WorldWideScience

Sample records for tv viewing telephone

  1. Television viewing and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

    2003-11-01

    With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.

  2. Bevarage consumption during television viewing and tooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study assessed the television (TV) viewing habits, preferred energy and acidic drinks consumed when watching television and the history of tooth sensitivity among adolescents who watched television >2 hours daily (HTV) and <2 hour daily. (LTV). Subjects and Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted in Ife ...

  3. An Examination of Television Viewing Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies nine motivations for television viewing and relates these to age, viewing levels, television attitudes of attachment and reality, and program preferences. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of uses and gratifications research perspectives. (JMF)

  4. Life without TV? cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, Jon; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the amount of time Americans spend watching television. Cultivation theory has been important in exploring behavioral effects of television viewing for many years. However, psychosocial health has received much less scrutiny in relation to television viewing time. This investigation examined the hypotheses that television-free individuals and viewers adhering to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations (up to 2 hr of viewing per day) would display a more positive psychosocial health profile when compared with more frequent television viewers. Results confirmed the hypothesis for women, but not for men. Our analysis showed that moderate television viewing, as defined by the AAP, provides a similar relation with psychosocial health as being television-free. Results are discussed in a cultivation theory framework.

  5. Parent-Child Communication about Television: A View from the Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Walter; Weaver, James B., III

    This study examined both general and specific parent-child television viewing experiences together with any interactions related to television viewing whether the child has watched television with a parent or alone. A total of 384 telephone interviews of parents (57% female, 43% male) with children at home between the ages of 6 and 18 were…

  6. Television Viewing at Home: Age Trends in Visual Attention and Time with TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Decribes age trends in television viewing time and visual attention of children and adults videotaped in their homes for 10-day periods. Shows that the increase in visual attention to television during the preschool years is consistent with the theory that television program comprehensibility is a major determinant of attention in young children.…

  7. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  8. Children's violent television viewing: are parents monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R

    2004-07-01

    Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched

  9. Meanings of television in older adults’ lives: an analysis of change and continuity in television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.; van Selm, M.

    2012-01-01

    Television viewing is an important leisure activity for older adults. The aim of the current study is to provide insight into the meanings of television in older adults' lives, by analysing change and continuity in their television viewing. A qualitative study was conducted that included in-depth

  10. Television viewing associates with delayed language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Pruksananonda, Chandhita

    2008-07-01

    To identify impact of television viewing on language development. The case-control study included 56 new patients with language delay and 110 normal children, aged 15-48 months. Language delay was diagnosed by reviewing language milestones and Denver-II. Television viewing variables and child/parental characteristics between both groups were interviewed. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square test. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from multivariate logistic regression model. Forty-six boys and 10 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.11+/-0.47 years of the case group and 59 boys and 51 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.23+/-0.80 years of the control group were enrolled. Children who had language delay usually started watching television earlier at age 7.22+/-5.52 months vs. 11.92+/-5.86 months, p-valuetelevision than normal children (3.05+/-1.90 h/day vs. 1.85+/-1.18 h/day; p-valuetelevision attelevision>2 h/day were approximately six times more likely to have language delays. There is a relationship between early onset and high frequency of TV viewing and language delay.

  11. Selective Television Viewing: A Limited Possibility.

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    Signorielli, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that prime-time television presents a remarkably consistent portrayal of the world across program genres and that it offers few scheduling alternatives to avoiding violence-laden adventure programs. Finds that the average viewer has little opportunity to exercise any kind of choice in viewing. (JD)

  12. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriweradechachai Suntree

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS, and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively. On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3. Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day and delayed language development at the age of 2 years. Gender (male was the only variable associated with delayed language development.

  13. The Effect of Viewing Television Violence on Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…

  14. The relationship between parents' and children's television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B; Hennessy, Michael

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effect of parental television viewing on children's television viewing compared with traditional predictors such as household television access, parental rules, and demographic characteristics of the child, parent, and household. An online survey using national samples of 1550 parents with children in 3 age groups (children ≤ 5 years, children aged 6-11 years, and adolescents aged 12-17 years), weighted to be representative of US parents with children in each age group. Adolescents (n = 629) of participating parents were also surveyed. Parent television time is associated with child television time and had a stronger relationship to child time than access to television in the home or the child's bedroom, as well as parental rules about television viewing and coviewing. This pattern persisted across all age groups of children. Educating parents about the relationship between their own and their child's viewing may be a useful strategy for interventions that aim to reduce children's excessive television viewing. Additionally, health professionals can engage parents in a discussion about how family television time is associated with increased television time for children.

  15. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Chuthapisith, Jariya; Mo-suwan, Ladda; Kriweradechachai, Suntree; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Choprapawon, Chanpen

    2009-01-01

    Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a) study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age television (as recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), television toward their child's development. Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS), and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively). On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male) was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3). Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day) and delayed language development at the

  16. Viewing Age: Lifespan Identity and Television Viewing Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Jake

    1997-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical perspective on media viewing choices, grounded in social identity theory. Content analysis demonstrates that child, younger adult, and older adult television viewers show a preference for viewing characters of their own age. The experiment demonstrates that young adults' preference for viewing young adult characters exists…

  17. Perceived Neighborhood and Home Environmental Factors Associated with Television Viewing among Taiwanese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chun Hsueh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the associations between perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors and excessive television (TV viewing time among Taiwanese older adults. The sample data was collected by administering computer-assisted telephone interviewers to 980 Taiwanese older adults (aged ≥ 65 years living in two regions. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood and home environmental attributions and TV viewing time by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors were associated with excessive TV viewing time (≥2 h/day after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with a reference group, older adults who perceived their neighborhoods to have unsafe traffic were more likely to report excessive TV viewing time (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.02–1.82. Older adults who reported having two or more TV sets in the home (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.28–2.44 and having a TV in the bedroom (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.18–2.03 were also more likely to report excessive TV viewing time. Further longitudinal research can confirm these findings, and tailored interventions focusing on the perceptions of neighborhood traffic safety and TV access at home for older adults might be effective means of preventing excessive TV viewing time.

  18. Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

  19. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jie Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. METHODS: Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010, a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years. TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI, physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. RESULTS: Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all P<0.01. Longer TV viewing time was significantly associated with higher BMI (Coefficients B = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.24 after adjusting for age, gender, employment status, marital status, education level, smoking activity and vigorous physical activity. This association was stronger in women than men (Coefficients B: 0.19 versus 0.15 and strongest in those aged 18 to 34 years (Coefficients B = 0.35. Furthermore, an hour increase in daily TV viewing was associated with 10% greater odds of being obese. CONCLUSIONS: A significant socioeconomic gradient in television viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  20. Political Implications of Heavy Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Beeck, Marilyn

    This paper empirically evaluates the proposition that political conformism, specifically structural, passive, psychological, and defensive conformism, is a function of exposure to mass media. Secondary analysis of data from the National Opinion Research Center's 1975 General Social Survey revealed a significant relationship between TV viewing and…

  1. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children.

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    Dennison, Barbara A; Russo, Theresa J; Burdick, Patrick A; Jenkins, Paul L

    2004-02-01

    Television viewing has been associated with increased violence in play and higher rates of obesity. Although there are interventions to reduce television viewing by school-aged children, there are none for younger children. To develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Randomized controlled trial conducted in 16 preschool and/or day care centers in rural upstate New York. Children aged 2.6 through 5.5 years. Children attending intervention centers received a 7-session program designed to reduce television viewing as part of a health promotion curriculum, whereas children attending the control centers received a safety and injury prevention program. Change in parent-reported child television/video viewing and measured growth variables. Before the intervention, the intervention and control groups viewed 11.9 and 14.0 h/wk of television/videos, respectively. Afterward, children in the intervention group decreased their television/video viewing 3.1 h/wk, whereas children in the control group increased their viewing by 1.6 h/wk, for an adjusted difference between the groups of -4.7 h/wk (95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -1.0 h/wk; P =.02). The percentage of children watching television/videos more than 2 h/d also decreased significantly from 33% to 18% among the intervention group, compared with an increase of 41% to 47% among the control group, for a difference of -21.5% (95% confidence interval, -42.5% to -0.5%; P =.046). There were no statistically significant differences in children's growth between groups. This study is the first to show that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects associated with reductions in young children's television viewing.

  2. Television Viewing Time in Hong Kong Adult Population: Associations with Body Mass Index and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M.; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Methods Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009–2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age≥18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Results Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all PTV viewing time was significantly associated with higher BMI (Coefficients B = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.24) after adjusting for age, gender, employment status, marital status, education level, smoking activity and vigorous physical activity. This association was stronger in women than men (Coefficients B: 0.19 versus 0.15) and strongest in those aged 18 to 34 years (Coefficients B = 0.35). Furthermore, an hour increase in daily TV viewing was associated with 10% greater odds of being obese. Conclusions A significant socioeconomic gradient in television viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing – BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing. PMID:24427309

  3. Television viewing and food consumption in Flemish adolescents in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine Anna; Maes, Lea

    2006-01-01

    To examine associations of television viewing with overall food consumption A computerised 24-hour dietary recall and a questionnaire were completed by 1031 adolescents (+/- 12-14 years of age). Those who generally watched more television were more likely to consume frequently advertised items such as soft drinks and snacks. Not all frequently advertised food items (e.g. cereals) were associated with television viewing. An inverse association was found with fruit, water and milk. A negative association was found with brown bread; a positive association was found with white bread. The results indicate that high television viewing and a less nutrient dense food pattern are part of a lifestyle influenced by common underlying factors. Nutrition interventions aimed at improving adolescents' food habits should target high television-viewers. Our findings underline the importance of tackling socio-demographic differences.

  4. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  5. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all Ptelevision viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  6. Parenting quality and television viewing among 10 year old children.

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    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between parenting quality and children's screen-time. Data from the US National Institute Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, collected in 2001, were analysed. Videotaped interaction tasks of 874 mother-child dyads were rated for ten parenting qualities (i.e., agency, persistence, negativity, affection, felt security, affective mutuality, autonomy granting, stimulation of cognitive development, quality of assistance & hostility). Children (aged 10-11yrs) self-reported television viewing on weekdays and weekends. Associations between parenting quality and television viewing were examined using logistic regression. Greater felt security was associated with lower odds of watching >2h of television on weekdays among boys (p=0.05). High agency was associated with greater odds of watching >2h of television per day on weekdays among girls (p=0.02). High supportive presence and quality of child assistance were associated with lower odds of watching >2h of television on Saturdays (p=0.05) among girls. Child agency (i.e., self-direction and confidence) was associated with greater television viewing whereas parenting characterised by perceived security, support and structured yet flexible guidance was associated with lower television viewing. Parent-child interactions and communication may be an appropriate target for sedentary behaviour interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between television viewing and self-esteem in children.

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    Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Ho, Daniel Sai Yin; Mak, Kwok Hang; Wan, Ka Leung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of excess television (TV) viewing on specific mental health outcomes, such as self-esteem. We explored the cross-sectional association between TV viewing hours and self-esteem in young children. A total of 70,210 primary 4 (US grade 4) participants of the Department of Health Student Health Service, Hong Kong, in 1998-2000 reported TV viewing hours in a standardized questionnaire. Self-esteem was assessed using the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories for Children (SEI) with 4 subscales. Multivariate linear regression yielded beta coefficients (β) for SEI subscale scores by TV hours, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, lifestyle characteristics, and highest parental education and occupational status. Only 10.9% of children watched >4 hours per day, while 45.3% watched TV for 1 to ≤2 hours per day. Compared with children who watched Children who watched >2 hours of TV per day had lower SEI scores than those who watched self-esteem among young children. The development of self-esteem among children who report little or excessive TV viewing should be further studied.

  8. Governing Practices of Cable Television and Its Relationship to the Telephone Common Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Martin

    This dissertation examines the legislative, economic, political, and technological influences that have governed cable television (CATV) during the years of its existence. Separate chapters deal with the beginnings of CATV, the economics of CATV, the problems incurred in CATV franchising, and the relationship of CATV to the telephone common…

  9. Family structure and children's television viewing and physical activity.

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    Bagley, Sarah; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David

    2006-05-01

    This study aimed to examine how physical activity (PA) and television (TV) viewing time of children varied according to family structure. In 2001, 5- to 6-yr-old (N = 296) and 10- to 12-yr-old (N = 919) children and their parents were recruited from 19 state elementary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Children's PA was objectively assessed using accelerometers worn for 8 d. Sociodemographic and family structure information and time spent watching TV was collected via questionnaire completed by parents. ANCOVA revealed that, after controlling for socioeconomic status and age of child, boys without any siblings spent more minutes per day watching TV (153.2 +/- 71.3) compared with those who have siblings (129.0 +/- 64.4, P s sex with PA and between number of siblings and sex with TV viewing. Family structure may be an important source of influence on children's PA and TV viewing time. Aspects of family structure interact differently with PA and TV viewing, suggesting interventions may need to be tailored with consideration of the family structure of children.

  10. Modeling the Gratification-Seeking Process of Television Viewing.

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    Lin, Carolyn A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines adolescents' television viewing motives, activities, and satisfaction, in an attempt to integrate the audience activity construct into the uses and gratifications model. Suggests that more strongly motivated viewers engage more actively in various audience activities throughout the viewing process and receive greater viewing satisfaction…

  11. 24 CFR 3285.704 - Telephone and cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Telephone and cable TV. 3285.704....704 Telephone and cable TV. Refer to § 3285.906 for considerations pertinent to installation of telephone and cable TV. ...

  12. Investigating the influence of eating habits, body weight and television programme preferences on television viewing time and domestic computer usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptou, Elena; Papastefanou, Georgios; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the influence of eating habits, body weight and television programme preference on television viewing time and domestic computer usage, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and home media environment indicators. In addition, potential substitution or complementarity in screen time was investigated. Individual level data were collected via questionnaires that were administered to a random sample of 2,946 Germans. The econometric analysis employed a seemingly unrelated bivariate ordered probit model to conjointly estimate television viewing time and time engaged in domestic computer usage. Television viewing and domestic computer usage represent two independent behaviours in both genders and across all age groups. Dietary habits have a significant impact on television watching with less healthy food choices associated with increasing television viewing time. Body weight is found to be positively correlated with television screen time in both men and women, and overweight individuals have a higher propensity for heavy television viewing. Similar results were obtained for age groups where an increasing body mass index (BMI) in adults over 24 years old is more likely to be positively associated with a higher duration of television watching. With respect to dietary habits of domestic computer users, participants aged over 24 years of both genders seem to adopt more healthy dietary patterns. A downward trend in the BMI of domestic computer users was observed in women and adults aged 25-60 years. On the contrary, young domestic computer users 18-24 years old have a higher body weight than non-users. Television programme preferences also affect television screen time with clear differences to be observed between genders and across different age groups. In order to reduce total screen time, health interventions should target different types of screen viewing audiences separately.

  13. Factors that affect television viewing time in preschool and primary schoolchildren.

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    Songül Yalçin, Siddika; Tugrul, Belma; Naçar, NazIre; Tuncer, Murat; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2002-12-01

    Excessive viewing of television (TV) has been linked to aggressive behavior, violence and childhood obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted among preschool children and primary schoolchildren in Ankara during March and April 1999 to detect the factors that affect TV viewing time and to evaluate their parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to TV. The parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire about TV habits of their family, the number and location of TVs in the household and the effect of TV on children. Of 400 questionnaires, 350 answered the questions appropriately for this study. Children were divided into two groups, preschool children and primary schoolchildren. Television viewing time was given daily, as a mean of weekday. The mean age for becoming a TV viewer was 2.7 +/- 1.6 years. Of all, 62% of children spent >/= 2h/day watching TV and 8.3% of children spent > 4 h. The TV viewing time of child was significantly and positively correlated with that of siblings, mother and father for both groups. Age and sleeping time of the child, age and the education level of mother, presence of TV in the child's room and the starting age watching TV did not affect the viewing time. One-half of parents reported that the TV programs watched included violence, and one-third thought TV depicts child abuse, especially emotional abuse. It was found that the TV watching habits of parents had an influence on those of their children. Therefore, pediatricians should take 'TV histories' of children and their parents and educate parents how to become good TV viewers.

  14. Third-Person Perception of Television-Viewing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiser, Wolfram; Peter, Jochen

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the third-person effect extends to perceptions of other people's television viewing, and whether it can be explained by a general tendency to underrate the education of others. Finds that people tended to perceive others as more inclined toward undesirable viewing behaviors, and that this third-person perception was stronger…

  15. Dysfunctional Effects of Television Viewing on Children: A Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mediation. This can take the form of restrictive, co-viewing and instructive methods. But on the contrary people due not mediate in their children's viewing habit due to social pressure on them and thereby living the future of their children and that of the society at mercy television programmers. Mediation will make them ...

  16. Home Literacy, Television Viewing, Fidgeting and ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Factors related to parent ratings of young children's (mean age = 3.72, range = 3-6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was…

  17. Television viewing by young Latino children: Evidence of heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica M.S.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Latina mothers differs by maternal language preference (English/Spanish) and to compare these differences to young children with non-Latina white mothers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Setting Nationally representative sample. Participants 1,347 mothers of children 4-35 months. Main Exposure Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (non-Latina white (white), Latina) and within Latinas, stratification by maternal language preference (English/Spanish). Outcome Measure Hours of daily television viewed by the child. Results Bivariate analyses showed children of English- versus Spanish-speaking Latinas watch more daily television (1.88 versus 1.31 hours,ptelevision. However, among children 12-23 and 24-35 months, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Latinas (IRR=1.61,CI=1.17-2.22; IRR=1.66,CI=1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared to children of white mothers, children of both Latina subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4-11 month olds. However, among 12-23 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more compared to children of white mothers (IRR=1.57,CI=1.18-2.11). Among 24-35 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched similar amounts compared to children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Latinas watched less (IRR=0.69,CI=0.50-0.95). Conclusions Television viewing amounts among young children with Latina mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Latino children. PMID:20124147

  18. Does eating during television viewing affect mealtimes in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Susana R; Dolan, Lawrence M; Powers, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    This study looks for differences in mealtime characteristics and glycemic control for young children with type 1 diabetes who either eat with television (TV) viewing or without TV viewing. Sample size is 24 families (mean child age=5.2, SD=1.0 years). Meals with TV lasted 6 minutes longer than meals without TV. Meals with TV were associated with greater fat intake and higher average glucose levels, but not with greater intake of calories, carbohydrates, or more child bites. This study suggests relations between TV viewing and some negative outcomes for young children, but more research is needed to determine causation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictors of parents' intention to limit children's television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-12-01

    Scientific evidence demonstrates a link between viewing time and several poor health outcomes. We use a reasoned action approach to identify the determinants and beliefs associated with parents' intention to limit their children's television viewing. We surveyed a random sample of 516 caregivers to children ages 3-16 in a large Northeastern city. Multiple regression analyses were used to test a reasoned action model and examine the differences across demographic groups. The intention to limit viewing (-3 to 3) was low among parents of adolescents (M: 0.05) compared with parents of 3-6 year olds (M: 1.49) and 7-12 year olds (M: 1.16). Attitudes were the strongest determinant of intention (β = 0.43) across all demographic groups and normative pressure was also significantly related to intention (β = 0.20), except among parents of adolescents. Relevant beliefs associated with intention to limit viewing included: limiting television would be associated with the child exercising more, doing better in school, talking to family more and having less exposure to inappropriate content. Attitudes and normative pressure play an important role in determining parents' intention to limit their child's television viewing. The beliefs that were associated with parents' intention to limit should be emphasized by health professionals and in health communication campaigns.

  20. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guran, T; Bereket, A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity.

  1. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jansen, Pauline W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time

  2. 24 CFR 3285.906 - Telephone and cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Information for Manufacturer's Installation Instructions § 3285.906 Telephone and cable TV. It is recommended that the installation instructions explain that telephone and cable TV wiring should be installed in accordance with requirements of...

  3. Time trends of physical activity and television viewing time in Brazil: 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore I; Hallal, Pedro C; Malta, Deborah C; Lee, I-Min

    2014-08-15

    Despite recent advances in surveillance of physical activity, data on time trends of physical activity in low and middle-income countries are lacking. This study describes time trends in physical activity and television viewing between 2006 and 2012 among Brazilian adults. Data from 371,271 adult participants (18 + years) in the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Illnesses using Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) were analysed. Time trends in leisure-time physical activity (≥ 5 days/wk; ≥ 30 min/day), transportation physical activity (using bicycle or walking for ≥ 30 minutes per day as a means of transportation to/from work) and proportion of participants spending more than three hours per day watching television were analysed. Annual changes according to sex, age and years of schooling were calculated. There was an increase in leisure-time physical activity from 12.8% in 2006 to 14.9% in 2012 (annual increase of 1.9%; p physical activity decreased 12.9% per year (p physical activity appears to be increasing, while television viewing time appears to be decreasing in recent years. However, transportation physical activity has been declining. These data are important for informing national public health policies.

  4. Children and television watching: a qualitative study of New Zealand parents' perceptions and views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, E; Roberts, V; Maddison, R; Meagher-Lundberg, P; Dixon, R; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-05-01

    Television (TV) viewing is one of the most pervasive sedentary pursuits among children and adolescents. Research studies have shown that higher TV viewing hours are associated with a number of negative effects such as being overweight and obese, attention and behavioural problems, and impaired academic performance. Most interventions to reduce time spent watching TV have been school-based and little is known about the strategies that families use to control TV watching time. Six focus groups with Māori, Pacific and non-Māori non-Pacific parents were conducted to examine New Zealand parents' perceptions of their children's TV watching. Focus groups explored attitudes towards TV viewing, strategies used to reduce viewing, and opinion on two different electronic monitors that can be used to restrict TV viewing. Focus group discussions were transcribed and a content analysis was conducted. Parents described TV as playing a dominant role in their family's lives, and highlighted several barriers to reducing children's TV viewing, such as parents not willing to reduce their own TV watching, a lack of safe alternatives to TV and the need to use TV as a babysitting tool. Limiting access to TV, making TV viewing a reward and finding alternative activities were current strategies parents employed to limit TV viewing; however, the barriers highlighted by parents make implementing such strategies difficult. Attitudes towards electronic monitor use to reduce TV viewing were mixed, but suggest further investigation of these devices is needed. Electronic devices that restrict the amount and content of TV viewing have some potential to support interventions and merit further investigation. It is imperative for interventions aimed at reducing TV viewing to consider the role TV plays within a family context, ensuring parental perceptions around the benefits and barriers of reducing TV are accounted for.

  5. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  6. Television viewing associated with adverse dietary outcomes in children ages 2-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C; Ward, D; White, M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the evidence for the association between television viewing and diet in children ages 2-6. Data sources included PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, ERIC, SportDISCUS, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and hand searches of reference lists of relevant articles. Twelve studies were reviewed in which the relationship between television viewing and diet was assessed in children between the ages of 2 and 6. All but one study reported significant relationship between television viewing time and adverse dietary outcomes. Parent-reported television viewing time was used to assay child television viewing in all included studies. Food frequency survey was the most frequent method of dietary assessment, and parent served as proxies for children in all studies. Lower fruit and/or vegetable intake was the most frequently reported dietary outcome, followed by increased energy intake with increased television viewing. The majority of studies reported adverse dietary outcomes with as little as 1 h of daily television exposure. While these results are consistent with recommendations from child health advocates to limit television viewing in young children, they also suggest that further efforts to limit television viewing in young children may be needed to aid in obesity prevention. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  8. Fit5Kids TV reduction program and Latino preschoolers' TV viewing behaviors: A pilot cluster RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive television (TV) viewing has been associated with a greater risk of childhood obesity. Latino children watch higher amounts of TV than their peers and are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. Since TV viewing and obesity track from preschool into adolescence, early intervention...

  9. Factors associated with television viewing time in toddlers and preschoolers in Greece: the GENESIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Kondaki, Katerina; Liarigkovinos, Thodoris; Manios, Yannis

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the television (TV) viewing time of preschoolers and to examine factors that may be associated with it. A representative sample of 2374 Greek children aged 1-5 years was examined (GENESIS study). Several anthropometric, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. The mean value of children's TV viewing time was 1.32 h/day. Twenty six percent of participants spent > or =2 h/day in TV viewing. The percentage of children whose TV viewing time was longer than 2 h/day was higher in children aged 3-5 years (32.2%) than in those aged 1-2 years (11.1%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that the time parents spent viewing TV and the region of residence were significantly associated with child's TV viewing time among children aged 3-5 years. Among children aged 1-2 years, the maternal educational status, the region of residence and the maternal TV viewing time were found to be related to child's TV viewing time. The current findings suggest that almost one third of Greek preschoolers exceed the limit of 2 h/day TV viewing and that parental TV viewing time may be the most important determinant of children's TV viewing time.

  10. Association of Television Viewing Time with Body Composition and Calcified Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Singapore Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Khaing Nang

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior such as television viewing may be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have assessed the impact of television viewing time on coronary artery calcification and it remains unclear how body fat contributes to this relationship. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis and whether effects on visceral or subcutaneous fat may mediate any associations observed.This was a cross-sectional study of 398 Chinese participants (192 men and 206 women from Singapore prospective study. Participants were free from known cardiovascular diseases and underwent interview, health screening, computed tomography scans of coronary arteries and abdomen. Spearman's correlation was used to test the correlation between television viewing time, physical activity, body composition and abdominal fat distribution. The association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis.In men, television viewing time was significantly correlated with higher body fat mass index, percent body fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat. These associations were in the same direction, but weaker and not statistically significant in women. Television viewing time (hours/day was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.93 but no significant association was observed in women (odds ratio: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.59-1.31 after adjusting for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Further adjustments for biological factors did not affect these associations.Television viewing time was associated with greater adiposity and higher subcutaneous and visceral fat in men. TV viewing time was also associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and the potential mechanisms underlying this association require further investigation.

  11. Association of Television Viewing Time with Body Composition and Calcified Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Singapore Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; van Dam, Rob M; Tan, Chuen Seng; Mueller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Lim, Yi Ting; Ong, Kai Zhi; Ee, Siqing; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior such as television viewing may be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have assessed the impact of television viewing time on coronary artery calcification and it remains unclear how body fat contributes to this relationship. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis and whether effects on visceral or subcutaneous fat may mediate any associations observed. This was a cross-sectional study of 398 Chinese participants (192 men and 206 women) from Singapore prospective study. Participants were free from known cardiovascular diseases and underwent interview, health screening, computed tomography scans of coronary arteries and abdomen. Spearman's correlation was used to test the correlation between television viewing time, physical activity, body composition and abdominal fat distribution. The association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. In men, television viewing time was significantly correlated with higher body fat mass index, percent body fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat. These associations were in the same direction, but weaker and not statistically significant in women. Television viewing time (hours/day) was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.93) but no significant association was observed in women (odds ratio: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.59-1.31) after adjusting for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Further adjustments for biological factors did not affect these associations. Television viewing time was associated with greater adiposity and higher subcutaneous and visceral fat in men. TV viewing time was also associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and the potential mechanisms underlying this association require further investigation.

  12. Television viewing and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Hu, Frank B

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged television (TV) viewing is the most prevalent and pervasive sedentary behavior in industrialized countries and has been associated with morbidity and mortality. However, a systematic and quantitative assessment of published studies is not available....

  13. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  14. Television viewing and forms of bullying among adolescents from eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Pickett, William; Overpeck, Mary; Craig, Wendy; Boyce, William; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2006-12-01

    Based on theories suggesting that frequent television viewers act and react in hostile, malicious, malevolent, or verbally aggressive ways rather than being physically violent, the present study investigates relationships between television viewing and different forms of bullying. Multilevel regression models were estimated based on cross-sectional data from 31,177 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years from Canada, Estonia, Israel, Latvia, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, and the United States who participated in the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-aged Children Survey. Although all different forms of bullying were associated with television viewing in bivariate analyses, only the verbal forms (i.e. "calling mean names" and "spreading rumors") remained significant in multiple regression models. These relationships were observed consistently in all eight participating countries. However, the association between television viewing and physical forms of bullying such as kicking, pushing, or shoving around, varied across countries. In most weekend TV viewing cultures, frequent television viewers were prone to kick or push another student in addition to verbal forms of bullying, which was not the case in weekday viewing cultures. These results demonstrate the importance of limiting adolescents' time engaged in unsupervised television watching, and the need to motivate adolescents to engage in joint family activities or organized after-school activities.

  15. Tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting young children's television viewing and associations with children's television viewing time: a longitudinal analysis over 15-months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuk, Jill A; Salmon, Jo; Campbell, Karen J; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2015-05-30

    Mothers' self-efficacy for limiting their children's television viewing is an important correlate of this behaviour in young children. However, no studies have examined how maternal self-efficacy changes over time, which is potentially important during periods of rapid child development. This study examined tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting young children's television viewing over 15-months and associations with children's television viewing time. In 2008 and 2010, mothers (n = 404) from the Melbourne InFANT Program self-reported their self-efficacy for limiting their child's television viewing at 4- and 19-months of age. Tertiles of self-efficacy were created at each time and categorised into: persistently high, persistently low, increasing or decreasing self-efficacy. Weighted kappa and multinomial logistic regression examined tracking and demographic and behavioural predictors of change in self-efficacy. A linear regression model examined associations between tracking categories and children's television viewing time. Tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting children's television viewing was low (kappa = 0.23, p television viewing time at 19-months (β = -35.5; 95 % CI = -54.4,-16.6 and β = 37.0; 95 % CI = -54.4,-19.7, respectively). Mothers of children with difficult temperaments were less likely to have persistently high self-efficacy. Mothers who met adult physical activity guidelines had 2.5 greater odds of increasing self-efficacy. Interventions to increase and maintain maternal self-efficacy for limiting children's television viewing time may result in lower rates of this behaviour amongst toddlers. Maternal and child characteristics may need to be considered when tailoring interventions.

  16. Television viewing, computer use, and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Wang, Xuewen; Yore, Michelle M; Carlson, Susan A; Galuska, Deborah A; Caspersen, Carl J

    2009-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of television (TV) viewing, computer use, and their combination and associations with demographic characteristics and body mass index (BMI) among U.S. youth. The 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used. Time spent yesterday sitting and watching television or videos (TV viewing) and using the computer or playing computer games (computer use) were assessed by questionnaire. Prevalence (%) of meeting the U.S. objective for TV viewing (< or =2 hours/day) ranged from 65% to 71%. Prevalence of no computer use (0 hours/day) ranged from 23% to 45%. Non-Hispanic Black youth aged 2 to 15 years were less likely than their non-Hispanic White counterparts to meet the objective for TV viewing. Overweight or obese school-age youth were less likely than their normal weight counterparts to meet the objective for TV viewing. Computer use is prevalent among U.S. youth; more than half of youth used a computer on the previous day. The proportion of youth meeting the U.S. objective for TV viewing is less than the target of 75%. Time spent in sedentary behaviors such as viewing TV may contribute to overweight and obesity among U.S. youth.

  17. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  18. Television Viewing, Educational Quality of the Home Environment, and School Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela Teresa; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Researchers examined relationships among children's television viewing, school readiness, parental employment, and the home environment's educational quality. Thirty low-income parents completed surveys. Their preschoolers completed IQ and school readiness assessments. Television viewing adversely related to school readiness and the home…

  19. Parent-Child Co-Viewing of Television and Cognitive Development of the Chinese Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinqiu, Zhao; Xiaoming, Hao

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child co-viewing of television and the cognitive development of the child. Both survey and experiment methods were employed to determine the participants' television viewing habits and their cognitive achievements after watching a pre-recorded programme under different conditions. The…

  20. Television Uses and Gratifications: The Interactions of Viewing Patterns and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of the relationship between viewing motivation and viewing patterns among young adult television viewers identifies nine motivational categories: relaxation, companionship, habit, time passing, entertainment, social interaction, information, arousal, and escape. Two basic types of television use are described as time consumption and…

  1. The situational and time-varying context of routines in television viewing: An event history analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerik, H.; Renckstorf, K.; Wester, F.P.J.; Lammers, J.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Building on an action theoretical perspective, it is assumed that most television viewing is a routine response to frequently occurring situations, which together make up everyday life. This interplay between television viewing and everyday life was studied using data from a national survey among

  2. Television Viewing and Snacking Behaviors of Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Schoolchildren in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Walters, Scott T.; Harris, T. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. Methods ...

  3. Television viewing in low-income latino children: variation by ethnic subgroup and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Matson, Pamela A; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2013-02-01

    Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0-4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing.

  4. Television Viewing in Low-Income Latino Children: Variation by Ethnic Subgroup and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653

  5. What Does TV Viewing Have to Do with Internet Reading?: Readers, Television "Texts", and Intertextual Links to Companion Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…

  6. Taking a Look at Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William, Comp.

    1981-01-01

    A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)

  7. Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Iñiguez, Carmen; Torrent, Maties; Vioque, Jesús; Turner, Michelle C; Julvez, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children. To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children. Longitudinal, multicenter study among birth cohorts in Menorca, Sabadell, and Valencia from the Spanish Infancia y Medio Ambiente (environment and childhood) project. The study sample included 1713 children (468 from Menorca, 560 from Sabadell, and 685 from Valencia). Parent-reported child television viewing duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. Parent-reported child sleep duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. In cross-sectional analysis, children with longer periods of television viewing reported at baseline (≥ 1.5 hours per day) had shorter sleep duration. Longitudinally, children with reported increases in television viewing duration over time (from <1.5 to ≥ 1.5 hours per day) had a reduction in sleep duration at follow-up visits. Results were similar when examining television viewing duration as a continuous variable, with each 1 hour per day of increased viewing decreasing sleep duration at follow-up visits (β = -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). Associations were similar when television viewing duration was assessed during weekends and after adjusting for potential intermediate factors (child executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and confounders (child physical activity level, parental mental health status, maternal IQ, and maternal marital status). Children spending longer periods watching television had shorter sleep duration. Changes in television viewing duration were inversely associated with changes in sleep duration in longitudinal analysis. Parents should consider avoiding long periods of

  8. Television viewing and snacking behaviors of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, Amanda M; Walters, Scott T; Harris, T Robert; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2009-07-01

    Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition monitoring system, a validated survey with objective measures of height and weight. The sample of 11,594 children in the fourth and eighth grades was weighted to provide data representative of children in Texas public schools. Children were categorized on the basis of self-reported daily television viewing, snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze, by grade level, the differences in the prevalence of overweight by category. Television viewing, frequency of snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television were all positively related to one another. In general, both consuming more snacks and foods advertised on television were associated with reduced odds of overweight regardless of the amount of television watched. The results suggest that the relationships between weekday snacking behaviors and television viewing in a multiethnic population are complicated. When these behaviors are clustered, overweight status may be related more to the number of snacks consumed than to the amount of television watched. To determine the exact relationship, additional research, especially among Hispanic children, is warranted.

  9. Television viewing and physical activity among Latino children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watching television and using other forms of media such as video games, computers, print, music and movies takes up a surprisingly large amount of our children’s time. U.S. children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleep. According to a recent nationwide report on c...

  10. Television-viewing characteristics of adults: correlations to eating practices and overweight and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among television viewing, eating practices, and overweight and health status of a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Data on adults aged 20 years or older from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1996 were used for the study. Participants' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, macronutrient intakes, weight status, prevalence of health conditions, television viewing, and overweight status were analyzed. Survey design effects were used in the analyses. More than 2 hours of television viewing per day was associated with a high mean body mass index and overweight or obesity in both men and women. Other characteristics associated with watching more than 2 hours of television per day were being 50 years of age or older, having a high school education or less, living in a household with income below 131% of the federal poverty level, and not being employed. Adults who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had high intakes of energy and macronutrients and were more likely to be overweight. They also obtained more energy from snacks and supper. A higher percentage of adults with health conditions watched more than 2 hours of television per day compared with adults without health conditions. Obesity intervention programs, especially those aimed at adults who are retired or not employed, should emphasize reducing time spent viewing television or videos or participating in similar sedentary activities and discourage snacking or eating while watching television.

  11. Parental Influence on Children during Educational Television Viewing in Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuting; Phillips, Beth M.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested by researchers that educational television programmes may support the language and literacy development for children, especially those in immigrant families. In an immigrant family, many family characteristics appear to be related to educational television programme viewing of children at home, for example, parental…

  12. Eating style, television viewing and snacking in pre-adolescent children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, Machteld A; Cebolla, A.; van Strien, T

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Television viewing is considered to be a risk factor for overweight in children because of its association with reduced physical activity and increased calorie intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to examine whether eating styles affect the relationship between television

  13. Eating style, television viewing and snacking in pre-adolescent children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, M.A.; Cebolla, A.; Strien, T. van

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Television viewing is considered to be a risk factor for overweight in children because of its association with reduced physical activity and increased calorie intake. Objective: The aim of the present study is to examine whether eating styles affect the relationship between television

  14. Effect of television viewing on food and nutrient intake among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elisabete; Costa, Andreia; Araújo, Joana; Severo, Milton; Lopes, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Among the behaviors associated with food intake, exposure to television is particularly important given the number of adolescents exposed. Also, increased time spent watching television has been associated with physical inactivity and with less desirable dietary intake among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between television viewing and dietary intake among 13-y-old adolescents. A cross-sectional evaluation was carried out in the 2003-2004 school year, including adolescents born in 1990 and enrolled in the schools of Porto, Portugal. Time spent watching TV was collected by self-administered questionnaires and dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. Included in the analysis were 1436 adolescents. Spending more than 120 min per day watching TV was significantly associated with higher intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fat and with lower intake of magnesium, in both sexes. Additionally, in girls, spending more than 120 min per day watching TV was associated with lower intake of complex carbohydrates, fiber, total vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and potassium. In boys, higher intake of saturated fat and cholesterol was found among those spending more time watching TV. We found that television viewing is associated with higher consumption of foods containing more fats and sugars and a lower consumption of fruits and vegetables. Consequently, adolescents who watched more television had a higher intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fat and a lower intake of minerals and vitamins. This dietary behavior among adolescents may have long-term health implications, not only limited to obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  16. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  17. Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910

  18. Television viewing, psychological positive health, health complaints and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.

  19. Time with friends and physical activity as mechanisms linking obesity and television viewing among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Park, Seoung Eun; Hébert, Emily T; Cummings, Hope M

    2015-07-27

    Though bivariate relationships between childhood obesity, physical activity, friendships and television viewing are well documented, empirical assessment of the extent to which links between obesity and television may be mediated by these factors is scarce. This study examines the possibility that time with friends and physical activity are potential mechanisms linking overweight/obesity to television viewing in youth. Data were drawn from children ages 10-18 years old (M = 13.81, SD = 2.55) participating in the 2002 wave of Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (n = 1,545). Data were collected both directly and via self-report from children and their parents. Path analysis was employed to examine a model whereby the relationships between youth overweight/obesity and television viewing were mediated by time spent with friends and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Overweight/obesity was directly related to less time spent with friends, but not to MVPA. Time spent with friends was directly and positively related to MVPA, and directly and negatively related to time spent watching television without friends. In turn, MVPA was directly and negatively related to watching television without friends. There were significant indirect effects of both overweight/obesity and time with friends on television viewing through MVPA, and of overweight/obesity on MVPA through time with friends. Net of any indirect effects, the direct effect of overweight/obesity on television viewing remained. The final model fit the data extremely well (χ2 = 5.77, df = 5, ptelevision viewing in youth. These findings highlight the importance of moving from examinations of bivariate relationships between weight status and television viewing to more nuanced explanatory models which attempt to identify and unpack the possible mechanisms linking them.

