WorldWideScience

Sample records for tv infection rates

  1. 78 FR 12967 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation... Federal Communications Commission published requirements related to Establishment of Class A TV...

  2. 78 FR 27307 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules--Clarification Regarding Information Collection Requirements; Correction...

  3. Industry Television Ratings for Violence, Sex, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Traore, Aminata; Stoolmiller, Mike; Bergamini, Elaina; Sargent, James D

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether the industry-run television (TV) Parental Guidelines discriminate on violence, sexual behavior, alcohol use, and smoking in TV shows, to assess their usefulness for parents. Seventeen TV shows (323 episodes and 9214 episode minutes) across several TV show rating categories (TVY7, TVPG, TV14, and TVMA) were evaluated. We content-coded the episodes, recording seconds of each risk behavior, and we rated the salience of violence in each one. Multilevel models were used to test for associations between TV rating categories and prevalence of risk behaviors across and within episodes or salience of violence. Every show had at least 1 risk behavior. Violence was pervasive, occurring in 70% of episodes overall and for 2.3 seconds per episode minute. Alcohol was also common (58% of shows, 2.3 seconds per minute), followed by sex (53% of episodes, 0.26 seconds per minute), and smoking (31% of shows, 0.54 seconds per minute). TV Parental Guidelines did not discriminate prevalence estimates of TV episode violence. Although TV-Y7 shows had significantly less substance use, other categories were poor at discriminating substance use, which was as common in TV-14 as TV-MA shows. Sex and gory violence were the only behaviors demonstrating a graded increase in prevalence and salience for older-child rating categories. TV Parental Guidelines ratings were ineffective in discriminating shows for 3 out of 4 behaviors studied. Even in shows rated for children as young as 7 years, violence was prevalent, prominent, and salient. TV ratings were most effective for identification of sexual behavior and gory violence. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Industry Television Ratings for Violence, Sex, and Substance Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joy Gabrielli; Aminata Traore; Mike Stoolmiller; Elaina Bergamini; James D Sargent

    2016-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the industry-run television (TV) Parental Guidelines discriminate on violence, sexual behavior, alcohol use, and smoking in TV shows, to assess their usefulness for parents. METHODS...

  5. Privacy-Preserving Television Audience Measurement Using Smart TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Drosatos, George; Tasidou, Aimilia; Efraimidis, Pavlos,

    2012-01-01

    Part 6: Privacy Attitudes and Properties; International audience; Internet-enabled television systems, often referred to as Smart TVs, are a new development in television and home entertainment technologies. In this work, we propose a new, privacy-preserving, approach for Television Audience Measurement (TAM), utilizing the capabilities of the Smart TV technologies. We propose a novel application to calculate aggregate audience measurements using Smart TV computation capabilities and permanen...

  6. Sensory emission rates from personal computers and television sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Baginska, S.

    2003-01-01

    Sensory emissions from personal computers (PCs), PC monitors + PC towers, and television sets (TVs) having been in operation for 50, 400 and 600 h were assessed by a panel of 48 subjects. One brand of PC tower and four brands of PC monitors were tested. Within each brand, cathode-ray tube (CRT...

  7. An Empirical Analysis of Television Commercial Ratings in Alternative Competitive Environments Using Multinomial Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ALTAŞ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Watching the commercials depends on the choice of the viewer. Most of the television viewing takes place during “Prime-Time” unfortunately; many viewers opt to zap to other channels when commercials start. The television viewers’ demographic characteristics may indicate the likelihood of the zapping frequency. Analysis made by using Multinomial Logit Model indicates how effective the demographic variables are in the watching rate of the first minute of the television commercials.

  8. The Advent of Streaming Television in Denmark - Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    television. The paper departs from an empirical study based on the existing systems of audience measurement in Denmark for television and online activity (the TV Meter system and Gemius), in order to gauge the shortcomings of these systems in arriving at similar estimates of the impact of streaming on flow...... television consumption. The paper argues that even taking into account sources of measurement error stemming from the spread of viewing across different platforms, the current system is incapable of accurately tracing an audience activity that is increasingly cross-media, time-shifted, mobile, and on......-demand. It discusses the potential impact of declining accuracy of audience measurement on market actors’ decisions concerning streaming, as well as potential strategies for improving audience measurement....

  9. Playing a violent television game affects heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Malena; Anderson, Martin; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Lindblad, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing. In total, 19 boys, 12-15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in. Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design ('third-person game'); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones. During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item. Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming--during playing and during the following night--suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer

  10. Televised Television Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Aimee; And Others

    Ninety-four children, aged 5 to 12 years, were subjects of a study of recall of television literacy messages (drop-ins). The 30-second "How To Watch TV" (HTWTV) segments were designed for broadcast on Saturday mornings by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) to convey to children some information and values about television (e.g., animals do…

  11. Parents rate the ratings: a test of the validity of the American movie, television, and video game ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Gentile, D A; Van Brederode, T M

    2002-02-01

    Numerous studies have documented the potential effects on young audiences of violent content in media products, including movies, television programs, and computer and video games. Similar studies have evaluated the effects associated with sexual content and messages. Cumulatively, these effects represent a significant public health risk for increased aggressive and violent behavior, spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and pediatric pregnancy. In partial response to these risks and to public and legislative pressure, the movie, television, and gaming industries have implemented ratings systems intended to provide information about the content and appropriate audiences for different films, shows, and games. We conducted a panel study to test the validity of the current movie, television, and video game rating systems. Participants used the KidScore media evaluation tool, which evaluates films, television shows, and video and computer games on 10 aspects, including the appropriateness of the media product for children on the basis of age. Results revealed that when an entertainment industry rates a product as inappropriate for children, parent raters agree that it is inappropriate for children. However, parent raters disagree with industry usage of many of the ratings designating material suitable for children of different ages. Products rated as appropriate for adolescents are of the greatest concern. The level of disagreement varies from industry to industry and even from rating to rating. Analysis indicates that the amount of violent content and portrayals of violence are the primary markers for disagreement between parent raters and industry ratings. Short-term and long-term recommendations are suggested.

  12. About Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin

    The entire broadcast television industry is the subject of this book. An attempt is made to present history, theory, and anecdotes about television programing, television advertising, television and politics, and network news, focusing all the while on American television, but with consideration given to alternative structures and methods.…

  13. A validity test of movie, television, and video-game ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Gentile, D A

    2001-06-01

    Numerous studies have documented the potential effects on young audiences of violent content in media products, including movies, television programs, and computer and video games. Similar studies have evaluated the effects associated with sexual content and messages. Cumulatively, these effects represent a significant public health risk for increased aggressive and violent behavior, spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and pediatric pregnancy. In partial response to these risks and to public and legislative pressure, the movie, television, and gaming industries have implemented ratings systems intended to provide information about the content and appropriate audiences for different films, shows, and games. To test the validity of the current movie-, television-, and video game-rating systems. Panel study. Participants used the KidScore media evaluation tool, which evaluates films, television shows, and video games on 10 aspects, including the appropriateness of the media product for children based on age. When an entertainment industry rates a product as inappropriate for children, parent raters agree that it is inappropriate for children. However, parent raters disagree with industry usage of many of the ratings designating material suitable for children of different ages. Products rated as appropriate for adolescents are of the greatest concern. The level of disagreement varies from industry to industry and even from rating to rating. Analysis indicates that the amount of violent content and portrayals of violence are the primary markers for disagreement between parent raters and industry ratings. As 1 part of a solution to the complex public health problems posed by violent and sexually explicit media products, ratings can have value if used with caution. Parents and caregivers relying on the ratings systems to guide their children's use of media products should continue to monitor content independently. Industry ratings systems should be revised with input

  14. Smart TVs: the new age of television and advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ceriz, João Miguel Costa

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing A televisão teve, ao longo de toda a sua história, um papel preponderante na cultura e economia mundiais. A sua importância reside no seu potencial enquanto veículo de informação e entretenimento, mas também de promoção para as marcas, que foi, aliás, a sua principal fonte de receita ao longo dos anos. Com o lançamento das Smart TVs, a publicidade na televisão sofrerá uma grande revolução graças à união entre TV e internet, criando um novo mundo de inovação e tecnolog...

  15. "Television" Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2010-01-01

    In an art class, children browse through space-age knobs, robot antennas and gyroscopic signal searchers. They extend space needle antennas before turning on an old TV. They discover the sights and sounds of televisions past, hearing the hiss, the gathering power, and seeing the blinking eye, the black-and-white light and blurry images projected…

  16. Television Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, John R.; Balzarini, Steven

    This document is a course of study to provide high school students with an introduction to television production skills and techniques and to provide a framework for developing critical television viewing skills. The nine units of the course introduce students to storyboards, camera operations, lighting, audio, video recording, graphics,…

  17. Is the Television Rating System Valid? Indirect, Verbal, and Physical Aggression in Programs Viewed by Fifth Grade Girls and Associations with Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Gentile, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine fifth…

  18. TV Ratings vs. Social Media Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrikke Hovda; Forsberg, Johanna Margareta; Hemstad, Sigrid Viken

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between TV viewership ratings for Scandinavian’s most popular talk show, Skavlan and public opinions expressed on its Facebook page. The research aim is to examine whether the activity on social media affects the number of viewers per episode of Skavlan, how...... the viewers are affected by discussions on the Talk Show, and whether this creates debate on social media afterwards. By analyzing TV viewer ratings of Skavlan talk show, Facebook activity and text classification of Facebook posts and comments with respect to type of emotions and brand sentiment, this paper...

  19. TV Ratings vs. Social Media Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrikke Hovda; Forsberg, Johanna Margareta; Hemstad, Sigrid Viken

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between TV viewership ratings for Scandinavian’s most popular talk show, Skavlan and public opinions expressed on its Facebook page. The research aim is to examine whether the activity on social media affects the number of viewers per episode of Skavlan, how...... the viewers are affected by discussions on the Talk Show, and whether this creates debate on social media afterwards. By analyzing TV viewer ratings of Skavlan talk show, Facebook activity and text classification of Facebook posts and comments with respect to type of emotions and brand sentiment, this paper...

  20. Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Heath and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bimala; Cosme Chavez, Rosemary; Jeong, Ae Suk; Nam, Eun Woo

    2017-04-05

    The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents.

  1. Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Health and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimala Sharma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents.

  2. The Impact of the Cable Television Industry on Public Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoy, David J.; LeRoy, Judith M.

    This assessment of the possible impact of the cable television industry upon public television relies primarily on audience demographic characteristics as a convenient summary indicator and, in many instances, the only kind of evidence available for review. Primary sources of information used were the national Nielsen ratings; mail surveys of…

  3. Content Analysis: Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…

  4. Television entertainment in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Jadrný, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis called "Television entertainment in 2013" deals with trends, basic signs and kinds of TV shows belonging to the genre of television entertainment (TV fun) broadcasted in Czech republic. The first and theoretical chapter's goal is to outline some essential terms related to the genre and television entertainment. The rest of the work has been devoted to the actual analysis of individual programs. The work is divided into Czech and foreign series, Czech and foreign game shows, ...

  5. Television and Children's Fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman

    1985-01-01

    Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)

  6. American Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2008-01-01

    En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa.......En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa....

  7. Teaching Television Watchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy Lee

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities to help teachers address the needs and behaviors of students raised on television; includes resources to help teachers use television productively in the classroom, a send-home reproducible on children and television violence, and notes on an interview with Shari Lewis and television tips for primary students. (SM)

  8. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  9. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  10. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  11. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  12. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster... Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend Rules for Digital Class A Television Stations, MB Docket No. 03-185; FCC 11-110,...

  13. TV and Teens: Television In Adolescent Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Richard; Johnston, Jerome

    1988-01-01

    Presents television as an instrument through which adolescents can gain social experience and strengthen social development. Examines the link between watching television and social relationships, discussing how television viewing can provide "blueprints" for behavior in social situations. Lists four steps for using television as a learning tool.…

  14. Digital TV: structures of feeling in the television of becoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marquioni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this text is to present some reflections on theinsertion of a new model of television in Brazil (interactive digital TV,adopting the concept of culture as the center to think of the television system.The notion for structure of feeling, by Raymond Williams, opens up atype of new window that helps to understand this new television whichis being implanted.

  15. Ecodesign requirements for televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    to analyse if other environmental hotspots and life cycle phases should be included in the requirements in the IM of the Ecodesign Directive besides energy consumption in the use phase analysis. Methods The consequential approach is used. The data for the LCA have been gathered from two manufacturers of TVs......Purpose This paper concerns the Ecodesign Directive (2009/125/EC) and the implementing measures (IM) in which ecodesign requirements are set up for energy-using and energy-related products. Previous studies have found that the requirements have a unilateral focus on energy consumption and the use...... phase. This is not in line with the scientific understanding of ecodesign, where attention should be put on all life cycle phases and all relevant environmental impact categories. This study focuses on the requirements for televisions (TV). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out on two TVs...

  16. Taking a Look at Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William, Comp.

    1981-01-01

    A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)

  17. Taking a Look at Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William, Comp.

    1981-01-01

    A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)

  18. FCJ-177 Television Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rizzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Television has become a multiplatform medium that houses content on a number of different sites and devices that encourage new forms of engagement. This new digital environment has transformed television from a closed system, where programmes are transmitted to a television set for viewers to tune into, to an open system that produces new television connections and configurations. Drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari, Latour and current media theorists, this essay turns to the concept of assemblages for theorising this new interactive multiplatform television environment. Thinking about multiplatform television through the concept of assemblages offers a means of exploring how television devices, texts and media are reconfigured or modified so as to display new functionalities and capacities. It also enables us to consider the way television culture can be deterritorialised and reterritorialised through new connections and in doing so introduce new qualities such as interactivity and reciprocal determination.

  19. Cable Television Service; Cable Television Relay Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Register, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) concerning cable television service and cable relay service are presented along with the comments of the National Cable Television Association, the National Association of Broadcasters, the Association of Maximum Service Telecasters, and a major group of program suppliers.…

  20. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  1. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  2. Consumo e produção de subjetividade nas TVs comunitárias Consumption and the production of subjectivity in communitarian television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lobo Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a produção de subjetividade em duas TVs comunitárias: TV Maxambomba e TV Pinel. Mediante uma pesquisa qualitativa, buscou-se analisar os processos subjetivos engendrados em jovens da periferia ou usuários do sistema de saúde mental quando eles passam de simples espectadores a criadores de produtos audiovisuais. Procurou-se enfatizar diferenças e semelhanças entre a TV de massa e as TVs comunitárias. Pôde-se com isso perceber a apropriação de signos da TV de massa na programação das TVs comunitárias, bem como a diferenciação no processo de produção e de consumo na relação com o espectador.The present article discusses the production of subjectivity in two communitarian TV networks: TV Maxambomba and TV Pinel. Based on a qualitative research, we analyzed the subjective processes that took place in youngsters from peripheric areas or users of the mental health system when they stop being just spectators and begin to create audiovisual products. Special emphasis was given to the differences and resemblances between mass television and communitarian television. Therefore we could notice the appropriation of mass television signs in the communitarian TV networks as well as the difference in the process of production and consumption regarding the spectators.

  3. Cable Television for Librarians. Cable Television Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Wallace C.

    1973-01-01

    The development of cable television, its present state, and future prospects, including a possible role for libraries, are discussed. (Other conference materials are LI 503071 and 503073 through 503084.) (SJ)

  4. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Astrupgaard, Cecilie; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...

  5. Energy Efficient Televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Dorothea; Remmen, Arne

    The EuP Directive sets the frame for implementing ecodesign requirements for energy-using and energy-related products. The aim of the Directive is to achieve a high level of protection for the environment by reducing the potential environmental impact of energy-related products. The focus of this....... Furthermore, a comparative analysis of best available technology and conventional technologies implies that the standard for the environmental performance of TVs has been driven by technology push rather than a regulatory pull....... of this paper is on the Implementing Measures (IM) for televisions. The ambition level of the IM for televisions is investigated and it is argued that the IM have not succeeded in setting up sufficient ecodesign requirements, as only one life cycle phase and one environmental impact category is addressed...

  6. TV 1.9: A experiência das webTVs universitárias

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Becker; Lara Mateus

    2011-01-01

    The experience of image culture and convergence era effects on every field of social life, reconfigures the means and its mediations and provokes aesthetics and contents innovations. The webTVs are born as singular environments, characterized by a new way to see and make television. This work points possibilities of use of universities’ webTVs as relevant environments to the vocational training, once they are constituted, potentially, by spaces of experimentation of audiovisual language and m...

  7. Children's Impressions of Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    This research study examines the types of social behaviors portrayed by families in various television series and explores children's impressions of the TV family members. Content analysis of nine family-oriented TV series was employed to describe the ranges of behaviors of fathers, mothers and children on television. Eleven shows from each series…

  8. Interactive Television and Consumer Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis; Friedrichsen, Mike

    This chapter focuses on the problem of how television can keep its position to at-tract users’ attention and earn income from advertisers. When television is evolv-ing and passing from digital TV toward interactive TV, media consumer market is changing too, under influence of web 2.0 and always...... in consumer markets....

  9. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... that need to be resolved to complete the low power television station digital transition....

  10. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... 73 and 74 of the Commission's Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power, Television...

  11. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  12. Adolescent exposure to food advertising on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    Television viewing is hypothesized to contribute to obesity among children and adolescents through several mechanisms that include the displacement of physical activity, snacking while watching TV, and the influence of food advertising. This study drew on television ratings to examine the distribution of food advertising exposure among adolescents aged 12 through 17 based on 170 top-rated shows across network, cable and syndicated TV stations over the 9-month period from September 2003 to May 2004. A total of 238,353 30-second equivalent advertisements on the top-rated shows were assessed. Each advertisement was weighted by its rating to measure actual exposure to advertisements. The results showed that among total nonprogram content time, food-related products accounted for roughly one fifth of advertising exposure. Excluding TV promotions and public service announcements, as a proportion of all product advertising, total food-related advertising made up 26% of advertised products viewed by adolescents. By race, the proportion of advertising exposure to food products was 14% greater for African-American versus white adolescents and total exposure to food advertising would be even larger for African-American teens given that, on average, they watched more TV. Fast food was the most frequently viewed food product category comprising 23% of all food-related advertisements among adolescents. Food ads made up just over one quarter of TV ads viewed by adolescents with the most commonly viewed products of fast food, sweets, and beverage products well within the reach of their own purchasing power.

  13. Children's violent television viewing: are parents monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R

    2004-07-01

    Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched

  14. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  15. Glossary of Television Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    used for television production equipment designed to be portable and weatherized for outdoor use. The EFP systems are supposed to be of better quality...normal polarity. The result is a picture in which the white and black areas are reversed. NEMO --The term for a remote television program that origi

  16. Science on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, John

    2011-01-01

    Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC…

  17. Children's television in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriyani, H.; Hollander, E.H.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Beentjes, J.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the structure, conduct, and performance of children's television in Indonesia during the last four decades, reflecting on its interaction with the government, the market, and civil society. A striking trend in Indonesia's children's television is undoubtedly its exponential gr

  18. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  19. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  20. Science on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, John

    2011-01-01

    Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC…

  1. Children And Television

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    With television we can sit in our home and watch the things happen far away from us. Television helps us to know about the latest news and increase our knowledge. With the telecasting many countries are able to understand and help each other better and keep touching more with their own country and the world.

  2. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  3. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  4. Interpreting television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Television news range among the most extensively investigated topics in communication studies. The book contributes to television news research by focusing on whether and how news viewers who watch the same news program form similar or different interpretations. The author develops a novel concept o

  5. Community Antenna Television (CATV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…

  6. [Poliomyelitis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M; Águila-Maturana, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease whose initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headaches, vomiting, a stiff neck and pains in the limbs. In many cases, the sequelae are irreversible paralysis and may result in death if there is bulbar or respiratory compromise. A set of symptoms, called post-polio syndrome, which appears years after the acute infection, are also described. To analyse the way poliomyelitis has been dealt with in literature, cinema and television. Film and television writers and directors have shown an interest in poliomyelitis and have portrayed it in a correct and realistic manner, both in fiction and in biographies or documentary-type works. Nemesis, Silver wattle, Leave her to heaven or The fall are some examples of literary works on the subject. Cinema has also portrayed polio all the way back to silent movies, with titles such as The woman in his house, The Silver Streak, Sister Kenny or The sessions. This disease and its sequelae have also been portrayed on television in series such as Hospital Central, Grey's anatomy, House M.D. or Amar en tiempos revueltos, and in TV films like El asunto, Eleanor and Franklin or Warm Springs. Poliomyelitis has been portrayed in literature, cinema and television in a realistic manner, showing its symptoms, sequelae, and the personal, familial and social impact of this disease.

  7. Glossary of television terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This glossary was compiled by the members and associate members of the Range Commanders Council (RCC) Optical Systems Group (OSG). The OSG recognizes that the utilization of television for data gathering purposes has increased drastically in the last decade. Because many of the personnel involved in range operations and maintenance have a limited background in television, the OSG membership felt that a glossary containing selected television terminology would contribute to understanding the theoretical, engineering, operational, and maintenance applications of television. Since the term 'television' covers a broad spectrum, many of the words and phrases that apply solely to broadcast and Community Antenna Television (CATV) have not been included here. Also it has been assumed that the user of this publication will not be applying any television technology aside from periodic video tape editing. Furthermore, it is assumed that most of the video tape editing which takes place will be confined to tape-to-tape editing utilizing the built-in features characteristic of video recorders currently available.

  8. Cable Television; A Bibliographic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenung, James

    This bibliographic review of publications in the field of cable television begins with an introduction to cable television and an outline of the history and development of cable television. Particular attention is given to the regulatory activities of the Federal Communications Commission and the unfulfilled potential of cable television. The…

  9. Scheduling commercial advertisements for television

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Villoria, Alberto; Salhi, Said

    2014-01-01

    The problem of scheduling the commercial advertisements in the television industry is investigated. Each advertiser client demands that the multiple airings of the same brand advertisement should be as spaced as possible over a given time period. Moreover, audience rating requests have to be taken into account in the scheduling. This is the first time this hard decision problem is dealt with in the literature. We design two mixed integer linear programming (MILP) models. Two constructive heur...

  10. Television: Education's Prometheus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    Educational television offers a number of effective options for instruction. The development of several exemplary programs which have provided educational alternatives for schools, colleges, and other organizations are described. (Author/PP)

  11. Television: Education's Prometheus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    Educational television offers a number of effective options for instruction. The development of several exemplary programs which have provided educational alternatives for schools, colleges, and other organizations are described. (Author/PP)

  12. Television and children's executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected.

  13. Social TV how marketers can reach and engage audiences by connecting television to the web, social media, and mobile

    CERN Document Server

    Proulx, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The Internet didn't kill TV! It has become its best friend. Americans are watching more television than ever before, and we're engaging online at the same time we're tuning in. Social media has created a new and powerful "backchannel", fueling the renaissance of live broadcasts. Mobile and tablet devices allow us to watch and experience television whenever and wherever we want. And "connected TVs" blend web and television content into a unified big screen experience bringing us back into our living rooms. Social TV examines the changing (and complex) television landscape and helps brands navig

  14. Adolescents, Parents, and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Steven H.; McLeod, Jack M.

    Three hypotheses could explain a positive correlation between violence viewing and social aggressiveness in adolescents: 1) Heavy exposure to television (TV) violence somehow reinforces or induces aggressive tendencies; 2) An aggressive child is more likely to be attracted to violent TV programs; 3) Some third factors exist which could cause both…

  15. Educational Uses of Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    The different educational uses of cable television as well as the methods and problems of that use are described in a state of the art review. The Federal Communications Commission regulations and related franchise activity are described, and the methods of using the educational channel as open or closed circuit TV or pay TV are indicated for…

  16. Television: The New State Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbner, George

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the special characteristics of television that make it a formula-bound, ritualistic, repetitive, and nonselectively used system; concludes that television's social symbolic functions resemble preindustrial religions more than they do the media that preceded it. (GT)

  17. World Cup television

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In the last year of the first decade of the 21st century, in the verge of breaking into the era of digital television, it is important to know what kind of television model is available in Portugal. The analysis of the news coverage of the FIFA 2010 World Cup will certainly help in finding the answers. In this article, we present a study that centers its focus on news formats related to this great media event, broadcasted in both generalist as well as cable news networks between the 11th of J...

