AUTOMATION OF 3D HYDRO BREAK LINE GENERATION FROM LIDAR DATA USING MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Toscano, G. J.; U. Gopalam; V. Devarajan

    2013-01-01

    Water body detection is necessary to generate hydro break lines, which are in turn useful in creating deliverables such as TINs, contours, DEMs from LiDAR data. Hydro flattening follows the detection and delineation of water bodies (lakes, rivers, ponds, reservoirs, streams etc.) with hydro break lines. Manual hydro break line generation is time consuming and expensive. Accuracy and processing time depend on the number of vertices marked for delineation of break lines. Automation wit...

  10. A Full Hydro- and Morphodynamic Description of Breaker Bar Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    The present thesis considers a coupled modelling approach for hydro- and morphodynamics in the surf zone, which is based on a solution to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) closure for the surf tracking. The basis for the numerical approach is the su......The present thesis considers a coupled modelling approach for hydro- and morphodynamics in the surf zone, which is based on a solution to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) closure for the surf tracking. The basis for the numerical approach...... is the surface tracking method in the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFoam\\textregistered{}, which is released by OpenCFD\\textregistered{}. This basic version has been extended with the ability for modelling surface water waves and sediment transport in the surf zone. The validation of these functionalities...... as part of this work. The numerical model is applied onto several physical settings. Firstly, the morphological response is turned off, and the hydrodynamics and the sediment transport patterns in the surf zone are described. The description considers these processes as a function of several non...

  11. Hydro One smart meter/smart grid : realizing the vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Ontario's Hydro One Networks has been installing smart meters as part of its smart grid plan since 2007. The smart grid plan forms part of the utility's overall aim to create an energy conservation culture across the province. The utility now has over 1 million installed meters over a 640,000{sup 2} km territory. The smart grid planning team has adopted the use of an upgraded open protocol standards-based communications as part of its 2-way high bandwidth network. The utility is using a 1.8 Ghz worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) spectrum designed specifically for the protection of electric utility infrastructure. The utility is now incorporating proof-of-concept applications including automated reclosers, remote terminal units, demand management devices and mobile technologies for use in its smart grid procedures. Various smart zone business scenarios were also described in this power point presentation, as well as details of Hydro One's integration plans for vendors and other power systems. tabs., figs.

  12. Hydro reservoir handling in Norway before and after deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfgang, Ove; Haugstad, Arne; Mo, Birger; Gjelsvik, Anders [SINTEF Energy Research, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Wangensteen, Ivar; Doorman, Gerard [NTNU, Department of Electric Power Engineering, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-10-15

    The Norwegian Energy Act that came into force in 1991 deregulated the electricity market and removed the former obligation power companies had to supply electricity to the geographical area they were responsible for. Hence producers can supply electricity on the basis of profitability. In 2007 the Energy Act was evaluated by the Government. As a part of this, a study concerning hydro reservoir handling before and after deregulation was carried out by SINTEF. Public statistics show that average hydro reservoir levels measured in per cent of reservoir capacity have been reduced after 1990. We have used the power-market model EMPS (EFI's Multi-area Power-market Simulator) to analyze if this reduction can be explained by natural variation in climatic variables or by structural changes that have occurred after 1990. Simulation results show that the reduced reservoir levels cannot be explained by natural variation in climatic variables. Structural changes such as increased transmission capacities can, however, explain some of the reduction. Our study does not indicate that the present reservoir handling gives reservoir levels that are too low. In this paper we also describe the stochastic dynamic optimization problem for long-term hydropower scheduling, and we explain how this problem actually is solved by the EMPS model. (author)

  13. Pico hydro. Reducing technical risks for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.A. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Simpson, R. [Renewable Energy division, EnergyAustralia, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    Very small hydropower (pico hydro) schemes, with an output of less than 5 kW, can be a cost-effective option for the electrification of remote rural communities. Despite the fact that each hydropower site is unique, there is potential for using standardised equipment and low-cost approaches to scheme design. Relatively low equipment costs are possible, particularly if locally manufactured in a developing country, which enable costs per unit of energy output to be lower than small petrol or diesel generators, wind turbines or PV systems. Nevertheless, it is important not to compromise on technical quality of pico hydro schemes, as this may lead to poor efficiency or long periods when the scheme cannot operate, which will affect the financial success of the scheme. In the longer term, inappropriate cost reductions may lead to reduced uptake of the technology. The challenge is therefore to provide engineering designs and implementation methods that can effectively be customised for a wide range of schemes. This paper describes research and development of successful approaches that have been used to enable pico hydropower to be implemented in diverse situations around the globe. It includes an analysis of penstock pipe sizing to achieve optimum economic design. (author)

  14. Distributed power in Afghanistan: The Padisaw micro-hydro project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, Michael [Hallett and Associates, 4337 Coffman Blvd, Chesapeake, VA 23321 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The provision of electricity is a vital need in reconstruction and development situations, like that in Afghanistan. Indeed, according to the Afghan government's Afghan National Development Strategy (ANDS) the need for electricity featured in 80% of the Provincial Development Plans as a top priority. With the help of the International Community, the government of Afghanistan is attempting to develop a new market oriented approach to the nationwide provision of electrical power. Although the bulk of the electrification effort is directed toward large scale construction of a national grid, the ANDS explicitly mentions a role for 'micro-hydro, solar, waste and small scale diesel power and energy generating sources'. This article will describe a micro-hydro project in Padisaw village, in the Nurgaram district of Nuristan province located in Northeastern Afghanistan and the role Provincial Reconstruction Team played in working with the local community through the project planning and building processes and offer some observation on how, as the Afghan National Development Strategy is executed, the private sector can play an increasingly significant role in the Afghan distributed energy arena. (author)

  15. A Hydro-geomorphological Disaster: Braunsbach Flood 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendi, D.; Öztürk, U.; Riemer, A.; Agarwal, A.; Hahn, I.; Lopez Tarazon, J. A.; Korup, O.

    2016-12-01

    Following an unusual torrential downpour on 29th May 2016 with a total precipitation of 105 mm fallen in just one day (in contrast to May and June monthly average which varies from 70-80 mm/ month), flood outburst with massive amounts of rubbles and muddy sediments has been witnessed in the south-western German town of Braunsbach. This flash flood, as the combination of surging water and intensive sediment, coming from around 42 landslides, remarkable river bank erosion and river bed incision, was responsible of smashing numerous buildings, cars and town facilities, leaving residents with damage and losses. The event triggered the team of researchers under the research training group NatRiskChange to conduct field surveys, collect available data and analyze the underlying causes, magnitude, process complexity and aftermath problems of the disaster. The present analysis emphasizes on the hydro-geomorphology, in which comparisons of the event and study catchment is made in contrast to similar past events and regional catchments. They include the estimation of removed sediments/ materials, meteorological overview and the assessment hydro-geological characteristics.

  16. 78 FR 34092 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC and FFP Project 121, LLC filed preliminary permit... 8:30 a.m. on the next regular business day. See id. at 385.2001(a)(2). Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  17. 75 FR 6018 - Boyce Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Boyce Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and..., and supplemented on November 4, 2009. d. Applicant: Boyce Hydro Power, LLC (BHP). e. Name of Project.... Applicant Contact: Frank Christie, General Manager, Boyce Hydro Power, LLC, 6000 South M-30, P.O. Box...

  18. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity. Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  19. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  20. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  1. HydroViz: evaluation of a web-based tool for improving hydrology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Habib

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available HydroViz is a web-based, student-centered, highly visual educational tool designed to support active learning in the field of Engineering Hydrology. The development of HydroViz is informed by recent advances in hydrologic data, numerical simulations, visualization and web-based technologies. An evaluation study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of HydroViz, to examine the buy-in of the program, and to identify project components that need to be improved. A total of 182 students from seven freshmen and junior-/senior-level undergraduate classes in three universities participated in the study over the course of two semesters (spring 2010 and fall 2010. Data sources included homework assignments, online surveys, and informal interviews with students. Descriptive statistics were calculated for homework and the survey. Qualitative analysis of students' comments and informal interview notes were also conducted to identify ideas and patterns. HydroViz was effective in facilitating students' learning and understanding of hydrologic concepts and increasing related skills. Students had positive perceptions of various features of HydroViz and they believe that HydroViz fits well in the curriculum. The experience with HydroViz was somewhat effective in raising freshmen civil engineering students' interest in hydrology. In general, HydroViz tend to be more effective with students in junior- or senior-level classes than students in freshmen classes. There does not seem to be obvious differences between different universities. Students identified some issues that can be addressed to improve HydroViz. Future adaptation and expansion studies are under planning to scale-up the application and utility of HydroViz into various hydrology and water-resource engineering curriculum settings.

  2. In Vivo Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Extract and Isolated Active Principles from Aristeguietia glutinosa and Mechanism of Action Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Varela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro anti-T. cruzi activities of two secondary metabolites isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa (Lam., (family Asteraceae. These active principles displayed poor hemolytic activity, low toxicity against murine macrophages, and absence of mutagenicity. Herein, proof of concept in vivo studies of the whole hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa and of the most active component isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract, i.e., (+-15-hydroxy-7-labden-17-al, was done in a murine acute model of Chagas disease. Both treatments caused a decrease in the animals’ parasitemia. Metabolomic mechanism of action studies were done by 1H-NMR, both on the extract and on the active compounds, examining the effects of the metabolites both on membrane sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, whereby we found that one of the metabolites inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases and the other inhibited the biosynthesis of parasite membrane sterols. The results are interesting in the context of popular use of plants for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  3. Integration of hydrologic parameter ontology in CUAHSI HydroCatalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.; Piasecki, M.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Maidment, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Nomenclatures of hydrologic parameters are large and very fragmented. One of the key goals of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project (his.cuahsi.org) is to unify semantically diverse hydrologic observations and organize them so the data can be easily discovered, accessed and analyzed in different types of research scenarios, by different types of users. The core of the system is a hydrologic metadata catalog, which describes observational data available from multiple repositories via a standard set of CUAHSI water data web services. To address needs of different types of users, the HydroCatalog is being designed as a multi-level information system. At the lower level, a CUAHSI HIS time series catalog contains metadata about nearly 23 million time series from government and academic data sources (hiscentral.cuahsi.org). The time series representation organized by primary data sources is suitable for hydrologists and data managers who need to discover and access hydrologic observations in a format they were published, without additional interpretations or data conversions. However, such a representation doesn’t fully address data discovery and access needs of hydrologic analysts and modelers who prefer to work with curated and interpreted hydrologic data collections organized by thematic categories. Therefore, an additional layer of commonly requested hydrologic data products (“hydrologic themes”) is being constructed, where a theme represents a derived spatio-temporal aggregation of observational data. Information supporting semantics-based discovery is needed at both levels of the HydroCatalog. At the time series catalog level, the focus is on discovery of observations based on a community-curated hierarchy of hydrologic concepts, on associating variables with these concepts, and on translating concepts-based queries into queries specific to individual sources of primary data. At the theme catalog level, the variable-concept associations are used to

  4. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, A.; Rebora, N.; Kranzlmueller, D.; Schiffers, M.; Clematis, A.; Tafferner, A.; Garrote, L. M.; Llasat Botija, M.; Caumont, O.; Richard, E.; Cros, P.; Dimitrijevic, V.; Jagers, B.; Harpham, Q.; Hooper, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Hydro-Meteorology Research (HMR) is an area of critical scientific importance and of high societal relevance. It plays a key role in guiding predictions relevant to the safety and prosperity of humans and ecosystems from highly urbanized areas, to coastal zones, and to agricultural landscapes. Of special interest and urgency within HMR is the problem of understanding and predicting the impacts of severe hydro-meteorological events, such as flash-floods and landslides in complex orography areas, on humans and the environment, under the incoming climate change effects. At the heart of this challenge lies the ability to have easy access to hydrometeorological data and models, and facilitate the collaboration between meteorologists, hydrologists, and Earth science experts for accelerated scientific advances in this field. To face these problems the DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project is developing a prototype e-Science environment to facilitate this collaboration and provide end-to-end HMR services (models, datasets and post-processing tools) at the European level, with the ability to expand to global scale (e.g. cooperation with Earth Cube related initiatives). The objectives of DRIHM are to lead the definition of a common long-term strategy, to foster the development of new HMR models and observational archives for the study of severe hydrometeorological events, to promote the execution and analysis of high-end simulations, and to support the dissemination of predictive models as decision analysis tools. DRIHM combines the European expertise in HMR, in Grid and High Performance Computing (HPC). Joint research activities will improve the efficient use of the European e-Infrastructures, notably Grid and HPC, for HMR modelling and observational databases, model evaluation tool sets and access to HMR model results. Networking activities will disseminate DRIHM results at the European and global levels in order to increase the cohesion

  5. Geovisualization in the HydroProg web map service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Wieczorek, Malgorzata; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Swierczynska, Malgorzata

    2016-04-01

    The HydroProg system, built at the University of Wroclaw (Poland) in frame of the research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 financed by the National Science Centre of Poland, has been designed for computing predictions of river stages in real time on a basis of multimodelling. This experimental system works on the upper Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland) above the gauge in the town of Bardo, with the catchment area of 1744 square kilometres. The system operates in association with the Local System for Flood Monitoring of Klodzko County (LSOP), and produces hydrograph prognoses as well as inundation predictions. For presenting the up-to-date predictions and their statistics in the online mode, the dedicated real-time web map service has been designed. Geovisualisation in the HydroProg map service concerns: interactive maps of study area, interactive spaghetti hydrograms of water level forecasts along with observed river stages, animated images of inundation. The LSOP network offers a high spatial and temporal resolution of observations, as the length of the sampling interval is equal to 15 minutes. The main environmental elements related to hydrological modelling are shown on the main map. This includes elevation data (hillshading and hypsometric tints), rivers and reservoirs as well as catchment boundaries. Furthermore, we added main towns, roads as well as political and administrative boundaries for better map understanding. The web map was designed as a multi-scale representation, with levels of detail and zooming according to scales: 1:100 000, 1:250 000 and 1:500 000. Observations of water level in LSOP are shown on interactive hydrographs for each gauge. Additionally, predictions and some of their statistical characteristics (like prediction errors and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency) are shown for selected gauges. Finally, predictions of inundation are presented on animated maps which have been added for four experimental sites. The HydroProg system is a strictly

  6. Preliminary study for a micro-scale hydro power plant on the main drinking-water supply line connecting the municipal reservoir to the springs in Caviano, southern Switzerland; Realizzazione di una microcentrale idroelettrica sulla condotta di adduzione tra le captazioni delle sorgenti e il serbatoio di Caviano. Studio preliminare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2008-01-15

    This report presents the comparative evaluation of two variants for the replacement/refurbishment work of the main drinking-water supply line from the location of the water collection to the water reservoirs of the community of Caviano, southern Switzerland. The question arising is whether this retrofitting work could be financed by the benefit from the sale of electricity that could be produced by a new micro-scale power plant foreseen on the supply line, to take advantage of the elevation difference of 445 m between water collection and water reservoir. From the technical point of view the project is feasible. The available water flow rate is nearly constant: about 5 l/s. The corresponding power of the electric generator would be 15 kW and the yearly power production 130,000 kWh. However, in the second variant, the power would be 9 kW and the production 80,000 kWh, as only 265 m elevation difference would be used for power generation. In this case, the upper part of the water supply line, which connects the water collection to an intermediate water reservoir supplying the upper hamlet of the community, would neither be used for power generation nor be retrofitted. According to Swiss regulations the generated electricity could be sold at CHF 0.30/kWh and CHF 0.34/kWh, respectively. In the first variant it is concluded that 76% of the total annual capital and maintenance cost for retrofitting work and power plant, CHF 52,000/y for 50 years, could be covered by electricity sales. The community would still have to finance CHF 13,000/y, compared to CHF 30,000/y if the power plant is not built. In the second variant the corresponding figures are 49% of the total of CHF 33,700/y, and CHF 6,400/y to additionally finance compared to CHF 15,400/y if the power plant is not built. However, in the second variant the community would anyway have to finance later on the retrofitting of the upper part of the water supply line.

