WorldWideScience

Sample records for tv infection rates

  1. Industry Television Ratings for Violence, Sex, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Traore, Aminata; Stoolmiller, Mike; Bergamini, Elaina; Sargent, James D

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether the industry-run television (TV) Parental Guidelines discriminate on violence, sexual behavior, alcohol use, and smoking in TV shows, to assess their usefulness for parents. Seventeen TV shows (323 episodes and 9214 episode minutes) across several TV show rating categories (TVY7, TVPG, TV14, and TVMA) were evaluated. We content-coded the episodes, recording seconds of each risk behavior, and we rated the salience of violence in each one. Multilevel models were used to test for associations between TV rating categories and prevalence of risk behaviors across and within episodes or salience of violence. Every show had at least 1 risk behavior. Violence was pervasive, occurring in 70% of episodes overall and for 2.3 seconds per episode minute. Alcohol was also common (58% of shows, 2.3 seconds per minute), followed by sex (53% of episodes, 0.26 seconds per minute), and smoking (31% of shows, 0.54 seconds per minute). TV Parental Guidelines did not discriminate prevalence estimates of TV episode violence. Although TV-Y7 shows had significantly less substance use, other categories were poor at discriminating substance use, which was as common in TV-14 as TV-MA shows. Sex and gory violence were the only behaviors demonstrating a graded increase in prevalence and salience for older-child rating categories. TV Parental Guidelines ratings were ineffective in discriminating shows for 3 out of 4 behaviors studied. Even in shows rated for children as young as 7 years, violence was prevalent, prominent, and salient. TV ratings were most effective for identification of sexual behavior and gory violence. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Parents rate the ratings: a test of the validity of the American movie, television, and video game ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Gentile, D A; Van Brederode, T M

    2002-02-01

    Numerous studies have documented the potential effects on young audiences of violent content in media products, including movies, television programs, and computer and video games. Similar studies have evaluated the effects associated with sexual content and messages. Cumulatively, these effects represent a significant public health risk for increased aggressive and violent behavior, spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and pediatric pregnancy. In partial response to these risks and to public and legislative pressure, the movie, television, and gaming industries have implemented ratings systems intended to provide information about the content and appropriate audiences for different films, shows, and games. We conducted a panel study to test the validity of the current movie, television, and video game rating systems. Participants used the KidScore media evaluation tool, which evaluates films, television shows, and video and computer games on 10 aspects, including the appropriateness of the media product for children on the basis of age. Results revealed that when an entertainment industry rates a product as inappropriate for children, parent raters agree that it is inappropriate for children. However, parent raters disagree with industry usage of many of the ratings designating material suitable for children of different ages. Products rated as appropriate for adolescents are of the greatest concern. The level of disagreement varies from industry to industry and even from rating to rating. Analysis indicates that the amount of violent content and portrayals of violence are the primary markers for disagreement between parent raters and industry ratings. Short-term and long-term recommendations are suggested.

  3. A validity test of movie, television, and video-game ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Gentile, D A

    2001-06-01

    Numerous studies have documented the potential effects on young audiences of violent content in media products, including movies, television programs, and computer and video games. Similar studies have evaluated the effects associated with sexual content and messages. Cumulatively, these effects represent a significant public health risk for increased aggressive and violent behavior, spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and pediatric pregnancy. In partial response to these risks and to public and legislative pressure, the movie, television, and gaming industries have implemented ratings systems intended to provide information about the content and appropriate audiences for different films, shows, and games. To test the validity of the current movie-, television-, and video game-rating systems. Panel study. Participants used the KidScore media evaluation tool, which evaluates films, television shows, and video games on 10 aspects, including the appropriateness of the media product for children based on age. When an entertainment industry rates a product as inappropriate for children, parent raters agree that it is inappropriate for children. However, parent raters disagree with industry usage of many of the ratings designating material suitable for children of different ages. Products rated as appropriate for adolescents are of the greatest concern. The level of disagreement varies from industry to industry and even from rating to rating. Analysis indicates that the amount of violent content and portrayals of violence are the primary markers for disagreement between parent raters and industry ratings. As 1 part of a solution to the complex public health problems posed by violent and sexually explicit media products, ratings can have value if used with caution. Parents and caregivers relying on the ratings systems to guide their children's use of media products should continue to monitor content independently. Industry ratings systems should be revised with input

  4. Parents of preschoolers’ usage of television program rating symbols and their protective ways from television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Banko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is detecting parent’s, who have 3-6 ages of children, knowledge and usage level of these systems, and their protective ways for TV. Research sample was formed by 130 mothers in qualiatative part of the study and 8 mothers in quantitative part of the study.  In this study, which include both quantitative and qualitative methods, semi-structured interview form and survey were used. For the evaluation of qualitative data, ANOVA and t-test were used. The relationship between parents’ awareness level and program rating symbols usage level was revealed by correlation analysis. The evaluation of quantitative data was carried out with content analysis. Findings show that participants mostly know television content rating systems except symbol used for negative behaviours. Moreover, usage level and children guidance level of participants are generally high. Participant’s education level was the only effective variable of the study. Post hoc test showed that  and their awareness and guidance level. After qualitative analyzes it is found that families use television on the purpose of entertainment and education. Parents thought that TV includes negative sample behaviors and parents protect their children from negative effects of TV by controlling their watching.

  5. The Advent of Streaming Television in Denmark - Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    Digital media convergence is turning television practices upside down, including advertising, the motives for political and administrative decisions, and also extends to planning, producing, distributing, and programming content (Buzzard 2012; Cunningham and Silver 2013; Havens 2014; Ihlebæk, Syv......-demand. It discusses the potential impact of declining accuracy of audience measurement on market actors’ decisions concerning streaming, as well as potential strategies for improving audience measurement.......Digital media convergence is turning television practices upside down, including advertising, the motives for political and administrative decisions, and also extends to planning, producing, distributing, and programming content (Buzzard 2012; Cunningham and Silver 2013; Havens 2014; Ihlebæk....... It is noteworthy that although the shift towards online television distribution entails that viewing become measurable by the existing system for online audience tracking (Gemius), market actors have so far failed in their attempt to consolidate online measurements of viewing time with audience ratings of flow...

  6. Sensory emission rates from personal computers and television sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Baginska, S.

    2003-01-01

    Sensory emissions from personal computers (PCs), PC monitors + PC towers, and television sets (TVs) having been in operation for 50, 400 and 600 h were assessed by a panel of 48 subjects. One brand of PC tower and four brands of PC monitors were tested. Within each brand, cathode-ray tube (CRT......) and thin-flat-transistor (TFT) monitors were selected. Two brands of TVs were tested. All brands are prevalent on the world market. The assessments were conducted in low-polluting 40 m3 test offices ventilated with a constant outdoor air change rate of 1.3 ± 0.2 h–1 corresponding to 7 L/s per PC or TV...... with two units placed at a time in the test offices; air temperature was controlled at 22 ± 0.1°C and relative humidity at 41 ± 0.5%. The subjects entered the offices individually and immediately assessed the air quality. They did not see the PCs or TVs that were placed behind a screen and were...

  7. 78 FR 12967 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 [MM Docket No. 00-10; FCC 01-123 and MM Docket No. 93-215; FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation... Federal Communications Commission published requirements related to Establishment of Class A TV Service...

  8. Determination of x-radiation exposure rates from color television sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1988-05-01

    The exposure rates of low energy X-rays emitted from color televisions were determined by thermoluminescence using CaSO 4 :Dy + Teflon pellets. The measurements were taken at the distances of 5 cm, 2 and 3 m in front of the screens. The results were compared with those obtained for video display terminals at the same experimental conditions. (author) [pt

  9. A Comparison of Student Ratings in Traditional and Interactive Television Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Morgan; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although interactive television (ITV) allows colleges and universities to reach a wider audience, little research has been conducted exploring the effectiveness of the courses as perceived by students. This study compared student ratings of teacher effectiveness between 331 traditional courses and 125 ITV courses. The data included 456 graduate…

  10. 78 FR 27307 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 [MM Docket No. 00-10; FCC 01-123 and MM Docket No. 93-215; FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules--Clarification Regarding Information Collection Requirements; Correction AGENCY...

  11. An Empirical Analysis of Television Commercial Ratings in Alternative Competitive Environments Using Multinomial Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ALTAŞ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Watching the commercials depends on the choice of the viewer. Most of the television viewing takes place during “Prime-Time” unfortunately; many viewers opt to zap to other channels when commercials start. The television viewers’ demographic characteristics may indicate the likelihood of the zapping frequency. Analysis made by using Multinomial Logit Model indicates how effective the demographic variables are in the watching rate of the first minute of the television commercials.

  12. Playing a violent television game affects heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Malena; Anderson, Martin; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Lindblad, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing. In total, 19 boys, 12-15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in. Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design ('third-person game'); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones. During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item. Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming--during playing and during the following night--suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer

  13. Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Health and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimala Sharma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents.

  14. Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Heath and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bimala; Cosme Chavez, Rosemary; Jeong, Ae Suk; Nam, Eun Woo

    2017-04-05

    The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents.

  15. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement and monitoring of entrance exposure dose rate in X-ray image intensifier television with dose rate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J [Bezirkskrankenhaus Brandenburg (German Democratic Republic)

    1981-03-01

    For X-ray image intensifier television operation very low entrance dose rates (about 5.2 nA/kg) are stated and demanded, respectively. These required values are often manifold exceeded in practice so that a check seems to be necessary. It is shown and proved how these measurements can be performed with simple, generally available means of measurement in the radiological practice. For ZnCdS-image intensifiers should be considered that about 13 nA/kg for the large entrance size are not to be exceeded; for the CsI type lower values (factor 1.5) are practicable because of the twofold quantum absorption efficiency. Furthermore, some tests for a semiquantitative function check of the automatic dose rate control are proposed.

  17. Interest Rate Demands and Television Viewing-Is a Single Exposure More Influential Than Routine Viewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetsroni, Amir; Reizer, Abira; Ben Zion, Uri

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the impact of media consumption, and particularly exposure to television, on decisions regarding interest rate demands. One hundred and fifty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups: in the manipulation group, participants were exposed to a news clip about an Iranian nuclear attack on Israel, whereas in the control group, the participants were not exposed to the film. Both groups filled a questionnaires regarding their interest rate requirements in different situations, their media conception behaviors, and demographic questionnaires. Frequent routine viewing increased the interest rate demands only among participants in the manipulation group, but the manipulation itself did not have a significant effect on interest rate demands. The results are explained in terms of cultivation theory.

  18. TV Ratings vs. Social Media Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrikke Hovda; Forsberg, Johanna Margareta; Hemstad, Sigrid Viken

    2016-01-01

    the viewers are affected by discussions on the Talk Show, and whether this creates debate on social media afterwards. By analyzing TV viewer ratings of Skavlan talk show, Facebook activity and text classification of Facebook posts and comments with respect to type of emotions and brand sentiment, this paper...

  19. A Mathematical Model for the Control of Infectious Diseases: Effects of TV and Radio Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A. K.; Rai, Rajanish Kumar

    The broadcast of awareness programs through TV and radio advertisements (ads) makes people aware and brings behavioral changes among the individuals regarding the risk of infection and its control mechanisms. In this paper, we propose and analyze a nonlinear mathematical model for the control of infectious diseases due to impact of TV and radio advertisements. It is assumed that susceptible individuals are vulnerable to infection as well as information through TV and radio ads and they contract infection via direct contact with infected individuals. In the model formulation, it is also assumed that the growth rates in cumulative number of TV and radio ads are proportional to the number of infected individuals with decreasing function of aware individuals. Further, it is assumed that awareness among susceptible individuals induces behavioral changes and they form separate aware classes, which are fully protected from infection as they use precautionary measures for their protection during the infection period. The feasibility of equilibria and their stability properties are discussed. It is shown that the augmentation in dissemination rate of awareness among susceptible individuals due to TV and radio ads may cause stability switches through Hopf-bifurcation. The analytical findings are supported through numerical simulations.

  20. Effect of a television digital noise reduction device on fluoroscopic image quality and dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, C.C.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Ablow, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    In conventional fluoroscopy, the current, and therefore the dose rate, is usually determined by the level at which the radiologist visualizes a just tolerable amount of photon ''mottle'' on the video monitor. In this study, digital processing of the analogue video image reduced noise and generated a television image at half the usual exposure rate. The technique uses frame delay to compare an incoming frame with the preceding output frame. A first-order recursive filter implemented under a motion-detection scheme operates on the image of a point-by-point basis. This effective motion detection algorithm permits noise suppression without creating noticeable lag in moving structures. Eight radiologists evaluated images of vesicoureteral reflux in the pig for noise, contrast, resolution, and general image quality on a five-point preferential scale. They rated the digitally processed fluoroscopy images equivalent in diagnostic value to unprocessed images

  1. [Poliomyelitis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M; Águila-Maturana, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease whose initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headaches, vomiting, a stiff neck and pains in the limbs. In many cases, the sequelae are irreversible paralysis and may result in death if there is bulbar or respiratory compromise. A set of symptoms, called post-polio syndrome, which appears years after the acute infection, are also described. To analyse the way poliomyelitis has been dealt with in literature, cinema and television. Film and television writers and directors have shown an interest in poliomyelitis and have portrayed it in a correct and realistic manner, both in fiction and in biographies or documentary-type works. Nemesis, Silver wattle, Leave her to heaven or The fall are some examples of literary works on the subject. Cinema has also portrayed polio all the way back to silent movies, with titles such as The woman in his house, The Silver Streak, Sister Kenny or The sessions. This disease and its sequelae have also been portrayed on television in series such as Hospital Central, Grey's anatomy, House M.D. or Amar en tiempos revueltos, and in TV films like El asunto, Eleanor and Franklin or Warm Springs. Poliomyelitis has been portrayed in literature, cinema and television in a realistic manner, showing its symptoms, sequelae, and the personal, familial and social impact of this disease.

  2. ObesiTV: how television is influencing the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-08-20

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adolescent exposure to food advertising on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    Television viewing is hypothesized to contribute to obesity among children and adolescents through several mechanisms that include the displacement of physical activity, snacking while watching TV, and the influence of food advertising. This study drew on television ratings to examine the distribution of food advertising exposure among adolescents aged 12 through 17 based on 170 top-rated shows across network, cable and syndicated TV stations over the 9-month period from September 2003 to May 2004. A total of 238,353 30-second equivalent advertisements on the top-rated shows were assessed. Each advertisement was weighted by its rating to measure actual exposure to advertisements. The results showed that among total nonprogram content time, food-related products accounted for roughly one fifth of advertising exposure. Excluding TV promotions and public service announcements, as a proportion of all product advertising, total food-related advertising made up 26% of advertised products viewed by adolescents. By race, the proportion of advertising exposure to food products was 14% greater for African-American versus white adolescents and total exposure to food advertising would be even larger for African-American teens given that, on average, they watched more TV. Fast food was the most frequently viewed food product category comprising 23% of all food-related advertisements among adolescents. Food ads made up just over one quarter of TV ads viewed by adolescents with the most commonly viewed products of fast food, sweets, and beverage products well within the reach of their own purchasing power.

  4. Recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K J; Griffin, R; Rue, L W; McGwin, G

    2009-08-01

    To describe recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years, and to compare injury rates with sales of newer digital televisions. Digital television sales data were obtained from marketing data provided by the Television Bureau of Advertising. Data regarding television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years were obtained from the 1998-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. A Wald chi(2) test, estimated from logistic analysis, was used to determine whether the distribution of injury types differed by age group. Pearson's correlation was used to estimate the association between digital television sales and television tip over-related injuries. An estimated 42 122 (95% CI 35 199 to 49 122) injuries from television tip-overs were treated in US emergency departments from 1998 to 2007. The injury rate was highest for children aged 1-4 years (18.6/100 000). A majority of injuries (63.9%) involved the head and neck for children under 1 year of age, while a higher proportion of injuries among children aged 1-4 involved the hip and lower extremity (42.9% and 31.0%, respectively), and shoulder and upper extremity (16.8%) for children aged 5-9. A strong, positive correlation was observed between television sales and annual injury rates (r = 0.89, pdigital television sales were strongly correlated with increased injury rates, the lack of information regarding the type of television involved prevents inference regarding causation.

  5. The Effects of Market Structure on Television News Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Michael O.; Wollert, James A.

    Multiple regression techniques were used to examine the business side of local television news operations for November 1978. Research questions examined the effect of several variables on local television news prices (advertising rates), including type of ownership, network affiliation/signal type, market size, cable network penetration, market…

  6. Exposure rate measurements on TV monitors LiF:Mg, Cu, P (GR- 200A) chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, S.S.; Sadagopan, Geetha; Bhatt, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    For measuring exposure rate on black and white TV monitor screen, LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200A) TLD chips were used. The samples were kept on TV monitor screen and exposed for 560 hrs with TV in 'ON' condition. The exposure rate on TV monitor screen was determined from integrated TL measurements and it varied from 0.081μGy/hr to 0.106 μGy/hr. Thus it was observed that the exposure levels were well below the prescribed limits (i.e. 5 μGy/h at 5 cm from the surface). LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200A) TLD discs were also used to estimate the dose level on the surface of two types of TV monitors. The samples were kept at five different locations on the two (14 C PT AND 20 C PT) models of TV monitors and exposed for 622 hrs. From the measurement of TL, integrated dose on the screen were in the range 3.86 mR to 12.34 mR, the corresponding dose rate being 6.206 mR/hr to 19.839 mR/hr. This ensures that doses were well below the recommended limit of 0.5 mR/hr at 5cm. (author)

  7. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A... Commission's Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power, Television Translator, and Television Booster... Digital Low Power Television Translator, Television Booster Stations, and to Amend Rules for Digital Class...

  8. Convergent Television and 'Audience Participation': The Early Days of Interactive Digital Television in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Theodoropoulou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the introduction of interactive digital television (DTV in the UK, at the turn of the millennium, and its take-up and use by early audiences. It discusses whether the processes of television technological convergence went together with “consumer behavior convergence”[i], enhanced audience engagement with the interactive TV services offered, and participation. Based on findings from a UK-wide survey and interviews with early Sky digital subscribers[ii] it shows that early interactive DTV was taken up because of its multichannel offering and thematic orientation and, interestingly, was approached and appreciated mostly as a television content provider. It thus notes a divergence on industry’s attempts to promote convergence in broadcasting and on the level and pace with which users adopt and adapt to such change. In so doing it highlights the evolutionary nature and slow rate of ‘change’ of cultural habits and forms. [i] Horst Stipp, ‘Convergence now?’, The International Journal of Media Management, 1, 1, 1999, 10-13. [ii] A postal survey using a simple random sample of 1986 early Sky digital subscribers was conducted and achieved a response rate of 35.25%. This was complemented by 15 in-depth interviews with a stratified sample of the original survey sample. In the quotes that follow the gender initial (Male or Female and age of the interviewee is used as an identification mark.

  9. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules... for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend... television, TV translator, and Class A television station DTV licensees''). The Commission has also revised...

  10. Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Health and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Bimala Sharma; Rosemary Cosme Chavez; Ae Suk Jeong; Eun Woo Nam

    2017-01-01

    The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were per...

  11. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new low...

  12. Picking of foreign television formats by Czech televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Šopovová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with one of the impacts of media globalisation and it is a picking of foreign television formats. It analyzes the structure of television programs offered by Czech television broadcasters and its change from 2005 when TV Nova and TV Prima changed their owners to international ones. After the introduction of media globalisation, the paper describes the television formats and then it includes a list of licensed television programs and a comparison of chosen programs with...

  13. 76 FR 44821 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules... Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend Rules... translator facilities in the 700 MHz band. These provisions provide procedures for a primary wireless...

  14. Study of Consumer Attitudes Toward Television Advertising Using Celebrity Endorser

    OpenAIRE

    Hudha, Asmirandi Noor; Hidayat, Anas

    2011-01-01

    This research analyzed how the attractiveness of a celebrity endorser is able to influ-ence customers’ brand choice behavior and how customers perceive celebrity-based television advertising. The study is based on an empirical research approach, which use a convenience sample of 150 students who lives in Yogyakarta. The respondents rate the attractiveness of ce-lebrity-based on television advertising and the influence of celebrity-based television advertis-ing on consumers’ brand choice behav...

  15. Cable Television in Sedalia, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Kathryn Janel

    A field study was conducted of the status of cable television in Sedalia, Missouri. Based on interviews of city council members and staff members of Cablevision, the Sedalia cable franchise holder, the following issues were investigated: (1) subscription rates; (2) franchise negotiations; (3) quality of existing services; and (4) possible…

  16. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A... TV, TV Translator or TV Booster Station, FCC Form 346; 47 CFR 74.793(d); LPTV Out-of-Core Digital... collection requirements: 47 CFR 74.793(d) proposes that certain digital low power and TV translator stations...

  17. Improving Acoustic Models by Watching Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbrock, Michael J.; Hauptmann, Alexander G.

    1998-01-01

    Obtaining sufficient labelled training data is a persistent difficulty for speech recognition research. Although well transcribed data is expensive to produce, there is a constant stream of challenging speech data and poor transcription broadcast as closed-captioned television. We describe a reliable unsupervised method for identifying accurately transcribed sections of these broadcasts, and show how these segments can be used to train a recognition system. Starting from acoustic models trained on the Wall Street Journal database, a single iteration of our training method reduced the word error rate on an independent broadcast television news test set from 62.2% to 59.5%.

  18. About Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin

    The entire broadcast television industry is the subject of this book. An attempt is made to present history, theory, and anecdotes about television programing, television advertising, television and politics, and network news, focusing all the while on American television, but with consideration given to alternative structures and methods.…

  19. RI-60TK X-ray television introscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, A.V.; Shablov, S.V.; Morgunov, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray television introscope is briefly described. It is applied for remote viewing of welded joints and steel articles with up to 45 mm wall thickness, steel casting, articles of titanium and aluminium alloys. X-radiation penetrating the constrolled material is amplified by X-ray image converter and is passed to television camera tube. X-ray image is observed on the screen of picture monitor. Camera attachment is provided for document recording. The introscope possesses higher sensitivity and operates with lower dose rate of radiation as compared to earlier produced devices

  20. Opinion rating of comparison photographs of television pictures from CCD cameras under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, V.M.; Dumbreck, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the development of a general method of testing the effects of gamma radiation on CCD television cameras, this is a report of an experimental study on the optimisation of still photographic representation of video pictures recorded before and during camera irradiation. (author)

  1. High-resolution X-ray television and high-resolution video recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de

  2. Building the case for independent monitoring of food advertising on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lesley; Hebden, Lana; Grunseit, Anne; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy

    2013-12-01

    To provide an independent monitoring report examining the ongoing impact of Australian self-regulatory pledges on food and drink advertising to children on commercial television. Analysis of food advertisements across comparable sample time periods in April/May 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The main outcome measure comprised change in the mean rate of non-core food advertisements from 2006 to 2011. Sydney free-to-air television channels. Televised food advertisements. In 2011 the rate of non-core food advertisements was not significantly different from that in 2006 or 2010 (3·2/h v. 4·1/h and 3·1/h), although there were variations across the intervening years. The rate of fast-food advertising in 2010 was significantly higher than in 2006 (1·8/h v. 1·1/h, P advertising on Sydney television has remained essentially unchanged between 2006 and 2011, despite the implementation of two industry self-regulatory pledges. The current study illustrates the value of independent monitoring as a basic requirement of any responsive regulatory approach.