  18. Social Television and User Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Chorianopoulos, K.; Jensen, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    At first glance, the notion of social interactive television seems to be a tautology. Television watching has always been a social activity. People watch television together in their living rooms, and outside their homes they talk about last night's football match; and even call each other to recomm

  19. Factors in Dubbing Television Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalbeascoa, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Advocates a greater awareness of the factors involved with dubbing television comedies. Considers the translation of jokes and provides an outline of the various kinds of jokes in television shows. Calls for more research on comedy dubbing and television translation in general. (HB)

  20. Factors in Dubbing Television Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalbeascoa, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Advocates a greater awareness of the factors involved with dubbing television comedies. Considers the translation of jokes and provides an outline of the various kinds of jokes in television shows. Calls for more research on comedy dubbing and television translation in general. (HB)

  1. Television Production : Managing the Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Molchina, Evgenia

    2012-01-01

    The idea to write the thesis about television production came into my mind a long time ago. I knew that this area of media technology was the most interesting for me. I had an internship in Aito Media Oy television production company in 2009, and I studied TV Production at Ferris State University, USA for one academic year 2010-2011. The main objective for my thesis is to research, compare and describe all steps in production of a television show from the developing an idea through planni...

  2. Pediatrics and Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Edward; And Others

    The Department of Community Medicine of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (New York City), in cooperation with the TelePrompTer Corporation and with funding from the Health Services and Mental Health Administration of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, has developed a bidirectional television system using coaxial cable which links…

  3. Television Ceremonial Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Daniel; Katz, Elihu

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of televised ceremonies (such as the marriage of Prince Charles and Lady Diana) as "media events" which allow viewers to vicariously enter into the ceremony. Compares them with cult movies that, over repeated viewing, encourage audience "participation." Focuses on the narrator's/commentator's role in shaping…

  4. Filming for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, A. Arthur; Petzold, Paul

    Film makers, professional or amateur, will find in this volume an extensive discussion of the adaptation of film technique to television work, of the art of the camera operator, and of the productive relationships between people, organization, and hardware. Chapters include "The Beginnings," an overview of the interrelationship between roles in…

  5. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  6. Evaluation of Educational Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, P. Jonathan, Ed.; And Others

    Eleven articles on the evaluation of educational television (ETV) in South Africa are provided. Under the heading "Theory" are: (1) "The Meaning of Evaluation and Its Practice" (D. Nevo); (2) "Criteria for Evaluating ETV: A Theoretical Framework" (R. Israeli); and (3) "Sources of Evaluation Criteria in Education,…

  7. Researching Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Alan; Lometti, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Two officals from the American Broadcasting Companies (ABC) (1) review a 1982 National Institute of Mental Health Study on television and violence, and (2) summarize the broadcast standards, practices, policies, and procedures employed by the network regarding the depiction of violence. (GC)

  8. "Feedback" For Instructioal Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Wilbur

    A number of different methods have been used by instructional television (ITV) projects to obtain audience feedback, and some of these are now being used in the ITV system in El Salvador. We know that pretesting programs on a representative sample can bring considerable gains in learning. Another feedback source can be a classroom of pupils in the…

  9. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Mittal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IPTV is one of the mostly used technology of Internet and IP application. IPTV is a service for the delivery of broadcast TV, movies on demand and other interactive multimedia services over a secure, end-to-end operator managed broadband IP data network with desired QoS to the public with a broadband Internet connection. IPTV system may also include Internet services such as Web access and VoIP where it may be called Triple Play and is typically supplied by a broadband operator using the same infrastructure. IPTV is not the Internet Video that simply allows users to watch videos, like movie previews and web-cams, over the Internet in a best effort fashion. IPTV technology offers revenue-generating opportunities for the telecom and cable service providers. For traditional telephone service providers, Triple Play is delivered using a combination of optical fiber and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL technologies to its residential base. IPTV is a system where a digital television service is delivered by using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. A general definition of IPTV is television content that, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. In this paper I am trying to discuss this topic as my knowledge, including what is IPTV, how it works, its advantages and its applications

  10. Consumo e produção de subjetividade nas TVs comunitárias Consumption and the production of subjectivity in communitarian television

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Lobo Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo discute a produção de subjetividade em duas TVs comunitárias: TV Maxambomba e TV Pinel. Mediante uma pesquisa qualitativa, buscou-se analisar os processos subjetivos engendrados em jovens da periferia ou usuários do sistema de saúde mental quando eles passam de simples espectadores a criadores de produtos audiovisuais. Procurou-se enfatizar diferenças e semelhanças entre a TV de massa e as TVs comunitárias. Pôde-se com isso perceber a apropriação de signos da TV de massa na progra...

  11. Life without TV? cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, Jon; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the amount of time Americans spend watching television. Cultivation theory has been important in exploring behavioral effects of television viewing for many years. However, psychosocial health has received much less scrutiny in relation to television viewing time. This investigation examined the hypotheses that television-free individuals and viewers adhering to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations (up to 2 hr of viewing per day) would display a more positive psychosocial health profile when compared with more frequent television viewers. Results confirmed the hypothesis for women, but not for men. Our analysis showed that moderate television viewing, as defined by the AAP, provides a similar relation with psychosocial health as being television-free. Results are discussed in a cultivation theory framework.

  12. Closed Loop Recycling of Plastic Housing for Flat Screen TVs

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of the rapidly increasing number of End-of-Life (EoL) Flat screen Televisions (FTVs) presents major challenges and opportunities. Closing loops in plastic housing material flows remains a particular technical challenge because of the presence of additives, such as Flame Retardants (FR) in recovered housings. In the framework of a collaborative project PRIME with TP Vision the TV development site for Philips TVs and a Van Gansewinkel first level recycling plant, series of experim...

  13. Closed Loop Recycling of Plastic Housing for Flat Screen TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Jef; VANEGAS Paul; Devoldere, Tom; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of the rapidly increasing number of End-of-Life (EoL) Flat screen Televisions (FTVs) presents major challenges and opportunities. Closing loops in plastic housing material flows remains a particular technical challenge because of the presence of additives, such as Flame Retardants (FR) in recovered housings. In the framework of a collaborative project PRIME with TP Vision the TV development site for Philips TVs and a Van Gansewinkel first level recycling plant, series of experim...

  14. Satellite television analogue and digital reception techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Herve

    1999-01-01

    Satellite television is part of the lives of millions of television viewers worldwide and its influence is set to increase significantly with the launch of digital satellite television services.This comprehensive reference book, written by the author of the highly successful 'Digital Television', provides a technical overview of both analogue and digital satellite TV. Written concisely and thoroughly, it covers all aspects of satellite TV necessary to understand its operation and installation. It also covers the evolution of satellite television, and contains a detailed glossary of tec

  15. From" Televised Blind Date” to" Televised Half-blind Wedding”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates” , arranged by a television station. It is interesting to see how a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding” to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that 1 think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out.

  16. From "Televised Blind Date" to "Televised Half-blind Wedding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates", arranged by a television station, It is interesting to see bow a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding" to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that I think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out. In the beginning, the directors of FOX put ads in newspapers, openly asking the public: "Who wants to marry a multi-millionaire?" It did not cost much time or

  17. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  18. Social Television for the modern nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2008-01-01

    This is a paper about the ongoing project of Ambient Shared Live Media positioned in the field of social television. It illustrates a scenario of social television that exemplifies how media sharing/TV watching can be a facilitator for social TV across physical locations. It also addresses...

  19. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Barbara A; Russo, Theresa J; Burdick, Patrick A; Jenkins, Paul L

    2004-02-01

    Television viewing has been associated with increased violence in play and higher rates of obesity. Although there are interventions to reduce television viewing by school-aged children, there are none for younger children. To develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Randomized controlled trial conducted in 16 preschool and/or day care centers in rural upstate New York. Children aged 2.6 through 5.5 years. Children attending intervention centers received a 7-session program designed to reduce television viewing as part of a health promotion curriculum, whereas children attending the control centers received a safety and injury prevention program. Change in parent-reported child television/video viewing and measured growth variables. Before the intervention, the intervention and control groups viewed 11.9 and 14.0 h/wk of television/videos, respectively. Afterward, children in the intervention group decreased their television/video viewing 3.1 h/wk, whereas children in the control group increased their viewing by 1.6 h/wk, for an adjusted difference between the groups of -4.7 h/wk (95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -1.0 h/wk; P =.02). The percentage of children watching television/videos more than 2 h/d also decreased significantly from 33% to 18% among the intervention group, compared with an increase of 41% to 47% among the control group, for a difference of -21.5% (95% confidence interval, -42.5% to -0.5%; P =.046). There were no statistically significant differences in children's growth between groups. This study is the first to show that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects associated with reductions in young children's television viewing.

  20. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... Lincoln Broadcasting, LLC (``LBL''), the licensee of KFXL-TV, channel 51, Lincoln, Nebraska, requesting... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman,...

  1. PERCEPTION AND TELEVISION--PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF TELEVISION VIEWING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUBA, EGON; AND OTHERS

    AN EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM WAS DEVELOPED FOR RECORDING EYE-MOVEMENT DATA. RAW DATA WERE IN THE FORM OF MOTION PICTURES TAKEN OF THE MONITOR OF A CLOSED LOOP TELEVISION SYSTEM. A TELEVISION CAMERA WAS MOUNTED ON THE SUBJECTS' FIELD OF VIEW. THE EYE MARKER APPEARED AS A SMALL SPOT OF LIGHT AND INDICATED THE POINT IN THE VISUAL FIELD AT WHICH THE SUBJECT…

  2. Computerized Television: New Developments in Television Production Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinos, Nikos

    Based on the notion that technological and artistic developments in the area of television production affect viewers' comprehension and appreciation of televised programs, this essay examines the impact of telecommunication advances on the industry. The first section briefly considers the technological advances of the last decade in major TV…

  3. Innovations in television field: transition to the digital television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serzhuk Anastasia Volodymyrivna

    2014-12-01

    obligations of Ukraine, according to which the state must make the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting already on 1 January 2015. For adapting of the current Digital reception for TVs the viewers shall buy set-top box (receiver or teletuner. Digital terrestrial television has the following advantages over analogue one: - the possibility of receiving to the usual indoor antenna in the difficult conditions of city development; - much better image quality; - high-quality sound; - large number of channels which are taken off the air, as well as additional features such as: multilingual support, Electronic Program Guide on the TV and so on. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Digital TV appears progressively in our lives, replacing analogue one. High quality of pictures, high-quaility signal are just what in recent years lacked ordinary people. However, at the moment, there are certain issues without solution of which Ukraine's transition to digital TV broadcasting can cause some problems with access of viewers to television information after turning off of the analogue transmitters, and in the further fate of broadcasters who having current analogue licenses will be deprived of the right to broadcast. Therefore, it is advisable to define the problem of further implementation and development of digital television technology as a standard of high-definition television.

  4. Children's Responses to Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr; Roberts, Donald F.

    A paper-and-pencil measure of aggressive resonse was developed to study the effects on children of exposure to television-mediated violence. Using this measure, a series of experiments was conducted using actural television programs as stimulus material. The results of these studies suggest: 1) Although the majority of children understand the…

  5. Cable Television and the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roud, Richard

    Although television presentations of theater, ballet and opera often lose something of the original, it can equally well be argued that almost any presentation of these arts on television provides large number of people with some access to arts which would otherwise be inaccessible. In addition, even though direct presentations of many works of…

  6. The Benefits of Watching Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Paul

    The unfounded and sometimes absurd attacks on television have tended to obscure many of the medium's obvious personal, social, and aesthetic benefits. It is easy to watch, and if its content does not always provide viewers with much to think about, television does not ask much of them either: they may eat, sleep, and unwind in front of it,…

  7. Television Violence and Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a survey investigation of whether exposure to television violence is associated with an increased probability of engaging in violent behavior. Questionnaire data collected in 1970 in junior and senior high schools in Maryland, included self-reports of favorite television show, amount of violence in that show, and respondent's violent…

  8. Graphic Design in Educational Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Beverley

    To help educational television (ETV) practitioners achieve maximum clarity, economy and purposiveness, the range of techniques of television graphics is explained. Closed-circuit and broadcast ETV are compared. The design process is discussed in terms of aspect ratio, line structure, cut off, screen size, tone scales, studio apparatus, and…

  9. Television Exposure and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnow, Gary W.; Bettinghaus, Erwin P.

    1982-01-01

    A language sample and television viewing log were collected from 93 preschool children to explore the relationship between viewing habits and spoken language. Findings showed a negative inverse relationship between language sophistication levels and television exposure, and suggested support for an environmentalist theory of language development.…

  10. Television and Religious Identity (Case Study: Students of Mazandaran University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Riahi

    2014-05-01

    The findings of the study indicate that in general students have a high level of religious identity. However, there are some variances as one considers different levels of religious identity by its four dimensions; for example, the highest and lowest reported scores belonged to theological (average of 4.61 out of 5 and ritual (average of 3.63 dimensions, respectively. Also, research findings on the rate of television consumption indicate that the status of television consumption among students is at a moderate to low level (average of 2.37 from 5. Furthermore, a considerable number of students (7.5 percent never watch television. As explained in the Cultivation Theory, as a low-consuming audience of television, students watch TV in a selective and programmed fashion, only for 2 or less hours per day, but the usage of other media, especially the Internet, is higher among them. When Students consume television as a cultural commodity, they try to be "active", which means they try to interpret the content of the received program "actively". It seems that using other mass media (the Internet, books, magazines, etc., and lack of access to the TV, and/or reluctance to watch national television programs, are responsible for this low level of TV consumption among students. This finding would be more important if one notice that according to sociologists' views (e.g. Giddens, today television could have very serious effects on daily-life patterns. One of the important findings of the present study is that it seems that along with increase in the consumption of national TV among students, the level of religious identity also tends to increase. This finding must be paid attention to by policy makers. Another important result of this study is the content of the programs watched by students as well as their effects on their religious identity. Entertainment and leisure programs (average of 3.29 from 5 were the first favorable programs; while the least are those oriented towards

  11. Ticket-to-talk-television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Marcus Sanchez; Sokoler, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    in combination with a series of design-oriented workshops with a group of senior citizens, have guided the design of our Ticket-to-Talk-Television example concept. We will reflect upon the overall approach as well as the design activities that were undertaken in relation to the concept developed.......In this paper we discuss a particular perspective on interactivity and sociability in the design of new TV technologies for social interaction. We will argue that current research on Social TV builds on a too narrow conception of interaction in everyday social life. In consequence, rather than...... turning the TV media itself into an arena for peer-to-peer synchronous interaction amongst TV viewers we will discuss the idea of Social TV as a resource that when part of a larger socio-material fabric can help accommodate the circumstantial nature of social interactions as they emerge and play out...

  12. Study of Consumer Attitudes Toward Television Advertising Using Celebrity Endorser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmirandi Noor Hudha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed how the attractiveness of a celebrity endorser is able to influ-ence customers’ brand choice behavior and how customers perceive celebrity-based television advertising. The study is based on an empirical research approach, which use a convenience sample of 150 students who lives in Yogyakarta. The respondents rate the attractiveness of ce-lebrity-based on television advertising and the influence of celebrity-based television advertis-ing on consumers’ brand choice behavior. The sample of advertisement in this research is XL television advertising which is featuring Raffi Ahmad, a famous celebrity. The data evaluated by using several statistical techniques, including Descriptive analysis, and Analysis of Variance (One Sample t-Test Based on the research findings and the analysis, it is proved that the ce-lebrity-based television advertising has positively attracted the consumers. As a consequence, this response significantly influences the consumers’ brand choice behavior. It can be con-cluded that the attractiveness of celebrity-based on television advertising is likely to have a positive relationship to consumers and celebrity-based television advertising is likely to have a positive influence toward consumers’ brand choice behavior.Keywords:    celebrity concept, power of celebrity endorsement, attitude towards the ad and brand, endorser selection criteria

  13. Predicting US Infants' and Toddlers' TV/Video Viewing Rates: Mothers' Cognitions and Structural Life Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaala, Sarah E; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    There has been rising international concern over media use with children under two. As little is known about the factors associated with more or less viewing among very young children, this study examines maternal factors predictive of TV/video viewing rates among American infants and toddlers. Guided by the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this survey study examines relationships between children's rates of TV/video viewing and their mothers' structural life circumstances (e.g., number of children in the home; mother's screen use), and cognitions (e.g., attitudes; norms). Results suggest that mothers' structural circumstances and cognitions respectively contribute independent explanatory power to the prediction of children's TV/video viewing. Influence of structural circumstances is partially mediated through cognitions. Mothers' attitudes as well as their own TV/video viewing behavior were particularly predictive of children's viewing. Implications of these findings for international efforts to understand and reduce infant/toddler TV/video exposure are discussed.

  14. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  15. Obesogenic television food advertising to children in Malaysia: sociocultural variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, See H.; Kelly, Bridget; Se, Chee H.; Chinna, Karuthan; Sameeha, Mohd Jamil; Krishnasamy, Shanthi; MN, Ismail; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2014-01-01

    Background Food advertising on television (TV) is well known to influence children's purchasing requests and models negative food habits in Western countries. Advertising of unhealthy foods is a contributor to the obesogenic environment that is a key driver of rising rates of childhood obesity. Children in developing countries are more at risk of being targeted by such advertising, as there is a huge potential for market growth of unhealthy foods concomitant with poor regulatory infrastructure. Further, in developing countries with multi-ethnic societies, information is scarce on the nature of TV advertising targeting children. Objectives To measure exposure and power of TV food marketing to children on popular multi-ethnic TV stations in Malaysia. Design Ethnic-specific popular TV channels were identified using industry data. TV transmissions were recorded for each channel from November 2012 to August 2013 (16 hr/day) for randomly selected weekdays and weekend days during normal days and repeated during school holidays (n=88 days). Coded food/beverage advertisements were grouped into core (healthy), non-core (non-healthy), or miscellaneous (unclassified) food categories. Peak viewing time (PVT) and persuasive marketing techniques were identified. Results Non-core foods were predominant in TV food advertising, and rates were greater during school holidays compared to normal days (3.51 vs 1.93 food ads/hr/channel, pTV channels. The majority of these sugary drinks were advertised by multinational companies, and this observation warrants regulatory attention. PMID:25141835

  16. Process concepts for semi-automatic dismantling of LCD televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in tu...

  17. Presidential Elections in the Age of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    2000-01-01

    Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…

  18. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  19. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  20. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  1. The Mirror in the Corner; People's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Peter

    The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) during its period of monopoly television, the coming of ITV (independent television), the reaction and adaptation of the BBC to a competitive situation, and the effect on British television programing are the subjects of this history of British television. (RH)

  2. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  3. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  4. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of antismoking television advertisements: do audience ratings of perceived effectiveness predict changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Wakefield, Melanie A; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Decisions about which antismoking advertisements should be aired are often guided by audience ratings of perceived effectiveness (PE). Given that the usefulness of PE measures depends on their ability to predict the likelihood that a message will have a positive impact on outcomes such as behaviour change, in the current study we used pre-exposure, postexposure and follow-up measures to test the association between PE and subsequent changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours. Daily smokers (N=231; 18 years and older) completed baseline measures of quitting intentions before watching an antismoking advertisement. Immediately following exposure, intentions were measured again and PE was measured using six items that factored into two scales: ad-directed PE (ADPE) and personalised PE (PPE). A follow-up telephone survey conducted within 3 weeks of exposure measured behaviour change (reduced cigarette consumption or quit attempts). From pre-exposure to postexposure, 18% of smokers showed a positive change in their intentions. Controlling for baseline intentions, PPE independently predicted intention change (OR=2.57, p=0.004). At follow-up, 26% of smokers reported that they had changed their behaviour. PPE scores also predicted the likelihood of behaviour change (OR=1.93, p=0.009). Audience ratings of PPE, but not ADPE, were found to predict subsequent intention and behaviour change. These findings increase confidence in the use of PE measures to pretest and evaluate antismoking television advertisements, particularly when these measures tap the extent to which a smoker has been personally affected by the message. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Documents televises et apprentissage linguistique (Televised Materials and Language Learning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Marie-Claude; Berard-Lavenne, Evelyne

    1980-01-01

    Explores the resources of television broadcasts for language instruction, particularly when they provide authentic models for the acquisition of communication skills illustrating the functional aspects of language, discourse strategies, and extralinguistic components of a situation. (MES)

  7. ‘Remember, it’s just television’: Rubicon TV and the Commercialisation of Norwegian Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundet, Vilde Schanke; Bakøy, Eva

    2017-01-01

    abstractThis article discusses the corporate strategy of one of the most successful television production companies in Norway: Rubicon TV. Based on a historical analysis from the company’s establishment in the early 1990s until today, the article illuminates how Rubicon TV has navigated in and

  8. Television violence and its effect on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M O

    1996-04-01

    Television (TV) has become a large part of children's activities. Much discussion exists as to the level of violence on TV programs and its effect on children's behavior. This article reviews the literature, discusses social issues, and presents some interventions available to nursing professionals to assist children and families in coping with the impact of TV on children's lives.

  9. The Power of TV: Cable Television and Women's Status in India

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Jensen; Emily Oster

    2007-01-01

    Cable and satellite television have grown rapidly throughout the developing world. The availability of cable and satellite television exposes viewers to new information about the outside world, which may affect individual attitudes and behaviors. This paper explores the effect of the introduction of cable television on gender attitudes in rural India. Using a three-year individual-level panel dataset, we find that the introduction of cable television is associated with improvements in women's...

  10. British Control of Television Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marting, Leeda P.

    1973-01-01

    A discussion of controlling quantity and quality of television advertising by looking at the approach of Britain's Independent Broadcasting Authority and deals with its possible application in the U.S. (HB)

  11. The Relationship of Life Stage to Motives for Using Television and the Perceived Reality of TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Ronald E.; Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A model specifying relationships between life stage, motives for using television and the perceived reality of television was tested with data from 140 telephone interviews of adults living in Southern Illinois. The adults ranged in age from 18 to 87 years. Life stage was related to five of the 11 motives for using television: learning things,…

  12. TV Characters at Work: Television's Role in the Occupational Aspirations of Economically Disadvantaged Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…

  13. Obesogenic television food advertising to children in Malaysia: sociocultural variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, See H; Kelly, Bridget; Se, Chee H; Chinna, Karuthan; Sameeha, Mohd Jamil; Krishnasamy, Shanthi; Mn, Ismail; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2014-12-01

    Background Food advertising on television (TV) is well known to influence children's purchasing requests and models negative food habits in Western countries. Advertising of unhealthy foods is a contributor to the obesogenic environment that is a key driver of rising rates of childhood obesity. Children in developing countries are more at risk of being targeted by such advertising, as there is a huge potential for market growth of unhealthy foods concomitant with poor regulatory infrastructure. Further, in developing countries with multi-ethnic societies, information is scarce on the nature of TV advertising targeting children. Objectives To measure exposure and power of TV food marketing to children on popular multi-ethnic TV stations in Malaysia. Design Ethnic-specific popular TV channels were identified using industry data. TV transmissions were recorded for each channel from November 2012 to August 2013 (16 hr/day) for randomly selected weekdays and weekend days during normal days and repeated during school holidays (n=88 days). Coded food/beverage advertisements were grouped into core (healthy), non-core (non-healthy), or miscellaneous (unclassified) food categories. Peak viewing time (PVT) and persuasive marketing techniques were identified. Results Non-core foods were predominant in TV food advertising, and rates were greater during school holidays compared to normal days (3.51 vs 1.93 food ads/hr/channel, pmultinational companies, and this observation warrants regulatory attention.

  14. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, John

    2012-01-01

    abstractDigitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possib

  15. Is viewing ostracism on television distressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Robinson, Simon L; Gundersen, Nicola C

    2011-01-01

    Being ostracized can be a painful and distressing experience and can lead to subsequent aggression by the victim. However, it is unknown whether watching someone else be ostracized either in real life or on television is similarly distressing. The purpose of the current study was to examine what type of distress (if any) is induced after viewing ostracism on television. The study consisted of 50 participants, half who viewed a movie clip containing ostracism and half who viewed a control clip. Physiological and self-report data revealed that viewing ostracism was distressing to participants. In particular, participants who viewed the ostracism clip reported a lower sense of belonging, self esteem, and mood, and a greater increase in heart rate and skin conductivity than those who viewed the control clip.

  16. Effects of television on children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, R M

    1986-02-01

    The average child born today will, by age 15, have spent more time watching television than going to school. Research has shown that heavy doses of TV violence viewing are associated with the development of aggressive attitudes and behavior. TV viewing also appears to cultivate stereotypic views of gender roles and race. Finally, television commercials often capitalize on children's naivete, and also can foster and reinforce overly materialistic attitudes. All of these adverse effects can be minimized if parents restrict the amount of overall viewing, encourage some programs and discourage others, and talk to children frequently about the meaning of what they see on television.

  17. Television camera for fast-scan data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, B. W.; Yates, G. J.

    1982-11-01

    A fast-scan television camera is described that was designed specifically for closed-circuit data-acquisition applications. The camera is capable of field durations as low as 2.8 ms. The line and field rates are quasicontinuously adjustable. The number of lines, the integration duty cycle, and the scan direction are among the other adjustable parameters. Typical resolution at the fastest scan rate is ≳500 TV lines per picture height with a corresponding dynamic range (to light input) of more than 100. The camera uses the unique properties of FPS vidicons and specially designed electronics to achieve its performance level and versatility.