  20. Duration of television viewing and bone mineral density in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sunyue; Song, Aihua; Yang, Min; Ma, Xiaoguang; Fu, Xiaohua; Zhu, Shankuan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the relationship between television (TV) viewing and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether longer duration of TV viewing increased the risk of lower BMD in Chinese women. A total of 626 female adults were voluntarily recruited into the study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Body composition including total body and regional BMD was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The duration of TV viewing was categorized into 4 groups: TV viewing and total and regional BMD in all subjects and in subjects stratified by age of 45 years, respectively. After adjusting for age, BMI, alcohol use, smoking, education, income, urbanicity, leisure time physical activity, occupational physical activity, and menopause, the significant trend of pelvic BMD across categories of TV viewing was observed in all subjects (p women aged women aged TV viewing was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese women, especially in those aged 18-44 years. It might be sensible to reduce TV viewing time to prevent bone loss in young women.

  1. Reducing children's television-viewing time: a qualitative study of parents and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B; Hersey, James C; McDivitt, Judith A; Heitzler, Carrie D

    2006-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children over age 2 years spend dining room. Although virtually all of the parents reported having guidelines for children's television viewing, few had rules restricting the time children spend watching television. Data from this exploratory study suggest several potential barriers to implementing a 2-hour limit, including: parents' need to use television as a safe and affordable distraction, parents' own heavy television viewing patterns, the role that television plays in the family's day-to-day routine, and a belief that children should spend their weekend leisure time as they wish. Interviews revealed that for many of these families there is a lack of concern that television viewing is a problem for their child, and there remains confusion about the boundaries of the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Parents in this study expressed interest in taking steps toward reducing children's television time but also uncertainty about how to go about doing so. Results suggest possible strategies to reduce the amount of time children spend in front of the screen.

  2. Association between childhood and adolescent television viewing and unemployment in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhuis, C Erik; Perry, David K; Hancox, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term association between childhood television viewing and adult unemployment, and if this association is mediated by educational achievement. Method Study members were a general-population birth cohort of 1037 participants born in New Zealand in 1972/1973. Hours of weekday television viewing were reported at ages 5–15. Since age 18, unemployment was assessed retrospectively using life-history calendars to age 32. Information on educational qualifications was collected at age 32. Results Childhood and adolescent television viewing predicted adult unemployment. This association was significant for male study members only (β=0.20, ptelevision viewing remained a predictor of unemployment after adjusting for this (p=0.0035). By logistic regression, each additional hour of daily television viewing was associated with an increased likelihood of spending at least 6 months in unemployment between ages 18–32 years (OR=1.36, 95%, CI=1.06, 1.76, p=0.0157). Conclusion Childhood and adolescent television viewing may have long-lasting consequences for adult unemployment for boys. This association is only partially explained by the association between television viewing and educational achievement. PMID:22178044

  3. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick Caroline; Pagani Linda S; Barnett Tracie A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the st...

  4. Conditioned to eat while watching television? Low-income caregivers' perspectives on the role of snacking and television viewing among pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Blake, Christine E; Orloski, Alexandria; Younginer, Nicholas; Bruton, Yasmeen; Ganter, Claudia; Rimm, Eric B; Geller, Alan C; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-06-01

    Although television (TV) viewing is frequently paired with snacking among young children, little is known about the environment in which caregivers promote this behaviour. We describe low-income pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing habits as reported by their primary caregivers, including social/physical snacking contexts, types of snacks and caregiver rationales for offering snacks. These findings may support the development of effective messages to promote healthy child snacking. Semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver conceptualizations of pre-schoolers' snacks, purpose of snacks, snack context and snack frequency. Interviews occurred in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Forty-seven low-income multi-ethnic primary caregivers of children aged 3-5 years (92 % female, 32 % Hispanic/Latino, 34 % African American) described their child's snacking in the context of TV viewing. TV viewing and child snacking themes were described consistently across racial/ethnic groups. Caregivers described snacks offered during TV viewing as largely unhealthy. Labels for TV snacks indicated non-nutritive purposes, such as 'time out', 'enjoyment' or 'quiet.' Caregivers' primary reasons for providing snacks included child's expectations, behaviour management (e.g. to occupy child) and social time (e.g. family bonding). Some caregivers used TV to distract picky children to eat more food. Child snacking and TV viewing were contextually paired by providing child-sized furniture ('TV table') specifically for snacking. Low-income caregivers facilitate pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing, which are described as routine, positive and useful for non-nutritive purposes. Messages to caregivers should encourage 'snack-free' TV viewing, healthy snack options and guidance for managing children's behaviour without snacks or TV.

  5. Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time spent watching television affects multiple aspects of child and adolescent health. Although a diverse range of factors have been found to be associated with young people's television viewing, parents and the home environment are particularly influential. However, little is known about whether parents, particularly those who are concerned about their child's television viewing habits, translate their concern into action by providing supportive home environments (e.g. rules restricting screen-time behaviours, limited access to screen-based media. The aim of this study was to examine associations between parental concerns for child television viewing and child television viewing and the home sedentary environment. Methods Parents of children aged 5-6 years ('younger' children, n = 430 and 10-12 years ('older children', n = 640 reported usual duration of their child's television (TV viewing, their concerns regarding the amount of time their child spends watching TV, and on aspects of the home environment. Regression analyses examined associations between parental concern and child TV viewing, and between parental concern and aspects of the home environment. Analyses were stratified by age group. Results Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents were not concerned (B = 9.63, 95% CI = 1.58-17.68, p = 0.02 and B = 15.82, 95% CI = 8.85-22.80, p Conclusions Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents who were not concerned. Parents appear to recognise excessive television viewing in their children and these parents appear to engage in conflicting parental approaches despite these concerns. Interventions targeting concerned parents may be an innovative way of reaching children most in need of strategies to reduce their television viewing and harnessing this parental concern may offer considerable opportunity to change the family and home environment.

  6. "Lost" on the Web: Does Web Distribution Stimulate or Depress Television Viewing?

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Waldfogel

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, YouTube and other sites for sharing video files over the Internet have vaulted from obscurity to places of centrality in the media landscape. The files available at YouTube include a mix of user-generated video and clips from network television shows. Networks fear that availability of their clips on YouTube will depress television viewing. But unauthorized clips are also free advertising for television shows. As YouTube has grown quickly, major networks have responded ...

  7. [Television viewing and cardiovascular risk behaviors in the adult population of the French West Indies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrère, P; Atallah, A; Kelly-Irving, M; Lang, T; Inamo, J

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown a link between prolonged television viewing and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. We aimed to estimate the relationship between television viewing and CV risk behaviors and in the adult population of the French West Indies. We used data from Consant, a cross-sectional study carried out in 2007 on a representative sample of the adult Guadeloupean population (1005 subjects aged 25-74 years selected by stratified random sampling and interviewed at home by trained investigators working in pairs). Among respondents who reported watching television for 2 hours or more per day, 46.5% stated practicing no leisure time physical activity, compared with 35.6% among those who reported watching television for less than 2 hours per day. Adjusting for age, sex, education, income, family status, and perceived CV benefits of physical activity, the odds ratio of physical inactivity was estimated at 1.75 (Ptelevision for 2 hours or more per day, compared with other subjects. A similar relationship was observed when considering dieting to prevent weight gain. In this representative sample of a French Caribbean population, a strong and very significant relationship was observed between prolonged television viewing and CV risk behaviors. Prolonged television viewing seems common to a lifestyle that is characterized by little physical activity and unhealthy eating habits. This may play a role in social inequalities observed in CV diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Participant characteristics and intervention processes associated with reductions in television viewing in the High Five for Kids study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Elizabeth M; Horan, Christine M; Gillman, Matthew W; Gortmaker, Steven L; Price, Sarah; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Mitchell, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the High Five for Kids intervention effect on television within subgroups, examine participant characteristics associated with process measures and assess perceived helpfulness of television intervention components. High Five (randomized controlled trial of 445 overweight/obese 2-7 year-olds in Massachusetts [2006-2008]) reduced television by 0.36 h/day. 1-year effects on television viewing, stratified by subgroup, were assessed using linear regression. Among intervention participants (n=253), associations of intervention component helpfulness with television reduction were examined using linear regression and associations of participant characteristics with processes linked to television reduction (choosing television and completing intervention visits) were examined using logistic regression. High Five reduced television across subgroups. Parents of Latino (versus white) children had lower odds of completing ≥2 study visits (Odds Ratio: 0.39 [95% Confidence Interval: 0.18, 0.84]). Parents of black (versus white) children had higher odds of choosing television (Odds Ratio: 2.23 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.08, 4.59]), as did parents of obese (versus overweight) children and children watching ≥2 h/day (versus television reduction. Clinic-based motivational interviewing reduces television viewing in children. Low cost education approaches (e.g., printed materials) may be well-received. Parents of children at higher obesity risk could be more motivated to reduce television. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  10. Viewing Television from Different Angles and Perceiving Dissimilar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need continually arises, to appraise and re-appraise the television medium in order to affirm that it is still serving society as well as it ought to, and as it was designed to; as medium, as a concept and as a culture. This endeavour attempts to ascertain and examine the stance of professionals and scholars on issues of the ...

  11. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886

  12. Impact of changes in television viewing time and physical activity on longevity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Arem, Hannah; Moore, Steven C; Sampson, Joshua N; Matthews, Charles E

    2015-12-18

    Television viewing is a highly prevalent sedentary behavior among older adults, yet the mortality risks associated with hours of daily viewing over many years and whether increasing or decreasing viewing time affects mortality is unclear. This study examined: 1) the long-term association between mortality and daily viewing time; 2) the influence of reducing and increasing in television viewing time on longevity and 3) combined effects of television viewing and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on longevity. Participants included 165,087 adults in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health (aged 50-71 yrs) who completed questionnaires at two-time-points (Time 1: 1994-1996, and Time 2: 2004-2006) and were followed until death or December 31, 2011. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate Hazard Ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with self-reported television viewing and MVPA and all-cause mortality. Over 6.6 years of follow-up, there were 20,104 deaths. Compared to adults who watched active and watched physically active pursuits, preferably MVPA. Given the high prevalence of physical inactivity and prolonged television viewing in older adults, favorable changes in these two modifiable behaviors could have substantial public health impact. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340015.

  13. Television viewing and externalizing problems in preschool children: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Hudziak, James J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Guxens, Mònica; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether the amount, type, and patterns of television viewing predict the onset or the persistence of externalizing problems in preschool children. Longitudinal study of a prospective population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Parents reported time of television exposure and type of programs watched by children. Externalizing problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist at 18 and 36 months. A population-based sample of 3913 children. Television viewing time, content, and patterns of exposure (at 24 and 36 months) in children with and without preexisting problems to assess the incidence and persistence of externalizing problems. Externalizing problems at 36 months. Program content and time of television exposure assessed at 24 months did not predict the incidence of externalizing problems at 36 months (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% CI, 0.97-5.18). However, the patterns of exposure over time reflecting high levels of television viewing were associated with the incidence of externalizing problems (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.07-3.75) and the persistence of the preexisting externalizing problems (2.59; 1.03-6.55). Our study showed that high television exposure increases the risk of the incidence and the persistence of externalizing problems in preschool children.

  14. Hidden addiction: Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  15. Television viewing, leisure-time exercise and acute coronary syndrome in transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazeri, Genc; Goda, Artan; Kark, Jeremy D

    2008-07-01

    To assess the association of leisure-time exercise and television (TV) viewing, a sedentary marker, with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Albania, a transitional country in Southeast Europe. A population-based case-control study was conducted among Tirana residents in 2003-2006. Information on leisure-time exercise (transformed into kilocalories of energy expenditure) and daily hours of TV viewing was obtained by interviewer-administered questionnaire. 460 non-fatal ACS patients (368 men, 92 women) and 628 coronary heart disease-free controls (413 men, 215 women) were studied. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, conventional coronary risk factors and leisure-time exercise, TV viewing was associated with ACS in women (OR=1.66, 95%CI=1.12-2.46 per hour/day viewing), but not in men (OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.81-1.07; P for sex-interaction=0.02). A low level of leisure-time exercise (adjusted also for TV viewing) was associated with ACS similarly in men and women (pooled sexes OR=2.03, 95%CI=1.29-3.22 for bottom vs top tertile of energy expenditure). Leisure-time inactivity is confirmed as an important risk factor for ACS also in Southeastern Europe. TV viewing may be an informative coronary risk marker in transitional societies, especially in women.

  16. Association of obesity with physical activity, television viewing, video /computer gaming among school children in Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide in children which can be attributed to changes in lifestyle such as sedentary habits, television (TV viewing, playing computer games, and consumption of snacks while watching television. The present study was done to find the association between obesity and TV viewing, computer game playing, sedentary lifestyle in children and also with a secondary objective to assess the association between blood pressure and TV/computer game viewing, sedentary lifestyle in children.Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at 4 high schools and Pre University Colleges (PUC’S in and around Mangalore during the study period of 4 days from 6 -12 august 2014. 509 students were enrolled. Information was gathered by asking the subjects to fill up a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on Body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio for all subjects. Blood pressure was measured for all the subjects.Results: It was found that among males 2.7% of students were obese and in females it was 2.3%. There was a significant association between blood pressure and consumption of snacks while watching TV and also between blood pressure and their habit of consumption / buying of snacks/ fast-food advertised in TV. A significant association was found between central obesity (Waist-hip ratio and Waist-height ratio and the number of hours of physical activity per week in schools.Conclusion: There is a need to develop preventive intervention like reducing snack consumption while watching TV and increasing the time dedicated to physical activity.

  17. Association of obesity with physical activity, television viewing, video /computer gaming among school children in Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide in children which can be attributed to changes in lifestyle such as sedentary habits, television (TV viewing, playing computer games, and consumption of snacks while watching television. The present study was done to find the association between obesity and TV viewing, computer game playing, sedentary lifestyle in children and also with a secondary objective to assess the association between blood pressure and TV/computer game viewing, sedentary lifestyle in children. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at 4 high schools and Pre University Colleges (PUC’S in and around Mangalore during the study period of 4 days from 6 -12 august 2014. 509 students were enrolled. Information was gathered by asking the subjects to fill up a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on Body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio for all subjects. Blood pressure was measured for all the subjects. Results: It was found that among males 2.7% of students were obese and in females it was 2.3%. There was a significant association between blood pressure and consumption of snacks while watching TV and also between blood pressure and their habit of consumption / buying of snacks/ fast-food advertised in TV. A significant association was found between central obesity (Waist-hip ratio and Waist-height ratio and the number of hours of physical activity per week in schools. Conclusion: There is a need to develop preventive intervention like reducing snack consumption while watching TV and increasing the time dedicated to physical activity.

  18. Viewing Death on Television Increases the Appeal of Advertised Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAR-NIMROD, ILAN

    2012-01-01

    References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory (TMT) postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current paper explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with TMT's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421

  19. Viewing death on television increases the appeal of advertised products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current article explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with Terror Management Theory's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered.

  20. Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Time spent watching television affects multiple aspects of child and adolescent health. Although a diverse range of factors have been found to be associated with young people's television viewing, parents and the home environment are particularly influential. However, little is known about whether parents, particularly those who are concerned about their child's television viewing habits, translate their concern into action by providing supportive home environments (e.g. rules restricting screen-time behaviours, limited access to screen-based media). The aim of this study was to examine associations between parental concerns for child television viewing and child television viewing and the home sedentary environment. Methods Parents of children aged 5-6 years ('younger' children, n = 430) and 10-12 years ('older children', n = 640) reported usual duration of their child's television (TV) viewing, their concerns regarding the amount of time their child spends watching TV, and on aspects of the home environment. Regression analyses examined associations between parental concern and child TV viewing, and between parental concern and aspects of the home environment. Analyses were stratified by age group. Results Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents were not concerned (B = 9.63, 95% CI = 1.58-17.68, p = 0.02 and B = 15.82, 95% CI = 8.85-22.80, p television, and with parental restriction of sedentary behaviours and offering sedentary activities (i.e. TV viewing or computer use) as a reward for good behaviour among older and young children. Furthermore, parents of older children who were concerned had fewer televisions in the home and a lower count of sedentary equipment in the home. Conclusions Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents who were not concerned. Parents appear to recognise excessive television viewing in their children and these parents appear to engage in conflicting parental

  1. Parental TV viewing, parental self-efficacy, media equipment and TV viewing among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Thompson, Janice L

    2013-11-01

    This study examined if parental TV viewing, parental self-efficacy or access to media equipment were associated with TV viewing among UK preschool-aged children. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 252 parents of 3-5-year-old children. Parents reported child and parent TV viewing and the number of TVs, DVDs, computers, games consoles, hand-held games consoles, music players and laptop computers in the home. Parents also completed scales which assessed their self-efficacy to limit the screen viewing (SV) and promote the physical activity (PA) and their own PA self-efficacy. Analysis indicated that around two thirds of the children spent two or more hours per day watching TV while 75 % of parents watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Logistic regression models showed that children who had a parent who watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day were over five times more likely to also watch ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Each unit increase in parental self-efficacy to limit SV was associated with a 77 % reduction in the likelihood that the child watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Each additional piece of media equipment in the home was associated with a 28 % increase in the likelihood that parents watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Family-based interventions focusing on changing access to home media equipment and building parental self-efficacy to reduce child TV viewing could form part of efforts to reduce TV viewing among preschool children.

  2. The Influence of Television Advertisements on Promoting Calls to Telephone Quitlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew; Mann, Nathan; Watson, Kimberly; Pechacek, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relative effectiveness of cessation, secondhand smoke and other tobacco control television advertisements in promoting quitlines in nine states from 2002 through 2005. Quarterly, the number of individuals who used quitlines per 10 000 adult smokers in a media market are measured. Negative binomial regression…

  3. Socioeconomic differences in children’s television viewing trajectory: A population-based prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grieken, Amy; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Wijtzes, Anne I.; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands. Parent-reported television viewing time for children aged 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 years were collected by questionnaires sent from April 2004 until January 2015. Odds ratios of watching television ≥1 hour/day at each age were calculated for children of mothers with low, mid-low, mid-high and high (reference group) education and children from low, middle and high (reference group) income households. A generalized logistic mixed model was used to assess the association between family socioeconomic status and child television viewing time trajectory. The percentage of children watching television ≥1 hour/day increased from age 2 to 9 years for all children (24.2%-85.0% for children of low-educated mothers; 4.7%-61.4% for children of high-educated mothers; 17.2%-74.9% for children from low income households; 6.2%-65.1% for children from high income households). Independent socioeconomic effect in child television viewing time was found for maternal educational level. The interaction between net household income and child age in longitudinal analyses was significant (p = 0.01), indicating that the television viewing time trajectories were different in household income subgroups. However the interaction between maternal educational level and child age was not significant (p = 0.19). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in child television viewing time were found from the preschool period to the late school period. The educational differences between the various educational subgroups remained stable with increasing age, but the differences between household income groups changed over time. Intervention developers and healthcare practitioners need to raise awareness among non-highly educated parents

  4. Socioeconomic differences in children's television viewing trajectory: A population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang-Huang, Junwen; van Grieken, Amy; Moll, Henriëtte A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Wijtzes, Anne I; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands. Parent-reported television viewing time for children aged 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 years were collected by questionnaires sent from April 2004 until January 2015. Odds ratios of watching television ≥1 hour/day at each age were calculated for children of mothers with low, mid-low, mid-high and high (reference group) education and children from low, middle and high (reference group) income households. A generalized logistic mixed model was used to assess the association between family socioeconomic status and child television viewing time trajectory. The percentage of children watching television ≥1 hour/day increased from age 2 to 9 years for all children (24.2%-85.0% for children of low-educated mothers; 4.7%-61.4% for children of high-educated mothers; 17.2%-74.9% for children from low income households; 6.2%-65.1% for children from high income households). Independent socioeconomic effect in child television viewing time was found for maternal educational level. The interaction between net household income and child age in longitudinal analyses was significant (p = 0.01), indicating that the television viewing time trajectories were different in household income subgroups. However the interaction between maternal educational level and child age was not significant (p = 0.19). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in child television viewing time were found from the preschool period to the late school period. The educational differences between the various educational subgroups remained stable with increasing age, but the differences between household income groups changed over time. Intervention developers and healthcare practitioners need to raise awareness among non-highly educated parents

  5. Exploring pathways from television viewing to academic achievement in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Nary

    2004-12-01

    The author's purpose in this study was to test 4 hypotheses that proposed different paths for the influences of children's television viewing on their academic achievement. Data were drawn from the 1997 Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The population for this study included 1,203 children between the ages of 6 and 13 years from the CDS-PSID data set. The author used structural equation modeling to test pathways from children's television viewing to their academic achievement. The author assumed that children's television viewing hindered their academic achievement by reducing certain traits that related to academic achievement. Results showed that 3 hypothetical models fit the data--the time-displacement hypothesis, the mental effort-passivity hypothesis, and the attention-arousal hypothesis. A 4th hypothetical model, the learning-information hypothesis, which proposed that children's television viewing practices stimulate their academic achievement, was not supported. In sum, children who watched more television tended to spend less time doing homework, studying, and reading for leisure. In addition, their behaviors became more impulsive, which resulted in an eventual decrease in their academic achievement.

  6. Television Viewing, Walking Speed, and Grip Strength in a Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEEVIL, VICTORIA L.; WIJNDAELE, KATRIEN; LUBEN, ROBERT; SAYER, AVAN A.; WAREHAM, NICHOLAS J.; KHAW, KAY-TEE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Television (TV) watching is the most prevalent sedentary leisure time activity in the United Kingdom. We examined associations between TV viewing time, measured over 10 yr, and two objective measures of physical capability, usual walking speed (UWS) and grip strength. Methods Community-based participants (n = 8623; 48–92 yr old) enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer—Norfolk study attended a third health examination (3HC, 2006–2011) for measurement of maximum grip strength (Smedley dynamometer) and UWS. TV viewing time was estimated using a validated questionnaire (n = 6086) administered during two periods (3HC, 2006–2007; 2HC, 1998–2000). Associations between physical capability and TV viewing time category (<2, 2 < 3, 3 < 4, and ≥4 h·d−1) at the 3HC, 2HC, and using an average of the two measures were explored. Sex-stratified analyses were adjusted for age, physical activity, anthropometry, wealth, comorbidity, smoking, and alcohol intake and combined if no sex–TV viewing time interactions were identified. Results Men and women who watched the least TV at the 2HC or 3HC walked at a faster usual pace than those who watched the most TV. There was no evidence of effect modification by sex (Pinteraction = 0.09), and in combined analyses, participants who watched for <2 h·d−1 on average walked 4.29 cm·s−1 (95% confidence interval, 2.56–6.03) faster than those who watched for ≥4 h·d−1, with evidence of a dose–response association (Ptrend < 0.001). However, no strong associations with grip strength were found. Conclusions TV viewing time predicted UWS in older adults. More research is needed to inform public health policy and prospective associations between other measures of sedentariness, such as total sitting time or objectively measured sedentary time, and physical capability should be explored. PMID:25785826

  7. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions.

  8. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle O'Connor, MSc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998 in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1. Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing >14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms, beta (CI = 53 (0–107. After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions.

  9. The worldwide association between television viewing and obesity in children and adolescents: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2013-01-01

    Studies exploring the effect of television viewing on obesity throughout childhood are conflicting. Most studies have been confined to single high-income countries. Our aim was to examine the association between television viewing habits and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescents and children in a multicentre worldwide sample. In the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children Phase Three, adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years completed questionnaires which included questions on television viewing habits, height and weight. Parents/guardians of children aged between 5 and 8 years completed the same questionnaire on behalf of their children. The questionnaire asked "During a normal week, how many hours a day (24 hours) do you (does your child) watch television?" Responses were categorised as; "short" (5 hours). 207,672 adolescents from 37 countries and 77,003 children from 18 countries provided data. Daily television viewing in excess of one hour was reported in 89% of adolescents and 79% of children. Compared with adolescents in the short viewing group, those in the moderate, long and prolonged groups had BMIs that were 0.14 kg/m(2), 0.21 kg/m(2), 0.30 kg/m(2) and 0.08 kg/m(2), 0.16 kg/m(2) and 0.17 kg/m(2) larger for females and males respectively (both Ptelevision viewing hours were positively associated with BMI in both adolescents and children with an apparent dose response effect. These findings extend the evidence that television viewing contributes to increased BMI in childhood.

  10. Association between television viewing and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a community-based population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chiu-Shong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of metabolic syndrome becoming an important issue during recent decades, many studies have explored the risk factors contributing to its development. However, less attention has been paid to the risk associated with sedentary behavior, especially television viewing. This study examined the association between television viewing time and the risk of having metabolic syndrome in a population of Taiwanese subjects. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study included 2,353 subjects (1,144 men and 1,209 women aged 40 and over from October, 2004 to September, 2005. Information about the time spent watching TV was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. The definition of metabolic syndrome was according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel modified for Asians. Results Compared to subjects who viewed TV 20 hr/week had a 1.50-fold (95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.10, 2.03 risk for men and a 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.37, 2.71 risk for women of having metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for physical activity and other covariates. Stratifying by the three categories of total activity levels, TV viewing time > 20 hr/week was found to still hold a significant risk for having metabolic syndrome in the lowest of the three categories of total activity level for men and in all three categories of total activity level for women. Conclusion The findings suggest that TV viewing is an independent risk factor associated with metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese people.

  11. Parental sedentary restriction, maternal parenting style, and television viewing among 10- to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Thompson, Janice L; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To examine whether parenting styles or practices were associated with children's television (TV) viewing. A total of 431 parent-child dyads (10- to 11-year-old children) from Bristol, United Kingdom, were included. Child and parent TV viewing were self-reported and categorized as 4 hours/day. Children reported maternal parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive). Child-reported maternal and paternal sedentary restriction scores were combined to create a family-level restriction score. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether child TV viewing was predicted by parenting style or family restriction. A greater proportion of children with permissive mothers watched >4 hours of TV per day, compared with children with authoritarian or authoritative mothers (P = .033). A greater proportion of children for whom both parents demonstrated high restriction watched 4 hours (vs 4 hours of TV per day was 5.2 times higher for children with permissive (versus authoritative) mothers (P = .010). Clinicians need to talk directly with parents about the need to place limitations on children's screen time and to encourage both parents to reinforce restriction messages.

  12. Television Viewing and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: Prospective Associations and Mediation Analysis in the EPIC Norfolk Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijndaele, Katrien; Brage, Søren; Besson, Hervé; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ekelund, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Background Although television viewing time is detrimentally associated with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship with incident total (i.e. combined fatal and non-fatal) cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-fatal CVD and coronary heart disease is largely unknown. This study examined whether television viewing time is associated with these three outcomes, independently of physical activity energy expenditure and other confounding variables. Methodology/Principal Findings A population-based cohort of 12,608 men and women (aged 61.4±9.0), free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998–2000 were followed up until 2007 (6.9±1.9 years). Participants self-reported education, smoking, alcohol use, antihypertensive, lipid lowering and antidepressant medication, disease history, total energy intake, sleep duration, physical activity and television viewing. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured by standardized procedures; a clustered metabolic risk score was constructed. Every one hour/day increase in television viewing was associated with an increased hazard for total (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03–1.08; 2,620 cases), non-fatal CVD (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03–1.09; 2,134 cases), and coronary heart disease (HR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.03–1.13; 940 cases), independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes status, CVD family history, sleep duration and physical activity energy expenditure. Energy intake, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, HbA1c and the clustered metabolic risk score only partially mediated these associations. Conclusions These results indicate that the most prevalent leisure time (sedentary) behaviour, television viewing, independently contributes to increased CVD risk. Recommendations on reducing television viewing time should be considered. PMID

  13. Background television in the homes of US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Matthew A; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Linebarger, Deborah L

    2012-11-01

    US parents were surveyed to determine the amount of background television that their children are exposed to as well as to isolate demographic factors associated with increased exposure to background television. After this, we ask how certain home media practices are linked to children's background television exposure. US parents/caregivers (N = 1454) with 1 child between the ages of 8 months and 8 years participated in this study. A nationally representative telephone survey was conducted. Parents were asked to report on their child's exposure to background television via a 24-hour time diary. Parents were also asked to report relevant home media behaviors related to their child: bedroom television ownership, number of televisions in the home, and how often a television was on in the home. The average US child was exposed to 232.2 minutes of background television on a typical day. With the use of multiple regression analysis, we found that younger children and African American children were exposed to more background television. Leaving the television on while no one is viewing and children's bedroom television ownership were associated with increased background television exposure. Although recent research has shown the negative consequences associated with background television, this study provides the first nationally representative estimates of that exposure. The amount of exposure for the average child is startling. This study offers practitioners potential pathways to reduce exposure.

  14. Predictors of parents’ intention to limit children’s television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleakley, A.; Piotrowski, J.; Hennessy, M.; Jordan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Scientific evidence demonstrates a link between viewing time and several poor health outcomes. We use a reasoned action approach to identify the determinants and beliefs associated with parents' intention to limit their children's television viewing. Methods We surveyed a random sample of

  15. Effect of experimental change in children's sleep duration on television viewing and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C N; Hawley, N; Davey, A; Carskadon, M; Raynor, H; Jelalian, E; Owens, J; Considine, R; Wing, R R

    2017-12-01

    Paediatric observational studies demonstrate associations between sleep, television viewing and potential changes in daytime activity levels. To determine whether experimental changes in sleep lead to changes in children's sedentary and physical activities. Using a within-subject counterbalanced design, 37 children 8-11 years old completed a 3-week study. Children slept their typical amount during a baseline week and were then randomized to increase or decrease mean time in bed by 1.5 h/night for 1 week; the alternate schedule was completed the final week. Children wore actigraphs on their non-dominant wrist and completed 3-d physical activity recalls each week. Children reported watching more television (p television viewing and decreased mean activity levels. Although additional time awake may help to counteract negative effects of short sleep, increases in reported sedentary activities could contribute to weight gain over time. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Pagani, Linda S; Barnett, Tracie A

    2012-07-16

    The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ) and fourth grade waist circumference. Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

  17. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

  18. Television advertising, not viewing, is associated with negative dietary patterns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B; Freeman, B; King, L; Chapman, K; Baur, L A; Gill, T

    2016-04-01

    Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing is a contributor to poor diets and weight gain. Television food advertising, in particular, has been the focus of research and policy discussions. We aimed to quantify the specific impact of television advertising, as distinct from television viewing generally, on children's usual diet. Methods Four hundred seventeen Australian children aged 10-16 participated in an online survey, which assessed television viewing habits and consumption of 12 frequently advertised unhealthy foods/drinks. Consumption of these foods/drinks was dichotomized (less weekly, weekly or more) and summed (1 point for each item consumed weekly or more) to give cumulative consumption scores. After adjusting for age and socioeconomic status, there was strong evidence of an increase in unhealthy food score (P food/drink combined score (P children who watched the most commercial television, and those who were actually exposed to advertisements embedded within programs. This association between advertisement exposure and poor diet emphasizes the need for public policy intervention to reduce children's food advertising exposures. © 2015 World Obesity.

  19. Ethnic Background and Television Viewing Time Among 4-Year-Old Preschool Children : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Children’s television viewing has been associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity. This study aims to assess the associations of ethnic background and acculturation characteristics with television viewing time in 4-year-old preschool children. Method: The

  20. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  1. The amount of television that infants and their parents watched influenced children's viewing habits when they got older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chan; Li, Yi-Fan; Wu, Wen-Chi; Chiang, Tung-Liang

    2017-06-01

    Excessive television (TV) exposure has negative impacts on a child's development, health and behaviour. This study examined the under-researched area of what impact infant and parental TV viewing during a child's infancy had on the child's later viewing habits. Data on 18 577 babies born in 2005 were collected from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study, a prospective longitudinal study of a nationally representative cohort. Group-based trajectory analysis was conducted to identify childhood TV viewing trajectories at 18, 36 and 66 months of age. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the influence of parents' TV behaviour on their children's TV viewing trajectories. The percentage of children falling into the TV viewing trajectories that were identified were low (20%), increasing (46.5%) and high (33.5%). The child's TV viewing trajectory was significantly associated with the child's sex, parent's monthly household income, child's day care arrangements, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal TV viewing time and whether the child's TV viewing time was restricted. The amount of TV that children watched when they were older was associated with a range of factors, and the results particularly highlight the need to restrict child and parental viewing time in infancy. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Without Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri A. Schwab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this follow-up study was to learn more about the leisure choices, hobbies, and lifestyles of young adults who had grown up without a television. Study participants responded to an online questionnaire that asked about their health, physical activity habits, hobbies, and level of current television viewing. A mixed methods approach to gathering and analyzing data revealed a picture of young adults who live active lives, watch little television, and appear to have a strong sense of personal agency to direct their lives. Themes of agency, including forethought and intentionality, and self-regulation were evident in the qualitative responses, as well as creation and choosing challenging hobbies or activities. This study provided much information for future research to examine the influence of television on youth development, specifically agency, challenge and life-long habits.

  3. Association between energy intake and viewing television, distractibility, and memory for advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Coulon, Sandra M; Markward, Nathan; Greenway, Frank L; Anton, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    The effect of television viewing (TVV) with and without advertisements (ads) on energy intake is unclear. The objectives were to test 1) the effect of TVV, with and without ads, on energy intake compared with a control and reading condition and 2) the association of distractibility and memory for ads with energy intake and body weight. Forty-eight (26 female) adults (age: 19-54 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 20-35 completed this laboratory-based study. All participants completed 4 buffet-style meals in random order in the following conditions: 1) control, 2) while reading, 3) while watching TV with food and nonfood ads (TV-ads), and 4) while watching TV with no ads (TV-no ads). Energy intake was quantified by weighing foods. Distractibility and memory for ads in the TV-ads condition were quantified with a norm-referenced test and recognition task, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that energy and macronutrient intake did not differ significantly among the 4 conditions (P > 0.65). Controlling for sex, memory for ads was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P characteristics (memory for ads) were associated with body weight and energy intake in certain conditions. These characteristics should be considered in food intake and intervention studies.

  4. Television viewing habits and their influence on physical activity and childhood overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele F. Dutra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of television (TV viewing habits and their association with childhood sedentary lifestyle and overweight in 8-year-old children, from a cohort in a city in Southern Brazil.METHODS: A prospective cohort study with hospital screening of all births that occurred from September of 2002 to May of 2003. This study refers to a cross-sectional analysis of data collected during the cohort's follow-up conducted at 8 years of age. To evaluate the level of physical activity, a physical activity questionnaire for children and adolescents was used (PAQ-C, during the consultation at 8 years of age.RESULTS: Of the 616 interviewed children, a prevalence of sedentary lifestyle > 70% was found, as well as the habit of watching TV for more than two hours a day in 60% of the sample, regardless of gender (p = 0.30, income (p = 0.57, or family socioeconomic level (p = 0.90. The daily time spent watching TV was inversely associated with physical activity (p < 0.05 and positively associated with excess weight (p < 0.01. Regarding physical activity, running was the most frequently practiced sports modality among the population.CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and children who watch TV for an excessive period of time, it is necessary to motivate such individuals to perform interactive activities, as well as promote a more active lifestyle, by decreasing the time children spend in front of the TV.

  5. Television viewing habits and their influence on physical activity and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Gisele F; Kaufmann, Cristina C; Pretto, Alessandra D B; Albernaz, Elaine P

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of television (TV) viewing habits and their association with childhood sedentary lifestyle and overweight in 8-year-old children, from a cohort in a city in Southern Brazil. A prospective cohort study with hospital screening of all births that occurred from September of 2002 to May of 2003. This study refers to a cross-sectional analysis of data collected during the cohort's follow-up conducted at 8 years of age. To evaluate the level of physical activity, a physical activity questionnaire for children and adolescents was used (PAQ-C), during the consultation at 8 years of age. Of the 616 interviewed children, a prevalence of sedentary lifestyle>70% was found, as well as the habit of watching TV for more than two hours a day in 60% of the sample, regardless of gender (p=0.30), income (p=0.57), or family socioeconomic level (p=0.90). The daily time spent watching TV was inversely associated with physical activity (pphysical activity, running was the most frequently practiced sports modality among the population. Considering the high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and children who watch TV for an excessive period of time, it is necessary to motivate such individuals to perform interactive activities, as well as promote a more active lifestyle, by decreasing the time children spend in front of the TV. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teychenne Megan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65 who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level, television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status, social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities. Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the

  7. Socioeconomic differences in children’s television viewing trajectory: A population-based prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang-Huang, J. (Junwen); A. van Grieken (Amy); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands.

  8. Exposure to Violence, Parental Monitoring, and Television Viewing as Contributors to Children's Psychological Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…

  9. Social Support May Buffer the Effect of Intrafamilial Stressors on Preschool Children's Television Viewing Time in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. Methods: In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Results: Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Conclusions: Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time. PMID:24168754

  10. Social support may buffer the effect of intrafamilial stressors on preschool children's television viewing time in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-12-01

    Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time.

  11. Health discourse in Swedish television food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Hillevi; Palmblad, Eva; Lissner, Lauren; Berg, Christina M

    2011-06-01

    Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with children in Sweden (TV3, TV4 and Channel 5) were analysed with discourse theoretical tools according to Laclau and Mouffe and with a focus on rhetoric. Physical, mental and social health aspects were present in 71% of the commercials. Three health discourse types; a medical (food as protection and treatment), a hedonic (food as feeling good) and a social discourse type (food as caring) were discerned. In relation to these, the heart symbol, lifestyle associations and nature/the natural were elements that could be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, foods carrying unhealthy associations were promoted in the health discourse and presented as especially healthy by offensive rhetoric. The analysis raises awareness of the prevailing health messages in food marketing. Children and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about television food advertising and how it may influence social norms and dietary practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Natalie; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen; Timperio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Time spent watching television affects multiple aspects of child and adolescent health. Although a diverse range of factors have been found to be associated with young people's television viewing, parents and the home environment are particularly influential. However, little is known about whether parents, particularly those who are concerned about their child's television viewing habits, translate their concern into action by providing supportive home environments (e.g. r...