  3. Children's violent television viewing: are parents monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R

    2004-07-01

    Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched

  4. Detection of Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection in Male Non-gonococcal Urethritis Patients by InPouch TV Culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhiyuan(姚志远); ZHENG Heyi(郑和义); CAO Jingjiang(曹经江)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis(TV) infection in Chinese male patients with nongonococcalurethritis (NGU), to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity ofurine-based and urethral swab polymerase chain reaction(PCR) detection, to set up a method for non-invasive detectionof male TV infection. Method: One hundred and five male NGU patients wereselected from a Beijing STD clinic. Two urethral swabs wereobtained from each patient, one for the InPouch TV culturesystem and the other for PCR. In addition, one first void urinespecimen was collected for PCR detection. Culture wasconsidered the "gold standard". The sensitivity, specificity,positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value(NPV) of the two PCR detections were compared to cultureresults. Results: The prevalence of urine-based PCR and urethralswab PCR detection was 3.81% (4/105) and 4.76% (5/105)respectively. Compared to culture, the sensitivity, specificity,PPV and NPV were 80%, 100%, 100% and 99% for urine-based PCR and 80%, 99%, 80% and 99% for urethral swabPCR.Conclusion: TV is one of the etiological agents in male NGU,with a 4.76% prevalence of infection in our study. The urine-based PCR detection has higher sensitivity and specificity andprovides a noninvasive method more feasible in practice.

  5. Identifying household television practices to reduce children’s television time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.

    2013-01-01

    The risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing justify television-reduction efforts. Targeting parents and the household environment provides a promising strategy for limiting television. Research has highlighted household television practices to reduce children’s viewing, but more

  6. Media multitasking behavior: concurrent television and computer usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the media landscape have made simultaneous usage of the computer and television increasingly commonplace, but little research has explored how individuals navigate this media multitasking environment. Prior work suggests that self-insight may be limited in media consumption and multitasking environments, reinforcing a rising need for direct observational research. A laboratory experiment recorded both younger and older individuals as they used a computer and television concurrently, multitasking across television and Internet content. Results show that individuals are attending primarily to the computer during media multitasking. Although gazes last longer on the computer when compared to the television, the overall distribution of gazes is strongly skewed toward very short gazes only a few seconds in duration. People switched between media at an extreme rate, averaging more than 4 switches per min and 120 switches over the 27.5-minute study exposure. Participants had little insight into their switching activity and recalled their switching behavior at an average of only 12 percent of their actual switching rate revealed in the objective data. Younger individuals switched more often than older individuals, but other individual differences such as stated multitasking preference and polychronicity had little effect on switching patterns or gaze duration. This overall pattern of results highlights the importance of exploring new media environments, such as the current drive toward media multitasking, and reinforces that self-monitoring, post hoc surveying, and lay theory may offer only limited insight into how individuals interact with media.

  7. Image quality measurements for X-ray television chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, M.

    1986-01-01

    Image quality measurements were carried out for 36 television chains during 3 years. For the parameters sensitivity, resolution, contrast-detail diagram, minimal contrast and dose rate average values and experiences on their long-term stability are reported. (author)

  8. Identifying family television practices to reduce children's television time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.

    2015-01-01

    The family system plays an important role in shaping children’s television use. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that parents limit screen time, given the risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing. Researchers have highlighted family television practices that may be

  9. Cable Television Franchising in Florida: An Analysis of Selected Franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Lucia M.

    Cable Television franchises in 20 Florida communities were analyzed to determine rates and citizens' rights of access as required by FCC regulations. It was found that rates ranged from $4.95 to $8.75, with the average monthly service at $5.65. Fees had little to do with an overall citizens' rights; the companies with higher rates generally made…

  10. Teaching Television Watchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy Lee

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities to help teachers address the needs and behaviors of students raised on television; includes resources to help teachers use television productively in the classroom, a send-home reproducible on children and television violence, and notes on an interview with Shari Lewis and television tips for primary students. (SM)

  11. Hidden addiction: Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  12. Linking Obesity and Activity Level with Children's Television and Video Game Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Shim, Mi-suk; Caplovitz, Allison G.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the links between childhood obesity, activity participation and television and video game use in a nationally representative sample of children (N=2831) ages 1-12 using age-normed body mass index (BMI) ratings. Results indicated that while television use was not related to children's weight status, video game use was. Children…

  13. Television use in the 21st century: An exploration of television and social television use in a multiplatform environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jiyoung

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the multiplatform and individualized video viewing environment, this study conducted focus groups to delve into reasons behind the choice and use of television over other types of video platforms, and the motives for using social television. The results suggest that the focus group participants feel affection for television as a medium itself — a feeling that is independent of the content available on television. The motives for seeking social television include a sense of communi...

  14. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Barbara A; Russo, Theresa J; Burdick, Patrick A; Jenkins, Paul L

    2004-02-01

    Television viewing has been associated with increased violence in play and higher rates of obesity. Although there are interventions to reduce television viewing by school-aged children, there are none for younger children. To develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Randomized controlled trial conducted in 16 preschool and/or day care centers in rural upstate New York. Children aged 2.6 through 5.5 years. Children attending intervention centers received a 7-session program designed to reduce television viewing as part of a health promotion curriculum, whereas children attending the control centers received a safety and injury prevention program. Change in parent-reported child television/video viewing and measured growth variables. Before the intervention, the intervention and control groups viewed 11.9 and 14.0 h/wk of television/videos, respectively. Afterward, children in the intervention group decreased their television/video viewing 3.1 h/wk, whereas children in the control group increased their viewing by 1.6 h/wk, for an adjusted difference between the groups of -4.7 h/wk (95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -1.0 h/wk; P =.02). The percentage of children watching television/videos more than 2 h/d also decreased significantly from 33% to 18% among the intervention group, compared with an increase of 41% to 47% among the control group, for a difference of -21.5% (95% confidence interval, -42.5% to -0.5%; P =.046). There were no statistically significant differences in children's growth between groups. This study is the first to show that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects associated with reductions in young children's television viewing.

  15. Parenting quality and television viewing among 10 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between parenting quality and children's screen-time. Data from the US National Institute Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, collected in 2001, were analysed. Videotaped interaction tasks of 874 mother-child dyads were rated for ten parenting qualities (i.e., agency, persistence, negativity, affection, felt security, affective mutuality, autonomy granting, stimulation of cognitive development, quality of assistance & hostility). Children (aged 10-11yrs) self-reported television viewing on weekdays and weekends. Associations between parenting quality and television viewing were examined using logistic regression. Greater felt security was associated with lower odds of watching >2h of television on weekdays among boys (p=0.05). High agency was associated with greater odds of watching >2h of television per day on weekdays among girls (p=0.02). High supportive presence and quality of child assistance were associated with lower odds of watching >2h of television on Saturdays (p=0.05) among girls. Child agency (i.e., self-direction and confidence) was associated with greater television viewing whereas parenting characterised by perceived security, support and structured yet flexible guidance was associated with lower television viewing. Parent-child interactions and communication may be an appropriate target for sedentary behaviour interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of Consumer Attitudes Toward Television Advertising Using Celebrity Endorser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmirandi Noor Hudha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed how the attractiveness of a celebrity endorser is able to influ-ence customers’ brand choice behavior and how customers perceive celebrity-based television advertising. The study is based on an empirical research approach, which use a convenience sample of 150 students who lives in Yogyakarta. The respondents rate the attractiveness of ce-lebrity-based on television advertising and the influence of celebrity-based television advertis-ing on consumers’ brand choice behavior. The sample of advertisement in this research is XL television advertising which is featuring Raffi Ahmad, a famous celebrity. The data evaluated by using several statistical techniques, including Descriptive analysis, and Analysis of Variance (One Sample t-Test Based on the research findings and the analysis, it is proved that the ce-lebrity-based television advertising has positively attracted the consumers. As a consequence, this response significantly influences the consumers’ brand choice behavior. It can be con-cluded that the attractiveness of celebrity-based on television advertising is likely to have a positive relationship to consumers and celebrity-based television advertising is likely to have a positive influence toward consumers’ brand choice behavior.Keywords:    celebrity concept, power of celebrity endorsement, attitude towards the ad and brand, endorser selection criteria

  17. The Evaluation of Dogmatic Television Characters by Dogmatic Viewers: "Is Archie Bunker a Credible Source?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    The highly rated television program series, "All in the Family," was used to test the relationship between attitudes espoused by televised characters and attitudes held by viewers of this type of television programing. On the basis of survey questionnaires, it was condluded that people who hold dogmatic and, especially, racist beliefs find…

  18. Obesogenic television food advertising to children in Malaysia: sociocultural variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, See H; Kelly, Bridget; Se, Chee H; Chinna, Karuthan; Sameeha, Mohd Jamil; Krishnasamy, Shanthi; Ismail, M N; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2014-01-01

    Food advertising on television (TV) is well known to influence children's purchasing requests and models negative food habits in Western countries. Advertising of unhealthy foods is a contributor to the obesogenic environment that is a key driver of rising rates of childhood obesity. Children in developing countries are more at risk of being targeted by such advertising, as there is a huge potential for market growth of unhealthy foods concomitant with poor regulatory infrastructure. Further, in developing countries with multi-ethnic societies, information is scarce on the nature of TV advertising targeting children. To measure exposure and power of TV food marketing to children on popular multi-ethnic TV stations in Malaysia. Ethnic-specific popular TV channels were identified using industry data. TV transmissions were recorded for each channel from November 2012 to August 2013 (16 hr/day) for randomly selected weekdays and weekend days during normal days and repeated during school holidays (n=88 days). Coded food/beverage advertisements were grouped into core (healthy), non-core (non-healthy), or miscellaneous (unclassified) food categories. Peak viewing time (PVT) and persuasive marketing techniques were identified. Non-core foods were predominant in TV food advertising, and rates were greater during school holidays compared to normal days (3.51 vs 1.93 food ads/hr/channel, padvertising was higher (3.25 food ads/hr/channel), and this more than trebled during school holidays to 10.25 food ads/hr/channel. Popular channels for Indian children had the lowest rate of food advertising relative to other ethnic groups. However, sugary drinks remained a popular non-core product advertised across all broadcast periods and channels. Notably, promotional characters doubled for non-core foods during school holidays compared to normal days (1.91 vs 0.93 food ads/hr/channel, padvertising, and predominantly sugary drinks are commonly screened on Malaysian TV channels. The

  19. Obesogenic television food advertising to children in Malaysia: sociocultural variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, See H.; Kelly, Bridget; Se, Chee H.; Chinna, Karuthan; Sameeha, Mohd Jamil; Krishnasamy, Shanthi; MN, Ismail; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2014-01-01

    Background Food advertising on television (TV) is well known to influence children's purchasing requests and models negative food habits in Western countries. Advertising of unhealthy foods is a contributor to the obesogenic environment that is a key driver of rising rates of childhood obesity. Children in developing countries are more at risk of being targeted by such advertising, as there is a huge potential for market growth of unhealthy foods concomitant with poor regulatory infrastructure. Further, in developing countries with multi-ethnic societies, information is scarce on the nature of TV advertising targeting children. Objectives To measure exposure and power of TV food marketing to children on popular multi-ethnic TV stations in Malaysia. Design Ethnic-specific popular TV channels were identified using industry data. TV transmissions were recorded for each channel from November 2012 to August 2013 (16 hr/day) for randomly selected weekdays and weekend days during normal days and repeated during school holidays (n=88 days). Coded food/beverage advertisements were grouped into core (healthy), non-core (non-healthy), or miscellaneous (unclassified) food categories. Peak viewing time (PVT) and persuasive marketing techniques were identified. Results Non-core foods were predominant in TV food advertising, and rates were greater during school holidays compared to normal days (3.51 vs 1.93 food ads/hr/channel, padvertising was higher (3.25 food ads/hr/channel), and this more than trebled during school holidays to 10.25 food ads/hr/channel. Popular channels for Indian children had the lowest rate of food advertising relative to other ethnic groups. However, sugary drinks remained a popular non-core product advertised across all broadcast periods and channels. Notably, promotional characters doubled for non-core foods during school holidays compared to normal days (1.91 vs 0.93 food ads/hr/channel, padvertising, and predominantly sugary drinks are commonly

  20. Is watching television a realistic leisure option for people with dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gústafsdóttir, Margrét

    2015-01-01

    Watching television is a common leisure activity, not least among older people. However, watching television may become difficult when it is disturbed by symptoms of dementia. A total of 284 questionnaires were handed out to relatives of people with dementia in Iceland, in the Memory Clinic of the University Hospital and in specialized units for people with dementia (6 day-care units and 8 units within nursing homes). The response rate was just below 58%. Watching television was shown to play a less important role in the course of the daily life of people with dementia as soon as the symptoms of the disease became evident, and it increasingly became less relevant. So, this previous leisure activity left an ever-growing void of time to fill. However, watching television may provide an important social context for contact and togetherness during the progress of the disease, as watching television with someone close to them was important for the individuals with dementia. It is not a viable option for people with dementia to watch television on their own, but they may enjoy watching television while sharing this activity with a person close to them. This may even provide quality time.

  1. Tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting young children's television viewing and associations with children's television viewing time: a longitudinal analysis over 15-months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuk, Jill A; Salmon, Jo; Campbell, Karen J; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2015-05-30

    Mothers' self-efficacy for limiting their children's television viewing is an important correlate of this behaviour in young children. However, no studies have examined how maternal self-efficacy changes over time, which is potentially important during periods of rapid child development. This study examined tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting young children's television viewing over 15-months and associations with children's television viewing time. In 2008 and 2010, mothers (n = 404) from the Melbourne InFANT Program self-reported their self-efficacy for limiting their child's television viewing at 4- and 19-months of age. Tertiles of self-efficacy were created at each time and categorised into: persistently high, persistently low, increasing or decreasing self-efficacy. Weighted kappa and multinomial logistic regression examined tracking and demographic and behavioural predictors of change in self-efficacy. A linear regression model examined associations between tracking categories and children's television viewing time. Tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting children's television viewing was low (kappa = 0.23, p television viewing time at 19-months (β = -35.5; 95 % CI = -54.4,-16.6 and β = 37.0; 95 % CI = -54.4,-19.7, respectively). Mothers of children with difficult temperaments were less likely to have persistently high self-efficacy. Mothers who met adult physical activity guidelines had 2.5 greater odds of increasing self-efficacy. Interventions to increase and maintain maternal self-efficacy for limiting children's television viewing time may result in lower rates of this behaviour amongst toddlers. Maternal and child characteristics may need to be considered when tailoring interventions.

  2. Amount of Hispanic youth exposure to food and beverage advertising on Spanish- and English-language television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, Frances; Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to large numbers of television advertisements for foods and beverages with little or no nutritional value likely contributes to poor diet among youth. Given higher rates of obesity and overweight for Hispanic youth, it is important to understand the amount and types of food advertising they view. To quantify the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by Hispanic youth on Spanish- and English-language television and compare it with the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by non-Hispanic youth. Data on gross rating points that measured advertising viewed on national broadcast and cable television in 2010 using a Nielsen panel of television-viewing households of Hispanic and non-Hispanic preschoolers (2-5 years), children (6-11 years), and adolescents (12-17 years). Food and beverage television advertisements viewed on English- and Spanish-language television by product category and television-viewing times by age and language preference. EXPOSURE Food and beverage advertising on Spanish- and English-language television. RESULTS In 2010, Hispanic preschoolers, children, and adolescents viewed, on average, 11.6 to 12.4 television food ads per day; the majority of these ads (75%-85%) appeared on English-language television. Fast food represented a higher proportion of food ads on Spanish-language television. Consistent with television-viewing patterns, Hispanic preschoolers saw more Spanish-language food advertisements than did Hispanic children and adolescents. Owing to somewhat less food advertising on Spanish-language television, Hispanic children and adolescents viewed 14% and 24% fewer food ads overall, respectively, compared with non-Hispanic youth. Spanish-language television viewing was highly concentrated among youth who primarily speak Spanish. Both Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth view large numbers of television advertisements for nutrient-poor categories of food and beverage. Although Hispanic children and adolescents see somewhat

  3. Without Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri A. Schwab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this follow-up study was to learn more about the leisure choices, hobbies, and lifestyles of young adults who had grown up without a television. Study participants responded to an online questionnaire that asked about their health, physical activity habits, hobbies, and level of current television viewing. A mixed methods approach to gathering and analyzing data revealed a picture of young adults who live active lives, watch little television, and appear to have a strong sense of personal agency to direct their lives. Themes of agency, including forethought and intentionality, and self-regulation were evident in the qualitative responses, as well as creation and choosing challenging hobbies or activities. This study provided much information for future research to examine the influence of television on youth development, specifically agency, challenge and life-long habits.

  4. Style in Educational Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, John

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of broadcast educational television for adult audiences are discussed in terms of: style in television, television grammar, and course and resource-type programs. The current British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Adult Literacy Project and the television program "On the Move" are used as examples. (LH)

  5. Characteristics of hybrid broadcast broadband television (HbbTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Branimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the working principle of hybrid broadcast-broadband TV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV - HbbTV. The architecture of HbbTV system is given, the principle of its operation, as well as an overview of HbbTV specification standards that are in use, with their basic characteristics. Here are described the services provided by Hybrid TV. It is also provided an overview of the distribution of HbbTV services in Europe in terms of the number of TV channels that HbbTV services offer, the number of active hybrid TV devices, HbbTV standards which are in use and models of broadcast networks used to distribute HbbTV service.

  6. Resuscitation on television: realistic or ridiculous? A quantitative observational analysis of the portrayal of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in television medical drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dylan; Willoughby, Hannah

    2009-11-01

    Patients' preferences for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) relate to their perception about the likelihood of success of the procedure. There is evidence that the lay public largely base their perceptions about CPR on their experience of the portrayal of CPR in the media. The medical profession has generally been critical of the portrayal of CPR on medical drama programmes although there is no recent evidence to support such views. To compare the patient characteristics, cause and success rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on medical television drama with published resuscitation statistics. Observational study. 88 episodes of television medical drama were reviewed (26 episodes of Casualty, Casualty, 25 episodes of Holby City, 23 episodes of Grey's Anatomy and 14 episodes of ER) screened between July 2008 and April 2009. The patient's age and sex, medical history, presumed cause of arrest, use of CPR and immediate and long term survival rate were recorded. Immediate survival and survival to discharge following CPR. There were a total of 76 cardio-respiratory arrests and 70 resuscitation attempts in the episodes reviewed. The immediate success rate (46%) did not differ significantly from published real life figures (p=0.48). The resuscitation process appeared to follow current guidelines. Survival (or not) to discharge was rarely shown. The average age of patients was 36 years and contrary to reality there was not an age related difference in likely success of CPR in patients less than 65 compared with those 65 and over (p=0.72). The most common cause of cardiac arrest was trauma with only a minor proportion of arrests due to cardio-respiratory causes such as myocardial infarction. Whilst the immediate success rate of CPR in medical television drama does not significantly differ from reality the lack of depiction of poorer medium to long term outcomes may give a falsely high expectation to the lay public. Equally the lay public may perceive that the

  7. Television Violence and Behavior: The Effects of Television Violence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Charla A.

    Television violence and the impact it has on children is a growing concern in the world today. Although research indicates that violence on television triggers aggressive behavior in children, the characteristics of those children also need to be examined. Factors such as age, intellectual level, identification with television personalities, the…

  8. Is Watching Television a Realistic Leisure Option for People with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrét Gústafsdóttir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Watching television is a common leisure activity, not least among older people. However, watching television may become difficult when it is disturbed by symptoms of dementia. Method: A total of 284 questionnaires were handed out to relatives of people with dementia in Iceland, in the Memory Clinic of the University Hospital and in specialized units for people with dementia (6 day-care units and 8 units within nursing homes. The response rate was just below 58%. Results: Watching television was shown to play a less important role in the course of the daily life of people with dementia as soon as the symptoms of the disease became evident, and it increasingly became less relevant. So, this previous leisure activity left an ever-growing void of time to fill. However, watching television may provide an important social context for contact and togetherness during the progress of the disease, as watching television with someone close to them was important for the individuals with dementia. Conclusion: It is not a viable option for people with dementia to watch television on their own, but they may enjoy watching television while sharing this activity with a person close to them. This may even provide quality time.

  9. Embedded anti-alcohol messages on commercial television: what teenagers perceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, D L

    1996-11-01

    Educators and producers should take advantage of television's potential for reaching audiences with health-related messages. This paper investigates adolescents' perceptions of an anti-alcohol message embedded in commercial television programming. Over 900 8th and 9th graders from New York suburbs completed surveys measuring interest, knowledge, and credibility of either an episode of The Cosby Show or Family Matters. Both episodes had an anti-alcohol message embedded within their plots. Overall, students gave high rates of interest and credibility and received high scores for knowledge for both episodes. Girls and African-American students had higher scores, on average, for interest and credibility. White students had the highest knowledge scores. Students with different television viewing experiences did not differ in their perceptions of the episodes; however, students who had previously seen the episodes gave higher levels of interest and credibility. These data indicate that youngsters are receptive to antialcohol messages within commercial television episodes. The results also suggest that similarities and differences between a viewer and a televised character relate to differences in perception. However, much more research should be done in order to generalize these findings to other audiences, episodes, programs, and health-related messages.

  10. Television and children's consumption patterns. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, K A; Tucker, K L

    2002-10-01

    The recent increase in childhood obesity has, among other things, focused attention on the role that television may play. This paper summarizes results of studies published in peer review journals since 1970 with data pertaining to the relationship between television use and children's food intake. Studies fall into four categories: content analyses; effects of television advertising on children's food behaviors; television and pediatric obesity, with effects on children's dietary intake and physical activity; and television use and children's food consumption patterns. Content analyses have shown that food is the most frequently advertised product category on children's TV. The majority of these ads target highly sweetened products, but more recently, the proportion from fast food meal promotions has been growing. Controlled studies on children's choices have consistently shown that children exposed to advertising choose advertised food products at significantly higher rates than do those not exposed. Purchase request studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and number of requests from the child to the mother for specific food items, as well as the presence of those items in the home. Greater TV use has been associated with higher intakes of energy, fat, sweet and salty snacks, and carbonated beverages and lower intakes of fruit and vegetables. Several large studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and both the prevalence and incidence of obesity. The combination of lifestyle factors that accompany heavy television use appear to place children at risk of obesity and poor nutritional status.

  11. The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…

  12. Life without TV? cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, Jon; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the amount of time Americans spend watching television. Cultivation theory has been important in exploring behavioral effects of television viewing for many years. However, psychosocial health has received much less scrutiny in relation to television viewing time. This investigation examined the hypotheses that television-free individuals and viewers adhering to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations (up to 2 hr of viewing per day) would display a more positive psychosocial health profile when compared with more frequent television viewers. Results confirmed the hypothesis for women, but not for men. Our analysis showed that moderate television viewing, as defined by the AAP, provides a similar relation with psychosocial health as being television-free. Results are discussed in a cultivation theory framework.

  13. Television viewing and unhealthy diet: implications for children and media interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Bargh, John A

    2009-10-01

    The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues has led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of 2 potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including a) nutrition education; b) parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence; and c) reduced exposure to unhealthy messages.