  18. Locations in television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    , and reflect the growing academic and business interests, respectively, on places in a global media and consumption culture (Falkheimer & Jansson, 2006). Based on empirical location studies of three crime series, Wallander (Yellow Bird, 2008-2012), The Bridge (SVT1 & DR1, 2011-2013) and Dicte (Misofilm/TV2...... in the extra bonus material (Gray, 2010; Waade, 2013), and film tours and film apps become part of the television series’ trans-media franchise (Reijnders, 2011; Thompson, 2007). Location has so far been a practical term describing the place where the series is shot. Ellis (1992) used to see location...

  19. Two-way cable television system characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Paul T.

    1995-11-01

    This presentation is a report of the testing activities of the CableLabs Network Integrity Working Group. The working group consisted of several CableLabs member companies which conducted rf analog and digital bit-error testing at five CATV networks in the U.S. and Canada. The purpose of the working group was to measure the reliability and availability of the contemporary CATV network as specified by traditional switched access telephony performance parameters. Transmission data was collected for both forward and reverse (sub- split) paths of the rf broadband network, in both traditional and hybrid fiber/coax architectures, and for baseline and controlled variation events. The basic premise of this testing was to ascertain which cable television network elements adversely affected transmission of a 'generic' digital communications system and how they can be managed or controlled. The digital transmission utilized in the test was a QPSK modulated, T-1 rate (1.544 Mbit/second), modem without error correction. The intent was not to derive the necessary modulation technique and error correction scheme to properly operate in every cable television system, but rather to determine the principal sources of impairments existing in these networks and deduce corrective measures. The full report of the Network Integrity Working Group is published by CableLabs, Inc., and is titled, 'Two-Way Cable Television System Characterization -- Final Report', April 1995.

  20. En form av television. Globaliseringen av nationell TV-kultur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Bolin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Det populære svenske spil- og underholdningsprogram, Bingolotto, har været vist på national svensk tv lige så længe der har været kommer- ciel tv i Sverige. Programmet har haft skiftende succe siden starten i 1991 og havde på sit højdepunkt over 2 milllioner seere. Artiklen be- skriver Bingolotto som et særligt format inden for spil- og legeprogram- mer. Det sker gennem en diskussion af formatbegrebet i forhold til be- grebet genre, og gennem en identifikation af 4 karakteristiske dimen- sioner i formatbegrebet. Forfatteren fremhæver tv-formatet som en konceptuel beholder, der dels kan kapitaliseres, men som også kun kan anvendes på visse genrer. Desuden betragtes tv-formaternes fremvækst som et slags kulturelt oversættelsesarbejde i en globalise- ret tid, hvor internationale formater versioneres til et bestemt publikum ved at give formatet nationalt kulturelt særpræg.

  1. Block Recovery Rate-Based Unequal Error Protection for Three-Screen TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Ha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a three-screen television system using a block recovery rate (BRR-based unequal error protection (UEP. The proposed in-home wireless network uses scalable video coding (SVC and UEP with forward error correction (FEC for maximizing the quality of service (QoS over error-prone wireless networks. For efficient FEC packet assignment, this paper proposes a simple and efficient performance metric, a BRR which is defined as a recovery rate of temporal and quality layer from FEC assignment by analyzing the hierarchical prediction structure including the current packet loss. It also explains the SVC layer switching scheme according to network conditions such as packet loss rate (PLR and available bandwidth (ABW. In the experiments conducted, gains in video quality with the proposed UEP scheme vary from 1 to 3 dB in Y-peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR with corresponding subjective video quality improvements.

  2. The diffusion of television in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Doshi, J K; Rogers, E M; Rahman, S A

    1988-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1987, the number of television sets increased by 10 times in India. Television now reaches an audience of about 800 million, 10% of the population. 3 main reasons account for the rapid diffusion of television in India: the role of communication satellites in expanding access to television signals, the introduction and popularity of soap operas, and the increasing revenues to the national television system (Doordarshan) from commercial advertising. Hum Log, the 1st soap opera on the national network, was patterned after pro-development soap operas in Mexico and addresses social issues such as family communication, women's status, small family size, national integration, dowry, and alcoholism. The main lesson from the Hum Log experience was that indigenous soap operas can attract large audiences and substantial profits. A 1987 household survey indicated that television ownership is more common in urban areas (88% of households) than rural areas (52%) and among households with incomes above RS 1500 (75% of television owners). The commercialization of Indian television has precipitated a policy debate about television's role. Supporters of further expansion of television services cite popular will, the potential to use this medium for educational development, high advertising incomes, the ability of satellite television to penetrate rural areas, and high government expenditures for television broadcasting. On the other hand, detractors of the commercialization policy argue that television promotes consumerism, widens the gap between the urban elite and the rural poor, disregards regional sociocultural norms, and diverts funding from development programs in areas such as health and education.

  3. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  4. Two perspectives on mobile television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes two user studies aiming at uncovering two distinct aspects of end user experience with mobile television. The rst experiment assessed the acceptability of using mobile TV services in a public context, while the second experiment investigated the test users' collaborative...... and competitive behavior as a possible motivation factor to encourage user contribution. The results from the rst study suggest that users would feel comfortable watching mobile TV in a social environment, especially when combined with earplugs. The second study uncovered challenges to tackle in order to achieve...... mobile collaboration and that the trustworthiness of mobile services is of primary importance for users willing to contribute with content....

  5. Tapping the television cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M; Findlay, A; Canac, J F; Vergez, A

    1996-01-01

    Immediate access to patient data is essential to support good clinical decision making and support. However, away from the surgery, the doctor is currently unable to have any access to the clinical database. Solutions exist to support remote access, such as modems or radio data networks, but these are slow, with typical speeds in the 2-10 kbaud region. We propose a novel solution, to use the TV cable already installed in many homes. Using this technology, a suitably equipped computer (RF modern) is capable of connecting at speeds in excess of 500 kbaud and will run applications in exactly the same way as if connected to a surgery network: the cable TV becomes a LAN, but on a metropolitan scale. Brunel University, in collaboration with the Cable Corporation, has been piloting such a network. Issues include not only levels of service, but also security on the network and access, since the data are being effectively received in every home. However, close scrutiny of channel use can create closed networks reserved for specific users. The technology involves use of an RF modem to transmit data on a reverse channel (based at 16 MHz) on each subnet to a router at the head end of the cable network. This frequency translates the packet and retransmits it to all the subnets on a forward channel (based at 178 MHz). Each channel occupies the bandwidth normally allocated to one TV channel. Access is based on a modified CSMA/CD protocol, so treating the cable network as single multiple access network. The modem comes as a standard card installed in a PC and appears much as an ethernet card, but at reduced speed. With an NDIS driver it is quite able to support almost any network software, and has successfully demonstrated Novell and TCP/IP. We describe the HomeWorker network and the results from a pilot study being undertaken to determine the performance of the system and its impact on working practice.

  6. Children, Radio and Television--Now and in the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Feilitzen, Cecilia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes aspects of television and radio broadcasting in Sweden. Particular attention is given to children's programs, children's viewing patterns, the influence of TV on children, and how to improve the quality of radio and television programs. (Author/SS)

  7. Increase in the Array Television Camera Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhrukhanov, O. S.

    A simple adder circuit for successive television frames that enables to considerably increase the sensitivity of such radiation detectors is suggested by the example of array television camera QN902K.

  8. 47 CFR 76.51 - Major television markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major television markets. 76.51 Section 76.51... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.51 Major television markets. For purposes of the cable television rules, the following is a list of the major television markets and...

  9. Television in the Schools: Instructional Television and Educational Media Resources at the National Public Broadcasting Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…

  10. Family education and television mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz CÁNOVAS LEONHARDT

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article try to deal with the complex influence of television viewing in the process of socialization of children and adolescents, focusing our attention on the importance of the family as the mediator-educator agency of particular relevance. Once analyzed the basic theoretical assumptions, we deepened in reality under study by providing data about how the studied population lives television and what extent parental mediation influences and affects the process. The article concludes with some reflections and pedagogical suggestions which trying to help to the optimization of the educational reality.

  11. Surveying the Social, Smart and Converged TV Landscape: Where is Television Research Headed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montpetit, M.J.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Matijasevic, M.; Liu, Z.; Crowcroft, J.; Bonastre, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    The TV is dead motto of just a few years ago has been replaced by the prospect of Internet Protocol (IP) television experiences over converged networks to become one of the great technology opportunities in the next few years. As an introduction to the Special Issue on Smart, Social and Converged Te

  12. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  13. Influence of Television Commercials on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pamela Y. Y.

    This study investigated the influence of television commercials for toys and cereals on young children. Forty-four children, ranging in age from 4 to 7 years, were interviewed regarding their television viewing habits, their attitudes toward television commercials, their demands for their mothers to buy cereals and toys, and their interpretation…

  14. Cable Television: Its Urban Context and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthman, Forrest

    Cable television's future in urban settings is discussed in the context of alternative media capable of serving similar markets with similar programing. In addition to cable television, other transmission networks such as the telephone network, radio and television broadcasting, microwave networks, domestic satellites, and recording media are…

  15. Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

  16. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  17. Social Sharing of Television Content: An Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Bulterman, D.C.A.; Jansen, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Television, since its invention, has been considered a social link between people. This paper presents an architecture that enhances this social link by supporting micro-personal recommendation messages of television content. The architecture allows end-users to share a fragment of television conten

  18. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  19. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television...

  20. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  1. Why Television Advertising Is Deceptive and Unfair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsen, Rose K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses many topics, including proposals to limit television advertisers' access to children; the dependence of television commercials on involuntary, mnemonic learning; the way television commercials' bypassing of rationality is aided by cognitive processing of music, rhythms, and familiar sensory events; and ideas for correcting the damage…

  2. Why Television Advertising Is Deceptive and Unfair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsen, Rose K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses many topics, including proposals to limit television advertisers' access to children; the dependence of television commercials on involuntary, mnemonic learning; the way television commercials' bypassing of rationality is aided by cognitive processing of music, rhythms, and familiar sensory events; and ideas for correcting the damage…

  3. Predictors for the Effects of Televised Executions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnteer, James B.

    This paper discusses the controversy that has traditionally surrounded the issue of capital punishment. When a Texas television reporter sought permission to televise the execution of a convicted murderer by lethal injection in 1983, arguments were advanced both for and against televising executions. A recent poll shows that 84% of Americans…

  4. Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

  5. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  6. Interaction between Siblings in Primetime Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes three primetime family sitcoms in order to describe the nature of sibling interaction in television families. Research on television families is examined, and questions are raised concerning the value of television sibling images as role models for real people, and the effects of these models on family and peer relationships. (27…

  7. The Selling of Cable Television 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1972 Cable Television Marketing Workshop reviewed in depth a wide variety of marketing and public relations techniques as they pertain to cable television. The workshop was attended by representatives of commercial television systems throughout the United States; it was intended to disseminate the sales and marketing experience of those…

  8. Study on the humanization design of Television

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝凌飞

    2015-01-01

    Since 1924 the world’s first television was born, and now the TV has entered every household, become necessary for life products. The TV design in order to better meet people’s needs, the concept of humanity is essential to human design principles in this article as a starting point to explore the design of the TV how to better “people-oriented”.

  9. Television violence and children's aggression: testing the priming, social script, and disinhibition predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, W L

    1987-11-01

    The effect of television violence on boys' aggression was investigated with consideration of teacher-rated characteristic aggressiveness, timing of frustration, and violence-related cues as moderators. Boys in Grades 2 and 3 (N = 396) watched violent or nonviolent TV in groups of 6, and half the groups were later exposed to a cue associated with the violent TV program. They were frustrated either before or after TV viewing. Aggression was measured by naturalistic observation during a game of floor hockey. Groups containing more characteristically high-aggressive boys showed higher aggression following violent TV plus the cue than following violent TV alone, which in turn produced more aggression than did the nonviolent TV condition. There was evidence that both the violent content and the cue may have suppressed aggression among groups composed primarily of boys low in characteristic aggressiveness. Results were interpreted in terms of current information-processing theories of media effects on aggression.

  10. Citizen Involvement in Public Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Lawrence A.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of citizen involvement in public television. From the perspective of the "average citizen," the concept of involvement is considered with regard to the Carnegie Commission, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) borad of directors, the National Citizens Committee for…

  11. Selective Exposure to Televised Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Charles; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Present the results of a study conducted to determine the correlation between children's selection of television programs and aggression. The regression analysis suggests that the relationship between viewing and aggression may be attributable to selective exposure rather than the reverse viewing-causes-aggression sequence. (Author/JVP)

  12. Television journalism during terror attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on major American networks the first 24 hours...

  13. Cable Television: Developing Community Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter-Huffman, Polly; And Others

    The final volume of a four-volume study focuses on community use of cable television systems. Four separate aspects are discussed extensively: the possibilities of public access, use in municipal service applications, uses in education, and a guide for education planners. Each section contains several appendixes and the education sections include…

  14. Adjective Identification in Television Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2013-01-01

    Learning the Malay language has been a challenging task for foreign language learners. Learners have to learn Malay grammar structure rules in order to write simple sentences. The word choice is important in constructing a sentence. Therefore, the study focuses on the use of adjectives in television advertisements among Korean learners at Hankuk…

  15. Television and Anti-Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasmin

    The "new" anti-racists of the 1980s in contemporary Britain consider racism, particularly against blacks, as both a structural and a white problem. Anti-racist activists, whose attitude is a mirror-image of the political left's general concern about the media--where blacks are in the minority--regard the media, especially television, as…

  16. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  17. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  18. National Coalition on Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki, Thomas

    Included in this newsletter are abstracts of recent articles and books on television violence and related topics. Literature searched includes psychiatry, psychology, and communications periodicals as well as a wide range of the social science literature. Also abstracted are items from both the industrial and the lay press, and the actions of…

  19. Television Journalism During Terror Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on the major American networks in the fi rst 24...

  20. Television and the New Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Fred

    In this speech the president of the National Broadcasting Company offers some views on the impact of new and developing home video services and technologies such as cassette recorders and cable and pay television. He also outlines his views on the competition superstations and "occasional networks" provide the commercial networks and concludes…

  1. Cable Television Franchising in Florida: An Analysis of Selected Franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Lucia M.

    Cable Television franchises in 20 Florida communities were analyzed to determine rates and citizens' rights of access as required by FCC regulations. It was found that rates ranged from $4.95 to $8.75, with the average monthly service at $5.65. Fees had little to do with an overall citizens' rights; the companies with higher rates generally made…

  2. Public and Private Activity in Commercial TV Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olai Hansen, Bodil; Keiding, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model of commercial television market, where private broadcasters coexist with a public television broadcaster. Assuming that the public TV station follows a policy of Ramsey pricing whereas the private stations are profit maximizers, we consider the equilibria in this market...... and compare with a situation where the public station is privatized and acts as another private TV broadcaster. A closer scrutiny of the market for commercial television leads to a distinction between target rating points, which are the prime unit of account in TV advertising, and net coverage, which...... is the final goal of advertisers. Working with net coverage as the fundamental concept, we exploit the models of competition between public and private price and quantity in order to show that privatization of the public TV station entails a welfare loss and results in TV advertising becoming more expensive...

  3. The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…

  4. Current Status of Cable Television in the Top-100 Broadcast Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Stuart J.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the status of cable television in the major broadcast markets suggests that the cable industry has made very little progress in penetrating the top-100 markets, that the rate of development of new cable systems in the top-100 markets has slowed in recent years, and that the primary function of cable television is to retransmit…

  5. Television vampire fandom and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minja Blom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular culture and fandom provide a setting where people can reflect on the questions of life. A television show defines for many of its fans what it means to be human. It also discusses the way things are, and the way they should, or could, be in our reality. In this article the author shows that tele­vision shows Buffy the Vampire Slayer, True Blood and the Vampire Diaries have made the same kind of impact on their fans. The fan writings of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, True Blood and the Vampire Diaries show that these popular texts, and the communities they have formed, have greatly affected the lives of fans. People have found on their TV screens stories they can get strength and hope from. The vampire shows deal with the supernatural – vampires, werewolves, and witches – and place them in our contemporary world as if they are a natural part of it. Television vampire stories revolve around topics of death, good and evil, and humanity. These stories have created massive fan communities and even life changing fan experiences. The reflections upon existential questions, and the way the shows have empowered fans, make this phenomenon important to study in the context of today’s religions reality.

  6. A single amino acid substitution in movement protein of tomato torrado virus influences ToTV infectivity in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Przemysław; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2016-02-02

    Tomato torrado virus (ToTV), which is a tomato-infecting member of the genus Torradovirus, induces severe systemic necrosis in Solanum lycopersicum cv. Beta Lux as well as leaf malformation and chlorosis in Nicotiana benthamiana. To date, neither the tomato gene conferring resistance to the pathogen nor the ToTV-encoded necrosis determinant have been characterized. We herein revealed that the phenylalanine 210 residue in the movement protein domain encoded by ToTV RNA2 is a necrosis-inducing pathogenicity determinant during tomato infection. Using a ToTV infectious RNA2 clone, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of the phenylalanine 210 residue, confirming its importance during ToTV infection and symptom manifestation in S. lycopersicum cv. Beta Lux, but not in N. benthamiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  8. 76 FR 44821 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... establishments operate television broadcasting studios and facilities for the programming and transmission of programs to the public. These establishments also produce or transmit visual programming to affiliated... schedule. Programming may originate in their own studios, from an affiliated network, or from external...

  9. An Investigation of TV Audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1996-01-01

    WITH 850 million viewers watching 300 million TV sets, China has the biggest TV audience in the world. Here, 72 percent of households with TVs. have more than one set. On average, urban citizens spend more than two hours watching TV every day. All the above data comes from the China Central Television Consultation Center of Information Investigation (CCTVCCII).

  10. Agent-based modeling of zapping behavior of viewers, television commercial allocation, and advertisement markets

    CERN Document Server

    Kyan, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple probabilistic model of zapping behavior of television viewers. Our model might be regarded as a `theoretical platform' to investigate the human collective behavior in the macroscopic scale through the zapping action of each viewer at the microscopic level. The stochastic process of audience measurements as macroscopic quantities such as television program rating point or the so-called gross rating point (GRP for short) are reconstructed using the microscopic modeling of each viewer's decision making. Assuming that each viewer decides the television station to watch by means of three factors, namely, physical constraints on television controllers, exogenous information such as advertisement of program by television station, and endogenous information given by `word-of-mouth communication' through the past market history, we shall construct an aggregation probability of Gibbs-Boltzmann-type with the energy function. We discuss the possibility for the ingredients of the model system to exhibi...

  11. Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Bradley S; Eastin, Matthew; Hofschire, Linda; Lachlan, Ken; Brownell, Kelly D

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the distribution and individual characteristics of body types on prime-time television. Five episodes of each of the 10 top-rated prime-time fictional programs on 6 broadcast networks during the 1999-2000 season were quantitatively analyzed. Of 1018 major television characters, 14% of females and 24% of males were overweight or obese, less than half their percentages in the general population. Overweight and obese females were less likely to be considered attractive, to interact with romantic partners, or to display physical affection. Overweight and obese males were less likely to interact with romantic partners and friends or to talk about dating and were more likely to be shown eating. Overweight and obese television characters are associated with specific negative characteristics.

  12. 76 FR 68117 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...-140; RM-11683, DA 11-1735] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal... Gray Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of WJHG-TV, channel 7, Panama City, Florida...)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara...

  13. Commercial Television and Voter Information

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Prat; David Strömberg

    2005-01-01

    What is the effect of liberalizing a country’s broadcasting system on the level of information of its citizens? To analyse this question, we first construct a model of state monopoly broadcasting where the government selects the amount of television news coverage of different public policy outcomes, and then sets public policy and political rents. Voters vote retrospectively given the news provided. In equilibrium, the incumbent provides some news coverage, and more so to groups for which red...

  14. Technology Undermines Cable Television Globally.

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The Internet and digitisation has significantly changed the way in which media content has been consumed over recent years. There is now evidence of further industry disruption occurring as a new group of Internet-based firms focus their attention on the connected home as the next battle ground in their fight for control of the living room. Traditional television and the $2.2 trillion entertainment industry is about to be massively disrupted as companies such as Google, Amazon, Apple and Netf...

  15. Iranian Television Advertisement and Children's Food Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hajizadehoghaz, Masoomeh; Amini, Maryam; Abdollahi, Afsoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this study, the nature of food commercials in children's television (TV) was monitored and analyzed; simultaneously, the relationship between recalling TV food commercials and children's interest in them and in the consumption of the same food products was evaluated. Methods: A total of 108 h children's programs broadcast on two channels (Two and Amouzesh) of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) media organization were monitored (May 6–12, 2015). Simultaneously, a cross...

  16. Political Tv Talk Shows on Greek Television: Live Broadcasting as an ideological and Cognitive frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Vovou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a semiopragmatic analysis of the political talk shows on Greek television that reveals a symbolic conception of the TV studio and it’s value-attributing mechanisms through which principles of democratic dialogue are enacted inside this kind of social and media frame. Political talk shows create the notion of a complex temporality, larger than the concept of events presented live, afecting the political and social vision of the audience.

  17. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  18. Stressful Life Events and Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Finds, studying 491 adults, stress (measured by life events) was unrelated to time spent viewing TV but, for women, was positively related to television "addiction." Finds, studying 329 families, confirmation of mood management theory--stress was associated with increased comedy and decreased news viewing. Finds, studying 140 adults, positive…

  19. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  20. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  1. Home Literacy, Television Viewing, Fidgeting and ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Factors related to parent ratings of young children's (mean age = 3.72, range = 3-6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was…

  2. Audiences' Love to the Television Column "Go Home"——On the Perspective of the Audience Ratings%从收视的角度看《回家》栏目的观众情缘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾旭丰

    2012-01-01

    "Go Home"is a television column that has been created for nine years by Jilin Television Station.From the perspective of audience ratings,the program has experienced three stages of development,namely the high-speed growth stage,the maturity stage and the innovation competition stage."Go Home"reveals the true feelings of the characters with rich cultural connotations.In the mean time,it creates interest points,excitement and suspense by using diversified art means to hold onto the attention and evoke feelings of empathy from the viewers,thus to establish and maintain a good affinity with the audience.The ratings performance and the audience of the program have distinctive features.%吉林电视台《回家》栏目九年来,从收视的角度经历了高速成长期、发展成熟期和创新竞争期三个阶段。《回家》栏目以人物的真情实感和丰富的人文内涵,以多元化的艺术手段打造吸引观众收视的兴趣点、兴奋点和悬念点,借此抓住、抓牢观众,引起观众的共鸣,和观众建立和保持了良好的情缘,栏目的收视表现和观众有明显的特点。

  3. Epilepsy in literature, cinema and television

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús María

    2012-01-01

    .... Epilepsy has frequently been portrayed in literary works, films and television series, often relating it with madness, delinquency, violent behaviours or possession by the divine or the diabolical...

  4. Children's attitudes toward violence on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, K J; Erwin, P G

    1997-07-01

    Children's attitudes toward television violence were studied. A 47-item questionnaire collecting attitudinal and personal information was administered to 316 children aged 11 to 16 years. Cluster analysis was used to split the participants into two groups based on their attitudes toward television violence. A stepwise discriminant function analysis was performed to determine which personal characteristics would predict group membership. The only significant predictor of attitudes toward violence on television was the amount of television watched on school days (p < .05), but we also found that the impact of other predictor variables may have been mediated by this factor.

  5. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and television series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.

  6. Parents, television and children's weight status: On lasting effects of parental television socialization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Tolsma, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study scrutinizes the long-term effects of parental television socialization activities on their children's weight status measured through body mass index (BMI-score). We address the question how parental television habits and parental television mediation in childhood relate to a person's weig

  7. Television Violence and Behavior: The Effects of Television Violence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Charla A.

    Television violence and the impact it has on children is a growing concern in the world today. Although research indicates that violence on television triggers aggressive behavior in children, the characteristics of those children also need to be examined. Factors such as age, intellectual level, identification with television personalities, the…

  8. Selecting Television Programs for Language Learning: Investigating Television Programs from the Same Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal…

  9. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bourdon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier than usually assumed: television managers andprofessionals, public authorities, and, last but not least, advertisers. The paper will explore both change andcontinuity. First, change: the professional origin and training of measurerschanged much over the years. In the early days, they could have an almostliterary profile. The first person in charge of the audience at the RadioTélévision Française was a teacher of philosophy. His followers had a formationin sociology and semiology. They all insisted on the fact that they were not"simply" measurers, and also worried about appreciation, quality,culture. They always figures did produce figures, but rarely only about thenumber of people present in front of the screen, mostly about satisfaction,appreciation, preferences for given genres, viewing habits. As there was onlyone channel – until 1964, with the number of TV sets rising sharply, ratings,in the modern sense, were not critical.Things started to change gradually. In 1974,the public broadcasting corporation was divided into several companies,including three competing channels. The service in charge of measuring audiencewas put under the direct authority of the Prime Minister. Audience figuresplayed a part in the distribution of resources, not only advertising but throughthe license fee sharing. However, the law also provided a clause about an indexof quality, which never functioned satisfactorily, although the service incharge of audiences put much effort into it. In 1985, around the time of deregulation,change came. From outside, this was translated into the rise of daily,detailed, fast produced figures of the audience through audimeters, thenpeoplemeters

  10. 76 FR 5120 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  11. 75 FR 10692 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble,...