  7. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Total Phenol Compounds of Punica granatum Hydro-Alcoholic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Punica granatum is a non-productive form of a plant and is used for the treatment of diseases in traditional medicine. In this study, we evaluate the antibacterial activity and the total phenol compounds of Punica granatum. Materials & Methods: Disk and well diffusion methods and MIC were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract on S. aureus and E. coli compared to standard commercial antibiotic disks. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods (Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: 35 and 29 mm inhibition zones in S. aureus and 22 and 17 mm inhibition zones in E. coli were shown by disk and well diffusion method, respectively. Also, 7.8 mg/ml concentration of extract showed the MIC points for two bacteria. Phenol compound of extract was 233.15±5.1 mg/g of extraction. Conclusion: Antibacterial effect of Punica granatum compared to antibiotics indicates the strong activity against examined bacteria. Extensive antibacterial study of Punica granatum is suggested.

  8. Analysing hydro-mechanical behaviour of reinforced slopes through centrifuge modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhof, Rick; Wu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Every year, slope instability is causing casualties and damage to properties and the environment. The behaviour of slopes during and after these kind of events is complex and depends on meteorological conditions, slope geometry, hydro-mechanical soil properties, boundary conditions and the initial state of the soils. This study describes the effects of adding reinforcement, consisting of randomly distributed polyolefin monofilament fibres or Ryegrass (Lolium), on the behaviour of medium-fine sand in loose and medium dense conditions. Direct shear tests were performed on sand specimens with different void ratios, water content and fibre or root density, respectively. To simulate the stress state of real scale field situations, centrifuge model tests were conducted on sand specimens with different slope angles, thickness of the reinforced layer, fibre density, void ratio and water content. An increase in peak shear strength is observed in all reinforced cases. Centrifuge tests show that for slopes that are reinforced the period until failure is extended. The location of shear band formation and patch displacement behaviour indicate that the design of slope reinforcement has a significant effect on the failure behaviour. Future research will focus on the effect of plant water uptake on soil cohesion.

  9. Wind-driven stand-alone DFIG with battery and pumped hydro storage system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K NAVIN SAM; N KUMARESAN; N AMMASAI GOUNDEN

    2017-02-01

    A wind-driven doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) along with the battery and pumped hydro storage plant (PHSP) has been devised for supplying isolated loads. PHSP-based storage system is economical and viable for the MW level wind-turbine system. The proposed scheme employs a squirrel-cage induction machine (SCIM) coupled with reversible pump turbine for PHSP. The battery storage is also included in this system to cope up with the intermittent nature of wind and fast-changing load. A simple control strategy has been implemented for maintaining the set values of voltage magnitude and frequency at the stator terminals of DFIG, which serve as a virtual grid for connecting ac loads and SCIM. Based on the availability of power in the wind, PHSP and battery, various operating modes of the proposed system have been clearly identified forsupplying the isolated loads. These operating modes are clearly demonstrated through the analysis developed for this purpose and validated through experimental results. The salient features of the proposed system over the existing stand-alone wind-driven generators are (i) structural simplicity, i.e., employing only one power electronic converter, (ii) wide speed operation of wind-driven DFIG, (iii) reduced battery capacity, (iv) high energy storage using PHSP and (v) availability of continuous power to the isolated loads.

  10. Accelerated delivery of hydro electrical projects; Livraison acceleree des projets hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjannet, Hassine; Bechard, Normand

    2010-09-15

    Hydro electrical projects, as other energy projects, must transform in order to adapt to current market demands. This article describes the solutions developed during the construction of the Eastmain-1-A power plant in order to speed up its delivery and to reduce the costs. These solutions include, more comprehensive land investigations, the simplification of excavation contours, the refit or elimination of certain work spaces, the addition of a second access during construction, the simplification of the formworks, the improvement of work zones access and especially the use of prefabricated elements. [French] Les projets hydroelectriques, comme les autres projets energetiques, doivent subir des transformations pour s'adapter aux exigences actuelles du marche. Cet article presente les solutions mises en oeuvre pour la construction de la Centrale de l'Eastmain-1-A en vue d'en accelerer la livraison et d'en reduire le cout. Ces solutions comprennent, entre autres des investigations de terrain plus approfondies, la simplification des contours d'excavations, le reamenagement ou l'elimination de certains locaux, l'addition d'un deuxieme acces pendant la construction, la simplification des coffrages, l'amelioration des acces aux zones de travail et surtout l'utilisation d'elements prefabriques.

  11. Combining Wind and Pumped Hydro Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Generation in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Coburn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ireland has one of the highest wind energy potentials in Europe. The intermittent nature of wind makes this renewable resource impractical as a sole source of energy. Combining wind energy with pumped hydro energy storage (PHES can overcome this intermittency, consuming energy during low-demand periods and supplying energy for periods of high demand. Currently Ireland has a number of hydroelectric power plants and wind farms of various scales in operation. A feasibility study was conducted to investigate the potential of securing a reliable source of renewable energy by increasing the penetration of hydroelectric power by means of combined wind-PHES developments. The greatest wind potential is experienced along the western coast of Ireland and a number of sites were identified here which satisfied a minimum mean wind speed criterion of 10.5 ms−1. Each site was then further evaluated according to topographical requirements for PHES. All but two of the identified sites are immediately unsuitable due to the presence of areas protected under European legislation; this highlights the nonenergy related obstacles in the path of renewable energy generation in Ireland and suggests that a compromise should be researched which could facilitate both renewable energy generation and species and habitat protection in Europe.

  12. Aero-hydro-elastic simulation platform for wave energy systems and floating wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallesoee, B.S.

    2011-01-15

    This report present results from the PSO project 2008-1-10092 entitled Aero-Hydro-Elastic Simulation Platform for Wave Energy Systems and floating Wind Turbines that deals with measurements, modelling and simulations of the world's first combined wave and wind energy platform. The floating energy conversion platform, Poseidon, is owned and operated by Floating Power Plant A/S. The platform has been operating for two test periods; one period where it was operating as a wave energy conversion platform only and one period where the three turbines was mounted and the platform operated as a combined wind and wave energy platform. The PSO project has equipped the platform with comprehensive measurements equipment for measuring platform motion, wave and wind conditions and turbine loads. Data from the first test period has been used for determine if the turbine could be mounted on the platform. Preliminary analysis of data from the second test period indicates that the platform is suitable as wind turbine foundation and that the turbines reduce the platform motion. (Author)

  13. Web services for distributed and interoperable hydro-information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, J.; Orlik, A.; Stromsky, J.

    2008-03-01

    Web services support the integration and interoperability of Web-based applications and enable machine-to-machine interaction. The concepts of web services and open distributed architecture were applied to the development of T-DSS, the prototype customised for web based hydro-information systems. T-DSS provides mapping services, database related services and access to remote components, with special emphasis placed on the output flexibility (e.g. multilingualism), where SOAP web services are mainly used for communication. The remote components are represented above all by remote data and mapping services (e.g. meteorological predictions), modelling and analytical systems (currently HEC-HMS, MODFLOW and additional utilities), which support decision making in water management.

  14. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa [BandTech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Linden, Johan [Aabo Akademi, Aabo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  15. Roadside and hydro line vegetation clearing: know your legal obligations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper is intended to remind people of the negative impacts that vegetation-clearing activities have on nesting birds. Roadside and hydro line vegetation clearing affect the habitats and breeding grounds of migratory birds. It is urgent that responsibility be assumed for clearing activities and that greater care be taken protect these birds from negative consequences. Risk could be reduced by stopping vegetation clearance during nesting season. Moreover, project proponents have legal obligations under federal legislation that protects migratory birds. It is an offence to capture, injure, hurt or kill a migratory bird or remove, damage or destroy a migratory bird nest or eggs without a permit and for legitimate purposes. Offences against the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, are punishable by fine.

  16. India's hydro hold-ups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, I.M.

    1999-09-01

    This article focuses on the reasons for the delays encountered by hydroelectric power projects in India. Concerns are voiced regarding deforestation, populations affected by the project, the Indian government's policy that deforestation is matched by afforestation, and siting approvals. Details are given of the Tehri project which is now under construction after a delay of 20 years in the state of Uttar Pradesh, and delays to the Narmada river development project for irrigation and power. The new Indian government policy on hydro power announced in 1998 giving the state governments the responsibility of acquiring the land and negotiating with landowners, steps taken by the federal government to reduce conflicts with green groups, and the resolving of environmental issues are discussed. (UK)

  17. Tilting-Pad Guide Bearing in Large Hydro-unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Feng Ma

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A new numerical method is proposed for predicting the nonlinearity of tilting-pad guide bearing oilfilm force in the rotor-bearing system in a large hydro-unit. Nonlinear displacement and velocity of the journal center, as well as nonlinear tilting angles and angular velocities of the pads in non-stationary Reynolds equation are taken into account. This method is also suited for other small rotor-bearing system. As an example, the response due to a momentarily created unbalance is Calculated. The nonlinear motion patterns of the pad and journal whirling orbit are obtained. Finally, the nonlinear orbit is compared to the linear one that could be calculated from linear stiffness and damping coefficients. It is shown that there are important differences between those two orbits and that the nonlinear simulation is more accurate.

  18. Hydrological characteristics and problems of Calma hydro accumulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolinaj Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Srem, as traditional farming, orchard and wine-growing region, faces the problem of shortage of water needed for agriculture. During the seventies of the last century brook valleys in the southern part of Fruska Gora loess plateau were intended to be dammed. Thus, artificial lakes could have been formed. It took long period of time to put these projects into practice and numerous projects have not started yet. After the dams had been built and lakes filled with water, planners faced hydro-geological problems at many locations. Nevertheless, these accumulations fulfill their primary function, i.e. they ensure water for irrigation and protect agricultural land from floods. There is a hydroaccumulation system, Calma lakes, near the village of Calma. Its primary function was to ensure water supplies for agriculture, but eventually it got new significance which can be noticed in fish raising and sport fishing development.

  19. Web services for distributed and interoperable hydro-information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Horak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Web services support the integration and interoperability of Web-based applications and enable machine-to-machine interaction. The concepts of web services and open distributed architecture were applied to the development of T-DSS, the prototype customised for web based hydro-information systems. T-DSS provides mapping services, database related services and access to remote components, with special emphasis placed on the output flexibility (e.g. multilingualism, where SOAP web services are mainly used for communication. The remote components are represented above all by remote data and mapping services (e.g. meteorological predictions, modelling and analytical systems (currently HEC-HMS, MODFLOW and additional utilities, which support decision making in water management.

  20. Web services for distributed and interoperable hydro-information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Horak

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Web services support the integration and interoperability of Web-based applications and enable machine-to-machine interaction. The concepts of web services and open distributed architecture were applied to the development of T-DSS, the prototype customised for web based hydro-information systems. T-DSS provides mapping services, database related services and access to remote components, with special emphasis placed on output flexibility (e.g. multilingualism, where SOAP web services are mainly used for communication. The remote components are represented above all by distant data and mapping services (e.g. eteorological predictions, modelling and analytical systems (currently HEC-HMS, Modflow and additional utilities, which support decision making in water management.

  1. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavor, J. [ENA Ltd., Prague (Czechoslovakia); Stary, O.; Vasicek, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  2. HydroClimATe: hydrologic and climatic analysis toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Hanson, Randall T.; Predmore, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    The potential consequences of climate variability and climate change have been identified as major issues for the sustainability and availability of the worldwide water resources. Unlike global climate change, climate variability represents deviations from the long-term state of the climate over periods of a few years to several decades. Currently, rich hydrologic time-series data are available, but the combination of data preparation and statistical methods developed by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the Groundwater Resources Program is relatively unavailable to hydrologists and engineers who could benefit from estimates of climate variability and its effects on periodic recharge and water-resource availability. This report documents HydroClimATe, a computer program for assessing the relations between variable climatic and hydrologic time-series data. HydroClimATe was developed for a Windows operating system. The software includes statistical tools for (1) time-series preprocessing, (2) spectral analysis, (3) spatial and temporal analysis, (4) correlation analysis, and (5) projections. The time-series preprocessing tools include spline fitting, standardization using a normal or gamma distribution, and transformation by a cumulative departure. The spectral analysis tools include discrete Fourier transform, maximum entropy method, and singular spectrum analysis. The spatial and temporal analysis tool is empirical orthogonal function analysis. The correlation analysis tools are linear regression and lag correlation. The projection tools include autoregressive time-series modeling and generation of many realizations. These tools are demonstrated in four examples that use stream-flow discharge data, groundwater-level records, gridded time series of precipitation data, and the Multivariate ENSO Index.

  3. Hydro-mechanical behaviour of bentonite pellet mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, C.; Alonso, E. E.; Romero, E.