  14. Obesogenic television food advertising to children in Malaysia: sociocultural variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See H. Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food advertising on television (TV is well known to influence children's purchasing requests and models negative food habits in Western countries. Advertising of unhealthy foods is a contributor to the obesogenic environment that is a key driver of rising rates of childhood obesity. Children in developing countries are more at risk of being targeted by such advertising, as there is a huge potential for market growth of unhealthy foods concomitant with poor regulatory infrastructure. Further, in developing countries with multi-ethnic societies, information is scarce on the nature of TV advertising targeting children. Objectives: To measure exposure and power of TV food marketing to children on popular multi-ethnic TV stations in Malaysia. Design: Ethnic-specific popular TV channels were identified using industry data. TV transmissions were recorded for each channel from November 2012 to August 2013 (16 hr/day for randomly selected weekdays and weekend days during normal days and repeated during school holidays (n=88 days. Coded food/beverage advertisements were grouped into core (healthy, non-core (non-healthy, or miscellaneous (unclassified food categories. Peak viewing time (PVT and persuasive marketing techniques were identified. Results: Non-core foods were predominant in TV food advertising, and rates were greater during school holidays compared to normal days (3.51 vs 1.93 food ads/hr/channel, p<0.001. During normal days’ PVT, the ratio of non-core to core food advertising was higher (3.25 food ads/hr/channel, and this more than trebled during school holidays to 10.25 food ads/hr/channel. Popular channels for Indian children had the lowest rate of food advertising relative to other ethnic groups. However, sugary drinks remained a popular non-core product advertised across all broadcast periods and channels. Notably, promotional characters doubled for non-core foods during school holidays compared to normal days (1.91 vs 0

  15. Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture. Fifty Years of Television in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinjka Peruško

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic and technological context. Longitudinal trends in television flows are comparatively evaluated in relation to trends in genre developments in Europe and their relationship to the changes in the cultural role of television. The results show a decrease in the information and an increase in the fiction mode between socialism and democracy, with some similarities of the Croatian and western television culture in relation to genre and mode composition and flow, albeit with a belated introduction of neo television genres. Notwithstanding the limited freedom of expression and ideological content, which necessarily influenced socialist media culture, television as a cultural form in Croatia developed in concert with the global program flows. The article is based on original content analysis of television schedules where the unit of analysis is a televisions program listing. The analogue television universe is represented by longitudinal data for 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009. The stratified systematic sample (N=3934 for each chosen year consists of two constructed weeks from a universe of all listed programs broadcast on all free to air television channels with a national reach license.

  16. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  17. Food marketing to children on U.S. Spanish-language television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dale; Mastro, Dana; Ortiz, Michelle; McKinley, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Latino children in particular are at risk of childhood obesity. Because exposure to televised food marketing is a contributor to childhood obesity, it is important to examine the nutritional quality of foods advertised on Spanish-language children's programming. The authors analyzed a sample of 158 Spanish-language children's television programs for its advertising content and compared them with an equivalent sample of English-language advertising. The authors evaluated nutritional quality of each advertised product using a food rating system from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, the authors assessed compliance with industry self-regulatory pledges. The authors found that amount of food advertising on Spanish-language channels (M = 2.2 ads/hour) was lower than on English-language programs, but the nutritional quality of food products on Spanish-language channels was substantially poorer than on English channels. Industry self-regulation was less effective on Spanish-language channels. The study provides clear evidence of significant disparities. Food advertising targeted at Spanish-speaking children is more likely to promote nutritionally poor food products than advertising on English-language channels. Industry self-regulation is less effective on Spanish-language television channels. Given the disproportionately high rate of childhood obesity among Latinos, the study's findings hold important implications for public health policy.

  18. Food advertising on children's popular subscription television channels in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Chau, Josephine; Kelly, Bridget

    2011-04-01

    Trends on Australian free-to-air television show children continue to be exposed to a disproportionate amount of unhealthy food advertising. This study describes the nature and extent of food marketing on the Australian subscription television channels most popular with children. Advertisements broadcast on the six subscription television channels most popular with children were recorded over four days in February 2009. Advertised foods were coded as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous/other, and for persuasive marketing techniques (promotional characters, premium offers and nutrition claims). The majority of foods advertised were non-core (72%), with a mean rate of 0.7 non-core food advertisements broadcast per hour, per channel. The frequency of non-core food advertisements differed significantly across channels. Persuasive techniques were used to advertise non-core foods less frequently than core and miscellaneous foods. Non-core foods make up the majority of foods advertised on children's popular subscription channels. However, Australian children currently view less non-core food advertising on subscription television compared with free-to-air. Unlike free-to-air television, subscription services have the unique opportunity to limit inappropriate food marketing to children, given they are less reliant on advertising revenue. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Frequency modulation television analysis: Threshold impulse analysis. [with computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is developed to calculate the FM threshold impulse rates as a function of the carrier-to-noise ratio for a specified FM system. The system parameters and a vector of 1024 integers, representing the probability density of the modulating voltage, are required as input parameters. The computer program is utilized to calculate threshold impulse rates for twenty-four sets of measured probability data supplied by NASA and for sinusoidal and Gaussian modulating waveforms. As a result of the analysis several conclusions are drawn: (1) The use of preemphasis in an FM television system improves the threshold by reducing the impulse rate. (2) Sinusoidal modulation produces a total impulse rate which is a practical upper bound for the impulse rates of TV signals providing the same peak deviations. (3) As the moment of the FM spectrum about the center frequency of the predetection filter increases, the impulse rate tends to increase. (4) A spectrum having an expected frequency above (below) the center frequency of the predetection filter produces a higher negative (positive) than positive (negative) impulse rate.

  20. The impact of Televised and Non-Televised Instruction on achivement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    THE IMPACT OF TELEVISED AND NON-TELEVISED. INSTRUCTION ON ... instruction in motivating students by bringing real- life ... To the researchers' knowledge, the success .... promote their retention. Acknowledging the importance of engaging students in extended .... Instructional Technology ; its nature and use.

  1. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  2. Taking a Look at Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William, Comp.

    1981-01-01

    A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)

  3. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... power television and television translator stations. 74.789 Section 74.789 Telecommunication FEDERAL... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.789 Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator...

  4. [Television and children: is television responsible for all the evils attributed to it?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviedes Altable, B E; Quesada Fernández, E; Herranz, J L

    2000-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to analyze children's television viewing habits and their parents attitudes towards such viewing. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Primary care. A survey was undertaken with 317 three to fourteen year old children and their parents as part of the primary care check-up program for healthy children. Time devoted to television viewing was 106 +/- 50 minutes on weekdays and 141 +/- 80 minutes weekends. Despite this, 49.2% of parents thought their children saw little television, especially those with children under six (57.6%). Children of parents in highly qualified positions and of parents in the uppermost socioeconomic group saw television the least, on non-working days (70 +/- 61 minutes and 144 +/- 78 minutes respectively, p children watched television alone and 34% did so at meal-times. Altogether 48.3% of parents were unaware as to what their children watched and some 61.5% encouraged television viewing, above all those having children of under six (76%). The youngest children preferred to watch cartoons which were generally of a violent nature. For those aged from 11 to 14, 19.5% chose as their favorite programs those having a high level of violence. Television habits are an educational problem for parents, an important shake-up in their attitudes being called for, in which pediatricians should be involved in developing health programs aimed at proper use of the television.

  5. The Paradigmatic Evolution of U.S. Television and the Emergence of Internet-Distributed Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Lotz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Television industries around the world have weathered profound change as technologies advanced and services developed to allow internet-distributed television to compete alongside broadcast and cable-distributed television. This article, drawn from the context of the U.S., explores the emergence of internet-distributed television as a mechanism that provides the affordance of nonlinear distribution. It assesses the preliminary organization of internet-distributed television by portals and explores the similarities and differences between portals and networks/channels with an eye toward conceptualizing emerging business practices and strategies.

  6. Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C; Lee, Youn O; Kim, Annice E; Watson, Kimberly A; Arnold, Kristin Y; Nonnemaker, James M; Porter, Lauren

    2014-07-01

    Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration does not regulate electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketing unless it is advertised as a smoking cessation aid. To date, the extent to which youth and young adults are exposed to e-cigarette television advertisements is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in youth and young adult exposure to e-cigarette television advertisements in the United States. Nielsen data on television household audiences' exposure to e-cigarette advertising across US markets were examined by calendar quarter, year, and sponsor. Youth exposure to television e-cigarette advertisements, measured by target rating points, increased 256% from 2011 to 2013. Young adult exposure increased 321% over the same period. More than 76% of all youth e-cigarette advertising exposure occurred on cable networks and was driven primarily by an advertising campaign for 1 e-cigarette brand. E-cigarette companies currently advertise their products to a broad audience that includes 24 million youth. The dramatic increase in youth and young adult television exposure between 2011 and 2013 was driven primarily by a large advertising campaign on national cable networks. In the absence of evidence-based public health messaging, the current e-cigarette television advertising may be promoting beliefs and behaviors that pose harm to the public health. If current trends in e-cigarette television advertising continue, awareness and use of e-cigarettes are likely to increase among youth and young adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  8. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  9. Television area detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, V.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of standard television camera tubes as X-ray detectors in X-ray diffraction studies. Standard tubes can be modified to detect X rays by depositing an external X-ray phosphor on the fibre optics face plate either of a highly sensitive television camera tube or of an image intensifier coupled to a camera tube. The author considers various X-ray phosphors and concludes that polycrystalline silver activated ZnS is most suitable for crystallographic applications. In the following sections various types of television camera tubes with adequate light sensitivity for use in an X-ray detection system are described, and also three types of image intensifiers. The digitization of the television output signals and their statistical precision are discussed and the electronic circuitry for the detector system is briefly described. (B.D.)

  10. Selecting Television Programs for Language Learning: Investigating Television Programs from the Same Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal…

  11. Television tulevaisuus tubettajien aikana : miten YouTuben suosio vaikuttaa television tulevaisuuteen?

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytteessä selvitetään, millainen television murros on parhaillaan käynnissä. Keskeisimpänä kysymyksenä on kuitenkin television tulevaisuus. Jos nuoria katsojia kiinnostaa videopalvelu YouTube enemmän perinteisen televison sijaan, niin miten tämä tulee vaikuttamaan television tulevaisuuteen? Entä miksi nuoret ylipäätään katsovat YouTubea? YouTuben katselu sekä sisällön tuottajien eli tubettajien fanittaminen nuorten keskuudessa ovat kasvava ilmiö. Samaan aikaan perinteisen telev...

  12. Television and children's executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  14. Emergency department visits during an Olympic gold medal television broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2011-01-01

    Practice pattern variations are often attributed to physician decision-making with no accounting for patient preferences. To test whether a mass media television broadcast unrelated to health was associated with changes in the rate and characteristics of visits for acute emergency care. Time-series analysis of emergency department visits for any reason. Population-based sample of all patients seeking emergency care in Ontario, Canada. The broadcast day was defined as the Olympic men's gold medal ice hockey game final. The control days were defined as the 6 Sundays before and after the broadcast day. A total of 99 447 visits occurred over the 7 Sundays, of which 13 990 occurred on the broadcast day. Comparing the broadcast day with control days, we found no significant difference in the hourly rate of visits before the broadcast (544 vs 537, p = 0.41) or after the broadcast (647 vs 639, p = 0.55). In contrast, we observed a significant reduction in hourly rate of visits during the broadcast (647 vs 783, p television broadcasts can influence patient preferences and thereby lead to a decrease in emergency department visits.

  15. Television picture signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Field or frame memories are often used in television receivers for video signal processing functions, such as noise reduction and/or flicker reduction. Television receivers also have graphic features such as teletext, menu-driven control systems, multilingual subtitling, an electronic TV-Guide, etc.

  16. Content analysis of food advertising in Turkish television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guran, Tulay; Turan, Serap; Akcay, Teoman; Degirmenci, Fatih; Avci, Okan; Asan, Abdulkerim; Erdil, Emre; Majid, Abdulaziz; Bereket, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    Television (TV) viewing has been implicated in children's weight gain. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of TV food advertising in Turkey. TV advertisements (ads) in the four most popular national free to air Turkish TV channels, were assessed on two weekdays and two weekend days at four time periods of the day; 0800-1200,1200-1600,1600-2000 and 2000-2400 h for each TV channel (64 h assessed for each TV channel), making a total of 256 h. Each ad was analysed for food and drink content, duration and audiovisual properties. There were 8853 TV ads and 2848 of these were related to food (32.1%). A majority of food ads included high-calorie, high-fat, high-sugar food and drink rather than core/healthy foods (81%). Chocolate and chocolate bars were the most frequently advertised food/drink product, followed by cakes, coffee, tea, candies, gum, fast food, chips, juices/carbonated beverages, margarine and ice-cream formed the highest rate of food products advertised in decreasing order. Thirty per cent of all obesogenic/unhealthy ads targeted childhood by using audiovisual techniques. The proportion of total advertisements which were for food or drink, and the proportion of food advertisements that were for unhealthy foods were both much higher at the weekend (33% vs. 30% and 84% vs. 78%, respectively). The time period between 1600 and 2000 h was the most concentrated time slot (33%) for food advertising. This study provides data for the first time on the high levels of obesogenic food advertising on Turkish TV. This should alarm policy-makers to set limits on food advertising targeted towards children especially in countries like Turkey in which childhood obesity is emerging as an important public health issue.

  17. The influence of bacterial vaginosis on the response to Trichomonas vaginalis treatment among HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatski, Megan; Martin, David H; Levison, Judy; Mena, Leandro; Clark, Rebecca A; Murphy, Mary; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Kissinger, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is common in HIV+ women, and host factors may play a role in TV treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) on the response to TV treatment among HIV+ women. A secondary analysis was conducted of a clinical trial which randomised HIV+/TV+ women to metronidazole (MTZ) treatment: 2 g (single-dose) versus 7 day 500 mg twice daily (multidose). BV was classified using Nugent scores from baseline Gram stains. Women were recultured for TV at test-of-cure (TOC) and again at 3 months if TV-negative at TOC. Repeat TV infection rates were compared for women with a baseline TV/BV coinfection versus baseline TV infection only, and stratified by treatment arm. Among 244 HIV+/TV+ women (mean age=40.3, ±9.5; 92.2% African-American), the rate of BV was 66.8%. Women with BV were more likely to report douching and ≥1 recent sex partners. HIV+ women with baseline TV/BV coinfection were more likely to be TV-positive at TOC than women with baseline TV infection only (RR 2.42 (95% CI 0.96 to 6.07; p=0.05)). When stratified by treatment arm, the association was only found in the single-dose arm (p=0.02) and not in the multidose arm (p=0.92). This interaction did not persist at 3 months. For HIV+/TV+ women, the rate of BV was high, and BV was associated with early failure of the MTZ single-dose treatment for TV. Biological explanations require further investigation.

  18. 'The Problem with Men': Working-class Men Making Sense of Men's Health on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Darrin; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2002-05-01

    Men have higher rates of premature death than women, and may arguably have higher rates of serious illness. One explanation often suggested to account for this is that men are considered to be stoical about illness and reluctant to seek help for it. This article explores the role of media representations in the construction of men's views about health. We investigate how a small group of lower socio-economic status men make sense of the reluctance to seek help notion through an analysis of texts from three sources: a television health documentary, individual interviews with the men and a focus group discussion in which the men discuss the documentary. The television documentary frames its presentation to promote early detection and help-seeking. We conclude that televised coverage of men's health is an important site of social discourse through which men's health is rendered meaningful. However, it is not accepted passively, but negotiated, resisted and interpreted into men's lives.

  19. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Claire G; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S; Rich, Michael

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents' television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents' likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents' likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.

  20. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3572 Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast...

  1. The Potential Impact of a "No-Buy" List on Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Brewer, Robert D; Jernigan, David H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline a method to improve alcohol industry compliance with its self-regulatory advertising placement guidelines on television with the goal of reducing youth exposure to noncompliant advertisements. Data were sourced from Nielsen (The Nielsen Company, New York, NY) for all alcohol advertisements on television in the United States for 2005-2012. A "no-buy" list, that is a list of cable television programs and networks to be avoided when purchasing alcohol advertising, was devised using three criteria: avoid placements on programs that were noncompliant in the past (serially noncompliant), avoid placements on networks at times of day when youth make up a high proportion of the audience (high-risk network dayparts), and use a "guardbanded" (or more restrictive) composition guideline when placing ads on low-rated programs (low rated). Youth were exposed to 15.1 billion noncompliant advertising impressions from 2005 to 2012, mostly on cable television. Together, the three no-buy list criteria accounted for 99% of 12.9 billion noncompliant advertising exposures on cable television for youth ages 2-20 years. When we evaluated the no-buy list criteria sequentially and mutually exclusively, serially noncompliant ads accounted for 67% of noncompliant exposure, high-risk network-daypart ads accounted for 26%, and low-rated ads accounted for 7%. These findings suggest that the prospective use of the no-buy list criteria when purchasing alcohol advertising could eliminate most noncompliant advertising exposures and could be incorporated into standard post-audit procedures that are widely used by the alcohol industry in assessing exposure to television advertising.

  2. Science on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, John

    2011-01-01

    Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC…

  3. The diffusion of television in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Doshi, J K; Rogers, E M; Rahman, S A

    1988-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1987, the number of television sets increased by 10 times in India. Television now reaches an audience of about 800 million, 10% of the population. 3 main reasons account for the rapid diffusion of television in India: the role of communication satellites in expanding access to television signals, the introduction and popularity of soap operas, and the increasing revenues to the national television system (Doordarshan) from commercial advertising. Hum Log, the 1st soap opera on the national network, was patterned after pro-development soap operas in Mexico and addresses social issues such as family communication, women's status, small family size, national integration, dowry, and alcoholism. The main lesson from the Hum Log experience was that indigenous soap operas can attract large audiences and substantial profits. A 1987 household survey indicated that television ownership is more common in urban areas (88% of households) than rural areas (52%) and among households with incomes above RS 1500 (75% of television owners). The commercialization of Indian television has precipitated a policy debate about television's role. Supporters of further expansion of television services cite popular will, the potential to use this medium for educational development, high advertising incomes, the ability of satellite television to penetrate rural areas, and high government expenditures for television broadcasting. On the other hand, detractors of the commercialization policy argue that television promotes consumerism, widens the gap between the urban elite and the rural poor, disregards regional sociocultural norms, and diverts funding from development programs in areas such as health and education.

  4. Factors in Dubbing Television Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalbeascoa, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Advocates a greater awareness of the factors involved with dubbing television comedies. Considers the translation of jokes and provides an outline of the various kinds of jokes in television shows. Calls for more research on comedy dubbing and television translation in general. (HB)

  5. Television in the Schools: Instructional Television and Educational Media Resources at the National Public Broadcasting Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…

  6. X-ray television area detectors for macromolecular structural studies with synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction patterns may be recorded quantitatively by means of X-ray-to-electron converters which are scanned in a television-type raster scan. Detectors of this type are capable of operating over the whole range of counting rates from very low to higher than those with which other types of converters can deal. The component parts of an X-ray television detector are examined and the limits to the precision of the measurements are analysed. (Auth.)

  7. What's on Malaysian television? - A survey on food advertising targeting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Chinna, Karuthan; Mee, Loi Huei; Mei, Lim Siau; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on television. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation's commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children's programmes, prime time significantly differed ( p food advertisements appearing per month varied greatly between television stations (C = 1104; D = 643; F = 407; B = 327; A = 59; E = 47). Food advertising also increased the most in September (n = 3158), followed by July (n = 2770), August (n = 2431), October (n = 2291), November (n = 2245) and June (n = 2211). Content analysis of advertisements indicated snacks were the highest (34.5%), followed by dairy products (20.3%), sugars and candies (13.4%), biscuits (11.2%), fast food (6.7%), breakfast cereal (6.4%), beverages (4.1%), supplements (0.9%), rice (0.6%), noodles (0.5%), bread (0.3%), miscellaneous and processed foods (0.2%). Paradoxically, we found that the frequency of snack food advertised during children's prime time was 5 times more than fast foods. The sodium content (mean = 620 mg per 100g) of these snack foods was found to be highest.

  8. 47 CFR 15.120 - Program blocking technology requirements for television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program blocking technology requirements for television receivers. 15.120 Section 15.120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO... transmitted pursuant to industry standard EIA/CEA-766-A “U.S. and Canadian Region Rating Tables (RRT) and...

  9. Television the Surrogate Parent: Uses and Correlates of Television as Babysitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Walter

    A study was conducted to determine (1) how often television was used as a surrogate parent, (2) the reasons leading to its use as such, and (3) the correlates of using television as a babysitter. Telephone interviews were conducted with 226 mothers who had children between the ages of 2 and 12. The respondents answered questions that addressed…

  10. Digital TV: structures of feeling in the television of becoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marquioni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this text is to present some reflections on theinsertion of a new model of television in Brazil (interactive digital TV,adopting the concept of culture as the center to think of the television system.The notion for structure of feeling, by Raymond Williams, opens up atype of new window that helps to understand this new television whichis being implanted.

  11. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a television...

  12. 1979 Nielsen Report on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen (A.C.) Co., Chicago, IL.

    The Nielsen data on commercial television viewing and programming contained in this report are estimates of the audiences and other characteristics of television usage as derived from Nielsen Television Index and Nielsen Station Index measurements. Data and brief discussions are provided on the number of commercial and public stations; number of…

  13. Television's Child; The Impact of Television on Today's Children; What Parents Can Do About It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Norman S.

    Based on an extensive series of interviews with clinical psychiatrists and psychologists, educators, television executives, producers, performers, advertisers, parents, and children themselves, this book explores the effect of television on a child's values. It delves into the question of a relationship between violence on television and violent…

  14. Exercise portrayal in children’s television programs: analysis of the UK and Irish programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scully P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul Scully,1 Orlaith Reid,1 Alan P Macken,1–3 Mark Healy,4 Jean Saunders,4 Des Leddin,3,5 Walter Cullen,3 Colum P Dunne,3 Clodagh S O’Gorman1–3,5 1The Children’s Ark, University Hospital Limerick, Limerick, 2National Children’s Research Centre, Dublin, 3Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation & Immunity (4i, Graduate Entry Medical School, 4C-Star, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland; 5Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada Background: Television watching is obesogenic due to its sedentary nature and programming content, which influences children. Few studies have examined exercise placement within children-specific programming. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and type of exercise placement in children-specific television broadcasts and to compare placements on the UK and Irish television channels.Methods: Content analysis for five weekdays’ worth of children-specific television broadcasting totaling 82.5 hours on both the UK (British Broadcasting Corporation and Irish (Radió Teilifís Éireann television channels was performed. For the purposes of comparing the UK and Irish placements, analysis was restricted to programming broadcast between 6 am and 11.30 am. Exercise placements were coded based on type of activity, activity context, activity motivating factors and outcome, and characters involved.Results: A total of 780 cues were recorded during the total recording period. A wide variety of sports were depicted, but dancing-related cues were most commonly seen (n=163, 23.3%, with the majority of cues being of mild (n=365, 65.9% or moderate (n=172, 31.0% intensity. The majority of cues were associated with a positive outcome (n=404, 61.4%, and social motivations were most commonly seen (n=289, 30.3%. The Irish and the UK portrayals were broadly similar.Conclusion: This study highlights the wide variety of sports portrayed and the active effort undertaken by television

  15. Children's Impressions of Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    This research study examines the types of social behaviors portrayed by families in various television series and explores children's impressions of the TV family members. Content analysis of nine family-oriented TV series was employed to describe the ranges of behaviors of fathers, mothers and children on television. Eleven shows from each series…

  16. A GUIDE TO INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIAMOND, ROBERT M., ED.

    THIS IS A GUIDE DESIGNED AS A SINGLE REFERENCE FOR ADMINISTRATORS, TEACHERS, STUDENTS, AND LAYMEN INTERESTED IN TELEVISION FOR A SPECIFIC SCHOOL OR SCHOOL SYSTEM. FOUR EXAMPLES OF SINGLE-ROOM TELEVISION ARE GIVEN AND SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS OF STUDIO TELEVISION ARE PRESENTED. ITS USE IN GUIDANCE AND IN ADMINISTRATION IS EXPLAINED. THE PROBLEMS…

  17. Parents, television and cultural change

    OpenAIRE

    Hauk, Esther; Immordino, Giovanni; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica; Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children which is costly and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural coverage, cost of education, TV's entertainment value and decreasing in the perceived cultural di...

  18. 47 CFR 76.51 - Major television markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major television markets. 76.51 Section 76.51... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.51 Major television markets. For purposes of the cable television rules, the following is a list of the major television markets and their...

  19. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  20. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  1. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  2. Media's Moral Messages: Assessing Perceptions of Moral Content in Television Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Rebecca J.; Garmon, Lance C.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the examination of moral content in the media by exploring moral messages in television programming and viewer characteristics predictive of the ability to perceive such messages. Generalisability analyses confirmed the reliability of the Media's Moral Messages (MMM) rating form for analysing programme content and the existence…

  3. Home Literacy, Television Viewing, Fidgeting and ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Factors related to parent ratings of young children's (mean age = 3.72, range = 3-6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was…

  4. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea.