  12. 76 FR 54188 - Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman,...

  13. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Kevin R....

  14. 75 FR 67077 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  15. 76 FR 3875 - Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  16. 76 FR 13966 - Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman,...

  17. 76 FR 5119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  18. 75 FR 3695 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  19. 76 FR 5290 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  20. TELEVISION AND DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL WOMENA STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Devadas M.B,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Television as a mass medium has profound impact on society. The pivotal role of Television as an instrument of development by altering the human perspective and transforming the traditional mindset of society is well recognized. TV has not only occupied the leisure hours of women but the whole family is also found busy viewing television programmes for varying length of hours. This paper basically intends to examine the role of TV in the development of rural women. The term development in its broadest sense in the context of India refers to rural development. Rural development has been viewed as an economic planned change to achieve desirable social goals in India since independence. Eapen (1988: 67, in his diagnosis and analysis opens up the Pandora of problems related to the inherent conflicts and contradiction between the state policy regarding electronic media and actual use for development. This study quantitatively analyses the role of television in igniting development among rural women. Thiruvarur, one of the most back ward district in Tamil Nadu is taken as the locale of the study. Hundred rural women samples are selected for the research. This research paper underscores that TV has profound impact on social, economic, cultural and political life of rural women

  1. Media multitasking behavior: concurrent television and computer usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the media landscape have made simultaneous usage of the computer and television increasingly commonplace, but little research has explored how individuals navigate this media multitasking environment. Prior work suggests that self-insight may be limited in media consumption and multitasking environments, reinforcing a rising need for direct observational research. A laboratory experiment recorded both younger and older individuals as they used a computer and television concurrently, multitasking across television and Internet content. Results show that individuals are attending primarily to the computer during media multitasking. Although gazes last longer on the computer when compared to the television, the overall distribution of gazes is strongly skewed toward very short gazes only a few seconds in duration. People switched between media at an extreme rate, averaging more than 4 switches per min and 120 switches over the 27.5-minute study exposure. Participants had little insight into their switching activity and recalled their switching behavior at an average of only 12 percent of their actual switching rate revealed in the objective data. Younger individuals switched more often than older individuals, but other individual differences such as stated multitasking preference and polychronicity had little effect on switching patterns or gaze duration. This overall pattern of results highlights the importance of exploring new media environments, such as the current drive toward media multitasking, and reinforces that self-monitoring, post hoc surveying, and lay theory may offer only limited insight into how individuals interact with media.

  2. The Paradigmatic Evolution of U.S. Television and the Emergence of Internet-Distributed Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Lotz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Television industries around the world have weathered profound change as technologies advanced and services developed to allow internet-distributed television to compete alongside broadcast and cable-distributed television. This article, drawn from the context of the U.S., explores the emergence of internet-distributed television as a mechanism that provides the affordance of nonlinear distribution. It assesses the preliminary organization of internet-distributed television by portals and explores the similarities and differences between portals and networks/channels with an eye toward conceptualizing emerging business practices and strategies.

  3. Cable Television and Satellite Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1990-05-01

    Sponsored by the Financial Times, this 2-day conference was the eighth in the annual series. This particular conference marks the end of the first year of the Sky Television network's operation in the U.K. The conference was held just before British Satellite Broadcasting (BSB) goes into operation. With speakers from the U.K., the U.S., France, Japan, and the Netherlands, attendance exceeded all previous conferences. The 400 participants came mainly from the U.K., but also represented were France, the Netherlands, U.S., Australia, Spain, Norway, Canada, Switzerland, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Finland, Monaco, Belgium, South Africa, Italy, Luxembourg, Irish Republic, and Malta.

  4. TV as storyteller: how exposure to television narratives impacts at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Piotrowski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the

  5. TV as storyteller: how exposure to television narratives impacts at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Piotrowski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the r

  6. The Impact of Television on Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    1970-01-01

    Reviews literature on effectiveness of educational television (ETV) and reports trends in ETV utilization by Victorian secondary school science teachers. Discusses potential improvements in ETV utilization using electronic video recording devices, feedback to the television teachers, and identification of effective ETV techniques. (AL)

  7. Evaluation of the "Feeling Good" Television Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Keith W.; Swinehart, James W.

    This report provides an overview of the development and evaluation of an experimental television series for adult viewers on health care. The series was produced by the Children's Television Workshop and aired in prime time during 1974-1975 by the Public Broadcasting Service. The report synthesizes results of complementary impact studies conducted…

  8. Decision-Oriented Research in School Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Keith W.

    A review of the contributions of evaluation to school television is presented, and some policy suggestions for evaluation programs are offered. The purpose is to assist the Agency for Instructional Television (AIT) in determining how to utilize evaluative research in conducting its projects and the focus is upon decision-making related to the…

  9. Television Ads in Singapore: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sharaf N.; Aw, Annette; Kennan, William

    1999-01-01

    Appraises the information content of Singapore television advertising, and makes a comparison with relevant United States findings. Research reported in this paper is a replication of two empirical studies of the informational content of television advertising in the United States from 1977. (Author/LRW)

  10. Community Television. A Handbook for Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to encourage older people to take an active role in local television program production and to design and produce programs that will enhance the quality of life for other older Americans. It is noted that locally produced television offers older people a voice at the local level, the opportunity for making new friends and…

  11. Cultivation Effects: Television and Foreign Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhoff-Spurk, Peter

    This test of Marshall McLuhan's claim that increased exposure to television will develop a perception of the world as a "global village" used estimation of cognitive distance as an operational definition of the global village concept. The first phase of the study tested the hypothesis that "heavy" television viewers' estimates…

  12. Cable Television; A Guide for Citizen Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Monroe E.; Wicklein, John

    When commercial radio began broadcasting, some citizens saw it as a new "golden age," offering vast opportunities for educational and public service programing. These dreams did not come true because it was more profitable to sell advertising. The same pattern occured with broadcast television. Cable television provides a third chance, and this…

  13. Cable Television in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Glen A.; Branch, Robert C.

    Using cable television in the classroom allows teachers to include the latest news and current events in class discussions. However, many educational practitioners are uninformed about the concept and lack the knowledge to implement the technology in the classroom. This digest describes how cable television can be integrated into elementary and…

  14. Crossed Wires; Cable Television in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Analysis of Public Issues, Princeton, NJ.

    Cable television (CATV) in New Jersey has been almost nonexistent: Because of the state's proximity to the major cities of New York and Philadelphia, there has been a scarcity of New Jersey-oriented news and public affairs programing. Cable television access, it is suggested, could fill this information gap in New Jersey if the state government…

  15. Fright reactions to television; A child survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Cantor, J.; Peeters, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Using telephone interviews with a random sample of Dutch children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, the authors investigated (a) the prevalence of television-induced fright, (b) whether the fear-inducing capacity of different types of television content (interpersonal violence, fantasy characters,

  16. Seeking Solutions to Violence on Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.

    This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television…

  17. Teaching Television: A Curriculum for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaczynski, Wanda; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the adaptation and testing of a curriculum designed to mediate the effects of television. Curriculum included lessons on special effects, violence, commercials, audio and video aspects. Results of the testing indicate that children in kindergarten through second grade made significant gains in their knowledge of how television works. (PD)

  18. Digital television revolution origins to outcomes

    CERN Document Server

    Starks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This account of the global switch to digital television, from its origins to its emerging outcomes, provides an understanding of how digital television is converging with the Internet. It pictures a future in which the democratic role of the media, freedom of expression and democratic participation can be enhanced.

  19. Advanced interactive television services require content synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, M.O. van; Stokking, H.M.; Niamut, O.A.; Walraven, F.A.; Klos, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced interactive television services, e.g. using IMS-based IPTV technology, enable users to interact with other users within the context of simultaneously consumed content, like broadcast television channels. Differences of content arrival time of 100 ms may already have a perceivable effect on

  20. Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

  1. Community Cable Television--Hungarian Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekfu, Andras

    This paper argues that, although community cable television is one of the most dynamic (although experimental) elements of the Hungarian media structure, it is well on its way toward institutionalization. It is suggested that whether community cable television is able to retain the spontaneity, innovativeness, and elasticity of its early days may…

  2. Antecedents of Children's Comprehension of Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compares the importance of role taking and the logical operations stage of child development in predicting children's understanding of the purpose of television advertising. Research on children's comprehension of television commercials is briefly reviewed and the subjects of the study, as well as the study methodology, are described. (Author/JL)

  3. Cable Television, Market Power and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Kenneth E.

    The goals of this dissertation are to provide an empirical examination of the impact of competing technologies on cable television firms and to document existing pricing behavior in the cable and pay programming industry. The introduction provides a brief overview of the cable television industry, including the impact of cable on federal policy…

  4. Fright reactions to television; A child survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Cantor, J.; Peeters, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Using telephone interviews with a random sample of Dutch children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, the authors investigated (a) the prevalence of television-induced fright, (b) whether the fear-inducing capacity of different types of television content (interpersonal violence, fantasy characters,

  5. Cable Television: Citizen Participation in Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    The historical background of citizen participation in local affairs and its relevance at the onset of community concern about cable television are briefly discussed in this report. The participation of citizens, municipal officials, and cable operators in laying the groundwork for a cable system as well as the pros and cons of cable television as…

  6. The Status of Research in Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Ellen; Chapman, Judith E.

    The intent of this document has been to provide a synthesis of the status of research on children's television that could be used as an information base for planning purposes. An outline or hierarchy of critical television research topics which need further investigation has been compiled from an analysis of major reference documents and personal…

  7. Teaching Television: A Curriculum for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaczynski, Wanda; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the adaptation and testing of a curriculum designed to mediate the effects of television. Curriculum included lessons on special effects, violence, commercials, audio and video aspects. Results of the testing indicate that children in kindergarten through second grade made significant gains in their knowledge of how television works. (PD)

  8. Cinematography and Television: Differences and Similarites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Nazareth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Television and Cinema present specific behaviour and language in relation to reality. If film focuses on its proximity to artistic practices, and this reflects the viewer’s relationship with the film, television, in turn, seeks in directness or the transposition of the real to the imaginary, the key to its success, the audience. We all see the possibilities that television has for viewers. Even those most aware of the various con- straints, and who claim themselves to be not influenced, come under the hypnotic power of the television screen. The quality of the programming continues to decline, succumbing to the claim that television channels have to get into the audience “ratings”.

  9. Hierarchies of television tastes and class distinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on data from the empirical research project Media consumption, social class and cultural stratification carried out with the help of a questionnaire administered to 820 residents of Ljubljana and Maribor, the paper examines the relationship between social class, education and television tastes. Contrary to some of the recent literature which emphasises a weak or non-existent connection between class positions and patterns of television consumption, the author uses the Slovenian sample to show that class and education differentiate television preferences significantly although only in some segments of the television repertoire. In the conclusion of the paper, the importance of studying television preferences in connection with other fields of cultural consumption is stressed.

  10. [Epilepsy in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús María

    2012-10-01

    Literature, cinema and television have often portrayed stereotypical images of people that have epilepsy and have helped foster false beliefs about the disease. To examine the image of epilepsy presented by literature, cinema and television over the years. Epilepsy has frequently been portrayed in literary works, films and television series, often relating it with madness, delinquency, violent behaviours or possession by the divine or the diabolical, all of which has helped perpetuate our ancestral beliefs. The literary tales and the images that appear in films and on television cause an important emotional impact and, bearing in mind that many people will only ever see an epileptic seizure in a film or in a TV series or might gain some information about the disorder from a literary text, what they see on the screen or read in the novels will be their only points of reference. Such experiences will therefore mark the awareness and knowledge they will have about epilepsy and their attitudes towards the people who suffer from it. Novels and films are fiction, but it is important to show realistic images of the disease that are no longer linked to the false beliefs of the past and which help the general public to have a more correct view of epilepsy that is free from prejudices and stereotypes. Literature, cinema and television have often dealt with the subject of epilepsy, sometimes realistically, but in many cases they have only helped to perpetuate false beliefs about this disease.

  11. Children's Perceived Reality of Television and the Effects of Pro- and Anti-Social TV Content on Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Byron

    Interviews were conducted with 721 students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades to study whether children's perceived reality of television would affect the relationship between pro-social and anti-social television content and pro-social and anti-social behavior. Social behavior variables, a perceived reality index, and television exposure…

  12. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guran, T; Bereket, A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity.

  13. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI.

  14. Is Watching Television a Realistic Leisure Option for People with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrét Gústafsdóttir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Watching television is a common leisure activity, not least among older people. However, watching television may become difficult when it is disturbed by symptoms of dementia. Method: A total of 284 questionnaires were handed out to relatives of people with dementia in Iceland, in the Memory Clinic of the University Hospital and in specialized units for people with dementia (6 day-care units and 8 units within nursing homes. The response rate was just below 58%. Results: Watching television was shown to play a less important role in the course of the daily life of people with dementia as soon as the symptoms of the disease became evident, and it increasingly became less relevant. So, this previous leisure activity left an ever-growing void of time to fill. However, watching television may provide an important social context for contact and togetherness during the progress of the disease, as watching television with someone close to them was important for the individuals with dementia. Conclusion: It is not a viable option for people with dementia to watch television on their own, but they may enjoy watching television while sharing this activity with a person close to them. This may even provide quality time.

  15. Visual Peoplemeter: A Vision-based Television Audience Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKELIN, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual peoplemeter is a vision-based measurement system that objectively evaluates the attentive behavior for TV audience rating, thus offering solution to some of drawbacks of current manual logging peoplemeters. In this paper, some limitations of current audience measurement system are reviewed and a novel vision-based system aiming at passive metering of viewers is prototyped. The system uses camera mounted on a television as a sensing modality and applies advanced computer vision algorithms to detect and track a person, and to recognize attentional states. Feasibility of the system is evaluated on a secondary dataset. The results show that the proposed system can analyze viewer's attentive behavior, therefore enabling passive estimates of relevant audience measurement categories.

  16. Television Commercials' Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisenberry, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses research focused on characteristics of children's TV commercials, the relationship between commercials and children's learning and reasoning, and effects of commercials on children's language, attitudes, and beliefs. (Author/RH)

  17. Obesogenic television food advertising to children in Malaysia: sociocultural variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See H. Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food advertising on television (TV is well known to influence children's purchasing requests and models negative food habits in Western countries. Advertising of unhealthy foods is a contributor to the obesogenic environment that is a key driver of rising rates of childhood obesity. Children in developing countries are more at risk of being targeted by such advertising, as there is a huge potential for market growth of unhealthy foods concomitant with poor regulatory infrastructure. Further, in developing countries with multi-ethnic societies, information is scarce on the nature of TV advertising targeting children. Objectives: To measure exposure and power of TV food marketing to children on popular multi-ethnic TV stations in Malaysia. Design: Ethnic-specific popular TV channels were identified using industry data. TV transmissions were recorded for each channel from November 2012 to August 2013 (16 hr/day for randomly selected weekdays and weekend days during normal days and repeated during school holidays (n=88 days. Coded food/beverage advertisements were grouped into core (healthy, non-core (non-healthy, or miscellaneous (unclassified food categories. Peak viewing time (PVT and persuasive marketing techniques were identified. Results: Non-core foods were predominant in TV food advertising, and rates were greater during school holidays compared to normal days (3.51 vs 1.93 food ads/hr/channel, p<0.001. During normal days’ PVT, the ratio of non-core to core food advertising was higher (3.25 food ads/hr/channel, and this more than trebled during school holidays to 10.25 food ads/hr/channel. Popular channels for Indian children had the lowest rate of food advertising relative to other ethnic groups. However, sugary drinks remained a popular non-core product advertised across all broadcast periods and channels. Notably, promotional characters doubled for non-core foods during school holidays compared to normal days (1.91 vs 0

  18. Obesogenic television food advertising to children in Malaysia: sociocultural variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, See H; Kelly, Bridget; Se, Chee H; Chinna, Karuthan; Sameeha, Mohd Jamil; Krishnasamy, Shanthi; Ismail, M N; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2014-01-01

    Food advertising on television (TV) is well known to influence children's purchasing requests and models negative food habits in Western countries. Advertising of unhealthy foods is a contributor to the obesogenic environment that is a key driver of rising rates of childhood obesity. Children in developing countries are more at risk of being targeted by such advertising, as there is a huge potential for market growth of unhealthy foods concomitant with poor regulatory infrastructure. Further, in developing countries with multi-ethnic societies, information is scarce on the nature of TV advertising targeting children. To measure exposure and power of TV food marketing to children on popular multi-ethnic TV stations in Malaysia. Ethnic-specific popular TV channels were identified using industry data. TV transmissions were recorded for each channel from November 2012 to August 2013 (16 hr/day) for randomly selected weekdays and weekend days during normal days and repeated during school holidays (n=88 days). Coded food/beverage advertisements were grouped into core (healthy), non-core (non-healthy), or miscellaneous (unclassified) food categories. Peak viewing time (PVT) and persuasive marketing techniques were identified. Non-core foods were predominant in TV food advertising, and rates were greater during school holidays compared to normal days (3.51 vs 1.93 food ads/hr/channel, pfood advertising was higher (3.25 food ads/hr/channel), and this more than trebled during school holidays to 10.25 food ads/hr/channel. Popular channels for Indian children had the lowest rate of food advertising relative to other ethnic groups. However, sugary drinks remained a popular non-core product advertised across all broadcast periods and channels. Notably, promotional characters doubled for non-core foods during school holidays compared to normal days (1.91 vs 0.93 food ads/hr/channel, pfood advertising, and predominantly sugary drinks are commonly screened on Malaysian TV channels

  19. Television viewing by young Hispanic children: evidence of heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Sibinga, Erica M S; Jennings, Jacky M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2010-02-01

    To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Hispanic mothers differs by maternal language preference and to compare these differences with young children with white mothers. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Nationally representative sample. One thousand three hundred forty-seven mothers of children aged 4 to 35 months. Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (white or Hispanic) and within Hispanic race/ethnicity, stratification by maternal language preference (English or Spanish). Hours of daily television the child viewed. Bivariate analyses showed that children of English- vs Spanish-speaking Hispanic mothers watched more television daily (1.88 vs 1.31 hours, P speaking Hispanic mothers watched similar amounts. However, among children aged 12 to 23 and 24 to 35 months, those of English-speaking Hispanic mothers watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Hispanic mothers (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.22; IRR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared with children of white mothers, children of both Hispanic subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4- to 11-month-old group. However, among 12- to 23-month-old children, those of English-speaking Hispanic mothers watched more compared with children of white mothers (IRR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.18-2.11). Among 24- to 35-month-old children, those of English-speaking Hispanic mothers watched similar amounts compared with children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Hispanic mothers watched less (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50-0.95). Television-viewing amounts among young children with Hispanic mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference, supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Hispanic children.

  20. Women in Television News: Analysis of Primetime News on HTV, RTL and Nova TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Knežević

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the particularly low level of women represented on national primetime television newscasts in Croatia. In doing so, it presents the results of a content analysis covering a random,stratified sample of HTV, Nova TV, and RTL primetime news broadcasts over the years 2009 and 2010. According to these results, women are significantly underrepresented as main characters, experts, or even persons relevant to news stories concerning issues or problems. In particular, the results are most apparent on the primetime newscast Dnevnik, broadcasted daily on Croatia’s main public television station. Ideally, this news broadcast should rank among the best in terms of gender equality, given the principles of equality stipulated throughout Croatian law (and especially where it concerns programming legislation. Concerning the analyzed content, when women serve as the main characters in a news story, their emotional response to an issue appears to be almost obligatory. Further, women are often portrayed as victims, or as a figure to galvanize a rather black and white response, i.e. they are to be praised or blamed. Adding to this gender discrepancy, statistics show that more women than men have earned BA and MA degrees, which not only highlights the unbalanced representation of women on television news, but also distorts the actual level of female participation in society, particularly where it regards sociopolitical fields.

  1. Amount of Hispanic youth exposure to food and beverage advertising on Spanish- and English-language television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, Frances; Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to large numbers of television advertisements for foods and beverages with little or no nutritional value likely contributes to poor diet among youth. Given higher rates of obesity and overweight for Hispanic youth, it is important to understand the amount and types of food advertising they view. To quantify the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by Hispanic youth on Spanish- and English-language television and compare it with the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by non-Hispanic youth. Data on gross rating points that measured advertising viewed on national broadcast and cable television in 2010 using a Nielsen panel of television-viewing households of Hispanic and non-Hispanic preschoolers (2-5 years), children (6-11 years), and adolescents (12-17 years). Food and beverage television advertisements viewed on English- and Spanish-language television by product category and television-viewing times by age and language preference. EXPOSURE Food and beverage advertising on Spanish- and English-language television. RESULTS In 2010, Hispanic preschoolers, children, and adolescents viewed, on average, 11.6 to 12.4 television food ads per day; the majority of these ads (75%-85%) appeared on English-language television. Fast food represented a higher proportion of food ads on Spanish-language television. Consistent with television-viewing patterns, Hispanic preschoolers saw more Spanish-language food advertisements than did Hispanic children and adolescents. Owing to somewhat less food advertising on Spanish-language television, Hispanic children and adolescents viewed 14% and 24% fewer food ads overall, respectively, compared with non-Hispanic youth. Spanish-language television viewing was highly concentrated among youth who primarily speak Spanish. Both Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth view large numbers of television advertisements for nutrient-poor categories of food and beverage. Although Hispanic children and adolescents see somewhat

  2. Investor sentiment and stock returns: Evidence from provincial TV audience rating in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yuzhao; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we advocate the provincial TV audience rating as the novel proxy for the provincial investor sentiment (PIS) and investigate its relation with stock returns. The empirical results firstly show that the PIS is positively related to stock returns. Secondly, we provide direct evidence on the existence of home bias in China by observing that the provincial correlation coefficient is significantly larger than the cross-provincial correlation coefficient. Finally, the PIS can explain a large proportion of provincial comovement. To sum up, all these findings support the role of the non-traditional information sources in understanding the "anomalies" in stock market.

  3. 47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76.614 Section 76.614 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular monitoring. Cable television...

  4. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  5. 47 CFR 76.59 - Modification of television markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of television markets. 76.59... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.59 Modification of television markets. (a) The Commission, following a written request from a broadcast station or...

  6. SUITABILITY OF AIOU TELEVISION AND ITS IMPACT ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Abdul SIRAJ

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The requirement of television for educational purposes arises when specific educational objectives are not achieved through traditional way of teaching. There are a number of things television can do better than the average teacher and traditional educational institutions, but situations where both teacher and educational institutions are not available, television is the answer to obtain educational objectives, Lochte, (1993). This research paper investigates relationship between TV ...

  7. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.

  8. Making the Most of Television: Tips for Parents of Young Viewers = Aproveche al maximo la television: Ideas para padres de ninos jovenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jeanette

    With the help of parents, television can expand a child's world and be a springboard to reading. This brochure discusses things parents and caregivers can do to make television a partner in helping children grow and learn. It suggests: make a "TV plan"; getting involved while children watch television; using the VCR and videos; and turning TV time…

  9. Does watching violence on television cause apathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabman, R S; Thomas, M H

    1976-03-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to televised violence serves to increase children's toleration of real-life aggression was investigated. Fifth-grade boys and girls were exposed to either a violent television excerpt or a nonviolent, exciting control program. Immediately thereafter, each child was lead to believe that he had been given responsibility for monitoring the behavior of two younger children. Subjects who had witnessed the aggressive television program were found to be significantly slower to summon appropriate adult aid when the younger children began to argue and fight than were subjects who had viewed the control film.

  10. Cable Television 1980: Status and Prospect for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, F., Ed.

    Baseline information for the would-be cable television educational programer is provided by two papers, one an overview of the state of the cable television industry, and the other a report on a marketing study conducted to determine consumer attitudes toward cable TV as an educational medium. In "The Promise and Reality of Cable…

  11. 76 FR 49697 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications... Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), licensee of WEAU-TV, channel 13, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, requesting the... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73...

  12. 75 FR 1546 - Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME AGENCY: Federal Communications... Community Broadcasting Service, the licensee of WABI-TV, channel 19, Bangor, Maine, requesting the..., Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications...

  13. A Marriage Proposal: Cable Television and Local Public Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Louis; Woods, Robert A.