    Granular mixtures made of high-density pellets of bentonite are being evaluated as an alternative buffer material for waste isolation. Ease of handling is an often-mentioned advantage. The paper described the experimental program performed to characterize the hydro-mechanical behaviour of compacted pellet’s mixtures used in the engineered barrier (EB) experiment. The material tested in the laboratory was based in the pellet’s mixtures actually used for the emplacement of the EB in situ experiment. Grain size distribution was adjusted to a maximum pellet size compatible with the specimen’s dimensions. Dry densities of statically compacted specimens varied in most of the cases in the range: 1.3-1.5 Mg/m 3. Pellets had a very high dry density, close to 2 Mg/m 3. The outstanding characteristic of these mixtures is its discontinuous porosity. Pore sizes of the compacted pellets vary around 10 nm. However the inter-pellet size of the pores is four to five orders of magnitude higher. This double porosity and the highly expansive nature of the pellets controlled all the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the mixture. Tests performed include infiltration tests using different water injection rates and mechanisms of water transfer (in liquid and vapour phases), suction controlled oedometer tests and swelling pressure tests. The interpretation of some of the tests performed required backanalysis procedures using a hydro-mechanical (HM) computer code. Material response was studied within the framework of the elastoplastic constitutive model proposed by Alonso et al. [Alonso, E.E., Gens, A., Josa, A., 1990. A constitutive model for partially saturated soils. Géotechnique 40 (3), 405-430] (Barcelona Basic Model, BBM). Parameters for the model were identified and also a set of hydraulic laws necessary to perform coupled HM analysis.

  4. Trickle water and feeding system in plant culture and light-dark cycle effects on plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, T.; Inada, K.; Takanashi, J.

    Rockwool, as an inert medium covered or bagged with polyethylene film, can be effectively used for plant culture in space station. The most important machine is the pump adjusting the dripping rate in the feeding system. Hydro-aeroponics may be adaptable to a space laboratory. The shortening of the light-dark cycles inhibits plant growth and induces an abnormal morphogenesis. A photoperiod of 12-hr-dark may be needed for plant growth.

  5. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity study of aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of Spondias mombin L., Nymphaea lotus L. and Luffa cylindrical L. using animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Ifeoluwa Temitayo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spondias mombin (Linn, Nymphaea lotus (Linn and Luffa cylindrica (Linn (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antigenotoxicity was assessed by the bone marrow micronucleus test. The highest attainable dose of 5 000 mg/kg according to OECD guidelines was first used to assess acute toxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts in Swiss albino mice. For each extract, there were five groups of mice (n=4/group treated with different concentrations of the extract as against the negative and positive control group for the genotoxicity study. In the antigenotoxicity study, five groups of mice were exposed to five different concentrations of the extracts along with 60 mg/kg of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, which was used to induce genotoxicity. The mice were administered 0.2 mL of extract per day for 10 days in the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity groups. Administration of each of the extracts at the concentration of 5 000 mg/kg did not induce acute toxicity in mice. At the concentrations tested, all the extracts, except aqueous S. mombin, increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of N. lotus increased the frequency of aberrant sperm cells. All the extracts were also able to ameliorate MMS induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of the exposed mice. The results showed the potential of the extracts to induce somatic and germ cell mutation in male mice. The extracts also ameliorated the genotoxic effect of MMS.

  6. Comparative study of the essential oil and hydrolate composition of Lythrum salicaria L. obtained by hydro-distillation and microwave distillation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manayi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are considered as very complex natural mixtures containing numerous components at quite various concentrations. Lythrum salicaria has not been previously subjected to examination of its volatile oil. The present study was carried out to evaluate the essential oil composition of the flowering aerial parts of the plant by using conventionally hydro-distillation (HD and microwave assisted hydro-distillation (MAH methods along with the aromatic water obtained by hydro-distillation. Components of these three samples were recognized by GC/MS. Identification of components resulted in recognition of 14 (98% oil, 32 (98.4%, and 10 (95.5% compounds for HD, its hydrolate, and MAH samples, respectively. The predominant constituents in the HD oil were bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (29.2%, n-hexadecanoic acid (22%, and pentacosane (9.5%. The major constituents of the hydrolate were elucidated as 2(4H-benzofuranone-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl (6.4%, neryl acetone (6%, pentanoic acid (5.7%, nonanoic acid (5.6%, and octanoic acid (5.5%. Accordingly, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (43.2%, methyl-cyclopentane (36.5%, and pentacosane (4.7% were assessed as the main components of MAH oil. Comparing the three samples compositions, it was concluded that the extraction procedure led to variations in quality and quantity of volatiles. Besides, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate, the common plasticizer, was identified as the main pollutant in both HD and MAH oils. The presence of this substance in the oils provided the evidence of contaminations that was absorbed from water into the plant suggesting GC/MS as a suitable method for its detection in plant materials.

  7. HydroCoils, occlusion rates, and outcomes: a large single-center study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A M

    2010-11-01

    The HydroCoil is an expansile hydrogel coil designed to produce a greater degree of volumetric packing within cerebral aneurysms when compared with bare platinum coils. This increased packing is, in turn, believed to decrease the risk of recurrence within aneurysms and hence the risk of their rupture in the long term. The aim of this work was to assess whether the use of HydroCoils and the proportion of HydroCoil used have any influence on the subsequent occlusion and recurrence rates of treated aneurysms.

  8. Planning and installing micro-hydro systems a guide for designers, installers and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Chris

    2014-01-01

    An essential addition to the Earthscan Planning & Installing series, Planning and Installing Micro-Hydro Systems provides vital diagrams, pictures and tables detailing the planning and installing of a micro-hydro system, including information on the maintenance and economics once an installation is running. The book covers subjects such as measuring head and flow, ecological impacts, scheme layouts, practical advice, calculations and turbine choice. Archimedes screws are also covered in detail, as well as the main conventional choices relevant to small sites.Micro-hydro refers to hydropower sy

  9. Impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions on ecosystem functioning and productivity patterns across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Xie, Zunyi; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    As Earth's climate continues to change, the frequency and intensity of warm droughts, extreme precipitation patterns, and heat waves will alter in potentially different ways, ecosystem structure and functioning with major impacts on carbon and water balance, and food security. The extreme hydro-meteorological conditions that are presently impacting Australia approach those anticipated with future climate change and thus provide unique opportunities to study ecological sensitivity and functional responses and cross-biome productivity changes using contemporary, in-situ and satellite observational datasets. Here, we combined satellite vegetation index products from MODIS and AVHRR, total water storage (TWS) from the GRACE twin satellites, precipitation data and in-situ tower flux measurements to characterise ecosystem sensitivity, and analyse climate change impacts on ecosystem productivity and resilience. Recent advances in eddy covariance tower flux measurements and spatially contiguous remote sensing data provide innovative and promising capabilities to extend ecosystem functioning and productivity studies from local to regional and continental scales. In general, Australia exhibited ecosystem-level shifts in water demands with water availability across wet and dry years, and over all biomes analysed (arid grasslands to humid forests). In the drier years, higher ecosystem water use efficiencies (WUEe) enabled plants to maintain higher levels of productivity than would otherwise be expected for the lower amounts of rainfall and available water. Further, there were unique, functional class-specific coping strategies to drought and water availability. With prolonged warm drought conditions, biomes became increasingly water-limited and WUEe continued to increase until reaching a 'dry edge' threshold, a cross biome maximum WUEe, that cannot be sustained with further reductions in water availability and could potentially break down ecosystem resilience and induce

  10. Review on research progress of Arc Hydro and Arc Hydro Groundwater hydrological data model%Arc Hydro与Arc Hydro Groundwater水文数据模型研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔素芳; 张保祥; 崔峻岭; 潘英华; 张振华; 吴泉源; 衣华鹏

    2016-01-01

    由于目前在地表水与地下水的联合模拟研究中备受青睐的Arc Hydro与Arc Hydro Groundwater水文数据模型能否应用于水文模拟尚缺少实证性研究,通过查阅大量文献资料,分析这两个水文数据模型的功能和优点,以及存在的问题和未来发展趋势。指出Arc Hydro模型虽然具备强大的水文分析与提取功能,但其本身并不能实现水文模拟,必须与独立的水文模型利用数据交换来完成水文模拟;Arc Hydro Groundwater模型虽然包含MODFLOW分析模型,但只能对MODFLOW模型输出的结果进行可视化处理,目前还不具备独立的地下水模拟功能。认为地表水与地下水联合模型与GIS耦合集成平台的开发将是未来研究的热点。%Arc Hydro and Arc Hydro Groundwater hydrological data model are favored by scholars in the joint simulation of surface water and groundwater, but empirical researches on whether hydrological simulation can apply Arc Hydro and Arc Hydro Groundwater model are lack. According to this problem, the functions and advantages of these two hydrological models were analyzed, furthermore, the remaining problems and the development trend were also discussed by a review of a large number of documents. It is pointed out that although Arc Hydro has function of strong hydrological analysis and extraction, this model cannot realize hydrological simulation, data exchange is necessary to complete hydrological simulation with independent hydrological model. Arc Hydro Groundwater contains MODFLOW analysis model, however, it only can visualize process for MODFLOW model outputs and does not yet have independent groundwater simulation function. The development of integrated platform combining joint simulation model of surface water and groundwater with GIS coupling is supposed to be a hot research.

  11. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oils from Laurus nobilis and Melissa officinalis: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation and ultrasound extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Burcu; Sozmen, Fazli; Buyuktas, Birsen S

    2010-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been applied to the extraction of essential oils from Melissa officinalis L. and Laurus nobilis L. The results of SFME were compared with those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) of essential oils from dried plant materials. The compositions of the essential oils were identified by GC-MS. The essential oil obtained with SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than the oils obtained by conventional methods. The three different extraction methods used showed differences in the compositions and contents of the essential oils.

  12. The Survey of hydro-geochemical and health related of water quality in Ramian city, Golestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fahimeh Khanduzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Investigation of water quality is an important step for the suitable use of water resources in order to drinking and irrigation. Water quality affects agriculture programming.  Hence the need of the study of water quality is strongly considered in the water resources management. Material and Methods: In this study Hydro-geochemical quality of ground water resources in the Ramian city -Golestan province has been studied for drinking and agriculture purpose. For this purpose, 15 qualitative characteristics of the 13 wells of Golestan province in two dry and wet seasons in 2011-2012 were analyzed by Aua Chem and Aq-qa. Results: The results showed that the ground water in the study area is classified in hard and very hard water. The original cations and anions in water are Ca2+> Mg2+> Na+ and HCO3-> Cl-> SO42-. Based on hydro-chemical diagram the dominant of water type is classified as Ca-HCO3. Salinity index of water indicated that more samples in two seasons are in the middle class. According to Schuler and Wilcox groundwater quality index, they are moderate suitable for agricultural and drinking consumption and in for agricultural purpose and 77% cases are in C3-S1 category. Conclusion: The results show that too much salt is one of the most important problems of water supply in the Ramian city for irrigation. This reduced plant growth or even stops the growth of some plant. If water resources in this area do not manage, after shortly time the soil will be suffered and polluted.

  13. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Leukocytes and Hematological Tests in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Kooti, Wesam; Bazvand, Maryam; Ghasemi Boroon, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Afrisham, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Jalali, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have a long history in treating blood disorders, which is one of the most common problems in today's advanced world. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a medicinal plant with a high content of polyphenols and has antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel on some hematological indices in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (five rats in each group). The first group (control) did not receive any dose; the second group (sham) received 1 mL normal saline (extraction solvent); and the experimental groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively received 1 mL hydro alcoholic extract of fennel in four doses of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight every 48 hours for 30 days by gavage. One day after the last gavage following induction of anesthesia and taking blood from the heart of rats, measurement of red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and tests of bleeding and coagulation time (CT) were performed. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS15 software. Results: Fennel increased mean RBC (7.54 ± 0.53 × 106) and WBC (5.89 ± 0.78 × 103) values, especially at a dose of 250 mg/mL and CT (2.45 ± 0.20) at a dose of 500mg/mL compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Fennel increased red and white blood cells probably due to the presence of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fennel and reduced negative effects of free radicals on blood cells. PMID:25866717

  14. Long-term hydro-climatic changes in the Selenga river basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Asokan, Shilpa M.; Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Climatic changes can lead to altered hydrological conditions, which in turn can impact pollutant loading patterns to the terminal recipient of a considered basin. Lake Baikal is the deepest and largest freshwater reservoir on Earth. The lake and its surroundings have been declared an UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its unique ecosystem with numerous endemic animal and plant species. The Selenga river basin, which is located in northern Mongolia and southern Siberia in Russia, is the largest sub-basin of the Lake Baikal. Mining is well developed in the region and has been identified to be the main pollution source for the water system in the sparsely populated region. We investigate long-term historic and projected future hydro-climatic conditions in the Selenga river basin with the aim to improve the understanding of such underlying conditions in the basin. This understanding is fundamental for preventing degradation of Lake Baikal's unique ecosystem from for instance mining activities. Specifically, our objective is to identify observed historical hydro-climatic changes during the 72-year period of 1938-2009. In addition, we assess multi-model ensemble means of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) in order to also consider future projections of hydro-climatic changes for a near future period (2010-2039) and a more distant future period (2070-2099). The results show that there has been an observed increase in mean annual temperature in the basin by about 1.5°C during the period 1938-2009. Moreover, a longer seasonal period of temperatures above zero (especially due to increasing spring temperatures) is detected. For the annual water balance components of precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff, relatively small temporal changes are observed. However, in recent years there has been a detected decrease in runoff, with 10-year running averages reaching their lowest levels within the whole investigation period. In particular, there has

  15. Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Bradley O.; Gloor, Manuel; Fauset, Sophie; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Galbraith, David R.; Baker, Timothy R.; Kruijt, Bart; Rowland, Lucy; Fisher, Rosie A.; Binks, Oliver J.; Sevanto, Sanna; Xu, Chonggang; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Mencuccini, Maurizio; McDowell, Nate G.; Meir, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Forest ecosystem models based on heuristic water stress functions poorly predict tropical forest response to drought partly because they do not capture the diversity of hydraulic traits (including variation in tree size) observed in tropical forests. We developed a continuous porous media approach to modeling plant hydraulics in which all parameters of the constitutive equations are biologically interpretable and measurable plant hydraulic traits (e.g., turgor loss point πtlp, bulk elastic modulus ɛ, hydraulic capacitance Cft, xylem hydraulic conductivity ks,max, water potential at 50 % loss of conductivity for both xylem (P50,x) and stomata (P50,gs), and the leaf : sapwood area ratio Al : As). We embedded this plant hydraulics model within a trait forest simulator (TFS) that models light environments of individual trees and their upper boundary conditions (transpiration), as well as providing a means for parameterizing variation in hydraulic traits among individuals. We synthesized literature and existing databases to parameterize all hydraulic traits as a function of stem and leaf traits, including wood density (WD), leaf mass per area (LMA), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), and evaluated the coupled model (called TFS v.1-Hydro) predictions, against observed diurnal and seasonal variability in stem and leaf water potential as well as stand-scaled sap flux. Our hydraulic trait synthesis revealed coordination among leaf and xylem hydraulic traits and statistically significant relationships of most hydraulic traits with more easily measured plant traits. Using the most informative empirical trait-trait relationships derived from this synthesis, TFS v.1-Hydro successfully captured individual variation in leaf and stem water potential due to increasing tree size and light environment, with model representation of hydraulic architecture and plant traits exerting primary and secondary controls, respectively, on the fidelity of model predictions. The plant

  16. Intex Tests Performed on Hydro Unit no2 from HPP Ruieni before and after Refurbishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cuzmoş

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents the results of index tests performed on HPP Ruieni hydro unit no 2 before and after refurbishment, using for discharge measurements the Winter-Kennedy method.