  5. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Claire G.; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S.; Rich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents’ television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents’ likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents’ likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to T...

  6. Locations in Television Drama Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the analysis of the increasingly significant role of location as a key element in television drama. In recent years, the popularity of serial television has progressively been tied to the expanded use of location as a central element in productions, both as sett...... mainly been considered as a practical term in film and television productions....

  7. The effect of frame rate on the ability of experienced gait analysts to identify characteristics of gait from closed circuit television footage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Burrow, Gordon; Walker, Jeremy

    2014-03-01

    Forensic gait analysis is increasingly being used as part of criminal investigations. A major issue is the quality of the closed circuit television (CCTV) footage used, particularly the frame rate which can vary from 25 frames per second to one frame every 4s. To date, no study has investigated the effect of frame rate on forensic gait analysis. A single subject was fitted with an ankle foot orthosis and recorded walking at 25 frames per second. 3D motion data were also collected, providing an absolute assessment of the gait characteristics. The CCTV footage was then edited to produce a set of eight additional pieces of footage, at various frame rates. Practitioners with knowledge of forensic gait analysis were recruited and instructed to record their observations regarding the characteristics of the subject's gait from the footage. They were sequentially sent web links to the nine pieces of footage, lowest frame rate first, and a simple observation recording form, over a period of 8 months. A sample-based Pearson product-moment correlation analysis of the results demonstrated a significant positive relationship between frame rate and scores (r=0.868, p=0.002). The results of this study show that frame rate affects the ability of experienced practitioners to identify characteristics of gait captured on CCTV footage. Every effort should therefore be made to ensure that CCTV footage likely to be used in criminal proceedings is captured at as high a frame rate as possible. © 2013.

  8. Television viewing and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

    2003-11-01

    With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.

  9. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guran, T; Bereket, A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity.

  10. Meanings of television in older adults’ lives: an analysis of change and continuity in television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.; van Selm, M.

    2012-01-01

    Television viewing is an important leisure activity for older adults. The aim of the current study is to provide insight into the meanings of television in older adults' lives, by analysing change and continuity in their television viewing. A qualitative study was conducted that included in-depth

  11. Television and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Eunice

    1984-01-01

    Considers characteristics of educational television that militate against effective language learning and argues that further research is needed to ascertain whether language development is promoted by educational television and which programs and formats are best. Research in the United States and suggestions for future research are discussed.…

  12. X-radiation from television receivers and video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ching-Chung; Lin, Pei-Huo; Lin, Yu-Ming; Weng, Pao-Shan.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the X-radiation from television receivers and video display terminals. The bremsstrahlung production rate was calculated according to the thick target theory, and the transmitted X-radiation was measured by the spectrometry method. The calculated and the measured results were compared and discussed. In addition, evidences were shown that only the highest energy component of the bremsstrahlung can penetrate the cathode ray tube. (author)

  13. Trends in food advertising to children on free-to-air television in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; King, Lesley; Hebden, Lana

    2011-04-01

    The issue of marketing unhealthy food to children and its contribution to childhood obesity has become a highly politicised debate in Australia. The aim of this study was to compare recent television food advertising patterns in 2008 to previously published Australian research on television advertising from 2006 and 2007, to examine any changes following policy debates. Television broadcasting was recorded for two weekdays and two weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00 in February 2008 for all three commercial television channels. Food advertisements were classified as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous. Television audience data were obtained to determine broadcast periods corresponding to children's peak viewing times. The overall rate of food advertising decreased over time: from seven food advertisements/hour/channel in 2006/07 to five in 2008. However, the relative contribution of non-core food advertising to overall food advertising remained stable. In 2008, the proportion of food advertisements for non-core foods was significantly higher during children's peak viewing times (padvertisements for unhealthy foods on commercial television, which are shown during time periods when the highest numbers of children are watching. Regulations to limit unhealthy food advertising during the time periods when a significant number of children are watching are required. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Television Use by Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the relationships between child and adolescent television use motivations and various sociodemographic characteristics, television viewing levels, program preference, and television attitudes. Viewing motivations include learning, passing time, companionship, escape, arousal, and relaxation. Discusses implications within the conceptual…

  15. [Football, television and emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, O; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J

    2000-04-15

    To know the influence of televised football on the use of emergency department (ED). We assessed the number, demographic characteristics and acuity of patients attended during the broadcast of football matches played by FC Barcelona during Champions' League (n = 12), and they were compared with days without televised football (n = 12). Televised football was associated with a decrease in visits to ED (-18%; p = 0.002). Such a decrease was observed for all ED units, but only for traumatology unit reached statistical significance (-28%; p = 0.006). Decay of ED visits were mainly due to a decrease of low-acuity consults (-30%; p = 0.04). There is a significant decrease on ED use associated with televised football.

  16. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..

  17. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  18. The Potential Impact of a “No-Buy” List on Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Cable Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S.; Brewer, Robert D.; Jernigan, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to outline a method to improve alcohol industry compliance with its self-regulatory advertising placement guidelines on television with the goal of reducing youth exposure to noncompliant advertisements. Method: Data were sourced from Nielsen (The Nielsen Company, New York, NY) for all alcohol advertisements on television in the United States for 2005–2012. A “no-buy” list, that is a list of cable television programs and networks to be avoided when purchasing alcohol advertising, was devised using three criteria: avoid placements on programs that were noncompliant in the past (serially noncompliant), avoid placements on networks at times of day when youth make up a high proportion of the audience (high-risk network dayparts), and use a “guardbanded” (or more restrictive) composition guideline when placing ads on low-rated programs (low rated). Results: Youth were exposed to 15.1 billion noncompliant advertising impressions from 2005 to 2012, mostly on cable television. Together, the three no-buy list criteria accounted for 99% of 12.9 billion noncompliant advertising exposures on cable television for youth ages 2–20 years. When we evaluated the no-buy list criteria sequentially and mutually exclusively, serially noncompliant ads accounted for 67% of noncompliant exposure, high-risk network-daypart ads accounted for 26%, and low rated ads accounted for 7%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the prospective use of the no-buy list criteria when purchasing alcohol advertising could eliminate most noncompliant advertising exposures and could be incorporated into standard post-audit procedures that are widely used by the alcohol industry in assessing exposure to television advertising. PMID:26751350

  19. Parents, Television and Cultural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Hauk; Giovanni Immordino

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children, which is costly, and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural coverage, cost of education, TV’s entertainment value and decreasing in the perceived cultural ...

  20. Television Literacy: Amplifying the Cognitive Level Effects of Television's Prosocial Fare through Curriculum Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelman, Robert; Courtright, John

    1983-01-01

    An in-school mediation strategy focused on teaching children to watch television critically and to recognize the prosocial content of commercial television programs. Changes in children's attitudes and understanding that resulted from the strategy are discussed. (PP)

  1. Television in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateneo de Manila Univ., Quezon City (Philippines). Center for Educational Television.

    Information about instructional television (ITV) programing in the Philippines is summarized in this three part document. An outline of the status of the Center for Educational Television, Inc., (CETV) and a description of its current activities and financial support are provided in the first section. A narrative review of both CETV and other…

  2. Nursing on television: student perceptions of television's role in public image, recruitment and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Koch, Jane; Jackson, Debra

    2013-12-01

    To explore nursing students' perceptions of how their profession is portrayed on medical television programmes. Recruitment and retention in nursing have been linked to the image of the profession in society. Images of nursing in popular media frequently draw on stereotypes that may damage the appeal of nursing for potential students and denigrate the value and status of the profession. A growing body of work analyses how nursing is portrayed in popular media, but less research asks nursing students themselves to reflect on this area. Convergent parallel mixed methods. Data were collected in 2011 from surveys of 484 undergraduate nursing students at a large university in New South Wales, Australia, that included demographic data, their viewing habits of medical television programmes and their opinions of how the shows handled nursing ethics and professionalism and the image of nursing on television and nursing role models. Most students watch medical television programmes. Students who do not speak English at home watched fewer programmes but were more positive about the depictions of professionalism. The qualitative data showed students were concerned that television can have a negative influence on the image of nursing, but they also recognized some educational and recruitment value in television programmes. It is important for nurses, educators and students to be critically engaged with the image of their profession in society. There is value in engaging more closely with contemporary media portrayals of nursing for students and educators alike. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cinematography and Television: Differences and Similarites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Nazareth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Television and Cinema present specific behaviour and language in relation to reality. If film focuses on its proximity to artistic practices, and this reflects the viewer’s relationship with the film, television, in turn, seeks in directness or the transposition of the real to the imaginary, the key to its success, the audience. We all see the possibilities that television has for viewers. Even those most aware of the various con- straints, and who claim themselves to be not influenced, come under the hypnotic power of the television screen. The quality of the programming continues to decline, succumbing to the claim that television channels have to get into the audience “ratings”.

  4. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  5. Parents, television and children’s weight status: on lasting effects of parental television socialization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.; Tolsma, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study scrutinizes the long-term effects of parental television socialization activities on their children's weight status measured through body mass index (BMI-score). We address the question how parental television habits and parental television mediation in childhood relate to a person's

  6. Wide-Screen Television and Home Movies: Towards an Archaeology of Television and Cinema Convergence Before Digitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom James Longley Steward

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Tom Steward uses past interrelations of television and cinema spectatorship, exhibition, production and aesthetics to historicize phenomenological digital-era discourses on, ontological definitions of, and cultural arguments about television and cinema convergence. He argues that television and cinema assisted in defining each other as late 20th Century media and cultural forms, have a multi-directional industrial and artistic flow, and are often interdependent in reception and distribution. Television and cinema convergence demonstrates the need for historical breadth in media convergence theory and an understanding of medium-specificity that incorporates interactions with other media.

  7. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television receivers...

  8. Implicit Messages Regarding Unhealthy Foodstuffs in Chinese Television Advertisements: Increasing the Risk of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela; Schulz, Peter J; Schirato, Tony; Hall, Brian J

    2018-01-04

    Previous studies indicated that television (TV) advertising is associated with higher rates of obesity. The rate of obesity and overweight continues to rise in mainland China, bringing into question whether TV advertising to young audiences might be partly to blame. This study investigated messaging delivered through TV advertisements regarding healthy and unhealthy foodstuffs. A total of 42 major food brands and 480 advertisements were analysed for content in this study. The results showed that the majority of TV spots advertised products with poor nutritional content and had a potential to mislead audiences concerning products' actual nutritional value. The tactics of repetition and appeals of premium offerings on food brands have a potential to influence the purchase intentions. Additional qualitative observation involving the social bond, social context and cultural factors pertaining to mood alterations were highlighted. The discussion addressed product attributes reflected by culture and the implicit messages of marketing claims may increase the risk of obesity. Thus, public health policymakers and researchers were encouraged to act urgently to evaluate the obesity risks of unhealthy food advertised in the media and to support healthy foods.

  9. Implicit Messages Regarding Unhealthy Foodstuffs in Chinese Television Advertisements: Increasing the Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela; Schirato, Tony; Hall, Brian J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that television (TV) advertising is associated with higher rates of obesity. The rate of obesity and overweight continues to rise in mainland China, bringing into question whether TV advertising to young audiences might be partly to blame. This study investigated messaging delivered through TV advertisements regarding healthy and unhealthy foodstuffs. A total of 42 major food brands and 480 advertisements were analysed for content in this study. The results showed that the majority of TV spots advertised products with poor nutritional content and had a potential to mislead audiences concerning products’ actual nutritional value. The tactics of repetition and appeals of premium offerings on food brands have a potential to influence the purchase intentions. Additional qualitative observation involving the social bond, social context and cultural factors pertaining to mood alterations were highlighted. The discussion addressed product attributes reflected by culture and the implicit messages of marketing claims may increase the risk of obesity. Thus, public health policymakers and researchers were encouraged to act urgently to evaluate the obesity risks of unhealthy food advertised in the media and to support healthy foods. PMID:29300366

  10. Pressures on TV Programs: Coalition for Better Television's Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, John M., Jr.

    In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…

  11. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  12. Visual Peoplemeter: A Vision-based Television Audience Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKELIN, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual peoplemeter is a vision-based measurement system that objectively evaluates the attentive behavior for TV audience rating, thus offering solution to some of drawbacks of current manual logging peoplemeters. In this paper, some limitations of current audience measurement system are reviewed and a novel vision-based system aiming at passive metering of viewers is prototyped. The system uses camera mounted on a television as a sensing modality and applies advanced computer vision algorithms to detect and track a person, and to recognize attentional states. Feasibility of the system is evaluated on a secondary dataset. The results show that the proposed system can analyze viewer's attentive behavior, therefore enabling passive estimates of relevant audience measurement categories.

  13. Television the Medium, the Message and Nutritional Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a review of research linking nutritional health and body image attitudes with television viewing. Highlights include content analyses of advertisements and programming; audience uses of television; television as reality; socialization of attitudes and television; television, body image and self-esteem; television and health behaviors; and…

  14. The Selling of Cable Television 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1972 Cable Television Marketing Workshop reviewed in depth a wide variety of marketing and public relations techniques as they pertain to cable television. The workshop was attended by representatives of commercial television systems throughout the United States; it was intended to disseminate the sales and marketing experience of those…

  15. Some Structural Characteristics of Music Television Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donald L.; Fry, Virginia H.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates, by analyzing two types of montage structures, that music television is a hybrid form of television programing displaying visual characteristics of both television commercials and drama. Argues that this amalgam of different characteristics gives music television its distinctive look and power as a promotional tool for the record…

  16. Digital Technology and the Interactive Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozéias Teixeira de Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is analyzed the impact that the digital technology process causes in the way that television participates of the social life in Brazil. Trying a non-hermeneutic approach, it is proposed to think this new role of television, from the materiality existing on this media that can bring more interactivity and conducts the changes over people behavior. In our opinion, we realize that materiality can support the transposition of the nowadays analogical interaction form – the televiewer-television model – to a user-machine model in the digital television.

  17. Presidential Elections in the Age of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    2000-01-01

    Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…

  18. Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

  19. Television: The New State Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbner, George

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the special characteristics of television that make it a formula-bound, ritualistic, repetitive, and nonselectively used system; concludes that television's social symbolic functions resemble preindustrial religions more than they do the media that preceded it. (GT)

  20. There Is More(s) in Television. Studying the relationship between television and moral imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Krijnen (Tonny)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation the central focus lies with exploration the relationship of television and moral imagination. The underlying aim was to explore how television might be valuable in reaching moral maturity in order to diminish needless suffering in this world. To give form to these

  1. Influences of Television Toward Modern Society Reflected in TV People by Haruki Murakami

    OpenAIRE

    KHIKMAH, ZIYAADATUL

    2014-01-01

    Khikmah, Ziyaadatul. 2014. Influences of Television toward Modern SocietyReflected in TV People By Haruki Murakami. Study Program of English,Department of Languages and Literature, Faculty of Cultural Studies, UniversitasBrawijaya. Supervisor: Juliati; Co-supervisor : Arcci Tusita. Keyword: Television, Mass Media, Effect, Construction, Culture, Influence. Television has become part of daily life in the society in modern era. Television functions as a medium of information and entertainment. ...

  2. The magic of television: Thinking through magical realism in recent TV [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Joyrich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available After decades in which television has been marked as more banal than bewitching, recalling the "magic of television" is more likely to evoke a sense of wonder for the perceived innocence of an earlier televisual audience than for television itself. With TV offered on demand, captured with DVRs, downloaded or watched streaming on the Web, purchased as DVD sets, miniaturized for private screenings, jumbo-sized for public spectacles, monitored in closed circuits, and accessed for open forums, once-mysterious television flows have flowed to new media forms, giving TV an appearing/disappearing, now-you-see-it/now-you-don't magical act of its own. Has TV disappeared, or has it multiplied—redoubled each time it's sawed in half, replicating like rabbits pulled out of a hat? Is it still TV or something else when programs are screened (as if through a magic curtain via today's delivery systems?

  3. Advertising to children initiatives have not reduced unhealthy food advertising on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wendy L; Lau, Vivien; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Chapman, Kathryn

    2017-12-01

    In response to rising childhood obesity rates, the Australian food industry implemented two initiatives in 2009 to reduce the marketing of unhealthy food to children. This study evaluated the efficacy of these initiatives on the rate of unhealthy food advertising to children on Australian television. The rates of food advertisements on three free-to-air commercial television channels and a youth-oriented digital channel in Sydney, Australia were analysed over 2 weekdays (16 h) and two weekend days (22 h). Advertisements were categorized according to the healthiness of foods advertised (non-core, core, miscellaneous) and signatory status to the food industry advertising initiatives. Total food advertising rates for the three channels increased from 5.5/h in 2011 to 7.3/h in 2015, due to an increase of 0.8/h for both core and miscellaneous foods. The rate of non-core food advertisements in 2015 (3.1/h) was similar to 2011 (3.0/h). The youth-oriented channel had fewer total food advertisements (3.7/h versus 7.3/h) but similar fast-food advertisement rates (1.3/h versus 1.3/h). There was no change in the rate of unhealthy food advertising since 2011, suggesting minimal impact of the current food industry initiatives on reducing children's exposure to unhealthy food advertising. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Social Television for the modern nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2008-01-01

    This is a paper about the ongoing project of Ambient Shared Live Media positioned in the field of social television. It illustrates a scenario of social television that exemplifies how media sharing/TV watching can be a facilitator for social TV across physical locations. It also addresses a spec...... a specific target of users, being the modern nomad....

  5. Children's attitudes toward violence on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, K J; Erwin, P G

    1997-07-01

    Children's attitudes toward television violence were studied. A 47-item questionnaire collecting attitudinal and personal information was administered to 316 children aged 11 to 16 years. Cluster analysis was used to split the participants into two groups based on their attitudes toward television violence. A stepwise discriminant function analysis was performed to determine which personal characteristics would predict group membership. The only significant predictor of attitudes toward violence on television was the amount of television watched on school days (p < .05), but we also found that the impact of other predictor variables may have been mediated by this factor.

  6. The World According to Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Don

    1985-01-01

    Adult guidance and discussion are two elements necessary to transform children from passive consumers into active critics of the social world presented by television. Ways in which teachers can help students scrutinize what they see on television are discussed. (CB)

  7. Pro-socially shareable entertainment television programmes: a programming alternative in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Svenkerud, P J

    1994-12-01

    Over the period 1975-82, the Mexican television network created and aired seven entertainment soap operas promoting educational-development themes like adult literacy, smaller family size norms, and an higher social status for women. These emissions earned high ratings in Mexico and in other Latin American countries where they were subsequently broadcast. Evidence suggests that many of the social objectives of the soaps were met. In light of such success, the authors investigated the potential of pro-socially shareable entertainment television programs in developing countries. These programs use entertaining media formats to carry pro-social messages to a wide, yet culturally-proximate audience group. Entertainment television genres such as melodramatic soap operas offer certain advantages for carrying pro-socially shareable messages to audiences. The possibility of using other television genres and media channels, however, also needs to be seriously considered. Pro-socially shareable entertainment programs do have their limitations and problems, with a certain degree of message dilution invariably accompanying the quest for shareability. Targeting specific problems in specific audience groups is difficult and the identity of a relatively small homogeneous group can be threatened in a larger culturally proximate group. The value-laden nature of pro-social content can also be problematic.

  8. 47 CFR 73.6019 - Digital Class A TV station protection of low power TV, TV translator, digital low power TV and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... power TV, TV translator, digital low power TV and digital TV translator stations. 73.6019 Section 73... low power TV, TV translator, digital low power TV and digital TV translator stations. An application... A TV station will not be accepted if it fails to protect authorized low power TV, TV translator...

  9. Background television in the homes of US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Matthew A; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Linebarger, Deborah L

    2012-11-01

    US parents were surveyed to determine the amount of background television that their children are exposed to as well as to isolate demographic factors associated with increased exposure to background television. After this, we ask how certain home media practices are linked to children's background television exposure. US parents/caregivers (N = 1454) with 1 child between the ages of 8 months and 8 years participated in this study. A nationally representative telephone survey was conducted. Parents were asked to report on their child's exposure to background television via a 24-hour time diary. Parents were also asked to report relevant home media behaviors related to their child: bedroom television ownership, number of televisions in the home, and how often a television was on in the home. The average US child was exposed to 232.2 minutes of background television on a typical day. With the use of multiple regression analysis, we found that younger children and African American children were exposed to more background television. Leaving the television on while no one is viewing and children's bedroom television ownership were associated with increased background television exposure. Although recent research has shown the negative consequences associated with background television, this study provides the first nationally representative estimates of that exposure. The amount of exposure for the average child is startling. This study offers practitioners potential pathways to reduce exposure.

  10. Public Policy and Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Aletha C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Advocates the promotion of television programing that serves the diverse needs of children for education, entertainment, aesthetic appreciation, and knowledge; and the protection of children from television content and advertising practices that exploit their special vulnerability. More regulation is needed. (Author/BJV)

  11. 75 FR 10692 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... Television Commission, the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ(TV), channel *10, Birmingham... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  12. Television as an Aid to Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    In the late nineteenth-century, readily available dry, gelatin-based photographic emulsions revolutionized astronomy. Photography not only provided a permanent record, but also allowed for integration over extended exposures, helping astronomers observe fainter objects than possible with the eye alone. In 1942, television pioneer Vladimir Zworykin, patented the Telelectroscope, an electronic telescope which removed the observer from the eyepiece and replaced photographic emulsion with a television camera. By the mid-1950s, the astronomical community had developed a growing interest in the possible uses of television technology and at the 1955 Dublin meeting of the IAU, a special session was devoted to the application of television in astronomy.Here, I will examine the use of commercially-available television camera tubes by professional and amateur astronomers and explain how results from these early observations encouraged the astronomical community to further test, design, and build electronic imaging devices specifically for astronomical use.

  13. The Social Uses of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, James

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrates that audience members create specific and sometimes elaborate practical actions involving television in order to gratify particular needs in the context of family viewing. Supports a typology of the social uses of television using ethnographic research and current uses and gratifications literature. (JMF)

  14. Bevarage consumption during television viewing and tooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study assessed the television (TV) viewing habits, preferred energy and acidic drinks consumed when watching television and the history of tooth sensitivity among adolescents who watched television >2 hours daily (HTV) and <2 hour daily. (LTV). Subjects and Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted in Ife ...

  15. Simulation and Measurement of the Transmission Distortions of the Digital Television DVB-T/H Part 2: Hierarchical Modulation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stukavec

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the second part of results of the Czech Science Foundation research project that was aimed into the simulation and measurement of the transmission distortions of the digital terrestrial television according to DVB-T/H standards. In this part the hierarchical modulation performance characteristics and its simulation and laboratory measurements are presented. The paper deals with the hierarchical oriented COFDM modulator for the digital terrestrial television transmission and DVB-T/H standards and possible utilization of this technique in real broadcasting scenarios – fixed, portable and mobile digital TV, all in one TV channel. Impact of the hierarchical modulation on Modulation Error Rate from I/Q constellations and Bit Error Rates before and after Viterbi decoding in DVB-T/H signal decoding are evaluated and discussed.

  16. The relationship between parents' and children's television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B; Hennessy, Michael

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effect of parental television viewing on children's television viewing compared with traditional predictors such as household television access, parental rules, and demographic characteristics of the child, parent, and household. An online survey using national samples of 1550 parents with children in 3 age groups (children ≤ 5 years, children aged 6-11 years, and adolescents aged 12-17 years), weighted to be representative of US parents with children in each age group. Adolescents (n = 629) of participating parents were also surveyed. Parent television time is associated with child television time and had a stronger relationship to child time than access to television in the home or the child's bedroom, as well as parental rules about television viewing and coviewing. This pattern persisted across all age groups of children. Educating parents about the relationship between their own and their child's viewing may be a useful strategy for interventions that aim to reduce children's excessive television viewing. Additionally, health professionals can engage parents in a discussion about how family television time is associated with increased television time for children.