    Two articles reprinted from "Public Power" discuss the present state of cable television (TV), its future prospects, and the opportunities offered municipal utilities by cable TV. The proposal is that local publicly-owned electric utilities meet the requirements of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for cable TV ownership and have the…

  14. [Photosensitive epilepsy and television epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parain, D; Blondeau, C

    2000-01-01

    Photosensitivity is defined by the appearance of occipital or more diffuse electroencephalographic spikes and waves induced by intermittent light stimulation (ILS), particular patterns, TV-watching, and video games. Photosensitivity is a genetic characteristic. Only the diffuse spikes and waves induced by ILS are correlated with epilepsy. Pure photogenic epilepsy is characterized by seizures which are only visually induced, usually by watching TV. Video games sometimes add a trigger effect due to slowly moving patterns or intense brightness. Several epileptic syndromes are associated with a photosensitivity with or without visually-induced seizures, mainly generalized idiopathic epilepsy.

  15. Latest Developments In Liquid Crystal Television Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Shinji; Oguchi, Kouichi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    1984-06-01

    This paper will discuss developments in liquid crystal (LC) television displays, mainly for pocket-size TV sets. There are two types of LC television displays. One is a simple multiplexing type, and the other is an active matrix type. The former type is an easier way to fabricate large and low-cost LC panels than the latter. However, it has serious drawbacks. The contrast gets lower as the duty ratio gets higher. Therefore the TV image of this type inevitably has rather low contrast and resolution. On the other hand, the active matrix type, which consists of active elements in each pixel, has several advantages in overcoming such problems. The metal oxide semiconductor transistors and the amorphous or polycrystalline Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) have possibilities in this application. A full-color LC display, which can be realized by the combina-tion of color filters and poly Si TFT arrays on a transparent substrate, was proven to have excellent color image, close to that of conventional CRTs. Here, several examples of LC television displays, including color, are shown. Some of them are already on the market, and others will be soon.

  16. Multiscreen television and audience research: the case of regional channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Medina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available TV content can be enjoyed on multiple screens not only on the TV set. This is what we called Smart or Connected TV, that is to say, an online and interactive television that enables personalized and on demand consumption through a variety of deliveries. The development of connected TV needs new audience measurement systems that allow monitoring the audience across multiple screens. Only a suitable measuring method allows to know the audience for content management and advertising sales.The firstobjective of this paper is to analyze whether the public regional public television in Spain also made this offer. We have chosen the Catalan Corporation of Audiovisual Media (CCMA and EITB, the Basque Radio and Television (EITB. Our second goal is to study the need of new audience measurement systems for this regional television and make suggestions that could help them to exploit the new sources of revenue.

  17. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... rulemaking filed by Lincoln Broadcasting, LLC (``LBL''), licensee of KFXL-TV, channel 51, Lincoln,...

  18. Emergency department visits during an Olympic gold medal television broadcast

    OpenAIRE

    Donald A Redelmeier; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2011-01-01

    Background Practice pattern variations are often attributed to physician decision-making with no accounting for patient preferences. Objective To test whether a mass media television broadcast unrelated to health was associated with changes in the rate and characteristics of visits for acute emergency care. Design Time-series analysis of emergency department visits for any reason. Subjects Population-based sample of all patients seeking emergency care in Ontario, Canada. Measures The broadcas...

  19. The Impact of Television on American Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the influence of 25 years of television on family life and the socialization of children, church and religion, enforcement of laws and norms, mass media and leisure, public security, and politics and public affairs. (JMF)

  20. Videogames, Television Violence, and Aggression in Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Joseph R.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated relationships relative to teenagers' videogame playing, watching violent television programs, antisocial behavior, and self-esteem. Concluded that videogame playing is neither the menace critics portray it nor without possible negative consequences. (PD)

  1. Education by Television in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerien, Jean

    1981-01-01

    The management, administration, production, and broadcasting of educational television are discussed and evaluated with respect to its use in elementary education, training of teachers, and out-of-school education in the Ivory Coast during the 1970s. (CHC)

  2. Television in Higher Education: The Indian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Usha Vyasulu

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development and introduction of television in India's higher education system. Topics discussed include policy formulation, the Indian educational system, the administrative structure supporting educational technology in India, goal setting, and problems encountered in implementation. (LRW)

  3. Television Commercials in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirble, Rosanne

    1977-01-01

    This article suggests using both Spanish and English television commercials to stimulate classroom dialogue and language practice. Drills can be contextualized if based on these commercials and the films can stimulate socio-cultural conversations in the target language. (CHK)

  4. Using Television Commercials to Develop Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James D.; Bowman, S. Ray

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that teachers can use reluctant readers' sensitivity to and sophistication with "musicomedy" to both assess and develop reading comprehension. Discusses several class activities using the musical and humorous expressions in television commercials for fulfilling this objective. (RS)

  5. Structuring virtual spaces as television places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    As all major American broadcast and cable networks now provide some form and amount of online distribution of their television programming, we are beginning to see more interactive features being attached to this distribution to remediate the conditions of television consumption in the physical...... of social interaction.  Cable network SciFi Channel produced “live events” to allow limited narrative interaction.  Independent producer Metanomics created a virtual “talk show” to encourage both social interaction and narrative interaction.  The analysis is set into a larger theoretical framework...... considering how these Internet-based interactive television examples demonstrate the remediation of conventional conceptualizations of television distribution structures and consumption practices, which then indicate the power dynamics of the producer-consumer relationship.  The form in which...

  6. Cable Television: From Here to Where?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Cable Television Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    A brief description is presented of the present uses, regulatory structure, and future potentials of cable television for Canada. Some 30% of Canada is already wired for cable, as opposed to 9% in the United States. (RH)

  7. Parental Mediation of Television Advertising Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Thomas S.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the current research on the effects of television advertising on children and the interaction between parent and child regarding the child's consumer behavior. Suggests areas for future research. (JMF)

  8. Videogames, Television Violence, and Aggression in Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Joseph R.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated relationships relative to teenagers' videogame playing, watching violent television programs, antisocial behavior, and self-esteem. Concluded that videogame playing is neither the menace critics portray it nor without possible negative consequences. (PD)

  9. Education by Television in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerien, Jean

    1981-01-01

    The management, administration, production, and broadcasting of educational television are discussed and evaluated with respect to its use in elementary education, training of teachers, and out-of-school education in the Ivory Coast during the 1970s. (CHC)

  10. Research: Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the major research findings on the relationship between television violence and aggressive behavior; concludes that, while there is no definitive proof that such a relationship exists, the evidence points strongly in that direction. (GT)

  11. Bullying on Television: 1960-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovich, Kaitlin A; Bapty, Samantha J; Maestas, Travis S; Strasburger, Victor C

    2016-10-01

    Bullying is a serious issue for adolescents, with health consequences both at the time of victimization and later on in adulthood. Aggression in the media is an area that has been explored as a contributing factor to bullying behavior. This study aims to determine if the incidence of aggression in popular television shows over the past 50 years has changed. A total of 198 episodes of the most popular television shows between the years 1960 and 2010 were coded for incidents of aggression and analyzed using simple linear regression. The mean number of events per episode was 8.8. No statistically significant correlation was found between number of bullying events and the years in which they occurred. Whereas it is possible that aggression on television may have an impact on bullying behaviors, there is no evidence that the incidence of bullying on television has changed significantly in the past 5 decades. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. The Impact of Television on American Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the influence of 25 years of television on family life and the socialization of children, church and religion, enforcement of laws and norms, mass media and leisure, public security, and politics and public affairs. (JMF)

  13. Closed circuit television welding alignment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darner, G.S.

    1976-09-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) weld targeting systems were developed to provide accurate and repeatable positioning of the electrode of an electronic arc welder with respect to the parts being joined. A sliding mirror electrode holder was developed for use with closed circuit television equipment on existing weld fixturing. A complete motorized CCTV weld alignment system was developed to provide weld targeting for even the most critical positioning requirements.

  14. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea.

  15. Removing the Bedroom Television Set: A Possible Method for Decreasing Television Viewing Time in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…

  16. Co-producing Television Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus; Helles, Rasmus

    -production networks based on data on TV-drama production and distribution among twelve countries. Not surprisingly we find regional and linguistic affinities in those networks, but some nations also come out with a very strong position in those networks, and across linguistic and regional divides. The paper provides...

  17. Science in pictures: Visual representation of climate change in Spain's television news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Bienvenido; Erviti, M Carmen

    2015-02-01

    The images used by the media to represent science can help people's understanding of complex processes and create meaningful links with audiences. This is particularly relevant in the case of climate change (CC), an important phenomenon that, nevertheless, is often perceived as a remote issue, with no relevance to daily life. This article presents the main results of a research on the images used in television news to represent CC. From a sample of 1476.4 hours of Spanish television news programmes, a content analysis of 78 stories on climate change was carried out. This was complemented with six semi-structured interviews at five TV newsrooms. Results indicate that the low rate of coverage of CC can be related to the scarcity of attractive images available to the channels.

  18. Coming out of the Television: LGBT-themed Made-for-Television Movies as Critical Media Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, David Randolph

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, an important but under-examined subgenre of Made-for-Television Movies have foregrounded critical LGBT concerns, including coming out, parental custody, HIV/AIDS, gays in the military, and hate crimes or featured affirmative LGBT representations. These programs, often highly-rated and critically-acclaimed, were nonetheless sites of political contestation from social conservatives and LGBT activists. Through the lenses of critical media pedagogy, critical cultural stud...

  19. Simulation and Measurement of the Transmission Distortions of the Digital Television DVB-T/H Part 2: Hierarchical Modulation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stukavec

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the second part of results of the Czech Science Foundation research project that was aimed into the simulation and measurement of the transmission distortions of the digital terrestrial television according to DVB-T/H standards. In this part the hierarchical modulation performance characteristics and its simulation and laboratory measurements are presented. The paper deals with the hierarchical oriented COFDM modulator for the digital terrestrial television transmission and DVB-T/H standards and possible utilization of this technique in real broadcasting scenarios – fixed, portable and mobile digital TV, all in one TV channel. Impact of the hierarchical modulation on Modulation Error Rate from I/Q constellations and Bit Error Rates before and after Viterbi decoding in DVB-T/H signal decoding are evaluated and discussed.

  20. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  1. Watching sport on television, physical activity, and risk of obesity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Weiler, Richard; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-08

    Television (TV) viewing has been associated with obesity although the effects of specific TV content on health and other behaviours remains unknown. We examined the association between watching sport on TV, physical activity levels, and risk of obesity. We studied 6,733 (aged 64.9 ± 9.2 yrs) men and women from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Data were collected on self reported TV time and content, and physical activity. Nurses measured height and weight for the calculation of body mass index. On average, participants reported viewing TV for 5.3 ± 4.1 hours per day and 30.3% of the sample watched sport on TV at least twice a week. There was no association between watching sport and physical activity levels. Participants that watched sports every day were at higher risk of obesity [odds ratio = 1.39, 95% CI, 1.15, 1.68) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, total TV time, disability, and self-rated health. Watching elite athletes may have no role in the promotion of physical activity in older adults, which has implications for staging large sporting events with physical activity legacy promises.

  2. Could nursery rhymes cause violent behaviour? A comparison with television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P; Lee, L; Fox, A; Fox, E

    2004-12-01

    To assess the rates of violence in nursery rhymes compared to pre-watershed television viewing. Data regarding television viewing habits, and the amount of violence on British television, were obtained from Ofcom. A compilation of nursery rhymes was examined for episodes of violence by three of the researchers. Each nursery rhyme was analysed by number and type of episode. They were then recited to the fourth researcher whose reactions were scrutinised. There were 1045 violent scenes on pre-watershed television over two weeks, of which 61% showed the act and the result; 51% of programmes contained violence. The 25 nursery rhymes had 20 episodes of violence, with 41% of rhymes being violent in some way; 30% mentioned the act and the result, with 50% only the act. Episodes of law breaking and animal abuse were also identified. Television has 4.8 violent scenes per hour and nursery rhymes have 52.2 violent scenes per hour. Analysis of the reactions of the fourth researcher were inconclusive. Although we do not advocate exposure for anyone to violent scenes or stimuli, childhood violence is not a new phenomenon. Whether visual violence and imagined violence have the same effect is likely to depend on the age of the child and the effectiveness of the storyteller. Re-interpretation of the ancient problem of childhood and youth violence through modern eyes is difficult, and laying the blame solely on television viewing is simplistic and may divert attention from vastly more complex societal problems.

  3. Defamiliarization in Television Viewing: Aesthetic and Rhetorical Modes of Experiencing Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woal, Michael B.

    The proposition advanced by media critics John Fiske and John Hartley, that television provides the experience of "defamiliarization" (the demand that viewers "negotiate" a response to the ideological frameworks that television presents), is considered by the Russian Formalist critics and the structuralists who elaborated and refined their ideas…

  4. Telecourses: Using Broadcast Television, Cable Television, and Off-Campus Sites for Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Ron

    The advantages and disadvantages of presenting telecourse video programs are discussed with respect to three basic delivery modes used by Austin Community College (ACC): broadcast television, cable television, and videotapes in libraries and other public facilities. First, background information is presented about Austin, the local availability of…

  5. There Is More(s) in Television. Studying the relationship between television and moral imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Krijnen (Tonny)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation the central focus lies with exploration the relationship of television and moral imagination. The underlying aim was to explore how television might be valuable in reaching moral maturity in order to diminish needless suffering in this world. To give form to these as

  6. The new Digital Television channels in Spain. The changes of the free TV offer two years after the switch on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan VIDELA RODRÍGUEZ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of television in our country has had like last stage the analogue switch off and the birth of multiple programs that nourish the offer of the Digital Television. In the present article we analyze the reconfiguration of the offer of Terrestrial Digital Television (TDT in our country, after the approval of the Real-Decree 365/2010 to assign the multiple of the TDT once finalized the analog broadcasts.

  7. Study of television viewing habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing.

  8. Digital terrestrial television broadcasting technology and system

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Now under massive deployment worldwide, digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) offers one of the most attractive ways to deliver digital TV over the VHF/UHF band. Written by a team of experts for specialists and non-specialists alike, this book serves as a comprehensive guide to DTTB. It covers the fundamentals of channel coding and modulation technologies used in DTTB, as well as receiver technology for synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization. It also covers the recently introduced Chinese DTTB standard, using the SFN network in Hong Kong as an example.

  9. SUITABILITY OF AIOU TELEVISION AND ITS IMPACT ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul SIRAJ

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The requirement of television for educational purposes arises when specific educational objectives are not achieved through traditional way of teaching. There are a number of things television can do better than the average teacher and traditional educational institutions, but situations where both teacher and educational institutions are not available, television is the answer to obtain educational objectives, Lochte, (1993. This research paper investigates relationship between TV broadcast time, day and duration and student achievement. Data was collected from 197 from urban and rural, male and female students of the Allama Iqbal Open University, enrolled in the spring 2006 Semester in the selected courses. No strong relationship was found between Learning from TV and academic achievement in the AIOU situation. Use of television in the AIOU Situation will be more effective if transmission day, time and duration are adjusted according to the students’ demand and when students’ assignments are based on both textbook and TV programs.

  10. Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture. Fifty Years of Television in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinjka Peruško

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic and technological context. Longitudinal trends in television flows are comparatively evaluated in relation to trends in genre developments in Europe and their relationship to the changes in the cultural role of television. The results show a decrease in the information and an increase in the fiction mode between socialism and democracy, with some similarities of the Croatian and western television culture in relation to genre and mode composition and flow, albeit with a belated introduction of neo television genres. Notwithstanding the limited freedom of expression and ideological content, which necessarily influenced socialist media culture, television as a cultural form in Croatia developed in concert with the global program flows. The article is based on original content analysis of television schedules where the unit of analysis is a televisions program listing. The analogue television universe is represented by longitudinal data for 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009. The stratified systematic sample (N=3934 for each chosen year consists of two constructed weeks from a universe of all listed programs broadcast on all free to air television channels with a national reach license.

  11. Timing crisis information release via television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information.

  12. [Parkinson's disease in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2014-02-01

    INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.

  13. [Multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2016-12-16

    Today, the care of patients with multiple sclerosis and those around them represents a clinical and therapeutic challenge for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study is to analyse the appearance of multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television, and to reflect upon the image it has in these media. Several representative works that have addressed multiple sclerosis were reviewed, and many of them were seen to offer a very true-to-life vision of the disease. Likewise, a review was also conducted of the most relevant films and TV series that, on occasions, offer the general public a close look at the impact of the disease on patients or relatives, although they are sometimes somewhat exaggerated for the sake of increased dramatic effect and offer a slightly distorted view of reality. Literature largely reflects the real epidemiology, the symptoms and development of the disease, while less attention seems to be given to the diagnostic and therapeutic options open to patients. Cinema and television have offered a correct image but sometimes with the addition of more dramatic effects. It is important for literature, cinema and television to offer a realistic view of this neurological disease so as to make it better known among the public and to help lessen the stigma attached to it.

  14. Teaching Critical Consumption of Television through Analysis of Self-Reflexive Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Roger C.

    1991-01-01

    Explores an episode of the television sitcom "ALF" to illustrate how teachers can help students become critical consumers of television by teaching students about the medium of television using self-reflexive television texts. (SR)

  15. Effect of Television Viewing on Pediatric Obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the effect of television viewing on pediatric obesity in urban China.Methods Stratified multistage cluster random sampling method was used for subjects selection.Nine thousand three hundred and fifty-six children, as well as their parents, were investigated. Questionnaire survey was used for data collection. Children's weights and heights were measured in the clinic of the investigated kindergartens or schools by trained investigators following the standardized procedure. Results The percentages of children and adolescents who watched television less than 1 h, 1-2 h, 2-3 h and more than 3 h daily were 32.5%, 46.0%, 15.4% and 6.1%, respectively, while the prevalence of obesity was 10.9%, 11.8%, 13.2% and 15.1%, respectively. Each hourly increment of television viewing was associated with 1%-2% increase in the prevalence of obesity. Conclusions Time spent watching television is directly related to an increase risk of obesity, television viewing time is an independent factor for pediatric obesity.

  16. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder Anthony I

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

  17. Iranian Television Advertisement and Children's Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadehoghaz, Masoomeh; Amini, Maryam; Abdollahi, Afsoun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the nature of food commercials in children's television (TV) was monitored and analyzed; simultaneously, the relationship between recalling TV food commercials and children's interest in them and in the consumption of the same food products was evaluated. A total of 108 h children's programs broadcast on two channels (Two and Amouzesh) of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) media organization were monitored (May 6-12, 2015). Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study using 403 primary schoolchildren (201 boys) in four schools of Shirvan, Northeast of Iran, was executed. The children were prompted to recall all TV commercials broadcast on IRIB. Meanwhile, they were directed to define in the list of recalled TV food commercials those were interested in and the commercials (food products) they actually were willing to consume. Regarding the frequency and duration of broadcasting, food commercials ranked fifth and sixth, respectively. Fruit leather and plum paste were the most frequently broadcast food commercials. "High quality" (19%), "good taste" (15%), "novelty", and "message on nutritional composition" (13%) were the most frequent messages used in promoting the sale of food products, respectively. In addition, focus on "high quality/precision in the preparation of the food products" was the most frequently used appeals in TV commercials. There was a significant relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in five out of eight of the commercials (62.5%) (P < 0.05). The relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in the consumption of the same food product ("Tomato paste B") was statistically significant for 12.5% of the commercials (P < 0.05). TV food commercials do not encourage healthy eating. The current study provides convincing evidence for policy-makers and researchers to pay more attention to this area.

  18. Iranian Television Advertisement and Children's Food Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadehoghaz, Masoomeh; Amini, Maryam; Abdollahi, Afsoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this study, the nature of food commercials in children's television (TV) was monitored and analyzed; simultaneously, the relationship between recalling TV food commercials and children's interest in them and in the consumption of the same food products was evaluated. Methods: A total of 108 h children's programs broadcast on two channels (Two and Amouzesh) of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) media organization were monitored (May 6–12, 2015). Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study using 403 primary schoolchildren (201 boys) in four schools of Shirvan, Northeast of Iran, was executed. The children were prompted to recall all TV commercials broadcast on IRIB. Meanwhile, they were directed to define in the list of recalled TV food commercials those were interested in and the commercials (food products) they actually were willing to consume. Results: Regarding the frequency and duration of broadcasting, food commercials ranked fifth and sixth, respectively. Fruit leather and plum paste were the most frequently broadcast food commercials. “High quality” (19%), “good taste” (15%), “novelty”, and “message on nutritional composition” (13%) were the most frequent messages used in promoting the sale of food products, respectively. In addition, focus on “high quality/precision in the preparation of the food products” was the most frequently used appeals in TV commercials. There was a significant relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in five out of eight of the commercials (62.5%) (P < 0.05). The relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in the consumption of the same food product (“Tomato paste B”) was statistically significant for 12.5% of the commercials (P < 0.05). Conclusions: TV food commercials do not encourage healthy eating. The current study provides convincing evidence for policy-makers and researchers to pay more attention to this area. PMID:28105293

  19. The Relationship Between Television Sports Exposure and Rape Myth Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Sexism and Sexual Objectification of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; McNallie, Jenna

    2016-06-30

    Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance. These results suggest that sports programming contributes to the perpetuation of rape myths in society.

  20. Television-optical operational amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J; Häusler, G; Sesselmann, R

    1979-08-15

    The advantages of negative feedback are well known in electronics and extensively used in the operational amplifier. The properties of such a system are nearly independent of the parameters in the forward branch of the system; they are only determined by external elements in the backward branch. An optical analog of such an operational amplifier is reported. The essential operations, amplifications, and inversion of the circulating signals are carried out using a TV system. The capability of the system to compensate for spatial inhomogeneities and for nonlinearities is demonstrated. In addition, the system is able to create the inverse of a transfer function located in the feedback branch.

  1. Virtual Classrooms: Educational Opportunity through Two-Way Interactive Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Vicki M.; Christianson, J. Scott

    This book describes in non-technical language how a small school can greatly expand its course offerings by forming a two-way interactive television (I-TV) network with surrounding school districts. I-TV is the linkage of 3 to 10 school districts over fiber optic, coaxial cable, or dedicated copper telephone lines which enables participating…

  2. Interactive Television: A New Technology for Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Penny

    1989-01-01

    Describes an interactive television program in which one Spanish teacher reached 3,959 elementary school students at nine different sites through the use of studio and classroom cameras and televisions. (Author/CB)

  3. Equilibrium in a random viewer model of television broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Keiding, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The authors considered a model of commercial television market with advertising with probabilistic viewer choice of channel, where private broadcasters may coexist with a public television broadcaster. The broadcasters influence the probability of getting viewer attention through the amount...

  4. The Official Radio and Television Institute in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Anibal Arias

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Official School of Radio and Television which is designed to train university graduates in the fields of journalism, the sciences of cinema, radio and television, and advertising. (JY)

  5. What Does TV Viewing Have to Do with Internet Reading?: Readers, Television "Texts", and Intertextual Links to Companion Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…

  6. Necromarketing as Advertising Strategy in American Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Amiee J.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant research has been conducted regarding fear appeals, but little empirical evidence concerning death appeals is found. This study determined to what extent necromarketing exists in advertisements in American television. Through a content analysis of 1012 American television advertisements, this study found what product categories employ this marketing strategy and which consumer groups were targeted. Findings show that implicit necromarketing is a more commonly used marketing tactic than explicit necromarketing; the industries of entertainment promotions and insurance use necromarketing appeals more often than others, and necromarketing appeals were more heavily used during primetime. His study forms the base for future studies investigating the impact death has on purchase intentions.

  7. Two-way cable television project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, H.; Guenther, P.; Kiel, F.; Kraus, F.; Mahnkopf, P.; Schnee, R.

    1982-02-01

    The market demand for a multiuser computer system with interactive services was studied. Mean system work load at peak use hours was estimated and the complexity of dialog with a central computer was determined. Man machine communication by broadband cable television transmission, using digital techniques, was assumed. The end to end system is described. It is user friendly, able to handle 10,000 subscribers, and provides color television display. The central computer system architecture with remote audiovisual terminals is depicted and software is explained. Signal transmission requirements are dealt with. International availability of the test system, including sample programs, is indicated.

  8. Locations in Television Drama Series (special issue)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    as setting and as part of a wider audience engagement driven by social media and marketing. Popular television series and brands as for example Game of Thrones, Sex and the city, Nordic Noir, The Fall, Cities and The Wire illustrate how location has become a significant production value. This emerging field...... of research defined here as ‘location studies’ represents an interdisciplinary approach to the study of television series. It is pertinent at this point to bring together examples of work from a range of scholars and to usefully mark out potential lines of development within the subject. Location has so far...

  9. Venus in motion. [Mariner 10 television pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Danielson, G. E.; Evans, N.; Soha, J. M.; Belton, M. J. S.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive set of television pictures of Venus taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft is presented. Included is a chronological sequence of television images illustrating the development, variety, and circulation of Venus upper-atmospheric phenomena as viewed in the near-ultraviolet. The higher-resolution images have been assembled into global mosaics to facilitate comparison. Figures and tables describing the imaging sequences have been included to provide a guide to the more complete set of 3400 Venus images on file at the National Space Science Data Center.