  13. The mediating effects of dietary habits on the relationship between television viewing and body mass index among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Janssen, Ian

    2012-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that excessive television viewing is an independent determinant of obesity in young people. However, the pathways between television viewing and obesity are not fully understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationship between television and body mass index (BMI) is mediated by television snacking and junk food consumption. Results are based on 15,973 youth in grades 6-10 who participated in the Canadian 2009/2010 health behaviour in school-aged children survey (HBSC). Participants self-reported their weight and height and BMI z-scores were calculated based on World Health Organization growth standards. Participants reported the frequency of snacking while watching television and the frequency of eating junk food (sweets, soft drinks, baked goods, French fries, potato chips). Total hours per week of television were calculated. A contemporary multiple mediation analysis was used to examine associations. A modest positive relationship was observed between television viewing and BMI. The mean BMI z-score was 0.15 units higher in youth in the highest television viewing quartile by comparison with the youth in the lowest quartile. However, contrary to our hypothesis, television snacking and junk food consumption were not significant positive mediators of the television and BMI relationship. The pathways between television viewing and obesity are complicated and remain poorly understood. Future research using longitudinal or experimental designs, more precise measurement tools and formal mediation analyses is needed. This research should consider mediators related to both energy intake and expenditure. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. Television viewing and alcohol advertising with alcohol expectancies among school-aged children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Chiu, Yu-Chan; Ting, Te-Tien; Liao, Hsin-Yao; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This study is aimed to examine the strength of association between television watching and potential exposure to alcohol advertising with multidimensional alcohol expectancies in school-aged children. A total of 779 4th (age 10) and 768 6th (age 12) grade students were recruited from 17 public elementary schools in northern Taiwan in 2006, with two waves of follow-up at 6 months apart. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information concerning individual characteristics, parental attributes, past-week screen time, drinking behaviors, and alcohol expectancies. Data of aired alcohol advertisements at baseline were obtained from the Nielsen Media Research Advertising Information Services; parenting styles were ascertained from the 1st follow-up. Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Children version was used to measure alcohol expectancies (AEs) at baseline and the 2nd follow-up. Nearly 27% of students reported watching television for more than two hours per day and 58% watching television after 9 p.m. Dimension-related heterogeneity exists in the relationship between TV viewing and alcohol advertising with AEs. With statistical adjustment for covariates, spending more than two hours watching TV per day was associated with increased levels of positive AEs "Promoting Relaxation or Tension Reduction [PRTR]" (β=1.52, 95% CI=0.92, 2.12; padvertising was associated with decline in negative AEs "Deteriorated Cognitive and Behavioral Function" (e.g., >8.0 ads: β=-1.06, 95% CI=-1.66, -0.47, padvertising exposure is linked with lowered negative expectancies in late childhood. School-based anti-underage drinking programs may consider integrating the media literacy curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between television viewing and love styles: an interpretation using cultivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetsroni, Amir

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the associations between television viewing and love styles. The Love Attitudes Scale (LAS), based on Lee's love style taxonomy, was administered to a sample of 338 unmarried Israeli students along with questions about TV viewing habits, current involvement in a serious romantic relationship, and marital intentions. A confirmatory factor analysis of the LAS indicated that the expected six-factor solution adequately fit the data. Correlations between individual love styles and TV viewing were small to moderate, ranging from .12 to .29. Scores for Ludus love style correlated positively with viewing of news and general programming. Those for Pragma love style correlated positively with news viewing and negatively with viewing genres frequently including love themes such as soap operas and family drama, while scores for Eros love style positively correlated with watching these love abundant genres. No significant association was found for TV viewing with Storge, Mania, and Agape love styles. Hierarchical regression using demographic variables, love status, and viewing habits mirrored these results, with the unique R2 for Ludus, Pragma, and Eros ranging from 1.8% to 8%, while the total variance accounted for by the models ranged from 12% to 21%. The findings can be interpreted as support for a weak cultivation effect, in which habits in long-term TV viewing among young adults correspond to small to moderate tendencies for particular love styles that thematically relate them. However, because they are correlational, the findings could equally be interpreted in terms of tendencies that exist due to modeling within families and socialization during development.

  16. The association of parent?s outcome expectations for child TV viewing with parenting practices and child TV viewing: an examination using path analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Lauren; Chen, Tzu-An; Hughes, Sheryl O; O?Connor, Teresia M

    2015-01-01

    Background Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children?s TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently unclear why. The current study examined parenting practices related to TV viewing in the context of social- cognitive theory. Specifically, we hypothesized that positive and negative Paren...

  17. Associations between television viewing and physical activity and low back pain in community-based adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Wluka, Anita E.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults. Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test. As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04–1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01–1.72). Although it needs to be confirmed in RCTs our findings suggest that targeting time spent

  18. The Value of Reanalysis: TV Viewing and Attention Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Watkins, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1,159), this study reexamines the link between maternal reports of television viewing at ages 1 and 3 and attention problems at age 7. This work represents a reanalysis and extension of recent research suggesting young children's television viewing causes subsequent attention problems.…

  19. Television Viewing = Lo que los padres de estudiantes dotados necesitan saber sobre ver...television. What Parents of Gifted Students Need To Know about...Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    This booklet (Practitioner's Guide), in both an English version and a Spanish version, is intended to help parents apply the findings of research to parental mediation of television viewing by their children, including gifted children. Research facts are briefly summarized and implications for the home are drawn. Suggestions for parents are…

  20. Children's television viewing and objectively measured physical activity: associations with family circumstance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Jo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of family circumstance to physical activity and television viewing has not been widely investigated in pre-adolescents, and available information is inconsistent. This study examines whether television viewing and objectively measured physical activity vary by different indicators of family circumstance. Methods Data from the 2001 Children's Leisure Activity Study and the 2002/3 Health, Eating and Play Study, involving Australian children in Grades Prep (mean age 6y and 5–6 (mean age 11y, were combined. Children wore accelerometers for six consecutive 24 hour periods. Average min/day in low-intensity activity (1.0–1.9 METs and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (≥3 METs were calculated. Parents reported children's television viewing and family circumstance. Linear regression analyses were conducted separately for young girls, young boys, older girls and older boys. Results Complete data were available for 2458 children. Parental education and, to a lesser extent, employment level were inversely associated with television viewing. Children in single-parent families, those whose fathers were not in paid employment, and those without siblings tended to spend more time in low-intensity activity than their peers. Children with siblings spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity; associations were stronger for girls. Maternal education was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity for younger children. Maternal employment was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity for older children. Multivariable models did not demonstrate a cumulative explanatory effect. Conclusion Individual measures of family circumstance were differentially associated with television, low-intensity activity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity and associations were often not consistent across age-by-gender groups. Interventions may need to be tailored

  1. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Time Driving and All‐Cause Mortality: The SUN Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra‐Gortari, Francisco Javier; Bes‐Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Núñez‐Córdoba, Jorge María; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez‐González, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviors have been directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, little is known about different types of sedentary behaviors in relation to overall mortality. Our objective was to assess the association between different sedentary behaviors and all‐cause mortality. Methods and Results In this prospective, dynamic cohort study (the SUN Project) 13 284 Spanish university graduates with a mean age of 37 years were followed‐up for a median of 8.2 years. Television, computer, and driving time were assessed at baseline. Poisson regression models were fitted to examine the association between each sedentary behavior and total mortality. All‐cause mortality incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 2 hours per day were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 to 1.84) for television viewing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.18) for computer use, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.44) for driving, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, total energy intake, Mediterranean diet adherence, body mass index, and physical activity. The risk of mortality was twofold higher for participants reporting ≥3 h/day of television viewing than for those reporting Television viewing was directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, computer use and time spent driving were not significantly associated with higher mortality. Further cohort studies and trials designed to assess whether reductions in television viewing are able to reduce mortality are warranted. The lack of association between computer use or time spent driving and mortality needs further confirmation. PMID:24965030

  2. Beliefs About Child TV Viewing in Low-Income Mexican American Parents of Preschoolers: Development of the Beliefs About Child TV Viewing Scale (B-TV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Johnson, Susan L; Schmiege, Sarah J; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Boles, Richard E; Lev, Jerusha; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Parental beliefs about child television viewing may affect the way parents regulate child television viewing. Despite this, little research has focused on the development of measures of parental beliefs about child television viewing, particularly among ethnic minority parents and parents of young children. This study's objective was to develop and test a culturally-based measure of parental beliefs about television viewing in low-income Mexican American mothers of preschoolers. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, 22 items reflecting parental beliefs about influences of TV on children were developed and assessed for psychometric properties in a sample of 312 low-income Mexican American mothers of preschoolers. Results Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four factors reflecting four domains of parental beliefs: positive general beliefs, positive sleep-related beliefs, positive functional beliefs, and negative general beliefs. Internal reliabilities were acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.70-0.89) for all factors except negative general beliefs (Cronbach's alpha = 0.61). Positive sleep-related beliefs and Positive Functional Beliefs were correlated with children's average daily hours of TV (r = 0.16, p parental beliefs regarding child TV viewing, and has good initial reliability and validity for three factors. Future use will allow investigators to conduct more in-depth evaluations on the influence of parental beliefs on the way parents shape their child's use of the TV.

  3. Interest Rate Demands and Television Viewing-Is a Single Exposure More Influential Than Routine Viewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetsroni, Amir; Reizer, Abira; Ben Zion, Uri

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the impact of media consumption, and particularly exposure to television, on decisions regarding interest rate demands. One hundred and fifty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups: in the manipulation group, participants were exposed to a news clip about an Iranian nuclear attack on Israel, whereas in the control group, the participants were not exposed to the film. Both groups filled a questionnaires regarding their interest rate requirements in different situations, their media conception behaviors, and demographic questionnaires. Frequent routine viewing increased the interest rate demands only among participants in the manipulation group, but the manipulation itself did not have a significant effect on interest rate demands. The results are explained in terms of cultivation theory.

  4. Correlates of prolonged television viewing time in older Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2013-03-09

    In addition to insufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), prolonged sitting time is also a health risk for older adults. An understanding of population subgroups who have prolonged television viewing (TV) time, a predominant sedentary behavior, can aid in the development of relevant health promotion initiatives; however, few such studies have focused on older adults, the most sedentary segment of the population as a whole. The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic attributes associated with TV time among community-dwelling Japanese older men and women. A population-based, cross-sectional mail survey was used to collect data on TV time, MVPA, and socio-demographic characteristics. The survey was conducted from February through March 2010. Participants were 2700 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-74 years, 50% men) who were randomly selected from the registry of residential addresses of three cities in Japan. Data from 1665 participants (mean age: 69.5 years, 52% men) who completed all variables for the present study were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of prolonged TV time (>2 hours/day) for each socio-demographic attribute, stratified by gender. Of the 1665 participants, 810 (48.6%) watched TV for more than 2 hours/day. The median television viewing time (25th, 75th percentile) was 2.00 (1.07, 3.50) hours/day. Prolonged TV time was associated with not in full-time employment, lower educational attainment, weight status, living in regional areas and low MVPA for the whole sample. For men, prolonged TV time was associated with lower educational attainment; (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.12-2.07), underweight (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.02-2.60), overweight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), and low MVPA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.02-2.02). For women, living in regional areas (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.08), living alone (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.03-2.49), not driving

  5. Young children's food brand knowledge. Early development and associations with television viewing and parent's diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2014-09-01

    Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  7. [Multi-center study on the effects of television viewing on sleep quality among children under 4 years of age in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shumei; Song, Yuanjin; Jiang, Yanrui; Sun, Wanqi; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Fan

    2015-12-01

    To explore the current television viewing situation among children less than 4 years of age in our country and investigate effects of television viewing on sleep quality. According to the"Hospital of Province-City-County"sampling technical route, a total of 1 046 full term healthy children at the age of 4-48 months were sampled by stratified cluster random sampling method from 8 provinces in China from 2012-2013. The information of television viewing and family and personal information was investigated by Shanghai Children's Medical Center Socio-demographic Questionnaire. Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) and Brief Child Sleep Questionnaire (BCSQ) were employed to assess the sleep behaviors of children 0-3 years old and over 3 years old respectively.The effects of television viewing on sleep quality were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The children's average age was (20±13) months, with boys accounted for 53.3% (558/1 046). The percentage of children who viewed television was 70.3% (735/1 046). Moreover, 58.7% (408/695) of infants and young children under the age of 2 viewed TV per day, and 19.9% (70/351) of 2 years and older infants and young children viewed television ≥2 hours per day. With the increase of age, the percentage of children who viewed television time gradually increased (PChild sex, geographic area, paternal education, and family structure were not associated with television viewing time among children aged 4-48 months. However, the presence of a bedroom TV(χ(2)=13.682, P=0.001) and maternal employment (χ(2)=15.053, P=0.005) were commonly correlated with long screen-watching time among children. After adjusting for age, gender, mother' education level, and working state, it was revealed by multiple linear regression analysis that television viewing was not only positively correlated with later bedtime (t=5.49, Ptelevision is very high in our country, and many infants under 6 months of age exposed to TV environment

  8. Neighborhood characteristics and TV viewing in youth: nothing to do but watch TV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes; Crawford, David

    2012-03-01

    Neighborhoods that discourage physical activity may encourage indoor activities such as television viewing; however few studies have examined associations between neighborhood characteristics and sedentary activities. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between perceived and objective measures of the physical and social neighborhood environment and TV viewing among children and adolescents. Cross-sectional and longitudinal. Parents of 190 children and 169 adolescents completed questionnaire items regarding facilities for physical activity, neighborhood safety (general and traffic), social trust/cohesion, social networks and their child's TV viewing in 2006. Adolescents self-reported their TV viewing. Objective measures of reported crime and neighborhood destinations, road connectivity and traffic exposure were also collected. Questions about TV viewing were repeated in 2008 (longitudinal sample: 157 children; 105 adolescents). In children, cul-de-sac density and reported crime were positively and parental agreement that their neighborhood has good sporting facilities was negatively associated with TV viewing in cross-sectional analyses. There were no longitudinal associations among children. In adolescents, number of sports options and parental agreement that there is so much traffic that it is difficult/unpleasant for their child to walk were negatively associated with TV viewing 2 years later. Crime and a lack of quality sporting facilities or options may contribute to greater TV viewing among youth. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neighborhood characteristics and TV viewing in youth: Nothing to do but watch TV?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timperio, A.; Salmon, J.; Ball, K.; te Velde, S.J.; Brug, J.; Crawford, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Neighborhoods that discourage physical activity may encourage indoor activities such as television viewing; however few studies have examined associations between neighborhood characteristics and sedentary activities. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations

  10. Prevalence, trajectories, and determinants of television viewing time in an ethnically diverse sample of young children from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sally E; Kelly, Brian; Collings, Paul J; Nagy, Liana; Bywater, Tracey; Wright, John

    2017-07-06

    Excessive screen viewing in early childhood is associated with poor physical and psycho-social health and poor cognitive development. This study aimed to understand the prevalence, trajectory and determinants of television viewing time in early childhood to inform intervention development. In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers of 1558 children (589 white British, 757 Pakistani heritage, 212 other ethnicities) completed questionnaires when their children were approximately 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months old. Mothers answered questions about their own and their child's TV-time. TV-time trajectories were estimated by linear longitudinal multilevel modeling, potential determinants were considered in models. The modelled trajectory estimated that 75% of children aged 12 months exceeded guidelines of zero screen-time. At 12 months of age an accelerated increase in TV-time was observed (2 h/day by 30 months old). For every hour of mothers' TV-time and every hour the TV was on in the home, children's TV-time was 8 min and 1 min higher respectively at 6 months old (P child did not watch too much TV, had 17 min more TV-time than their counterparts (P television is on in the home and mothers' attitude towards child TV-time. These behaviours may be key components to address in interventions for parents. Mothers experiencing stress, first time mothers, and Pakistani heritage mothers (particularly those born outside of the UK), may be priority groups for intervention.

  11. Parental mediation of television viewing and videogaming of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Melissa H; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of different strategies, and whether mediation strategies changed over time. A secondary purpose was to examine whether parents applied different mediation strategies to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder versus siblings, and the factors that created stress related to managing media use. Parents of 29 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 16 siblings completed questionnaires at two time points. Parents most frequently supervised their television viewing by watching it with the adolescents, and used restrictive strategies to regulate their videogaming. Parents used similar strategies for siblings, but more frequently applied restrictive and instructive strategies for videogaming with adolescents with autism spectrum disorder than their siblings. Restrictive mediation of television viewing for the adolescents decreased significantly over the year. Adolescents' time spent in media activities, age, and behavior problems, and parents' concerns about media use were significant factors associated with the strategies that parents employed. Parents' stress related to the adolescents' behavioral and emotional responses to parental restrictions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues

  13. Television viewing, computer use and total screen time in Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Amy E; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

    2006-11-01

    Research has linked excessive television viewing and computer use in children and adolescents to a variety of health and social problems. Current recommendations are that screen time in children and adolescents should be limited to no more than 2 h per day. To determine the percentage of Canadian youth meeting the screen time guideline recommendations. The representative study sample consisted of 6942 Canadian youth in grades 6 to 10 who participated in the 2001/2002 World Health Organization Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Only 41% of girls and 34% of boys in grades 6 to 10 watched 2 h or less of television per day. Once the time of leisure computer use was included and total daily screen time was examined, only 18% of girls and 14% of boys met the guidelines. The prevalence of those meeting the screen time guidelines was higher in girls than boys. Fewer than 20% of Canadian youth in grades 6 to 10 met the total screen time guidelines, suggesting that increased public health interventions are needed to reduce the number of leisure time hours that Canadian youth spend watching television and using the computer.

  14. Fifteen-Year Prospective Analysis of Television Viewing and Adiposity in African American and Caucasian Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yu Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data from long-term prospective studies on the association between television (TV viewing and obesity. We investigated this association between TV viewing and body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WST over 15 years on 3,269 participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA study. We used cross-lagged panel models at exam Years 5, 10, 15, and 20 over 15 years to assess the association between TV viewing and obesity. The cross-lagged effects of TV viewing on anthropometry were significant from exam Year 5 to Year 10 (B = 0.034 for BMI and 0.036 for WST. However, the cross-lagged effects of TV viewing at Years 10 and 15 on obesity at Years 15 and 20, respectively, were nonsignificant. The findings indicate that higher levels of TV viewing predicted higher BMI and WC in young adulthood, but this association was not observed as individuals aged over the following decade.

  15. Young low-income ethnic minority children watch less television when their mothers regulate what they are viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Matson, Pamela A; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2015-03-01

    Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to 4 years old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.09-1.73). Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Television Use by Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the relationships between child and adolescent television use motivations and various sociodemographic characteristics, television viewing levels, program preference, and television attitudes. Viewing motivations include learning, passing time, companionship, escape, arousal, and relaxation. Discusses implications within the conceptual…

  17. About Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin

    The entire broadcast television industry is the subject of this book. An attempt is made to present history, theory, and anecdotes about television programing, television advertising, television and politics, and network news, focusing all the while on American television, but with consideration given to alternative structures and methods.…

  18. Television viewing and obesity in 300 women: evaluation of the pathways of energy intake and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2011-10-01

    We assessed the roles of energy intake and physical activity in the relationships among television (TV) viewing, body composition, and obesity using high-quality measurement methods. Adult women (n = 300) reported TV viewing behavior, which was categorized into infrequent (≤ 1 h/day), moderate (2 h/day), and frequent (≥ 3 h/day) viewing. Body fat percentage (BF%) was assessed using plethysmography (Bod Pod) and BMI was calculated from height and body weight. Energy intake and physical activity, including time spent in sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity (PA), were objectively measured using 7-day weighed food records and 7-day accelerometry, respectively. The mean BF% of frequent TV viewers (34.6 ± 6.9%) was significantly greater (F = 3.9, P = 0.0218) than those of moderate (31.5 ± 6.7%) and infrequent viewers (30.8 ± 7.0%); however, BMI did not differ across the TV viewing groups (F = 0.8, P = 0.4172). Controlling statistically for differences in age, education, time in sedentary activity, time in moderate activity, and energy intake, considered individually, had no influence on the relationships between TV viewing and BF%, nor TV and BMI. Moreover, the relationship between TV and BF% remained significant after adjusting for differences in BMI (F = 3.6, P = 0.0276). However, adjusting for total PA reduced the relationship between TV and BF% to nonsignificance (F = 2.5, P = 0.0810), as did time spent in vigorous PA (F = 2.2, P = 0.1307). These data suggest a strong relationship between TV viewing and BF%. This association appears to be due, in part, to differences in total PA, particularly vigorous PA, but not time spent in sedentary activity, moderate activity, or energy intake.

  19. Passing the Remote: Community and Television Viewing in Woobinda and La guerra degli Antò

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores television-modeled narratives in Silvia Ballestra’s La guerra degli Antò, of 1992, and Aldo Nove’s Woobinda, of 1996. In so doing, it considers both the role of a text's author and the majority/minority reception practices that lead to its social imprint. For a definition of reception practices it turns to the work of media and reception scholars such as Henry Jenkins and Ien Ang. Employing a soap-operatic narrative and respecting the viewing practices of a mi...

  20. Ethnic background and television viewing time among 4-year-old preschool children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriëtte A; Tiemeier, Henning; Verhulst, Frank C; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-02-01

    Children's television viewing has been associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity. This study aims to assess the associations of ethnic background and acculturation characteristics with television viewing time in 4-year-old preschool children. The authors analyzed data from 3452 preschool children and their parents enrolled in the Generation R Study, a large, multiethnic, prospective birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios of watching television ≥2 hours/day and ≥1 hour/day for Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese children (reference group: native Dutch children), adjusted for family socioeconomic position. Effect modification by family socioeconomic position was also assessed. After adjustment for family socioeconomic position, Turkish children (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-3.30), Moroccan children (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.03-2.76), and Surinamese children (aOR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.16-4.50) were significantly more likely to watch television ≥2 hours/day compared with native Dutch children. Stratified analyses showed greater disparity between ethnic minority groups and native Dutch children at higher educational levels. There were no significant associations between acculturation characteristics (i.e., generational status, age at immigration, and Dutch language skills) and children's television viewing time. Children from ethnic minority groups are at an increased risk for high levels of television viewing compared with native Dutch children, independent of family socioeconomic position. Interventions aimed to reduce television viewing time should target all children from ethnic minority groups.

  1. What are the television viewing and eating habits of children in Peru?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Peter; Díaz, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    While there is already consensus in the scientific community about the deleterious effects of TV exposure, especially through TV advertisements, on children's beliefs, preferences, and food intake, the link between TV and children's eating behaviors is under-studied in Peru, a country experiencing a steady economic growth in recent years and currently with a status of upper-middle-income country. Following research about the effects of media exposure on childhood obesity, we report on a qualitative study of TV viewing and the eating habits of children attending elementary schools in Lima, the capital. Data from eight focus groups with 38 boys and girls between 6 and 11 years old, eight focus groups with 36 female caretakers, and in-depth interviews with two fathers provided consistent information about children's eating habits and media viewing patterns. After dual coding the entire corpus of qualitative data, we found that children watch a great deal of TV during the school season: children watch as early as when they wake up in the morning, then during lunchtime (after returning from school), and then again after completing their homework from 5 pm to 9 pm or 10 pm. Survey data from the parents showed that, on average, children watch about 5 hours of TV on weekdays and more during a weekend-day. This large amount of exposure is concerning, especially because the focus groups revealed that children (1) recall a number of TV advertisements involving food items, (2) request food items seen on TV, and (3) are able to buy food for themselves, which usually involves chocolate, candy, or potato chips. Boys and girls reported different favorite TV shows, suggesting differences in exposure to TV content related to food. In addition, some families reported drinking sodas frequently, underlining a behavior that should be discouraged by public health officials. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Adolescent television viewing and unhealthy snack food consumption: the mediating role of home availability of unhealthy snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H; Williams, Lauren; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-02-01

    To examine whether home availability of energy-dense snack foods mediates the association between television (TV) viewing and energy-dense snack consumption among adolescents. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescents (n 2984) from Years 7 and 9 of secondary school completed a web-based survey, between September 2004 and July 2005, assessing their energy-dense snack food consumption, school-day and weekend-day TV viewing and home availability of energy-dense snack foods. School-day and weekend-day TV viewing were positively associated with energy-dense snack consumption among adolescent boys (β = 0·003, P snack foods among adolescent boys and girls and home availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively associated with energy-dense snack food consumption among boys (β = 0·26, P snack consumption. The results of the present study suggest that TV viewing has a significant role to play in adolescent unhealthy eating behaviours. Future research should assess the efficacy of methods to reduce adolescent energy-dense snack food consumption by targeting parents to reduce home availability of energy-dense foods and by reducing TV viewing behaviours of adolescents.

  3. Television viewing, reading, physical activity and brain development among young South Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie

    2017-07-01

    To examine associations between television (TV) viewing, reading, physical activity (PA), and participation in these behaviors with caregivers, and cognitive and linguistic development among young South Korean children aged 0-5 years. Cross-sectional study. Findings are based on 1870 children in the Korea Children and Youth Survey. All measures were questionnaire-derived. Children who participated in PA for 1-3h/week and for >3h/week were more likely to show high cognitive development (OR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.06-2.00 and OR=1.58, 95%CI: 1.11-2.23; referent: 3h/day were associated with increased odds of high cognitive development (weekdays: OR=1.89, 95%CI: 1.32-2.41 and OR=2.47, 95%CI: 1.29-4.73; weekends: OR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.39-2.54 and OR=3.34, 95%CI: 1.70-6.55; referent: development (OR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.07-1.94); referent: development than those who engaged in these behaviors 1-2 times/week. Findings support emerging evidence that PA and specific types of sedentary behavior have positive impacts on brain development during early childhood. Furthermore, engaging in different types of behavior more frequently with caregivers, regardless of type, may be important for brain development. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is aggression in children with behavioural and emotional difficulties associated with television viewing and video game playing? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, O; Paul, M; Spencer, N

    2009-01-01

    Possible associations between television viewing and video game playing and children's aggression have become public health concerns. We did a systematic review of studies that examined such associations, focussing on children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties, who are thought to be more susceptible. We did computer-assisted searches of health and social science databases, gateways, publications from relevant organizations and for grey literature; scanned bibliographies; hand-searched key journals; and corresponded with authors. We critically appraised all studies. A total of 12 studies: three experiments with children with behavioural and emotional difficulties found increased aggression after watching aggressive as opposed to low-aggressive content television programmes, one found the opposite and two no clear effect, one found such children no more likely than controls to imitate aggressive television characters. One case-control study and one survey found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties watched more television than controls; another did not. Two studies found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more hours of aggressive television programmes than controls. One study on video game use found that young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more minutes of violence and played longer than controls. In a qualitative study children with behavioural and emotional difficulties, but not their parents, did not associate watching television with aggression. All studies had significant methodological flaws. None was based on power calculations. This systematic review found insufficient, contradictory and methodologically flawed evidence on the association between television viewing and video game playing and aggression in children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties. If public health advice is to be evidence

  5. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R. Veenstra (René); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); W. Jansen (Wilma); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television

  6. Child Attributes as Determinants of Parental Television-Viewing Mediation: The Role of Child Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelman, Robert; Pettey, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated intellectual giftedness in relation to parents' mediation of child's television-watching in a sample of 364 children and their parents. Findings suggest that intellectual giftedness and, to a lesser degree, quantity of television-watching influence parents' perceptions of possible effects of television on their children and the type…

  7. Association of maternal obesity and depressive symptoms with television-viewing time in low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Hillary L; Whitaker, Robert C; Kahn, Robert S; Harvey-Berino, Jean

    2003-09-01

    Decreasing television (TV)-viewing time may improve child health and well-being. These viewing patterns are shaped during the preschool years. Because mothers play an important role in determining how much TV their preschool children watch, a better understanding is needed of the maternal factors that influence children's TV viewing. To examine the relationship of depressive symptoms and obesity in low-income mothers with TV-viewing time in their preschool children. Cross-sectional, self-administered survey of 295 low-income mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children (92% white) enrolled in the Vermont Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Mothers reported children's usual weekday and weekend-day TV-viewing time. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Maternal body mass index was calculated from self-reported height and weight measurements (weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Children watched a mean of 2.2 +/-1.2 hours of TV per day. Those in the upper quartile of TV-viewing time (high TV viewers) watched 3 or more hours of TV per day. Of the mothers, 12% had both obesity (BMI > or =30) and depressive symptoms (CES-D score > or =16), 19% were obese only, and 18% had depressive symptoms only. Children were more likely to be high TV viewers if their mothers had clinically significant depressive symptoms (35% vs 23%; P =.03) or if their mothers were obese (35% vs 22%; P =.03). Forty-two percent of children were high TV viewers if the mother had both depressive symptoms and obesity, 30% if the mother had only depressive symptoms, 29% if the mother had only obesity, and 20% if the mother had neither depressive symptoms nor obesity (P =.06 overall; P for trend =.009 using the chi2 test). Among low-income preschool children, those whose mothers had either depressive symptoms or obesity were more likely to watch 3 or more hours of TV a day. Strategies

  8. Socio-demographic correlates of prolonged television viewing time in Australian men and women: the AusDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bronwyn Kay; Sugiyama, Takemi; Healy, Genevieve N; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David W; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville

    2010-09-01

    Sedentary behaviors, particularly television viewing (TV) time, are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, independent of physical activity levels. These associations are stronger and more consistent for women than for men. Multivariate regression models examined the sociodemographic correlates of 2 categories of TV time (≥ 2 hours/day and ≥ 4 hours/day); in a large, population-based sample of Australian adults (4950 men, 6001 women; mean age 48.1 years, range 25-91) who participated in the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Some 46% of men and 40% of women watched ≥ 2 hours TV/day; 9% and 6% respectively watched ≥ 4 hours/day. For both men and women, ≥ 2 hours TV/day was associated with less than tertiary education, living outside of state capital cities, and having no paid employment. For women, mid and older age (45-64 and 65+) were also significant correlates of ≥ 2 hours TV/day. Similar patterns of association were observed in those viewing ≥ 4 hours/day. Prolonged TV time is associated with indices of social disadvantage and older age. These findings can inform the understanding of potential contextual influences and guide preventive initiatives.

  9. Television viewing, food preferences, and food habits among children: a prospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Nielsen, Birgit M; Kristensen, Peter L; Møller, Niels C; Togo, Per; Heitmann, Berit L

    2011-05-13

    Obesity has increased since the early 1980s, and despite numerous attempts, effective strategies to counter this worldwide epidemic are lacking. Food preferences are established early in life and are difficult to change later. There is therefore a need to identify factors that influence the development of food preferences. Our aim was therefore, to investigate cross-sectional and prospective associations between TV viewing habits and food preferences and habits, respectively. We hypothesized that more TV viewing was associated with less healthy concomitant and future food preferences and food habits. Data are from the Danish part of European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) I and II, a prospective cohort study conducted among 8-10-year-old and 14-16-year-old Danes in 1997-98. Six years later 2003-04 the 8-10-year-olds were followed up at age 14-16 years, and a new group of 8-10-year olds were included. Data were analysed using mixed linear regression analysis. Cross-sectional analyses included 697 8-10-year-olds and 495 14-16-year-olds. Prospective analyses included 232 pupils with complete data at baseline and follow-up. Associations between TV viewing habits and the sum of healthy food preferences (ΣHFP), and the sum of healthy food habits (ΣHFH), respectively, were examined. Inverse cross-sectional associations between TV viewing (h/day) and both ΣHFP and ΣHFH were present for both the 8-10-year-old and the 14-16-year-old boys and girls. The frequency of meals in front of the TV (times/week) was also inversely associated with ΣHFP among 8-10-year-old boys, and with ΣHFH in all sex- and age groups. Among girls, baseline TV viewing (h/day) was directly associated with adverse development in the ΣHFP during follow-up. The concomitant 6-year changes in ΣHFH and TV viewing (h/day) were inversely associated in boys. Long time spent on TV viewing, and possibly to a lesser degree, frequent consumption of meals during TV viewing, seem to be associated with generally

  10. Television viewing, food preferences, and food habits among children: A prospective epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togo Per

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has increased since the early 1980s, and despite numerous attempts, effective strategies to counter this worldwide epidemic are lacking. Food preferences are established early in life and are difficult to change later. There is therefore a need to identify factors that influence the development of food preferences. Our aim was therefore, to investigate cross-sectional and prospective associations between TV viewing habits and food preferences and habits, respectively. We hypothesized that more TV viewing was associated with less healthy concomitant and future food preferences and food habits. Methods Data are from the Danish part of European Youth Heart Study (EYHS I and II, a prospective cohort study conducted among 8-10-year-old and 14-16-year-old Danes in 1997-98. Six years later 2003-04 the 8-10-year-olds were followed up at age 14-16 years, and a new group of 8-10-year olds were included. Data were analysed using mixed linear regression analysis. Cross-sectional analyses included 697 8-10-year-olds and 495 14-16-year-olds. Prospective analyses included 232 pupils with complete data at baseline and follow-up. Associations between TV viewing habits and the sum of healthy food preferences (ΣHFP, and the sum of healthy food habits (ΣHFH, respectively, were examined. Results Inverse cross-sectional associations between TV viewing (h/day and both ΣHFP and ΣHFH were present for both the 8-10-year-old and the 14-16-year-old boys and girls. The frequency of meals in front of the TV (times/week was also inversely associated with ΣHFP among 8-10-year-old boys, and with ΣHFH in all sex- and age groups. Among girls, baseline TV viewing (h/day was directly associated with adverse development in the ΣHFP during follow-up. The concomitant 6-year changes in ΣHFH and TV viewing (h/day were inversely associated in boys. Conclusions Long time spent on TV viewing, and possibly to a lesser degree, frequent consumption of meals

  11. TELEVISION AND DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL WOMENA STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Devadas M.B,; Saravanan V.M,

    2015-01-01

    Television as a mass medium has profound impact on society. The pivotal role of Television as an instrument of development by altering the human perspective and transforming the traditional mindset of society is well recognized. TV has not only occupied the leisure hours of women but the whole family is also found busy viewing television programmes for varying length of hours. This paper basically intends to examine the role of TV in the development of rural women. The term dev...

  12. Secular trends in parent-reported television viewing among children in the United States, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, P D; Davis, R E

    2016-03-01

    Examine trends in parent-reported television (TV) viewing among preschoolers (2-5 years) and children (6-11 years) between 2001 and 2012. Data from the 2001-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. The analytic sample included 5724 preschoolers and 7104 children. Parent proxy of TV viewing at each of the six 2-year cycles was assessed. Statistically significant decreases in mean TV viewing between 2001 and 2012 were observed for preschoolers of nearly all gender, race-ethnicity and poverty combinations (exception of Mexican American boys), with the largest decrease occurring among non-Hispanic white boys (29% decrease; 2.24 h/day in 2001-2002 to 1.59 h/day in 2011-2012; P = .01). There was evidence of progressive decrease in mean TV viewing among children, but not to the extent that occurred among the preschool population. Across the six respective cycles for the entire preschool sample, the proportion watching <2 h/day of TV was: 34.9, 34.2, 43.9, 43.4, 39.1 and 49.2 (P(trend)  < .001). For children, the respective proportions were: 32.9, 25.2, 38.2, 36.5, 38.1 and 36.6 (P(trend)  = .01). Statistically significant decreases in mean TV viewing between 2001 and 2012 were observed for preschoolers and children. However, a relatively large proportion of parents report their children watching 2 or more hours/day of TV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Television viewing, food preferences, and food habits among children: a prospective epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Nielsen, Birgit Margrethe Nøhr; Kristensen, Peter L

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has increased since the early 1980s, and despite numerous attempts, effective strategies to counter this worldwide epidemic are lacking. Food preferences are established early in life and are difficult to change later. There is therefore a need to identify factors that influence...... the development of food preferences. Our aim was therefore, to investigate cross-sectional and prospective associations between TV viewing habits and food preferences and habits, respectively. We hypothesized that more TV viewing was associated with less healthy concomitant and future food preferences and food...

  14. Television Images: Exploring How They Affect People's View of Self and Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrin, Julie R.

    2009-01-01

    Through television, many different images of ethnic, cultural, and ability groups are presented. Different people perceive these images in different ways. These perceptions affect how people value themselves and judge and interact with others. This article first summaries research on TV images and people's meaning and reaction to them. Second, it…

  15. Changes in television viewing and computers/videogames use among high school students in Southern Brazil between 2001 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kelly Samara; da Silva Lopes, Adair; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Bezerra, Jorge; Nahas, Markus Vinicius

    2014-02-01

    To compare the prevalence of television (TV) watching and of computer/videogame use among high school students (15-19 years) from Southern Brazil between 2001 and 2011 and to identify associated socio-demographic factors. Panel studies were conducted with high school students in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2001 (n = 5,028) and 2011 (n = 6,529). TV watching and computer/videogame use were collected using questionnaires. Prevalence of ≥2 h/day of TV watching dropped from 76.8 to 61.5 % and ≥2 h/day of computer/videogame use increased from 37.9 to 60.6 %. In both surveys, those aged 15-16 and those who did not work had higher likelihoods of being exposed to ≥2 h/day of TV watching. Boys, those with higher family income, and those who were living in urban areas had higher likelihoods of ≥2 h/day of computer/videogame use. Older age, studying at night and not working were protective factors to these behaviors. After a decade, there was a decrease in the prevalence of TV viewing and an increase in computer/videogame use. Socio-demographic factors were differently associated with these behaviors.

  16. Associations of television viewing, physical activity and dietary behaviours with obesity in aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Carmina; Young, T Kue; Corey, Paul N

    2010-09-01

    To determine associations of diet, physical activity and television (TV) viewing time with obesity among aboriginal and non-aboriginal youth in conjunction with socio-economic variables. Cross-sectional study of differences between aboriginal and non-aboriginal groups and associations between lifestyle and socio-economic factors with obesity were examined. Population data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 conducted in 2004 in the ten provinces of Canada. A total of 198 aboriginal and 4448 non-aboriginal Canadian youth aged 12-17 years. Compared to non-aboriginal youth, physical activity participation among aboriginal youth was higher, but consumption of vegetables and dairy products was lower, and more aboriginal youth were 'high' TV watchers. Low income adequacy was associated with decreased odds for obesity among aboriginal youth in contrast to higher odds among non-aboriginal youth. Non-aboriginal 'high' TV watchers consumed more soft drinks and non-whole-grain products than did 'low' TV watchers. Physical activity participation did not differ between 'high' and 'low' TV watchers for both groups, and was associated with lowered odds for obesity only among aboriginal youth. Sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors associated with obesity differ between aboriginal and non-aboriginal youth. These findings may be useful for guiding intervention efforts.

  17. CAMPAIGN JOURNALISM ON ROMANIAN TELEVISIONS: TOWARDS A NORMATIVE VIEW OF ADVOCACY IN THE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DIANA MĂDROANE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advocacy media campaigns, staged by Romanian television channels and focused on changing social policies, have gained increasing visibility in the Romanian public sphere. The article examines models of journalism and normative theories about the role of the press in a democracy in order to carve out a normative position from which this emerging media format can be analysed. It situates media advocacy within the frame of interpretive journalism, aimed both at facilitating democratic debate and citizen participation (civic journalism, and at social reform (radical journalism. The reassessment of media strategies based on emotions and interpretation as mediators of social reality may lead to a positive, ‘optimistic’ view of campaign journalism. However, the advanced commercialisation of the media and the struggles for political representation interfere with and make the task of socially responsible journalism an incredibly challenging one

  18. Identifying family television practices to reduce children's television time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.