  17. Exposure to television food advertising primes food-related cognitions and triggers motivation to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Hollitt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of exposure to television food advertising on accessibility of food-related cognitions and motivation to eat. We initially developed a word stem completion task to measure accessibility of food-related cognitions. In two subsequent experiments, 160 female undergraduate students (Experiment 1) and 124 overweight or obese community-dwelling women (Experiment 2) viewed a series of television commercials advertising either food or non-food products. They then completed the word stem task and also rated their desire to eat. Exposure to televised food advertisements led to the completion of word stems with more food- and eating-related words in both experiments. It also increased self-reported desire to eat, but only for overweight and obese individuals (Experiment 2). In both samples, there was a positive association between accessibility of food-related cognitions and reported desire to eat, following priming with television food advertisements. We conclude that an increased activation of food-related cognitions may provide a mechanism for the link between food advertising and consumption. This has implications for tackling pathological (over)eating.

  18. Trends in exposure to televised prescription drug advertising, 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Rachel; Alexander, G Caleb; Qato, Dima M; Kim, Yoonsang; Hirsch, Jan D; Emery, Sherry L

    2015-05-01

    TV accounts for more than half of pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) spending in the U.S. The purpose of this study is to quantify average household exposure to branded and non-branded (help-seeking) televised prescription drug advertisements and describe variation over time and according to medication indication and geography. In 2013, Nielsen TV ratings were compiled for prescription pharmaceutical advertising that aired between 2003 and 2011 for the top 75 U.S. media markets. All advertisements were coded as branded or help-seeking. Advertisements were further coded for one of eight prevalent indications (allergies, arthritis, asthma, erectile dysfunction, high cholesterol, smoking cessation, depression, and sleep disorder) or as "other." Televised DTCA exposure increased from 2003 to 2007 and then declined 43% by 2011, to 111 monthly prescription drug advertisements per household. The examined indications were associated with varying amounts and patterns of exposure, with greatest declines among medications for allergies and sleep disorders. Help-seeking advertisements comprised 10% of total exposure, with substantial variation by indication. Considerations of DTCA's effects on health care should take into account the shifting concentration of advertising across indications. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Hour of Television: The Incursion of Television and Telenovelas into Mexico City Daily Life (1958-1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Camila Ramírez Bonilla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Television and television genres have a life of their own. In the Mexican case, telenovelas can be seen as the first genre authentically conceived and created for television. Since their appearance in Mexico in June 1958 on Telesistema-Canal 4, they not only recapitulated the stereotypes, myths and moral concerns of society at that time, but also became part of the daily life of their spectators, still expectant neophytes. The first melodramas were an urban phenomenon and characterized the growth of the middle class. The genre’s audience was created by its appearance and viewers actively integrated what they saw on screen into their family life. Watching telenovelas was a primordially domestic act while simultaneously being a collective one, shared among many people. Understanding this genre as a product made to provide meaning and using an analysis that demands both the study of narrative content as well an analysis of the medium itself and its spectators, this article identifies the way in which the arrival of television (and telenovelas in particular made an impact on the daily life of television viewers in Mexico City. Did the arrival of television melodramas, between 1958 and 1966, introduce a new sense of the everyday in the viewing public? How did this new sense of everyday life express itself in space, time, routines, tastes and the collective imagination of viewers? This article is supported by the audiovisual content of the first television melodramas transmitted in Mexico, their reception in television magazines and the press in general, their accompanying advertising and the experiences of middle class individuals and families who were interviewed and surveyed on the subject.

  20. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Televised Antismoking Advertising: Effects of Level and Duration of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effects of levels and duration of exposure to televised antismoking advertising on cognitive and behavioral changes. Methods. We used data from a serial cross-sectional telephone survey with weekly interviews of adult smokers and recent quitters in New South Wales, Australia (n = 13 301), between April 2005 and December 2010. We merged survey data with commercial TV ratings data to estimate individuals’ exposure to antismoking advertising. Results. Logistic regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for a wide range of potential confounders, exposure to antismoking advertising at levels between 100 and 200 gross rating points per week on average over 6 to 9 weeks was associated with an increased likelihood of having (1) salient quitting thoughts and (2) recent quit attempts. Associations between exposure for shorter periods and these outcomes were not significant. Conclusions. Broadcasting schedules may affect the success of antismoking ads. Campaign planners should ensure advertising exposure at adequate frequency over relatively sustained periods to maximize impact. PMID:23763419

  2. Televised antismoking advertising: effects of level and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally; Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-08-01

    We assessed the effects of levels and duration of exposure to televised antismoking advertising on cognitive and behavioral changes. We used data from a serial cross-sectional telephone survey with weekly interviews of adult smokers and recent quitters in New South Wales, Australia (n = 13,301), between April 2005 and December 2010. We merged survey data with commercial TV ratings data to estimate individuals' exposure to antismoking advertising. Logistic regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for a wide range of potential confounders, exposure to antismoking advertising at levels between 100 and 200 gross rating points per week on average over 6 to 9 weeks was associated with an increased likelihood of having (1) salient quitting thoughts and (2) recent quit attempts. Associations between exposure for shorter periods and these outcomes were not significant. Broadcasting schedules may affect the success of antismoking ads. Campaign planners should ensure advertising exposure at adequate frequency over relatively sustained periods to maximize impact.

  3. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and television series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.

  4. Parent-Child Coviewing of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Aimee; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses parent-child television coviewing and describes the results of a study that examined coviewing of television series featuring families via questionnaire responses from second, sixth, and tenth graders and their parents. The paper and pencil instruments that were administered are described, and dependent and independent variables are…

  5. HAVi components in digital television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2001-01-01

    htmlabstractDigital television broadcast started in Finland on 27th of August 2001. A new period in this entertainment field has already begun. Because of the importance of television in the society, the shift between analogue and digital has to be done with the viewers in mind. The User

  6. Action for Children's Television; The First National Symposium on the Effect on Children of Television Programming and Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarson, Evelyn, Comp.

    Action for Children's Television (ACT) was organized to attempt to change the nature of television (TV) for children--to persuade TV networks that children are not miniature consumers, to encourage appropriate programming for children, and to eliminate commercialism. This report of the First National Symposium of ACT presents papers of…

  7. Do marketing and alcohol treatment/public health experts think televised alcohol advertisements abide by regulatory guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Kelly; Cameron, Elaine; Williams, Hannah; Banister, Emma; Donmall, Michael; Higgins, Alan; French, David P

    2018-04-01

    Televised alcohol advertisements in the United Kingdom must abide by the Broadcast Committee of Advertising Practice Code, which provides guidelines concerning advertisements not implying, condoning or encouraging immoderate, irresponsible or antisocial drinking. Previously, 75 per cent of 373 general public respondents were shown one of seven advertisements rated a breach of at least one guideline. This study assessed whether experts in marketing ( n = 25) and alcohol treatment/public health ( n = 25) perceived the same seven television alcohol advertisements as complying with the Broadcast Committee of Advertising Practice Code. Overall, 83 per cent of advertisements were rated as breaching at least one guideline. This provides further proof that self-regulatory alcohol guidelines are not fit for purpose.

  8. 75 FR 25119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if technically feasible. DATES: This... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis screening and prevention in order to impact the HIV pandemic: Isn’t it time we take this infection seriously?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gweneth Bratton Lazenby

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis (TV is the second most common sexually transmitted infection (STI in the world. It is associated with significant morbidity in women: pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, concurrent vaginitis and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, post-operative infection, and pregnancy complications. TV infection has been implicated in HIV acquisition and transmission in men and women. There are multiple mechanisms to explain this association. TV is not routinely screened for in asymptomatic patients; however, infected individuals are most often asymptomatic. Due to the association with the spread of HIV infection, screening should not be limited to symptomatic patients or those seeking treatment for STIs. There are a variety of tests available to detect TV. Treatment of TV has demonstrated lower rates of HIV acquisition in at risk women. In HIV positive men and women, treatment decreases the amount of genital HIV shedding and subsequent infectivity. Initiation of an effective TV screening and treatment program in HIV positive and HIV susceptible populations may limit further transmission of HIV

  10. Telecommunications: Issues in Providing Cable and Satellite Television Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    This report provides information on (1) whether the availability of cable modem Internet access service appears to be affecting the competitiveness of direct broadcast satellite (DBS) companies in the provision of video services, (2) whether cable prices and DBS penetration rates appear to be affected in areas where the DBS companies offer local broadcast channels, and (3) whether the two individual DBS companies are technologically capable of expanding local broadcast channel services into all 210 television markets in the United States.

  11. Trends in the nutritional content of television food advertisements seen by children in the United States: analyses by age, food categories, and companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Braunschweig, Carol L

    2011-12-01

    To examine trends in children's exposure to food-related advertising on television by age, product category, and company. Nutritional content analysis using television ratings data for 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 for children. Annual age-specific television ratings data captured children's exposure to broadcast network, cable network, syndicated, and spot television food advertising from all (except Spanish-language) programming. Children aged 2 to 5 and 6 to 11 years. Main Exposure  Television ratings. Children's exposure to food-related advertising on television with nutritional assessments for food and beverage products for grams of saturated fat, sugar, and fiber and milligrams of sodium. Children aged 2 to 5 and 6 to 11 years saw, respectively, on average, 10.9 and 12.7 food-related television advertisements daily in 2009, down 17.8% and 6.9% from 2003. Exposure to food and beverage products high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium fell 37.9% and 27.7% but fast-food advertising exposure increased by 21.1% and 30.8% among 2- to 5- and 6- to 11-year-olds, respectively, between 2003 and 2009. In 2009, 86% of ads seen by children were for products high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium, down from 94% in 2003. Exposure to unhealthy food and beverage product advertisements has fallen, whereas exposure to fast-food ads increased from 2003 to 2009. By 2009, there was not a substantial improvement in the nutritional content of food and beverage advertisements that continued to be advertised and viewed on television by US children.

  12. Wide-Screen Television and Home Movies: Towards an Archaeology of Television and Cinema Convergence Before Digitalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steward, Tom James Longley

    2014-01-01

    abstractIn this article, Tom Steward uses past interrelations of television and cinema spectatorship, exhibition, production and aesthetics to historicize phenomenological digital-era discourses on, ontological definitions of, and cultural arguments about television and cinema convergence. He argues

  13. MOBILE TELEVISION: UNDERSTANDING THE TECHNOLOGY AND OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Omar AlSheikSalem

    2015-01-01

    Television have converged the technologies of movies and radio and now being converged with mobile phones. Mobile TV is the result of the convergence between mobile devices and television. Mobile TV is a key device and service that enrich civilization with applications, vast market and great investment. Mobile TV is an important subject that has a potential impact on leading edge technologies for promising future. In the time being Mobile TV is still in its early stages and has many potential...

  14. TELEVISION AND DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL WOMENA STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Devadas M.B,; Saravanan V.M,

    2015-01-01

    Television as a mass medium has profound impact on society. The pivotal role of Television as an instrument of development by altering the human perspective and transforming the traditional mindset of society is well recognized. TV has not only occupied the leisure hours of women but the whole family is also found busy viewing television programmes for varying length of hours. This paper basically intends to examine the role of TV in the development of rural women. The term dev...

  15. Structuring virtual spaces as television places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    As all major American broadcast and cable networks now provide some form and amount of online distribution of their television programming, we are beginning to see more interactive features being attached to this distribution to remediate the conditions of television consumption in the physical...... world.  Attaching such interactivity to their online distribution creates cyberspaces of consumption that become places for virtual audiences to congregate as they view the program.  To illustrate how the virtual environments and worlds are constructed to become places for virtual audiences, four case...... considering how these Internet-based interactive television examples demonstrate the remediation of conventional conceptualizations of television distribution structures and consumption practices, which then indicate the power dynamics of the producer-consumer relationship.  The form in which...

  16. Why Television Advertising Is Deceptive and Unfair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsen, Rose K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses many topics, including proposals to limit television advertisers' access to children; the dependence of television commercials on involuntary, mnemonic learning; the way television commercials' bypassing of rationality is aided by cognitive processing of music, rhythms, and familiar sensory events; and ideas for correcting the damage…

  17. Television Violence and Children. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)

  18. Children's Television: More than Mere Entertainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The authors propose that television, while entertaining children, also socializes them. To support this conclusion they review the literature regarding effects of television content on aggressive and prosocial behavior and social attitudes. (Editor)

  19. Investigating the influence of eating habits, body weight and television programme preferences on television viewing time and domestic computer usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptou, Elena; Papastefanou, Georgios; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the influence of eating habits, body weight and television programme preference on television viewing time and domestic computer usage, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and home media environment indicators. In addition, potential substitution or complementarity in screen time was investigated. Individual level data were collected via questionnaires that were administered to a random sample of 2,946 Germans. The econometric analysis employed a seemingly unrelated bivariate ordered probit model to conjointly estimate television viewing time and time engaged in domestic computer usage. Television viewing and domestic computer usage represent two independent behaviours in both genders and across all age groups. Dietary habits have a significant impact on television watching with less healthy food choices associated with increasing television viewing time. Body weight is found to be positively correlated with television screen time in both men and women, and overweight individuals have a higher propensity for heavy television viewing. Similar results were obtained for age groups where an increasing body mass index (BMI) in adults over 24 years old is more likely to be positively associated with a higher duration of television watching. With respect to dietary habits of domestic computer users, participants aged over 24 years of both genders seem to adopt more healthy dietary patterns. A downward trend in the BMI of domestic computer users was observed in women and adults aged 25-60 years. On the contrary, young domestic computer users 18-24 years old have a higher body weight than non-users. Television programme preferences also affect television screen time with clear differences to be observed between genders and across different age groups. In order to reduce total screen time, health interventions should target different types of screen viewing audiences separately.

  20. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    In a plant that employs remote handling techniques for equipment maintenance, operators perform maintenance tasks primarily by using the information from television systems. The efficiency of the television system has a significant impact on remote maintenance task performance. High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number of horizontal scan lines as standard-resolution television (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution NTSC television). The added scan lines dramatically improve the resolution of images on the HDTV monitors. This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (a) high-definition color television, (b) high-definition monochromatic television, (c) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (d) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television

  1. 78 FR 75306 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of station WBIQ(TV), channel *39, Birmingham, Alabama... freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by television stations seeking channel substitutions in...

  2. Interaction between Siblings in Primetime Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes three primetime family sitcoms in order to describe the nature of sibling interaction in television families. Research on television families is examined, and questions are raised concerning the value of television sibling images as role models for real people, and the effects of these models on family and peer relationships. (27…

  3. 76 FR 66250 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Community Television of Ohio License, LLC (``Community Television''), the licensee of station WJW (TV), channel 8, Cleveland...

  4. Television Food Advertising to Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C.G.; Boyland, Emma J.; Chapman, Kathy; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Berg, Christina; Caroli, Margherita; Cook, Brian; Coutinho, Janine G.; Effertz, Tobias; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Keller, Kathleen; Leung, Raymond; Manios, Yannis; Monteiro, Renata; Pedley, Claire; Prell, Hillevi; Raine, Kim; Recine, Elisabetta; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Singh, Sonia; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We compared television food advertising to children in several countries. Methods. We undertook a collaboration among 13 research groups in Australia, Asia, Western Europe, and North and South America. Each group recorded programming for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00, for the 3 channels most watched by children, between October 2007 and March 2008. We classified food advertisements as core (nutrient dense, low in energy), noncore (high in undesirable nutrients or energy, as defined by dietary standards), or miscellaneous. We also categorized thematic content (promotional characters and premiums). Results. Food advertisements composed 11% to 29% of advertisements. Noncore foods were featured in 53% to 87% of food advertisements, and the rate of noncore food advertising was higher during children's peak viewing times. Most food advertisements containing persuasive marketing were for noncore products. Conclusions. Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times. PMID:20634464

  5. Television food advertising to children: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Chapman, Kathy; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Berg, Christina; Caroli, Margherita; Cook, Brian; Coutinho, Janine G; Effertz, Tobias; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Keller, Kathleen; Leung, Raymond; Manios, Yannis; Monteiro, Renata; Pedley, Claire; Prell, Hillevi; Raine, Kim; Recine, Elisabetta; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Singh, Sonia; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2010-09-01

    We compared television food advertising to children in several countries. We undertook a collaboration among 13 research groups in Australia, Asia, Western Europe, and North and South America. Each group recorded programming for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00, for the 3 channels most watched by children, between October 2007 and March 2008. We classified food advertisements as core (nutrient dense, low in energy), noncore (high in undesirable nutrients or energy, as defined by dietary standards), or miscellaneous. We also categorized thematic content (promotional characters and premiums). Food advertisements composed 11% to 29% of advertisements. Noncore foods were featured in 53% to 87% of food advertisements, and the rate of noncore food advertising was higher during children's peak viewing times. Most food advertisements containing persuasive marketing were for noncore products. Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

  6. An Examination of Television Viewing Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies nine motivations for television viewing and relates these to age, viewing levels, television attitudes of attachment and reality, and program preferences. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of uses and gratifications research perspectives. (JMF)

  7. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil; Winpenny, Eleanor M; Elliott, Marc N; Rohr, Charlene; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Exposure of young people to alcohol advertising is a risk factor for underage drinking. This study assessed youth exposure to television alcohol advertising in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany, from December 2010 to May 2011. A negative binomial regression model predicted number of alcohol advertisements from the proportion of the television viewership in each age group. This allowed comparison of alcohol advertisement incidence for each youth age category relative to an adult reference category. In the UK, those aged 10-15 years were significantly more exposed to alcohol advertisements per viewing hour than adults aged ≥ 25 years [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.06, 1.18; P advertisements than adults aged ≥ 25 years (IRR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.85; P children (aged 4-9 years in the UK and Germany, 6-12 years in the Netherlands) were less exposed than adults. Adolescents in the UK and the Netherlands, but not Germany, had higher exposure to television alcohol advertising relative to adults than would be expected from their television viewing. Further work across a wider range of countries is needed to understand the relationship between national policies and youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  9. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder Anthony I

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

  10. Television Viewing at Home: Age Trends in Visual Attention and Time with TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Decribes age trends in television viewing time and visual attention of children and adults videotaped in their homes for 10-day periods. Shows that the increase in visual attention to television during the preschool years is consistent with the theory that television program comprehensibility is a major determinant of attention in young children.…

  11. TV Fights: Women and Men in Interpersonal Arguments on Prime-Time Television Dramas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    Studies the behaviors of women and men represented in interpersonal arguments in prime-time television dramas. Finds a weak link between actual argument behaviors and those on television, thereby socializing viewers in a manner inconsistent with reality. Suggests that television arguments are guided more by the needs of the medium that a need to…

  12. 75 FR 3695 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ (TV), channel *10... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  13. Children's Perception of Television Commercial in Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    separating television adverts effect from influence of peers, parents, friends, and others. This constitutes one of the major problems confronting television advertising to ... Key Words: Perception, Television Commercial, Children Consumer

  14. Children's exposure to food advertising on free-to-air television: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Xiao, Yang; Yu, Yang; He, Gengsheng; Li, Liangli; Zeng, Lingxia; Hadi, Hamam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Hoe, Ng See; Noor, Mohd Ismail; Yoon, Jihyun; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2016-03-01

    There is an established link between food promotions and children's food purchase and consumption. Children in developing countries may be more vulnerable to food promotions given the relative novelty of advertising in these markets. This study aimed to determine the scope of television food advertising to children across the Asia-Pacific to inform policies to restrict this marketing. Six sites were sampled, including from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. At each site, 192 h of television were recorded (4 days, 16 h/day, three channels) from May to October 2012. Advertised foods were categorized as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous, and by product type. Twenty-seven percent of advertisements were for food/beverages, and the most frequently advertised product was sugar-sweetened drinks. Rates of non-core food advertising were highest during viewing times most popular with children, when between 3 (South Korea) and 15 (Indonesia) non-core food advertisements were broadcast each hour. Children in the Asia-Pacific are exposed to high volumes of unhealthy food/beverage television advertising. Different policy arrangements for food advertising are likely to contribute to regional variations in advertising patterns. Cities with the lowest advertising rates can be identified as exemplars of good policy practice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Ubiquitous TV: A Business Model Perspective on the Norwegian Television Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bjøndal, Tore Stautland; Gedde, Mads

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is an emerging distribution channel for television content that will deeply impact industry incumbents in the long term. This master thesis explores what challenges are brought forth in this industry by the possibility of Internet distribution of TV and how these issues should be addressed from the business model perspective of incumbent distributors in the Norwegian television market.There have been tremendous developments in Internet related infrastructure over the last decade....

  16. What Are We Drinking? Beverages Shown in Adolescents' Favorite Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed, using a detailed coding instrument. Beverage incidents (ie, beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks, and coffee. Characters were coded with regard to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general, or adult audience. χ 2 tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0 to 25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSBs. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across characters' age groups. Almost half of young adults' (49.2%) or adults' (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSBs) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the adoption of unhealthy beverage behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Academy of

  17. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Hossein Hashemzadeh...

  18. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  19. Risk of high-risk human papillomavirus infection and cervical precancerous lesions with past or current trichomonas infection: a pooled analysis of 25,054 women in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Mei; Z Wang, Margaret; Smith, Jennifer S; Dong, Li; Chen, Feng; Pan, Qin-Jing; Zhang, Xun; Qiao, You-Lin; Zhao, Fang-Hui

    Trichomonas vaginitis (TV) infection has obviously been implicated in gynecological morbidity but still unclear in cervical lesions. To evaluate the risk of hr-HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2 + ) by TV infection. The pooled study was conducted among 12 population-based, cervical cancer screening studies throughout China (N = 24,054). HPV was detected by Hybrid Capture ® 2 (HC2) test. Past TV infection was measured by self-reporting, current TV infection was diagnosed by liquid-based cytology (LBC), cervical lesions was diagnosed by histopathology. Respective prevalence of hr-HPV and CIN2+ were 17.4% and 3.3%. Out of 24,054 women, 14.6% reported past TV infection, and out of 11,853 women, 9.9% had current TV infection. Current TV-positive women had an increased risk for hr-HPV (OR 1.31, 95%CI: 1.11-1.56). The risk of CIN2+ decreased for hr-HPV positive women with current TV infection (adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30-0.84) and past TV infection (adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54-0.86). Among hr-HPV negative women, no significant associations were observed between past or current TV infection and risk of CIN2+. Women infected with HPV are more likely to be infected by other types of sexually transmitted diseases. Current TV-positive women had an increased risk for hr-HPV infection compared to currently TV-negative women. Both past and current TV-positive women had a decreased risk for CIN2+, especially among high-risk HPV positive women. More direct investigation into the interaction between TV, HPV, inflammatory signals, and risk of carcinogenesis are further needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. American Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2008-01-01

    En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa.......En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa....

  1. Televised obesity-prevention advertising across US media markets: exposure and content, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Rachel; Szczypka, Glen; Powell, Lisa M; Emery, Sherry L

    2015-04-01

    To examine levels of exposure and content characteristics for recent televised obesity-prevention campaigns sponsored by state and community health departments, federal agencies, non-profit organizations and television stations in the USA. Nielsen television ratings for obesity-prevention advertising were collected for the top seventy-five US media markets and were used to calculate household exposure levels for 2010 and 2011. Governmental advertisements were coded for content. United States. Average household exposure to obesity-prevention campaigns was 2·6 advertisements per month. Exposure increased by 31 % between 2010 and 2011, largely driven by increases in federal advertisements. In 2011, the federal government accounted for 62 % of obesity-prevention exposure, non-profit organizations for 9 %, community departments for 8 %, state departments for 3 %, and television station-sponsored public-service announcements for 17 %. The greatest percentage increase between 2010 and 2011 was in community advertising, reflecting efforts funded by the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) programme. Among thirty-four state and community campaigns, the majority advocated both healthy eating and physical activity (53 %). Campaigns typically had positive or neutral emotional valence (94 %). Obesity or overweight was mentioned in 47 % of campaigns, but only 9 % specifically advocated weight loss. Exposure to televised obesity-prevention advertising increased from 2010 to 2011 and was higher than previously found in 1999-2003, apart from in 2003 during the federal VERB campaign. Nevertheless, exposure remains low relative to advertising for unhealthy foods. New federal campaigns have increased exposure to obesity-prevention advertising nationally, while CPPW grants have increased exposure for targeted areas.