  10. The ethics of reality medical television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakower, Thalia Margalit; Montello, Martha; Mitchell, Christine; Truog, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    Reality medical television, an increasingly popular genre, depicts private medical moments between patients and healthcare providers. Journalists aim to educate and inform the public, while the participants in their documentaries-providers and patients-seek to heal and be healed. When journalists and healthcare providers work together at the bedside, moral problems precipitate. During the summer of 2010, ABC aired a documentary, Boston Med, featuring several Boston hospitals. We examine the ethical issues that arise when journalism and medicine intersect. We provide a framework for evaluating the potential benefits and harms of reality medical television, highlighting critical issues such as informed consent, confidentiality, and privacy.

  11. T.V. 1.9: a experiência das Web-TVs universitárias

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus, Lara de Souza

    2015-01-01

    As web-TVs universitárias estão situadas em ambiente favorável ao investimento em novas formas de construções narrativas. A observação destas experiências que possuem as condições para realizar suas atividades e o fato de estarem inseridas no ambiente universitário, faz pensar por que a comunidade acadêmica não se apropria do espaço das web-TVs universitárias como veículo para a partilha do conhecimento e como plataforma de ensino, ou seja, meio para a difusão do acesso ao conh...

  12. Wide-Screen Television and Home Movies: Towards an Archaeology of Television and Cinema Convergence Before Digitalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steward, Tom James Longley

    2014-01-01

    abstractIn this article, Tom Steward uses past interrelations of television and cinema spectatorship, exhibition, production and aesthetics to historicize phenomenological digital-era discourses on, ontological definitions of, and cultural arguments about television and cinema convergence. He argues

  13. Television Intertextuality and the Discourse of the Nuclear Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naficy, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Presents an intertextual approach to reading television. Investigates how the heterosexual nuclear family and its various simulations are circulated within the intertextual flow of television, articulating and distributing "cultural capital." Analyzes a 39-minute segment of television text that includes commercials, news briefs, and the…

  14. Television Violence and Behavior: A Research Summary. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn E.

    This digest describes the overall pattern of the results of research on television violence and behavior. Several variables in the relationship between television violence and aggression related to characteristics of the viewers and to the portrayal of violence are identified. Viewer characteristics included: age, amount of television watched,…

  15. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  16. Methods of Presentation used in Clio-Winning Television Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Concludes that (1) the message structure of highly creative television commercials tends to differ from that of television commercials from the general population of television advertising and (2) there is a difference in the message structure of highly creative commercials across cultures. (FL)

  17. Uses and Values for News on Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Thomas F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses cable television subscribers' perceptions and consumption patterns of television news and describes a survey that compared broadcast and cable television news viewing habits. Media dependency and media consumption are considered, attitudes toward news sources and the perceived monetary value of the Cable News Network (CNN) are studied,…

  18. 47 CFR 76.612 - Cable television frequency separation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television frequency separation standards. 76.612 Section 76.612 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.612 Cable television frequency separation standards. All cable...

  19. 47 CFR 76.403 - Cable television system reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television system reports. 76.403 Section 76.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Forms and Reports § 76.403 Cable television system reports. The operator of every operational cable...

  20. Television Violence and Children. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)

  1. The Effect of Viewing Television Violence on Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…

  2. Television Violence and Its Effect on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)

  3. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  4. 75 FR 28594 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education... new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television Program. We have extended the deadline for...'' with the date ``June 22, 2010.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television...

  5. Teaching with Television: New Evidence Supports an Old Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linebarger, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    Television--public television, in particular--has come to be seen as a great educational resource for the home, but it hasn't been as widely embraced in the classroom. Thanks to a number of recent, large-scale research projects, it's time to put those concerns to rest. Not only does educational television have powerful effects on children's…

  6. 75 FR 18170 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education... new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television Program. There is an error in one of the... INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program, U.S. Department of Education, 400 ]...

  7. 47 CFR 73.603 - Numerical designation of television channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numerical designation of television channels... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.603 Numerical designation of television channels. (a) Channel No. Frequency band (MHz) 2 54-60 3 60-66 4 66-72 5 76-82 6 82-88 7 174-180...

  8. 75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications...

  9. 75 FR 16763 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education... new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television Program. There is an error in one of the... INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland...

  10. 75 FR 13681 - Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications... amended, to allocate not less than one very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television,...

  11. BENCH-MARKS 1964--THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TELEVISION IN EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HULL, RICHARD B.

    MANY QUESTIONS REGARDING EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION WERE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT ON THE ETV SEMINAR OF DECEMBER 5-8, 1963 IN CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. QUESTIONS DISCUSSED INCLUDED (1) WHAT CAN TELEVISION DO FOR THE PROBLEMS CONFRONTING EDUCATION, (2) WHAT ARE THE DEVELOPING PATTERNS OF USE OF TELEVISION IN EDUCATION, (3) WHAT IS BEING DONE IN OTHER…

  12. Human Ecology and Television in Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Klaus

    A human ecological approach to the study of children's television viewing raises questions that researchers have largely neglected. Does television influence the interaction patterns of socializing agents with children and with one another? Are there long-term, psychological consequences of unintegrated and competing influences from television and…

  13. Television Violence and Its Effect on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)

  14. Television Violence and Children. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)

  15. The Effect of Viewing Television Violence on Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…

  16. Results of a Survey of Pupils and Teachers Regarding Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia; Rapoport, Max

    To test the validity of hypotheses regarding television violence and social behavior of viewers, a survey was conducted of a large stratified sample of sixth grade and kindergarten pupils and of teachers. The student survey identified: (1) frequency with which pupils watch television; (2) parental control of television viewing; (3) family…

  17. Television in South Africa: The Research Paradox, Problem and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul

    South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…

  18. Exposure to Fictional Medical Television and Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Beth L.; Shensa, Ariel; Wessel, Charles; Hoffman, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2017-01-01

    Fictional medical television programs have long been a staple of television programming, and they remain popular today. We aimed to examine published literature assessing the influence of medical television programs on health outcomes. We conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL. Selected studies had to be scholarly…

  19. 76 FR 66250 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting....

  20. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For...

  1. FPS-vidicon television cameras for ultrafast-scan data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, B. W.; Yates, G. J.

    1980-06-01

    Two ultrafast scan ( ms/field) television (TV) camera prototypes were developed for closed circuit data acquisition applications. The line and field rates are quasicontinuously adjustable. The number of lines, the integration duty cycle, and the scan direction are among the other adjustable parameters. Typical resolution at the fastest scan rate is 500 TV lines per picture height with a corresponding dynamic range (to light input) of more than 100. The cameras use the unique properties of FPS vidicons and specially designed electronics to achieve their performance levels and versatility. The advantages and disadvantages of FPS vidicons and of antimony trisulfide and silicon target materials in such applications are discussed in detail. All of the electronics circuits are discussed. The sweep generator designs are treated at length because they are the key to the cameras' versatility. Emphasis is placed on remotely controllable analog and digital sweep generators. The latter is a complete CAMAC compatible subsystem containing a 16 function master arithmetic logic unit.

  2. Television Viewing, Bedroom Television, and Sleep Duration From Infancy to Mid-Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Matthew W.; Kleinman, Ken; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Television and insufficient sleep are associated with poor mental and physical health. This study assessed associations of TV viewing and bedroom TV with sleep duration from infancy to midchildhood. METHOD: We studied 1864 children in Project Viva. Parents reported children’s average daily TV viewing and sleep (at 6 months and annually from 1–7 years) and the presence of a bedroom TV (annually 4–7 years). We used mixed effects models to assess associations of TV exposures with contemporaneous sleep, adjusting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, and income. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-three children (35%) were racial/ethnic minorities; 37% of households had incomes ≤$70 000. From 6 months to 7 years, mean (SD) sleep duration decreased from 12.2 (2.0) hours to 9.8 (0.9) hours per day; TV viewing increased from 0.9 (1.2) hours to 1.6 (1.0) hours per day. At 4 years, 17% had a bedroom TV, rising to 23% at 7 years. Each 1 hour per day increase in lifetime TV viewing was associated with 7 minutes per day (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4 to 10) shorter sleep. The association of bedroom TV varied by race/ethnicity; bedroom TV was associated with 31 minutes per day shorter sleep (95% CI: 16 to 45) among racial/ethnic minority children, but not among white, non-Hispanic children (8 fewer minutes per day [95% CI: −19 to 2]). CONCLUSIONS: More TV viewing, and, among racial/ethnic minority children, the presence of a bedroom TV, were associated with shorter sleep from infancy to midchildhood. PMID:24733878

  3. Tween Gender Differences in Snacking Preferences During Television Viewing

    OpenAIRE

    Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Anna M Adachi-Mejia; Sutherland, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Television (TV) viewing is associated with an increased risk in childhood obesity. Research surrounding food habits of tweens largely bypass snacking preferences while watching TV in the home. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe snacking prevalence by tween gender, and to describe parental rules surrounding snacking while watching TV at home. Survey data were obtained in 2008 from 4th through 6th grade students (N=1557) who attended 12 New England schools. Complete self-repo...

  4. Television for the 21st century: initial experience with digital high-definition television broadcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrer, Stephen M.

    2000-08-01

    The advent of US Digital Television Broadcasting in the late fall of 1998 has profoundly changed both the technology and business of 'Television' as we have grown to known it. US DTV, encompassing as it does a wide variety of 'voluntary' signal formats, presents today's broadcaster with an unparalleled choice of the 'right tool for the job.' This paper will explore the technical aspects of some of those choices and the potential for DTV equipment application to non-broadcast environments.

  5. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content ana

  6. User needs in television archive access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Lunn, Brian

    2009-01-01

    characteristics in a television broadcast context. The methodical approach is inspired by naturalistic research, and our main data is nine in-depth interviews conducted with scholars and students within the academic field of Media Studies. The analysis identifies four characteristics. Firstly, broadcasts...

  7. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdon, Jérôme; Méadel, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    abstractThis paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier t

  8. The Instructional Effectiveness of Television Presentation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Harold

    Closed circuit television equipment was used to produce two versions of a program on the psychology of learning for showing to student teachers. Program A was designed in accordance with the suggestion that the more a presentation approximates reality, the more effective it will be. Program B was designed in accordance with the suggestion that a…

  9. Interactive Experiences for Television and Online Video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrist, M.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Basapur, S.

    2015-01-01

    The last few years have seen a substantial change on the way media is produced, distributed, and consumed. Within this theme issue on ‘interactive experiences for television and online video’ we revisit some of the most pressing topics in this fascinating research area, which is increasingly interes

  10. Impact on Adults of Dramatized Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, Roderic; And Others

    Psychosocial adaptations are sometimes affected by experiences that are ordinarily considered to be amusements. In 1974, a field study was undertaken by the Program on Psychosocial Adaptation and the Future to determine if it is possible to measure the effect of television on adult viewers. A sample of 260 couples, controlled for demographic…

  11. Measuring Reality: Critical Writing and Television Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrale, Tony

    1984-01-01

    Describes a critical writing assignment in which students assess the role that television "soap operas" have played in relationship to the students' culture and to themselves. The assignment includes collection and separation of material, unifying arguments, enlargement of perspective, and analysis and illustration. (HTH)

  12. Rearticulating Audience Engagement: Social Media and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moe, H.; Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on social media and television audience engagement sketches the key dimensions that affect how audiences are transformed through the development of social platforms. Building on the five contributions to the special issue, we identify three dimensions that dese

  13. Rearticulating Audience Engagement: Social Media and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moe, H.; Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on social media and television audience engagement sketches the key dimensions that affect how audiences are transformed through the development of social platforms. Building on the five contributions to the special issue, we identify three dimensions that

  14. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  15. How the Elderly Perceive Television Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Elliot S.; Boyd, Douglas A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the perceptions of elderly viewers about the usefulness of television commercials in making consumer decisions. Variables considered include frequency of viewing, as well as education, race, age, sex, occupation, and income of viewers. Differences in education levels and income seem to be more important than age group. (JMF)

  16. Violence in Children's Programmes on British Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Barrie; Harrison, Jackie

    1997-01-01

    Studied violence on children's television in Britain. Found 39% of children's programs examined contained violence, primarily involving shootings and physical assault committed for negative purposes and rarely followed by painful consequences. The fast pace of such programs is also a significant factor. Results pose wider implications for those…

  17. POTENTIALS OF THE TELEVISION IN REINVENTING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imitch

    the television medium can help to prioritize societal issues, including tourism .... are reinventing and redefining their history, ecology, culture, religion, to mention a ... A clear example is the Pyramids of Egypt which are thronged yearly by .... sporting activities, Nigeria provides opportunities for the setting up, management and ...

  18. Educational Television and Educational Development in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Educational Broadcasters, Washington, DC.

    The National Association of Educational Broadcasters attempted to determine how educational television and related technologies could strengthen the educational system of Tunisia. An overview of the Tunisian society is presented, followed by a brief history of the development of its educational system. The tremendous educational needs of the…

  19. Should I Let My Child Watch Television?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…

  20. Cable Television: The Process of Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leland L.; Botein, Michael

    In an effort to insure that cable television franchising procedures at the local level are based on a competitive and well-conceived selection process, this report discusses some of the most important steps of the franchising process. Not only does it show how the community should assess its needs and appraise the merits of the cable operator, but…

  1. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  2. Some Opportunity Costs of Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnow, Gary W.; Reynolds, Hal

    1984-01-01

    This study explored patterns of pastime activities that stand as alternatives to television viewing among middle school children. Findings are compared with those of Robinson's study (1981) for alternative media, video games, and sleeping variables, as well as dichotomous measures for group membership, playing a musical instrument, and hobbies.…

  3. Memory Redux: The foibe on Italian Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knittel, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that the overwhelming success of the television drama Il cuore nel pozzo (Alberto Negrin, 2005) signals a shift in the conception of national history and identity in the Italian popular imagination. In conjunction with Negrin’s earlier film Perlasca: un eroe italiano (2002), the

  4. The Rare Case of Television Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    Provides an apparatus for the analysis and evaluation of television by categorizing the existential media factors such as light, two- and three-dimensional screen space, time-motion, and sound. The correlation of one factor, time, with experiental phenomena such as instantaneousness and irrevocability of the moment and the complexity of the…

  5. Family and Television: Some Latinoamerican Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Miguel Torres

    Highlighting the importance of media education in Latin America, this paper describes projects conducted by the Latin American Institute for Communicative Education and the National Council for the Population of Mexico to examine the family's influence in promoting critical television viewing. A theoretical model for media education is then…

  6. Teaching Program Evaluation on Interactive Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Keith; Steinhauser, Jim; Newman, Isadore

    This paper describes a five-session course entitled "Program Evaluation," which was taught via interactive television in the summer of 2002 to 68 doctoral and master's students in 5 of 6 locations throughout New Mexico. Students received a 4-hour lecture and then participated in off-line activities directed by the instructor. Problems in distance…

  7. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content

  8. Children's Fright Reactions to Television News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Joanne; Nathanson, Amy I.

    1996-01-01

    Finds that 37% of a random sample of children had been frightened by a news story on television; percentage of children frightened by news increased from kindergarten to the elementary school years, whereas the tendency to be frightened by fantastic, unreal content showed a decreasing trend; and tendency to respond with fright to violence between…

  9. Rearticulating Audience Engagement: Social Media and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Moe; T. Poell; J. van Dijck

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on social media and television audience engagement sketches the key dimensions that affect how audiences are transformed through the development of social platforms. Building on the five contributions to the special issue, we identify three dimensions that dese

  10. The Technique of Television Production. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerson, Gerald

    In discussing the technical aspects of television production, this book covers both equipment and techniques used in these areas: camera, lighting, sound, settings, and make-up. Composition of images according to camera movement, placement of subjects, editing, and aural composition are also covered. Steps in the technical planning of a telecast…

  11. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  12. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdon, Jérôme; Méadel, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    abstractThis paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier t

  13. Reducing Alcohol Consumption through Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed impact of television commercial based on controlled-drinking principles. Measures were taken 12 months prior to start of campaign and 3 weeks after campaign from regular drinkers of general public whose drinking behavior was known to be unaffected by previous antidrug advertising campaign. Found that advertisement reduced intake provided…

  14. High-frame-rate intensified fast optically shuttered TV cameras with selected imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, G.J.; King, N.S.P.

    1994-08-01

    This invited paper focuses on high speed electronic/electro-optic camera development by the Applied Physics Experiments and Imaging Measurements Group (P-15) of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Physics Division over the last two decades. The evolution of TV and image intensifier sensors and fast readout fast shuttered cameras are discussed. Their use in nuclear, military, and medical imaging applications are presented. Several salient characteristics and anomalies associated with single-pulse and high repetition rate performance of the cameras/sensors are included from earlier studies to emphasize their effects on radiometric accuracy of electronic framing cameras. The Group`s test and evaluation capabilities for characterization of imaging type electro-optic sensors and sensor components including Focal Plane Arrays, gated Image Intensifiers, microchannel plates, and phosphors are discussed. Two new unique facilities, the High Speed Solid State Imager Test Station (HSTS) and the Electron Gun Vacuum Test Chamber (EGTC) arc described. A summary of the Group`s current and developmental camera designs and R&D initiatives are included.

  15. Nursing on television: student perceptions of television's role in public image, recruitment and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Koch, Jane; Jackson, Debra

    2013-12-01

    To explore nursing students' perceptions of how their profession is portrayed on medical television programmes. Recruitment and retention in nursing have been linked to the image of the profession in society. Images of nursing in popular media frequently draw on stereotypes that may damage the appeal of nursing for potential students and denigrate the value and status of the profession. A growing body of work analyses how nursing is portrayed in popular media, but less research asks nursing students themselves to reflect on this area. Convergent parallel mixed methods. Data were collected in 2011 from surveys of 484 undergraduate nursing students at a large university in New South Wales, Australia, that included demographic data, their viewing habits of medical television programmes and their opinions of how the shows handled nursing ethics and professionalism and the image of nursing on television and nursing role models. Most students watch medical television programmes. Students who do not speak English at home watched fewer programmes but were more positive about the depictions of professionalism. The qualitative data showed students were concerned that television can have a negative influence on the image of nursing, but they also recognized some educational and recruitment value in television programmes. It is important for nurses, educators and students to be critically engaged with the image of their profession in society. There is value in engaging more closely with contemporary media portrayals of nursing for students and educators alike. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Artificial Intelligence in Tele-Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Praveenkumar,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The digital television (DTV semiconductor market is expected to grow to $7.7billion in 2010 and to $10 billion in 2013, an 18% CAGR. Flat screen DTV semiconductor revenue will grow to $6.9 billion in 2010 and to $9 billion in 2013, a 25% CAGR.. The above mentioned numbers provide huge opportunity for TV vendors but in a highly-competitive environment. Introducing value added features is one of the ways to address the intense competition. Increase in the number of television channels and programs have provided a number of choices to the consumer, which has led to confusion. The user interested favorite item can be a song, a comedy scene. This may be transmitted in a particular channel while he is viewing another one and the user might end up missing his favorite program .This write-up proposes a solution by which the manufacturer will be able to provide an advanced feature, which ensures the consumers get a great experience without missing their favorites.

  17. Television food advertising to children in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Daniel; Reiff, Sascha; Knai, Cecile; Gauci, Charmaine; Spiteri, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    To undertake a cross-sectional survey of the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising to children on Maltese national television stations. Seven national free-to-air channels were recorded for seven consecutive days in March 2014 between 07:00 and 22:00 h. Advertisements were coded according to predefined categories, with a focus on advertisements aired during 'peak' children's viewing times, defined as periods during which more than 25% of children were likely to be watching television on any channel. Food and beverage advertisements were classified as core (healthy), non-core (unhealthy) or miscellaneous foods. Malta. Whole population, with a focus on children. Food and drinks were the most heavily advertised product category (26.9% of all advertisements) across all channels. The proportion of non-core food/drink advertisements was significantly greater during peak compared with non-peak children's viewing times (52 vs 44.6%; p ≤ 0.001). A majority of advertisements aimed at children are for non-core foods, and are typically shown during family-oriented programmes in the late evening rather than being restricted to children's programmes. 'Taste', 'enjoyment' and 'peer status' were the primary persuasive appeals used in adolescent and child-focused advertisements. This first content analysis of television advertising in Malta suggests that there is scope for the implementation of statutory regulation regarding advertising of foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) during times when children are likely to watch television, rather than during children's programmes only. Ongoing, systematic monitoring is essential for evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations designed to reduce children's exposure to HFSS food advertising on television. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The associations of physical activity and television watching with change in kidney function in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Newman, Anne B.; Madero, Magdalena; Patel, Kushang V.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Cooper, Jennifer; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Fried, Linda F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physical activity (PA) may play a role in preserving kidney health. The purpose of this study was to determine if PA and sedentary behavior are associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and change in kidney function in older adults. METHODS The Health, Aging and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of 3,075 well-functioning older adults. PA and television watching was measured by self-report and serum cystatin C was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). CKD was defined as an eGFR 3ml/min/1.73m2. Discrete survival analysis was used to determine if baseline PA and television watching were related to 10-year cumulative incidence of CKD and rapid decline in kidney function. RESULTS Individuals who reported watching television >3 hours/day had a higher risk of incident CKD (HR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.65) and experiencing a rapid decline in kidney function (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.05, 1.52) compared to individuals who watched television < 2 hours/day. PA was not related to either outcome. CONCLUSIONS High levels of television watching are associated with declining kidney function; the mechanisms that underlie this association need further study. PMID:24762526

  19. Television viewing and unhealthy diet: implications for children and media interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Bargh, John A

    2009-10-01

    The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues has led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of 2 potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including a) nutrition education; b) parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence; and c) reduced exposure to unhealthy messages.

  20. Embedded anti-alcohol messages on commercial television: what teenagers perceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, D L

    1996-11-01

    Educators and producers should take advantage of television's potential for reaching audiences with health-related messages. This paper investigates adolescents' perceptions of an anti-alcohol message embedded in commercial television programming. Over 900 8th and 9th graders from New York suburbs completed surveys measuring interest, knowledge, and credibility of either an episode of The Cosby Show or Family Matters. Both episodes had an anti-alcohol message embedded within their plots. Overall, students gave high rates of interest and credibility and received high scores for knowledge for both episodes. Girls and African-American students had higher scores, on average, for interest and credibility. White students had the highest knowledge scores. Students with different television viewing experiences did not differ in their perceptions of the episodes; however, students who had previously seen the episodes gave higher levels of interest and credibility. These data indicate that youngsters are receptive to antialcohol messages within commercial television episodes. The results also suggest that similarities and differences between a viewer and a televised character relate to differences in perception. However, much more research should be done in order to generalize these findings to other audiences, episodes, programs, and health-related messages.

  1. Television viewing and its impact on childhood behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolin, Edith M; Weller, Ronald A

    2011-04-01

    Despite the emergence of new media technologies, television remains the most widely used screen media format. Unfortunately, concerns have arisen about its effects on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. This article reviews television usage trends and television's impact on sleep, attention, and interpersonal relationships. American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations on television use are also discussed. Many studies on television viewing have cross-sectional designs, and longitudinal research is limited. However, research to date suggests that excessive television viewing is associated with negative effects on sleep, attention, and interpersonal relationships. As use of different media formats escalates, research across multiple specialties (including child psychiatry) will need to incorporate evaluation of media use into its assessments. More research and education are needed on the appropriate use of media in youth. Information on the health effects of television may also increase awareness of potential issues with less well-studied media formats.

  2. Trends in exposure to television food advertisements in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Given the increased concern about the impact of TV food advertisements (ads) on individual food choices, we provide important evidence on TV food ad exposure between 2004 and 2009 in South Korea. We used monthly targeted ratings data by age group as the number of ads seen daily from Korean Nielsen Media Research. We generated six food groups: beverages (milk, soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, water, coffee/tea products, and other); snacks/sweets (cookies/chips, candy, and chewing gum); fast food (Domino's pizza, Lotteria, McDonald's, Mr. Pizza, Pizza Hut, local chicken and pizza franchises, and other); instant noodle; full-service restaurants; and other. From 2004 to 2009, overall exposure to television food ads fell by 19.0% (from 6.8 to 5.5 ads daily), although exposure to full-service restaurant ads increased over that time period by 45.7%. While fast-food ad exposure fell overall, exposure to ads for local fried chicken franchises nearly doubled, making them the most commonly seen fast-food ads by 2009. Fast-food and instant noodle ads made up larger proportions of total ad exposure in 2009 than in 2004 in all age groups, with the largest increase among adolescents. Beverage ads continue to be the most prevalent food ads seen in South Korea. Differential trends found in exposure across and within food product categories and differences by age groups highlight the need for continued monitoring to help inform the regulatory policy debate on food advertising, particularly with regards to ads directed at children and adolescents.