    2015-01-01

    The family system plays an important role in shaping children’s television use. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that parents limit screen time, given the risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing. Researchers have highlighted family television practices that may be

  19. Feasibility of increasing childhood outdoor play and decreasing television viewing through a family-based intervention in WIC, New York State, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Edmunds, Lynn S; Wyker, Brett A; Young, Laurie M; Sarfoh, Vanessa S; Sekhobo, Jackson P

    2011-05-01

    Active Families is a program developed to increase outdoor play and decrease television viewing among preschool-aged children enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Our objective was to assess its feasibility and efficacy. We implemented Active Families in a large WIC clinic in New York State for 1 year. To this end, we incorporated into WIC nutrition counseling sessions a community resource guide with maps showing recreational venues. Outcome measures were children's television viewing and time playing outdoors and parents' behaviors (television viewing, physical activity), self-efficacy to influence children's behaviors, and parenting practices specific to television viewing. We used a nonpaired pretest and posttest design to evaluate the intervention, drawing on comparison data from 3 matched WIC agencies. Compared with the children at baseline, the children at follow-up were more likely to watch television less than 2 hours per day and play outdoors for at least 60 minutes per day. Additionally, parents reported higher self-efficacy to limit children's television viewing and were more likely to meet physical activity recommendations and watch television less than 2 hours per day. Results suggest that it is feasible to foster increased outdoor play and reduced television viewing among WIC-enrolled children by incorporating a community resource guide into WIC nutrition counseling sessions. Future research should test the intervention with a stronger evaluation design in multiple settings, with more diverse WIC populations, and by using more objective outcome measures of child behaviors.

  20. Television Viewing by School-Age Children: Associations with Physical Activity, Snack Food Consumption and Unhealthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities…

  1. Television the Medium, the Message and Nutritional Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a review of research linking nutritional health and body image attitudes with television viewing. Highlights include content analyses of advertisements and programming; audience uses of television; television as reality; socialization of attitudes and television; television, body image and self-esteem; television and health behaviors; and…

  2. Maternal Beliefs and Parenting Practices Regarding Their Preschool Child's Television Viewing: An Exploration in a Sample of Low-Income Mexican-Origin Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Polk, Sarah; Cheah, Charissa S L; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Susan L; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2015-08-01

    To explore maternal beliefs about television (TV) viewing and related parenting practices in low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Interviews were audio recorded and analyzed using a theoretically based thematic analytic approach. Mothers described strong beliefs about the positive and negative impact of TV content. Mothers emphasized the educational value of specific programming. Content restrictions were common. Time restrictions were not clearly defined; however, many mothers preferred short versus long episodes of viewing. Mothers spoke positively about family viewing and the role of TV viewing in enabling mothers to accomplish household tasks. These findings have implications for intervening in this population. Interventionists should consider the value mothers place on the educational role of TV viewing, the direct benefit to mothers of viewing time, the lack of clear time limits, and the common practice of family co-viewing. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. 1979 Nielsen Report on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen (A.C.) Co., Chicago, IL.

    The Nielsen data on commercial television viewing and programming contained in this report are estimates of the audiences and other characteristics of television usage as derived from Nielsen Television Index and Nielsen Station Index measurements. Data and brief discussions are provided on the number of commercial and public stations; number of…

  4. Associations of perceived neighborhood physical and social environments with physical activity and television viewing in African American men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Larkin L.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have assessed how attributes of neighborhood environments contribute to sedentary, in addition to active, behaviors. This study investigated associations of perceived social and physical aspects of neighborhood environments with television (TV) viewing and physical activity (PA) in African American adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported survey. Setting Large mega-church in Houston, TX. Subjects 1,374 African American men and women. Measures Outcomes included log-transformed daily TV viewing and participation in medium/high levels of PA, measured by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood perceptions were assessed with the Social Cohesion and Trust and the Neighborhood Problems scales. Analysis Multivariable models that controlled for clustering within neighborhoods. Results Reporting more neighborhood problems was significantly associated with greater log-transformed TV viewing in women (β=0.017, SE=0.006, p=0.003), and social cohesion was positively associated with PA in women (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02, 1.11, p=0.006). Concerns about litter and walking after dark, and a lack of places to shop were associated with increased TV viewing among women, and concerns about traffic and walking after dark were associated with reduced PA among men. Conclusion Physical and social neighborhood conditions were associated with TV viewing and PA, particularly in women. Neighborhood-based strategies to reduce sedentary behaviors and enhance PA should include attention to social as well as physical aspects of neighborhood environments. PMID:23398134

  5. Hostility Modifies the Association between TV Viewing and Cardiometabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It was hypothesized that television viewing is predictive of cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, people with hostile personality type may be more susceptible to TV-induced negative emotions and harmful health habits which increase occurrence of cardiometabolic risk. Purpose. The prospective association of TV viewing on cardiometabolic risk was examined along with whether hostile personality trait was a modifier. Methods. A total of 3,269 Black and White participants in the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA study were assessed from age 23 to age 35. A cross-lagged panel model at exam years 5, 10, 15, and 20, covering 15 years, was used to test whether hours of daily TV viewing predicted cardiometabolic risk, controlling confounding variables. Multiple group analysis of additional cross-lagged panel models stratified by high and low levels of hostility was used to evaluate whether the association was modified by the hostile personality trait. Results. The cross-lagged association of TV viewing at years 5 and 15 on clustered cardiometabolic risk score at years 10 and 20 was significant (B=0.058 and 0.051, but not at 10 to 15 years. This association was significant for those with high hostility (B=0.068 for exam years 5 to 10 and 0.057 for exam years 15 to 20 but not low hostility. Conclusion. These findings indicate that TV viewing is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Further, they indicate that hostility might be a modifier for the association between TV viewing and cardiometabolic risk.

  6. ObesiTV: how television is influencing the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-08-20

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  8. Formative Review of the Critical Television Viewing Skills Curriculum for Secondary Schools. Volume I: Final Report. Volume II: Teacher's Guide: Reviewers' Suggested Revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Patricia; And Others

    This formative review of a project designed to help high school students become more discriminating television viewers (1) presents a description of the curriculum designed during the project to foster critical television viewing in teenagers, (2) outlines the major tasks involved in the formative review of the curriculum, and (3) presents and…

  9. Mealtime television viewing and dietary quality in low-income African American and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2010-07-01

    To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy.

  10. Using Project-Based Data in Physics to Examine Television Viewing in Relation to Student Performance in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2009-10-01

    Mass media, particularly television, influence public conceptions and attitudes toward learning science. The discovery of an original method that does not rely on self-reported viewing habits to measure the impact of television on students' performance in science arose from a study of a unit on electricity in a Physics course. In determining the number of television sets at home and the number of hours of operation, data emerged that allowed an investigation of associations between each of these variables and student performance in physics. A negative impact on performance was found in its consistent decrease as both the number of sets and the time the sets are on increase. These results provide dramatic independent confirmation of the negative impact of television viewing on achievement determined through meta-analysis of many studies, and are also consistent with those in the literature at large, particularly from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Furthermore, the totally `blind' participation of the subjects lends a degree of authenticity rarely found in a classically designed study. The findings impact scientific literacy, since performance in science and conceptions of science and scientists, are all inextricably linked.

  11. Prevalence, trajectories, and determinants of television viewing time in an ethnically diverse sample of young children from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Sally E.; Kelly, Brian; Collings, Paul J.; Nagy, Liana; Bywater, Tracey; Wright, John

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive screen viewing in early childhood is associated with poor physical and psycho-social health and poor cognitive development. This study aimed to understand the prevalence, trajectory and determinants of television viewing time in early childhood to inform intervention development. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers of 1558 children (589 white British, 757 Pakistani heritage, 212 other ethnicities) completed questionnaires when their children were app...

  12. Pakistani childrens’ views of TV advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explores Pakistani children’s views regarding TV advertising and outlines the factors impacting their choice of snack brands. Thirty-six children from three schools were selected purposefully and qualitative data was collected through focus group sessions held in schools. Findings suggest that children understand the intended message of snack brand advertisers. Different variants of brands focusing on some product- and non-product related elements are considered imperative, contributing towards purchase. Children identify brands through jingles and cartoon characters and are well-aware of the logic behind TV advertising. This study highlighted children as knowledgeable, straightforward, fun-loving and rational consumers, all of which have some important implications for food marketers. The research is an original contribution to the work in the field of consumer socialization; it is intended to help the readers understand children’s attitude with regard to TV advertising, and identify some of the elements contributing to the choice of snack brands among children.

  13. Internet use and television viewing in children and its association with vision loss: a major public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the distribution of eye and vision conditions among school children in Qatar. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of excessive internet use and television viewing on low vision and its prevalence with socio-demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in the public and private schools of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education of the State of Qatar from September 2009 to April 2010. A total of 3200 students aged 6-18 years were invited to take part of whom 2586 (80.8% agreed. A questionnaire, that included questions about socio-demographic factors, internet use, and television viewing and computer games, co-morbid factors, and family history and vision assessment, was designed to collect information from the students. This was distributed by the school authorities. Of the school children studied (n=2586, 52.8% were girls and 47.2% boys. The overall prevalence of low vision was 15.2%. The prevalence of low vision was significantly higher in the age group 6-10 years (17.1%; P=0.05. Low vision was more prevalent among television viewers (17.2% than in infrequent viewers (14.0%. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher in frequent internet users and television viewers (21.3%. Also, low vision without aid was higher in frequent viewers. The study findings revealed a greater prevalence of low vision among frequent internet users and television viewers. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher among frequent viewers. The prevalence of low vision decreased with increasing age.

  14. Internet Use and Television Viewing in Children and its Association with Vision Loss: A Major Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S

    2012-03-07

    Little is known about the distribution of eye and vision conditions among school children in Qatar. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of excessive internet use and television viewing on low vision and its prevalence with socio-demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in the public and private schools of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education of the State of Qatar from September 2009 to April 2010. A total of 3200 students aged 6-18 years were invited to take part of whom 2586 (80.8%) agreed. A questionnaire, that included questions about socio-demographic factors, internet use, and television viewing and computer games, co-morbid factors, and family history and vision assessment, was designed to collect information from the students. This was distributed by the school authorities. Of the school children studied (n=2586), 52.8% were girls and 47.2% boys. The overall prevalence of low vision was 15.2%. The prevalence of low vision was significantly higher in the age group 6-10 years (17.1%; P=0.05). Low vision was more prevalent among television viewers (17.2%) than in infrequent viewers (14.0%). The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher in frequent internet users and television viewers (21.3%). Also, low vision without aid was higher in frequent viewers. The study findings revealed a greater prevalence of low vision among frequent internet users and television viewers. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher among frequent viewers. The prevalence of low vision decreased with increasing age.

  15. Trends in food and beverage television brand appearances viewed by children and adolescents from 2009 to 2014 in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, James Wb; Harris, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    Public health experts raise concerns about marketing unhealthy products to young people through television (TV) product placements. Coca-Cola brand appearances (product placements) reached a substantial child and adolescent audience in 2008, but additional brands now sponsor popular programming. We aimed to quantify child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage appearances since 2008. In 2015, we purchased Nielsen data on occurrences and child/adolescent exposure to food, beverage and restaurant brand appearances on US prime-time TV from 2009 to 2014, and analysed appearances by product category, company, brand and year. We compared exposure to appearances with exposure to traditional commercials for top brands. Nationally representative panel of approximately 20 000 TV-viewing households. Children (2-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years). Exposure to food and beverage brand appearances peaked in 2012 and declined through 2014. Whereas full-calorie soda brands dominated before 2012, other sugary drink and quick-serve restaurant brands contributed over one-third of appearances viewed by children in 2013 and 2014. Nine hundred and fifty-four companies had brand appearances from 2009 to 2014, but just four were responsible for over half of exposures: The Coca-Cola Company, Dr Pepper Snapple Group, PepsiCo and Starbucks. Approximately half were viewed on reality TV programmes and one sitcom. Each year from 2009 to 2013, brand appearance exposure exceeded traditional advertising exposure for at least one brand. Despite recent reductions in brand appearances viewed by young people, some unhealthy branded products continue to be marketed via this method. We suggest policy options to reduce child and adolescent exposure to such appearances.

  16. Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Health and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimala Sharma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents.

  17. Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Heath and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bimala; Cosme Chavez, Rosemary; Jeong, Ae Suk; Nam, Eun Woo

    2017-04-05

    The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents.

  18. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, O.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Baarda, B.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the

  19. Expectations in case of event - from a television editor's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, H.

    1997-01-01

    Informing the public about emergencies requires two different phases a of necessary operation: (1) a pre-event culture of permanent relations and communication, training authors and editors, and footage-providing, and (2) a mobile information task force to be alerted very quickly in case of event. Special television needings and recommandations are elaborated, the legal duties of german public radio and television corporations are outlined. (orig.) [de

  20. Children’s Hyperactivity, Television Viewing, and The Potential for Child Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 6,250), this study examined whether children who display difficult behaviors early in life watch more television from year-to-year. Results revealed that 4-year-old children’s hyperactive, but not aggressive, behavior was associated with an increase in television watching over the ensuing year. These potential child effects, however, were embedded in both proximate and distal ecologies. That is, the association b...

  1. The association of parent's outcome expectations for child TV viewing with parenting practices and child TV viewing: an examination using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren; Chen, Tzu-An; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M

    2015-05-28

    Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children's TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently unclear why. The current study examined parenting practices related to TV viewing in the context of social- cognitive theory. Specifically, we hypothesized that positive and negative Parental Outcome Expectations for child's TV Viewing (POETV) would be associated with social co-viewing and restrictive parenting practices, and that POETV and parenting practices influence the amount of TV viewed by child. Data were collected from an internet survey of 287 multi-ethnic parents and their 6-12 year old children on participants' sociodemographic information, parenting practices related to TV use, POETV, and parent and child TV viewing. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship amongst variables in separate models for weekday and weekend TV viewing. controlling for child age, household education, and parental TV viewing. The results provided partial support for the hypotheses, with notable differences between weekday and weekend viewing. The models explained 13.6% and 23.4% of the variance in children's TV viewing on weekdays and weekends respectively. Neither positive nor negative POETV were associated with restrictive TV parenting in either model. One subscale each from positive and negative POETV were associated with social co-viewing parenting on both weekends and weekdays in the expected direction. Restrictive parenting practices were directly negatively associated with children's TV viewing on weekdays, but not weekends. Social co-viewing parenting was directly positively associated with children's TV viewing on weekends, but not weekdays. The strongest influence on children's TV viewing was having a TV in the child's bedroom. Negative POETV was weakly associated

  2. Television food advertising viewed by preschoolers, children and adolescents: contributors to differences in exposure for black and white youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, F; Harris, J L

    2018-02-01

    Public health experts raise concerns about adolescents' and black youth's greater exposure to TV advertising for unhealthy foods and beverages compared with children and white youth. Examine how television-viewing patterns and rates of advertising during targeted programming contribute to this greater exposure. Nielsen panel data provided viewing times and amount of food advertising viewed on U.S. television in 2008 and 2012. Researchers compared results by network type (black-, child- and youth-targeted), age group (preschoolers, children and adolescents) and race (black and white youth). Food advertising exposure increased with age for both black and white youth, but black youth viewed approximately 50% or more ads than did white youth of the same age. Higher rates of food advertising on youth-targeted networks explained greater adolescent exposure. However, greater television viewing and higher rates of advertising on youth- and black-targeted networks both contributed to black youth's greater exposure. From 2008 to 2012, increases in food-ads-per-hour increased exposure for all youth. Food advertisers and networks, especially those targeting adolescents and black youth, must do more to reduce advertising that negatively impacts young people's health. Furthermore, reducing commercial-television viewing by black youth may help reduce health disparities affecting their communities. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Identifying household television practices to reduce children’s television time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.

    2013-01-01

    The risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing justify television-reduction efforts. Targeting parents and the household environment provides a promising strategy for limiting television. Research has highlighted household television practices to reduce children’s viewing, but more

  4. Blurred world view: A study on the relationship between television viewing and the perception of the justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Truong, Florence; Mar, Raymond A; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that distorted representations of reality on television can lead to distorted perceptions of reality among viewers. In this study, 322 individuals in Austria reported their weekly television consumption and whether they believe that there is active practice of capital punishment in Austria, which has been abolished since 1968. The more television participants watched, the more likely they mistakenly believed that there is, or recently was, capital punishment in Austria, even when controlling for participants' age and education. It seems that television has the potential to influence viewers' perception and knowledge of core aspects of society.

  5. Television use in the 21st century: An exploration of television and social television use in a multiplatform environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jiyoung

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the multiplatform and individualized video viewing environment, this study conducted focus groups to delve into reasons behind the choice and use of television over other types of video platforms, and the motives for using social television. The results suggest that the focus group participants feel affection for television as a medium itself — a feeling that is independent of the content available on television. The motives for seeking social television include a sense of communi...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1630 - MVPD digital television transition notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Analog-only TVs should continue to work as before to receive low power, Class A or translator television....DTV.gov, 1-888-CALL-FCC (TTY 1-888-TELL-FCC), or this MVPD at [telephone number and Web site if...

  7. The relationships between body mass index and television viewing, internet use and cellular phone use: the moderating effects of socio-demographic characteristics and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsiao, Ray C; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Huang, Chi-Fen; Liu, Shu-Chun; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and television viewing, Internet use and cellular phone use and the moderators for these relationships in adolescents. The relationship between BMI and the time spent on three kinds of sedentary activities and the moderators for these relationships were analyzed among 9,278 Taiwanese adolescents. The different relationships between BMI and various Internet and cellular phone-related activities were analyzed. High television viewing and high Internet use were associated with increased BMI in adolescents. Exercising had a moderating effect on the relationship between BMI and television viewing. Several Internet and cellular phone-related activities were associated with increased BMI. The results support the relationships between adolescent BMI and television viewing and Internet use. The moderating effect of exercise and various Internet and cellular phone-related activities should be considered when developing intervention strategies for overweight adolescents. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The role of television viewing and direct experience in predicting adolescents' beliefs about the health risks of fast-food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Buhrau, Denise

    2015-09-01

    Fast-food advertising abounds on television (TV), and programs targeting youth often display fast-food consumption but rarely with any negative consequences. Cultivation research maintains that cumulative exposure to TV influences audiences' views of and beliefs about the real world. Thus, the amount of TV adolescents watch is likely to bias their views of the consequences of eating fast food. This research posits that this relationship varies as a function of adolescents' actual experience with fast food. Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the cultivation research tradition assess the relationship between the amount of adolescents' regular exposure to TV and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of eating fast food. Teenage children of members of online panels reported hours of TV viewing, beliefs about the consequences of eating fast food, and their frequency of fast-food consumption. In both studies, beliefs about health risks of fast-food consumption vary as a function of the amount of TV watched. Heavy TV viewers have less negative and more positive beliefs about the consequences of fast-food consumption than light viewers. As direct experience with fast food increases, the relationship between TV viewing and risk perceptions weakens, but the relationship between TV viewing and positive perceptions strengthens. These moderated relationships remain when we control for physical activity (Study 1) and the density of fast-food restaurants in respondents' geographical area (Study 2). Given the role of TV viewing in biasing perceptions of the consequences of eating fast food, public health researchers and practitioners should carefully monitor and perhaps regulate the amount of fast-food advertising on TV and the content of TV programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Some Uses-and-Gratifications of Television News Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Wayne M.

    Fourteen statements relating to the surveillance, diversion, and social interaction uses of media were drawn from a review of uses and gratification research and applied to the viewing of local and national early evening news and nighttime local news television programs. A telephone survey of 543 adults elicited information concerning demographics…

  10. Television viewing and unhealthy diet: implications for children and media interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Bargh, John A

    2009-10-01

    The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues has led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of 2 potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including a) nutrition education; b) parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence; and c) reduced exposure to unhealthy messages.

  11. Parenting style and family type, but not child temperament, are associated with television viewing time in children at two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Anna S; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Lawrence, Julie; Galland, Barbara C; Gray, Andrew R; Taylor, Barry J; Sayers, Rachel; Taylor, Rachael W

    2017-01-01

    Despite the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommending that electronic media be avoided in children under two years of age, screen use is common in infants and toddlers. The aims of this study were to determine how parenting style, infant temperament, and family type are associated with television viewing in two-year-old children. Participants were from the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) randomized controlled trial (n = 802) (Dunedin, New Zealand). Demographic information was collected at baseline (late pregnancy), and television and other screen time assessed by questionnaire at 24 months of age. Parenting style (Parenting Practices Questionnaire), infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory), and family type (7 categories) were reported by both parents. Data were available for 487 participants (61% of the original participants). Median television viewing was relatively low at 21 minutes per day, or 30 minutes in those watching television (82%). Children who watched television played with mobile phones (12% of children) or iPads/tablets (22% of children) more frequently than children who did not (6% of children). In terms of parenting style, children of more authoritarian mothers (β = 17, 95% CI: 6-27 minutes), more authoritarian partners (β = 14, 95% CI: 2-26 minutes), or more permissive mothers (β = 10, 95% CI: 3-17 minutes) watched significantly more television. No significant relationships were observed between child temperament and time watching television after adjustment for confounding variables. Children from "active" families (as rated by partners) watched 29 minutes less television each day (P = 0.002). Parenting style and family type were associated with television viewing time in young children, whereas child temperament was not.

  12. Children’s Hyperactivity, Television Viewing, and The Potential for Child Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 6,250), this study examined whether children who display difficult behaviors early in life watch more television from year-to-year. Results revealed that 4-year-old children’s hyperactive, but not aggressive, behavior was associated with an increase in television watching over the ensuing year. These potential child effects, however, were embedded in both proximate and distal ecologies. That is, the association between children’s hyperactivity and increases in their television exposure over time was strongest among those in the low-end of the socioeconomic distribution and those whose parents displayed less optimal mental health. It was also stronger among girls. These results underscore the importance of considering child effects in future research and how intra-familial dynamics vary across different types of family contexts. PMID:26834301

  13. Associations between dietary patterns, physical activity (leisure-time and occupational) and television viewing in middle-aged French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreire, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Simon, Chantal; Chaix, Basile; Weber, Christiane; Touvier, Mathilde; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-03-01

    Diet and physical activity are considered to be major components of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined in detail the relationships between specific types of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and diet in adults. The objective of the present study was to assess differential relationships between dietary patterns, leisure-time and occupational physical activities and time spent watching television (TV), as an indicator of sedentary behaviour, in middle-aged French subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 1359 participants in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study, who completed a detailed physical activity questionnaire and at least six 24 h dietary records. Sex-specific dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis; their relationships with leisure-time and occupational physical activities and TV viewing were assessed using ANCOVA, after adjustment for age, educational level and smoking status. Three dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for potential confounders, leisure-time physical activity was positively associated with a 'healthy' food pattern in both men (P for trend trend trend convenience' pattern in men and with a 'alcohol-appetiser' pattern in women. In conclusion, identification of relationships between dietary patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviour can enable identification of different types of lifestyle and should help to target at-risk groups in nutrition prevention programmes.

  14. Prime-Time Television: Assessing Violence during the Most Popular Viewing Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stacy L.; Nathanson, Amy I.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the prevalence and context of violence in prime-time television programming using a random, representative sample. Shows that, regardless of the time of day, viewers are likely to encounter violence in roughly 2 out of 3 programs. Identifies specific channel types and genres that feature potentially harmful depictions of violence during…

  15. Parental Mediation of Television Viewing and Videogaming of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Melissa H.; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of…

  16. "What Are You Viewing?" Exploring the Pervasive Social TV Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Raimund; Baillie, Lynne; Fröhlich, Peter; Egger, Sebastian; Grechenig, Thomas

    The vision of pervasive TV foresees users engaging with interactive video services across a variety of contexts and user interfaces. Following this idea, this chapter extends traditional Social TV toward the notion of pervasive Social TV (PSTV) by including mobile viewing scenarios. We discuss social interaction enablers that integrate TV content consumption and communication in the context of two case studies that evaluate Social TV on mobile smartphones as well as the traditional set-top-box-based setup. We report on the impact of social features such as text-chat, audio-chat, and synchronized channel-choice on the end-user's media experience. By analyzing the commonalities and the differences between mobile and living-room Social TV that we found, we provide guidance on the design of pervasive Social TV systems as well as on future research issues.

  17. Physical activity does not attenuate the obesity risk of TV viewing in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-López, J P; Ruiz, J R; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Gracia-Marco, L; Manios, Y; Sjöström, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Moreno, L A

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of television (TV) time, the frequency of meals while watching TV and the presence of TV set in the bedroom with total and abdominal obesity and to assess whether physical activity (PA) attenuates the obesity risk of TV viewing. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 2200 adolescents (46% boys) from 10 European cities, The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, between 2006 and 2007. TV viewing, PA (by accelerometry) and body composition were measured. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed. Even adjusting by vigorous PA, TV in the bedroom (odds ratio [OR]: 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.74) and >4 h d(-1) TV during week days (OR: 1.30, 95% CI, 1.02-1.67) (in boys) and eating every day with TV (OR: 1.18, 95% CI, 1.07-1.30) and >2 h d(-1) TV during weekend days (OR: 1.68, 95% CI, 1.25-2.26) (in girls) were significantly associated with total obesity. Likewise, in both sexes, having a TV set at bedroom was significantly associated with abdominal obesity. Adolescents spending excessive TV time are prone to obesity independently of their PA levels. Families should put TV sets out of adolescents' bedroom and keep TV sets off during meal times. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucumi Diego I

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an ongoing discussion about the relationship between time spent watching television and childhood obesity. This debate has special relevance in the Latin American region were the globalization process has increased the availability of screen-based entertainment at home. The aim of this study is to examine the association between television viewing and weight status in Colombian children. Methods This cross sectional investigation included children aged 5 to12 yrs from the National Nutrition Survey in Colombia (ENSIN 2005. Weight and height were measured in 11,137 children in order to calculate body mass index. Overweight was defined by international standards. Time spent viewing television was determined for these children through parental reports. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for different subgroups and adjusted for potential confounders in order to study the association between television viewing and weight status in this population. Results Among the surveyed children, 41.5% viewed television less than two hours/day; 36.8% between two and 3.9 hours/day and 21.7% four or more hours/day. The prevalence of overweight (obesity inclusive in this population was 11.1%. Children who were classified as excessive television viewers (between two and 3.9 hours/day or 4 or more hours/day were more likely to be overweight (OR: 1.44 95% CI: 1.41–1.47 and OR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.30–1.34, respectively than children who reported to watch television less than 2 hours/day. Stratified analyses by age, gender and urbanization levels showed similar results. Conclusion Television viewing was positively associated with the presence of overweight in Colombian children. A positive association between urbanization level and television viewing was detected. Considering that the majority of Colombian children lives in densely populated cities and appear to engage in excessive television viewing these findings are

  19. Television images and probable posttraumatic stress disorder after September 11: the role of background characteristics, event exposures, and perievent panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Jennifer; Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Vlahov, David

    2004-03-01

    Television viewing has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after disasters and traumas; we examined characteristics that may explain this association among New Yorkers after September 11, 2001. Among 2001 respondents to a random-digit dial telephone survey conducted 4 months after September 11, people who viewed more television images in the 7 days after September 11 had more probable PTSD. People in the highest third of viewing had a 2.32 times greater odds of probable PTSD after September 11 compared with people in the lowest third of viewing; after adjustment for explanatory variables, the relative odds of probable PTSD were 1.66. Adjustment for perievent panic accounted for 44% of the reduction in association between television and probable PTSD, suggesting that perievent emotional reactions may play an important role in the television and psychopathology association. Television may merit consideration as a potential exposure to a traumatic event.

  20. Educational inequalities in TV viewing among older adults: a mediation analysis of ecological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Teychenne, Megan; McNaughton, Sarah; Salmon, Jo

    2013-12-19

    Television (TV) viewing, a prevalent leisure-time sedentary behaviour independently related to negative health outcomes, appears to be higher in less educated and older adults. In order to tackle the social inequalities, evidence is needed about the underlying mechanisms of the association between education and TV viewing. The present purpose was to examine the potential mediating role of personal, social and physical environmental factors in the relationship between education and TV viewing among Australian 55-65 year-old adults. In 2010, self-reported data was collected among 4082 adults (47.6% men) across urban and rural areas of Victoria, for the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study. The mediating role of personal (body mass index [BMI], quality of life), social (social support from family and friends, social participation at proximal level, and interpersonal trust, social cohesion, personal safety at distal level) and physical environmental (neighbourhood aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, number of televisions) factors in the association between education and TV viewing time was examined using the product-of-coefficients test of MacKinnon based on multilevel linear regression analyses (conducted in 2012). Multiple mediating analyses showed that BMI (p ≤ 0.01), personal safety (p TV viewing. No proximal social factors mediated the education-TV viewing association. Interventions aimed to reduce TV viewing should focus on personal (BMI) and environmental (personal safety, neighbourhood aesthetics, number of televisions) factors, in order to overcome educational inequalities in sedentary behaviour among older adults.

  1. Genre-Specific Cultivation Effects: Lagged Associations between Overall TV Viewing, Local TV News Viewing, and Fatalistic Beliefs about Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    Cultivation theory and research has been criticized for its failure to consider variation in effects by genre, employ appropriate third-variable controls, and determine causal direction. Recent studies, controlling for a variety of demographic characteristics and media use variables, have found that exposure to local television (TV) newscasts is associated with a variety of problematic "real-world" beliefs. However, many of these studies have not adequately assessed causal direction. Redressing this limitation, we analyzed data from a two-wave national representative survey which permitted tests of lagged association between overall TV viewing, local TV news viewing, and fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. We first replicated the original cultivation effect and found a positive association between overall TV viewing at time 1 and increased fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention at time 2. Analyses also provided evidence that local TV news viewing at time 1 predicts increased fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention at time 2. There was little evidence for reverse causation in predicting changes in overall TV viewing or local TV news viewing. The paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  2. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules... for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend... television, TV translator, and Class A television station DTV licensees''). The Commission has also revised...

  3. Television viewing time and mortality from stroke and coronary artery disease among Japanese men and women -- the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Satoyo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Wada, Yasuhiko; Tanabe, Naohito; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    No study has examined the association between television (TV) viewing time and mortality from stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Japanese. A total of 35,959 men and 49,940 women aged 40-79 years without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer were followed from 1988-1990 until 2009. During 19.2 median years of follow-up, there were 2,553 deaths from stroke, 1,206 from CAD and 5,835 from total CVD. Compared with viewing TV for TV viewing. The multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) for ≥6 h/day of TV viewing were 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.37) for stroke, 1.33 (1.03-1.72) for CAD and 1.19 (1.06-1.34) for total CVD. The corresponding HRs for each 1-h/day increment in TV viewing time were 1.01 (0.99-1.04), 1.04 (1.01-1.08) and 1.02 (1.01-1.04), respectively. The excess risk of mortality from CAD and total CVD was somewhat attenuated after further adjustment for potential mediators such as history of hypertension and diabetes: the multivariable HRs for ≥6 h/day of TV viewing were 1.24 (0.96-1.61) and 1.14 (1.02-1.28). The corresponding HRs for each 1-h/day increment in TV viewing time were 1.03 (1.00-1.07) and 1.01 (1.00-1.03). Prolonged TV viewing was associated with a small but significant increase in mortality from CAD and total CVD in Japanese.

  4. CAMPAIGN JOURNALISM ON ROMANIAN TELEVISIONS: TOWARDS A NORMATIVE VIEW OF ADVOCACY IN THE MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    IRINA DIANA MĂDROANE

    2016-01-01

    Advocacy media campaigns, staged by Romanian television channels and focused on changing social policies, have gained increasing visibility in the Romanian public sphere. The article examines models of journalism and normative theories about the role of the press in a democracy in order to carve out a normative position from which this emerging media format can be analysed. It situates media advocacy within the frame of interpretive journalism, aimed both at facilitating democratic debate ...

  5. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations of perceived neighborhood physical and social environments with physical activity and television viewing in African-American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Larkin L; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have assessed how attributes of neighborhood environments contribute to sedentary, in addition to active, behaviors. This study investigated associations of perceived social and physical aspects of neighborhood environments with television (TV) viewing and physical activity (PA) in African-American adults. Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported survey. Large mega-church in Houston, Texas. A total of 1374 African-American men and women. Outcomes included log-transformed daily TV viewing and participation in medium/high levels of PA, measured by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood perceptions were assessed with the Social Cohesion and Trust and the Neighborhood Problems scales. Multivariable models that controlled for clustering within neighborhoods. Reporting more neighborhood problems was significantly associated with greater log-transformed TV viewing in women (β = .017, SE = .006, p = .003), and social cohesion was positively associated with PA in women (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.11, p = .006). Concerns about litter and walking after dark and a lack of places to shop were associated with increased TV viewing among women, and concerns about traffic and walking after dark were associated with reduced PA among men. Physical and social neighborhood conditions were associated with TV viewing and PA, particularly in women. Neighborhood-based strategies to reduce sedentary behaviors and enhance PA should include attention to social as well as physical aspects of neighborhood environments.

  7. The association of breakfast skipping and television viewing at breakfast with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries; the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjornara, H.B.; Vik, F.N.; Brug, J.; Manios, Y.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Jan, N.; Maes, L.; Moreno, L.A.; Dossegger, A.; Bere, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The main objective was to assess the relationship of breakfast skipping, television (TV) viewing at breakfast and breakfast without TV with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries. Design: A cross-sectional survey assessed breakfast eating and TV viewing

  8. The Social Uses of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, James

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrates that audience members create specific and sometimes elaborate practical actions involving television in order to gratify particular needs in the context of family viewing. Supports a typology of the social uses of television using ethnographic research and current uses and gratifications literature. (JMF)

  9. Participants' views of telephone interviews within a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kim; Gott, Merryn; Hoare, Karen

    2015-12-01

    To offer a unique contribution to the evolving debate around the use of the telephone during semistructured interview by drawing on interviewees' reflections on telephone interview during a grounded theory study. The accepted norm for qualitative interviews is to conduct them face-to-face. It is typical to consider collecting qualitative data via telephone only when face-to-face interview is not possible. During a grounded theory study, exploring users' experiences with overnight mask ventilation for sleep apnoea, the authors selected the telephone to conduct interviews. This article reports participants' views on semistructured interview by telephone. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted on data pertaining to the use of the telephone interview in a grounded theory study. The data were collected during 4 months of 2011 and 6 months in 2014. The article presents an inductive thematic analysis of sixteen participants' opinions about telephone interviewing and discusses these in relation to existing literature reporting the use of telephone interviews in grounded theory studies. Overall, participants reported a positive experience of telephone interviewing. From each participants reports we identified four themes from the data: being 'phone savvy; concentrating on voice instead of your face; easy rapport; and not being judged or feeling inhibited. By drawing on these data, we argue that the telephone as a data collection tool in grounded theory research and other qualitative methodologies need not be relegated to second best status. Rather, researchers can consider telephone interview a valuable first choice option. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Television viewing habits and their influence on physical activity and childhood overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele F. Dutra

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and children who watch TV for an excessive period of time, it is necessary to motivate such individuals to perform interactive activities, as well as promote a more active lifestyle, by decreasing the time children spend in front of the TV.

  11. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Obesity, And Adiposity In US Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested whether three sedentary activities were associated with obesity and adiposity in U.S. preschool children: 1) watching >2 hours/day of TV/videos, 2) computer use, and 3) >2 hours/day of media use (TV/videos and computer use). We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representat...

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness and TV viewing in relation to metabolic risk factors in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Martins, Clarice; Gaya, Anelise; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Vale, Susana

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents who have high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) co-existing with low levels of television (TV) viewing present a better metabolic risk profile compared to their low fit and high TV viewing counterparts. A total of 372 students (aged 12-15 years old) comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (body mass index and waist circumference) was collected. CRF was calculated based upon the 20 metres shuttle run test. A questionnaire was used to estimate weekly TV viewing. Information about biological maturity and parental education was collected. Participants were then categorized into one of four category profiles according to the scores they achieved: low TV-Fit; high TV-Fit; low TV-Unfit and high TV-Unfit. Metabolic risk score (MRS) was calculated based on the sum of the Z-scores of all the metabolic variables analysed. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the high TV-Unfit group was almost 3-times more likely to be assigned to the high MRS group (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.08-7.50) compared to their low TV-Fit group counterparts. The data showed that the high TV-Unfit group was associated with an increased metabolic risk in adolescents after adjustment for gender, age, biological maturity and parental education.