  2. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Time Driving and All‐Cause Mortality: The SUN Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra‐Gortari, Francisco Javier; Bes‐Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Núñez‐Córdoba, Jorge María; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez‐González, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviors have been directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, little is known about different types of sedentary behaviors in relation to overall mortality. Our objective was to assess the association between different sedentary behaviors and all‐cause mortality. Methods and Results In this prospective, dynamic cohort study (the SUN Project) 13 284 Spanish university graduates with a mean age of 37 years were followed‐up for a median of 8.2 years. Television, computer, and driving time were assessed at baseline. Poisson regression models were fitted to examine the association between each sedentary behavior and total mortality. All‐cause mortality incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 2 hours per day were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 to 1.84) for television viewing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.18) for computer use, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.44) for driving, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, total energy intake, Mediterranean diet adherence, body mass index, and physical activity. The risk of mortality was twofold higher for participants reporting ≥3 h/day of television viewing than for those reporting Television viewing was directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, computer use and time spent driving were not significantly associated with higher mortality. Further cohort studies and trials designed to assess whether reductions in television viewing are able to reduce mortality are warranted. The lack of association between computer use or time spent driving and mortality needs further confirmation. PMID:24965030

  3. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-29, RM-11622; DA 11-335] Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Kevin R. Harding...

  4. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-192, RM-11646; DA 11-1924] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  5. "Survivor": Three Principles of Economics Lessons as Taught by a Reality Television Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, Dean

    2017-01-01

    The reality television show "Survivor" has been a ratings success on CBS for over 16 years. In the show, 16 strangers are marooned in a remote location, required to compete in physical and mental challenges and periodically vote to eliminate players from the game. The last person remaining wins one million dollars. The author uses this…

  6. Tobacco and alcohol in films and on television

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests exposure to film smoking increases youth smoking, and this is also likely to be the case for television. Some evidence suggests alcohol in films and television has similar effects on drinking behaviours. It is therefore important to document the extent to which tobacco and alcohol occur in films and television in the UK. Methods Films (1989-2008) and television broadcasting were content coded for tobacco and alcohol including branding, use, parapherna...

  7. Association of a television in the bedroom with increased adiposity gain in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; McClure, Auden C; Sargent, James D

    2014-05-01

    Obesity affects health in children and adolescents. Television viewing is an established risk factor for obesity in youth. No prospective study has assessed whether a bedroom television confers an additional risk for obesity in youth. To assess the prospective association between the presence of a bedroom television and change in body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), independent of television viewing, in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents. We conducted a random-digit prospective telephone survey that captured children and adolescents from across the United States. Participants included 6522 boys and girls aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were surveyed via telephone about media risk factors for obesity.Weighted regressions assessed adiposity at 2- and 4-year follow-up, controlling for television and movie viewing, video-game playing, parenting, age, sex, race or ethnicity, household income, and parental educational level. Report of having a television in the bedroom at baseline. Age- and sex-adjusted BMI based on self-report and parent report of weight and height at 2- and 4-year follow-up. Distributions for age, sex, race or ethnicity, and socioeconomic status were similar to census estimates for the US population. Sample weighting methods accounted for higher dropout rates among ethnic minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status. Bedroom televisions were reported by 59.1%of participants at baseline, with boys, ethnic minorities, and those of lower socioeconomic status having significantly higher rates. In multivariate analyses, having a bedroom television was associated with an excess BMI of 0.57 (95%CI, 0.31-0.82) and 0.75 (0.38-1.12) at years 2 and 4, respectively, and a BMI gain of 0.24 (0.02-0.45) from years 2 to 4. Having a bedroom television is associated with weight gain beyond the effect of television viewing time. This association could be the result of

  8. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-224; MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  9. 75 FR 67077 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2000; MB Docket No. 08-194; RM-11488] Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  10. 76 FR 54188 - Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-137, RM-11637; DA 11-1414] Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A...

  11. 77 FR 46631 - Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video...

  12. 75 FR 9859 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-307; MB Docket No. 10-49; RM-11593] Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  13. 77 FR 33997 - Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... freeze on the acceptance of rulemaking petitions by full power television stations requesting channel... filed by full power television stations seeking to relocate from channel 51 pursuant to a voluntary...

  14. 76 FR 13966 - Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-33, RM-11623; DA 11-406] Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  15. 76 FR 3875 - Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2426; MB Docket No. 10-264; RM-11615] Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  16. [Epilepsy in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús María

    2012-10-01

    Literature, cinema and television have often portrayed stereotypical images of people that have epilepsy and have helped foster false beliefs about the disease. To examine the image of epilepsy presented by literature, cinema and television over the years. Epilepsy has frequently been portrayed in literary works, films and television series, often relating it with madness, delinquency, violent behaviours or possession by the divine or the diabolical, all of which has helped perpetuate our ancestral beliefs. The literary tales and the images that appear in films and on television cause an important emotional impact and, bearing in mind that many people will only ever see an epileptic seizure in a film or in a TV series or might gain some information about the disorder from a literary text, what they see on the screen or read in the novels will be their only points of reference. Such experiences will therefore mark the awareness and knowledge they will have about epilepsy and their attitudes towards the people who suffer from it. Novels and films are fiction, but it is important to show realistic images of the disease that are no longer linked to the false beliefs of the past and which help the general public to have a more correct view of epilepsy that is free from prejudices and stereotypes. Literature, cinema and television have often dealt with the subject of epilepsy, sometimes realistically, but in many cases they have only helped to perpetuate false beliefs about this disease.

  17. 76 FR 52632 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  18. 76 FR 35831 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  19. A Study of In-cell Television in a Closed Adult Male Prison: Governing Souls with In-cell Television

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In-cell television is now a permanent feature of prisons in England and Wales, and a key part of the experience of modern incarceration. In-cell television was formally introduced in 1998 and its introduction took twelve years to complete across the prison estate. Its introduction was not informed by research and no formal evaluation of in-cell television in prisons has taken place. This thesis, therefore extends the small body of prisoner audience research with an exclusive focus on capturin...

  20. 'The televising of science is a process of television': establishing Horizon, 1962-1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    BBC Television's Horizon series, fifty years old on 2 May 2014, despite its significance to the history of the public culture of science, has been little studied. This microhistorical account follows the gestation and early years of the programme, demonstrating how it established a social and cultural account of science. This was a result of televisual factors, notably the determination to follow the format of the successful arts television programme Monitor. It illuminates how the processes of television production, with a handful of key participants - Aubrey Singer, Gerald Leach, Philip Daly, Gordon Rattray Taylor, Ramsay Short, Michael Peacock and Robert Reid - established the format of the programme. This occurred over seventeen months of prior preparation followed by three troubled years of seeking to establish a stable form. This was finally achieved in 1967 when the programme adopted a film documentary approach after extended attempts at making it as a studio-based magazine programme. The story has implications for understanding the social accounts of science that were circulating in the key decade of the 1960s.

  1. Quality control of image-intensifier television chains in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirinen, M.

    1989-01-01

    There are some 500 image-intensifier television (TV) chains connected to fluoroscopic units in Finland, most installed in the 1970s, although the oldest still in use date back to the late 1960s. To establish performance levels of the chains, 300 of them were assessed in 1982 by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Results showed great diversity in the condition of the chains. The main reason was lack of periodical quality assurance of the chains. Recommendations for limits were established from results of assessing three parameters describing the condition of the chains: spatial resolution, automatically controlled dose-rate and contrast sensitivity. Recommendations also advise hospitals on how to arrange alternative quality assurance measurements and observations, either by hospital's maintenance staff, the manufacturer, or the supervising authority (STUK). Results following adoption of the recommendations by hospitals are presented. (author)

  2. Oral Argument in Children's Television Proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Robert B.

    The author advocates the outright ban of commercials from Saturday and Sunday morning television and makes several other recommendations that he believes would improve programing and reduce the hard sell of child targeted advertising. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) could form a Children's Television Broadcast Center and establish a…

  3. Television Violence and Its Effect on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)

  4. Upbringing with a TV set in the background. Of television in everyday family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRYCJA HANYGA-JANCZAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporarily, television is the most popular of all mass media and watching it is the most frequent way of spending leisure time. It seems that no one argues for a positive role of television in family life anymore, with complete lack of contact with television being disadvantageous to the family, as well. The opportunity to use television increases self-esteem and allows for participation in what is going on in the country and in the world; it is, therefore, worth it to make use of its benefits reasonably

  5. The Effect of Viewing Television Violence on Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…

  6. 76 FR 5119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-96; MB Docket No. 11-8; RM-11618] Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...

  7. 76 FR 5290 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  8. Racism and the Media: Racism in Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marquita

    1971-01-01

    The major problem confronting black people working in the television industry today is that of communicating with the black community, despite the nature of television and its system of operation. (DM)

  9. Television News Uses: A Cross-National Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mark R.

    1978-01-01

    Reports that a classification of television news uses and gratifications based on research in Leeds, England, did not adequately encompass the functions of television news for a United States audience. (GW)

  10. 75 FR 13681 - Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... not less than one very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if technically... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  11. Women and Minorities in Television Drama, 1969-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbner, George; Signorielli, Nancy

    This report presents an analysis of the characters created for prime time and weekend daytime network television drama and viewer conceptions associated with exposure to television. Data was gathered through 10 years of monitoring television programs, analyzing characters, and conducting surveys of child and adult viewers. Trends in representation…

  12. 75 FR 1546 - Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  13. Conditioning attentional skills: examining the effects of the pace of television editing on children's attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, N R; Uller, C; Pettifer, J; Stolc, F C

    2009-10-01

    There is increasing concern about the behavioural and cognitive effects of watching television in childhood. Numerous studies have examined the effects of the amount of viewing time; however, to our knowledge, only one study has investigated whether the speed of editing of a programme may have an effect on behaviour. The purpose of the present study was to examine this question using a novel experimental paradigm. School children (aged 4-7 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Each group was presented with either a fast- or slow-edit 3.5-min film of a narrator reading a children's story. Immediately following film presentation, both groups were presented with a continuous test of attention. Performance varied according to experimental group and age. In particular, we found that children's orienting networks and error rates can be affected by a very short exposure to television. Just 3.5 min of watching television can have a differential effect on the viewer depending on the pacing of the film editing. These findings highlight the potential of experimentally manipulating television exposure in children and emphasize the need for more research in this previously under-explored topic.

  14. Using Television to Stimulate Learning and Develop Evaluative Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Wright, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Poses two questions regarding use of television in the social studies classroom--"How can television be used as motivation for learning?" and "How can teachers assist students to make rational evaluations concerning the issues presented on television?" Answers to these questions focus on teaching methods involving television in the classroom.…

  15. Television system in which digitised picture signals subjected to a transform coding are transmitted from an encoding station to a decoding station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1989-01-01

    Television system in which digitalized picture signals subjected to a transform coding are transmitted from an encoding station to a decoding station. In a television system a digital picture signal is subjected to a transform coding for the purpose of bit rate reduction. In order to detect motion

  16. 75 FR 3641 - Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-40; MB Docket No. 09-210; RM-11583] Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  17. Television, Parents, and the Political Socialization of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebes, Tamar

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the role of television in constructing social reality and teaching children to participate in society, examining Israeli research on the role of television fiction and news in parent-child interactions. The article notes how family cultures affect the way television is incorporated into the socialization process in all households. (SM)

  18. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  19. 75 FR 19907 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-606; MB Docket No. 10-49; RM-11593] Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  20. Television violence and its effect on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M O

    1996-04-01

    Television (TV) has become a large part of children's activities. Much discussion exists as to the level of violence on TV programs and its effect on children's behavior. This article reviews the literature, discusses social issues, and presents some interventions available to nursing professionals to assist children and families in coping with the impact of TV on children's lives.

  1. Television food advertising viewed by preschoolers, children and adolescents: contributors to differences in exposure for black and white youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, F; Harris, J L

    2018-02-01

    Public health experts raise concerns about adolescents' and black youth's greater exposure to TV advertising for unhealthy foods and beverages compared with children and white youth. Examine how television-viewing patterns and rates of advertising during targeted programming contribute to this greater exposure. Nielsen panel data provided viewing times and amount of food advertising viewed on U.S. television in 2008 and 2012. Researchers compared results by network type (black-, child- and youth-targeted), age group (preschoolers, children and adolescents) and race (black and white youth). Food advertising exposure increased with age for both black and white youth, but black youth viewed approximately 50% or more ads than did white youth of the same age. Higher rates of food advertising on youth-targeted networks explained greater adolescent exposure. However, greater television viewing and higher rates of advertising on youth- and black-targeted networks both contributed to black youth's greater exposure. From 2008 to 2012, increases in food-ads-per-hour increased exposure for all youth. Food advertisers and networks, especially those targeting adolescents and black youth, must do more to reduce advertising that negatively impacts young people's health. Furthermore, reducing commercial-television viewing by black youth may help reduce health disparities affecting their communities. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Persistent and recurrent Trichomonas vaginalis infections: epidemiology, treatment and management considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seña, Arlene C; Bachmann, Laura H; Hobbs, Marcia M

    2014-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is a common sexually transmitted infection that can cause vaginitis, cervicitis and urethritis. Persistent and recurrent TV infections are frequent in women, potentially due to the lack of routine screening recommendations for this pathogen, the chronic nature of some infections, and drug resistance. Metronidazole and tinidazole are two oral drugs that are effective against trichomoniasis. There are few alternative treatment options for persons with a metronidazole allergy or treatment failure. Most TV isolates from women with treatment failures that have been analyzed for susceptibility testing in the United States have exhibited low-level metronidazole resistance, supporting the initial use of tinidazole for patients who fail metronidazole therapy. Several non-nitroimidazole drugs and other agents have demonstrated acceptable in vitro activity or cure rates in case reports for metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis; however, clinical trials are imperative to evaluate their efficacy as alternative therapeutic regimens for this highly prevalent infection.

  3. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  4. Quantification of Rain Induced Artifacts on Digital Satellite Television ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of artifacts on the high definition television (TV) content and the eventual loss of the digital TV signals to rain is still a major concern to satellite operators, digital satellite television (DSTV) and terrestrial television content providers. In this paper, the artifacts present in a typical DSTV signal is examined on a ...

  5. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (1) high-definition color television, (2) high-definition monochromatic television, (3) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (4) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television. The stereo system accomplished stereoscopy by displaying two cross-polarized images, one reflected by a half-silvered mirror and one seen through the mirror. Observers wore a pair of glasses with cross-polarized lenses so that the left eye received only the view from the left camera and the right eye received only the view from the right camera

  6. Visibility that demystifies: gays, gender, and sex on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzley, Sara Baker

    2010-01-01

    A content analysis of 98 episodes of primetime entertainment programs on commercial broadcast and cable television stations from the 2005-2006 season showed that gay characters on television were more likely to be shown in sexual situations than straight characters, and women were more likely to be shown in same-sex sexual situations than men. In addition, gay characters were more likely to be depicted as sexually active on cable television than they were on commercial broadcast television, and they were more likely to be relegated to guest star status on commercial broadcast television than on cable television. The study also showed that gay characters made up 7.5% of all the characters studied. This study discusses the implications of these findings for gay and straight audiences.

  7. Minority Produced Television: Problems of Policy and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Robert W.; McDermott, Joseph T.

    1970-01-01

    The authors treat some of the special problems faced in evaluating a black-produced television series. Black-Voices was a weekly offering of KTCA-TV in Minneapolis, owned and operated by the Twin Cities Area Educational Television Corporation." (Editor)

  8. Effectiveness of a television advertisement campaign on giving cigarettes in a chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Hu, Yihe; Xu, Guanqun; Ma, Jiuhua; Shi, Zumin

    2014-01-01

    Anti-tobacco television advertisement campaigns may convey messages on smoking-related health consequences and create norms against giving cigarettes. Altogether, 156 and 112 slots of a television advertisement "Giving cigarettes is giving harm" were aired on Suzhou and Yizheng, respectively, over one month in 2010. Participants were recruited from 15 locations in Suzhou and 8 locations in Yizheng using a street intercept method. Overall 2306 residents aged 18-45 years completed questionnaires, including 1142 before the campaign and 1164 after, with respective response rates of 79.1% and 79.7%. Chi square tests were used to compare the difference between categorical variables. After the campaign, 36.0% of subjects recalled that they had seen the advertisement. Residents of Suzhou had a higher recall rate than those of Yizheng (47.6% vs. 20.6%, P advertisement were more likely not to give cigarettes in the future than those who reported not seeing the advertisement (38.7% vs. 27.5%, P advertisements helped change societal norms and improve health behavior. Continuous and adequate funding of anti-tobacco media campaigns targeted at different levels of the general population is needed, in conjunction with a comprehensive tobacco control effort.

  9. A service evaluation of the Gen-Probe APTIMA nucleic acid amplification test for Trichomonas vaginalis: should it change whom we screen for infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Emma; Ng, Andrea; Page, Matthew; Hodson, James; Gaydos, Charlotte; Ross, Jonathan D C

    2015-01-01

    Objective A service evaluation of the new Gen-Probe APTIMA nucleic acid amplification test was performed to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in a UK sexual health clinic and identify risk factors to inform an appropriate TV screening strategy. Method Unselected patients presenting with a new clinical episode were offered TV testing with Gen Probe transcription-mediated amplification (TV TMA) in addition to routine sexually transmitted infection screening. Asymptomatic females provided a self-collected vulvovaginal specimen and asymptomatic men a first-void urine sample. Symptomatic patients were examined and a urethral swab taken from men and two posterior vaginal swabs from females; one for culture and one for TV TMA testing. Demographic and clinical data were collected on all patients positive for TV infection and 100 randomly selected TV-negative controls. Results 3503 patients underwent TV TMA testing during the evaluation period. The prevalence of TV infection was 21/1483, 1.4% (95% CI 0.9% to 2.2%) in men and 72/2020, 3.6% (95% CI 2.8% to 4.5%) in women. The rate of TV positivity was higher in Black Caribbean patients compared with Caucasian patients (men 5.4% vs 0.1%, pwomen 9.0% vs 1.2%, pTV TMA detected an additional 16 infections (38%) in symptomatic women compared with culture. Conclusions While screening all patients with TV TMA will identify more TV infections, the UK prevalence remains low and this approach is unlikely to be cost effective. In addition to testing symptomatic patients, targeted testing of high-risk asymptomatic groups using TV TMA should be considered. PMID:25170162

  10. On learning science and pseudoscience from prime-time television programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Christopher Henry

    The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and The X-Files, a drama about two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents who pursue alleged extraterrestrial life and paranormal activity, is studied. Level of viewing, education level, science education level, experiential factors, level of parasocial interaction, and demographic characteristics are assessed as independent variables affecting learning from entertainment television viewing. The present research involved a nine-month long content analysis of target television program dialogue and data collection from an Internet-based survey questionnaire posted to target program-specific on-line "chat" groups. The present study demonstrated that entertainment television program viewers incidentally learn science from entertainment television program dialogue. The more they watch, the more they learn. Viewing a pseudoscientific fictional television program does necessarily influence viewer beliefs in pseudoscience. Higher levels of formal science study are reflected in more science learning and less learning of pseudoscience from entertainment television program viewing. Pseudoscience learning from entertainment television programming is significantly related to experience with paranormal phenomena, higher levels of viewer parasocial interaction, and specifically, higher levels of cognitive parasocial interaction. In summary, the greater a viewer's understanding of science the more they learn when they watch their favorite science-based prime-time television programs. Viewers of pseudoscience-based prime-time television programming with higher levels

  11. Reality Construction of News Release on Local Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noneng Sumiaty

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research generally aims to know the reality of journalists and television media in local television news. This is a descriptive study through a qualitative approach. Techniques of data collection are done through observation, in-depth interviews with key informants (key person, which is leading people in the editorial, the coordinator of the coverage, presenter of news, finance and human resource development and master of ceremony room ATV Sukabumi. The survey results revealed that to serve a local television news  required reporting from journalists. Before the news broadcast gets edit of journalists, the coordinator of the coverage and the editor in chief as the elaboration of filtering journalist and chief editor of coverage as the owner of a local television media. So that, a local television news broadcast can not avoid the subjective element of the journalists and media owners who are part of the construction.

  12. Factors to Consider When Designing Television Pictorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trohanis, Pascal; Du Monceau, Michael

    1971-01-01

    The authors have developed a framework for improving the visual communication element of television. After warning that seeing is not enough to insure learning they discuss the five pre-production components which research indicates should be considered when designing television pictorials." (Editor)

  13. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilbach, Judith

    2014-01-01

    abstractThe trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it

  14. Family education and television mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz CÁNOVAS LEONHARDT

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article try to deal with the complex influence of television viewing in the process of socialization of children and adolescents, focusing our attention on the importance of the family as the mediator-educator agency of particular relevance. Once analyzed the basic theoretical assumptions, we deepened in reality under study by providing data about how the studied population lives television and what extent parental mediation influences and affects the process. The article concludes with some reflections and pedagogical suggestions which trying to help to the optimization of the educational reality.

  15. Fright reactions to television; A child survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Cantor, J.; Peeters, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Using telephone interviews with a random sample of Dutch children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, the authors investigated (a) the prevalence of television-induced fright, (b) whether the fear-inducing capacity of different types of television content (interpersonal violence, fantasy characters,

  16. Bruce X Longwood television reception survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    Property owners living close to a proposed 500-kV transmission line route in Ontario expressed concerns that the line would affect their television reception. To give a reasonable evaluation of the impact of the transmission line, tests were conducted before and after installation of the line in which the possibility of active or passive interference to reception was assessed. Measurements were made of signal strength and ambient noise, and television reception was also recorded on videotape. Possible transmission line effects due to radiated noise, signal reduction, and ghosts are analyzed. The analysis of signal and noise conditions, and the assessment of videotaped reception, provide reasonable evidence that the line has had negligible impact on the television reception along the line route. 13 refs., 18 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Intertextuality and Television Discourse: The Max Headroom Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddlee

    Max Headroom, the computer-generated media personality, presents a good opportunity for an investigation of the degree of intertextuality in television. Max combines narrative genres (science fiction and film noir), television program types (prime-time episodic narrative, made-for-TV movie, talkshows), advertising and programming, and electronic…

  18. Google TV or Apple TV?—The Reasons for Smart TV Failure and a User-Centered Strategy for the Success of Smart TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwoo Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional television (TV has evolved into smart TV in terms of both hardware and software. However, compared with smart phones and tablet PCs, which are huge successes in the market, smart TV has grown more slowly than the market expected and has not really changed the TV market. In this study, we investigate reasons for the failure of smart TV from consumer perspectives. We use conjoint analysis to collect stated preference data from consumers. Our analysis consists of two parts: analyzing consumer preferences for six attributes of smart TVs and examining the effects of socio-demographic and behavioral information on purchase intention for a smart TV. Based on the estimation results from the first part, we find that consumers set a higher value on the traditional characteristics of TV than on the functions of smart TV. Thus, smart TV does not have key functions to encourage its adoption over traditional TV. From the second part of our analysis, we identify which factor is most important to increase purchase intention for a smart TV. Based on our results, we can suggest the direction of market strategies about how to cross the chasm of smart TV.