  3. Successful images of successful ageing? Representations of vigorous elderly people in a Swedish educational television programme

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallander, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    ..., conceptualized as successful ageing. The present article demonstrates how representations of vigorous elderly people are construed in the programme VeteranTV, produced by UR, Swedish educational television...

  4. Assessing the reliability and validity of television and game violence exposure measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Taylor Piotrowski, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated whether common self-report measures of television and game violence exposure represent reliable and valid measurement tools. Three self-report measures—direct estimates, user-rated favorites, and agency-rated favorites—were assessed in terms of test-retest reliability, criterion

  5. Evaluation of captioning features to inform development of digital television captioning capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, C E

    1999-07-01

    With rapid advances in digital technology, the broadcast television industry will soon be providing cinema-quality sound and video in the home. Given this technological advance, how should captions change to better serve consumers who are deaf or hard of hearing? To address this question, consumer preference data were collected from 207 deaf students and adults. Videodisc examples of various captioning feature combinations were used to obtain ratings from these consumers. Findings from multivariate conjoint analysis show that some current captioning features should be retained (white letters and speaker-dependent placement), while other features should be adopted (captioning in sentences and use of a clear or semitransparent background). These findings offer guidance to the captioning and television industries as they launch the digital television age.

  6. Influence of video compression on the measurement error of the television system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnik, A. V.; Yarishev, S. N.; Korotaev, V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Video data require a very large memory capacity. Optimal ratio quality / volume video encoding method is one of the most actual problem due to the urgent need to transfer large amounts of video over various networks. The technology of digital TV signal compression reduces the amount of data used for video stream representation. Video compression allows effective reduce the stream required for transmission and storage. It is important to take into account the uncertainties caused by compression of the video signal in the case of television measuring systems using. There are a lot digital compression methods. The aim of proposed work is research of video compression influence on the measurement error in television systems. Measurement error of the object parameter is the main characteristic of television measuring systems. Accuracy characterizes the difference between the measured value abd the actual parameter value. Errors caused by the optical system can be selected as a source of error in the television systems measurements. Method of the received video signal processing is also a source of error. Presence of error leads to large distortions in case of compression with constant data stream rate. Presence of errors increases the amount of data required to transmit or record an image frame in case of constant quality. The purpose of the intra-coding is reducing of the spatial redundancy within a frame (or field) of television image. This redundancy caused by the strong correlation between the elements of the image. It is possible to convert an array of image samples into a matrix of coefficients that are not correlated with each other, if one can find corresponding orthogonal transformation. It is possible to apply entropy coding to these uncorrelated coefficients and achieve a reduction in the digital stream. One can select such transformation that most of the matrix coefficients will be almost zero for typical images . Excluding these zero coefficients also

  7. 76 FR 54189 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia... Association (``HRETA''), the licensee of noncommercial educational television station WHRO-TV, channel *16... license. There is presently a freeze on the filing of television allotment rulemaking petitions, but...

  8. 47 CFR 73.9001 - Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Redistribution control of digital television... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9001 Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts. Licensees of TV broadcast stations may utilize...

  9. Food advertising on Australian television: the extent of children's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Leonie; Thomas, Margaret; Bauman, Adrian

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent and nature of food advertising during Australian children's television (TV) viewing hours and programs, and to determine whether confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements were more likely to be broadcast during children's programs than during adults' programs on Sydney television stations. One week (390 h) of Australian advertising data broadcast during children's TV viewing hours over 15 television stations were analysed to determine the proportion of food advertisements and, in turn, the proportion of those advertisements promoting foods high in fat and/or sugar. One week (346 h) of confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements broadcast over three Sydney television stations were analysed to determine whether these types of advertisements were more likely to be advertised during children's programs than adults' programs. Half of all food advertisements promoted foods high in fat and/or sugar. 'Confectionery' and 'fast food restaurants' were the most advertised food categories during children's TV viewing hours. Confectionery advertisements were three times as likely, and fast food restaurant advertisements twice as likely, to be broadcast during children's programs than adults' programs. It can be concluded that foods most advertised during children's viewing hours are not those foods that contribute to a healthy diet for children. Confectionery and fast food restaurant advertising appears to target children. Australian children need protection from the targeted promotion of unhealthy foods on television, but currently little exists.

  10. The intervention of TV in the Chilean earthquake/La intervencion de la television en el terremoto chileno

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza, Ma. Dolores; Martinez, Victor

    2011-01-01

    .... En lo conceptual se propone un modelo para comprender el funcionamiento de la television en escenarios de catastrofe y consecutivamente se sugiere, desde este modelo, un conjunto de derivaciones...

  11. Virtual set on television. Analysis of the use of virtual set in the realization of a TV program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Esteban Galán Cubillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtual studio is a very recent phenomenon that emerged in the mid-90 'as an application of virtual reality to the television field. This article examines how virtual studio amending process of realizing television affecting their various stages of pre-production, production and post-production of a television program. This research has been carried out considering the impact in technology, creative and economic offered by the use of this technology. The field work that has been used to carry out this analysis has been on-line questionnaires and in-depth interviews with professionals who work with virtual scenery in Spain in public and private television channels with national and regional coverage.

  12. Study of the precision guided communication of digital television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lun

    2012-04-01

    Along with the progress and development of the digital technology, there produced the transmission of the new media by medium of such as the network, mobile phones and the digital television, while among them digital TV has the superiority of other media. The appearance and development of digital TV will induce a profound change in the broadcasting and television industry chain. This paper started with discussing the transformation of digital television in profit model, mode of operation and mode of transmission to construct the precision-guided communication theory; And then analyzes the properties and marketing nature of the precision-guided communication to make the construction of the precision-guided communication marketing mode; And put forward the implementing of the precision-guided communication marketing strategies and concrete steps; At the end of the article the author summarized four conclusions.

  13. Ocular Problems Related to Television Falls in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Savku

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Television (TV falls cause serious morbidity and mortality in children. Head trauma is frequently seen, and cranial nerve palsies ( 6th and 7th nerves are more frequently affected are associated with head trauma. Strabismus surgery can be performed in cases not resolving with conservative treatment, however, the delay in treatment related to associated traumas and systemic problems may result in amblyopia. There is no previous report in the literature about ocular findings accompanied by body and head trauma in children after television falls. In order to share our experience, we retrospectively evaluated the records of three patients that were admitted to our clinic with the history of TV-related injuries. The visual acuities of patients, anterior segment and fundus findings as well as the characteristics of the television (tube or LCD, size of the screen, height of the easel were recorded. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 451-4

  14. Generating Stereoscopic Television Images With One Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Paul P.

    1996-01-01

    Straightforward technique for generating stereoscopic television images involves use of single television camera translated laterally between left- and right-eye positions. Camera acquires one of images (left- or right-eye image), and video signal from image delayed while camera translated to position where it acquires other image. Length of delay chosen so both images displayed simultaneously or as nearly simultaneously as necessary to obtain stereoscopic effect. Technique amenable to zooming in on small areas within broad scenes. Potential applications include three-dimensional viewing of geological features and meteorological events from spacecraft and aircraft, inspection of workpieces moving along conveyor belts, and aiding ground and water search-and-rescue operations. Also used to generate and display imagery for public education and general information, and possible for medical purposes.

  15. Health content in local television news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Gantz, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Local television news is an important source of health information for the public. Yet little is known about coverage of health issues on local television newscasts. This study examined 1,863 news stories that aired on 4 English-language channels and 1 Spanish channel in 7 U.S. markets during a composite week in 2000. About 10% of news stories focused on health topics. Specific illnesses/diseases and healthy living issues received the most frequent coverage. Health news stories generally were less than 1 min long. Most health news stories were neutral in tone. Few offered contrasting viewpoints or follow-up information. Many stories were likely to require a 10th grade education to be understood. Implications for health professionals, policy makers, and health communication researchers are discussed.

  16. Monitoring Accessibility Services in Digital Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Utray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses methodology and tools applied to the monitoring of accessibility services in digital television at a time when the principles of accessibility and design are being considered in all new audiovisual media communication services. The main objective of this research is to measure the quality and quantity of existing accessibility services offered by digital terrestrial television (DTT. The preliminary results, presented here, offer the development of a prototype for automatic monitoring and a methodology for obtaining quality measurements, along with the conclusions drawn by initial studies carried out in Spain. The recent approval of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities gives special relevance to this research because it provides valuable guidelines to help set the priorities to improve services currently available to users.

  17. Behind the Scenes: Costume Design for Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Toylan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many things you don’t know about 'The League of Gentlemen': Focusing on the award winning costume designer Yves Barre’s work for The League of Gentlemen (BBC, 1999-2002, this article explores the role of the costume designer in television production. Using an anthropological method that combines original interviews with Barre, Steve Pemberton (one of the writer/performers and Jon Plowman (the executive producer as well as second hand material such as DVD extras, the article provides insight into the show’s creative process. The underlying objective is to shed light on the costume design process – an understudied stage of television production.

  18. Caught: Critical versus everyday perspectives on television

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The ‘televisual’ names a media culture generally in which television’s multiple dimensions have shaped and continue to alter the coordinates through which we understand, theorize, intervene, and challenge contemporary media culture. Televisual culture is a culture which both encompasses and crosses all aspects of television from its experiential dimensions to its aesthetic strategies, from its technological developments to its crossmedial consequences. Concepts like liveness, media event, aud...

  19. My uncle used to watch television

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available chain is consti- tuted: total strangers exchanging virtual objects for real-world objects. My 85-year-old uncle, Charles Keegan, used to enjoy his home entertainment system, including a television set. Unfortunately, his eyes have now succumbed... control buttons on the physical interface. Manufacturers justify this overloading with the product’s lower retail price. Now envisage a remote-control system that relies on the touch and shapes of three-dimensional objects. The majority of blind...

  20. Monopoly quality degradation in cable television

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Gregory S; Shum, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Using an empirical framework derived from models of nonlinear pricing, we estimate the degree of quality degradation in cable television markets. We find lower bounds on quality degradation ranging from 11% to 45% of observed service qualities. Furthermore, cable operators in markets with local regulatory oversight tend to offer significantly higher quality products, and engage in less quality degradation. While prices are also higher in markets with local regulatory oversight, we find that c...

  1. Iranian television advertisement and children′s food preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Masoomeh Hajizadehoghaz; Maryam Amini; Afsoun Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this study, the nature of food commercials in children′s television (TV) was monitored and analyzed; simultaneously, the relationship between recalling TV food commercials and children′s interest in them and in the consumption of the same food products was evaluated. Methods: A total of 108 h children′s programs broadcast on two channels (Two and Amouzesh) of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) media organization were monitored (May 6-12, 2015). Simultaneously, a c...

  2. 26 CFR 1.181-3T - Qualified film or television production (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... television productions. Each episode of a television series is a separate production to which the rules... episodes of a television series (including pilot episodes). A television series may include more than one... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified film or television...

  3. Pyrolysis of waste plastic crusts of televisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie

    2012-09-01

    The disposal of waste plastic crusts of televisions is an issue that is gaining increasing interest around the world. In this investigation, the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of the waste television crusts mainly composed of acrylonitrile--butadiene-styrene copolymer was studied. Thermogravimetric analysis was used for initial characterization of the pyrolysis of the waste plastic, but most of the investigations were carried out using a 600 mL tubing reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the pyrolysis of the waste television crusts were investigated. The results showed that the oil yield increased with increasing temperature or with prolongation of reaction time. With increasing temperature, the generating percentage of gasoline and diesel oil increased, but the heavy oil yield decreased. Zinc oxide, iron oxide and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC catalyst) were employed to perform a series of experiments. It was demonstrated that the liquid product was markedly improved and the reaction temperature decreased 100 degrees C when FCC was used. The composition ofpyrolysis oils was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and they contained 36.49% styrene, 19.72% benzenebutanenitrile, 12.1% alpha-methylstyrene and 9.69% dimethylbenzene.

  4. Distance learning through synchronous interactive television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Janis L

    2007-01-01

    The advent and popularity of asynchronous online learning has somewhat obscured a standby technology developed over the last two decades. Interactive videoconferencing, sometimes called "interactive television," though not as glamorous and popular a topic at distance-learning conferences, is still alive and well at many institutions. Three or four years ago, many of us were led to believe that interactive television would go the way of the dinosaurs-everything would soon be in an asynchronous format or on individual desktops. There would no longer be any need for elaborately designed classrooms, networks, and operations staff. To date, this prediction has not come true. In fact, synchronous interactive television has experienced significant growth as newer, easier, and cheaper technologies allow institutions to reach more students with less resource investment. Faculty and students, while appreciating the convenience of asynchronous delivery, still express a need for synchronous communication. This article explores the issues involved in synchronous distance education, the current technologies and proposed future developments, and best practices in terms of classroom design, faculty use, and operational issues. It is not a research article but an anecdotal case study based on Washington State University's experiences over the last 20 years in developing and adapting to new synchronous technologies and creating the support and technical infrastructure to best deliver academic courses through this medium.

  5. Television in a New Media Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Car

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the 21st century has brought about comprehensive changes for media and communications in general. The new multimedia landscape has broken traditional boarders between telecommunications, the audiovisual industry, and information technology. Still, the border between traditional and new media is quite defined, yet there exists a tendency to mitigate it. Changes in media content production will play the dominant role in that process, as well the fact that the three-step flows of communication encompass new configurations of one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many communication across the online/offline divide. In such processes of development and transformation, video content, once reserved exclusively for film and television using the one-way channel of communication (from content provider to viewers, now plays an increasingly important role. New media provides opportunities for video content to use three-step flows of communication, which subsequently enables space for new video genres and formats. This article presents the results of the study entitled, ”Media Accountability”, and compares them with the author’s own research on television news and with Forrester’s research on youth as a media audience. Finally, this article provides insights on the future of television as a medium and its existence as a traditional medium.

  6. Teaching Children to Become More Critical Consumers of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Judith

    With television operating as an important socializing influence, children need to become critical consumers and they can be taught the necessary evaluative skills. Explicit discussion is seen as a means of developing awareness of various facets of TV programming, e.g., the relationship of reality to content, stereotyped images presented, any bias…

  7. Digital television in the delivery of multimedia education content.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntlatlapa, N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available areas, to the benefit of the disadvantaged ones. Television transmission is planned to cover the whole of South Africa by 2015. This research proposes a similar access technology to ADSL, where uplink will be through a point-to-point TV whitespaces...

  8. 78 FR 78318 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma AGENCY: Federal... filed by Family Broadcasting Group, Inc. (``Family Broadcasting''), the licensee of station KSBI(TV... voluntary relocation agreement with Lower 700 MHz A Block licensees. Family Broadcasting has entered...

  9. 75 FR 19907 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... Broadcasting of Texas, the licensee of KFDM(TV), channel 21, Beaumont, Texas, requesting the substitution of... broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47...

  10. 75 FR 9859 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... Freedom Broadcasting of Texas (``Freedom Broadcasting''), the licensee of KFDM(TV), channel 21, Beaumont, Texas. Freedom Broadcasting requests ] the substitution of channel 25 for channel 21 at Beaumont....

  11. Linked Data Methodologies for Managing Information about Television Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Redondo-García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OntoTV is a television information management system designed for improving the quality and quantity of the information available in the current television platforms. In order to achieve this objective, OntoTV (1 collects the information offered by the broadcasters, (2 integrates it into a ontology-based data structure, (3 extracts extra data from alternative television sources, and (4 makes possible for the user to perform queries over the stored information.This document shows the way Linked Data methodologies have been applied in OntoTV system, and the improvements in the data consumption and publication processes that have been obtained as result. On the one hand, the possibility of accessing to information available in the Web of Data has made possible to offer more complete descriptions about the programs, as well as more detailed guides than those obtained by using classic collection methods. On the other hand, as the information of the television programs and channels is published according to the Linked Data philosophy, it becomes available not only for OntoTV clients, but also for other agents able to access Linked Data resources, who could offer the viewer more fresh and innovative features.

  12. 数字电视概述(上)%The Summerization of Digital Television(Up)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华

    2005-01-01

    The time passes! The evolution of television is also developing accordingly. Today its influence penetrates all aspects of our life. The following is the introduction of the flourish development of the digital television ,which is belong to the third generation TV technology. It comes down to the method to make the digital television come true,the assortment,the technology reference and application.Furthermore,the relevent content of the criteria of all kinds of digital television.

  13. TV Talk: TV and the Classroom: An Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Rosemary Lee

    1980-01-01

    This article provides a subject index back to 1975 of the "TV Talk" column and other Teacher magazine articles concerning television. Topics include the use of TV in elementary language arts, math, reading, and social studies, as well as suggestions for parents and articles on television as a medium. (SJL)

  14. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (1) high-definition color television, (2) high-definition monochromatic television, (3) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (4) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television. The stereo system accomplished stereoscopy by displaying two cross-polarized images, one reflected by a half-silvered mirror and one seen through the mirror. Observers wore a pair of glasses with cross-polarized lenses so that the left eye received only the view from the left camera and the right eye received only the view from the right camera.

  15. Framing European Politics: A Content Analysis of Press and Television News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Semetko, Holli A.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the prevalence of five news frames in the four national newspapers and three national television outlets with the highest audience ratings in Holland. Finds the most common frames were, in order of predominance, attribution of responsibility, conflict, economic consequences, human interest, and morality. (NH)

  16. Media's Moral Messages: Assessing Perceptions of Moral Content in Television Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Rebecca J.; Garmon, Lance C.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the examination of moral content in the media by exploring moral messages in television programming and viewer characteristics predictive of the ability to perceive such messages. Generalisability analyses confirmed the reliability of the Media's Moral Messages (MMM) rating form for analysing programme content and the existence…

  17. Multivariate Approaches for Exploring the Evaluation of Deception in Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permut, Steven Eli

    The objective of this study was to explore the semantic structure used by subjects in assessing (evaluating) a series of eight television commercials previously (but unofficially) rated for deceptiveness by FTC attorneys. Five local respondent groups were used: 158 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory advertising course, 175…

  18. A Process Analysis of the Relationship between Form Complexity and Viewer Perceptions of a Televised Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padderud, Allan Bruce

    This study measured audience perceptions during the course of a prerecorded segment of the television series "Emergency" and compared audience responses with the occurrence of specific production variables: subject movement, camera movement, cutting rate, image size, and so on. Audience-response equipment, capable of recording ratings…

  19. "Survivor": Three Principles of Economics Lessons as Taught by a Reality Television Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, Dean

    2017-01-01

    The reality television show "Survivor" has been a ratings success on CBS for over 16 years. In the show, 16 strangers are marooned in a remote location, required to compete in physical and mental challenges and periodically vote to eliminate players from the game. The last person remaining wins one million dollars. The author uses this…

  20. Social persuasion in rheumatology: a randomized trial of testimonials on television in the rheumatology clinic waiting room to increase attendance for multidisciplinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Paul; Khanafer, Mohamed; Singh, Kulraj; Thompson, Andy; Le Riche, Nicole; Barra, Lillian; Haig, Sara; Rohekar, Gina; Rohekar, Sherry; Nielson, Warren; Pope, Janet E

    2014-07-01

    Multidisciplinary self-management programs are important in inflammatory arthritis as adjunctive treatment. Patients often have excuses as to why they do not attend these programs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an intervention of televised testimonials from rheumatologists and allied health professionals increases attendance at a multidisciplinary education day for rheumatology patients seen in a large university hospital clinic. This was an RCT of intervention: playing televised interviews in the waiting room where rheumatology patients were seen versus no TV. There was a total of 6 months (3 months with and 3 without the televised interview playing). All eligible patients who attended the rheumatology outpatient clinic were then tracked to determine whether they attended a subsequent education day over the next 10 months. The sample size was calculated to have a 15% increase in attendance at the education days. There was a 20% increase in attendees at the multidisciplinary education days for patients who saw the televised testimonials. Sixty-three patients who viewed the testimonials (2.17% of 2,908) attended the education day compared to 39 who did not receive the intervention (1.80% of 2,168); however, the increase was not statistically significant (p = 0.36). Attendance of eligible patients increased using televised testimonials; however, the increase was not significant as the rates of attendance were still very low in both groups. Many eligible patients did not attend the program. Other interventions are necessary to encourage attendance in a multidisciplinary program.

  1. Producing Television Agriculture Program: Issues and Problems among Malaysian Television Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. S. Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the developing sectors in Malaysia is agriculture. Agriculture doubtlessly has assisted this country in terms of enhancing the economic level, offering a huge number of employment opportunities and uplifting the socio-economy status of the community. To ensure the sustainability of this sector to the country, we must ensure that the valuable agriculture information is continuously provided to the public and the information must be disseminated through the most effective channel. Here, television can be the mean channel. Approach: This study aimed to investigate the issues raised and problems faced by the Malaysian agriculture television program producers in producing the television agriculture programs. Data was collected using an in-depth interview among three agriculture television producers in Malaysia. The questions served as a guide, but allowed respondents freedom and flexibility in their answers. The findings were in the form of descriptive analysis. Results: Based on the analysis done, it can be concluded that the cooperation between Radio Television Malaysia and Department of Agriculture Malaysia is important to ensure the success and continuity of the agriculture programs. It was found that the agriculture programs were evaluated internally by the Radio Television Malaysia auditor and externally by AGB Nielsen. The producers also received feedback from their local and foreign audience in the form of e-mail and telephone. Human resource, transportation and financial are the main problems that need to be overcome by the producers. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is suggested that other media organizations and giant agriculture companies can join RTM in producing agriculture programs. This can aid RTM in producing more innovative agriculture programs and can attract the youth to watch the program.

  2. Television food advertising to children: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Chapman, Kathy; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Berg, Christina; Caroli, Margherita; Cook, Brian; Coutinho, Janine G; Effertz, Tobias; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Keller, Kathleen; Leung, Raymond; Manios, Yannis; Monteiro, Renata; Pedley, Claire; Prell, Hillevi; Raine, Kim; Recine, Elisabetta; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Singh, Sonia; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2010-09-01

    We compared television food advertising to children in several countries. We undertook a collaboration among 13 research groups in Australia, Asia, Western Europe, and North and South America. Each group recorded programming for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00, for the 3 channels most watched by children, between October 2007 and March 2008. We classified food advertisements as core (nutrient dense, low in energy), noncore (high in undesirable nutrients or energy, as defined by dietary standards), or miscellaneous. We also categorized thematic content (promotional characters and premiums). Food advertisements composed 11% to 29% of advertisements. Noncore foods were featured in 53% to 87% of food advertisements, and the rate of noncore food advertising was higher during children's peak viewing times. Most food advertisements containing persuasive marketing were for noncore products. Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

  3. Television Food Advertising to Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C.G.; Boyland, Emma J.; Chapman, Kathy; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Berg, Christina; Caroli, Margherita; Cook, Brian; Coutinho, Janine G.; Effertz, Tobias; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Keller, Kathleen; Leung, Raymond; Manios, Yannis; Monteiro, Renata; Pedley, Claire; Prell, Hillevi; Raine, Kim; Recine, Elisabetta; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Singh, Sonia; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We compared television food advertising to children in several countries. Methods. We undertook a collaboration among 13 research groups in Australia, Asia, Western Europe, and North and South America. Each group recorded programming for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00, for the 3 channels most watched by children, between October 2007 and March 2008. We classified food advertisements as core (nutrient dense, low in energy), noncore (high in undesirable nutrients or energy, as defined by dietary standards), or miscellaneous. We also categorized thematic content (promotional characters and premiums). Results. Food advertisements composed 11% to 29% of advertisements. Noncore foods were featured in 53% to 87% of food advertisements, and the rate of noncore food advertising was higher during children's peak viewing times. Most food advertisements containing persuasive marketing were for noncore products. Conclusions. Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times. PMID:20634464

  4. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Charmaine B. Lo; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods: Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n ...

  5. How Do We Write about Performance in Serial Television?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Television studies has produced few sustained analyses of performance in serial television. Yet film studies scholarship has shown how attending to the integration of performances with other aspects of film style is crucial to the interpretation and appreciation of expression and meaning in filmed narrative fictions. However, as a particle form of filmed serial narrative, series television raises a number of questions about performance that will not necessarily be satisfyingly addressed by th...

  6. The economics of television and online video markets

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Television is the dominant entertainment medium for hundreds of millions. This chapter surveys the economic forces that determine the production and consumption of this content. It presents recent trends in television and online video markets, both in the US and internationally, and describes the state of theoretical and empirical research on these industries. A number of distinct themes emerge, including the growing importance of the pay-television sector, the role played by content provider...

  7. How Do We Write about Performance in Serial Television?

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott Logan

    2015-01-01

    Television studies has produced few sustained analyses of performance in serial television. Yet film studies scholarship has shown how attending to the integration of performances with other aspects of film style is crucial to the interpretation and appreciation of expression and meaning in filmed narrative fictions. However, as a particle form of filmed serial narrative, series television raises a number of questions about performance that will not necessarily be satisfyingly addressed by th...