  13. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  14. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  15. The Relations of Early Television Viewing to School Readiness and Vocabulary of Children from Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.; Auston, Aletha C.; Murphy, Kimberlee C.; St. Peters, Michelle; Pinon, Ronda Scantlin; Kotler, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Collected time-use diaries of television viewing from two cohorts of children (ages 2-5 and 4-7) from low-income families and gave annual tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness. Found that viewing of child-audience informative programs between ages 2 and 3 predicted higher academic performance. Frequent viewers of…

  16. Sedentary behaviour and biomarkers for cardiovascular disease and diabetes in mid-life: the role of television-viewing and sitting at work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal M Pinto Pereira

    Full Text Available Knowledge of sedentary behaviour associations with health has relied mainly on television-viewing as a proxy and studies with other measures are less common. To clarify whether sedentary behaviour is associated with disease-risk, we examined associations for television-viewing and sitting at work.Using the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 7660, we analysed cross-sectional associations between television-viewing and work sitting (four categories, 0-1 to ≥ 3 h/d with total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, hypertension and metabolic syndrome at 45 y. We adjusted for lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and assessed mediation of associations by body mass index (BMI and diet. We also assessed whether the sedentary indicators are related similarly to factors linked to disease-risk.There was a general trend of adverse socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics with higher h/d television-viewing, but trends in the opposite direction for work sitting. Television-viewing was associated with most biomarkers and associations were mediated by BMI: e.g. for each category increase in television-viewing, HDL-cholesterol in men was lower by 2.3% (95% CI: 1.5%, 3.2% and, in BMI and diet adjusted analyses, by 1.6% (0.8%, 2.4%; for women, by 2.0% (1.2%, 2.9% and 0.9% (0.1%, 1.6% respectively. Few, weaker associations for work sitting were found, in men only: e.g. corresponding values for HDL-cholesterol were 1.2% (0.5%, 1.9% and 0.9% (0.3%, 1.5%. Odds for metabolic syndrome were elevated by 82% and 33% respectively for men watching television or work sitting for ≥ 3 vs. 0-1 h/d.Associations with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers in mid-adulthood differed for television-viewing and work sitting. The role of sedentary behaviour may vary by leisure and work domains or the two indicators reflect differing associations

  17. Sedentary behaviour and biomarkers for cardiovascular disease and diabetes in mid-life: the role of television-viewing and sitting at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Ki, Myung; Power, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of sedentary behaviour associations with health has relied mainly on television-viewing as a proxy and studies with other measures are less common. To clarify whether sedentary behaviour is associated with disease-risk, we examined associations for television-viewing and sitting at work. Using the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 7660), we analysed cross-sectional associations between television-viewing and work sitting (four categories, 0-1 to ≥ 3 h/d) with total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, hypertension and metabolic syndrome at 45 y. We adjusted for lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and assessed mediation of associations by body mass index (BMI) and diet. We also assessed whether the sedentary indicators are related similarly to factors linked to disease-risk. There was a general trend of adverse socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics with higher h/d television-viewing, but trends in the opposite direction for work sitting. Television-viewing was associated with most biomarkers and associations were mediated by BMI: e.g. for each category increase in television-viewing, HDL-cholesterol in men was lower by 2.3% (95% CI: 1.5%, 3.2%) and, in BMI and diet adjusted analyses, by 1.6% (0.8%, 2.4%); for women, by 2.0% (1.2%, 2.9%) and 0.9% (0.1%, 1.6%) respectively. Few, weaker associations for work sitting were found, in men only: e.g. corresponding values for HDL-cholesterol were 1.2% (0.5%, 1.9%) and 0.9% (0.3%, 1.5%). Odds for metabolic syndrome were elevated by 82% and 33% respectively for men watching television or work sitting for ≥ 3 vs. 0-1 h/d. Associations with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers in mid-adulthood differed for television-viewing and work sitting. The role of sedentary behaviour may vary by leisure and work domains or the two indicators reflect differing associations with

  18. Sedentary Behaviour and Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in Mid-Life: The Role of Television-Viewing and Sitting at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M.; Ki, Myung; Power, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of sedentary behaviour associations with health has relied mainly on television-viewing as a proxy and studies with other measures are less common. To clarify whether sedentary behaviour is associated with disease-risk, we examined associations for television-viewing and sitting at work. Methods Using the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 7660), we analysed cross-sectional associations between television-viewing and work sitting (four categories, 0–1 to ≥3 h/d) with total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, hypertension and metabolic syndrome at 45 y. We adjusted for lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and assessed mediation of associations by body mass index (BMI) and diet. We also assessed whether the sedentary indicators are related similarly to factors linked to disease-risk. Results There was a general trend of adverse socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics with higher h/d television-viewing, but trends in the opposite direction for work sitting. Television-viewing was associated with most biomarkers and associations were mediated by BMI: e.g. for each category increase in television-viewing, HDL-cholesterol in men was lower by 2.3% (95% CI: 1.5%, 3.2%) and, in BMI and diet adjusted analyses, by 1.6% (0.8%, 2.4%); for women, by 2.0% (1.2%, 2.9%) and 0.9% (0.1%, 1.6%) respectively. Few, weaker associations for work sitting were found, in men only: e.g. corresponding values for HDL-cholesterol were 1.2% (0.5%, 1.9%) and 0.9% (0.3%, 1.5%). Odds for metabolic syndrome were elevated by 82% and 33% respectively for men watching television or work sitting for ≥3 vs. 0–1 h/d. Conclusions Associations with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers in mid-adulthood differed for television-viewing and work sitting. The role of sedentary behaviour may vary by leisure and work domains or the two

  19. Adolescents and Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Leo B.; Patrick, Helen

    1977-01-01

    Over 2,000 15-16 year old adolescents from central Scotland were surveyed to determine characteristics of high- vs. low-frequency television viewers. Personality characteristics, attitudes toward school and sports, and socioeconomic status were related to viewing habits. Sex of the viewer was found to be related to choice of programs. (GDC)

  20. Television Viewing and Its Associations with Overweight, Sedentary Lifestyle, and Insufficient Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among U.S. High School Students: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Galuska, Deborah A.; Fulton, Janet E.; Kann, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Examined race, ethnic, and gender specific differences in the association between television viewing and high school students' overweight, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy dietary behaviors. Data from the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that most students' television viewing exceeded recommended levels, many students were…

  1. Fright reactions to television; A child survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Cantor, J.; Peeters, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Using telephone interviews with a random sample of Dutch children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, the authors investigated (a) the prevalence of television-induced fright, (b) whether the fear-inducing capacity of different types of television content (interpersonal violence, fantasy characters,

  2. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. Parenting and Preschooler TV Viewing in Low-Income Mexican Americans: Development of the Parenting Practices Regarding TV Viewing (PPRTV) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Johnson, Susan L; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Schmiege, Sarah J; Boles, Richard E; Lev, Jerusha; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    To develop and test a comprehensive, culturally based measure of parenting practices regarding television (TV) viewing in low-income Mexican-American mothers of preschoolers. Low-income Mexican-American female primary caregivers of preschoolers were recruited in urban safety-net pediatric clinics during the 2013 to 2014 academic year. Items on parenting practices regarding TV viewing were developed from a prior scale, review of the literature, and results from semistructured interviews. Items were administered by phone, and analyses included evaluation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of a 40-item measure of parenting practices regarding TV viewing (PPRTV). Using exploratory factor analysis, a 7-factor model emerged as the best fit for the data representing the following domains of parenting practices: time restriction, behavioral control, instructive practices, coviewing, planful restriction, reactive content restriction, and commercial endorsement. Internal reliabilities were acceptable (Cronbach's alpha >.75). Correlations among the resulting subscales were small to moderate (rs = 0.01-0.43). Subscales were correlated with child TV viewing amounts: time restriction (-0.14, p TV use. Results of such work will be important to informing the design of interventions aiming to ensure healthy screen media habits in young children.

  4. Excessive TV viewing and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. The AVENA cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive television (TV viewing might play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to examine the independent associations between TV viewing and CVD risk factors in adolescents. Methods A sample of 425 adolescents, aged 13- to 18.5-year-old, was included in this study. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo A-1, apo B-100, and lipoprotein(a levels were determined. A composite CVD risk score was computed based on age-, sex-, sexual maturation- and race-standardized triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and glucose. TV viewing was self-reported. Results Two hundred and twenty-five adolescents (53% who spent >3 hrs/day watching TV were considered as the "high TV viewing" group. Ninety-nine adolescents (23% from the total sample were classified as overweight according to International age- and sex-specific BMI values. The high TV viewing group had significantly less favorable values of HDL-cholesterol, glucose, apo A1 and CVD score, independent of age, sex, sexual maturation, race and weight status. There was a significant interaction effect of TV viewing × weight status (P = 0.002 on WC, and the negative influence of TV viewing on WC persisted in the overweight group (P = 0.031 but was attenuated in non-overweight adolescents (P > 0.05. Conclusion Excessive TV viewing seems to be related to an unfavorable CVD risk factors profile in adolescence. Reducing TV viewing in overweight adolescents might be beneficial to decrease abdominal body fat.

  5. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  6. The Effect of Parent-Child Function on Physical Activity and Television Viewing among Adolescents with and without Special Healthcare Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth M.; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Carle, Adam C.; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, the association between parent-child function and physical activity and television viewing was investigated among a national sample of adolescents in the United States. Parent-child function was measured using the National Survey of Children's Health "Family Function" survey items and…

  7. Person-related determinants of TV viewing and computer time in a cohort of young Dutch adults: Who sits the most?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijtdewilligen, L.; Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the associations of person-related factors with leisure time television (TV) viewing and computer time among young adults. We analyzed self-reported TV viewing (h/week) and leisure computer time (h/week) from 475 Dutch young adults (47% male) who had participated in the Amsterdam

  8. American Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2008-01-01

    En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa.......En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa....

  9. Sitting and television viewing: novel risk factors for sleep disturbance and apnea risk? results from the 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P; Kline, Christopher E; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Phillips, Barbara; Tulio de Mello, Marco; Hirshkowitz, Max

    2015-03-01

    Excess sitting is emerging as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, mental illness, and all-cause mortality. Physical activity, distinct from sitting, is associated with better sleep and lower risk for OSA, yet relationships among sitting behaviors and sleep/OSA remain unknown. We examined whether total sitting time and sitting while viewing television were associated with sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and sleepiness. The 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll was a cross-sectional study of 1,000 adults aged 23 to 60 years. Total sitting time, time watching television while sitting, sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and daytime sleepiness were assessed. After adjusting for confounding factors (including BMI and physical activity), each additional hour per day of total sitting was associated with greater odds of poor sleep quality (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.01, 1.11]) but not with other sleep metrics (including sleep duration), OSA risk, or daytime sleepiness. For television viewing while sitting, each additional hour per day was associated with greater odds of long sleep onset latency (≥ 30 min) (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.27]), waking up too early in the morning (OR = 1.12 [1.03, 1.23]), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.12 [1.02, 1.24]), and "high risk" for OSA (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.28]). Based upon an interaction analysis, regular physical activity was protective against OSA risk associated with television viewing (P = .04). Excess sitting was associated with relatively poor sleep quality. Sitting while watching television was associated with relatively poor sleep quality and OSA risk and may be an important risk factor for sleep disturbance and apnea risk.

  10. Associations of television viewing time with excess body weight among urban and rural high-school students in regional mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Li, JieQuan; Ware, Robert S; Owen, Neville

    2008-09-01

    To examine the relationship between television (TV) viewing and body mass index (BMI) among adolescents in a region of mainland China. Population-based cross-sectional study, conducted between September and November of 2004, on a sample of enrolled high-school students aged 12-18 years. One hundred and sixty-eight classes randomly selected from both urban and rural areas and belonging to 15 senior and 41 junior high schools in Nanjing, China, with a regional population of 6.0 million. In total 6848 students participated; 47.7 % from urban and 52.3 % from rural areas; 49.0 % male and 51.0 % female. The response rate among eligible participants was 89.3 %. The proportion of overweight was 6.6 % according to the criteria of overweight recommended for Chinese adolescents. Boys than girls (8.9 % vs. 4.4 %) had higher odds of being overweight (odds ratio (OR) 2.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.74, 2.60), while the proportion of overweight was significantly lower among rural students than urban students (4.5 % vs. 8.9 %; OR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.60). Those students who watched TV for more than 7 h/week had a 1.5 times greater odds of being overweight relative to their counterparts who watched TV for 7 h/week or less (adjusted OR 1.51, 95 % CI 1.24, 1.82). Furthermore, there was a positive linear relationship between TV viewing time and BMI, even after adjusting for age, gender, residence area, time spent in study, in sleeping and in physical activity, and monthly pocket money. Viewing TV might increase the likelihood of being overweight for Chinese adolescents in China.

  11. Causes of Death Associated With Prolonged TV Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah K.; Moore, Steven C.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Xiao, Qian; Albanes, Demetrius; Matthews, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TV viewing is the most prevalent sedentary behavior and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality, but the association with other leading causes of death is unknown. This study examined the association between TV viewing and leading causes of death in the U.S. Methods A prospective cohort of 221,426 individuals (57% male) aged 50–71 years who were free of chronic disease at baseline (1995–1996), 93% white, with an average BMI of 26.7 (SD=4.4) kg/m2 were included. Participants self-reported TV viewing at baseline and were followed until death or December 31, 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for TV viewing and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results After an average follow-up of 14.1 years, adjusted mortality risk for a 2-hour/day increase in TV viewing was significantly higher for the following causes of death (HR [95% CI]): cancer (1.07 [1.03, 1.11); heart disease (1.23 [1.17, 1.29]); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.28 [1.14, 1.43]); diabetes (1.56 [1.33, 1.83]); influenza/pneumonia (1.24 [1.02, 1.50]); Parkinson disease (1.35 [1.11, 1.65]); liver disease (1.33 [1.05, 1.67]); and suicide (1.43 [1.10, 1.85]. Mortality associations persisted in stratified analyses with important potential confounders, reducing causation concerns. Conclusions This study shows the breadth of mortality outcomes associated with prolonged TV viewing, and identifies novel associations for several leading causes of death. TV viewing is a prevalent discretionary behavior that may be a more important target for public health intervention than previously recognized. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340015 PMID:26215832

  12. The Interactions of Television Uses and Gratifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    Data from 464 adults were analyzed to provide a more heuristic paradigm for mass communication uses and gratifications research in a study of the interactive nature of television viewing motivations, viewing behavior, and attitude gratifications. Factor analysis located five principal television viewing motivations: passing time, information,…

  13. Television the Surrogate Parent: Uses and Correlates of Television as Babysitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Walter

    A study was conducted to determine (1) how often television was used as a surrogate parent, (2) the reasons leading to its use as such, and (3) the correlates of using television as a babysitter. Telephone interviews were conducted with 226 mothers who had children between the ages of 2 and 12. The respondents answered questions that addressed…

  14. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A... TV, TV Translator or TV Booster Station, FCC Form 346; 47 CFR 74.793(d); LPTV Out-of-Core Digital... collection requirements: 47 CFR 74.793(d) proposes that certain digital low power and TV translator stations...

  15. Television viewing, computer game play and book reading during meals are predictors of meal skipping in a cross-sectional sample of 12-, 14- and 16-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether television viewing, computer game playing or book reading during meals predicts meal skipping with the aim of watching television, playing computer games or reading books (media meal skipping). A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Analyses were controlled for age, gender and BMI. Data were obtained from a random sample of adolescents in Flanders, Belgium. Seven hundred and ten participants aged 12, 14 and 16 years. Of the participants, 11.8 % skipped meals to watch television, 10.5 % skipped meals to play computer games and 8.2 % skipped meals to read books. Compared with those who did not use these media during meals, the risk of skipping meals in order to watch television was significantly higher for those children who watched television during meals (2.9 times higher in those who watched television during at least one meal a day). The risk of skipping meals for computer game playing was 9.5 times higher in those who played computer games weekly or more while eating, and the risk of meal skipping in order to read books was 22.9 times higher in those who read books during meals less than weekly. The more meals the respondents ate with the entire family, the less likely they were to skip meals to watch television. The use of media during meals predicts meal skipping for using that same medium. Family meals appear to be inversely related to meal skipping for television viewing.

  16. Early Childhood Screen Time and Parental Attitudes Toward Child Television Viewing in a Low-Income Latino Population Attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Karin M.; Kair, Laura R.; Arain, Yassar H.; Cervantes, Marlene; Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Zuckerman, Katharine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early childhood media exposure is associated with obesity and multiple adverse health conditions. The aims of this study were to assess parental attitudes toward childhood television (TV) viewing in a low-income population and examine the extent to which child BMI, child/parent demographics, and household media environment are associated with adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for screen time.

  17. Effect of Illumination on Ocular Status Modifications Induced by Short-Term 3D TV Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to compare changes in ocular status after 3D TV viewing under three modes of illumination and thereby identify optimal illumination for 3D TV viewing. Methods. The following measures of ocular status were assessed: the accommodative response, accommodative microfluctuation, accommodative facility, relative accommodation, gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A ratio, phoria, and fusional vergence. The observers watched 3D television for 90 minutes through 3D shutter glasses under three illumination modes: A, complete darkness; B, back illumination (50 lx; and C, front illumination (130 lx. The ocular status of the observers was assessed both before and after the viewing. Results. After 3D TV viewing, the accommodative response and accommodative microfluctuation were significantly changed under illumination Modes A and B. The near positive fusional vergence decreased significantly after the 90-minute 3D viewing session under each illumination mode, and this effect was not significantly different among the three modes. Conclusions. Short-term 3D viewing modified the ocular status of adults. The least amount of such change occurred with front illumination, suggesting that this type of illumination is an appropriate mode for 3D shutter TV viewing.

  18. Style in Educational Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, John

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of broadcast educational television for adult audiences are discussed in terms of: style in television, television grammar, and course and resource-type programs. The current British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Adult Literacy Project and the television program "On the Move" are used as examples. (LH)

  19. Teaching Television Watchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy Lee

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities to help teachers address the needs and behaviors of students raised on television; includes resources to help teachers use television productively in the classroom, a send-home reproducible on children and television violence, and notes on an interview with Shari Lewis and television tips for primary students. (SM)

  20. The Impact of TV Viewing Motivations on Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…

  1. Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Health and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Bimala Sharma; Rosemary Cosme Chavez; Ae Suk Jeong; Eun Woo Nam

    2017-01-01

    The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were per...

  2. Picking of foreign television formats by Czech televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Šopovová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with one of the impacts of media globalisation and it is a picking of foreign television formats. It analyzes the structure of television programs offered by Czech television broadcasters and its change from 2005 when TV Nova and TV Prima changed their owners to international ones. After the introduction of media globalisation, the paper describes the television formats and then it includes a list of licensed television programs and a comparison of chosen programs with...

  3. Association of a television in the bedroom with increased adiposity gain in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; McClure, Auden C; Sargent, James D

    2014-05-01

    Obesity affects health in children and adolescents. Television viewing is an established risk factor for obesity in youth. No prospective study has assessed whether a bedroom television confers an additional risk for obesity in youth. To assess the prospective association between the presence of a bedroom television and change in body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), independent of television viewing, in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents. We conducted a random-digit prospective telephone survey that captured children and adolescents from across the United States. Participants included 6522 boys and girls aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were surveyed via telephone about media risk factors for obesity.Weighted regressions assessed adiposity at 2- and 4-year follow-up, controlling for television and movie viewing, video-game playing, parenting, age, sex, race or ethnicity, household income, and parental educational level. Report of having a television in the bedroom at baseline. Age- and sex-adjusted BMI based on self-report and parent report of weight and height at 2- and 4-year follow-up. Distributions for age, sex, race or ethnicity, and socioeconomic status were similar to census estimates for the US population. Sample weighting methods accounted for higher dropout rates among ethnic minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status. Bedroom televisions were reported by 59.1%of participants at baseline, with boys, ethnic minorities, and those of lower socioeconomic status having significantly higher rates. In multivariate analyses, having a bedroom television was associated with an excess BMI of 0.57 (95%CI, 0.31-0.82) and 0.75 (0.38-1.12) at years 2 and 4, respectively, and a BMI gain of 0.24 (0.02-0.45) from years 2 to 4. Having a bedroom television is associated with weight gain beyond the effect of television viewing time. This association could be the result of

  4. Television picture signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Field or frame memories are often used in television receivers for video signal processing functions, such as noise reduction and/or flicker reduction. Television receivers also have graphic features such as teletext, menu-driven control systems, multilingual subtitling, an electronic TV-Guide, etc.

  5. DWPF remotable television and cell lighting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1984-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for radioactive waste vitrification at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is now under construction. Development of specialized low cost television (TV) viewing equipment for in-cell and within-melter applications is now complete. High resolution TV cameras not originally designed for high radiation environments have been demonstrated in crane remotable packages to be well suited to the DWPF. High intensity in-cell lighting has also been demonstrated in crane remotable assemblies. These dual 1000 W units (2000 W total) are used to support the multiplicity of TV and cell window viewing requirements. 8 figures

  6. Potential hazards of viewing 3-D stereoscopic television, cinema and computer games: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Peter A

    2011-03-01

    The visual stimulus provided by a 3-D stereoscopic display differs from that of the real world because the image provided to each eye is produced on a flat surface. The distance from the screen to the eye remains fixed, providing a single focal distance, but the introduction of disparity between the images allows objects to be located geometrically in front of, or behind, the screen. Unlike in the real world, the stimulus to accommodation and the stimulus to convergence do not match. Although this mismatch is used positively in some forms of Orthoptic treatment, a number of authors have suggested that it could negatively lead to the development of asthenopic symptoms. From knowledge of the zone of clear, comfortable, single binocular vision one can predict that, for people with normal binocular vision, adverse symptoms will not be present if the discrepancy is small, but are likely if it is large, and that what constitutes 'large' and 'small' are idiosyncratic to the individual. The accommodation-convergence mismatch is not, however, the only difference between the natural and the artificial stimuli. In the former case, an object located in front of, or behind, a fixated object will not only be perceived as double if the images fall outside Panum's fusional areas, but it will also be defocused and blurred. In the latter case, however, it is usual for the producers of cinema, TV or computer game content to provide an image that is in focus over the whole of the display, and as a consequence diplopic images will be sharply in focus. The size of Panum's fusional area is spatial frequency-dependent, and because of this the high spatial frequencies present in the diplopic 3-D image will provide a different stimulus to the fusion system from that found naturally. © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  7. Television campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Hospital Center embarked on a branding effort in hopes of raising customer awareness of the hospital's state-of-the-art technologies in advanced medical care. The campaign launched a new phase of TV spots that highlight the facility's advanced services, such as the computed tomography angiogram, the argon plasma coagulator, and heart valve replacement surgery.

  8. Digital TV: structures of feeling in the television of becoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marquioni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this text is to present some reflections on theinsertion of a new model of television in Brazil (interactive digital TV,adopting the concept of culture as the center to think of the television system.The notion for structure of feeling, by Raymond Williams, opens up atype of new window that helps to understand this new television whichis being implanted.

  9. the television factor in vocabulary development among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This study investigated the influence of television viewing frequency on the performance in ... Language, but also in other content subjects. .... TABLE 1: One- way analysis of variance of the influence of frequency of television ... favourite movie.

  10. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  11. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  12. A content analysis of food references in television programming specifically targeting viewing audiences aged 11 to 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Poor, Morgan; Stephenson, Tammy J

    2014-01-01

    Examine food in cable television programming specifically targeting 11- to 14-year-olds ("tweens"). Content analysis of food-related scenes (FRS)-in which food was shown, mentioned, and/or consumed-in 880 minutes of programming was conducted. Five days of afternoon/early evening television programs on the Disney Channel. Food references were compared with USDA MyPlate and classified according to modified Ratio of Recommended to Restricted Food Components. The authors found 331 FRS, averaging 16.6 scenes/h. Preponderance of FRS was physiological needs (40.7%), followed by display (10%), party (8.5%), social event (8%), and retail store (6.6%). Snacks dominated 41% of FRS, and breakfast, lunch, and dinner were much lower in frequency. Half of FRS was visual only, followed by verbal only. Food references were not congruent with MyPlate recommendations; 42% of food items did not fit into MyPlate food groups. Only 24% of food items were fruit or vegetables, which is considerably less than recommended by MyPlate guidelines. Using modified Ratio of Recommended to Restricted Food Components, 66% of food items scored food, which likely influences tweens' attitudes and behaviors. Television programming may consider past approaches to tobacco smoking and health messages on television. More attention is warranted regarding television programming by nutrition educators, researchers, health professionals, and industry specialists. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Health Halo Trend in UK Television Food Advertising Viewed by Children: The Rise of Implicit and Explicit Health Messaging in the Promotion of Unhealthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Joanne; Halford, Jason; Boyland, Emma

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring the creative content within food marketing to children is strongly advocated by public health authorities, but few studies address the prevalence of health-related messaging in television adverts. Food and beverage adverts (n = 18,888 in 2008, n = 6664 in 2010) from UK television channels popular with children were coded and analyzed. Physical-activity depiction displayed an 18.8 percentage point increase from 2008 (4.4%) to 2010 (23.2%). Of the food adverts containing physical-activity depiction in 2010, 81.1% were for non-core foods. The appearance of health claims in food adverts in 2010 increased 4.1 percentage points from 2008 levels (20.7% to 24.8%) where the majority of food adverts featuring health and nutrition claims were for non-core foods (58.3%). Health-related (e.g., health/nutrition, weight loss/diet) appeals were used in 17.1% of food adverts during peak child-viewing times, rising to 33.0% of adverts shown on dedicated children’s channels in 2010. Implicit (physical activity) and explicit (health claims) health messages are increasingly prevalent in UK television food advertising viewed by children, and are frequently used to promote unhealthy foods. Policy makers in the UK should consider amendments to the existing statutory approach in order to address this issue. PMID:29558457

  14. The Health Halo Trend in UK Television Food Advertising Viewed by Children: The Rise of Implicit and Explicit Health Messaging in the Promotion of Unhealthy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Whalen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the creative content within food marketing to children is strongly advocated by public health authorities, but few studies address the prevalence of health-related messaging in television adverts. Food and beverage adverts (n = 18,888 in 2008, n = 6664 in 2010 from UK television channels popular with children were coded and analyzed. Physical-activity depiction displayed an 18.8 percentage point increase from 2008 (4.4% to 2010 (23.2%. Of the food adverts containing physical-activity depiction in 2010, 81.1% were for non-core foods. The appearance of health claims in food adverts in 2010 increased 4.1 percentage points from 2008 levels (20.7% to 24.8% where the majority of food adverts featuring health and nutrition claims were for non-core foods (58.3%. Health-related (e.g., health/nutrition, weight loss/diet appeals were used in 17.1% of food adverts during peak child-viewing times, rising to 33.0% of adverts shown on dedicated children’s channels in 2010. Implicit (physical activity and explicit (health claims health messages are increasingly prevalent in UK television food advertising viewed by children, and are frequently used to promote unhealthy foods. Policy makers in the UK should consider amendments to the existing statutory approach in order to address this issue.

  15. The Health Halo Trend in UK Television Food Advertising Viewed by Children: The Rise of Implicit and Explicit Health Messaging in the Promotion of Unhealthy Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Rosa; Harrold, Joanne; Child, Simon; Halford, Jason; Boyland, Emma

    2018-03-20

    Monitoring the creative content within food marketing to children is strongly advocated by public health authorities, but few studies address the prevalence of health-related messaging in television adverts. Food and beverage adverts ( n = 18,888 in 2008, n = 6664 in 2010) from UK television channels popular with children were coded and analyzed. Physical-activity depiction displayed an 18.8 percentage point increase from 2008 (4.4%) to 2010 (23.2%). Of the food adverts containing physical-activity depiction in 2010, 81.1% were for non-core foods. The appearance of health claims in food adverts in 2010 increased 4.1 percentage points from 2008 levels (20.7% to 24.8%) where the majority of food adverts featuring health and nutrition claims were for non-core foods (58.3%). Health-related (e.g., health/nutrition, weight loss/diet) appeals were used in 17.1% of food adverts during peak child-viewing times, rising to 33.0% of adverts shown on dedicated children's channels in 2010. Implicit (physical activity) and explicit (health claims) health messages are increasingly prevalent in UK television food advertising viewed by children, and are frequently used to promote unhealthy foods. Policy makers in the UK should consider amendments to the existing statutory approach in order to address this issue.

  16. Television, computer, and video viewing; physical activity; and upper limb fracture risk in children: a population-based case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deqiong; Jones, Graeme

    2003-11-01

    The effect of physical activity on upper limb fractures was examined in this population-based case control study with 321 age- and gender-matched pairs. Sports participation increased fracture risk in boys and decreased risk in girls. Television viewing had a deleterious dose response association with wrist and forearm fractures while light physical activity was protective. The aim of this population-based case control study was to examine the association between television, computer, and video viewing; types and levels of physical activity; and upper limb fractures in children 9-16 years of age. A total of 321 fracture cases and 321 randomly selected individually matched controls were studied. Television, computer, and video viewing and types and levels of physical activity were determined by interview-administered questionnaire. Bone strength was assessed by DXA and metacarpal morphometry. In general, sports participation increased total upper limb fracture risk in boys and decreased risk in girls. Gender-specific risk estimates were significantly different for total, contact, noncontact, and high-risk sports participation as well as four individual sports (soccer, cricket, surfing, and swimming). In multivariate analysis, time spent television, computer, and video viewing in both sexes was positively associated with wrist and forearm fracture risk (OR 1.6/category, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), whereas days involved in light physical activity participation decreased fracture risk (OR 0.8/category, 95% CI: 0.7-1.0). Sports participation increased hand (OR 1.5/sport, 95% CI: 1.1-2.0) and upper arm (OR 29.8/sport, 95% CI: 1.7-535) fracture risk in boys only and decreased wrist and forearm fracture risk in girls only (OR 0.5/sport, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9). Adjustment for bone density and metacarpal morphometry did not alter these associations. There is gender discordance with regard to sports participation and fracture risk in children, which may reflect different approaches to sport

  17. Television viewing time as a risk factor for frailty and functional limitations in older adults: results from 2 European prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Andrade, Elena; Martínez-Gómez, David; Caballero, Francisco Félix; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2017-04-26

    Sedentariness is an important risk factor for poor health. The main objective of this work was to examine the prospective association between television viewing time and indicators of physical function, mobility, agility, and frailty. Data came from two independent cohorts of community-dwelling older adults: the Seniors-ENRICA (n = 2392, 3.5 year follow-up), and the ELSA (n = 3989, 3.9 year follow-up). At baseline, television viewing and other sedentary behaviors were ascertained using interviewer-administered questionnaires. In the Seniors-ENRICA cohort overall physical function at baseline and follow-up was assessed using the physical component summary (PCS) of the SF-12 Health Survey. Measures for incident mobility and agility limitations in both cohorts were based on standardized questions, and incident frailty was measured with the Fried criteria. Analyses were adjusted for the main confounders, including physical activity at baseline. Results across cohorts were pooled using a random effects model. Lower (worse) scores in the PCS were observed among those in the highest (vs. the lowest) tertile of television viewing time (b-coefficient:-1.66; 95% confidence interval:-2.81,-0.52; p-trend = 0.01). Moreover, the pooled odds ratios (95% CIs) for mobility limitations for the second and third (vs. the lowest) tertile of television viewing were 1.00 (0.84, 1.20) and 1.17 (1.00, 1.38); p-trend = 0.12, respectively. The corresponding results for agility limitations were 1.18 (0.97, 1.44) and 1.25 (1.03, 1.51); p-trend = 0.02. Results for incident frailty were 1.10 (0.80, 1.51) and 1.47 (1.09, 1.97); p-trend = 0.03. No association between other types of sedentary behavior (time seated at the computer, while commuting, lying in the sun, listening to music/reading, internet use) and risk of functional limitations was found. Among older adults, longer television viewing time is prospectively associated with limitations in physical function

  18. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A... Commission's Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power, Television Translator, and Television Booster... Digital Low Power Television Translator, Television Booster Stations, and to Amend Rules for Digital Class...

  19. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  20. Delivering Extension to the Living Room Using Internet TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Grant G., III

    2014-01-01

    Television is a widely adopted source for viewing educational information. Unfortunately, producing a television show on network television can be costly and time consuming. Internet TV offers Extension video content producers the opportunity to create a niche topic channel quickly and at low cost. Internet TV offers viewers a low-cost and…

  1. Salty-snack eating, television or video-game viewing, and asthma symptoms among 10- to 12-year-old children: the PANACEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvaniti, Fotini; Priftis, Kostas N; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2011-02-01

    Salty-snack consumption, as well as the amount of time children spend watching television or playing video games, have been implicated in the development of asthma; however, results are still conflicting. The aim of this work was to evaluate the association of salty-snack eating and television/video-game viewing with childhood asthma symptoms. Cross-sectional study. Seven hundred children (323 male), 10 to 12 years old, from 18 schools located in the greater area of Athens were enrolled. Children and their parents completed questionnaires, which evaluated, among other things, dietary habits. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for Children and Adolescents) score. The association of children's characteristics with asthma symptoms was performed by calculating the odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Overall lifetime prevalence of asthma symptoms was 23.7% (27.6% boys, 20.4% girls; P=0.03). Forty-eight percent of children reported salty-snack consumption (≥ 1 times/week). Salty-snack consumption was positively associated with the hours of television/video-game viewing (P=0.04) and inversely with the KIDMED score (P=0.02). Consumption of salty snacks (>3 times/week vs never/rare) was associated with a 4.8-times higher likelihood of having asthma symptoms (95% confidence interval: 1.50 to 15.8), irrespective of potential confounders. The associations of salty-snack eating and asthma symptoms were more prominent in children who watched television or played video games >2 hours/day. In addition, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with the likelihood of asthma symptoms. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, such as salty-snack eating and television/video-game viewing were strongly associated with the presence of asthma symptoms. Future interventions and public health messages should be focused on changing these behaviors from the early stages of life. Copyright © 2011

  2. Acute effects of video-game playing versus television viewing on stress markers and food intake in overweight and obese young men: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, Mario; Gan, Jason; Fewtrell, Mary S; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2018-01-01

    Sedentary or near-sedentary activities are associated with overweight/obesity in epidemiological studies. This has traditionally been attributed to physical activity displacement. A little-explored area is whether behavioural stresses alter sensations of appetite and eating behaviour. We examined whether behaviours conducted seated (television viewing, video gaming) induce different eating patterns, associated with differential levels of stress response. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 72 overweight/obese adult males, assigned to three groups (24 per group): (i) non-violent television (control group); (ii) non-violent game (FIFA); (iii) violent game (Call of Duty). Following a standardized breakfast, the 1-h intervention was followed by 25-min rest, with sweet and savoury snacks and drinks available ad libitum. Stress markers (heart rate, blood pressure, visual analogue scale (VAS)) were measured throughout. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and stress by VAS were significantly higher (p games than watching non-violent television, though the two game groups did not differ. Considered separately, only the violent video game group consumed more energy (Δ = 208.3 kcal, 95%CI 16, 400), sweet foods (Δ = 25.9 g, 95%CI 9.9, 41.9) and saturated fat (Δ = 4.36 g, 95%CI 0.76, 7.96) than controls. Playing video games in overweight/obese adult males is associated with an acute stress response relative to watching non-violent television, associated with greater subsequent food intake. These findings highlight the need to focus on the metabolic effects, as well as the energy costs, of activities involving sitting in relation to obesity risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Television viewing and its association with health-related quality of life in school-age children from Montería, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Arango

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: This study provides evidence of significant associations between high TV viewing time and poor HRQoL among school-age children from Monteria, Colombia, which were independent of physical activity and weight.

  4. Family education and television mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz CÁNOVAS LEONHARDT

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article try to deal with the complex influence of television viewing in the process of socialization of children and adolescents, focusing our attention on the importance of the family as the mediator-educator agency of particular relevance. Once analyzed the basic theoretical assumptions, we deepened in reality under study by providing data about how the studied population lives television and what extent parental mediation influences and affects the process. The article concludes with some reflections and pedagogical suggestions which trying to help to the optimization of the educational reality.

  5. Adolescent exposure to food advertising on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    Television viewing is hypothesized to contribute to obesity among children and adolescents through several mechanisms that include the displacement of physical activity, snacking while watching TV, and the influence of food advertising. This study drew on television ratings to examine the distribution of food advertising exposure among adolescents aged 12 through 17 based on 170 top-rated shows across network, cable and syndicated TV stations over the 9-month period from September 2003 to May 2004. A total of 238,353 30-second equivalent advertisements on the top-rated shows were assessed. Each advertisement was weighted by its rating to measure actual exposure to advertisements. The results showed that among total nonprogram content time, food-related products accounted for roughly one fifth of advertising exposure. Excluding TV promotions and public service announcements, as a proportion of all product advertising, total food-related advertising made up 26% of advertised products viewed by adolescents. By race, the proportion of advertising exposure to food products was 14% greater for African-American versus white adolescents and total exposure to food advertising would be even larger for African-American teens given that, on average, they watched more TV. Fast food was the most frequently viewed food product category comprising 23% of all food-related advertisements among adolescents. Food ads made up just over one quarter of TV ads viewed by adolescents with the most commonly viewed products of fast food, sweets, and beverage products well within the reach of their own purchasing power.

  6. 76 FR 44821 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules... Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend Rules... translator facilities in the 700 MHz band. These provisions provide procedures for a primary wireless...

  7. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new low...

  8. Music stations in czech TV broadcasting and their presenters

    OpenAIRE

    Klementová, Ema

    2013-01-01

    This thesis compares two significant music televisions in Czech television broadcasting, MTV and TV Óčko. Also it describes the development and history of the first American music television MTV and also it provides a view to some similar features of the development of the American MTV and the development of the Czech music televisions. Both Czech music televisions are also compared in terms of the program structure. The practical part of this thesis is based on interviews with four presenter...

  9. Co-production and Pilot of a Structured Interview Using Talking Mats® to Survey the Television Viewing Habits and Preferences of Adults and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Karen; Alder, Ruth; Proudman, Lydia; Wyborn, Harriet

    2017-01-01

    Background: Capturing the views of people with learning disabilities is not straightforward. Talking Mats® has been used successfully to solicit the views of such individuals. The aim was to co-produce an interview schedule using Talking Mats® on the subject of television-viewing habits and preferences of adults and young people with learning…

  10. Sociodemographic, behavioural and health factors associated with changes in older adults' TV viewing over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Iliffe, Steve; Fox, Kenneth R; Jefferis, Barbara J; Hamer, Mark

    2014-08-15

    Of all age groups, older adults spend the most time watching TV, which is one of the most common sedentary behaviours. Such sedentary activity in older adulthood is thought to risk deterioration of physical and mental functioning, health and wellbeing. Identifying the characteristics of older adults whose TV viewing increases over time may help to target sedentary behaviour reduction interventions to those in most urgent need. Yet, studies of the factors associated with TV viewing have predominantly been cross-sectional. This study used a prospective design to describe changes in TV viewing over a two-year follow-up period, and to model socio-demographic, behavioural and health factors associated with observed changes in viewing time. A two-year follow-up of 6,090 male and female older adults (mean age 64.9 ± 8.9 years) was conducted in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a cohort of community dwelling older adults. TV viewing time was self-reported at baseline and at follow-up. The sample was categorised according to baseline TV viewing duration (TV viewing time between baseline and follow-up. Mean self-reported TV viewing time increased from 5.32 ± 4.08 hrs/d at baseline to 5.53 ± 4.19 hrs/d at follow-up (p TV viewing (23% of all participants by 60 minutes or more), 41% decreased their viewing, and 10% reported no change in viewing duration. Increases in TV viewing at follow-up were associated with lower socioeconomic status, presence of depressive symptoms, higher BMI, physical inactivity, and being a smoker at baseline. Findings call for the development of effective behaviour change interventions to counter increases in inactive TV viewing among older adults, and point to subgroups who may need to be prioritised for such interventions.

  11. TV Viewing in 60,202 Adults From the National Brazilian Health Survey: Prevalence, Correlates, and Associations With Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, André O; Cyrino, Edilson S; Collings, Paul J; Ronque, Enio R V; Szwarcwald, Célia L; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Danilo R

    2018-03-15

    This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire. Data on covariables (including chronological age, educational status, skin color, sodium consumption, sugar consumption, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity) were also self-reported. Logistic regression models and population attributable fractions were used for the etiological analyses. The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of >4 hours per day of TV viewing was 12.7% (12.0-13.4) in men and 17.5% (16.8-18.3) in women. Men and women being younger or older, moderately educated, living alone, smoking tobacco, and drinking alcohol were associated with higher reported TV viewing time. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) revealed that >4 hours per day of TV viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes [male: 1.64 (1.23-2.17) and female: 1.33 (1.09-1.63)], hypertension [male: 1.36 (1.14-1.63) and female: 1.20 (1.05-1.37)], and heart disease [male: 1.96 (1.43-2.69) and female: 1.30 (1.00-1.68)]. Exceeding 4 hours per day of TV viewing was responsible for 6.8% of type 2 diabetes, 3.7% of hypertension, and 7.5% of heart disease cases. Independent of covariates, >4 hours per day of TV viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. High volumes of TV viewing are prevalent and appear to contribute to chronic disease burden.

  12. Does self-directed and web-based support for parents enhance the effects of viewing a reality television series based on the Triple P-Positive Parenting Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew; Calam, Rachel; Durand, Marianne; Liversidge, Tom; Carmont, Sue Ann

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated whether providing self-directed and web-based support for parents enhanced the effects of viewing a reality television series based on the Triple P - Positive Parenting Programme. Parents with a child aged 2 to 9 (N = 454) were randomly assigned to either a standard or enhanced intervention condition. In the standard television alone viewing condition, parents watched the six-episode weekly television series, 'Driving Mum and Dad Mad'. Parents in the enhanced television viewing condition received a self-help workbook, extra web support involving downloadable parenting tip sheets, audio and video streaming of positive parenting messages and email support, in addition to viewing the television series. Parents in both conditions reported significant improvements in their child's disruptive behaviour and improvements in dysfunctional parenting practices. Effects were greater for the enhanced condition as seen on the ECBI, two of the three parenting indicators and overall programme satisfaction. However, no significant differences were seen on other measures, including parent affect indicators. The level of improvement was related to number of episodes watched, with greatest changes occurring in families who watched each episode. Improvements achieved at post-intervention by parents in both groups were maintained at six-month follow-up. Online tip sheets were frequently accessed; uptake of web-based resources was highest early in the series. The value of combining self-help approaches, technology and media as part of a comprehensive public health approach to providing parenting support is discussed.