  19. The Interactions of Television Uses and Gratifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    Data from 464 adults were analyzed to provide a more heuristic paradigm for mass communication uses and gratifications research in a study of the interactive nature of television viewing motivations, viewing behavior, and attitude gratifications. Factor analysis located five principal television viewing motivations: passing time, information,…

  20. Seeking Solutions to Violence on Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.

    This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television…

  1. British Television and Official Film, 1946-1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between the British Government's Information Services and both the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the commercial film trade after the BBC's television service resumed independent broadcasts in 1946. Examines proposals for using television as an alternative outlet for commercial and official films. (GEA)

  2. 76 FR 5120 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-74; MB Docket No. 11-4; RM-11616] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  3. The influence of ART on the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Alys; Clark, Rebecca A; Mena, Leandro; Henderson, Harold; Levison, Judy; Schmidt, Norine; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Martin, David H; Kissinger, Patricia

    2014-09-15

    Among women who are human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+), both prevalent and persistent infections with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are common. TV has been shown to increase vaginal shedding of HIV, which may influence HIV sexual and perinatal transmission, making prevention important. In 1 cohort of HIV+ women in Kenya, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, mostly nevirapine based, was associated with lower cure rates of TV for single-dose therapy. Our goal was to repeat this study in a US-based cohort of HIV+/TV+ women and compare outcomes to those with multidose therapy. A secondary data analysis was performed on a multicentered cohort of HIV+/TV+ women who were randomized to single-dose (2 grams) or 7-day (500 mg twice daily) multidose metronidazole (MTZ) treatment. Test of cure visit, via culture, occurred 6-12 days after treatment completion. Information was collected on sex partner treatment and sexual exposures. Persistent TV infection rates were compared for women on ART at baseline vs not on ART. Of the 226 women included, those on ART had more treatment failures than women not on ART (24/146 [16.4%] vs 5/80 [6.3%]; P = .03). When stratified by treatment arm, more treatment failures were seen in the single-dose arm (17/73 [23.3%] vs 3/39 [7.7%]; P = .05) than in the multidose arm (7/73 [9.6%] vs 2/41 [4.8%]; P = .39). ART usage was associated with a higher TV persistent infection rate among those receiving the single-dose treatment, but not the multidose, providing more evidence that multidose should be the preferred treatment for HIV+ women. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. 76 FR 62642 - Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Characteristic,'' (July 6, 2010), as listed below: (i) A/53, Part 1:2007, ``Digital Television System'' (January... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-1432] Digital Broadcast Television..., Radio, Television. Accordingly, 47 CFR part 73 is corrected by making the following correcting...

  5. Television Intertextuality and the Discourse of the Nuclear Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naficy, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Presents an intertextual approach to reading television. Investigates how the heterosexual nuclear family and its various simulations are circulated within the intertextual flow of television, articulating and distributing "cultural capital." Analyzes a 39-minute segment of television text that includes commercials, news briefs, and the…

  6. 75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  7. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  8. Time spent on television in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Konig, R.P.; Nelissen, P.W.M.; Huysmans, F.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explain the variation in time spent on watching television in 15 European Union countries, using determinants defined at the individual level, and characteristics defined at the national level, such as the number of channels and nature of the television supply. The results of the

  9. Pre-Learning Low-Frequency Vocabulary in Second Language Television Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of pre-learning frequently occurring low-frequency vocabulary as a means to increase comprehension of television and incidental vocabulary learning through watching television. Eight television programmes, each representing different television genres, were analysed using the RANGE program to determine the 10…

  10. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  11. Television systems for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartly, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation-tolerant television cameras, widely used for the inspection of nuclear plants, are now used for monitoring radioactive waste management processes. Two systems are described in this paper that differ in the methods of maintaining the camera equipment. At the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield plant, a major capital investment program is under way that includes plants for spent-fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management. The Windscale vitrification plant (WVP) will convert highly active liquid waste to a solid glass-like form. The WVP television system was based on in-cell cameras designed to be removable by remote-handling equipment. The plant to encapsulate medium active solid waste, encapsulation plant 1 (EP1) used through-wall and through-roof viewing systems with a glass viewing dome as the biological shield, allowing the camera and optics to be withdrawn to a safe area for maintenance. Both systems used novel techniques to obtain a record of the waste-processing operations. The WVP system used a microcomputer to overlay reference information onto the television picture and a motion detector to automatically trigger the video recording. The television system for EP1 included automatic character recognition to generate a computer data record of drum serial numbers

  12. Timing crisis information release via television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  13. Media Literacy: Fighting the Effect Television Has on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Charla A.

    The overall pattern of research findings indicates a positive association between television violence and aggressive behavior. The first congressional hearing on television took place in 1952, when the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce investigated television entertainment to ascertain if it was excessively violent and sexually…

  14. High Definition Television: A New Challenge for Telecommunication Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongcharu, Boonchai

    The telecommunications industry has now entered the most critical period of evolution in television technology since the introduction of color television. The transition to high definition television (HDTV), with related technologies such as semiconductors and computers, would mean a multi-billion dollar business for the telecommunications…

  15. [Bedtime, television and computer habits of primary school children in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, E; Seitz, C; Schüz, J; Toschke, A M; Harth, K; Letzel, S; Böhler, E

    2007-03-01

    Pediatricians recommend daily sleep of at least ten hours for children aged 9 and 10 years. Sufficient sleep is necessary for maintaining the body's homeostasis, as well as for fixing memories and learning. Lack of sleep in children has been associated with a diminished school performance, reduced attention span, and obesity. Adulthood is influenced by childhood lifestyle habits. Data from 4th graders in 34 schools in Mainz and its surroundings were analysed in order to determine negative health lifestyle factors in German primary school children, such as lack of sleep and increased leisure time spent watching television and computer gaming. Data from a cross-sectional study regarding cellular phone use in fourth-graders in Mainz were used for this analysis. Bedtime, television and computer use habits, as well as other factors were explored. A total of 1933 children from 34 schools participated by answering a questionnaire in the 2002-2003 school year (participation rate: 88%). Complete data for the secondary analysis were available from 1889 students (51% male, median age 10 years). Overall, 28% of the children reported going to bed after 9 pm on week nights, 16% reported watching television more than three hours daily, and 11% played computer or video games more than three hours daily. In the adjusted binary logistic regression model, being older, male, having older siblings, watching television (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.28-2.61) and playing computer games (OR 3.23; 95% CI 2.24-4.67) for more than three hours daily, owning a mobile phone, and being in a school in the city were associated with going to bed after 9 pm. Every fourth child does not obtain a sleep duration of 10 hours, under the assumption that primary schoolchildren need to be awake at 7 am on weekdays. Lifestyle factors that may negatively influence a child's development determine their actual and future habits. Sufficient sleep and less television and computer leisure times should be assertively

  16. Effects of television exposure on developmental skills among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hei-Mei

    2015-02-01

    Literature addressing the effects of television exposure on developmental skills of young children less than 36 months of age is scarce. This study explored how much time young children spend viewing television and investigated its effects on cognitive, language, and motor developmental skills. Data were collected from the Pediatric Clinics at University Medical Center in Southern Taiwan. The participants comprised 75 children who were frequently exposed to television and 75 children who were not or infrequently exposed to television between 15 and 35 months old. The age and sex were matched in the two groups. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-second edition and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-second edition were used to identify developmental skills. Independent t-tests, χ(2) tests, and logistic regression models were conducted. Among 75 children who were frequently exposed to television, young children watched a daily average of 67.4 min of television before age 2, which was excessive according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Viewing television increased the risk of delayed cognitive, language, and motor development in children who were frequently exposed to television. Cognitive, language, and motor delays in young children were significantly associated with how much time they spent viewing television. The type of care providers was critical in determining the television-viewing time of children. We recommend that pediatric practitioners explain the impacts of television exposure to parents and caregivers to ensure cognitive, language, and motor development in young children. Advocacy efforts must address the fact that allowing young children to spend excessive time viewing television can be developmentally detrimental. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modularization and Packaging of Public Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John; And Others

    This report examines the changing relationship between public television programming and program distribution methods, and considers whether there is a need to change the design and packaging of some public television programming to respond to changes in the way the audience receives its programming as interactive cable systems, videocassettes,…

  18. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keilbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it maintained at the same time ideological boundaries.

  19. Two-way cable television project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, H.; Guenther, P.; Kiel, F.; Kraus, F.; Mahnkopf, P.; Schnee, R.

    1982-02-01

    The market demand for a multiuser computer system with interactive services was studied. Mean system work load at peak use hours was estimated and the complexity of dialog with a central computer was determined. Man machine communication by broadband cable television transmission, using digital techniques, was assumed. The end to end system is described. It is user friendly, able to handle 10,000 subscribers, and provides color television display. The central computer system architecture with remote audiovisual terminals is depicted and software is explained. Signal transmission requirements are dealt with. International availability of the test system, including sample programs, is indicated.

  20. Television Violence and Behavior: A Research Summary. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn E.

    This digest describes the overall pattern of the results of research on television violence and behavior. Several variables in the relationship between television violence and aggression related to characteristics of the viewers and to the portrayal of violence are identified. Viewer characteristics included: age, amount of television watched,…

  1. Audience Perception of Television Animated Cartoons as Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated audience perception of television animated cartoons as tool for political communication. The specific objectives of the study were: to find out the frequency of exposure to television animated cartoons between males and females; to find out the frequency of exposure to television animated cartoons ...

  2. 76 FR 68117 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission grants a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee, LLC... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  3. Aesthetic Surgery Reality Television Shows: Do they Influence Public Perception of the Scope of Plastic Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Araujo, Karin Milleni; Samartine Junior, Hugo; Denadai, Rodrigo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess the influence of aesthetic surgery "reality television" shows viewing on the public's perception of the scope of plastic surgery practice. Perceptions of the scope of plastic surgery (33 scenarios), aesthetic surgery "reality television" viewing patterns ("high," "moderate," or "low" familiarity, similarity, confidence, and influence viewers), sociodemographic data, and previous plastic surgery interaction were collected from 2148 members of the public. Response patterns were created and bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied to assess the possible determinants of overall public choice of plastic surgeons as experts in the plastic surgery-related scenarios. Both "plastic surgeons" and "plastic surgeons alone" were the main response patterns (all p television" viewing negatively influences the public perception of the broad scope of plastic surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  4. Examining the Link Between Television and Unhealthy Eating ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Examining the Link Between Television and Unhealthy Eating Among Children in Peru ... television exposure increases unhealthy eating among Peruvian children. ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  5. Conditioned to eat while watching television? Low-income caregivers' perspectives on the role of snacking and television viewing among pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Blake, Christine E; Orloski, Alexandria; Younginer, Nicholas; Bruton, Yasmeen; Ganter, Claudia; Rimm, Eric B; Geller, Alan C; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-06-01

    Although television (TV) viewing is frequently paired with snacking among young children, little is known about the environment in which caregivers promote this behaviour. We describe low-income pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing habits as reported by their primary caregivers, including social/physical snacking contexts, types of snacks and caregiver rationales for offering snacks. These findings may support the development of effective messages to promote healthy child snacking. Semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver conceptualizations of pre-schoolers' snacks, purpose of snacks, snack context and snack frequency. Interviews occurred in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Forty-seven low-income multi-ethnic primary caregivers of children aged 3-5 years (92 % female, 32 % Hispanic/Latino, 34 % African American) described their child's snacking in the context of TV viewing. TV viewing and child snacking themes were described consistently across racial/ethnic groups. Caregivers described snacks offered during TV viewing as largely unhealthy. Labels for TV snacks indicated non-nutritive purposes, such as 'time out', 'enjoyment' or 'quiet.' Caregivers' primary reasons for providing snacks included child's expectations, behaviour management (e.g. to occupy child) and social time (e.g. family bonding). Some caregivers used TV to distract picky children to eat more food. Child snacking and TV viewing were contextually paired by providing child-sized furniture ('TV table') specifically for snacking. Low-income caregivers facilitate pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing, which are described as routine, positive and useful for non-nutritive purposes. Messages to caregivers should encourage 'snack-free' TV viewing, healthy snack options and guidance for managing children's behaviour without snacks or TV.

  6. 76 FR 49697 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  7. 75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-395; MB Docket No. 10-19; RM-11589] Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  8. Regulating Children's Television Advertising: Reassessing Parental Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.

    In response to public concern over the effects of television commercials on children, the Federal Trade Commission formulated regulatory proposals that would ban certain advertising from children's television and regulate advertising intended for the eight year old to the eleven year old age group. However, in the light of two recent research…

  9. The Official Radio and Television Institute in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Anibal Arias

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Official School of Radio and Television which is designed to train university graduates in the fields of journalism, the sciences of cinema, radio and television, and advertising. (JY)

  10. Unsafe and violent behavior in commercials aired during televised major sporting events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburro, Robert F; Gordon, Patricia L; D'Apolito, James P; Howard, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of death in children, and media exposure seems to increase children's risk-taking behavior. Televised sports are commonly viewed by children. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of commercials that depict violence or other unsafe behavior during major televised sporting events that are aired before 9:00 pm. We obtained a list of the 50 sports programs that were most highly rated by Nielsen Media Research and that were televised between September 1, 2001, and September 1, 2002. These 50 programs included Winter Olympics events (n = 15), National Football League (NFL) regular season games (n = 14), NFL playoff games (n = 10), Major League Baseball World Series and playoff games (n = 7), the NFL Super Bowl (n = 1), the National Basketball Association Western Conference Final Game (n = 1), the College Football Rose Bowl (n = 1), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association Basketball Championship game (n = 1). Two other events were reviewed as well: the final round of the Masters Golf Championship, because it was the only sporting event rated in the top 50 of the previous year that was not represented by a similar sporting event in the study year, and the Daytona 500 National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing race, because it was the only event rated among the top 75 of the study year that was not represented by a similar event (ie, there were no other golfing or auto racing events reviewed). These events were included because different sporting events may attract different viewers and different advertisements; thus, their inclusion provides a more comprehensive evaluation of the topic. For sporting events with >3 programs in the top 50 (NFL regular season games, NFL playoff games, Winter Olympic events, and Major League Baseball World Series), representative samples of events were assessed. Surrogate events were analyzed for programs that were aired after 9:00 PM (Eastern Time) to control for the reduced

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...

  12. How Do We Write about Performance in Serial Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Logan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Television studies has produced few sustained analyses of performance in serial television. Yet film studies scholarship has shown how attending to the integration of performances with other aspects of film style is crucial to the interpretation and appreciation of expression and meaning in filmed narrative fictions. However, as a particle form of filmed serial narrative, series television raises a number of questions about performance that will not necessarily be satisfyingly addressed by the direct adoption and application of approaches to writing about performance that have been honed in regard to film. How, then, do we write about performance in television serials in ways that recognise and accommodate the form’s relationship to film, while at the same time appropriately acknowledging and responding to long-form television’s serial status? To examine the difficulties and opportunities of approaching performance in serial television this way, the article conducts close readings of various pieces of television studies writing on performance, by scholars such as Jason Mittell, Sue Turnbull, George Toles, and Steven Peacock. Their work brings into view film and television’s points of common relation, and the distinctive challenges, achievements, and rewards of appreciating the best television serials, and the performances in them.

  13. Impact of television advertising on children as consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Parihuzičová, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work is to determine the impact of television advertising on children as consumers. In this work I start from the basic characteristics and the psychological aspect of the advertising. The endeavor is to study the connection between children and television advertising and to examine, in which areas has the television advertising impact on child consumer. The research was done in Slovakia by written question-form. The informants were schoolchildren at the age of eight to...

  14. 47 CFR 73.9001 - Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Redistribution control of digital television... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9001 Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts. Licensees of TV broadcast stations may utilize the...

  15. Links between the Internet and Television under discussion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Radio and Television Broadcasting Society of the Canton of Geneva, the French-Swiss radio-listeners' and television-viewers' association, is organising a conference at CERN on Friday, 1st March 2002, entitled: 'The Internet and Television, the Future is Already Here!'. CERN's Robert Cailliau, Web pioneer, and Philippe Mottaz, head of Télévision Suisse Romande's 'i-tsr' division, will be hosting the conference, which will be followed by a debate. CERN members are invited to attend this conference, which will also be followed by a buffet. Those wishing to attend must register by calling 022 782 06 16 or sending a message to busset@freesurf.ch. 'The Internet and Television, the Future is Already Here!'. Friday, 1st March, 7.00 p.m. Council Chamber, Main Building (503)

  16. Gender and food television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines the importance of gender in the history of food television in an American/European context, by discussing the scientific literature on the topic. The analysis covers a period from the very first shows in the 1930s and 1940s, until 2016. It will be argued that despite...... feminine values” of nurturing and home management. However, this chapter brings out a series of examples in which these gendered models are negotiated and transgressed. This chapter, which draws on examples from the US, UK, and France, argues that the gendering of cooking shows should be understood...... in relation to other social categories, notably ethnicity and class. With this in mind, I conclude that food television not only reproduces hierarchies between men and women, but also between various kinds of masculinity and femininity....

  17. Television and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L

    1986-01-01

    This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained

  18. 47 CFR 73.603 - Numerical designation of television channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numerical designation of television channels... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.603 Numerical designation of television channels. (a) Channel No. Frequency band (MHz) 2 54-60 3 60-66 4 66-72 5 76-82 6 82-88 7 174-180 8...

  19. A TV camera system for digitizing single shot oscillograms at sweep rate of 0.1 ns/cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienlen, M.; Knispel, G.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.

    1976-01-01

    A TV camera digitizing system associated with a 5 GHz photocell-oscilloscope apparatus allows the digitizing of single shot oscillograms; with an oscilloscope sweep rate of 0.1 ns/cm an accuracy on time measurements of 4 ps is obtained [fr

  20. The depiction of protective eyewear use in popular television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Robert; Slade, Martin; Mayer, Hylton

    2011-04-01

    Media portrayal of health related activities may influence health related behaviors in adult and pediatric populations. This study characterizes the depiction of protective eyewear use in the scripted television programs most viewed by the age group that sustains the largest proportion of eye injuries. Viewership ratings data were acquired to assemble a list of the 24 most-watched scripted network broadcast programs for the 13-year-old to 45-year-old age group. The six highest average viewership programs that met the exclusion criteria were selected for analysis. Review of 30 episodes revealed a total of 258 exposure scenes in which an individual was engaged in an activity requiring eye protection (mean, 8.3 exposure scenes per episode; median, 5 exposure scenes per episode). Overall, 66 (26%) of exposure scenes depicted the use of any eye protection, while only 32 (12%) of exposure scenes depicted the use of adequate eye protection. No incidences of eye injuries or infectious exposures were depicted within the exposure scenes in the study set. The depiction of adequate protective eyewear use during eye-risk activities is rare in network scripted broadcast programs. Healthcare professionals and health advocacy groups should continue to work to improve public education about eye injury risks and prevention; these efforts could include working with the television industry to improve the accuracy of the depiction of eye injuries and the proper protective eyewear used for prevention of injuries in scripted programming. Future studies are needed to examine the relationship between media depiction of eye protection use and viewer compliance rates.

  1. Industry self regulation of television food advertising: responsible or responsive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lesley; Hebden, Lana; Grunseit, Anne; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Venugopal, Kamalesh

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the Australian Food and Grocery Council (AFGC) self-regulatory initiative on unhealthy food marketing to children, introduced in January 2009. The study compared patterns of food advertising by AFGC and non-AFGC signatory companies in 2009, 2007 and 2006 on three Sydney commercial free-to-air television channels. Data were collected across seven days in May 2006 and 2007, and four days in May 2009. Advertised foods were coded as core, non-core and miscellaneous. Regression for counts analyses was used to examine change in rates of advertisements across the sampled periods and differential change between AFGC-signatory or non-signatory companies between 2007 and 2009. Of 36 food companies that advertised during the 2009 sample period, 14 were AFGC signatories. The average number of food advertisements decreased significantly from 7.0 per hour in 2007 to 5.9 in 2009. There was a significant reduction in non-core food advertising from 2007 to 2009 by AFGC signatories compared with non-signatory companies overall and during peak times, when the largest numbers of children were viewing. There was no reduction in the rate of non-core food advertisements by all companies, and these advertisements continue to comprise the majority during peak viewing times. While some companies have responded to pressures to reduce unhealthy food advertising on television, the impact of the self-regulatory code is limited by the extent of uptake by food companies. The continued advertising of unhealthy foods indicates that this self-regulatory code does not adequately protect children.

  2. Children's Perceived Realism of Family Television Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Beth E.; And Others

    This study examined the influence of grade level, program content, and ethnic match between viewer and television characters on children's perceptions of the realism of families portrayed in television series. In the 1986-87 school year, a sample of 1,692 children in 2nd, 5th, and 10th grades completed a 13-item questionnaire measuring their…

  3. the television factor in vocabulary development among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This study investigated the influence of television viewing frequency on the performance in ... Language, but also in other content subjects. .... TABLE 1: One- way analysis of variance of the influence of frequency of television ... favourite movie.

  4. Teaching with Television: New Evidence Supports an Old Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linebarger, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    Television--public television, in particular--has come to be seen as a great educational resource for the home, but it hasn't been as widely embraced in the classroom. Thanks to a number of recent, large-scale research projects, it's time to put those concerns to rest. Not only does educational television have powerful effects on children's…

  5. CAPITALISM VS BUSINESS ETHICS IN INDONESIA’S TELEVISION BROADCASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra WIDYATAMA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, in every country, there is supervision of the television broadcasting system. In Indonesia, all television broadcasting is supervised by the Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia/KPI (Indonesian Broadcasting Commission. This commission oversees broadcast television, to ensure all TV broadcasts in Indonesia comply with government regulations. Often the KPI imposes sanctions, but frequent violations still occur. This article describes the results of research on the contradiction between business interests and ethics in the television industry in Indonesia. This study uses the method of evaluation research, where researchers analyze data, here in the form of sanctions documents released by broadcasting commissions. The results reveal that all national private television stations often violate regulations. They prioritize their business interests rather than follow broadcasting guidelines, especially since KPI does not have the full authority to grant and revoke a broadcasting license. The granting and revocation of permits remains under the authority of the government, where political lobbying plays a more significant role.

  6. The portrayal of Tourette Syndrome in film and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder-Sprackman, Samantha; Sutherland, Stephanie; Doja, Asif

    2014-03-01

    To determine the representation of Tourette Syndrome (TS) in fictional movies and television programs by investigating recurrent themes and depictions. Television and film can be a source of information and misinformation about medical disorders. Tourette Syndrome has received attention in the popular media, but no studies have been done on the accuracy of the depiction of the disorder. International internet movie databases were searched using the terms "Tourette's", "Tourette's Syndrome", and "tics" to generate all movies, shorts, and television programs featuring a character or scene with TS or a person imitating TS. Using a grounded theory approach, we identified the types of characters, tics, and co-morbidities depicted as well as the overall representation of TS. Thirty-seven television programs and films were reviewed dating from 1976 to 2010. Fictional movies and television shows gave overall misrepresentations of TS. Coprolalia was overrepresented as a tic manifestation, characters were depicted having autism spectrum disorder symptoms rather than TS, and physicians were portrayed as unsympathetic and only focusing on medical therapies. School and family relationships were frequently depicted as being negatively impacted by TS, leading to poor quality of life. Film and television are easily accessible resources for patients and the public that may influence their beliefs about TS. Physicians should be aware that TS is often inaccurately represented in television programs and film and acknowledge misrepresentations in order to counsel patients accordingly.