  8. Development of learning object from IP-based television programme

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahkhair, Sanaz

    2013-01-01

    The TAMALLE+[1, 2] is a prototype system that supports learners in their television viewing, enhancing informal language learning via interactive television and mobile phones. In this paper we describe a learner-centred study designed to elicit criteria for selection of those language learning object whose annotation or explanation through TAMALLE+ system could best enhance the advanced learner’s understanding of popular broadcast television programmes in English. We identified two main areas...

  9. The celebrity entrepreneur on television: profile, politics and power

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the rise of the ‘celebrity entrepreneur’ on television through the emergence of the ‘business entertainment format’ and considers the ways in which regular television exposure can be converted into political influence. Within television studies there has been a preoccupation in recent years with how lifestyle and reality formats work to transform ‘ordinary’ people into celebrities. As a result, the contribution of vocationally skilled business professionals to factual en...

  10. Quantitative analysis of Internet television and video (WebTV: A study of formats, content, and source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Borja ARJONA MARTÍN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the last five years of audiovisual content distribution over the web, this paper is focused on a study aimed at the description and classification of a wide sample of audiovisual initiatives whose access is carried out by means of the World Wide Web. The purpose of this study is to promote the debate concerning the different names of these incipient media, as well as their categorization and description so that an organised universe of the WebTV phenomenon could be provided. An analysis of formats and content is carried out on the basis of quantitative techniques in order to propose a categorization typology. These formats and content will be studied under three key variables: "Content", "Origin" and "Domain .tv". "Content" will help us define the programmatic lines of our study sample; “Source” refers to the source of a particular item of study (“Native WebTV or WebTV representative of a conventional media and "Domain.tv" will specify the proportion of case studies hosted with domain .tv. The results obtained in this study will offer the researchers and the professionals a comprehensive description of the models currently adopted in the field of video and television on the net.

  11. The use of television series in health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkamel, F

    1995-06-01

    This paper reviews evidence of the impact which television generally, and drama series in particular, can have on health beliefs, attitudes and behaviours. It describes how a television series, The Family House, was planned in Egypt to disseminate key health messages in an entertaining context. As only a very small number of television series were specifically developed to address health issues, and even fewer were evaluated, this paper presents important new data derived from focus group discussions and survey interviews which help in understanding the potential television series can have for health education. Finally, the paper presents data on the cost-effectiveness of The Family House series.

  12. Building the case for independent monitoring of food advertising on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lesley; Hebden, Lana; Grunseit, Anne; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy

    2013-12-01

    To provide an independent monitoring report examining the ongoing impact of Australian self-regulatory pledges on food and drink advertising to children on commercial television. Analysis of food advertisements across comparable sample time periods in April/May 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The main outcome measure comprised change in the mean rate of non-core food advertisements from 2006 to 2011. Sydney free-to-air television channels. Televised food advertisements. In 2011 the rate of non-core food advertisements was not significantly different from that in 2006 or 2010 (3·2/h v. 4·1/h and 3·1/h), although there were variations across the intervening years. The rate of fast-food advertising in 2010 was significantly higher than in 2006 (1·8/h v. 1·1/h, P advertising on Sydney television has remained essentially unchanged between 2006 and 2011, despite the implementation of two industry self-regulatory pledges. The current study illustrates the value of independent monitoring as a basic requirement of any responsive regulatory approach.

  13. 76 FR 4078 - Television Broadcasting Services; North Pole and Plattsburgh, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; North Pole and Plattsburgh, NY AGENCY: Federal... CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble,...

  14. 76 FR 58041 - Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice... certain digital televisions containing integrated circuit devices and components thereof by reason of... the sale within the United States after importation of certain digital televisions containing...

  15. Standortbestimmungen der feministischen Film- und TV-Wissenschaft Assessing the Position of Feminist Film and Television Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Maier

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Band versammelt zeitgenössische Perspektiven und Ansätze feministischer Film- und TV-Wissenschaften. In vier Kapiteln werden Fragen nach visuellen Praxen, dem ‚Frühen Kino‘, nach Genre und Geschlecht sowie Räumen des Fernsehens diskutiert. Die Themen und Aspekte reichen von Publikumstheorien, Fragen nach dem Verhältnis von Medialität und Geschlecht, der Wahrnehmungsgeschichte des Films bis hin zu Fragen der Intermedialität oder nach der Bedeutung des Feminismus im (frühen Kino und im Fernsehen.The volume at hand collects contemporary perspectives on and approaches to feminist film and television studies. Questions as to visual praxis, early cinema, genre and gender, and the space of television are discussed in four chapters. The topics and aspects span audience theory, questions as to the relationship between mediality and gender, the history of perception of film, questions of intermediality, and the meaning of feminism in (early cinema and television.

  16. Wide-Screen Television and Home Movies: Towards an Archaeology of Television and Cinema Convergence Before Digitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom James Longley Steward

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Tom Steward uses past interrelations of television and cinema spectatorship, exhibition, production and aesthetics to historicize phenomenological digital-era discourses on, ontological definitions of, and cultural arguments about television and cinema convergence. He argues that television and cinema assisted in defining each other as late 20th Century media and cultural forms, have a multi-directional industrial and artistic flow, and are often interdependent in reception and distribution. Television and cinema convergence demonstrates the need for historical breadth in media convergence theory and an understanding of medium-specificity that incorporates interactions with other media.

  17. An architecture for design and planning of mobile television networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tamayo-Fernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile television (TV, made possible by the convergence of media, telecommunications and consumer electronicsindustries, is one of the most hyped new mobile services in several countries [1]. The advertised key features ofmobile TV are personalization, interactivity, and most importantly, the ability to watch TV programming while on thego. The deployment of a mobile TV network consists of several stages that require careful planning. There are available simulation packages for designing wireless technologies, however, for mobile TV there are still planning and simulations concerns that have to be addressed in order to identify its design challenges. This article reviews the main parameters that should be taken into account to support the design and planning of a mobile TV network andproposes an architecture for its implementation.

  18. Design of smart grid interfaces, Focusing of smart TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, Praveen Jelish

    2013-01-01

    Smart Grid research is growing around the world due to the need to replace the ageing old electricity grid with an intelligent, reliable electricity network. The smart grid aims at creating a reliable power distribution and efficient power usage in homes. One of the key issues focused in this project is providing real time energy feedback to users, which is minimal or non-existent in the current grid system. This thesis investigates about using smart TVs to provide real time energy feedback i...

  19. East and West on the Finnish Screen. Early Transnational Television in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mari Pajala

    2014-01-01

    Research on Finnish television history has so far emphasized Western influences. However, the Finnish television environment was also in many ways shaped by contacts with socialist television cultures. This article analyses the first volume (1960) of the television magazine Katso to trace the various transnational relations which shaped the early Finnish television environment and to discuss the cultural meanings of socialist television in this environment. Nearly every issue of Katso in 1960...

  20. Generating ideas for new mobile TV services - Accepting and socializing mobile television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L.; Nicolajsen, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    . This paper reports on a semi-field trial performed with a group of young, IT literate users provided with handheld devices and the possibility of watching mobile TV as a basis for creation of ideas for more advanced services. The results shows that this group of users looks for personalized services......Mobile TV is still in its infancy in respect to identifying new services/content, which deploy the technology convergence of broadcasting, Internet and radio while satisfying the user with respect to interactivity, sociability and content, and at the same time fit the small screen of a mobile phone...

  1. Overview of FTV (free-viewpoint television)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is the ultimate 3DTV that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. We proposed the concept of FTV and constructed the world's first real-time system including the complete chain of operation from image capture to display. FTV is based on the rayspace method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have developed ray capture, processing and display technologies for FTV. FTV can be carried out today in real time on a single PC or on a mobile player. We also realized FTV with free listening-point audio. The international standardization of FTV has been conducted in MPEG. The first phase of FTV was MVC (Multi-view Video Coding) and the second phase is 3DV (3D Video). MVC was completed in May 2009. The Blu-ray 3D specification has adopted MVC for compression. 3DV is a standard that targets serving a variety of 3D displays. The view generation function of FTV is used to decouple capture and display in 3DV. FDU (FTV Data Unit) is proposed as a data format for 3DV. FTU can compensate errors of the synthesized views caused by depth error.

  2. An Exploratory Analysis of Selected Early Television Commercials Compared with Selected Recent Television Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagel, Richard

    The characteristics of 69 award-winning television commercials from 1948 through 1958 were compared to those of 58 award-winning commercials from 1976 and 1977. The examined characteristics were type of storyline used, selling strategies, use of humor, live action versus animation, production techniques, and the depiction of blacks, women,…

  3. Death and Television: Terror Management Theory and Themes of Law and Justice on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laramie D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on terror management theory, it was hypothesized that media choices may be affected by the salience of death-related thoughts. Three experiments with samples of undergraduate students were conducted to investigate whether such a process would affect preferences for law and justice television programming. In the first experiment (n = 132),…

  4. Teaching Children to Evaluate Television Violence Critically: The Impact of a Dutch Schools Television Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooijs, Marcel W.; van der Voort, Tom H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study conducted in Dutch primary schools to alter the cognitive effects that television violence can have on 10- to 12-year-olds by encouraging them to evaluate critically the portrayal of violence. Teacher and student attitudes are discussed, and the educational effects of the curriculum are considered. (Contains 20 references.) (LRW)

  5. Death and Television: Terror Management Theory and Themes of Law and Justice on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laramie D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on terror management theory, it was hypothesized that media choices may be affected by the salience of death-related thoughts. Three experiments with samples of undergraduate students were conducted to investigate whether such a process would affect preferences for law and justice television programming. In the first experiment (n = 132),…

  6. L'enseignement des langues a l'universite a l'aide de la television (Television Assisted Language Instruction at College Level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufe, Wolfgang

    1980-01-01

    Describes the French language television program conducted during the last 10 years at Sarre University and evaluates its results. Emphasizes that the TV courses are the main component of the spoken French curriculum and discusses the teaching methods evolved specifically for television instruction, especially those intended to develop…

  7. Exercise portrayal in children’s television programs: analysis of the UK and Irish programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scully P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul Scully,1 Orlaith Reid,1 Alan P Macken,1–3 Mark Healy,4 Jean Saunders,4 Des Leddin,3,5 Walter Cullen,3 Colum P Dunne,3 Clodagh S O’Gorman1–3,5 1The Children’s Ark, University Hospital Limerick, Limerick, 2National Children’s Research Centre, Dublin, 3Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation & Immunity (4i, Graduate Entry Medical School, 4C-Star, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland; 5Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada Background: Television watching is obesogenic due to its sedentary nature and programming content, which influences children. Few studies have examined exercise placement within children-specific programming. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and type of exercise placement in children-specific television broadcasts and to compare placements on the UK and Irish television channels.Methods: Content analysis for five weekdays’ worth of children-specific television broadcasting totaling 82.5 hours on both the UK (British Broadcasting Corporation and Irish (Radió Teilifís Éireann television channels was performed. For the purposes of comparing the UK and Irish placements, analysis was restricted to programming broadcast between 6 am and 11.30 am. Exercise placements were coded based on type of activity, activity context, activity motivating factors and outcome, and characters involved.Results: A total of 780 cues were recorded during the total recording period. A wide variety of sports were depicted, but dancing-related cues were most commonly seen (n=163, 23.3%, with the majority of cues being of mild (n=365, 65.9% or moderate (n=172, 31.0% intensity. The majority of cues were associated with a positive outcome (n=404, 61.4%, and social motivations were most commonly seen (n=289, 30.3%. The Irish and the UK portrayals were broadly similar.Conclusion: This study highlights the wide variety of sports portrayed and the active effort undertaken by television

  8. 75 FR 7370 - Closed Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for Digital Television...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Television Receivers AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective... Closed Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for Digital Television...

  9. East and West on the Finnish Screen. Early Transnational Television in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Pajala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on Finnish television history has so far emphasized Western influences. However, the Finnish television environment was also in many ways shaped by contacts with socialist television cultures. This article analyses the first volume (1960 of the television magazine Katso to trace the various transnational relations which shaped the early Finnish television environment and to discuss the cultural meanings of socialist television in this environment. Nearly every issue of Katso in 1960 discusses television in a transnational context. Transnational themes fall into four categories: (1 learning about television in other countries; (2 the Eurovision and Nordvision networks; (3 watching television across national borders (Swedish and Tallinn television but also television across surprising distances; and (4 visions of world television. Katso’s understanding of television emphasises the literal meaning of television, to see far. The magazine sets no clear limits to what television could do in terms of overcoming physical distance and ideological borders. The magazine avoids overt politics in discussing television from both the West and the East and represents Tallinn television as a potential source of popular television for Finnish audiences.

  10. Me and My TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, Robert, Ed.

    This report of research discusses the role of popular television in developing children's verbal skills and in bringing together adolescents and adults. Implications for the home and classroom are described. Titles include "If You Believe in Television, Clap Your Hands," an introductory look at research concerning popular television in the…

  11. Evaluation of high-definition television for remote task performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.; Fujita, Y.; Herndon, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution TV) of horizontal scan lines that standard-resolution TV provides. The improvement in picture quality (compared to standard-resolution TV) that the extra scan lines provide is impressive. Objects in the HDTV picture have more sharply defined edges, better contrast, and more accurate reproduction of shading and color patterns than do those in the standard-resolution TV picture. Because the TV viewing system is a key component for teleoperator performance, an improvement in TV picture quality could mean an improvement in the speed and accuracy with which teleoperators perform tasks. This report describes three experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The performance of HDTV was compared to that of standard-resolution, monochromatic TV and standard-resolution, stereoscopic, monochromatic TV in the context of judgment of depth in a televised scene, visual inspection of an object, and performance of a typical remote handling task. The results of the three experiments show that in some areas HDTV can lead to improvement in teleoperator performance. Observers inspecting a small object for a flaw were more accurate with HDTV than with either of the standard-resolution systems. High resolution is critical for detection of small-scale flaws of the type in the experiment (a scratch on a glass bottle). These experiments provided an evaluation of HDTV television for use in tasks that must be routinely performed to remotely maintain a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. 5 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Effects of television programs about Family Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is an observational study, which sought to reflect on the impact of television programs on family health. Thus, from February to July 2011, a Family Health Unit of Barra do Garças - Mato Grosso, the researcher observed the behavior of customers, through spontaneous expressions which referred to the materials or articles about health programs. At the end of the study, it wasfound that such programs stimulated and generated new behaviors, especially in women. But to do so, health professionals must engage with this media education and participate in the conduct of learned information in accordance with the need of the viewer.

  13. What's on Malaysian television? - A survey on food advertising targeting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Chinna, Karuthan; Mee, Loi Huei; Mei, Lim Siau; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on television. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation's commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children's programmes, prime time significantly differed ( p advertisements appearing per month varied greatly between television stations (C = 1104; D = 643; F = 407; B = 327; A = 59; E = 47). Food advertising also increased the most in September (n = 3158), followed by July (n = 2770), August (n = 2431), October (n = 2291), November (n = 2245) and June (n = 2211). Content analysis of advertisements indicated snacks were the highest (34.5%), followed by dairy products (20.3%), sugars and candies (13.4%), biscuits (11.2%), fast food (6.7%), breakfast cereal (6.4%), beverages (4.1%), supplements (0.9%), rice (0.6%), noodles (0.5%), bread (0.3%), miscellaneous and processed foods (0.2%). Paradoxically, we found that the frequency of snack food advertised during children's prime time was 5 times more than fast foods. The sodium content (mean = 620 mg per 100g) of these snack foods was found to be highest.

  14. Pro-socially shareable entertainment television programmes: a programming alternative in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Svenkerud, P J

    1994-12-01

    Over the period 1975-82, the Mexican television network created and aired seven entertainment soap operas promoting educational-development themes like adult literacy, smaller family size norms, and an higher social status for women. These emissions earned high ratings in Mexico and in other Latin American countries where they were subsequently broadcast. Evidence suggests that many of the social objectives of the soaps were met. In light of such success, the authors investigated the potential of pro-socially shareable entertainment television programs in developing countries. These programs use entertaining media formats to carry pro-social messages to a wide, yet culturally-proximate audience group. Entertainment television genres such as melodramatic soap operas offer certain advantages for carrying pro-socially shareable messages to audiences. The possibility of using other television genres and media channels, however, also needs to be seriously considered. Pro-socially shareable entertainment programs do have their limitations and problems, with a certain degree of message dilution invariably accompanying the quest for shareability. Targeting specific problems in specific audience groups is difficult and the identity of a relatively small homogeneous group can be threatened in a larger culturally proximate group. The value-laden nature of pro-social content can also be problematic.

  15. Proposed Ordinance for the Regulation of Cable Television. Working Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago City Council, IL.

    A model ordinance is proposed for the regulation of cable television in the city of Chicago. It defines the language of the ordinance, sets forth the method of granting franchises, and describes the terms of the franchises. The duties of a commission to regulate cable television are listed and the method of selecting commission members is…

  16. Searching for the Holy Grail: images of interactive television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Jan A.G.M.; Vos, de Loes

    2001-01-01

    This article is about the interactivity of interactive television (ITV). It is both a theoretical elaboration of the concepts of interactivity and interactive television and a presentation of a survey among 74 American, Asian and European corporate experts of ITV. First, operational definitions of t

  17. Evaluation of the "Feeling Good" Television Series. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Keith W.; Swinehart, James W.

    "Feeling Good" is the first television series for adults produced by the Children's Television Workshop, aired in prime time during 1974-1975 by the Public Broadcasting Service. The series attempted to reach the general public and motivate them to practice health maintenance behaviors. Various presentation formats were used. It was…

  18. A forecasting study on Chinese television development (1986 to 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L

    1988-01-01

    Given its widespread availability and impact on social values, television is expected to play an important role in China's modernization drive. Necessary to this process is a detailed analysis of the framework in which the technical aspects of television's development are related to political, economic, telecommunications, and social factors. To facilitate this analysis, a Delphi survey was conducted in 1986 as was a cross-impact analysis assisted by computer modelling. Entitled "Future Development of Chinese Television, 1986-2001," the Delphi survey sought to provide decision makers with operationally meaningful assistance in the form of information and analysis. The responses from experts suggested that, if economic growth can be sustained over the next 5 years, telecommunications development will receive top priority in state planning. Cross-impact analysis helps to clarify and promote better understanding of the complex relationships among future events and trends. This analysis tended to confirm the hypothesis that a nongovernmental television station is unlikely to emerge before 1991. Crucial to the success of any television policy (such as cable television service or videotext systems) is legislative support. The appearance of a nongovernmental television station would have a considerable impact on the private sector in China and lead to competition in programming quality, attracting audiences, and further commercialization. While the future development of Chinese television is dependent on economic factors such as purchasing power and the quality of life, its development can thus also be expected to exert a strong influence on economic life.

  19. Institutional Advancement and Spectator Sports: The Importance of Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anctil, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The significant increase in televised intercollegiate athletics over the past couple of decades presents institutions with a set of powerful opportunities to reach external constituents in ways that translate into donations and applications. Given the broad reach of television and its power in developing a university or college as a brand, it may…

  20. FTC Staff Report on Television Advertising to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Trade Commission, New York, NY. Bureau of Consumer Protection.

    This report addresses the problems created by the large volume of current television advertising being directed to children, many of whom naively accept the messages and cannot perceive the selling purpose of television advertising or otherwise comprehend or evaluate it; and recommends that law-making proceedings begin to (1) ban all television…

  1. Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esserman, June F., Ed.

    This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

  2. Contexts for Behavior in Television Programs and Children's Subsequent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr

    Aggression is examined in this discussion of the role of television in the development of young children's social behaviors. The way aggression is interpreted by children watching television and program influences on the children's own aggressive behavior are among topics considered. Some suggestions are made in regard to context of aggression…

  3. Prime Time Television: A Profile of Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the manner in which prosocial behaviors are currently presented on entertainment television, including various categories of prosocial behavior in a detailed profile of a sample week of prime-time television, and seeks to determine positive behaviors performed, frequency, program types, time slot, which networks, and by what character…

  4. Specific Impact of Radio and Television on Children's Story Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagles-Roos, Jessica; Gat, Isabelle

    1983-01-01

    A cross-media comparison of television and radio indicated that elementary students' recall of explicit story content was equivalent across media; however, recall of details was improved with a television presentation. Recognition of expressive language was facilitated by a radio story, whereas picture sequencing was augmented by a television…

  5. Does Television Viewing Cultivate Unrealistic Expectations About Marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris; Nabi, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines relationship between television viewing, holding idealistic expectations about marriage, and intentions to marry among undergraduate students. Finds overall television viewing has a negative association with idealistic marriage expectations; romantic genre programming was positively associated with high expectations; and expectations were…

  6. 47 CFR 76.1506 - Carriage of television broadcast signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... television markets. Any provision of § 76.59 that refers to a “cable system” shall apply to an open video... open video system commencing new operations shall notify all local commercial and noncommercial... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1506 Carriage...

  7. Children's Television Viewing: An Examination of Parent-Child Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, John R.; Robertson, Thomas S.

    1975-01-01

    Examines parental control over children's television viewing, as reported by parents and as reported by the children themselves. Results showed a more general pattern of exaggeration by parents than was reported by children regarding television control by parents. (Author/DEP)

  8. Suitability of AIOU Television and Its Impact on Students' Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraj, Syed Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The requirement of television for educational purposes arises when specific educational objectives are not achieved through traditional way of teaching. There are a number of things television can do better than the average teacher and traditional educational institutions, but situations where both teacher and educational institutions are not…

  9. Television: the Community Hearth for the College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael J.; Sapp, Aimee

    A study examined how college students watch television: Are there gender differences in how students watch? Is watching a form of socialization or a means of escape and diversion? Is there a relationship between students' GPA and the number of hours they spend watching television? Subjects were 379 full-time undergraduates--half of whom were male…

  10. The Effects of Dubbing Versus Subtitling of Television Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Fattawi B.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate viewers' knowledge of program content under various television translation modes and viewing experiences. Subjects were 176 students from the Center for Matriculation Program, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Penang, Malaysia. The Spanish version of an instructional television program was used; the program…

  11. The Portrayal of Men and Women in American Television Commercials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Leslie Zebrowitz; Resko, Beth Gabrielle

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics of adult male and female models in randomly selected television commercials were systematically coded and several significant sex differences were discovered. These sex differences are discussed in the context of research which suggests that peoples' sex-role behaviors and attitudes may be influenced by televised models.…

  12. Using Television Commercials as an Instructional Strategy to Teach Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jerry K.

    This paper discusses the use of television commercials as instructional aids in the teaching of persuasion. Utilizing commercials in considering the sexploitation of women is recommended. The triadic relationship of advertisers, programmers, and audiences is discussed. Television commercials as instructional innovations are advocated for the…

  13. Regulation of Cable Television by the State of New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William K.

    In order to determine the appropriate role for the State of New York in relation to cable television, a comprehensive report was prepared for the state Public Service Commission by one of its members. In addition to background detail on the technology and potential of cable television, the report investigates current cable systems and current…

  14. Cable Television: A Summary Overview for Local Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.

    Addressed to citizen groups, local government officials, and others concerned with the development of cable television in their communities, this report summarizes briefly some of the major issues surrounding local decisionmaking for cable television. This summary presents some of the more detailed information found in the companion publication,…

  15. A New Approach to Outreach Services: Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, George E.; Wiscons, Bradley J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the delivery of counseling center presentations to college students via cable television. Discusses the development of the first tape, which was on career development, and detailed other uses of videotapes. Future plans include use of cable television in health education and financial aid as well as career planning. (JAC)

  16. Cable Television and Education; A Report from the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Cable television, with its potential wealth of channels, provides education with a possible new tool through which existing services can be improved and new services devised. This report very briefly describes some of the possibilities for the use of cable television and gives a number of examples of ways in which communities are using cable…

  17. Cable Television U. S. A. An Analysis of Government Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiden, Martin H.

    It is the opinion of the author that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has wasted much of its time and energy in recent years constantly forming and revising cable television regulations when cable television is a relatively minor phenomenon with which the Commission should not have concerned itself in the first place. Thus, this book…

  18. Short-Term Effects of Televised Aggression on Children's Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Recently collected data appear to warrant advancing some tentative conslusions concerning the short-term effects of violence in television on children: 1) children are exposed to a substantial amount of violent content on television, and they can remember and learn from such exposure; 2) correlational studies have disclosed a regular association…

  19. Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

  20. Legal Remedies for the Reduction of Violence on Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Gloria S.

    In the wake of the United States Surgeon General's report which studied the impact of televised violence upon children and warned broadcasters that corrective action must soon be taken, the author explores the available legal channels for the reduction of violence on children's television. In an overview examining the history of violence in…