  13. Children and Television. Current Issues in Education: A Bibliographic Series. Volume 5, No. 1, July 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Doris Hedlund

    Focused on research concerning children and television, this annotated bibliography lists 44 articles selected from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database from 1983 to 1988. Topics include: (1) the effects of television violence on children; (2) television viewing patterns; (3) children's television programs; and (4)…

  14. [Television and children: is television responsible for all the evils attributed to it?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviedes Altable, B E; Quesada Fernández, E; Herranz, J L

    2000-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to analyze children's television viewing habits and their parents attitudes towards such viewing. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Primary care. A survey was undertaken with 317 three to fourteen year old children and their parents as part of the primary care check-up program for healthy children. Time devoted to television viewing was 106 +/- 50 minutes on weekdays and 141 +/- 80 minutes weekends. Despite this, 49.2% of parents thought their children saw little television, especially those with children under six (57.6%). Children of parents in highly qualified positions and of parents in the uppermost socioeconomic group saw television the least, on non-working days (70 +/- 61 minutes and 144 +/- 78 minutes respectively, p children watched television alone and 34% did so at meal-times. Altogether 48.3% of parents were unaware as to what their children watched and some 61.5% encouraged television viewing, above all those having children of under six (76%). The youngest children preferred to watch cartoons which were generally of a violent nature. For those aged from 11 to 14, 19.5% chose as their favorite programs those having a high level of violence. Television habits are an educational problem for parents, an important shake-up in their attitudes being called for, in which pediatricians should be involved in developing health programs aimed at proper use of the television.

  15. [Epilepsy in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús María

    2012-10-01

    Literature, cinema and television have often portrayed stereotypical images of people that have epilepsy and have helped foster false beliefs about the disease. To examine the image of epilepsy presented by literature, cinema and television over the years. Epilepsy has frequently been portrayed in literary works, films and television series, often relating it with madness, delinquency, violent behaviours or possession by the divine or the diabolical, all of which has helped perpetuate our ancestral beliefs. The literary tales and the images that appear in films and on television cause an important emotional impact and, bearing in mind that many people will only ever see an epileptic seizure in a film or in a TV series or might gain some information about the disorder from a literary text, what they see on the screen or read in the novels will be their only points of reference. Such experiences will therefore mark the awareness and knowledge they will have about epilepsy and their attitudes towards the people who suffer from it. Novels and films are fiction, but it is important to show realistic images of the disease that are no longer linked to the false beliefs of the past and which help the general public to have a more correct view of epilepsy that is free from prejudices and stereotypes. Literature, cinema and television have often dealt with the subject of epilepsy, sometimes realistically, but in many cases they have only helped to perpetuate false beliefs about this disease.

  16. TV viewing and incident venous thromboembolism: the Atherosclerotic Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yasuhiko; Cushman, Mary; Zakai, Neil; Rosamond, Wayne D; Folsom, Aaron R

    2018-04-01

    TV viewing is associated with risk of arterial vascular diseases, but has not been evaluated in relation to venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in Western populations. In 1987-1989, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study obtained information on the frequency of TV viewing in participants aged 45-64 and followed them prospectively. In individuals free of prebaseline VTE (n = 15, 158), we used a Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident VTE according to frequency of TV viewing ("Never or seldom", "Sometimes", "Often" or "Very often"). During the 299,767 person-years of follow-up, we identified 691 VTE events. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the frequency of TV viewing showed a positive dose-response relation with VTE incidence (P for trend = 0.036), in which "very often" viewing TV carried 1.71 (95% CI 1.26-2.32) times the risk of VTE compared with "never or seldom" viewing TV. This association to some degree was mediated by obesity (25% mediation, 95% CI 10.7-27.5). Even among individuals who met a recommended level of physical activity, viewing TV "very often" carried 1.80 (1.04-3.09) times the risk of VTE, compared to viewing TV "never or seldom". Greater frequency of TV viewing was independently associated with increased risk of VTE, partially mediated by obesity. Achieving a recommended physical activity level did not eliminate the increased VTE risk associated with frequent TV viewing. Avoiding frequent TV viewing as well as increasing physical activity and controlling body weight might be beneficial for VTE prevention.

  17. TV 1.9: A experiência das webTVs universitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Becker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of image culture and convergence era effects on every field of social life, reconfigures the means and its mediations and provokes aesthetics and contents innovations. The webTVs are born as singular environments, characterized by a new way to see and make television. This work points possibilities of use of universities’ webTVs as relevant environments to the vocational training, once they are constituted, potentially, by spaces of experimentation of audiovisual language and multimedia resources and socialization. This article presents results of a study about four universities’ webTVs from Rio de Janeiro city.

  18. Television news and fear; A child survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walma van der Molen, J.H.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peeters, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Using telephone interviews among a random sample of 537 Dutch children aged 7–12 years old, we investigated (a) the prevalence of fear reactions to television news among younger and older children and among boys and girls, (b) what types of news items children in different age and gender groups

  19. Children's Impressions of Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    This research study examines the types of social behaviors portrayed by families in various television series and explores children's impressions of the TV family members. Content analysis of nine family-oriented TV series was employed to describe the ranges of behaviors of fathers, mothers and children on television. Eleven shows from each series…

  20. The influence of neighborhood socioeconomic status and walkability on TV viewing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F; White, Laura F; Evans, Stephen R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    Influences on TV viewing time, which is associated with adverse health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes, need clarification. We assessed the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability with TV viewing time in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective study of African American women. We created neighborhood SES and walkability scores using data from the U.S. census and other sources. We estimated odds ratios for TV viewing 5+ hours/day compared with 0-1 hours/day for quintiles of neighborhood SES and walkability scores. Neighborhood SES was inversely associated with TV viewing time. The odds ratio for watching 5+ hours/day in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of neighborhood SES was 0.66 (95% CI 0.54-0.81). Neighborhood walkability was not associated with TV viewing time. Neighborhood SES should be considered in devising strategies to combat the high levels of sedentariness prevalent in African American women.

  1. Association between TV viewing, computer use and overweight, determinants and competing activities of screen time in 4- to 13-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, E; Visscher, T L S; HiraSing, R A; Heymans, M W; Seidell, J C; Renders, C M

    2013-01-01

    TV viewing and computer use is associated with childhood overweight, but it remains unclear as to how these behaviours could best be targeted. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the association between TV viewing, computer use and overweight is explained by other determinants of overweight, to find determinants of TV viewing and computer use in the home environment and to investigate competing activities. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 4072 children aged 4-13 years in the city of Zwolle, the Netherlands. Data collection consisted of measured height, weight and waist circumference, and a parental questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, child's nutrition, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour. Associations were studied with logistic regression analyses, for older and younger children, boys and girls separately. The odds ratio (OR) of being overweight was 1.70 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.72) for viewing TV >1.5 h among 4- to 8-year-old children adjusted for all potential confounders. Computer use was not significantly associated with overweight. Determinants of TV viewing were as follows: having >2 TVs in the household (OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.66-3.41), a TV in the child's bedroom and not having rules on TV viewing. TV viewing and computer use were both associated with shorter sleep duration and not with less PA. Association between TV viewing and overweight is not explained by socio-demographic variables, drinking sugared drinks and eating snacks. Factors in the home environment influence children's TV viewing. Parents have a central role as they determine the number of TVs, rules and also their children's bedtime. Therefore, interventions to reduce screen time should support parents in making home environmental changes, especially when the children are young.

  2. Habitual active transport, TV viewing and weight gain: a four year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville

    2012-01-01

    To examine the associations of TV viewing time and domain-specific physical activity with weight change; to determine whether domain-specific physical activity moderates the potential association of TV viewing time with weight change. We used four-year longitudinal data (baseline: 2003-2004, follow-up: 2007-2008) on 969 adults from selected neighborhoods in Adelaide, Australia (Age: 48.6 ± 10.6 years, 61% females). Mixed models examined four-year weight change as the dependent variable, with TV viewing time, habitual transport and past week domain-specific physical activity at baseline as independent variables. On average, participants gained 1.6 kg over four years. TV viewing time at baseline was positively associated with weight gain at follow-up. Each additional hour of TV viewing was associated with 0.24-0.27 kg of extra weight gain. This relationship was not moderated by recent recall of transport, leisure-time, and occupational physical activity, but was moderated by habitual transport: an additional hour of TV viewing time at baseline was significantly associated with an extra weight gain of 0.65 kg at follow-up among those who were inactive in everyday transport; TV time was not significantly associated with weight change among those who were regularly active in transport. Habitual active transport may protect adults against risk of weight gain associated with prolonged TV viewing time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Television and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Eunice

    1984-01-01

    Considers characteristics of educational television that militate against effective language learning and argues that further research is needed to ascertain whether language development is promoted by educational television and which programs and formats are best. Research in the United States and suggestions for future research are discussed.…

  4. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  5. Television in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateneo de Manila Univ., Quezon City (Philippines). Center for Educational Television.

    Information about instructional television (ITV) programing in the Philippines is summarized in this three part document. An outline of the status of the Center for Educational Television, Inc., (CETV) and a description of its current activities and financial support are provided in the first section. A narrative review of both CETV and other…

  6. Science on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, John

    2011-01-01

    Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC…

  7. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children's Viewing Times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry S O'Brien

    Full Text Available Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years. During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87% was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86% was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989, compared with the daytime (N = 235,233. In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1 than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94. Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising.

  8. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children's Viewing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm) and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising.

  9. Optimized Watermarking for Light Field Rendering based Free-View TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolidis, Evlampios; Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Manifavas, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    In Free-View Television the viewers select freely the viewing position and angle of the transmitted multiview video. It is apparent that copyright and copy protection problems exist, since a video of this arbitrarily selected view can be recorded and then misused. In this context, the watermark...... introduced by the watermark’s insertion-extraction scheme. Therefore, we ended up to the best five Mathematical Distributions, and we concluded that the watermark’s robustness in FTV case does not depend only on the FTV image’s characteristics, but it also relies on the characteristics of the Mathematical...

  10. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Claire G.; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S.; Rich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents’ television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents’ likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents’ likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to T...

  11. TV viewing time is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Brazilian adults independent of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, B C; Monteiro, H L; Lemes, Í R; Codogno, J S; Lynch, K R; Asahi Mesquita, C A; Fernandes, R A

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults after 6 years of follow-up. This longitudinal study started in 2010 in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil, and involved 970 adults aged ≥50 years. Mortality was reported by relatives and confirmed in medical records of the Brazilian National Health System. Physical activity (PA) and TV viewing were assessed by the Baecke questionnaire. Health status, sociodemographic and behavioral covariates were considered as potential confounders. After 6 years of follow-up, 89 deaths were registered (9.2% [95% CI=7.4%-11%]). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with higher risk of mortality (P-value=.012). Deaths correlated significantly with age (ρ=.188; P-value=.001), overall PA score (ρ=-.128; P-value=.001) and TV viewing (ρ=.086; P-value=.007). Lower percentage of participants reported TV viewing time as often (16%) and very often (5.7%), but there was an association between higher TV viewing time ("often" and "very often" grouped together) and increased mortality after 6 years of follow-up (P-value=.006). The higher TV viewing time was associated with a 44.7% increase in all-cause mortality (HR=1.447 [1.019-2.055]), independently of other potential confounders. In conclusion, the findings from this cohort study identified increased risk of mortality among adults with higher TV viewing time, independently of PA and other variables. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Excessive TV Viewing Time and Associated Factors in Brazilian Adolescents from a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronza Fernanda Cerveira Abuana Osório

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Sedentary behavior has been identified as a risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. This study identified the prevalence of excessive TV viewing time during the week and weekend and associated factors in adolescents living in a small urban and rural area. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 283 students (aged 10-19 years from Brazil was conducted in 2010. Data on TV viewing time and sociodemographic information were collected by questionnaires, cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by the 20-m shuttle run test, and anthropometric characteristics were obtained by measuring waist circumference and skinfold thickness. Statistical analysis involved binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of excessive TV viewing time ( 2 h was 76.7% during on weekdays and 78.4% on the weekend. Adolescents aged 10-12 years (OR = 6.20; 95% CI = 2.91, 13.19; p < 0.001 and 13-15 years (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.28, 5.18; p = 0.008 were more exposed to excessive TV viewing time during the week. No associations were found for excessive TV viewing time on the weekend. Conclusions. Approximately 8 in 10 adolescents presented excessive TV viewing time; excessive TV viewing time during the week was associated with age.

  13. Parents, television and cultural change

    OpenAIRE

    Hauk, Esther; Immordino, Giovanni; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica; Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children which is costly and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural coverage, cost of education, TV's entertainment value and decreasing in the perceived cultural di...

  14. Pressures on TV Programs: Coalition for Better Television's Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, John M., Jr.

    In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…

  15. Structuring virtual spaces as television places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    As all major American broadcast and cable networks now provide some form and amount of online distribution of their television programming, we are beginning to see more interactive features being attached to this distribution to remediate the conditions of television consumption in the physical...... world.  Attaching such interactivity to their online distribution creates cyberspaces of consumption that become places for virtual audiences to congregate as they view the program.  To illustrate how the virtual environments and worlds are constructed to become places for virtual audiences, four case...... considering how these Internet-based interactive television examples demonstrate the remediation of conventional conceptualizations of television distribution structures and consumption practices, which then indicate the power dynamics of the producer-consumer relationship.  The form in which...

  16. Effects of television exposure on developmental skills among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hei-Mei

    2015-02-01

    Literature addressing the effects of television exposure on developmental skills of young children less than 36 months of age is scarce. This study explored how much time young children spend viewing television and investigated its effects on cognitive, language, and motor developmental skills. Data were collected from the Pediatric Clinics at University Medical Center in Southern Taiwan. The participants comprised 75 children who were frequently exposed to television and 75 children who were not or infrequently exposed to television between 15 and 35 months old. The age and sex were matched in the two groups. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-second edition and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-second edition were used to identify developmental skills. Independent t-tests, χ(2) tests, and logistic regression models were conducted. Among 75 children who were frequently exposed to television, young children watched a daily average of 67.4 min of television before age 2, which was excessive according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Viewing television increased the risk of delayed cognitive, language, and motor development in children who were frequently exposed to television. Cognitive, language, and motor delays in young children were significantly associated with how much time they spent viewing television. The type of care providers was critical in determining the television-viewing time of children. We recommend that pediatric practitioners explain the impacts of television exposure to parents and caregivers to ensure cognitive, language, and motor development in young children. Advocacy efforts must address the fact that allowing young children to spend excessive time viewing television can be developmentally detrimental. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (1) high-definition color television, (2) high-definition monochromatic television, (3) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (4) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television. The stereo system accomplished stereoscopy by displaying two cross-polarized images, one reflected by a half-silvered mirror and one seen through the mirror. Observers wore a pair of glasses with cross-polarized lenses so that the left eye received only the view from the left camera and the right eye received only the view from the right camera

  18. Tuning in to Young Viewers: Social Science Perspectives on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.

    Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television…

  19. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..

  20. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  1. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  2. Content of Food Advertising for Young Adolescents on Television

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Setu; Kalra, Swati; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gupta, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food related advertisements on television may have a major influence on the dietary habits and obesity among young adolescents. Objective: To evaluate the frequency and typology of food advertisements on most popular television channels, watched by school-going young adolescents in Delhi. Methodology: Biphasic study to (a) identify the three television channels most frequently watched by administering a questionnaire to 400 school going young adolescents; and (b) view each of thes...

  3. Body mass index, new modes of TV viewing and active video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbe, J; Willett, W C; Rosner, B; Field, A E

    2017-10-01

    Recent technologies have changed screen time. TV can be viewed anywhere, anytime. Content can be collected via digital recorders and online streaming and viewed on smartphones. Video games are no longer strictly sedentary. We sought to assess the unknown relations between new modes of TV viewing - recorded, online, downloaded and on hand-held devices - and active video games with body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional analysis of the 2011 wave of the Growing Up Today Study 2 cohort. We used gender-specific generalized estimating equations to examine screen time and BMI among 3071 women and 2050 men aged 16-24 years. Among women, each hour/day of online TV (0.47; confidence interval [CI]: 0.12, 0.82) and total non-broadcast TV (0.37; CI: 0.14, 0.61) was associated with higher BMI, as was watching ≥ 1/2 h week -1 of TV on hand-held devices (1.04; CI: 0.32-1.77). Active video games were associated with BMI among women, but not after restricting to those not trying to lose/maintain weight. Broadcast TV was associated with higher BMI (kg m -2 ) among women and men (P < 0.05). Among women, online TV, TV viewed on hand-held devices and the sum of non-broadcast TV time were associated with higher BMI. Broadcast TV was also associated with BMI in women and men. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  4. The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schrempft

    Full Text Available The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the 'obesogenic' home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children.Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096 completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables, activity (sum of 6 variables, media (sum of 5 variables, and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5 home environments. These were categorized into 'obesogenic risk' tertiles.Children in 'higher-risk' food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27-0.57 and vegetables (0.47; 0.34-0.64, and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16-5.62 and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10-5.81 than children in 'lower-risk' food environments. Children in 'higher-risk' activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32-0.59 than children in 'lower-risk' activity environments. Children in 'higher-risk' media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48-4.96 than children in 'lower-risk' media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI.Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing. Associations with BMI were not apparent at this age.

  5. Physical Activity With and Without TV Viewing: Effects on Enjoyment of Physical Activity and TV, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Barriers to Being Active in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie; Cho, Chi; Thompson, Dixie L

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is enjoyable, but there are barriers to participation. TV viewing is highly enjoyable with limited barriers. Exercising while viewing TV may impact enjoyment, exercise self-efficacy, and barriers to PA, compared with exercising without TV. 58 sedentary, overweight adults were randomized to 1 of 2 PA prescriptions: one that increased PA during TV viewing (TV Commercial Stepping), and another that focused solely on PA (Walking). Random effects models tested changes in enjoyment of TV and PA, exercise self-efficacy, and barriers to PA across time (baseline, 3, and 6 months) and PA prescription during a 6-month PA intervention. At baseline, TV was more enjoyable than PA. Over the 6-month intervention, enjoyment of TV viewing did not change, but enjoyment of PA and exercise self-efficacy significantly increased, while barriers to PA significantly decreased for both groups compared with baseline (P exercise increased, and barriers to being active were reduced for previously sedentary adults participating in a behavioral PA intervention. These findings highlight the importance of encouraging inactive adults to engage in some form of PA, whether it occurs with or without TV viewing.

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...

  7. Television area detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, V.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of standard television camera tubes as X-ray detectors in X-ray diffraction studies. Standard tubes can be modified to detect X rays by depositing an external X-ray phosphor on the fibre optics face plate either of a highly sensitive television camera tube or of an image intensifier coupled to a camera tube. The author considers various X-ray phosphors and concludes that polycrystalline silver activated ZnS is most suitable for crystallographic applications. In the following sections various types of television camera tubes with adequate light sensitivity for use in an X-ray detection system are described, and also three types of image intensifiers. The digitization of the television output signals and their statistical precision are discussed and the electronic circuitry for the detector system is briefly described. (B.D.)

  8. TV Viewing, Perceived Similarity, Coviewing, and Mental Well-Being among African American, Latino, and White Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Wallander, Jan; Elliott, Marc; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Tortolero, Susan; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Research among adults has demonstrated concurrent and prospective negative associations between TV viewing and mental health, yet little research has examined these associations among African American and Latino youth or examined the role of children's involvement with TV and parental mediation of TV viewing via coviewing. The purpose of the…

  9. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Claire G; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S; Rich, Michael

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents' television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents' likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents' likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.

  10. Parents, Television and Cultural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Hauk; Giovanni Immordino

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children, which is costly, and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural coverage, cost of education, TV’s entertainment value and decreasing in the perceived cultural ...

  11. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  12. Reality television predicts both positive and negative outcomes for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Salmond, Kimberlee; Modi, Kamla

    2013-06-01

    To assess the influence of media, specifically reality television, on adolescent behavior. A total of 1141 preteen and adolescent girls (age range 11-17) answered questions related to their reality television viewing, personality, self-esteem, relational aggression, appearance focus, and desire for fame. Our results indicated that the influence of reality television on adolescent behavior is complex and potentially related to the adolescents' intended uses and gratifications for using reality television. Reality television viewing was positively related to increased self-esteem and expectations of respect in dating relationships. However, watching reality television also was related to an increased focus on appearance and willingness to compromise other values for fame. Reality television viewing did not predict relational aggression. The potential influences of reality television use on adolescent girls are both positive and negative, defying easy categorization. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2016-12-16

    Today, the care of patients with multiple sclerosis and those around them represents a clinical and therapeutic challenge for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study is to analyse the appearance of multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television, and to reflect upon the image it has in these media. Several representative works that have addressed multiple sclerosis were reviewed, and many of them were seen to offer a very true-to-life vision of the disease. Likewise, a review was also conducted of the most relevant films and TV series that, on occasions, offer the general public a close look at the impact of the disease on patients or relatives, although they are sometimes somewhat exaggerated for the sake of increased dramatic effect and offer a slightly distorted view of reality. Literature largely reflects the real epidemiology, the symptoms and development of the disease, while less attention seems to be given to the diagnostic and therapeutic options open to patients. Cinema and television have offered a correct image but sometimes with the addition of more dramatic effects. It is important for literature, cinema and television to offer a realistic view of this neurological disease so as to make it better known among the public and to help lessen the stigma attached to it.

  14. Danish TV drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Jacobsen, Ushma Chauhan

    2017-01-01

    Following a recent and entirely unprecedented boom in global exports, Danish TV drama series have become the ‘darling’ of the international television industry and enjoyed widespread acclaim from international critics and audiences alike. This international success, however, is not just unprecede......Following a recent and entirely unprecedented boom in global exports, Danish TV drama series have become the ‘darling’ of the international television industry and enjoyed widespread acclaim from international critics and audiences alike. This international success, however, is not just...... unprecedented. It is also interesting from an academic point of view as it challenges existing and long-held theories on global media geography, import/export of audiovisual content, transnational media reception and the importance of transnational television viewing. According to these theories, non...... the relations between different stakeholders such as producers, broadcasters, sellers, buyers, audiences, journalists, critics and fans....

  15. Marketing fat and sugar to children on New Zealand television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Signal, Louise; Nicholls, Sarah; Thomson, George

    2006-02-01

    We aimed to determine the frequency and content of television food advertisements during children's viewing times on various New Zealand television channels. A content analysis was conducted of two free-to-air channels covering a total of 155 h of television time during children's viewing times (n = 858 food advertisements in 2005). Comparisons were made with data from 1997 and data from Australia. Compared to Australian channels, both New Zealand channels (TV3 and TV2) had significantly higher proportions of food advertisements that were classified as being "high in fat and/or sugar" (54% versus 80% and 69%, respectively). Using a more detailed classification system, 70.3% of food advertisements on the New Zealand channels were for foods "counter to improved nutrition" (95% CI: 67.1%, 73.3%) compared to those "favoring improved nutrition" at 5.1% (95% CI: 3.8%, 6.9%). The number of food advertisements per hour was higher in 2005 than in 1997 for the channel (TV2) for which there was time trend data (12.8 versus 8.0 per hour for the afternoon time slot). These findings provide further evidence that the majority of food advertising on New Zealand television is counter to nutritional guidelines. They suggest the need for further regulatory or other controls.

  16. Characteristics of hybrid broadcast broadband television (HbbTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Branimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the working principle of hybrid broadcast-broadband TV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV - HbbTV. The architecture of HbbTV system is given, the principle of its operation, as well as an overview of HbbTV specification standards that are in use, with their basic characteristics. Here are described the services provided by Hybrid TV. It is also provided an overview of the distribution of HbbTV services in Europe in terms of the number of TV channels that HbbTV services offer, the number of active hybrid TV devices, HbbTV standards which are in use and models of broadcast networks used to distribute HbbTV service.

  17. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Children's Television Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, Ali Reza

    1988-01-01

    Describes a 1981 study that compared uses of U.S. television by foreign children residing in the United States and American children in light of theories of acculturation, cultivation, and uses and gratifications. Children's television viewing is discussed, research methodology is described, and results are analyzed. (22 references) (Author/LRW)

  18. Open Primary Education School Students' Opinions about Mathematics Television Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez, Kursat

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes. This study indicated that to determine differences among open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes point of view students' characteristics like gender, age, grade,…

  19. Television and the Developing Imagination of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    1981-01-01

    The literature review discusses studies which have been conducted to determine whether television enriches a child's imagination or leads to distortions of reality, and whether adult mediation during a child's television viewing or immediately after can evoke constructive changes or stimulate make-believe play. Thirty-six references are cited.…

  20. Internet for Educational Television: An Opportunity or Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Among several uses, educational use of television is a prominent one. The public broadcasters of many countries routinely provide locally-relevant and useful educational television programs. In other side, there has been phenomenal growth in Internet use worldwide. The researchers are of the view that Internet has challenged the supremacy of…

  1. Sensation seeking, gender and programme preferences in televised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport has emerged as one of the major media events of our time of such magnitude that it is no more possible to distinguish between the phenomena of television and sport. The purpose of this study is to determine the relations between sensation seeking, gender and preferences in viewing televised sport. The reason ...

  2. Conceptualizing Culture as Commodity: The Problem of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Eileen R.

    1986-01-01

    Claims that most television research ignores the connections between its symbolic and economic influences. Argues for an integrated approach that views television as both a commodity and an artifact. Describes five analytical categories that researchers could use to provide information illuminating these relations to the public. (JD)

  3. The Effects of Dubbing Versus Subtitling of Television Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Fattawi B.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate viewers' knowledge of program content under various television translation modes and viewing experiences. Subjects were 176 students from the Center for Matriculation Program, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Penang, Malaysia. The Spanish version of an instructional television program was used; the program…

  4. A stereoscopic television system for reactor inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, D.B.; Jones, A.

    1980-03-01

    A stereoscopic television system suitable for reactor inspection has been developed. Right and left eye views, obtained from two conventional black and white cameras, are displayed by the anaglyph technique and observers wear appropriately coloured viewing spectacles. All camera functions, such as zoom, focus and toe-in are remotely controlled. A laboratory experiment is described which demonstrates the increase in spatial awareness afforded by the use of stereo television and illustrates its potential in the supervision of remote handling tasks. Typical depth resolutions of 3mm at 1m and 10mm at 2m have been achieved with the reactor instrument. Trials undertaken during routine inspection at Oldbury Power Station in June 1978 are described. They demonstrate that stereoscopic television can indeed improve the convenience of remote handling and that the added display realism is beneficial in visual inspection. (author)

  5. Three-dimensional television system for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbreck, A.A.; Abel, E.

    1988-01-01

    The paper refers to work previously described on the development of 3-D Television Systems. 3-D TV had been developed with a view to proving whether it was a useful remote handling tool which would be easy to use and comfortable to view. The paper summarizes the work of evaluation trials at UK facilities and reviews the developments which have subsequently taken place. 3-D TV systems have been found to give improved performance in terms of speed and accuracy of operations and to reduce the number of camera views required. (author)

  6. Childhood correlates of adult TV viewing time: a 32-year follow-up of the 1970 British Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L; Gardner, B; Hamer, M

    2015-04-01

    To identify, using a longitudinal data set, parental and childhood correlates of adult television (TV) viewing time at 32-year follow-up. Data were derived from the 1970 British Cohort Study, a longitudinal observational study of 17 248 British people born in a single week of 1970. The present analyses incorporated data from the age 10 and 42-year surveys. When participants were aged 10 years, their mothers provided information on how often participants watched TV and played sports (never/sometimes/often), and parents' own occupation, as well as height and weight. A health visitor objectively assessed participants' height and weight at age 10. Thirty-two years later, when participants were aged 42 years, they reported their daily TV viewing hours (none/0≤1/1TV viewing time were investigated using logistic regression. Valid data at both time points were available for 6188 participants. Logistic regression models showed that those who reported 'often' watching TV at baseline were significantly more likely to watch >3 h/days of TV at follow-up (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.65), as were those whose father was from a lower socio-occupational class (intermediate, routine/manual) compared with managerial (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.11; OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.87). Body mass index (BMI) at age 10 was inversely associated with high TV in adulthood (per unit increase; OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.96) although fathers BMI when the child was aged 10 was positively associated with high TV in adulthood (per unit increase; OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06). Findings suggest that childhood TV viewing time tracks into adulthood. Parents' health behaviours and social position appear to be associated with their children's viewing habits, which may have important implications for the direction of future policy and practice. Specifically, findings support the case for early life interventions, particularly on socioeconomic inequalities, as a way of preventing sedentary behaviour in

  7. 75 FR 10692 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... Television Commission, the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ(TV), channel *10, Birmingham... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  8. Exploring causality between TV viewing and weight change in young and middle-aged adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helajärvi, Harri; Rosenström, Tom; Pahkala, Katja; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Heinonen, Olli J; Oikonen, Mervi; Tammelin, Tuija; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-01-01

    Television viewing time (TV time) is associated with increased weight and obesity, but it is unclear whether this relation is causal. We evaluated changes in TV time, waist circumference (waist) and body mass index (BMI) in participants of the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (761 women, 626 men aged 33-50 years in 2011). Waist and BMI were measured, and TV time was self-reported in 2001, 2007, and 2011. Changes in waist and BMI between 2001 and 2011 were studied a) for the whole group, b) in groups with constantly low (≤ 1 h/d), moderate (1-3 h/d), or high (≥ 3 h/d) TV time, and c) in groups with ≥ 1 hour in-/decrease in daily TV time between 2001 and 2011. BMIs in 1986 were also evaluated. We explored the causal relationship of TV time with waist and BMI by classical temporality criterion and recently introduced causal-discovery algorithms (pairwise causality measures). Both methods supported the hypothesis that TV time is causative to weight gain, and no evidence was found for reverse or bidirectional causality. Constantly low TV time was associated with less pronounced increase in waist and BMI, and waist and BMI increase was lower with decreased TV time (PTV time group compared to the low TV time group (PTV time is temporally antecedent to BMI and waist increase.

  9. [Parkinson's disease in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2014-02-01

    INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.

  10. Television exposure and overweight/obesity among women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuoyire, Derek Anamaale

    2018-01-01

    Although the public health importance of the association between television (TV) viewing and obesity and/or related outcomes have been demonstrated in both cross-sectional and prospective studies elsewhere, similar studies are lacking within the African region. With the view to fill this gap in the literature, the current study explored the association between TV exposure and overweight/obesity among Ghanaian women. Based on a sample of 4158 women, descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were applied to data on TV ownership, TV viewing frequency, and body mass index (BMI) measures from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) to explore the association between TV exposure and overweight/obesity among Ghanaian women. Despite controlling for other factors (age educational level, marital status, wealth quintile, occupation, type of locality, and parity), the results show that women with TV in their households, and with high TV exposure were significantly ( P  TV in their households, and no TV exposure. The study demonstrates that increased TV exposure is significantly associated with overweight/obesity among women in Ghana even after adjusting for other factors. Interventions aimed at tackling obesity in Ghana should focus on encouraging the uptake of more physically demanding pastime activities in place of TV "sit time".

  11. Influences of Television Toward Modern Society Reflected in TV People by Haruki Murakami

    OpenAIRE

    KHIKMAH, ZIYAADATUL

    2014-01-01

    Khikmah, Ziyaadatul. 2014. Influences of Television toward Modern SocietyReflected in TV People By Haruki Murakami. Study Program of English,Department of Languages and Literature, Faculty of Cultural Studies, UniversitasBrawijaya. Supervisor: Juliati; Co-supervisor : Arcci Tusita. Keyword: Television, Mass Media, Effect, Construction, Culture, Influence. Television has become part of daily life in the society in modern era. Television functions as a medium of information and entertainment. ...

  12. Television and Media Literacy in Young Children: Issues and Effects in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Sahimi, Nurul Nadiah

    2009-01-01

    Television viewing among young children has been an on going issue as it is found to effect their development in various areas. This problem is getting more worrisome as the percentage and amount of hours of television exposure among young children is increasing, especially with the growing production of children television programs. Studies have…

  13. Beginnings and Beyond: The Relationship between Television Violence and Neurodevelopment of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research findings on the effect of televised violence on young children's behavior and neurodevelopment. Suggests ways parents can manage their child's television viewing and outlines activities for early childhood educators to incorporate into their curriculum to help children cope with television. Asserts that it is essential that…

  14. Television: The New State Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbner, George

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the special characteristics of television that make it a formula-bound, ritualistic, repetitive, and nonselectively used system; concludes that television's social symbolic functions resemble preindustrial religions more than they do the media that preceded it. (GT)

  15. The World According to Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Don

    1985-01-01

    Adult guidance and discussion are two elements necessary to transform children from passive consumers into active critics of the social world presented by television. Ways in which teachers can help students scrutinize what they see on television are discussed. (CB)

  16. Early Childhood Screen Time and Parental Attitudes Toward Child Television Viewing in a Low-Income Latino Population Attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Karin M; Kair, Laura R; Arain, Yassar H; Cervantes, Marlene; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Zuckerman, Katharine E

    2015-10-01

    Early childhood media exposure is associated with obesity and multiple adverse health conditions. The aims of this study were to assess parental attitudes toward childhood television (TV) viewing in a low-income population and examine the extent to which child BMI, child/parent demographics, and household media environment are associated with adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for screen time. This was a cross-sectional survey study of 314 parents of children ages 0-5 years surveyed in English or Spanish by self-administered questionnaire at a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) clinic in Oregon. In this majority Latino sample (73%), half (53%) of the children met AAP guidelines on screen time limits, 56% met AAP guidelines for no TV in the child's bedroom, and 29% met both. Children were more likely to meet AAP guidelines when there were child screen time. Programs aimed at reducing child screen time may benefit from interventions that address parental viewing habits.

  17. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder Anthony I

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

  18. Locations in Television Drama Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the analysis of the increasingly significant role of location as a key element in television drama. In recent years, the popularity of serial television has progressively been tied to the expanded use of location as a central element in productions, both as sett...... mainly been considered as a practical term in film and television productions....

  19. A GUIDE TO INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIAMOND, ROBERT M., ED.

    THIS IS A GUIDE DESIGNED AS A SINGLE REFERENCE FOR ADMINISTRATORS, TEACHERS, STUDENTS, AND LAYMEN INTERESTED IN TELEVISION FOR A SPECIFIC SCHOOL OR SCHOOL SYSTEM. FOUR EXAMPLES OF SINGLE-ROOM TELEVISION ARE GIVEN AND SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS OF STUDIO TELEVISION ARE PRESENTED. ITS USE IN GUIDANCE AND IN ADMINISTRATION IS EXPLAINED. THE PROBLEMS…

  20. Factors in Dubbing Television Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalbeascoa, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Advocates a greater awareness of the factors involved with dubbing television comedies. Considers the translation of jokes and provides an outline of the various kinds of jokes in television shows. Calls for more research on comedy dubbing and television translation in general. (HB)

  1. Adiposity and TV viewing are related to less bone accrual in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosje, Karen S; Khoury, Philip R; Claytor, Randal P; Copeland, Kristen A; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Daniels, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    To examine the relation between baseline fat mass and gain in bone area and bone mass in preschoolers studied prospectively for 4 years, with a focus on the role of physical activity and TV viewing. Children were part of a longitudinal study in which measures of fat, lean and bone mass, height, weight, activity, and diet were taken every 4 months from ages 3 to 7 years. Activity was measured by accelerometer and TV viewing by parent checklist. We included 214 children with total body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic 4500A) scans at ages 3.5 and 7 years. Higher baseline fat mass was associated with smaller increases in bone area and bone mass over the next 3.5 years (P accounting for race, sex, and height. Activity by accelerometer was not associated with bone gains. Adiposity and TV viewing are related to less bone accrual in preschoolers.

  2. Nursing on television: student perceptions of television's role in public image, recruitment and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Koch, Jane; Jackson, Debra

    2013-12-01

    To explore nursing students' perceptions of how their profession is portrayed on medical television programmes. Recruitment and retention in nursing have been linked to the image of the profession in society. Images of nursing in popular media frequently draw on stereotypes that may damage the appeal of nursing for potential students and denigrate the value and status of the profession. A growing body of work analyses how nursing is portrayed in popular media, but less research asks nursing students themselves to reflect on this area. Convergent parallel mixed methods. Data were collected in 2011 from surveys of 484 undergraduate nursing students at a large university in New South Wales, Australia, that included demographic data, their viewing habits of medical television programmes and their opinions of how the shows handled nursing ethics and professionalism and the image of nursing on television and nursing role models. Most students watch medical television programmes. Students who do not speak English at home watched fewer programmes but were more positive about the depictions of professionalism. The qualitative data showed students were concerned that television can have a negative influence on the image of nursing, but they also recognized some educational and recruitment value in television programmes. It is important for nurses, educators and students to be critically engaged with the image of their profession in society. There is value in engaging more closely with contemporary media portrayals of nursing for students and educators alike. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Should I Let My Child Watch Television?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…

  4. Television Research: The Potential for Ecological Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Susan C.

    The failure of television research to affect broadcast policy is attributed partially to its methodological inadequacies and its narrow audience. Research tends not to take into account such variables as the program selection behavior itself, the natural viewing context, and other non-content influences. Existing research suggests that television…

  5. Danish television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Danish television drama series have become an internationally acclaimed export success. This article analyses the development on the domestic market lying behind this international recognition. A change in production dogmas has formed the characteristics of these successful Danish...... the characteristics of these productions and the development of their audience profiles across age, gender and educational level....

  6. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    abstractIn this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’

  7. Television and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  8. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Campaigns Delivered via Various Combinations of Television and Online Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Allom

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReflecting the increasing prevalence of online media, many mass media health campaigns are now delivered using both television (TV and online media formats. The aim of this study was to evaluate a smoking cessation mass media campaign according to the cost-effectiveness of the various combinations of TV and online media formats to inform future media buying decisions.MethodsA quasi-experimental interrupted time series approach was employed. The campaign was delivered in seven 1-week bursts using TV, online video (OV, or online display (OD (e.g., banner ads formats in isolation and in various combinations over a 13-week period. Campaign bursts were separated by “off-weeks” in which no campaign materials were delivered. Assessed outcomes were the number of campaign response “events” recorded (campaign web page views, calls to a smoking cessation telephone service, and registrations for smoking cessation services. The cost-effectiveness of each individual and combined media format condition in terms of these outcome variables was calculated using attributed production and broadcasting costs.ResultsOverall, OD alone was found to be the most cost-effective means of achieving the nominated campaign outcomes, followed by a combination of OV and OD and a combination of TV and OV. The use of TV in isolation was the least cost-effective.ConclusionThe results of this evaluation indicate that online media constitute a promising means of enhancing the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation campaigns. Future research assessing a broader range of outcomes, especially smoking cessation, is needed to provide a more comprehensive account of the cost-effectiveness of various campaign media.