  17. Designs and applications for floating-hydro power systems in small streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehder, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The project focuses on an appropriate technology for small-scale hydro power: floating waterwheels and turbines. For background, relic and existing systems such as early floating mills, traditional Amish waterwheels, and micro-hydro systems are examined. In the design phase of the project, new designs for Floating Hydro Power Systems include: an analysis of floatation materials and systems; a floating undershot waterwheel design; a floating cylinder (fiberglass storage tank) design; a submerged tube design; and a design for a floating platform with submerged propellers. Finally, in the applications phase, stream flow data from East Tennessee streams are used in a discussion of the potential applications of floating hydro power systems in small streams.

  18. Using GA-Ridge regression to select hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Joon; Kim, Young Min; Yoo, Keunje; Park, Joonhong; Oh, Kyong Joo

    2012-11-01

    For groundwater conservation and management, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution vulnerability. This study proposed an integrated model using ridge regression and a genetic algorithm (GA) to effectively select the major hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability in an aquifer. The GA-Ridge regression method determined that depth to water, net recharge, topography, and the impact of vadose zone media were the hydro-geological parameters that influenced trichloroethene pollution vulnerability in a Korean aquifer. When using these selected hydro-geological parameters, the accuracy was improved for various statistical nonlinear and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural networks, and case-based reasoning. These results provide a proof of concept that the GA-Ridge regression is effective at determining influential hydro-geological parameters for the pollution vulnerability of an aquifer, and in turn, improves the AI performance in assessing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

  19. Parametric distribution approach for flow availability in small hydro potential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Samizee; Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Jamaluddin, Zahrul Zamri; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Othman, Jamel

    2016-10-01

    Small hydro system is one of the important sources of renewable energy and it has been recognized worldwide as clean energy sources. Small hydropower generation system uses the potential energy in flowing water to produce electricity is often questionable due to inconsistent and intermittent of power generated. Potential analysis of small hydro system which is mainly dependent on the availability of water requires the knowledge of water flow or stream flow distribution. This paper presented the possibility of applying Pearson system for stream flow availability distribution approximation in the small hydro system. By considering the stochastic nature of stream flow, the Pearson parametric distribution approximation was computed based on the significant characteristic of Pearson system applying direct correlation between the first four statistical moments of the distribution. The advantage of applying various statistical moments in small hydro potential analysis will have the ability to analyze the variation shapes of stream flow distribution.

  20. VT Lidar Hydro-enforced DEM (0.7 meter) - 2015 - Windham County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Windham County 2015 0.7m and Hydro Enforced Digital Elevation Model (DEMHE) dataset....

  1. Learning from India's experience[Small hydro in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, I.M.

    2000-06-01

    The reasons for the relatively slow exploitation of small-scale hydro as a source of power in India are discussed. The Indian government's policy with respect to renewable energy sources has not helped. With respect to investment, the problem has been that although money was available, obtaining it was a slow process. Financing, suppliers' credit and multilateral funding are discussed at length. In line with the Indian government's liberalisation policy, the small-scale hydro sector was opened to private participation and investment in 1993 in an effort to provide power at a local level. The federal government's guidelines laid down for state governments are listed. A diagram shows the growth of small hydro projects (up to 3MW) from 1990 to 2000 and a table gives policies introduced/incentives offered in states for private sector commercial small hydro power projects.

  2. HYDRO-GEOTECHNIC L SSESSMENT OF N OPEN W STE DISPOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-28

    Nov 28, 2014 ... Key Words: Hydro-Geotechnical, Assessment, Waste, Ilorin. Introduction. Suitable land ... composting, open burning and river dump of refuse. These attempts ..... paper submitted in fulfillment of house resolution 715. State of ...

  3. The helical turbine: A new idea for low-head hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlov, A.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Substantial potential exists at small hydro sites where heads are too low for conventional hydraulic turbines. A spiral-bladed turbine may offer a new alternative for tapping that potential in a cost-efficient manner.

  4. USGS Hydro-NHD Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Hydro-NHD is a tile cache base map that combines hydrography data in The National Map from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) along with the Watershed...

  5. HydroViz: design and evaluation of a Web-based tool for improving hydrology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Habib

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available HydroViz is a Web-based, student-centered, educational tool designed to support active learning in the field of Engineering Hydrology. The design of HydroViz is guided by a learning model that is based on learning with data and simulations, using real-world natural hydrologic systems to convey theoretical concepts, and using Web-based technologies for dissemination of the hydrologic education developments. This model, while being used in a hydrologic education context, can be adapted in other engineering educational settings. HydroViz leverages the free Google Earth resources to enable presentation of geospatial data layers and embed them in web pages that have the same look and feel of Google Earth. These design features significantly facilitate the dissemination and adoption of HydroViz by any interested educational institutions regardless of their access to data or computer models. To facilitate classroom usage, HydroViz is populated with a set of course modules that can be used incrementally within different stages of an engineering hydrology curriculum. A pilot evaluation study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the HydroViz tool in delivering its educational content, to examine the buy-in of the program by faculty and students, and to identify specific project components that need to be further pursued and improved. A total of 182 students from seven freshmen and senior-level undergraduate classes in three universities participated in the study. HydroViz was effective in facilitating students' learning and understanding of hydrologic concepts and increasing related skills. Students had positive perceptions of various features of HydroViz and they believe that HydroViz fits well in the curriculum. In general, HydroViz tend to be more effective with students in senior-level classes than students in freshmen classes. Lessons gained from this pilot study provide guidance for future adaptation and expansion studies to scale-up the

  6. HydroViz: design and evaluation of a Web-based tool for improving hydrology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, E.; Ma, Y.; Williams, D.; Sharif, H. O.; Hossain, F.

    2012-10-01

    HydroViz is a Web-based, student-centered, educational tool designed to support active learning in the field of Engineering Hydrology. The design of HydroViz is guided by a learning model that is based on learning with data and simulations, using real-world natural hydrologic systems to convey theoretical concepts, and using Web-based technologies for dissemination of the hydrologic education developments. This model, while being used in a hydrologic education context, can be adapted in other engineering educational settings. HydroViz leverages the free Google Earth resources to enable presentation of geospatial data layers and embed them in web pages that have the same look and feel of Google Earth. These design features significantly facilitate the dissemination and adoption of HydroViz by any interested educational institutions regardless of their access to data or computer models. To facilitate classroom usage, HydroViz is populated with a set of course modules that can be used incrementally within different stages of an engineering hydrology curriculum. A pilot evaluation study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the HydroViz tool in delivering its educational content, to examine the buy-in of the program by faculty and students, and to identify specific project components that need to be further pursued and improved. A total of 182 students from seven freshmen and senior-level undergraduate classes in three universities participated in the study. HydroViz was effective in facilitating students' learning and understanding of hydrologic concepts and increasing related skills. Students had positive perceptions of various features of HydroViz and they believe that HydroViz fits well in the curriculum. In general, HydroViz tend to be more effective with students in senior-level classes than students in freshmen classes. Lessons gained from this pilot study provide guidance for future adaptation and expansion studies to scale-up the application and

  7. The Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Analysis at Hydro Generator Stator Winding Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Raduca

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and simulation of thermal analysis at hydro generator stator winding. The winding stator is supplied at high voltage of 11 kV for high power hydro generator. To present the thermal analysis for stator winding is presented at supply of coil by 11 kV, when coil is heat and thermal transfer in insulation at ambient temperature.

  8. iTree-Hydro: Snow hydrology update for the urban forest hydrology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak

    2011-01-01

    This article presents snow hydrology updates made to iTree-Hydro, previously called the Urban Forest Effects—Hydrology model. iTree-Hydro Version 1 was a warm climate model developed by the USDA Forest Service to provide a process-based planning tool with robust water quantity and quality predictions given data limitations common to most urban areas. Cold climate...

  9. HydroShare: An online, collaborative environment for the sharing of hydrologic data and models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Valentine, D. W.; Maidment, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models. The goal of HydroShare is to enable scientists to easily discover and access data and models, retrieve them to their desktop or perform analyses in a distributed computing environment that may include grid, cloud or high performance computing model instances as necessary. Scientists may also publish outcomes (data, results or models) into HydroShare, using the system as a collaboration platform for sharing data, models and analyses. HydroShare is expanding the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated, creating new capability to share models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. One of the fundamental concepts in HydroShare is that of a Resource. All content is represented using a Resource Data Model that separates system and science metadata and has elements common to all resources as well as elements specific to the types of resources HydroShare will support. These will include different data types used in the hydrology community and models and workflows that require metadata on execution functionality. HydroShare will use the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) to manage federated data content and perform rule-based background actions on data and model resources, including parsing to generate metadata catalog information and the execution of models and workflows. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date, describe key elements of the Resource Data Model and outline the roadmap for future development.

  10. Surrogate Pricing For Water: The Case For Micro Hydro-electricity Cooperatives in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sitanon Jesdapipat; Siriporn Kiratikarnkul

    1999-01-01

    Thailand, like many other countries, is finding the development of renewable sources of energy a complex challenge. However, this study has shown that good economic management combined with targeted incentives could allow micro-hydro schemes to make a viable contribution to the nation's sustainable development. The study looked at pricing and policy in two small dam projects in the Doi Saket District of Chiangmai. As in many of Thailand's 70-plus micro-hydro schemes, electricity delivery prob...

  11. HydroDesktop as a Community Designed and Developed Resource for Hydrologic Data Discovery and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    As has been seen in other informatics fields, well-documented and appropriately licensed open source software tools have the potential to significantly increase both opportunities and motivation for inter-institutional science and technology collaboration. The CUAHSI HIS (and related HydroShare) projects have aimed to foster such activities in hydrology resulting in the development of many useful community software components including the HydroDesktop software application. HydroDesktop is an open source, GIS-based, scriptable software application for discovering data on the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and related resources. It includes a well-defined plugin architecture and interface to allow 3rd party developers to create extensions and add new functionality without requiring recompiling of the full source code. HydroDesktop is built in the C# programming language and uses the open source DotSpatial GIS engine for spatial data management. Capabilities include data search, discovery, download, visualization, and export. An extension that integrates the R programming language with HydroDesktop provides scripting and data automation capabilities and an OpenMI plugin provides the ability to link models. Current revision and updates to HydroDesktop include migration of core business logic to cross platform, scriptable Python code modules that can be executed in any operating system or linked into other software front-end applications.

  12. Hydro-economic modelling: A comparison between the energy and water sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.

    2008-12-01

    The last 30 years have witnessed a tremendous effort in the development of a variety of models for planning, designing, and managing water resources engineering projects. The water resources community has widely accepted simulation models, which are designed to predict the response of a system under a particular set of conditions. Optimization extends the predictive concept in order to prescribe a set of decisions for achieving an optimal response. Most of the hydro-economic models reported in the literature are based on an economic optimization subject to constraints describing, amongst other things, the hydrological processes. Despite the proven array of benefits offered by hydro-economic models, their generalized use in the water sector is still limited primarily to the academic arena, and it has not been well integrated into practice. This contrasts significantly with the energy sector where hydro-economic models are commonly used for planning and managing hydrothermal electrical systems. We first briefly present the main approaches to hydro- economic modelling and how they are embedded into decision support and analytical frameworks. Then we review the types of policy and decision-making problems that have been addressed with hydro-economic models in both sectors. Some possible causes for the lack of acceptance of and limited implementation of hydro-economic models in the water sector are further discussed.

  13. Ontario Hydro at the millennium : has monopoly`s moment passed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, R.J. [ed.] [University of Toronto, Faculty of Law, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This volume is a collection of 10 papers presented at a conference in which the challenges of restructuring the electric power industry in Ontario were discussed. Legal experts, policy makers, economists and stakeholders in the industry presented their views regarding the future of the industry in Ontario. The implications of privatization were discussed. There was general agreement on the need for some industry de-integration and privatization. However, agreement on the exact nature of the approach to take was more divided. For example, opinion was divided on what the logical endpoint of industry restructuring should be i.e. wholesale or retail competition. Also contentious was the question of what portion of Hydro`s generating assets should be sold off to private enterprise if Hydro`s generation and transmission assets are unbundled. Opinions were also divided about the environmental consequences of nuclear energy. Significant differences of opinion were evident concerning the privatization of Ontario Hydro`s nuclear assets. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Development of a Composite Suspension with a Coil and Hydro-Pneumatic Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; CHEN Si-zhong; WU Zhi-cheng; YANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    A new composite suspension is developed,where a coil spring and a hydro-pneumatic spring are used in order to improve the poor reliability of off-road vehicle with pure hydro-pneumatic suspension.According to road conditions,the two springs play different roles.The method for matching the composite suspension stiffness and distributing the load is proposed.The working pressure of hydro-pneumatic spring as well as the load and stiffness characteristics of composite suspension is compared with a pure hydro-pneumatic suspension.In addition,the ISO weighted vehicle body acceleration,suspension travel and relative dynamic load of the wheels between two kinds of suspension are analyzed with a quarter vehicle mode.The simulation result shows that the developed composite suspension is more suitable for off-road vehicle than the one hydro-pneumatic suspension,because the composite suspension can reduce the working pressure, improve the reliability and keep a similar ride cornfort with hydro-pneumatic suspension.