  9. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Campaigns Delivered via Various Combinations of Television and Online Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allom, Vanessa; Jongenelis, Michelle; Slevin, Terry; Keightley, Stacey; Phillips, Fiona; Beasley, Sarah; Pettigrew, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting the increasing prevalence of online media, many mass media health campaigns are now delivered using both television (TV) and online media formats. The aim of this study was to evaluate a smoking cessation mass media campaign according to the cost-effectiveness of the various combinations of TV and online media formats to inform future media buying decisions. A quasi-experimental interrupted time series approach was employed. The campaign was delivered in seven 1-week bursts using TV, online video (OV), or online display (OD) (e.g., banner ads) formats in isolation and in various combinations over a 13-week period. Campaign bursts were separated by "off-weeks" in which no campaign materials were delivered. Assessed outcomes were the number of campaign response "events" recorded (campaign web page views, calls to a smoking cessation telephone service, and registrations for smoking cessation services). The cost-effectiveness of each individual and combined media format condition in terms of these outcome variables was calculated using attributed production and broadcasting costs. Overall, OD alone was found to be the most cost-effective means of achieving the nominated campaign outcomes, followed by a combination of OV and OD and a combination of TV and OV. The use of TV in isolation was the least cost-effective. The results of this evaluation indicate that online media constitute a promising means of enhancing the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation campaigns. Future research assessing a broader range of outcomes, especially smoking cessation, is needed to provide a more comprehensive account of the cost-effectiveness of various campaign media.

  10. Characteristics associated with older adolescents who have a television in their bedrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; van den Berg, Patricia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    The goals were to examine the prevalence of adolescents having a television in their bedroom and to describe associated personal, social, and behavioral characteristics. Participants included 781 adolescents (mean age: 17.2 years) who completed a mailed Project Eating Among Teens II questionnaire. The relationships between adolescents having a television in their bedroom and sociodemographic, behavioral, and personal characteristics were examined. Nearly two thirds (62%) of participants had a bedroom television. Gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and age were associated with the presence of a bedroom television. Compared with girls without a bedroom television, girls with a bedroom television reported less time spent in vigorous activity (1.8 vs 2.5 hours/week), more time spent watching television (20.7 vs 15.2 hours/week), lower vegetable intake (1.7 vs 2.0 servings per day), greater sweetened beverage consumption (1.2 vs 1.0 servings per day), and fewer family meals (2.9 vs 3.7 meals per week). Compared with boys without a bedroom television, boys with a bedroom television reported more time spent watching television (22.2 vs 18.2 hours/week), lower fruit intake (1.7 vs 2.2 servings per day), fewer family meals (2.9 vs 3.6 meals per week), and lower grade point average (2.6 vs 2.9). Twice as many youths with a television in their bedroom were heavy television users (watched >5 hours/day), compared with youths without a television in their bedroom (16% vs 8%). Adolescents with a bedroom television reported more television viewing time, less physical activity, poorer dietary habits, fewer family meals, and poorer school performance. Refraining from placing a television in teenagers' rooms may be a first step in helping to decrease screen time and subsequent poor behaviors associated with increased television watching.

  11. Evaluation of high-definition television for remote task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Fujita, Y.; Herndon, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution TV) of horizontal scan lines that standard-resolution TV provides. The improvement in picture quality (compared to standard-resolution TV) that the extra scan lines provide is impressive. Objects in the HDTV picture have more sharply defined edges, better contrast, and more accurate reproduction of shading and color patterns than do those in the standard-resolution TV picture. Because the TV viewing system is a key component for teleoperator performance, an improvement in TV picture quality could mean an improvement in the speed and accuracy with which teleoperators perform tasks. This report describes three experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The performance of HDTV was compared to that of standard-resolution, monochromatic TV and standard-resolution, stereoscopic, monochromatic TV in the context of judgment of depth in a televised scene, visual inspection of an object, and performance of a typical remote handling task. The results of the three experiments show that in some areas HDTV can lead to improvement in teleoperator performance. Observers inspecting a small object for a flaw were more accurate with HDTV than with either of the standard-resolution systems. High resolution is critical for detection of small-scale flaws of the type in the experiment (a scratch on a glass bottle). These experiments provided an evaluation of HDTV television for use in tasks that must be routinely performed to remotely maintain a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. 5 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Closed Loop Recycling of Plastic Housing for Flat Screen TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Jef; Vanegas, Paul; Devoldere, Tom; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of the rapidly increasing number of End-of-Life (EoL) Flat screen Televisions (FTVs) presents major challenges and opportunities. Closing loops in plastic housing material flows remains a particular technical challenge because of the presence of additives, such as Flame Retardants (FR) in recovered housings. In the framework of a collaborative project PRIME with TP Vision the TV development site for Philips TVs and a Van Gansewinkel first level recycling plant, series of experim...

  13. Research Issues in the Study of Public Attitudes toward Ethical Problems in Television Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarick, David L.; Lind, Rebecca Ann

    Three empirical studies focused on viewer reactions to ethical issues in television news, and on actions audience members felt were appropriate to control possibly unethical behaviors in television broadcasting. The first study was a 12-minute telephone survey of 293 randomly selected adults in Minneapolis-St. Paul (Minnesota) in 1989 to determine…

  14. Median prior constrained TV algorithm for sparse view low-dose CT reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Shangguan, Hong; Zhang, Quan; Zhu, Hongqing; Shu, Huazhong; Gui, Zhiguo

    2015-05-01

    It is known that lowering the X-ray tube current (mAs) or tube voltage (kVp) and simultaneously reducing the total number of X-ray views (sparse view) is an effective means to achieve low-dose in computed tomography (CT) scan. However, the associated image quality by the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) usually degrades due to the excessive quantum noise. Although sparse-view CT reconstruction algorithm via total variation (TV), in the scanning protocol of reducing X-ray tube current, has been demonstrated to be able to result in significant radiation dose reduction while maintain image quality, noticeable patchy artifacts still exist in reconstructed images. In this study, to address the problem of patchy artifacts, we proposed a median prior constrained TV regularization to retain the image quality by introducing an auxiliary vector m in register with the object. Specifically, the approximate action of m is to draw, in each iteration, an object voxel toward its own local median, aiming to improve low-dose image quality with sparse-view projection measurements. Subsequently, an alternating optimization algorithm is adopted to optimize the associative objective function. We refer to the median prior constrained TV regularization as "TV_MP" for simplicity. Experimental results on digital phantoms and clinical phantom demonstrated that the proposed TV_MP with appropriate control parameters can not only ensure a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image, but also its resolution compared with the original TV method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in TV Viewing and Computer Game Playing's Relationships with Physical Activity and Eating Behaviors among Adolescents: An NHANES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared; Gay, Jennifer; Hansen, Nathan; Muilenburg, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Background: TV viewing and computer game use may both limit physical activity, but only TV viewing may promote a poorer diet due to exposure to food advertising and availability of the hands for snacking. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between the different screen times and type 2 diabetes markers among youth.…

  16. Abdominal obesity, TV-viewing time and prospective declines in physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakerveld, J.; Dunstan, D.W.; Bot, S.D.M.; Salmon, J.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Owen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prospective associations of baseline abdominal obesity and TV-viewing time with five-year reductions in leisure-time physical activity level. Methods: We used data from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab), a nationally representative

  17. Television systems for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartly, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation-tolerant television cameras, widely used for the inspection of nuclear plants, are now used for monitoring radioactive waste management processes. Two systems are described in this paper that differ in the methods of maintaining the camera equipment. At the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield plant, a major capital investment program is under way that includes plants for spent-fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management. The Windscale vitrification plant (WVP) will convert highly active liquid waste to a solid glass-like form. The WVP television system was based on in-cell cameras designed to be removable by remote-handling equipment. The plant to encapsulate medium active solid waste, encapsulation plant 1 (EP1) used through-wall and through-roof viewing systems with a glass viewing dome as the biological shield, allowing the camera and optics to be withdrawn to a safe area for maintenance. Both systems used novel techniques to obtain a record of the waste-processing operations. The WVP system used a microcomputer to overlay reference information onto the television picture and a motion detector to automatically trigger the video recording. The television system for EP1 included automatic character recognition to generate a computer data record of drum serial numbers

  18. Gender and food television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines the importance of gender in the history of food television in an American/European context, by discussing the scientific literature on the topic. The analysis covers a period from the very first shows in the 1930s and 1940s, until 2016. It will be argued that despite...... feminine values” of nurturing and home management. However, this chapter brings out a series of examples in which these gendered models are negotiated and transgressed. This chapter, which draws on examples from the US, UK, and France, argues that the gendering of cooking shows should be understood...... in relation to other social categories, notably ethnicity and class. With this in mind, I conclude that food television not only reproduces hierarchies between men and women, but also between various kinds of masculinity and femininity....

  19. Pre- and postdiagnosis physical activity, television viewing, and mortality among patients with colorectal cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A; Alfano, Catherine M; Hollenbeck, Albert; Park, Yikyung; Matthews, Charles E

    2015-01-10

    Physical inactivity has been associated with higher mortality risk among survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the independent effects of pre- versus postdiagnosis activity are unclear, and the association between watching television (TV) and mortality in survivors of CRC is previously undefined. We analyzed the associations between prediagnosis (n = 3,797) and postdiagnosis (n = 1,759) leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and TV watching and overall and disease-specific mortality among patients with CRC. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for known mortality risk factors. Comparing survivors of CRC reporting more than 7 hours per week (h/wk) of prediagnosis LTPA with those reporting no LTPA, we found a 20% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95; P for trend = .021). Postdiagnosis LTPA of ≥ 7 h/wk, compared with none, was associated with a 31% lower all-cause mortality risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.98; P for trend = .006), independent of prediagnosis activity. Compared with 0 to 2 TV hours per day (h/d) before diagnosis, those reporting ≥ 5 h/d of TV before diagnosis had a 22% increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.41; P trend = .002), and more postdiagnosis TV watching was associated with a nonsignificant 25% increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.67; P for trend = .126). LTPA was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, whereas more TV watching was associated with increased mortality risk. For both LTPA and TV watching, postdiagnosis measures independently explained the association with mortality. Clinicians should promote both minimizing TV time and increasing physical activity for longevity among survivors of CRC, regardless of previous behaviors. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. Television and children's executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... power television and television translator stations. 74.789 Section 74.789 Telecommunication FEDERAL... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.789 Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator...

  2. Television food advertising to children in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Daniel; Reiff, Sascha; Knai, Cecile; Gauci, Charmaine; Spiteri, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    To undertake a cross-sectional survey of the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising to children on Maltese national television stations. Seven national free-to-air channels were recorded for seven consecutive days in March 2014 between 07:00 and 22:00 h. Advertisements were coded according to predefined categories, with a focus on advertisements aired during 'peak' children's viewing times, defined as periods during which more than 25% of children were likely to be watching television on any channel. Food and beverage advertisements were classified as core (healthy), non-core (unhealthy) or miscellaneous foods. Malta. Whole population, with a focus on children. Food and drinks were the most heavily advertised product category (26.9% of all advertisements) across all channels. The proportion of non-core food/drink advertisements was significantly greater during peak compared with non-peak children's viewing times (52 vs 44.6%; p ≤ 0.001). A majority of advertisements aimed at children are for non-core foods, and are typically shown during family-oriented programmes in the late evening rather than being restricted to children's programmes. 'Taste', 'enjoyment' and 'peer status' were the primary persuasive appeals used in adolescent and child-focused advertisements. This first content analysis of television advertising in Malta suggests that there is scope for the implementation of statutory regulation regarding advertising of foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) during times when children are likely to watch television, rather than during children's programmes only. Ongoing, systematic monitoring is essential for evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations designed to reduce children's exposure to HFSS food advertising on television. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. MOBILE TELEVISION: UNDERSTANDING THE TECHNOLOGY AND OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Omar AlSheikSalem

    2015-01-01

    Television have converged the technologies of movies and radio and now being converged with mobile phones. Mobile TV is the result of the convergence between mobile devices and television. Mobile TV is a key device and service that enrich civilization with applications, vast market and great investment. Mobile TV is an important subject that has a potential impact on leading edge technologies for promising future. In the time being Mobile TV is still in its early stages and has many potential...

  4. Product Matching in Television News Using Benefit Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Robert H.

    Because local television news appears to be resilient to audience erosion, programmers may find it beneficial to develop strategies that are accommodating to the interests of audience segments. This also suggests that advertisers may communicate more effectively with consumers sorted according to benefit orientation. After telephone interviews…

  5. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  6. Social Television for the modern nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2008-01-01

    This is a paper about the ongoing project of Ambient Shared Live Media positioned in the field of social television. It illustrates a scenario of social television that exemplifies how media sharing/TV watching can be a facilitator for social TV across physical locations. It also addresses a spec...... a specific target of users, being the modern nomad....

  7. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children’s Viewing Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Kerry S.; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children’s viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6am-8.29pm) and evening periods (8.30pm-11.59pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0–4 years, 5–13 years, 14–17 years, 18–29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0–17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising. PMID:26263170

  8. Borehole television survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    The borehole television survey can provide a measure of the orientation, depth, width and aperture of any planar discontinuity intersected by a borehole and a technique is in an advanced stage of development by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) to make such measurements. Much of its practical application to date has been in crystalline rocks (plutons) at research areas pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Disposal Program in Canada. It also has many other engineering applications where bedrock stability is of particular concern. The equipment required to carry out the survey can be readily transported by two panel trucks with trailers. The components consist of a camera probe, control unit, cable storage reel, cable drive, video-tape recorder, TV monitor and two electrical generators. An inclined planar structure intersected by a borehole appears as an elliptical trace on the wall of the borehole. Such an intersection line shows on the TV monitor as a sinusoidal curve with a high point and a low point as the camera rotates through an angle of 360 degrees. The azimuth of the low point, measured by a compass in the camera probe, represents the direction of the dip of the planar structure. The angle of dip is measured midway between the high and low points or is computed from the maximum-to-minimum distance of the sinusoid and the hole diameter. These observations provide the true orientation of the planar structure if the borehole is vertical. However, if the borehole is inclined, direct observations will only provide the apparent orientation. The true orientation must thus be obtained either by means of stereographic projection or spherical trigonometry. A computer program has been written to calculate the true orientation from the apparent orientation. In the field, observation data are recorded directly on a data record sheet for keypunching and input into the computer

  9. The magic of television: Thinking through magical realism in recent TV [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Joyrich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available After decades in which television has been marked as more banal than bewitching, recalling the "magic of television" is more likely to evoke a sense of wonder for the perceived innocence of an earlier televisual audience than for television itself. With TV offered on demand, captured with DVRs, downloaded or watched streaming on the Web, purchased as DVD sets, miniaturized for private screenings, jumbo-sized for public spectacles, monitored in closed circuits, and accessed for open forums, once-mysterious television flows have flowed to new media forms, giving TV an appearing/disappearing, now-you-see-it/now-you-don't magical act of its own. Has TV disappeared, or has it multiplied—redoubled each time it's sawed in half, replicating like rabbits pulled out of a hat? Is it still TV or something else when programs are screened (as if through a magic curtain via today's delivery systems?

  10. Employees' views on home-based, after-hours telephone triage by Dutch GP cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Ramona; van Exel, Job; de Bont, Antoinette

    2013-11-04

    Dutch out-of-hours (OOH) centers find it difficult to attract sufficient triage staff. They regard home-based triage as an option that might attract employees. Specially trained nurses are supposed to conduct triage by telephone from home for after-hours medical care. The central aim of this research is to investigate the views of employees of OOH centers in The Netherlands on home-based telephone triage in after-hours care. The study is a Q methodology study. Triage nurses, general practitioners (GPs) and managers of OOH centers ranked 36 opinion statements on home-based triage. We interviewed 10 participants to help develop and validate the statements for the Q sort, and 77 participants did the Q sort. We identified four views on home-based telephone triage. Two generally favor home-based triage, one highlights some concerns and conditions, and one opposes it out of concern for quality. The four views perceive different sources of credibility for nurse triagists working from home. Home-based telephone triage is a controversial issue among triage nurses, GPs and managers of OOH centers. By identifying consensus and dissension among GPs, triagists, managers and regulators, this study generates four perspectives on home-based triage. In addition, it reveals the conditions considered important for home-based triage.

  11. 78 FR 75306 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of station WBIQ(TV), channel *39, Birmingham, Alabama... freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by television stations seeking channel substitutions in...

  12. Television and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L

    1986-01-01

    This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained

  13. How Do We Write about Performance in Serial Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Logan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Television studies has produced few sustained analyses of performance in serial television. Yet film studies scholarship has shown how attending to the integration of performances with other aspects of film style is crucial to the interpretation and appreciation of expression and meaning in filmed narrative fictions. However, as a particle form of filmed serial narrative, series television raises a number of questions about performance that will not necessarily be satisfyingly addressed by the direct adoption and application of approaches to writing about performance that have been honed in regard to film. How, then, do we write about performance in television serials in ways that recognise and accommodate the form’s relationship to film, while at the same time appropriately acknowledging and responding to long-form television’s serial status? To examine the difficulties and opportunities of approaching performance in serial television this way, the article conducts close readings of various pieces of television studies writing on performance, by scholars such as Jason Mittell, Sue Turnbull, George Toles, and Steven Peacock. Their work brings into view film and television’s points of common relation, and the distinctive challenges, achievements, and rewards of appreciating the best television serials, and the performances in them.

  14. TV Viewing Compared to Book Reading and Toy Playing Reduces Responsive Maternal Communication with Toddlers and Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Rasmussen, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the amount and style of maternal communication with toddlers and preschoolers while mother-child pairs watched TV, read books, and played with toys. We found that mother-child communication was less frequent and less verbally responsive when dyads viewed TV compared with when they read books, and in many cases, when they played…

  15. Public Policy and Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Aletha C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Advocates the promotion of television programing that serves the diverse needs of children for education, entertainment, aesthetic appreciation, and knowledge; and the protection of children from television content and advertising practices that exploit their special vulnerability. More regulation is needed. (Author/BJV)

  16. HAVi components in digital television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2001-01-01

    htmlabstractDigital television broadcast started in Finland on 27th of August 2001. A new period in this entertainment field has already begun. Because of the importance of television in the society, the shift between analogue and digital has to be done with the viewers in mind. The User

  17. "TV no longer commands our full attention": Effects of second-screen viewing and task relevance on cognitive load and learning from news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauwenberge, A.M.R. van; Schaap, G.J.; Roy, R. van

    2014-01-01

    Second-screen viewing the use of smartphones, tablets, and laptops while watching television has increased dramatically in the last few years. Using multiple resource theory and threaded cognition theory, this study investigated the effects of second-screen viewing on cognitive load, factual recall

  18. The Role of Graphic and Sanitized Violence in the Enjoyment of Television Dramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment explores the relationship between television violence and viewer enjoyment. Over 400 participants were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions that were created by editing five TV programs into three versions each: A graphically violent version, a sanitized violent version, and a nonviolent version. After viewing, participants…

  19. Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

  20. Engaging, critical, entertaining: Transforming public service television for children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christa Lykke

    2013-01-01

    of children’s television can be identified, leading up to today’s competitive period. The article shows how Danish public service children’s TV has played an important role in the modernization of the view of children, serving as an experimental platform for putting the perspective of active and independent...

  1. Television in the bedroom and increased body weight: potential explanations for their relationship among European schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A J; van Stralen, M M; Brug, J; Salmon, J; Bere, E; Chinapaw, M J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Jan, N; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A; Velde, S J

    2013-04-01

    A television in the bedroom is associated with measures of adiposity. We aimed to test if this association is mediated by any of (i) time spent watching television, (ii) sleep duration, (iii) physical activity level or (iv) consumption of soft drinks. Data were from 7234 boys and girls aged 10-12 years in European countries involved in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth project (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain). Waist circumference, height and weight were measured. The presence of a bedroom television, television viewing time, sleep duration, physical activity time and soft drink consumption were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Almost 40% of schoolchildren had a bedroom television, with the highest percentage among Hungarian children (65%) and lowest for Belgian, Slovenian and Spanish children (all ≈28%). A television in the bedroom was positively associated with time spent watching television, soft drink consumption and overweight and obesity (all P television in the bedroom and measures of body size was partly mediated by total television viewing time (proportion mediated for waist circumference 8.9%; for body mass index 8.3%) but not sleep duration, physical activity time or soft drink consumption. The strong association between a television in the bedroom and adiposity was at least partially mediated by television viewing time. The large proportion of European schoolchildren with a television in their bedroom is of concern. Parents should be aware of the potential consequences when placing a television in a child's bedroom and children should limit viewing time. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Abdominal obesity, TV-viewing time and prospective declines in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Dunstan, David; Bot, Sandra; Salmon, Jo; Dekker, Jacqueline; Nijpels, Giel; Owen, Neville

    2011-10-01

    To examine the prospective associations of baseline abdominal obesity and TV-viewing time with five-year reductions in leisure-time physical activity level. We used data from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab), a nationally representative population-based cohort study with measures collected in 1999-2000 and 2004-2005. Abdominal obesity was determined by waist circumference and TV-viewing time and physical activity level were assessed using established interviewer-administered questionnaires. Among 2,191 men and 2,650 women aged ≥ 25years, odds ratios (ORs) of 5-year reductions from sufficient to insufficient or no physical activity, and from insufficient to no physical activity were estimated with logistic regression. We adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The odds of reducing physical levels from baseline to the follow-up survey for obese men (34.2%) and women (38.1%), respectively were 1.40 (1.10-1.79) and 1.44 (1.16-1.80), compared to those with a normal waist circumference. Women, but not men, with higher levels of TV-viewing time had higher odds of reducing physical activity levels (8.6%; OR 1.46; 1.01-2.11), independent of abdominal obesity. These findings suggest that abdominal obesity is associated with prospective reductions in physical activity level, and that high levels of TV-viewing time might have an additional adverse influence for women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Double dose: the cumulative effect of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children's activity patterns and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon; Dowda, Marsha; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about how screen-based sedentary behavior at home and in preschool influences children's health and activity patterns. The current study examined the individual and cumulative influence of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children's physical activity (PA) and weight status. Children (n = 339) attending 16 preschools in South Carolina were grouped into high and low TV groups based on parent report of children's TV viewing at home and director report of TV use/rules in preschool. T-tests and mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in weight status and PA (min/hr) by high and low TV groups. Results revealed that children who were classified as High TV both at home and in pre- school had significantly lower levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA compared with their Low TV counterparts (8.3 (0.3) min/hr vs. 7.6 (0.2) min/hr, p TV groups at home or in preschool when examined individually. These findings demonstrate the importance of total environmental TV exposure on preschooler's PA. Longitudinal and observational research to assess preschoolers' cumulative screen-based sedentary behavior and its relationship with PA and weight status is needed.

  4. The Nature and Predictive Value of Mothers’ Beliefs Regarding Infants’ and Toddlers’ TV/Video Viewing: Applying the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaala, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Viewing television and video programming has become a normative behavior among US infants and toddlers. Little is understood about parents’ decision-making about the extent of their young children’s viewing, though numerous organizations are interested in reducing time spent viewing among infants and toddlers. Prior research has examined parents’ belief in the educational value of TV/videos for young children and the predictive value of this belief for understanding infant/toddler viewing rates, though other possible salient beliefs remain largely unexplored. This study employs the integrative model of behavioral prediction (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010) to examine 30 maternal beliefs about infants’ and toddlers’ TV/video viewing which were elicited from a prior sample of mothers. Results indicate that mothers tend to hold more positive than negative beliefs about the outcomes associated with young children’s TV/video viewing, and that the nature of the aggregate set of beliefs is predictive of their general attitudes and intentions to allow their children to view, as well as children’s estimated viewing rates. Analyses also uncover multiple dimensions within the full set of beliefs, which explain more variance in mothers’ attitudes and intentions and children’s viewing than the uni-dimensional index. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25431537

  5. Efficiency improvement opportunities in TVs: Implications for market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Televisions (TVs) account for a significant portion of residential electricity consumption and global TV shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of TVs that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that TV efficiency will likely improve by over 60% by 2015 with savings potential of 45 terawatt-hours [TW h] per year in 2015, compared to today’s technology. We discuss various energy-efficiency improvement options and evaluate the cost effectiveness of three of them. At least one of these options improves efficiency by at least 20% cost effectively beyond ongoing market trends. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to further capture global energy savings potential from TVs which we estimate to be up to 23 TW h per year in 2015. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of the recent TV market transition on TV energy consumption. • We review TV technology options that could be realized in the near future. • We assess the cost-effectiveness of selected energy-efficiency improvement options. • We estimate global electricity savings potential in selected scenarios. • We discuss possible directions of market transformation programs

  6. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  7. Use of television, videogames, and computer among children and adolescents in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, Alessandro; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Albano, Luciana; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2009-05-13

    This survey determined the practices about television (video inclusive), videogames, and computer use in children and adolescents in Italy. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire covered socio-demographics; behaviour about television, videogames, computer, and sports; parental control over television, videogames, and computer. Overall, 54.1% and 61% always ate lunch or dinner in front of the television, 89.5% had a television in the bedroom while 52.5% of them always watched television there, and 49% indicated that parents controlled the content of what was watched on television. The overall mean length of time daily spent on television viewing (2.8 hours) and the frequency of watching for at least two hours per day (74.9%) were significantly associated with older age, always ate lunch or dinner while watching television, spent more time playing videogames and using computer. Those with parents from a lower socio-economic level were also more likely to spend more minutes viewing television. Two-thirds played videogames for 1.6 daily hours and more time was spent by those younger, males, with parents that do not control them, who watched more television, and who spent more time at the computer. The computer was used by 85% of the sample for 1.6 daily hours and those older, with a computer in the bedroom, with a higher number of computers in home, who view more television and play videogames were more likely to use the computer. Immediate and comprehensive actions are needed in order to diminish time spent at the television, videogames, and computer.

  8. Epilepsy provoked by television and video games: safety of 100-Hz screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, S; Vigevano, F; Manfredi, M; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G

    1998-03-01

    Television (TV) and video games (VG) can provoke seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsies. Flicker frequency is the most important factor in screen activation. We tested conventional 50-Hz versus 100-Hz monitors during TV viewing and VG playing in 30 photosensitive subjects, 23 of whom had a history of TV or VG seizures or both. Fifteen subjects' discharges were activated by 50-Hz TV; 17 by 50-Hz VG; and one by a 100-Hz screen. Thus, 100-Hz screens protect against screen activation.

  9. Computer Game Use and Television Viewing Increased Risk for Overweight among Low Activity Girls: Fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladda Mo-suwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the relationship between sedentary behaviors and overweight among children and adolescents show mixed results. The fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey data collected between 2008 and 2009 were used to explore this association in 5,999 children aged 6 to 14 years. The prevalence of overweight defined by the age- and gender-specific body mass index cut-points of the International Obesity Task Force was 16%. Using multiple logistic regression, computer game use for more than 1 hour a day was found to be associated with an increased risk of overweight (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.93. The effect of computer game use and TV viewing on the risk for overweight was significantly pronounced among girls who spent ≤3 days/week in 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (AOR = 1.99 and 1.72, resp.. On the contrary, these sedentary behaviors did not exert significant risk for overweight among boys. The moderating effect on risk of overweight by physical inactivity and media use should be taken into consideration in designing the interventions for overweight control in children and adolescents. Tracking societal changes is essential for identification of potential areas for targeted interventions.

  10. [Television, children and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroink, H; Dekker, E; Trenité, D G A Kasteleijn-Nolst

    2002-06-08

    Two girls and one boy suffered seizures caused by television and other visual stimuli from 11, 12 and 12 years of age onwards, respectively. EEG recording revealed that intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) provoked epileptiform activity. Technological progress (video games, computer, disco, car, train) has considerably increased the risk for visually-induced seizures. A comprehensive clinical history with special attention to the environmental circumstances is important. For correct diagnosis an EEG with standardised IPS is necessary. Treatment consists of avoidance of strong visual stimuli. Patients may need prophylaxis with valproic acid, which should only be withdrawn after clear reduction of the EEG response to IPS. Repeating the EEG after the dosage has been lowered will help avoiding unnecessary recurrence of seizures.

  11. ‘Remember, it’s just television’: Rubicon TV and the Commercialisation of Norwegian Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundet, Vilde Schanke; Bakøy, Eva

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article discusses the corporate strategy of one of the most successful television production companies in Norway: Rubicon TV. Based on a historical analysis from the company’s establishment in the early 1990s until today, the article illuminates how Rubicon TV has navigated in and

  12. Process Concepts for Semi-automatic Dismantling of LCD Televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in tu...

  13. Understanding the relationship between mothers’ attitudes toward television and children’s television exposure: A longitudinal study of reciprocal patterns and the moderating role of maternal stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyens, I.; Eggermont, S.; Nathanson, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    This two-wave panel study among mothers (N = 508) of children between ages six months and six years investigated a) the possibility of a reciprocal relationship between mothers’ attitudes toward television and children’s television viewing, and b) the conditional probability of this reciprocal

  14. Presidential Elections in the Age of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    2000-01-01

    Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…

  15. Some Structural Characteristics of Music Television Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donald L.; Fry, Virginia H.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates, by analyzing two types of montage structures, that music television is a hybrid form of television programing displaying visual characteristics of both television commercials and drama. Argues that this amalgam of different characteristics gives music television its distinctive look and power as a promotional tool for the record…

  16. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  17. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  18. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  19. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a television...

  20. Person-related determinants of TV viewing and computer time in a cohort of young Dutch adults: Who sits the most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijtdewilligen, L; Singh, A S; Chinapaw, M J M; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to assess the associations of person-related factors with leisure time television (TV) viewing and computer time among young adults. We analyzed self-reported TV viewing (h/week) and leisure computer time (h/week) from 475 Dutch young adults (47% male) who had participated in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study at the age of 32 and 36 years. Sociodemographic factors (i.e., marital and employment status), physical factors (i.e., skin folds, aerobic fitness, neuromotor fitness, back problems), psychological factors (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping, personality), lifestyle (i.e., alcohol consumption, smoking, energy intake, physical activity), and self-rated health (i.e., general health status, mild health complaints) were assessed. Univariable and multivariable generalized estimating equations were performed. Male gender, higher sum of skin folds, lower values of aerobic fitness, higher rigidity, higher self-sufficiency/recalcitrance, and smoking were positively associated with TV time. Male gender, higher sum of skin folds, higher scores on self-esteem, low energy intake, and a not so good general health status were significantly associated with higher computer time. Determinants of TV viewing and computer time were not identical, suggesting that both behaviors (a) have different at-risk populations and (b) should be targeted differently. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An Empirical Analysis of Television Commercial Ratings in Alternative Competitive Environments Using Multinomial Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ALTAŞ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Watching the commercials depends on the choice of the viewer. Most of the television viewing takes place during “Prime-Time” unfortunately; many viewers opt to zap to other channels when commercials start. The television viewers’ demographic characteristics may indicate the likelihood of the zapping frequency. Analysis made by using Multinomial Logit Model indicates how effective the demographic variables are in the watching rate of the first minute of the television commercials.

  2. On learning science and pseudoscience from prime-time television programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Christopher Henry

    The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and The X-Files, a drama about two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents who pursue alleged extraterrestrial life and paranormal activity, is studied. Level of viewing, education level, science education level, experiential factors, level of parasocial interaction, and demographic characteristics are assessed as independent variables affecting learning from entertainment television viewing. The present research involved a nine-month long content analysis of target television program dialogue and data collection from an Internet-based survey questionnaire posted to target program-specific on-line "chat" groups. The present study demonstrated that entertainment television program viewers incidentally learn science from entertainment television program dialogue. The more they watch, the more they learn. Viewing a pseudoscientific fictional television program does necessarily influence viewer beliefs in pseudoscience. Higher levels of formal science study are reflected in more science learning and less learning of pseudoscience from entertainment television program viewing. Pseudoscience learning from entertainment television programming is significantly related to experience with paranormal phenomena, higher levels of viewer parasocial interaction, and specifically, higher levels of cognitive parasocial interaction. In summary, the greater a viewer's understanding of science the more they learn when they watch their favorite science-based prime-time television programs. Viewers of pseudoscience-based prime-time television programming with higher levels

  3. TV Fights: Women and Men in Interpersonal Arguments on Prime-Time Television Dramas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    Studies the behaviors of women and men represented in interpersonal arguments in prime-time television dramas. Finds a weak link between actual argument behaviors and those on television, thereby socializing viewers in a manner inconsistent with reality. Suggests that television arguments are guided more by the needs of the medium that a need to…

  4. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult’s overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. Results OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p snack food

  5. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2013-08-09

    Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult's overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p snack food consumption are independently and

  6. Overview of FTV (free-viewpoint television)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is the ultimate 3DTV that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. We proposed the concept of FTV and constructed the world's first real-time system including the complete chain of operation from image capture to display. FTV is based on the rayspace method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have developed ray capture, processing and display technologies for FTV. FTV can be carried out today in real time on a single PC or on a mobile player. We also realized FTV with free listening-point audio. The international standardization of FTV has been conducted in MPEG. The first phase of FTV was MVC (Multi-view Video Coding) and the second phase is 3DV (3D Video). MVC was completed in May 2009. The Blu-ray 3D specification has adopted MVC for compression. 3DV is a standard that targets serving a variety of 3D displays. The view generation function of FTV is used to decouple capture and display in 3DV. FDU (FTV Data Unit) is proposed as a data format for 3DV. FTU can compensate errors of the synthesized views caused by depth error.

  7. Television violence and its effect on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M O

    1996-04-01

    Television (TV) has become a large part of children's activities. Much discussion exists as to the level of violence on TV programs and its effect on children's behavior. This article reviews the literature, discusses social issues, and presents some interventions available to nursing professionals to assist children and families in coping with the impact of TV on children's lives.

  8. Ubiquitous TV: A Business Model Perspective on the Norwegian Television Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bjøndal, Tore Stautland; Gedde, Mads

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is an emerging distribution channel for television content that will deeply impact industry incumbents in the long term. This master thesis explores what challenges are brought forth in this industry by the possibility of Internet distribution of TV and how these issues should be addressed from the business model perspective of incumbent distributors in the Norwegian television market.There have been tremendous developments in Internet related infrastructure over the last decade....

  9. [Football, television and emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, O; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J

    2000-04-15

    To know the influence of televised football on the use of emergency department (ED). We assessed the number, demographic characteristics and acuity of patients attended during the broadcast of football matches played by FC Barcelona during Champions' League (n = 12), and they were compared with days without televised football (n = 12). Televised football was associated with a decrease in visits to ED (-18%; p = 0.002). Such a decrease was observed for all ED units, but only for traumatology unit reached statistical significance (-28%; p = 0.006). Decay of ED visits were mainly due to a decrease of low-acuity consults (-30%; p = 0.04). There is a significant decrease on ED use associated with televised football.

  10. Doctors on display: the evolution of television's doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Elliot B

    2010-10-01

    Doctors have been portrayed on television for over 50 years. In that time, their character has undergone significant changes, evolving from caring but infallible supermen with smoldering good looks and impeccable bedside manners to drug-addicted, sex-obsessed antiheroes. This article summarizes the major programs of the genre and explains the pattern of the TV doctors' character changes. Articulated over time in the many permutations of the doctor character is a complex, constant conversation between viewer and viewed representing public attitudes towards doctors, medicine, and science.

  11. Television food advertising directed towards Bulgarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galcheva, S V; Iotova, V M; Stratev, V K

    2008-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem worldwide with a prevalence rising to epidemic proportions. Television viewing is suspected as an important contributor and along with food advertisements significantly influence children's unhealthy dietary habits, purchase requests and adiposity. To examine the exposure of Bulgarian children to television food advertising and to make a content analysis of the food/beverage advertisements during children's television programmes. 41.5 h of children's television programming on three national networks, were videotaped. All recorded food advertisements were evaluated to identify the marketing strategies used for the stimulation of children's purchase requests. Food/beverage advertisements accounted for 124 (33.4%) of all commercials, with 96.8% being for unhealthy foods. 57% of them were aimed specifically at children as the most advertised products were salty/sweetened snacks and cereals, sweets, soft drinks/carbohydrate juices and salty foods, with no fruit or vegetable commercials. Food advertisements used more themes of adventure, animation, music and gifts to attract children's attention, and gave information based on the product's taste, physical qualities, novelty, presence of premiums/prizes. Of all food/beverage advertisements, 27.4% contained health-related information about the products; three-quarters of the advertisements were shot with young normal-weight actors with a good/healthy appearance. Almost all recorded food advertisements do not support the Bulgarian dietary recommendations for healthy and balanced eating. More activities to reduce the unhealthy food promotion to children are mandatory as restrictions by type of advertised food, target group or limits on the advertisements' account and times shown, as well as parental/self-regulation.

  12. The Hour of Television: The Incursion of Television and Telenovelas into Mexico City Daily Life (1958-1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Camila Ramírez Bonilla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Television and television genres have a life of their own. In the Mexican case, telenovelas can be seen as the first genre authentically conceived and created for television. Since their appearance in Mexico in June 1958 on Telesistema-Canal 4, they not only recapitulated the stereotypes, myths and moral concerns of society at that time, but also became part of the daily life of their spectators, still expectant neophytes. The first melodramas were an urban phenomenon and characterized the growth of the middle class. The genre’s audience was created by its appearance and viewers actively integrated what they saw on screen into their family life. Watching telenovelas was a primordially domestic act while simultaneously being a collective one, shared among many people. Understanding this genre as a product made to provide meaning and using an analysis that demands both the study of narrative content as well an analysis of the medium itself and its spectators, this article identifies the way in which the arrival of television (and telenovelas in particular made an impact on the daily life of television viewers in Mexico City. Did the arrival of television melodramas, between 1958 and 1966, introduce a new sense of the everyday in the viewing public? How did this new sense of everyday life express itself in space, time, routines, tastes and the collective imagination of viewers? This article is supported by the audiovisual content of the first television melodramas transmitted in Mexico, their reception in television magazines and the press in general, their accompanying advertising and the experiences of middle class individuals and families who were interviewed and surveyed on the subject.

  13. Children's understanding of television advertising: a revisit in the Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U

    2004-03-01

    The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the authors interviewed were able to understand that television stations broadcast commercials to earn money. Their understanding of the purposes of television commercials and the persuasive intention of television commercials developed with age. The authors examined the influence of gender, level of advertising, and level of television viewing on children's understanding of television advertising by using 3-way factorial models.