  15. How can small hydro energy and other renewable energy mitigate impact of climate change in remote Central Africa: Cameroon case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Central Africa owns important renewable energy potential, namely hydro, solar and biomass. This important potential is still suffering from poor development up to the point where the sub region is still abundantly using the fossil energy and biomass as main power source. This is harmful to the climate and the situation is still ongoing. The main cause of the poor use of renewable energy is the poor management of resources by governments who have not taken the necessary measures to boost the renewable energy sector. Since the region is experiencing power shortage, thermal plants are among other solutions planned or under construction. Firewood is heavily used in remote areas without a sustainability program behind. This solution is not environment friendly and hence is not a long term solution. Given the fact that the region has the highest hydro potential of the continent, up to one-quarter of the world's tropical forest, important oil production with poor purchase power, the aim of this paper is to identify actions for improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure in Central Africa and the promotion of small hydro and other renewable energy. The work will show at first the potential for the three primary energy sources which are solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development, with an emphasis on small hydro. Then identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. From lessons learned, suggestions will be made to help the countries develop an approach aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon has a great renewable energy potential and some data are available on energy. From the overview of institutional structure reform of the Cameroon power sector and assessments, specific suggestions based on the weaknesses

  16. Does pH influence soil hydro-mechanical properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplain, V.; Défossez, P.; Delarue, G.; Dexter, A. R.; Richard, G.; Tessier, D.

    2009-04-01

    Does pH influence soil hydro-mechanical properties ? V. Chaplain1, P. Défossez2, G. Delarue1, A.R. Dexter3, G. Richard3 and D. Tessier1. 1 UR INRA PESSAC RD 10, F-78026 Versailles cedex 2 UMR INRA/URCA FARE, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, BP 224 F-51686 Reims cedex 2 3 UR INRA Sols 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin - CS 40001 ARDON F-45075 Orléans Cedex 2 Corresponding author : chaplain@versailles.inra.fr Structure of soils and its dynamic, physico-chemistry of the interface are of a great importance in the fate of organic pollutants because it governs the accessibility of pollutants to micro-organisms. The soil structure of soils is related to physical parameters (texture, density, water content) but the physico-chemical properties of the interface is not considered. In this study we performed hydro-mechanical measurements on soil samples taken from the 42-plot long-term experiment in Versailles. Indeed six plots were selected to cover a large range of pH values from acid (3.5) to alkaline (8.2) due to the repeated application of fertilizers. Soils were taken in the 0-20 cm and in the 30-35 cm layer out of the ploughed zone. All soils had similar texture and composition with low organic carbon. Therefore pH changes the surface charges and hydrophobicity that are implied in aggregation process. The two layers had the same pH values. The precompression stress Pc and the compression index Cc were derived from confined compression tests performed on remoulded soil samples (density 1.45 g/cm3) at saturation. Results shows that the precompression stress increased at pH lower than 4. In acid case, precompression stress was higher in subsoil. This increase of Pc was attributed to the hydrophobicity due in part to the condensation of charges probably sensitive to the humectation/dessication processes.

  17. Predictability and Diagnostics of Western Himalayan Hydro-climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, I.; Lall, U.; Robertson, A. W.; Cane, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Snowmelt dominated streamflow of the Western Himalayan rivers is an important water resource during the dry pre-monsoon months to meet the irrigation and hydropower needs in northern India. On the other hand, winter precipitation as the form of snow over Himalayas helps in maintaining the glaciers, which serve as a storehouse of freshwater throughout the year. With the help of the hydro-climatological data provided by the Bhakra Beas Management Board in India, we present the outcome of our research on the prediction and diagnostics of Satluj river basin hydro-climatology at the Indian side up to the upstream of Bhakra dam, which is a major source of water for irrigation and electricity generation (1325MW) for north India. Spring seasonal inflow anomalies to Bhakra dam are strongly correlated with large-scale precipitation and temperature in the preceding winter over the Western Himalayas and adjoining north and central Indian plains, suggesting a potentially usable predictability for reservoir managers. Winter precipitation in the Western Himalayas is mainly brought about by the mid-latitude jet stream leading to the formation of low-pressure synoptic systems known as Western Disturbances (WD). WDs originate over the North Atlantic Ocean or Mediterranean Sea, with secondaries developing over the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea either directly or as a result of the arrival of low-pressure systems from southwest Arabia, and travel eastward over Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northwest India. Winter WDs (and therefore the average volume of winter precipitation over Western Himalayas) are also modulated by the large-scale interaction between ocean and atmosphere led by the variation of the SSTs of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. As a result, average spring inflow volume, which is a function of the average volume of precipitation in winter, was also found to be positively correlated with the SSTs over the western and equatorial Indian Ocean, and with below-normal sea

  18. Development of Hydro-Informatic Modelling System and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of hydrological cycle is the core of hydrology and the scientific base of water resources management. Meanwhile, simulation of hydrological cycle has long been regarded as an important tool for the assessment, utilization and protection of water resources. In this paper, a new tool named Hydro-Informatic Modelling System (HIMS) has been developed and introduced with case studies in the Yellow River Basin in China and 331 catchments in Australia. The case studies showed that HIMS can be employed as an integrated platform for hydrological simulation in different regions. HIMS is a modular based framework of hydrological model designed for different utilization such as flood forecasting, water resources planning and evaluating hydrological impacts of climate change and human activities. The unique of HIMS is its flexibility in providing alternative modules in the simulation of hydrological cycle, which successfully overcome the difficulties in the availability of input data, the uncertainty of parameters, and the difference of rainfall-runoff processes. The modular based structure of HIMS makes it possible for developing new hydrological models by the users.

  19. Hydro-Gravitational Dynamics of Planets and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl H. Gibson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Self gravitational fluid mechanical methods termed hydro-gravitational-dynamics (HGD predict plasma fragmentation 0.03 Myr after the turbulent big bang to form protosuperclustervoids, turbulent protosuperclusters, and protogalaxies at the 0.3 Myr transition from plasma to gas. Linear protogalaxyclusters fragment at 0.003 Mpc viscous-inertial scales along turbulent vortex lines or in spirals, as observed. The plasma protogalaxies fragment on transition into white-hot planet-mass gas clouds (PFPs in million-solar-mass clumps (PGCs that become globular-star-clusters (GCs from tidal forces or dark matter (PGCs by freezing and diffusion into 0.3 Mpc halos with 97% of the galaxy mass. The weakly collisional non-baryonic dark matter diffuses to > Mpc scales and fragments to form galaxy cluster halos. Stars and larger planets form by binary mergers of the trillion PFPs per PGC, mostly on 0.03 Mpc galaxy accretion disks. Stars deaths depend on rates of planet accretion and internal star mixing. Moderate accretion rates pro-duce white dwarfs that evaporate surrounding gas planets by spin-radiation to form planetary nebulae before Supernova Ia events, dimming some events to give systematic distance errors, the dark energy hypothesis, and overestimates of the universe age.

  20. L'utilisation des hydro-éjecteurs au CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Deleval, S

    2002-01-01

    Les éjecteurs à buse variable sont destinés à remplacer les vannes trois voies conventionnelles et les pompes secondaires de circulation dans les installations de chauffage à eau chaude et de conditionnement d'air. Ces éjecteurs liquide - liquide utilisent l'énergie d'un fluide primaire pour maintenir le débit d'un fluide secondaire grâce à un saut de pression. L'utilisation de ces éjecteurs permet notamment de réduire les co ts d'investissement, de consommation énergétique et aussi de maintenance. Cette technique qui a fait ses preuves depuis plus de 20 ans, est abondamment utilisée en Allemagne, Italie et Belgique (50 000 boucles) et peu dans d'autres pays comme la France (500 boucles). Au CERN, aucune application d'hydro-éjecteur de ce type n'a encore été mise en oeuvre à ce jour. Ce document présente cette technique en détail avec ses avantages, ses inconvénients et ses possibles applications.

  1. Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic Waves In The Collisionless Space Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalilov, N. S.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Staude, J.

    2007-12-01

    The instability of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) waves in an anisotropic, collisionless, rarefied hot plasma is studied. Anisotropy properties of such a plasma are caused by a strong magnetic field, when the thermal gas pressures across and along the field become unequal. Moreover, there appears an anisotropy of the thermal fluxes. The study of the anisotropy features of the plasma are motivated by observed solar coronal data. The 16 moments equations derived from the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation are used. These equations strongly differ from the usual isotropic MHD case. For linear disturbances the wave equations in homogenous anisotropic plasma are deduced. The general dispersion relation for the incompressible wave modes is derived, solved and analyzed. It is shown that a wide wave spectrum with stable and unstable behavior is possible, in contrast to the usual isotropic MHD case. The dependence of the instability on magnetic field, pressure anisotropy, and heat fluxes is investigated. The general instability condition is obtained. The results can be applied to the theory of solar and stellar coronal heating, to wind models and in other modeling, where the collisionless approximation is valid.

  2. A realistic 3+1D Viscous Hydro Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romatschke, Paul [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-05-31

    DoE funds were used as bridge funds for the faculty position for the PI at the University of Colorado. The total funds for the Years 3-5 of the JET Topical Collaboration amounted to about 50 percent of the academic year salary of the PI.The PI contributed to the JET Topical Collaboration by developing, testing and applying algorithms for a realistic simulation of the bulk medium created in relativistic ion collisions.Specifically, two approaches were studied, one based on a new Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) framework, and one on a more traditional viscous hydro-dynamics framework. Both approaches were found to be viable in principle, with the LB approach being more elegant but needing still more time to develop.The traditional approach led to the super-hybrid model of ion collisions dubbed 'superSONIC', and has been successfully used for phenomenology of relativistic heavy-ion and light-on-heavy-ion collisions.In the time-frame of the JET Topical Collaboration, the Colorado group has published 15 articles in peer-reviewed journals, three of which were published in Physical Review Letters. The group graduated one Master student during this time-frame and two more PhD students are expected to graduate in the next few years. The PI has given more than 28 talks and presentations during this period.

  3. Integrated hydro-bacterial modelling for predicting bathing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoxian; Falconer, Roger A.; Lin, Binliang

    2017-03-01

    In recent years health risks associated with the non-compliance of bathing water quality have received increasing worldwide attention. However, it is particularly challenging to establish the source of any non-compliance, due to the complex nature of the source of faecal indicator organisms, and the fate and delivery processes and scarcity of field measured data in many catchments and estuaries. In the current study an integrated hydro-bacterial model, linking a catchment, 1-D model and 2-D model were integrated to simulate the adsorption-desorption processes of faecal bacteria to and from sediment particles in river, estuarine and coastal waters, respectively. The model was then validated using hydrodynamic, sediment and faecal bacteria concentration data, measured in 2012, in the Ribble river and estuary, and along the Fylde coast, UK. Particular emphasis has been placed on the mechanism of faecal bacteria transport and decay through the deposition and resuspension of suspended sediments. The results showed that by coupling the E.coli concentration with the sediment transport processes, the accuracy of the predicted E.coli levels was improved. A series of scenario runs were then carried out to investigate the impacts of different management scenarios on the E.coli concentration levels in the coastal bathing water sites around Liverpool Bay, UK. The model results show that the level of compliance with the new EU bathing water standards can be improved significantly by extending outfalls and/or reducing urban sources by typically 50%.

  4. Island operation - modelling of a small hydro power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarp, Stefan

    2000-02-01

    Simulation is a useful tool for investigating a system behaviour. It is a way to examine operating situations without having to perform them in reality. If someone for example wants to test an operating situation where the system possibly will demolish, a computer simulation could be a both cheaper and safer way than to do the test in reality. This master thesis performs and analyses a simulation, modelling an electronic power system. The system consists of a minor hydro power station, a wood refining industry, and interconnecting power system components. In the simulation situation the system works in a so called island operation. The thesis aims at making a capacity analysis of the current system. Above all, the goal is to find restrictions in load power profile of the consumer, under given circumstances. The computer software used in simulations is Matlab and its additional program PSB (Power System Blockset). The work has been carried out in co-operation with the power supplier Skellefteaa Kraft, where the problem formulation of this master thesis was founded.

  5. Introducing Pico Hydro From Daily Used Water And Rain Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Al Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for energy is increasing day by day because of increasing the population and industrialization. But, the over usage of electrical energy may cause power crisis. So, there is a need to develop the methods of optimal utilization which decreases the over usage of energy and try to work as positive catalyst in stable environment. This paper shows the possibility of tapping the wasted energy from daily used water and rain water. The wasted energy of daily used water and rain water can be converted into the electrical energy by hydro electric mechanism through several energy conversion processes. There is also obtained the electrical energy is in KW range, which is sufficient to lighten a garage of multi storeyed building or small needs of home. The generated electricity is stored in a battery for any future uses. As the increasing of daily used water and rain water on roof, the designed system will be effective to decrease the power crisis of Bangladesh to some extent.

  6. Pumps as turbines for low cost micro hydro power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.A. [Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    Small centrifugal pumps are suitable for use as hydraulic turbines and have the advantage of being mass produced in many countries throughout the world. When used with an integral induction motor, they can be installed as a combined turbine and generator unit. Recent research and development work carried out at Nottingham Trent University in collaboration with the Intermediate Technology Development Group has concentrated on two aspects that had previously held back the wider application of this technology. A standard design of Induction Generator Controller (IGC), enabling these units to be used for isolated micro hydro schemes, has been proven, and is now being manufactured in five countries world-wide. Progress has also been made on the application of performance prediction methods which facilitate the selection of a pump unit for particular site conditions. Sites, suitable for the application of small centrifugal pumps as turbines are of two main types: firstly, as a low-cost alternative to crossflow turbines with an output of 5kW or less; secondly, for energy recovery in pipelines. These types of installation may be suitable for industrialized and developing countries. Three examples of different types of scheme are described in the paper and these show the favourable financial returns that are possible. (Author)

  7. Development of Hydro-Informatic Modelling System and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ChangMing; WANG ZhongGen; ZHENG HongXing; ZHANG Lu; WU XianFeng

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of hydrological cycle is the core of hydrology and the scientific base of water resources management. Meanwhile, simulation of hydrological cycle has long been regarded as an important tool for the assessment, utilization and protection of water resources. In this paper, a new tool named Hydro-Informatic Modelling System (HIMS) has been developed and introduced with case studies in the Yellow River Basin in China and 331 catchments in Australia. The case studies showed that HIMS can be employed as an integrated platform for hydrological simulation in different regions. HIMS is a modular based framework of hydrological model designed for different utilization such as flood forecasting, water resources planning and evaluating hydrological impacts of climate change and human activi-ties. The unique of HIMS is its flexibility in providing alternative modules in the simulation of hydrological cycle, which successfully overcome the difficulties in the availability of input data, the uncertainty of parameters, and the difference of rainfall-runoff processes. The modular based structure of HIMS makes it possible for developing new hydrological models by the users.

  8. Valuing hydrological forecasts for a pumped storage assisted hydro facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangzhi; Davison, Matt

    2009-07-01

    SummaryThis paper estimates the value of a perfectly accurate short-term hydrological forecast to the operator of a hydro electricity generating facility which can sell its power at time varying but predictable prices. The expected value of a less accurate forecast will be smaller. We assume a simple random model for water inflows and that the costs of operating the facility, including water charges, will be the same whether or not its operator has inflow forecasts. Thus, the improvement in value from better hydrological prediction results from the increased ability of the forecast using facility to sell its power at high prices. The value of the forecast is therefore the difference between the sales of a facility operated over some time horizon with a perfect forecast, and the sales of a similar facility operated over the same time horizon with similar water inflows which, though governed by the same random model, cannot be forecast. This paper shows that the value of the forecast is an increasing function of the inflow process variance and quantifies how much the value of this perfect forecast increases with the variance of the water inflow process. Because the lifetime of hydroelectric facilities is long, the small increase observed here can lead to an increase in the profitability of hydropower investments.

  9. Sustainable and reliable groundwater cooling Manitoba Hydro Dorsey converter station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, R.D. [KGS Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Jhinger, H. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Three high voltage direct current (HVDC) converter stations are operated by Manitoba Hydro in conjunction with the northern generating stations on the Nelson River near Gillam, Manitoba. The Dorsey Converter Station, located approximately 900 kilometres (km) south of Gillam and 13 km northwest of Winnipeg, is an integral and critical component of Manitoba's HVDC system. The Dorsey Converter Station represents the southern terminus, where the power originating from Gillam is converted back to alternating current (AC) from DC for further distribution in southern Manitoba and for export. The current space cooling requirements for the converter station buildings are based on chiller systems scheduled to be replaced. There have been some success stories near Winnipeg with groundwater cooling, and field testing confirmed that the high permeability of the aquifer would be an asset for groundwater based cooling. The system which has been selected for installation, includes 5 pumping wells and 10 recharge wells to handle the total cooling load. Thermal interference between wells is expected to be such that winter thermal balancing would be required for sustainability, as demonstrated in digital simulations of aquifer heat transport. The assessment program and the major design considerations for this system were presented in this paper. 10 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  10. Hydro-dynamic damping theory in flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, C.; Nennemann, B.; Seeley, C.; Coutu, A.; Marmont, H.

    2014-03-01

    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) has a major impact on the dynamic response of the structural components of hydroelectric turbines. On mid-head to high-head Francis runners, the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) phenomenon always has to be considered carefully during the design phase to avoid operational issues later on. The RSI dynamic response amplitudes are driven by three main factors: (1) pressure forcing amplitudes, (2) excitation frequencies in relation to natural frequencies and (3) damping. The prediction of the two first factors has been largely documented in the literature. However, the prediction of fluid damping has received less attention in spite of being critical when the runner is close to resonance. Experimental damping measurements in flowing water on hydrofoils were presented previously. Those results showed that the hydro-dynamic damping increased linearly with the flow. This paper presents development and validation of a mathematical model, based on momentum exchange, to predict damping due to fluid structure interaction in flowing water. The model is implemented as an analytical procedure for simple structures, such as cantilever beams, but is also implemented in more general ways using three different approaches for more complex structures such as runner blades: a finite element procedure, a CFD modal work based approach and a CFD 1DOF approach. The mathematical model and all three implementation approaches are shown to agree well with experimental results.

  11. Hydro-Gravitational-Dynamics of Planets and Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Carl H

    2008-01-01

    Self-gravitational fluid mechanical methods termed hydro-gravitational-dynamics (HGD) predict plasma fragmentation 0.03 Myr after the turbulent big bang to form protosuperclustervoids, turbulent protosuperclusters, and protogalaxies at the 0.3 Myr transition from plasma to gas. Linear protogalaxyclusters fragment at 0.003 Mpc viscous-inertial scales along turbulent vortex lines or in spirals, as observed. The plasma protogalaxies fragment on transition into white-hot planet-mass gas clouds (PFPs) in million-solar-mass clumps (PGCs) that become globular-star-clusters (GCs) from tidal forces or dark matter (PGCs) by freezing and diffusion into 0.3 Mpc halos with 97% of the galaxy mass. The weakly collisional non-baryonic dark matter diffuses to > Mpc scales and frag-ments to form galaxy cluster halos. Stars and larger planets form by binary mergers of the trillion PFPs per PGC on 0.03 Mpc galaxy accretion disks. Star deaths depend on rates of planet accretion and internal star mixing. Moderate accretion rates p...

  12. Hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling in sediments: Localized mineral dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu

    2016-06-11

    Mineral dissolution is inherently a chemo-hydro-mechanical coupled process. Field evidence and laboratory results show that dissolution may localize and form open conduits in cohesive media such as carbonate rocks. This study focuses on the evolution of localized dissolution in soils (i.e., frictional and non-cohesive granular materials) under effective confining stresses. Experimental results show the development of localized dissolution (“pipe”) when a carbonate-quartz sand is subjected to reactive fluid flow: only loosely packed quartz grains remain within pipes, and the number of pipes decreases away from the inlet port. Concurrent shear wave velocity measurements show a decrease in stiffness during dissolution due to stress and fabric changes, and more complex signal codas anticipate the development of internal heterogeneity. The discrete element method is used to simulate localized vertical dissolution features in granular materials, under constant vertical stress and zero lateral strain far-field boundaries. As porosity increases along dissolution pipes, vertical load is transferred to the surrounding soils and marked force chains develop. In terms of equivalent stress, principal stress rotation takes place within pipes and the sediment reaches the Coulomb failure condition inside pipes and in the surrounding medium. Dissolution pipes alter the geo-plumbing of the subsurface, enhance fluid transport but limit the long term performance of storage systems, alter the fluid pressure and effective stress fields, soften the sediment and may trigger shear failures.

  13. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa [BandTech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Linden, Johan [Aabo Akademi, Aabo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  14. Collaborative Sharing of Multidimensional Space-time Data Using HydroShare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Dash, P. K.; Idaszak, R.; Yi, H.; Blanton, B.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a collaborative environment being developed for sharing hydrological data and models. It includes capability to upload data in many formats as resources that can be shared. The HydroShare data model for resources uses a specific format for the representation of each type of data and specifies metadata common to all resource types as well as metadata unique to specific resource types. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) was chosen as the format for multidimensional space-time data in HydroShare. NetCDF is widely used in hydrological and other geoscience modeling because it contains self-describing metadata and supports the creation of array-oriented datasets that may include three spatial dimensions, a time dimension and other user defined dimensions. For example, NetCDF may be used to represent precipitation or surface air temperature fields that have two dimensions in space and one dimension in time. This presentation will illustrate how NetCDF files are used in HydroShare. When a NetCDF file is loaded into HydroShare, header information is extracted using the "ncdump" utility. Python functions developed for the Django web framework on which HydroShare is based, extract science metadata present in the NetCDF file, saving the user from having to enter it. Where the file follows Climate Forecast (CF) convention and Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD) standards, metadata is thus automatically populated. Users also have the ability to add metadata to the resource that may not have been present in the original NetCDF file. HydroShare's metadata editing functionality then writes this science metadata back into the NetCDF file to maintain consistency between the science metadata in HydroShare and the metadata in the NetCDF file. This further helps researchers easily add metadata information following the CF and ACDD conventions. Additional data inspection and subsetting functions were developed, taking advantage of Python and command line

  15. Statistic Non-Parametric Methods of Measurement and Interpretation of Existing Statistic Connections within Seaside Hydro Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    MIRELA SECARĂ

    2008-01-01

    Tourism represents an important field of economic and social life in our country, and the main sector of the economy of Constanta County is the balneary touristic capitalization of Romanian seaside. In order to statistically analyze hydro tourism on Romanian seaside, we have applied non-parametric methods of measuring and interpretation of existing statistic connections within seaside hydro tourism. Major objective of this research is represented by hydro tourism re-establishment on Romanian ...

  16. Evaluation of DNA damage of hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract of Echium amoenum and Nardostachys jatamansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Etebari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today most of herbal medicines are marketing without any standard safety profiles. Although common assumption is that these products are nontoxic but this assumption may be incorrect and dangerous, so toxicological studies should be done for herbal drugs. According to the frequent use of Echium amoenum as immunostimulant and useful in conditions including pain, cough, sore throat and arthritis, and Nardostachys jatamansi as tranquilizer and sleep inducer and evidences of some toxicities, we assessed the probable effect of their extracts on DNA of hepG 2 cells using the comet assay. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of above extracts of the plants are incubated with hepG 2 cells for 24 h. A mixture of cell suspension and agarose gel were put on slides, then slides were embedded in a lysing solution and were put in electrophoresis buffer (pH = 13. Then the electrophoresis procedure took place in an alkaline solution and after neutralization stage, colorization was done by ethidium bromide and comets were observed using a fluorescence microscope. At least 100 cells of each sample were evaluated and three parameters including comet length, percent of DNA in tail, and tail moment were assessed. Results: Both Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extract of E. amoenum were genotoxic in the concentrations of 25 mg/ml and aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extract of N. jatamansi were genotoxic in the concentrations 5 and 10 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: Although E. amoenum and N. jatamansi are highly used in medicine, these herbs have genotoxic effects in determined concentrations and they should be used cautiously.

  17. Thermo-hydro-mechanical modeling and analysis of cement-based energy storages for small-scale dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Henok; Wuttke, Frank

    2016-04-01

    One of the common technologies for balancing the energy demand and supply in district heating, domestic hot water production, thermal power plants and thermal process industries in general is thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage, in particular sensible heat storage as compared to latent heat storage and thermo-chemical storage, has recently gained much interest in the renewable energy storage sector due to its comparatively low cost and technical development. Sensible heat storages work on the principle of storing thermal energy by raising or lowering the temperature of liquid (commonly water) or solid media, and do not involve material phase change or conversion of thermal energy by chemical reactions or adsorption processes as in latent heat and thermo-chemical storages, respectively. In this study, the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of a cement-based thermal energy storage system for domestic applications has been modeled in both saturated as well as unsaturated conditions using the Finite Element method along with an extensive experimental analysis program for parameter detection. For this purpose, a prototype model is used with three well-known thermal energy storage materials, and the temperature and heat distribution of the system were investigated under specific thermo-hydro-mechanical conditions. Thermal energy samples with controlled water to solids ratio and stored in water for up to 28 days were used for the experimental program. The determination of parameters included: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) using a transient line-source measurement technique as well as a steady-state thermal conductivity and expansion meter; mechanical strength parameters such as uni-axial strength, young's modulus of elasticity, poisson's ratio and shear parameters using uniaxial, oedometer and triaxial tests; and hydraulic properties such as hydraulic permeability or conductivity under

  18. Electro-chemo-hydro-mechanical coupling in clayey media; Couplage electro-chimio-hydro-mecaniques dans les milieux argileux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Th

    2004-12-15

    The aim of this study is to understand coupled phenomena that occur in swelling porous materials like clays. Electro-chemo-hydro-mechanical contributions are taken into account to analyze transfers in such minerals. In a first part, a general discussion is proposed to introduce mineralogical and physico- chemical considerations of clayey media. An important objective of this chapter is to show the crucial role of the microstructure. In a second part is presented an imbibition test in a MX80 bentonite powder. The hydraulic diffusivity versus water content curve's decrease is explained thanks to a double porosity model that shows the progressive collapse of meso-pores due to swelling effects at the micro-scale. Thus a multi-scale analysis is necessary to well describe clayey media behaviour. The third chapter exposes such a multi-scale modelling (periodic homogenization). It is based on the double-layer theory and introduces an innovative concept of virtual electrolyte solution. First numerical results are given in a simple geometry (parallel platelets). In the next part are proposed numerical simulations of two kinds: response of the system to a chemical gradient and simulation of electro-osmosis. The end of this chapter puts into relief the necessity to integrate pH effects in the model. In the last part, chemical surface exchanges are incorporated in the modelling to understand pH and ionic force roles in electro-osmotic process. (author)

  19. Development of a dynamic coupled hydro-geomechanical code and its application to induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Mamun

    This research describes the importance of a hydro-geomechanical coupling in the geologic sub-surface environment from fluid injection at geothermal plants, large-scale geological CO2 sequestration for climate mitigation, enhanced oil recovery, and hydraulic fracturing during wells construction in the oil and gas industries. A sequential computational code is developed to capture the multiphysics interaction behavior by linking a flow simulation code TOUGH2 and a geomechanics modeling code PyLith. Numerical formulation of each code is discussed to demonstrate their modeling capabilities. The computational framework involves sequential coupling, and solution of two sub-problems- fluid flow through fractured and porous media and reservoir geomechanics. For each time step of flow calculation, pressure field is passed to the geomechanics code to compute effective stress field and fault slips. A simplified permeability model is implemented in the code that accounts for the permeability of porous and saturated rocks subject to confining stresses. The accuracy of the TOUGH-PyLith coupled simulator is tested by simulating Terzaghi's 1D consolidation problem. The modeling capability of coupled poroelasticity is validated by benchmarking it against Mandel's problem. The code is used to simulate both quasi-static and dynamic earthquake nucleation and slip distribution on a fault from the combined effect of far field tectonic loading and fluid injection by using an appropriate fault constitutive friction model. Results from the quasi-static induced earthquake simulations show a delayed response in earthquake nucleation. This is attributed to the increased total stress in the domain and not accounting for pressure on the fault. However, this issue is resolved in the final chapter in simulating a single event earthquake dynamic rupture. Simulation results show that fluid pressure has a positive effect on slip nucleation and subsequent crack propagation. This is confirmed by

  20. Evaluation of Alternatives to the Ontario Hydro Method as a Reference Method for CAMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2007-03-31

    In June 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). As part of the rule, all coal-fired power plants will be required to do continuous mercury measurements. To complete the required relative accuracy test assessment (RATA), the only reference methods allowed are the wet-chemistry methods: the Ontario Hydro (OH) mercury speciation method (ASTM International D6784-02) and EPA Method 29. Either method will be a challenge and expensive. It would be much more desirable to use an instrumental reference method (IRM) or use sorbent traps as a reference method so that the results can be obtained quickly and cheaply. This report presents the results from testing at Reliant Energy, Inc.'s, Portland Station. The project was designed to compare mercury concentrations measured using sorbent traps to those obtained using the OH method. The tests were done using a RATA scenario and at three different conditions. In addition, as part of the project, limited IRM testing was also completed. The results from the testing show that the sorbent traps compared very well with the OH method and, therefore, must be considered as a potential reference method. Although the IRM testing using manual injection of elemental and oxidized mercury for dynamic spiking showed some promise, it was clear that additional testing was needed. However, this method of dynamic spiking may not be acceptable to EPA, as it does not consider vapor pressure curves for elemental mercury a National Institute of Standards Technology traceable standard.