  14. TV Violence: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)

  15. Television and video game exposure and the development of attention problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swing, Edward L; Gentile, Douglas A; Anderson, Craig A; Walsh, David A

    2010-08-01

    Television viewing has been associated with greater subsequent attention problems in children. Few studies have examined the possibility of a similar association between video games and attention problems, and none of these has used a longitudinal design. A sample of 1323 middle childhood participants were assessed during a 13-month period by parent- and child-reported television and video game exposure as well as teacher-reported attention problems. Another sample of 210 late adolescent/early adult participants provided self-reports of television exposure, video game exposure, and attention problems. Exposure to television and video games was associated with greater attention problems. The association of television and video games to attention problems in the middle childhood sample remained significant when earlier attention problems and gender were statistically controlled. The associations of screen media and attention problems were similar across media type (television or video games) and age (middle childhood or late adolescent/early adult). Viewing television and playing video games each are associated with increased subsequent attention problems in childhood. It seems that a similar association among television, video games, and attention problems exists in late adolescence and early adulthood. Research on potential risk factors for attention problems should be expanded to include video games in addition to television.

  16. Television tip-overs: the Starship Children's Hospital experience and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnewick, Jacques; Dansey, Rangi; Morreau, Philip; Hamill, James

    2011-05-01

    Injuries sustained from television (TV) sets tipping over onto children are uncommon when compared to other forms of trauma, but because of the weight of some TVs relative to the size of small children, severe and sometimes fatal injuries can result. The international literature is limited in describing this form of trauma and none is available for the Australasian region. The aims of the present paper are to describe the characteristics and immediate outcomes of children admitted to Starship Children's Hospital following TV tip-overs and review the international literature on this topic. Patients admitted to Starship Hospital were identified retrospectively from the Paediatric Trauma database, and the case notes reviewed. Structured telephone interviews were then conducted with each of the families involved. Over the 28-month period (June 2006-October 2008) reviewed, 13 children under 15 years of age were identified, with an almost even sex distribution. 5 required admission to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). 9/13 sustained head injuries and 1 patient died from their injuries. Mechanism of injury was in keeping with behaviour to be expected of toddlers. Parents and caregivers were unaware of the dangers posed by TV sets and no precautions had been taken to prevent injury. The injuries sustained by children from TV tip-overs are often serious and most commonly involve the head and upper body. This is a common finding in all papers reviewed, but numbers of patients studied are still limited. There is a need for both education of families and improvement in the design of TV sets, to prevent this form of trauma in the paediatric population. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Women's television watching and reproductive health behavior in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has made significant social, economic, and health progress in recent decades, yet many reproductive health indicators remain weak. Access to television (TV is increasing rapidly and provides a potential mechanism for influencing health behavior. We present a conceptual framework for the influence of different types of TV exposure on individual’s aspirations and health behavior through the mechanisms of observational learning and ideational change. We analyze data from two large national surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 to examine the association between women’s TV watching and five reproductive health behaviors controlling for the effects of observed confounders. We find that TV watchers are significantly more likely to desire fewer children, are more likely to use contraceptives, and are less likely to have a birth in the two years before the survey. They are more likely to seek at least four antenatal care visits and to utilize a skilled birth attendant. Consequently, continued increase in the reach of TV and associated growth in TV viewing is potentially an important driver of health behaviors in the country.

  18. Exploring Cultural Differences in Children's Exposure to Television in Home-Based Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Eva Marie; Barr, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This article compares patterns of television use between African American and Latino child care providers in low-income households that are caring for children under the age of 5 years. Everyday experiences such as television viewing may impede or support healthy child development. Because both poverty and minority status put children at risk for…

  19. The Relationship between Children's Use of Television and Stereotypes about Occupations and Personality Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jennifer

    A questionnaire was administered to 94 fifth grade students to measure their use of television and the relationship of this use to their development and maintenance of stereotypes about occupations and personality attributes. It was hypothesized that the more television children viewed, the more likely they would be to develop stereotyped…

  20. Priorities for Action-Oriented Psychological Studies of Television and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George

    Violence and advertising are the most visible of many issues receiving attention in the formulation of policy by govermental agencies, the television industry, and advocacy groups. The role in policy formulation of empirical research that identifies relationships between television viewing, individual thought, and behavior is growing in several…

  1. Testing Confounds to a Developmental Theory of Children's Learning from Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lometti, Guy E.

    Children's learning from television was studied in 343 fourth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students who viewed an edited version of a television program and took a posttest. It was hypothesized that children would learn more plot-relevant information (central learning material) as they moved from concrete operational to formal operational…

  2. TELEVISION AND RADIO IN ADULT EDUCATION, NUMBER 1. CURRENT INFORMATION SOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syracuse Univ., NY. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education.

    AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTAINS 32 INDEXED ITEMS, MOSTLY WITH ABSTRACTS, ON ASPECTS OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL RADIO AND TELEVISION, PARTICULARLY VIEWING HABITS, MOTIVATION, PUBLIC TELEVISION, MEDIA TECHNOLOGY (INCLUDING COMMUNICATION SATELLITES), INFORMATION DISSEMINATION AND PATTERNS OF INFORMATION SEEKING, THE USE OF CORRESPONDENCE…

  3. The Advent of Streaming Television in Denmark - Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    Digital media convergence is turning television practices upside down, including advertising, the motives for political and administrative decisions, and also extends to planning, producing, distributing, and programming content (Buzzard 2012; Cunningham and Silver 2013; Havens 2014; Ihlebæk, Syv......-demand. It discusses the potential impact of declining accuracy of audience measurement on market actors’ decisions concerning streaming, as well as potential strategies for improving audience measurement.......Digital media convergence is turning television practices upside down, including advertising, the motives for political and administrative decisions, and also extends to planning, producing, distributing, and programming content (Buzzard 2012; Cunningham and Silver 2013; Havens 2014; Ihlebæk....... It is noteworthy that although the shift towards online television distribution entails that viewing become measurable by the existing system for online audience tracking (Gemius), market actors have so far failed in their attempt to consolidate online measurements of viewing time with audience ratings of flow...

  4. Television's "crazy lady" trope: female psychopathic traits, teaching, and influence of popular culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Cathleen; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Smith, Delaney

    2014-04-01

    This article describes notable illustrations of female psychopathy on modern television to review various characters that will have utility in teaching students about female psychopathy in distinction to male psychopathy and to encourage consideration of the potential effects that viewing these countless examples may have on a generation of young women. The authors use examples from soap operas, crime procedurals, reality television, fantasy, comedies, and young adult programs to illustrate gender differences in psychopathy and make specific teaching points. They also review the research literature related to popular culture's impact on behavior and gender roles. Gender differences in real-world psychopathy are mirrored in television portrayals. For example, female psychopaths, on TV and in reality, use sexual manipulation, demonstrate unstable emotions, and employ social aggression to achieve their ambitions. The examples of female psychopathic traits are prevalent on TV and easily accessible for teaching purposes. Research does give some support for a popular culture impact on behavior and gender roles. As compared to male psychopathy, female psychopathy is less recognized, and there are some notable differences in how the psychopathic traits manifest. Television provides myriad teaching examples that can highlight the gender distinctions such as use of sexual manipulation, emotional instability, and social aggression. Research suggests that the prevalence of "crazy ladies" on television may be negatively impacting gender stereotypes and normalizing bad behavior in young women.

  5. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  6. Quantification of Rain Induced Artifacts on Digital Satellite Television ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of artifacts on the high definition television (TV) content and the eventual loss of the digital TV signals to rain is still a major concern to satellite operators, digital satellite television (DSTV) and terrestrial television content providers. In this paper, the artifacts present in a typical DSTV signal is examined on a ...

  7. Televised antismoking advertising: effects of level and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally; Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-08-01

    We assessed the effects of levels and duration of exposure to televised antismoking advertising on cognitive and behavioral changes. We used data from a serial cross-sectional telephone survey with weekly interviews of adult smokers and recent quitters in New South Wales, Australia (n = 13,301), between April 2005 and December 2010. We merged survey data with commercial TV ratings data to estimate individuals' exposure to antismoking advertising. Logistic regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for a wide range of potential confounders, exposure to antismoking advertising at levels between 100 and 200 gross rating points per week on average over 6 to 9 weeks was associated with an increased likelihood of having (1) salient quitting thoughts and (2) recent quit attempts. Associations between exposure for shorter periods and these outcomes were not significant. Broadcasting schedules may affect the success of antismoking ads. Campaign planners should ensure advertising exposure at adequate frequency over relatively sustained periods to maximize impact.

  8. The diffusion of television in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Doshi, J K; Rogers, E M; Rahman, S A

    1988-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1987, the number of television sets increased by 10 times in India. Television now reaches an audience of about 800 million, 10% of the population. 3 main reasons account for the rapid diffusion of television in India: the role of communication satellites in expanding access to television signals, the introduction and popularity of soap operas, and the increasing revenues to the national television system (Doordarshan) from commercial advertising. Hum Log, the 1st soap opera on the national network, was patterned after pro-development soap operas in Mexico and addresses social issues such as family communication, women's status, small family size, national integration, dowry, and alcoholism. The main lesson from the Hum Log experience was that indigenous soap operas can attract large audiences and substantial profits. A 1987 household survey indicated that television ownership is more common in urban areas (88% of households) than rural areas (52%) and among households with incomes above RS 1500 (75% of television owners). The commercialization of Indian television has precipitated a policy debate about television's role. Supporters of further expansion of television services cite popular will, the potential to use this medium for educational development, high advertising incomes, the ability of satellite television to penetrate rural areas, and high government expenditures for television broadcasting. On the other hand, detractors of the commercialization policy argue that television promotes consumerism, widens the gap between the urban elite and the rural poor, disregards regional sociocultural norms, and diverts funding from development programs in areas such as health and education.

  9. 76 FR 52632 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  10. 76 FR 35831 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  11. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Hossein Hashemzadeh...

  12. Correlates of appearance and weight satisfaction in a U.S. National Sample: Personality, attachment style, television viewing, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Morse, Patrick J; Swami, Viren

    2016-06-01

    We examined the prevalence and correlates of satisfaction with appearance and weight. Participants (N=12,176) completed an online survey posted on the NBCNews.com and Today.com websites. Few men and women were very to extremely dissatisfied with their physical appearances (6%; 9%), but feeling very to extremely dissatisfied with weight was more common (15%; 20%). Only about one-fourth of men and women felt very to extremely satisfied with their appearances (28%; 26%) and weights (24%; 20%). Men and women with higher body masses reported higher appearance and weight dissatisfaction. Dissatisfied people had higher Neuroticism, more preoccupied and fearful attachment styles, and spent more hours watching television. In contrast, satisfied people had higher Openness, Conscientious, and Extraversion, were more secure in attachment style, and had higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. These findings highlight the high prevalence of body dissatisfaction and the factors linked to dissatisfaction among U.S. adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Women Out of View. An Analysis of Female Characters on 1987-88 TV Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Sally; Whittemore, Lauren

    This study of the images of women as portrayed on new television programs in 1987-88 not only compared them with the images of the last season, but examined the similarities and differences between these characters and real life women. Each continuing female character on every new show was coded for race, age, occupation, marital and socioeconomic…

  14. Food and nutrition in Canadian "prime time" television commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostbye, T; Pomerleau, J; White, M; Coolich, M; McWhinney, J

    1993-01-01

    Television is, arguably, the most influential mass medium and "prime time" viewing attracts the largest audiences. To assess the type, number and nutritional content of foods advertised on TV, commercial breaks during "prime time" (7:00 to 11:00 p.m.) on five Canadian channels (CBC-English, CBC-French, CTV, CFPL, Much Music) were recorded and analyzed. A similar analysis of Saturday morning children's TV commercials was also performed. Commercials for foods and food products constituted between 24-35% of all commercials, the largest advertising output for any group of products. The combination of food presented in commercials reflected average current consumption patterns. Of special concern was the emphasis on low nutrition beverages, especially beer, as well as snacks and candy on Much Music. While further government intervention to restrict advertising practices may be an impractical option, there is scope for increasing the alternative promotion of healthy dietary choices.

  15. PHILOSOPHICAL-CULTURAL CONCEPTION OF TELEVISION AS A VISUAL PRACTICES OF XX-XXI CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Tormakhova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article is to analyze the philosophical and cultural ideas about television, which is a leading visual practice of XX century. It does not lose its relevance in the beginning of the XXI. The role of television lies in visual presentation and formation of the basic norms of taste and traditions of different social groups. Television is the leading communicative practice, which consideration is represented differently in modern science. Research methodology involves an appeal to the philosophical and cultural concepts, representing different approaches to the understanding of television. The paper considers the views of Western scholars, such as R. Arnheim, M. Wolff, A. Kroker, G. Lipovetsky, M. McLuhan, D. Mulvin, J. Mittell, N. Postman, L. Saffhil, J. Sterne, E. Thompson, J. Fiske, S. Shapiro. During analysis of the issue of the specific nature of television content the works of Russian scientists – T. Savitskaya, N. Samutina and Polish contemporary author – R. Sapenko were used. Originality lies in the depiction of the main approaches to the study of television as a visual communicative practice. Deployment of the author's position within the designated issues is presented as a historical digression – from the first attempts at understanding the phenomenon of television to the newest scientific theories that have found expression in contemporary American philosophical and cultural thought. Results of the study can be used in the training course "Visual communication and practices." Conclusions indicated that the majority of contemporary visual practices based on certain patterns, embedded TV. Despite the emergence of new media practices, TV does not lose relevance, everywhere present in the culture, which means that his research will allow a better understanding of the specificity of cultural creativity process.

  16. Children's Television: More than Mere Entertainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The authors propose that television, while entertaining children, also socializes them. To support this conclusion they review the literature regarding effects of television content on aggressive and prosocial behavior and social attitudes. (Editor)

  17. Racism and the Media: Racism in Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marquita

    1971-01-01

    The major problem confronting black people working in the television industry today is that of communicating with the black community, despite the nature of television and its system of operation. (DM)

  18. Television in the Schools: Instructional Television and Educational Media Resources at the National Public Broadcasting Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…

  19. 47 CFR 76.51 - Major television markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major television markets. 76.51 Section 76.51... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.51 Major television markets. For purposes of the cable television rules, the following is a list of the major television markets and their...

  20. Neutron television camera detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron area detector system is being developed at the Institut Laue-Langevin which is based on a system for x-rays. The system has a large counting rate capability; this is extremely important where the total background count exceeds the total counts in the signals of interest. Its spatial resolution is of the order of one mm, while the screen size is 400 mm. The main limitation of the system is its limited counting efficiency, and this is directly attributable to the optical self-absorption of the neutron phosphor. All coherent noise in the system, i.e., all noise synchronized with the TV scans, has to be kept lower than the first bit threshold. However, this requirement can be relaxed when dealing with diffraction patterns, such as those from single crystals, for which a local background is subtracted from the pattern

  1. Food advertising on children's popular subscription television channels in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Chau, Josephine; Kelly, Bridget

    2011-04-01

    Trends on Australian free-to-air television show children continue to be exposed to a disproportionate amount of unhealthy food advertising. This study describes the nature and extent of food marketing on the Australian subscription television channels most popular with children. Advertisements broadcast on the six subscription television channels most popular with children were recorded over four days in February 2009. Advertised foods were coded as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous/other, and for persuasive marketing techniques (promotional characters, premium offers and nutrition claims). The majority of foods advertised were non-core (72%), with a mean rate of 0.7 non-core food advertisements broadcast per hour, per channel. The frequency of non-core food advertisements differed significantly across channels. Persuasive techniques were used to advertise non-core foods less frequently than core and miscellaneous foods. Non-core foods make up the majority of foods advertised on children's popular subscription channels. However, Australian children currently view less non-core food advertising on subscription television compared with free-to-air. Unlike free-to-air television, subscription services have the unique opportunity to limit inappropriate food marketing to children, given they are less reliant on advertising revenue. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Upbringing with a TV set in the background. Of television in everyday family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRYCJA HANYGA-JANCZAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporarily, television is the most popular of all mass media and watching it is the most frequent way of spending leisure time. It seems that no one argues for a positive role of television in family life anymore, with complete lack of contact with television being disadvantageous to the family, as well. The opportunity to use television increases self-esteem and allows for participation in what is going on in the country and in the world; it is, therefore, worth it to make use of its benefits reasonably

  3. Why Television Advertising Is Deceptive and Unfair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsen, Rose K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses many topics, including proposals to limit television advertisers' access to children; the dependence of television commercials on involuntary, mnemonic learning; the way television commercials' bypassing of rationality is aided by cognitive processing of music, rhythms, and familiar sensory events; and ideas for correcting the damage…

  4. The Selling of Cable Television 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1972 Cable Television Marketing Workshop reviewed in depth a wide variety of marketing and public relations techniques as they pertain to cable television. The workshop was attended by representatives of commercial television systems throughout the United States; it was intended to disseminate the sales and marketing experience of those…

  5. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  6. Interaction between Siblings in Primetime Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes three primetime family sitcoms in order to describe the nature of sibling interaction in television families. Research on television families is examined, and questions are raised concerning the value of television sibling images as role models for real people, and the effects of these models on family and peer relationships. (27…

  7. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television receivers...

  8. RI-60TK X-ray television introscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, A.V.; Shablov, S.V.; Morgunov, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray television introscope is briefly described. It is applied for remote viewing of welded joints and steel articles with up to 45 mm wall thickness, steel casting, articles of titanium and aluminium alloys. X-radiation penetrating the constrolled material is amplified by X-ray image converter and is passed to television camera tube. X-ray image is observed on the screen of picture monitor. Camera attachment is provided for document recording. The introscope possesses higher sensitivity and operates with lower dose rate of radiation as compared to earlier produced devices

  9. Content analysis of food advertising in Turkish television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guran, Tulay; Turan, Serap; Akcay, Teoman; Degirmenci, Fatih; Avci, Okan; Asan, Abdulkerim; Erdil, Emre; Majid, Abdulaziz; Bereket, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    Television (TV) viewing has been implicated in children's weight gain. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of TV food advertising in Turkey. TV advertisements (ads) in the four most popular national free to air Turkish TV channels, were assessed on two weekdays and two weekend days at four time periods of the day; 0800-1200,1200-1600,1600-2000 and 2000-2400 h for each TV channel (64 h assessed for each TV channel), making a total of 256 h. Each ad was analysed for food and drink content, duration and audiovisual properties. There were 8853 TV ads and 2848 of these were related to food (32.1%). A majority of food ads included high-calorie, high-fat, high-sugar food and drink rather than core/healthy foods (81%). Chocolate and chocolate bars were the most frequently advertised food/drink product, followed by cakes, coffee, tea, candies, gum, fast food, chips, juices/carbonated beverages, margarine and ice-cream formed the highest rate of food products advertised in decreasing order. Thirty per cent of all obesogenic/unhealthy ads targeted childhood by using audiovisual techniques. The proportion of total advertisements which were for food or drink, and the proportion of food advertisements that were for unhealthy foods were both much higher at the weekend (33% vs. 30% and 84% vs. 78%, respectively). The time period between 1600 and 2000 h was the most concentrated time slot (33%) for food advertising. This study provides data for the first time on the high levels of obesogenic food advertising on Turkish TV. This should alarm policy-makers to set limits on food advertising targeted towards children especially in countries like Turkey in which childhood obesity is emerging as an important public health issue.

  10. Factors contributing to background television exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Background television (TV) exposure is harmful to young children, yet few studies have focused on predictors of exposure. This study’s objectives were to elucidate demographic, environmental, and behavioral correlates of background TV exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers and to explore caregiver beliefs about the impact of such exposure. Methods A convenience sample of low-income Mexican American female primary caregivers of preschoolers (3–5 years old, n=309), recruited in safety-net clinics, were surveyed by phone. Caregivers reported the frequency of their child’s exposure to background TV and responded to questions on the home media environment, TV use, and whether they had thought about background TV exposure and its impact on their child. Results Background TV exposure was common; 43% reported that their child was often, very often, or always exposed to background TV. More hours of TV viewing by the caregiver and greater frequency of TV viewing during meals were associated with an increased frequency of exposure to background TV. Only 49% of participants had ever thought about the impact of background TV. Believing that background TV is not harmful was associated with higher levels of background TV exposure. Conclusions Findings suggest that background TV exposure is frequent and caregiver awareness of its potential impact is low in low-income Mexican American families. Beliefs that background TV is not harmful may predict risk of exposure. Potential targets for interventions focused on reducing background TV exposure in this population include increasing caregiver awareness of the potential negative impact of such TV exposure. PMID:27007983

  11. Interpreting a Television Narrative: How Different Viewers See a Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines television viewers' interpretations of a particular narrative from the British soap opera "Coronation Street" after they had watched it unfold over some time in natural viewing circumstances. Identifies and discusses the interpretations of four clusters of viewers ranked in terms of their relative allegiance to the characters.…

  12. Form and Content: Looking at Visual Features of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kelly L.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Collins, Patricia A.

    1999-01-01

    Recorded home television viewing of 2-, 5-, 8-, 12-year olds, and adults on time-lapse videotapes over 10-day period. Found that cuts, movement, and overt purposeful character behavior were positively related to viewer's looking behavior, independent of child versus adult programming. Associations with looking behavior for other features depended…

  13. Children's Perceptions of Moral Themes in Television Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter G.

    To determine children's perceptions of underlying morals or messages in television drama, a study was conducted in which four early prime time situation comedies were selected for viewing by 15 children per program in kindergarten/first grade, 15 children per program in third/fourth grade, and 8 children per program at the sixth grade level. The…

  14. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  15. Toddlers Watching TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2007-01-01

    In recent studies on children and electronic media, children are acknowledged as active users, interpreting TV-texts in various meaningful ways, according to their previously constructed knowledge of narratives and relating the texts to their everyday lives. Still, there is a tendency that toddlers......' (ages 1 to 3) viewing is neglected, and seen as mere fascinations of patterns, bright colours and movements without focusing on the social uses or uses in which television narratives come to play an important part in small children's experimenting with building identity and self-image. This article...... of children's media use, the way both parents, media and market set up the frames of children's reception....

  16. Adjective Identification in Television Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2013-01-01

    Learning the Malay language has been a challenging task for foreign language learners. Learners have to learn Malay grammar structure rules in order to write simple sentences. The word choice is important in constructing a sentence. Therefore, the study focuses on the use of adjectives in television advertisements among Korean learners at Hankuk…

  17. Cable Television in Sedalia, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Kathryn Janel

    A field study was conducted of the status of cable television in Sedalia, Missouri. Based on interviews of city council members and staff members of Cablevision, the Sedalia cable franchise holder, the following issues were investigated: (1) subscription rates; (2) franchise negotiations; (3) quality of existing services; and (4) possible…

  18. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  19. Locations in television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    in the extra bonus material (Gray, 2010; Waade, 2013), and film tours and film apps become part of the television series’ trans-media franchise (Reijnders, 2011; Thompson, 2007). Location has so far been a practical term describing the place where the series is shot. Ellis (1992) used to see location...

  20. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  1. Will Television Bring Us This?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25 Mei 1974 ... In October 1973 viewers of a popular show on. BBC television in the UK were given unequivocal statements about the treatment of rheumatic disease and advice on treatment recommending a 'prescrip- tion only' drug recently introduced to that market. The use of the medium to advise specific anti-.

  2. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  3. The Cognitive Information Effect of Televised News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăzăroiu, George; Pera, Aurel; Ştefănescu-Mihăilă, Ramona O; Bratu, Sofia; Mircică, Nela

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the key findings which prove that the biased perceptions of viewers may provide an inaccurate image of the informational validity of televised news. The news may generate distorted recollections of what occurred in particular reported events if displayed routines influence viewers not to pay attention to the essential features of a narrative. Elaborating on Fiske and Hartley (2010), Zelizer (2010), and Gunter (2015), we indicate that the character of the news setting has altered and individuals' news consumption routines have changed in adapting to media advancements. The news may be undergone at various psychological stages by news publics. Televised news may transmit information undeviatingly to publics that may (not) be committed successfully to memory. Our paper shows that individuals' skills to handle information that is displayed in a linguistic configuration are influenced by their abilities in the utilization of certain symbol systems that are employed to represent notions and meanings. Televised news may shape what individuals grasp, influence their perceptions, convictions, and views regarding prevailing events and matters, and transmit knowledge and interpretation. If news stories can be jotted down in a linguistic style that sidesteps making needless processing demands and captivate news users by facilitating them to make connections with former knowledge, they may be more worthy of note and more edifying. We conclude that news narratives present a cognitive demanding task to individuals, displaying novel information regarding evolving events in a multifarious format. Broadcast news exhibits intricate contents, displaying configurations that employ excessively the cognitive abilities for information processing of viewers.

  4. The Cognitive Information Effect of Televised News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lăzăroiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to summarize the key findings which prove that the biased perceptions of viewers may provide an inaccurate image of the informational validity of televised news. The news may generate distorted recollections of what occurred in particular reported events if displayed routines influence viewers not to pay attention to the essential features of a narrative. Elaborating on Fiske and Hartley (2010, Zelizer (2010, and Gunter (2015, we indicate that the character of the news setting has altered and individuals’ news consumption routines have changed in adapting to media advancements. The news may be undergone at various psychological stages by news publics. Televised news may transmit information undeviatingly to publics that may (not be committed successfully to memory. Our paper shows that individuals’ skills to handle information that is displayed in a linguistic configuration are influenced by their abilities in the utilization of certain symbol systems that are employed to represent notions and meanings. Televised news may shape what individuals grasp, influence their perceptions, convictions, and views regarding prevailing events and matters, and transmit knowledge and interpretation. If news stories can be jotted down in a linguistic style that sidesteps making needless processing demands and captivate news users by facilitating them to make connections with former knowledge, they may be more worthy of note and more edifying. We conclude that news narratives present a cognitive demanding task to individuals, displaying novel information regarding evolving events in a multifarious format. Broadcast news exhibits intricate contents, displaying configurations that employ excessively the cognitive abilities for information processing of viewers.

  5. Simulator sickness analysis of 3D video viewing on passive 3D TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnström, K.; Wang, K.; Andrén, B.

    2013-03-01

    The MPEG 3DV project is working on the next generation video encoding standard and in this process a call for proposal of encoding algorithms was issued. To evaluate these algorithm a large scale subjective test was performed involving Laboratories all over the world. For the participating Labs it was optional to administer a slightly modified Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) from Kennedy et al (1993) before and after the test. Here we report the results from one Lab (Acreo) located in Sweden. The videos were shown on a 46 inch film pattern retarder 3D TV, where the viewers were using polarized passive eye-glasses to view the stereoscopic 3D video content. There were 68 viewers participating in this investigation in ages ranges from 16 to 72, with one third females. The questionnaire was filled in before and after the test, with a viewing time ranging between 30 min to about one and half hour, which is comparable to a feature length movie. The SSQ consists of 16 different symptoms that have been identified as important for indicating simulator sickness. When analyzing the individual symptoms it was found that Fatigue, Eye-strain, Difficulty Focusing and Difficulty Concentrating were significantly worse after than before. SSQ was also analyzed according to the model suggested by Kennedy et al (1993). All in all this investigation shows a statistically significant increase in symptoms after viewing 3D video especially related to visual or Oculomotor system.

  6. DIGITAL BROADCASTING and INTERACTIVE TELEVISION in DISTANCE EDUCATION: Digital And Interactive Television Infrastructure Proposol for Anadolu University Open Education Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Recep ERGUL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes and improvements in the communication and information technologies beginning from the midst of the 20th Century and continuing today require new methods, constructions, and arrangements in the production and distribution of information. While television having the ability of presenting complex or difficult to comprehend concepts, subjects, and experimental studies to learners from different points of view, supported by 2D or 3D graphics and animations with audio visual stimulators replaces its technology from analog to digital and towards digital-interactive, it has also begun to convert the broadcasting technology in Turkey in this direction. Therefore, television broadcast infrastructure of Anadolu University Open Education Faculty needs to be replaced with a digital and interactive one. This study contains basic concepts of digital and interactive broadcasting and the new improvements. Furthermore, it includes the approaches in the basis of why and how a digital television broadcasting infrastructure should be stablished.

  7. Amount of Hispanic youth exposure to food and beverage advertising on Spanish- and English-language television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, Frances; Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to large numbers of television advertisements for foods and beverages with little or no nutritional value likely contributes to poor diet among youth. Given higher rates of obesity and overweight for Hispanic youth, it is important to understand the amount and types of food advertising they view. To quantify the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by Hispanic youth on Spanish- and English-language television and compare it with the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by non-Hispanic youth. Data on gross rating points that measured advertising viewed on national broadcast and cable television in 2010 using a Nielsen panel of television-viewing households of Hispanic and non-Hispanic preschoolers (2-5 years), children (6-11 years), and adolescents (12-17 years). Food and beverage television advertisements viewed on English- and Spanish-language television by product category and television-viewing times by age and language preference. EXPOSURE Food and beverage advertising on Spanish- and English-language television. RESULTS In 2010, Hispanic preschoolers, children, and adolescents viewed, on average, 11.6 to 12.4 television food ads per day; the majority of these ads (75%-85%) appeared on English-language television. Fast food represented a higher proportion of food ads on Spanish-language television. Consistent with television-viewing patterns, Hispanic preschoolers saw more Spanish-language food advertisements than did Hispanic children and adolescents. Owing to somewhat less food advertising on Spanish-language television, Hispanic children and adolescents viewed 14% and 24% fewer food ads overall, respectively, compared with non-Hispanic youth. Spanish-language television viewing was highly concentrated among youth who primarily speak Spanish. Both Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth view large numbers of television advertisements for nutrient-poor categories of food and beverage. Although Hispanic children and adolescents see somewhat

  8. Still ‘Watching’ TV? The Consumption of TV Fiction by Engaged Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dhoest

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no denying that television, as a medium and an institution, has drastically changed in the age of digitization and convergence. For audiences, this has not only opened up multiple opportunities to watch television content at other times and on other devices, but also to interact with its cross-media extensions. However, while much has been written about the new opportunities for audience engagement, we do not know much about the actual adoption of new technologies nor the motivations underlying such uses. Therefore, this paper draws on empirical audience research to address the key question: how do viewers engage with contemporary TV fiction? Through empirical audience research, using various qualitative research methods, three different aspects of the reception of cross-media TV fiction will be discussed: (1 how do viewers watch the TV episodes of contemporary TV fiction?, (2 how do viewers engage with the cross-media extensions of TV fiction?, and (3 how do viewers experience the social dimensions of contemporary TV fiction? We focus on a particular group, that of 'engaged' viewers, who are actively involved by personalizing their viewing practices, by communicating about it, by consuming cross-media elements of TV fiction, or producing TV fiction-related content. Our findings suggest that even this group does not make full use of all the available technological opportunities to personalize TV viewing, and that the classical TV text, linear viewing, and the social aspect of viewing remain of key importance.

  9. Association between TV viewing, computer use and overweight, determinants and competing activities of screen time in 4- to 13-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E; Visscher, T L S; HiraSing, R.A.; Heijmans, M.W.; Seidell, J C; Renders, C M

    OBJECTIVE: TV viewing and computer use is associated with childhood overweight, but it remains unclear as to how these behaviours could best be targeted. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the association between TV viewing, computer use and overweight is explained by other

  10. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…

  11. Benchmarking the Cultivation Approach to Video Game Effects: A Comparison of the Correlates of TV Viewing and Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mierlo, Jan; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This study found significant relationships between first- and second-order cultivation measures and TV viewing, but found a relationship with video game play for only two variables in a sample of 322 Flemish 3rd and 6th year secondary school children. This suggests that the absence of a relationship with video game play is not the result of the…

  12. Development of multi-group spectral code TVS-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarenko, A. P.; Pryanichnikov, A. V.; Kalugin, M. A.; Gurevich, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the latest version of TVS-M code - TVS-M 2007, which allows the neutron flux distribution inside fuel assemblies to be calculated without using the diffusion approximation. The new spatial calculation module PERST introduced in TBS-M code is based on the first collisions probability method and allows the scattering anisotropy to be accounted for. This paper presents some preliminary results calculated with the use of the new version of TVS-M code. (Authors)

  13. Obesity and television watching in preschoolers in Greece: the GENESIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Kourlaba, Georgia; Kondaki, Katerina; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Anastasiadou, Anastasia; Roma-Giannikou, Eleytheria

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the current work was to evaluate the effect of preschoolers' television (TV) watching time on the prevalence of obesity even after controlling for their total energy intake and their physical activity status. A representative sample of 2,374 Greek children aged 1-5 years was examined ("Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers", GENESIS study). Children's TV watching time on a usual weekday and at a usual weekend was recorded. The overall mean of children's TV viewing time was 1.32 h/day. The majority of participants (74.0%) spent 4 h/day in front of a TV set. Overall, 65.2% of participants were normal weight, 17.2% were overweight, and the rest 17.6% were obese. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among those with TV viewing time >or=2 h/day (21.7%) compared to those watching TV characteristics and physical activity status) only among children aged 3-5 years. However, further adjusting for children's total energy intake revealed that the association between the TV viewing time and the probability of being obese was no longer statistically significant. On the other hand, physical activity status continued to be an independent factor of being obese. The current findings support the hypothesis that the effect of TV viewing time on childhood obesity is independent of physical activity status and may be attributed to the increased total energy intake during TV watching.

  14. Prospective association of TV viewing with acute phase reactants and coagulation markers: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Smith, Lee; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory processes are putative mechanisms underlying the detrimental health effects of sedentary behaviour but no long-term prospective data are available. We examined the longitudinal association between TV viewing, physical activity and inflammatory markers over a 4-year follow-up period. Participants were 3612 men and women (mean age 64.1 ± 8.2 years) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Self-reported daily TV viewing was measured at baseline and 2 years follow up. Inflammatory markers (serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [CRP], white blood cell count [WBC], and fibrinogen) were measured at baseline (2008/09) and 4 years follow-up (2012/13). On average, participants viewed TV for 5.1 ± 4.0 h/d, and there was an increase of 1.9 h/wk TV viewing over 2 years. In linear models adjusted for covariates including physical activity, TV viewing was not associated with logeCRP at follow-up (B = 0.004, 95% CI, -0.001, 0.009, p = 0.09) but was associated with WBC (B = 0.018, 95% CI, 0.005, 0.031, p = 0.006), and fibrinogen (B = 0.004, 95% CI, 0.00, 0.008, p = 0.035). In contrast, physical activity was inversely associated with CRP (p = 0.047) and WBC (p = 0.026), but not fibrinogen (p = 0.22). An increase in TV viewing (of at least 1 h/d) was associated with higher concentrations of CRP (p = 0.015) and WBC (p = 0.05) at follow up after adjustment for covariates and baseline TV viewing. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour have contrasting associations with markers of low grade inflammation over 4 years of follow-up. These behaviours may be important in influencing the pro-inflammatory state seen with ageing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Online Process Model of Second-Order Cultivation Effects: How Television Cultivates Materialism and Its Consequences for Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrum, L. J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Burroughs, James E.; Rindfleisch, Aric

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated the interrelations among television viewing, materialism, and life satisfaction, and their underlying processes. Study 1 tested an online process model for television's cultivation of materialism by manipulating level of materialistic content. Viewing level influenced materialism, but only among participants who reported…

  16. Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide : ‘Living’ History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, Berber

    2017-01-01

    Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide: “Living” History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform Berber Hagedoorn University of Groningen (NL) E-mail: b.hagedoorn@rug.nl Abstract: Modern audiences engage with representations of the past in a particular way via the medium of television,

  17. Associations of sedentary time patterns and TV viewing time with inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, L; Ridgers, N D; Della Gatta, P A; Arundell, L; Cerin, E; Robinson, S; Daly, R M; Dunstan, D W; Salmon, J

    2016-06-01

    Investigate associations of TV viewing time and accelerometry-derived sedentary time with inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers in children. Cross-sectional analysis of 164 7-10-year-old children. TV viewing time was assessed by parental proxy report and total and patterns of sedentary time accumulation (e.g. prolonged bouts) were assessed by accelerometry. C-reactive protein (CRP), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, interleukin-2, -6, -8, -10, tumour necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin, resistin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, soluble intercellular and vascular adhesion molecule 1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and soluble E-selectin were assessed. Generalised linear models assessed the associations of TV viewing and sedentary time with biomarkers, adjusting for sex, waist circumference, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and diet density. Each additional h week(-1) of TV viewing was associated with 4.4% (95% CI: 2.1, 6.7) greater CRP and 0.6% (0.2, 1.0) greater sVCAM-1 in the fully adjusted model. The association between frequency and duration of 5-10 min bouts of sedentary time and CRP was positive after adjustment for sex and waist circumference but attenuated after adjustment for diet density. This study suggests that TV viewing was unfavourably associated with several markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The detrimental association between 5 and 10 min bouts of sedentary time and CRP approached significance, suggesting that further research with a stronger study design (longitudinal and/or experimental) is needed to better understand how the accumulation of sedentary time early in life may influence short and longer term health. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  18. Associations of overall sitting time and TV viewing time with fibrinogen and C reactive protein: the AusDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bethany J; Balkau, Beverley; Thorp, Alicia A; Magliano, Dianna J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2015-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour is associated with increased risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Plasma fibrinogen and C reactive protein (CRP)-key inflammatory and/or haemostatic markers-may contribute to this association; however, few studies have examined their relationships with sedentary behaviours. We examined associations of overall sitting and TV viewing time with fibrinogen and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP). Plasma fibrinogen and hsCRP were measured in 3086 Australian adults (mean age: 55±12 years) who participated in the 2004-2005 AusDiab (Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle) study. Multiple linear regression analyses examined cross-sectional associations of self-reported overall sitting and TV viewing time (h/day) with plasma fibrinogen and hsCRP, adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioural and medical treatments and conditions as potential covariates. Overall sitting time and TV viewing time were positively associated with plasma fibrinogen (sitting: β: 0.02 g/L, 95% CI (0.01 to 0.02); TV time: 0.03 g/L (0.02 to 0.05)) and hsCRP (sitting: 2.4% (1.2% to 3.6%); TV time: 4.5% (1.7% to 7.4%)). Associations were independent of leisure-time physical activity, but after adjusting for waist circumference, they remained for fibrinogen, but for hsCRP were attenuated to the null. Interactions were observed for gender×TV (p=0.011) with fibrinogen (associations in women only) and for waist circumference×TV (p=0.084) with hsCRP (associations in low-risk only). Overall sitting time was positively associated with plasma fibrinogen and hsCRP in men and women; associations of TV viewing time with fibrinogen were observed in women only. Abdominal adiposity-mediated associations for hsCRP but not for fibrinogen. Prospective and intervention studies are needed to establish likely causality and elucidate potential mechanisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Innovations in television field: transition to the digital television

    OpenAIRE

    Serzhuk Anastasia Volodymyrivna; Kozlova Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The article is about significance of innovations and innovative process. It is investigated that the development of the innovative activity acquires a great importance for management innovations at the enterprise; the pre-conditions of the innovative are determined and the innovative implementation to the telecommunication market are studied. The role of the digital television as a new type of broadcasting technology, where the transmission, processing and storage of t...

  20. Relationships between use of television during meals and children's food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, K A; Goldberg, J; Rogers, B L; Tucker, K L

    2001-01-01

    's consumption of caffeine when these relationships were tested in multiple linear regression models. The dietary patterns of children from families in which television viewing is a normal part of meal routines may include fewer fruits and vegetables and more pizzas, snack foods, and sodas than the dietary patterns of children from families in which television viewing and eating are separate activities.