  1. A large scale flume for hydro-environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Casalí, Javier; Hermosín, Maria del Carmen; Mateos, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of key hydrologic processes such as, water erosion, rill network development or agrochemical transport, requires controlled experiments at the appropriate scale. This is the reason for experimentation at flume scale in hydro-environmental research, used for many decades in this field. This communication presents a research infrastructure, recently completed in its first stage, consisting of a large flume for studying soil water erosion, sediment transport, and environmental processes such as the transport of different substances (salts, fertilizers, herbicides, carbon, …) rather dissolved or absorbed with the sediment. It is located at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) in Córdoba, Spain. The flume is 0.6 m deep, 12 m long, and 6 m wide. It may be divided longitudinally into three channels (6 m long, 1 m wide). The slope of the flume can be regulated from 0 % to 20 %. The device allows studying free surface flows over movable beds with different conditions of sediment transport by supplying clear or sediment-laden water from its head system. The head system consists of three triangular weirs for accurate measurement of water flow, three stilling tanks at the entrance of the flume, and three vibratory hoppers for applying sediments at pre-set rates. The water can be re-circulated, the maximum inflow is then about 30 l s-1, or evacuated, then the inflow is limited to about 20 l s-1. The infrastructure is within a shelter with an area of 400 m2 and height 8.7 m. The area of the shelter allows in-door mechanical preparation of soil and sediments. The height of the shelter will allow the installation of the rainfall simulator and a light rail crane in a second stage, not started yet. Several experiments have been planned at IAS-CSIC already, particularly investigation of the water erosion and sediment transport processes in concentrated flows under different soil conditions, as well as hydrodynamics aspects of suspended and bed

  2. A weather generator for hydro-meteorological hazard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinl, Korbinian; Turkington, Thea; Stowasser, Markus

    2014-05-01

    A new multi-site weather generator is proposed here. Multi-site weather generators are designed to simulate the space-time variation of precipitation and temperature at more than one location. A semi-parametric multi-site precipitation generator was recently proposed by Breinl et. al. (Breinl, K., Turkington, T. and Stowasser, M. 2013. Stochastic generation of multi-site daily precipitation for applications in risk management. Journal of Hydrology, 498: 23-35). A univariate Markov process was used to model precipitation occurrence at five sites in two study areas, with precipitation amounts simulated by resampling observations and then sampling and reshuffling from a parametric precipitation distribution (Breinl et. al., 2013). In this work, the precipitation model by Breinl et. al. (2013) is implemented in a weather generator for daily precipitation and temperature. The daily precipitation generator is extended for a considerably larger network of 19 sites in the Salzach catchment (Austria) and further improved to reduce the duplication of historical observations in the simulation output. Temperature is modelled using an autoregressive-moving average model (ARMA), simulating mean daily temperature at three of the 19 sites. Extreme values have also been considered, as they are often important for hydro-meteorological hazard applications. In the proposed weather generator, power transformations reduce the bias of generated extreme temperatures. The parametric models for precipitation are comprised of Weibull distributions for low precipitation amounts and Generalised Pareto distributions to more accurately capture moderate and extreme precipitation. With its abilities to reproduce the spatial variability of precipitation as well as unobserved extremes, the proposed weather generator is particularly recommended for flood hazard and risk assessment.

  3. What are the hydro-meteorological controls on flood characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, Manuela; Schröter, Kai; Lüdtke, Stefan; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Merz, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Flood events can be expressed by a variety of characteristics such as flood magnitude and extent, event duration or incurred loss. Flood estimation and management may benefit from understanding how the different flood characteristics relate to the hydrological catchment conditions preceding the event and to the meteorological conditions throughout the event. In this study, we therefore propose a methodology to investigate the hydro-meteorological controls on different flood characteristics, based on the simulation of the complete flood risk chain from the flood triggering precipitation event, through runoff generation in the catchment, flood routing and possible inundation in the river system and floodplains to flood loss. Conditional cumulative distribution functions and regression tree analysis delineate the seasonal varying flood processes and indicate that the effect of the hydrological pre-conditions, i.e. soil moisture patterns, and of the meteorological conditions, i.e. weather patterns, depends on the considered flood characteristic. The methodology is exemplified for the Elbe catchment. In this catchment, the length of the build-up period, the event duration and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 10-year flood are governed by weather patterns. The affected length and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 2-year flood are however governed by soil moisture patterns. In case of flood severity and loss, the controlling factor is less pronounced. Severity is slightly governed by soil moisture patterns whereas loss is slightly governed by weather patterns. The study highlights that flood magnitude and extent arise from different flood generation processes and concludes that soil moisture patterns as well as weather patterns are not only beneficial to inform on possible flood occurrence but also on the involved flood processes and resulting flood characteristics.

  4. Evaluation of Hydro-NEXRAD Products in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, M.; Barco, J.; Hogue, T.

    2008-12-01

    The management of surface and groundwater water resources systems in semi-arid regions is a significant challenge. Accurate estimation of sparse and highly variable precipitation estimates is essential for hydrologic modeling of water supply, climate-related impacts, land-cover change studies and flood forecasting. This study compares rainfall estimates from ground-based rain gauges and radar-derived rainfall products in an attempt to assess the accuracy of radar rainfall estimates in Southern California. Twelve gauges in the Calleguas Creek watershed were analyzed for various storms in 2006-2007. The effectiveness of three different Hydro-NEXRAD algorithms (Quick Look, Pseudo NWS PPS, and Hi-Fi) was compared using the data from Sulphur Mountain NEXRAD located north of Los Angeles in Ventura County, California. Discrepancies between radar and gauge data were estimated in term of correlation coefficient, bias, Nash- Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and covariance. As rainfall intensity increases, greater underestimation is observed in radar data. Relationships between radar accuracy and gauge elevation as well as distance from the radar station were examined. In general, NEXRAD radar estimates using the Quick Look algorithm had the best correlation with gauge values. The differences between the precipitation estimates of the various algorithms can be explained by the algorithm properties and methods used to derive estimates. A significant uncertainty in radar estimates is related to the ability of Sulphur Mountain NEXRAD to detect precipitation events below 1.83 km (6000 ft), which was also reported in other studies. Due to the lack of well-distributed ground-based systems in most regions in Southern California, bias-corrected radar estimates can provide improved estimates of precipitation fields enabling more accurate hydrologic modeling.

  5. Using object-based geomorphometry for hydro-geomorphological analysis in a Mediterranean research catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Domenico; Cuomo, Albina; Palmieri, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the paper is to apply an object-based geomorphometric procedure to define the runoff contribution areas and support a hydro-geomorphological analysis of a 3 km2 Mediterranean research catchment (southern Italy). Daily and sub-hourly discharge and electrical conductivity data were collected and recorded during a 3-year monitoring activity. Hydro-chemograph analyses carried out on these data revealed a strong seasonal hydrological response in the catchment that differed from the stormflow events that occur in the wet periods and in dry periods. This analysis enabled us to define the hydro-chemograph signatures related to increasing flood magnitude, which progressively involves various runoff components (baseflow, subsurface flow and surficial flow) and an increasing contributing area to discharge. Field surveys and water table/discharge measurements carried out during a selected storm event enabled us to identify and map specific runoff source areas with homogeneous geomorphological units previously defined as hydro-geomorphotypes (spring points, diffuse seepage along the main channel, seepage along the riparian corridors, diffuse outflow from hillslope taluses and concentrate sapping from colluvial hollows). Following the procedures previously proposed and used by authors for object-based geomorphological mapping, a hydro-geomorphologically oriented segmentation and classification was performed with the eCognition (Trimble, Inc.) package. The best agreement with the expert-based geomorphological mapping was obtained with weighted plan curvature at different-sized windows. By combining the hydro-chemical analysis and object-based hydro-geomorphotype map, the variability of the contribution areas was graphically modeled for the selected event, which occurred during the wet season, by using the log values of flow accumulation that better fit the contribution areas. The results allow us to identify the runoff component on hydro-chemographs for each time step

  6. SI-Hydro: an information system for the Brazilian hydrothermal system; SI-Hidro: um sistema de informacao para o sistema hidrotermico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanini, Walcir

    1995-03-01

    An information system for the Brazilian hydrothermal system denominated SI-Hydro is presented. This information system supplies data on the hydroelectric and thermoelectric park and can be used in the main elements recognition and in the planning and management of the whole system. The information system uses the product INGRES in the platform UNIX/X-Windows, which supplies resources so much for access to the database as for the interface man machine through the fourth generation language denominated Windows4GL. The next main topics are presented: information systems concepts and its relation with the direction levels to an organization and implications for the hydrothermal system operation planning in the scenarios of short, medium and long terms; thermal and hydroelectric plants operation routine details; the most used technical terms definition; and mathematical physical typical plants processes modeling presentation.

  7. Increasing wind energy penetration level using pumped hydro storage in island micro-grid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sheikh Mominul [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Ramea is a small island in southern Newfoundland. Since 2004, it has a wind-diesel hybrid power system to provide power for approximately 600 inhabitants. In this paper, wind speed data, load data, and sizing of pumped hydro system at Ramea, Newfoundland are presented. The dynamic model of wind turbine, pumped hydro system, and diesel generator are included in this paper. The dynamic model is simulated in SIMULINK/MATLAB to determine the system voltage and frequency variation and also to visualize different power outputs. Sizing of pumped hydro system indicates that a 150-kW pumped hydro storage system can be installed in Ramea to increase the renewable energy fraction to 37% which will reduce non-renewable fuel consumption on this island. Also, it is found that a pumped hydro energy storage system for Ramea is a much better choice than a hydrogen energy storage system. Such a system will have a higher overall efficiency and could be maintained using local technical expertise, therefore, a more appropriate technology for Ramea. (orig.)

  8. Using ecosystem services to represent the environment in hydro-economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Connor, Jeffery D.; Crossman, Neville D.; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Demand for water is expected to grow in line with global human population growth, but opportunities to augment supply are limited in many places due to resource limits and expected impacts of climate change. Hydro-economic models are often used to evaluate water resources management options, commonly with a goal of understanding how to maximise water use value and reduce conflicts among competing uses. The environment is now an important factor in decision making, which has resulted in its inclusion in hydro-economic models. We reviewed 95 studies applying hydro-economic models, and documented how the environment is represented in them and the methods they use to value environmental costs and benefits. We also sought out key gaps and inconsistencies in the treatment of the environment in hydro-economic models. We found that representation of environmental values of water is patchy in most applications, and there should be systematic consideration of the scope of environmental values to include and how they should be valued. We argue that the ecosystem services framework offers a systematic approach to identify the full range of environmental costs and benefits. The main challenges to more holistic representation of the environment in hydro-economic models are the current limits to understanding of ecological functions which relate physical, ecological and economic values and critical environmental thresholds; and the treatment of uncertainty.

  9. Precipitation- and soil moisture variability in Germany: Fully coupled WRF-Hydro vs. standard WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Rummler, Thomas; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a crucial role in land-atmosphere interactions. Land-atmosphere feedbacks are expected to be strongest in transition zones between wet and dry land surfaces. It is therefore questionable whether a physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in a numerical model would improve the realism of the simulated atmosphere. This question is investigated here for a two-year period in Germany, including a one-year spinup time, using the hydrologically enhanced version of the Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model, namely WRF-Hydro. The simulated domain covers Germany and neighboring areas. Atmospheric processes are resolved on a 4km resolution grid with explicit convection, whereas hydrological processes, namely overland flow, subsurface lateral flow and river flow, are resolved on a subgrid at 400 m resolution. This WRF-Hydro setup is run for several values of the surface infiltration parameter, in order to evaluate model result uncertainty originating from uncertainty in the description of terrestrial hydrological processes. Soil moisture variability deduced from this WRF-Hydro ensemble is compared with that deduced from a WRF-standalone ensemble. WRF and WRF-Hydro results are validated with daily gridded E-OBS datasets of precipitation and temperature from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset, and daily discharge data from the Global Runoff Data Center GRDC. The impact of the physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in WRF-Hydro is finally investigated with the concept of soil moisture memory.

  10. Hydro-oleophobic silica antireflective films with high laser-damage threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lianghong; Lv, Haibing; Wang, Chengcheng; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2011-02-01

    A simple method of preparing hydro-oleophobic anitreflective films with high laser-damage threshold is reported in this article. By adding fluoroalkylsilanes (FAS) into reactant mixture as a co-precursor, FAS modified SiO 2 was obtained under base catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane. The dip-coating films were deposited on two sides of fused silica substrates. The experimental results on the effect of adding fluoroalkylsilanes (FAS) as a co-precursor on the hydro-oleophobicity and optical properties of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) based silica AR films, are reported. The hydro-oleophobicity of the films was tested by the contact angle measurements and the highest water contact angle of 136° and oil (peanut) contact angle of 93° were obtained. The surface chemical modification of the hydro-oleophobic films was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For the films based on FAS and TEOS, additional absorption bands at 1100 cm -1 corresponding to C-F bond presented, clearly indicating the organic modification of the films. The highest optical transmittance of the hydro-oleophobic films was found to be 99.5%. By a Nd:YAG lasers the laser-damage threshold of as-deposited films was measured at 351 nm wavelength (1 ns). The laser-damage threshold was as high as 22.6 J/cm 2.

  11. Ultra thin hydro-films based on lactose-crosslinked fish gelatin for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxabide, Alaitz; Vairo, Claudia; Santos-Vizcaino, Edorta; Guerrero, Pedro; Pedraz, Jose Luis; Igartua, Manoli; de la Caba, Koro; Hernandez, Rosa Maria

    2017-09-15

    This study focuses on the development and characterization of an ultra thin hydro-film based on lactose-mediated crosslinking of fish gelatin by Maillard reaction. Lactose results in the only efficient crosslinker able to produce resistant to handling hydro-films when compared to conventional crosslinkers such as glutaraldehyde or genipin (tested at 25 and 37°C in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS)).The disappearance of the peak related to the N-containing groups (XPS) and the images obtained by SEM and AFM demonstrate the highly ordered nano-scaled structure of lactose-crosslinked gelatin, confirming the crosslinking efficiency. This dressing presents high hydrophilicity and mild occlusivity, as shown by the swelling curve (max swelling at 5min) and by the occlusion factor of 25.17±0.99%, respectively. It demonstrates high stability to hydrolysis or cell-mediated degradation. Moreover, ISO 10993-5:2009 biocompatibility assay results in undetectable cytotoxicity effects. Spreading, adhesion and proliferation assays confirm the excellent adaptability of the cells onto the hydro-film surface without invading the dressing. Finally, the hydro-film enables the controlled delivery of therapeutic factors, such as the epidermal growth factor (EGF). This study demonstrates that lactose-mediated crosslinking is able to produce ultra thin gelatin hydro-films with suitable properties for biomedical applications, such as wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonlinear Controller Design for Hydro Turbine Speed Governor with Surge%含调压室的水轮机调速系统非线性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔繁镍; 赵元庆

    2014-01-01

    根据水电站水力系统具体水工结构的不同,针对水库-引水涵洞-调压室-压力引水管-水轮发电机组水力发电系统,首次建立了用于水轮机调速系统研究的5阶非线性控制模型,利用完全精确线性化(EFL)方法设计水轮机调速系统EFL控制器。仿真结果表明:EFL设计方法具有较好的系统调节性能和鲁棒性能,与传统PID控制相比,EFL控制器具有更好的转速偏差调节能力和更好的抗干扰性能。%According to the different structures of hydraulic systems combined with hydro-turbine for hydropower plant,the 5-order nonlinear control model of hydro turbine speed governor system for hydraulic system composed of reservoir-tunnel-surge-penstock-generator units was established for the first time. The hydro turbine speed governor system controller was designed by use of exact feedback linear(EFL)method. The simulation re-sults show that the controller designed by EFL method possesses nice system regulation and robust performance,compared with traditional PID con-troller,EFL has better excellent regulating ability of speed error and rejection load disturbance performance.

  13. Assessment of power step performances of variable speed pump-turbine unit by means of hydro-electrical system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, A.; Nicolet, C.; Hell, J.; Moreira, C.

    2017-04-01

    The paper explores the improvement in ancillary services that variable speed technologies can provide for the case of an existing pumped storage power plant of 2x210 MVA which conversion from fixed speed to variable speed is investigated with a focus on the power step performances of the units. First two motor-generator variable speed technologies are introduced, namely the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) and the Full Scale Frequency Converter (FSFC). Then a detailed numerical simulation model of the investigated power plant used to simulate power steps response and comprising the waterways, the pump-turbine unit, the motor-generator, the grid connection and the control systems is presented. Hydroelectric system time domain simulations are performed in order to determine the shortest response time achievable, taking into account the constraints from the maximum penstock pressure and from the rotational speed limits. It is shown that the maximum instantaneous power step response up and down depends on the hydro-mechanical characteristics of the pump-turbine unit and of the motor-generator speed limits. As a results, for the investigated test case, the FSFC solution offer the best power step response performances.

  14. Eco-Hydro-Connectivity: Tracking the Diurnal Signal of Plant Water Uptake through the Hydrologic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, T.; Hassler, S. K.; Heidbuechel, I.; Simard, S.; Guntner, A.; Weiler, M.

    2014-12-01

    Perfectly-mixed reactions are Markovian, because the advance of the state depends only on the current state. Poor mixing (or the partner process of upscaling over heterogeneous concentrations) renders the process non-Markovian because of memory of the chemical structure. In other words, a particle takes some time to reach a suitable reaction site. The time depends on structure, and the structure changes over time. For purely diffusive transport, a calculation of the random time to reach the edges of ``islands'' allows a solution of the non-Markovian reaction rates that evolve (decrease) over time. This randomization of the active (operational) reaction time leads to non-Markovian reactions and an integro-differential governing equation of chemical evolution. Implications for more complex (advection/diffusion) environments are discussed.

  15. Analysis of performance with variable stroke of a torque based renewable micro hydro power generation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Rahman, Md. Shad; Sultan, Rasel A.; Naif, M. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The most important addition of modern science is renewable energy. And the most useful and the most cheaply renewable power generation source is Hydropower. Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called Hydroelectric power or Hydropower. Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the earth's water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. As far as Bangladesh is concerned, only a small fraction of electricity is generated by hydropower. The government has set a target of meeting 5 per cent of the electricity demand by 2015 by utilizing renewable energy and 10 per cent by the year 2020. Currently, renewable energies contribute to less than 1 per cent of the country's total electricity generation. The aim of our analysis is to demonstrate and observe the hydropower of our country in micro-scale by our experimental setup which is completely new in concept. This paper consists results of our findings and we find larger the number of stroke higher the rpm correspondingly higher efficiency. We find maximum rpm for 2stroke when fixed fly wheel weight was 18Kg and water was 10liter. It might help in case of utilizing this renewable energy potential at high scale.

  16. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    OpenAIRE

    Hoes, O. A. C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; R. J. van der Ent

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have been inconsistent and incomplete. In this study we identified all locations on East Asian islands (from Japan, Taiwan Phillipines to Indonesia) which are suitable for hydropower. For this we combin...

  17. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, O.A.C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; Van der Ent, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have

  18. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, O.A.C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; Van der Ent, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have

  19. Antimicrobial Potency of Hydro, acetone and Ethanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical constituents of the plant in addition to the effect of temperature ... of inhibition against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and yeast, ... of antibiotics that could be useful for infectious disease chemotherapy and control.

  20. Rheological numerical simulation for thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling analysis for rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-yin; XU Jie; LI Yun-peng; GUO Shu-tai; AI Chuan-zhi

    2007-01-01

    Under the environment of seepage field, stress field and temperature field interaction and influence, the three fields will not only produce coupling effect, but also have deformation with time due to the rheological behavior of rock mass. In the paper, based on the fundamental theories of rock mass coupling theory and rheological mechanics, the rheological model for fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for rock mass was set up, and the corresponding constitutive relationship, the conservation equation of mass and the conservation equation of energy were given, and the finite element formulas were derived for coupling analysis of rock mass. During establishing governing equations, rock mass was assumed approximately as macro-equivalent continuum medium. The obtained rheological numerical model for fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis can be used for analyzing and predicting the long-term stability of underground caverns and slope engineering under the condition of thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling with rheological deformation.

  1. Development of Manitoba Hydro's public water safety around dams management guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, Dave; McPhail, Gord; Murphy, Shayla; Schellenberg, Gord [KGS Acres, Winnipeg, (Canada); Read, Nick [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Several drowning fatalities and safety incidents have occurred around dams in Ontario, Manitoba and other jurisdictions in Canada. Following these incidents, Manitoba Hydro implemented several measures to improve public safety around its dams with the development of a warning signs manual. Manitoba Hydro found that a standard centralized approach to the process of improving public safety is better for ensuring compliance and consistency, even though they have safety measures in place. This paper described the process that Manitoba Hydro has followed in developing a formal set of public water safety around dams (PWSD) guidelines and a program for implementing these guidelines. This program was developed with the intent of providing a high standard of public protection and continuous improvement and monitoring on par with the effect spent on similar dam safety type programs. This paper focused on the development of the pilot PWSD management plan for Pine Falls generating station in order to test the effectiveness and usability of the guidelines.

  2. Integrating protection and control data and functions in Ontario Hydro substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whatley, J.A.; Kwan, J.S.K. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    The basic requirements and desirable features of protection and control system integration which meet the needs of Ontario Hydro are described, and technical functional requirements for protection and control systems and data gathering are categorized. The introduction of intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) with communications capability offer new possibilities for substations, but also present new problems, including the creation of islands with massive amounts of data and limitations in sharing of data between devices due to incompatible formats. Ontario Hydro`s experience in the evolution of protection and control technology and the Utility`s continuing participation in significant industry efforts to develop practical substation local area network (LAN) technology are also discussed. LAN technology can provide the communications infrastructure to change the way in which utilities operate and maintain their assets. Nevertheless, translating existing requirements, safe practices and beneficial proven aspects of system design into the new LAN technology continues to pose significant challenges. 2 figs.

  3. Investigation of SUS304 Stainless Steel with Warm Hydro-mechanical Deep Drawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongchao XU; Dachang KANG; Shihong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Basing on warm mechanical property of SUS304 stainless steel and hydro-mechanical deep drawing process, warm hydro-mechanical deep drawing process is proposed and discussed with experiments in this paper. The experiments are performed at four different temperatures. The results show that the formability of stainless steel is improved under the condition of warm temperature. Warm hydro-mechanical deep drawing raises limiting drawing ratio of SUS304 effectively, and limiting drawing ratio 3.3 is obtained, which is beyond 2.0 with conventional deep drawing.The temperature of 90℃ is beneficial to the forming of SUS304 stainless steel, the strain-induced martensite is controlled effectively, and the thickness distribution is more uniform.

  4. Hydro power in the German system of energy supply; Wasserkraft im Energiesystem Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Abt. Neue Energietechnologie und Technikanalyse

    1997-12-31

    The technical potentials of electric power generation from hydro power in Germany, the current harnessing of hydro power, its costs, and certain characteristic quantities reflecting its effects on the environment are described. These diverse characteristic quantities are compared with those of other renewable and fossil energy sources used to generate electricity. On this basis, opportunities for extending the use of hydro power in Germany and its limits are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Ziel der folgenden Ausfuehrungen ist, die technischen Potentiale und deren derzeitige Nutzung, die Kosten und bestimmte die Umwelteffekte beschreibende Kenngroessen einer Stromerzeugung aus Wasserkraft in Deutschland darzustellen. Diese unterschiedlichen Kenngroessen werden anschliessend mit denen anderer regenerativer Energien und fossiler Energietraeger zur Stromerzeugung verglichen. Ausgehend davon werden die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer weitergehenden Wasserkraftnutzung im Energiesystem Deutschland diskutiert. (orig.)

  5. Load frequency stabilization of four area hydro thermal system using Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ruby meena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic generation control in electric power system design is a major concern nowadays due to its rising size, varying structure, integration of renewable-energy sources and distributed generators to meet the growing demand. In this paper, automatic generation control of an interconnected four area hydro thermal system examined. Each area equipped with reheat turbine for thermal system and hydro turbine with electric governor for hydro system. Load frequency stabilization gained by including Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system (SMES in all areas. A comparative analysis made between Proportional and Integral (PI controller with Fuzzy Logic controller with and without including SMES in the four area power system. The designed Fuzzy Logic Controller can generate best dynamic performance for step load perturbations given in all areas. The system simulation realized by using MATLAB software.

  6. Development of HydroImage, A User Friendly Hydrogeophysical Characterization Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, Chin Man [GSI Environmental; Hubbard, Susan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Chen, Jinsong [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Suribhatla, Raghu [AMEC E& I; Kaback, Dawn Samara [AMEC E& I

    2014-01-29

    HydroImage, user friendly software that utilizes high-resolution geophysical data for estimating hydrogeological parameters in subsurface strate, was developed under this grant. HydroImage runs on a personal computer platform to promote broad use by hydrogeologists to further understanding of subsurface processes that govern contaminant fate, transport, and remediation. The unique software provides estimates of hydrogeological properties over continuous volumes of the subsurface, whereas previous approaches only allow estimation of point locations. thus, this unique tool can be used to significantly enhance site conceptual models and improve design and operation of remediation systems. The HydroImage technical approach uses statistical models to integrate geophysical data with borehole geological data and hydrological measurements to produce hydrogeological parameter estimates as 2-D or 3-D images.

  7. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  8. 78 FR 36768 - Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Electron Hydro, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  9. 77 FR 40354 - Mesa de Los Carros Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mesa de Los Carros Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Mesa De Los Carros Hydro, LLC filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Mesa De Los Carros Pumped Storage Project to...

  10. Nanofiber based triple layer hydro-philic/-phobic membrane - a solution for pore wetting in membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, J. A.; Rana, D.; Matsuura, T.; Ayyanar, N.; Shanmugasundaram, T. S.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    The innovative design and synthesis of nanofiber based hydro-philic/phobic membranes with a thin hydro-phobic nanofiber layer on the top and a thin hydrophilic nanofiber layer on the bottom of the conventional casted micro-porous layer which opens up a solution for membrane pore wetting and improves the pure water flux in membrane distillation. PMID:25377488

  11. 75 FR 66083 - Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On May 6, 2010, and supplemented on July 15, 2010, Iron Mask Hydro, LLC filed an application for... the feasibility of the Iron Mask Pumped Storage Project to be located near the U.S. Bureau...

  12. 75 FR 53963 - Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On May 6, 2010, Iron Mask Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Iron Mask...

  13. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  14. 77 FR 64973 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC. e. Name of Project: Gilbert... to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). (2006). h. Applicant Contact: Don W. Gilbert and...

  15. 77 FR 23241 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License... Friends Fund XXX, LLC. e. Name of Project: New Cumberland Locks and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location... XXX, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559; (877) 556-6566...

  16. 78 FR 49509 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice Announcing... Virginia and Jefferson County, Ohio. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC...

  17. 76 FR 27310 - Coleman Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coleman Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Coleman Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Coleman Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Little Timber Creek... 20426. m. The application is not ready for environmental analysis at this time. n. The proposed...

  18. 78 FR 60271 - Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of..., Hollow Dam Power Company (transferor) and Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an application for transfer of license for the Hollow Dam Project, FERC No. 6972, located on the West Branch...

  19. 77 FR 10740 - Riverbank Hydro No. 22, LLC; FFP Project 93, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 22, LLC; FFP Project 93, LLC; Notice Announcing... applications were filed by Riverbank Hydro No. 22, LLC for Project No. 14269-000, and FFP Project 93, LLC...

  20. 77 FR 13318 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV, FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV, FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV: Project No. 14185-000. 2. FFP...