  7. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  8. Forensic fictions: science, television production, and modern storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, David A

    2013-03-01

    This essay uses interviews with television creators, writers, and producers to examine how media practitioners utilise, negotiate and transform forensic science in the production of televisual stories including the creation of unique visuals, character exploration, narrative progression, plot complication, thematic development, and adding a sense of authenticity. Television as a medium has its own structures and conventions, including adherence to a show's franchise, which put constraints on how stories are told. I demonstrate how television writers find forensic science to be an ideal tool in navigating television's narrative constraints by using forensics to create conflicts, new obstacles, potential solutions, and final solutions in their stories. I show how television writers utilise forensic science to provide the scientific certainty their characters require to catch the criminal, but also how uncertainty is introduced in a story through the interpretation of the forensics by the show's characters. I also argue that televisual storytellers maintain a flexible notion of scientific realism based on the notion of possibility that puts them at odds with scientists who take a more demanding conception of scientific accuracy based on the concept of probability. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Adolescents and Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Leo B.; Patrick, Helen

    1977-01-01

    Over 2,000 15-16 year old adolescents from central Scotland were surveyed to determine characteristics of high- vs. low-frequency television viewers. Personality characteristics, attitudes toward school and sports, and socioeconomic status were related to viewing habits. Sex of the viewer was found to be related to choice of programs. (GDC)

  10. Television production, Funding Models and Exploitation of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Doyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of digital platforms has transformative implications for strategies of financing media production and for exploitation of the economic value in creative content. In the television industry, changes in technologies for distribution and the emergence of SVOD services such as Netflix are gradually shifting audiences and financial power away from broadcasters while at the same time creating unprecedented opportunities for programme-makers.  Drawing on findings from recent RCUK-funded research, this article examines how these shifts are affecting production financing and the economics of supplying television content.  In particular, it focuses on how changes in the dynamics of rights markets and in strategic approaches towards the financing of television production might mean for markets, industries and for policies intended to support the economic sustainability of independent television content production businesses.

  11. Exposure of children and adolescents to alcohol advertising on television in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Matthew V; Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda J

    2008-09-01

    This article reports the extent to which children (0-12 years) and teenagers below the legal drinking age in Australia (13-17 years) were exposed to alcohol advertising on free-to-air television in Sydney, Australia, during the period from March 2005 to February 2006. Exposure levels were obtained from weekly Target Audience Rating Points (TARPs) data generated by OzTAM, the official Australian television audience monitoring system. (The TARPs figure for an advertisement is calculated based on the number of individuals from a target audience [e.g., 13- to 17-year-olds] exposed to the ad as a proportion of the total number of individuals within the target audience, multiplied by 100). Exposure levels were obtained for four age groups-up to 12 years, 13-17 years, 18-24 years, and 25 years and older-for 156 different ads for 50 brands. Adults 25 years and older were most exposed to alcohol advertising: approximately 660 TARPs per week. The level to which underage teenagers (13-17 years) were exposed to alcohol advertising was virtually identical to that of young adults (18-24 years): 426 TARPs per week vs 429 TARPs per week. Children (0-12 years) were exposed to approximately one in every three alcohol ads seen on average by mature adults (ages 25 years and older). This study found that Australian children and teenagers below the legal drinking age currently are exposed to unacceptably high levels of alcohol advertising on television. These findings suggest that alcohol marketers may be deliberately targeting underage adolescents. At the very least the findings highlight the need for action to be taken to reduce levels to which underage Australians are exposed to alcohol advertising on television.

  12. TV-anytime paving the way for personalized TV

    CERN Document Server

    Solla, Alberto Gil

    2013-01-01

    Television is a mature mass media with close to eight decades of regular broadcasts since its beginnings in Germany, the UK and the USA. Today, despite the spectacular growth of the Internet and social networks, television is still the leading medium for entertainment and information across the world, exerting an unparalleled influence on public opinion. Until recently television had undergone a rather slow evolution regarding the interaction with its users, yet this is beginning to change. The ongoing trend of digitalization has accelerated the process, and the computational capacity of telev

  13. Television exposure and overweight/obesity among women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuoyire, Derek Anamaale

    2018-01-01

    Although the public health importance of the association between television (TV) viewing and obesity and/or related outcomes have been demonstrated in both cross-sectional and prospective studies elsewhere, similar studies are lacking within the African region. With the view to fill this gap in the literature, the current study explored the association between TV exposure and overweight/obesity among Ghanaian women. Based on a sample of 4158 women, descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were applied to data on TV ownership, TV viewing frequency, and body mass index (BMI) measures from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) to explore the association between TV exposure and overweight/obesity among Ghanaian women. Despite controlling for other factors (age educational level, marital status, wealth quintile, occupation, type of locality, and parity), the results show that women with TV in their households, and with high TV exposure were significantly ( P  TV in their households, and no TV exposure. The study demonstrates that increased TV exposure is significantly associated with overweight/obesity among women in Ghana even after adjusting for other factors. Interventions aimed at tackling obesity in Ghana should focus on encouraging the uptake of more physically demanding pastime activities in place of TV "sit time".

  14. Nutritional content of food and beverage products in television advertisements seen on children's programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-12-01

    Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. TV ratings data for children 2-5 and 6-11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2-5 and 6-11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required.

  15. Television Sex Roles in the 1980s: Do Viewers' Sex and Sex Role Orientation Change the Picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrot, Faye H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the viewer perceptions of female and male television characters as a result of viewer sex and sex role orientation, based on the responses of 677 young adults to the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). Viewer gender had an impact on the rating of female characters. (FMW)

  16. 76 FR 33656 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-29; RM-11622, DA 11-949] Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  17. 76 FR 71909 - Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-137; RM-11637, DA 11-1863] Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  18. 76 FR 18497 - Television Broadcasting Services; Augusta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-54, RM-11624; DA 11-499] Television Broadcasting Services; Augusta, GA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division, Media...

  19. A pilot study on Trichomonas vaginalis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chih Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs shared similar risk factors, age distribution and overlapping symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV in women with recurrent UTIs, attending a urology clinic in a medical center, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. Methods: Women with recurrent UTIs, defined as the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency and urgency and three positive urine cultures on voided urine specimens in the previous year, were enrolled prospectively from January 2013 to April 2014. Urine samples were collected for culture and tested for TV using immunochromatographic strip. Outpatient follow-up was arranged to diagnose any symptomatic UTI recurrence. Results: Sixty-five women were recruited. Mean age was 57.4 ± 14.3 year-old and follow-up duration was 9.5 ± 4.0 months. The prevalence of TV was 16.9% (11/65. Eight women had UTI recurrence in the follow-up period. Recurrence rate did not differ in patients with and without concomitant TV infection. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of TV, we suggest that testing for TV should be considered in women with recurrent UTIs. Further larger studies are needed to evaluate the potential benefit of treating TV in this group of patients. Keywords: Prevalence, Trichomonas vaginalis, Urinary tract infection, Women

  20. Linked Data Methodologies for Managing Information about Television Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Redondo-García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OntoTV is a television information management system designed for improving the quality and quantity of the information available in the current television platforms. In order to achieve this objective, OntoTV (1 collects the information offered by the broadcasters, (2 integrates it into a ontology-based data structure, (3 extracts extra data from alternative television sources, and (4 makes possible for the user to perform queries over the stored information.This document shows the way Linked Data methodologies have been applied in OntoTV system, and the improvements in the data consumption and publication processes that have been obtained as result. On the one hand, the possibility of accessing to information available in the Web of Data has made possible to offer more complete descriptions about the programs, as well as more detailed guides than those obtained by using classic collection methods. On the other hand, as the information of the television programs and channels is published according to the Linked Data philosophy, it becomes available not only for OntoTV clients, but also for other agents able to access Linked Data resources, who could offer the viewer more fresh and innovative features.

  1. Prosocial effects of entertainment television in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W J

    1990-01-01

    The study examines the prosocial effects of Hum Log (We People), India's 1st long running television soap opera. Hum Log was a prosocial TV program that was designed to promote women's status in Indian society. Regression analysis was used to measure the degree to which exposure to Hum Log affected viewers' (1) awareness of certain prosocial beliefs promoted by the series, (2) level of TV dependency, (3) involvement with the characters of Hum Log, and (4) adherence to 3 prosocial beliefs promoted by Hum Log. Exposure to Hum Log was positively associated with viewer's awareness of the program's prosocial messages, TV dependency, and involvement with TV characters in the series. Viewers who were more exposed to Hum Log were also more likely to believe in women's equality and women's freedom of choice, but not in family planning. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of present and future research on the use of prosocial TV programs for development in Asia.

  2. ‘Remember, it’s just television’: Rubicon TV and the Commercialisation of Norwegian Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundet, Vilde Schanke; Bakøy, Eva

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article discusses the corporate strategy of one of the most successful television production companies in Norway: Rubicon TV. Based on a historical analysis from the company’s establishment in the early 1990s until today, the article illuminates how Rubicon TV has navigated in and

  3. Reality television predicts both positive and negative outcomes for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Salmond, Kimberlee; Modi, Kamla

    2013-06-01

    To assess the influence of media, specifically reality television, on adolescent behavior. A total of 1141 preteen and adolescent girls (age range 11-17) answered questions related to their reality television viewing, personality, self-esteem, relational aggression, appearance focus, and desire for fame. Our results indicated that the influence of reality television on adolescent behavior is complex and potentially related to the adolescents' intended uses and gratifications for using reality television. Reality television viewing was positively related to increased self-esteem and expectations of respect in dating relationships. However, watching reality television also was related to an increased focus on appearance and willingness to compromise other values for fame. Reality television viewing did not predict relational aggression. The potential influences of reality television use on adolescent girls are both positive and negative, defying easy categorization. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Google TV or Apple TV?—The Reasons for Smart TV Failure and a User-Centered Strategy for the Success of Smart TV

    OpenAIRE

    Jungwoo Shin; Yuri Park; Daeho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Traditional television (TV) has evolved into smart TV in terms of both hardware and software. However, compared with smart phones and tablet PCs, which are huge successes in the market, smart TV has grown more slowly than the market expected and has not really changed the TV market. In this study, we investigate reasons for the failure of smart TV from consumer perspectives. We use conjoint analysis to collect stated preference data from consumers. Our analysis consists of two parts: analyzin...

  5. Network television news coverage of environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, M.R.; Sandman, P.M.; Sachsman, D.V.; Salomone, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Despite the criticisms that surround television coverage of environmental risk, there have been relatively few attempts to measure what and whom television shows. Most research has focused analysis on a few weeks of coverage of major stories like the gas leak at Bhopal, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, or the Mount St. Helen's eruption. To advance the research into television coverage of environmental risk, an analysis has been made of all environmental risk coverage by the network nightly news broadcasts for a period of more than two years. Researchers have analyzed all environmental risk coverage-564 stories in 26 months-presented on ABC, CBS, and NBC's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986. The quantitative information from the 564 stories was balanced by a more qualitative analysis of the television coverage of two case studies-the dioxin contamination in Times Beach, Missouri, and the suspected methyl isocyanate emissions from the Union Carbide plant in Institute, West Virginia. Both qualitative and quantitative data contributed to the analysis of the role played by experts and environmental advocacy sources in coverage of environmental risk and to the suggestions for increasing that role

  6. Background television in the homes of American children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapierre, M.A.; Piotrowski, J.; Linebarger, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown the negative consequences associated with children’s exposure to background television. Despite this evidence, researchers do not have reliable estimates of the prevalence of background television in American homes. This study sought to address this gap by providing the first

  7. Television Judge Shows: Nordic and U.S. Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsdam, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Legal discourse is language that people use in a globalizing and multicultural society to negotiate acceptable behaviors and values. We see this played out in popular cultural forums such as judicial television dramas. In the American context, television judge shows are virtually synonymous...

  8. 76 FR 20248 - Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 10-264; RM-11615, DA 11-572] Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  9. The Influence of Television Advertising on Purchase Decision of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakara, Frisca Oktoviani

    2013-01-01

    Television advertising has become a new force capable of influencing the audience to do what the advertisers want, and teenagers are very promising target for producers. This study investigated the influence of television advertising on teenagers purchase decision in Manado. This research aims to analyze (1) what is the impact of television advertising (Brand Preference, Peer Group, and Pester Power) on teenagers purchase decision; (2) which impact of television advertising (Brand Preference,...

  10. Research on the Safe Broadcasting of Television Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing way of broadcasting and television monitoring has a lot of problems in China. On the basis of the signal technical indicators monitoring in the present broadcasting and television monitoring system, this paper further extends the function of the monitoring network in order to broaden the services of monitoring business and improve the effect and efficiency of monitoring work. The problem of identifying video content and channel in television and related electronic media is conquered at a low cost implementation way and the flexible technology mechanism. The coverage for video content and identification of the channel is expanded. The informative broadcast entries are generated after a series of video processing. The value of the numerous broadcast data is deeply excavated by using big data processing in order to realize a comprehensive, objective and accurate information monitoring for the safe broadcasting of television program.

  11. Necromarketing as Advertising Strategy in American Television

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton Amiee J.

    2016-01-01

    Significant research has been conducted regarding fear appeals, but little empirical evidence concerning death appeals is found. This study determined to what extent necromarketing exists in advertisements in American television. Through a content analysis of 1012 American television advertisements, this study found what product categories employ this marketing strategy and which consumer groups were targeted. Findings show that implicit necromarketing is a more commonly used marketing tactic...

  12. Influence of video compression on the measurement error of the television system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnik, A. V.; Yarishev, S. N.; Korotaev, V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Video data require a very large memory capacity. Optimal ratio quality / volume video encoding method is one of the most actual problem due to the urgent need to transfer large amounts of video over various networks. The technology of digital TV signal compression reduces the amount of data used for video stream representation. Video compression allows effective reduce the stream required for transmission and storage. It is important to take into account the uncertainties caused by compression of the video signal in the case of television measuring systems using. There are a lot digital compression methods. The aim of proposed work is research of video compression influence on the measurement error in television systems. Measurement error of the object parameter is the main characteristic of television measuring systems. Accuracy characterizes the difference between the measured value abd the actual parameter value. Errors caused by the optical system can be selected as a source of error in the television systems measurements. Method of the received video signal processing is also a source of error. Presence of error leads to large distortions in case of compression with constant data stream rate. Presence of errors increases the amount of data required to transmit or record an image frame in case of constant quality. The purpose of the intra-coding is reducing of the spatial redundancy within a frame (or field) of television image. This redundancy caused by the strong correlation between the elements of the image. It is possible to convert an array of image samples into a matrix of coefficients that are not correlated with each other, if one can find corresponding orthogonal transformation. It is possible to apply entropy coding to these uncorrelated coefficients and achieve a reduction in the digital stream. One can select such transformation that most of the matrix coefficients will be almost zero for typical images . Excluding these zero coefficients also

  13. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  14. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  15. DWPF remotable television and cell lighting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1984-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for radioactive waste vitrification at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is now under construction. Development of specialized low cost television (TV) viewing equipment for in-cell and within-melter applications is now complete. High resolution TV cameras not originally designed for high radiation environments have been demonstrated in crane remotable packages to be well suited to the DWPF. High intensity in-cell lighting has also been demonstrated in crane remotable assemblies. These dual 1000 W units (2000 W total) are used to support the multiplicity of TV and cell window viewing requirements. 8 figures

  16. Effects of reducing children's television and video game use on aggressive behavior: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T N; Wilde, M L; Navracruz, L C; Haydel, K F; Varady, A

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to aggression in the media and children's aggressive behavior is well documented. However, few potential solutions have been evaluated. To assess the effects of reducing television, videotape, and video game use on aggressive behavior and perceptions of a mean and scary world. Randomized, controlled, school-based trial. Two sociodemographically and scholastically matched public elementary schools in San Jose, Calif. Third- and fourth-grade students (mean age, 8.9 years) and their parents or guardians. Children in one elementary school received an 18-lesson, 6-month classroom curriculum to reduce television, videotape, and video game use. In September (preintervention) and April (postintervention) of a single school year, children rated their peers' aggressive behavior and reported their perceptions of the world as a mean and scary place. A 60% random sample of children were observed for physical and verbal aggression on the playground. Parents were interviewed by telephone and reported aggressive and delinquent behaviors on the child behavior checklist. The primary outcome measure was peer ratings of aggressive behavior. Compared with controls, children in the intervention group had statistically significant decreases in peer ratings of aggression (adjusted mean difference, -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.6 to -0.2; P =.03) and observed verbal aggression (adjusted mean difference, -0.10 act per minute per child; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.03; P =.01). Differences in observed physical aggression, parent reports of aggressive behavior, and perceptions of a mean and scary world were not statistically significant but favored the intervention group. An intervention to reduce television, videotape, and video game use decreases aggressive behavior in elementary schoolchildren. These findings support the causal influences of these media on aggression and the potential benefits of reducing children's media use.

  17. Relationship between parental estimate and an objective measure of child television watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemmich James N

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many young children have televisions in their bedrooms, which may influence the relationship between parental estimate and objective measures of child television usage/week. Parental estimates of child television time of eighty 4–7 year old children (6.0 ± 1.2 years at the 75th BMI percentile or greater (90.8 ± 6.8 BMI percentile were compared to an objective measure of television time obtained from TV Allowance™ devices attached to every television in the home over a three week period. Results showed that parents overestimate their child's television time compared to an objective measure when no television is present in the bedroom by 4 hours/week (25.4 ± 11.5 vs. 21.4 ± 9.1 in comparison to underestimating television time by over 3 hours/week (26.5 ± 17.2 vs. 29.8 ± 14.4 when the child has a television in their bedroom (p = 0.02. Children with a television in their bedroom spend more objectively measured hours in television time than children without a television in their bedroom (29.8 ± 14.2 versus 21.4 ± 9.1, p = 0.003. Research on child television watching should take into account television watching in bedrooms, since it may not be adequately assessed by parental estimates.

  18. 75 FR 28594 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number 84.295A] Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice inviting applications for new awards for... INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue...

  19. Background television in the homes of US children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapierre, M.A.; Piotrowski, J.; Linebarger, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: US parents were surveyed to determine the amount of background television that their children are exposed to as well as to isolate demographic factors associated with increased exposure to background television. After this, we ask how certain home media practices are linked to children’s

  20. Conceptualizing Culture as Commodity: The Problem of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Eileen R.

    1986-01-01

    Claims that most television research ignores the connections between its symbolic and economic influences. Argues for an integrated approach that views television as both a commodity and an artifact. Describes five analytical categories that researchers could use to provide information illuminating these relations to the public. (JD)

  1. Innovations in television field: transition to the digital television

    OpenAIRE

    Serzhuk Anastasia Volodymyrivna; Kozlova Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The article is about significance of innovations and innovative process. It is investigated that the development of the innovative activity acquires a great importance for management innovations at the enterprise; the pre-conditions of the innovative are determined and the innovative implementation to the telecommunication market are studied. The role of the digital television as a new type of broadcasting technology, where the transmission, processing and storage of t...

  2. 47 CFR 73.6012 - Protection of Class A TV, low power TV and TV translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... translator stations. 73.6012 Section 73.6012 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... of Class A TV, low power TV and TV translator stations. An application to change the facilities of an... power TV and TV translator stations and applications for changes in such stations filed prior to the...

  3. How Do We Write about Performance in Serial Television?

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott Logan

    2015-01-01

    Television studies has produced few sustained analyses of performance in serial television. Yet film studies scholarship has shown how attending to the integration of performances with other aspects of film style is crucial to the interpretation and appreciation of expression and meaning in filmed narrative fictions. However, as a particle form of filmed serial narrative, series television raises a number of questions about performance that will not necessarily be satisfyingly addressed by th...

  4. Content of Food Advertising for Young Adolescents on Television

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Setu; Kalra, Swati; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gupta, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food related advertisements on television may have a major influence on the dietary habits and obesity among young adolescents. Objective: To evaluate the frequency and typology of food advertisements on most popular television channels, watched by school-going young adolescents in Delhi. Methodology: Biphasic study to (a) identify the three television channels most frequently watched by administering a questionnaire to 400 school going young adolescents; and (b) view each of thes...

  5. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together...

  6. Watching television or listening to music while exercising failed to affect post-exercise food intake or energy expenditure in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livock, Holly; Barnes, Joel D; Pouliot, Catherine; LeBlanc, Allana G; Saunders, Travis J; Tremblay, Mark S; Prud'homme, Denis; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-08-01

    Watching television or listening to music while exercising can serve as motivating factors, making it more pleasant to exercise for some people. However, it is unknown whether these stimuli influence food intake and/or physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) for the remainder of the day, potentially impacting energy balance and weight control. We examined the effects of watching television or listening to music while exercising on post-exercise energy intake and expenditure. Our study was a randomized crossover design, in which 24 male adolescents (mean age: 14.9 ± 1.1 years) completed three 30-min experimental conditions consisting of walking/jogging on a treadmill at 60% of heart rate reserve while (1) watching television; (2) listening to music; or (3) exercising with no other stimulus (control). An ad libitum lunch was offered immediately after the experimental conditions, and a dietary record was used to assess food intake for the remainder of the day. An Actical accelerometer was used to estimate PAEE until bedtime. The primary outcome measure was post-exercise energy intake and expenditure (kJ). We found that exercising while watching television or listening to music did not significantly affect post-exercise energy intake or energy expenditure. Exercising on a treadmill was found to be significantly more enjoyable while watching television than with no stimulus present. Ratings of perceived exertion were not significantly different between conditions. Overall, our results suggest that watching television or listening to music while exercising does not impact post-exercise energy intake or expenditure in male adolescents, which may have positive implications for adolescents who may need additional motivation to participate in physical activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 75 FR 16763 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number 84.295A] Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice inviting applications for new awards for... FR 13515) a notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television...

  8. 75 FR 18170 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number 84.295A] Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice inviting applications for new awards for... FR 13515) a notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television...

  9. Characteristics associated with older adolescents who have a television in their bedrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; van den Berg, Patricia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    The goals were to examine the prevalence of adolescents having a television in their bedroom and to describe associated personal, social, and behavioral characteristics. Participants included 781 adolescents (mean age: 17.2 years) who completed a mailed Project Eating Among Teens II questionnaire. The relationships between adolescents having a television in their bedroom and sociodemographic, behavioral, and personal characteristics were examined. Nearly two thirds (62%) of participants had a bedroom television. Gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and age were associated with the presence of a bedroom television. Compared with girls without a bedroom television, girls with a bedroom television reported less time spent in vigorous activity (1.8 vs 2.5 hours/week), more time spent watching television (20.7 vs 15.2 hours/week), lower vegetable intake (1.7 vs 2.0 servings per day), greater sweetened beverage consumption (1.2 vs 1.0 servings per day), and fewer family meals (2.9 vs 3.7 meals per week). Compared with boys without a bedroom television, boys with a bedroom television reported more time spent watching television (22.2 vs 18.2 hours/week), lower fruit intake (1.7 vs 2.2 servings per day), fewer family meals (2.9 vs 3.6 meals per week), and lower grade point average (2.6 vs 2.9). Twice as many youths with a television in their bedroom were heavy television users (watched >5 hours/day), compared with youths without a television in their bedroom (16% vs 8%). Adolescents with a bedroom television reported more television viewing time, less physical activity, poorer dietary habits, fewer family meals, and poorer school performance. Refraining from placing a television in teenagers' rooms may be a first step in helping to decrease screen time and subsequent poor behaviors associated with increased television watching.

  10. Unhealthy food and non-alcoholic beverage advertising on children's, youth and family free-to-air and digital television programmes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaichuen, Nongnuch; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Kelly, Bridget; Vongmongkol, Vuthiphan; Phulkerd, Sirinya; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2018-06-15

    Food advertising is a key factor which influences children's food preferences. This study assessed the rates, nutritional quality and contents of food and beverage advertising in children's, youth and family television programmes in Thailand. Free TV was recorded for two weeks in March 2014 from six to ten am and three to eight pm on weekends and three to eight pm on weekdays across all four channels; a total of 344 h recorded. Digital TV was recorded across three channels for one week for 24 h per day in October 2014; a total 504 h recorded. For Free TV, 1359 food advertisements were identified, with on average 2.9 non-core food advertisements per hour per channel. The most frequently advertised food products on free TV were sugar-sweetened drinks. The rates of advertisements containing promotional characters and premium offers were significantly higher for non-core than core foods, 1.2 versus 0.03 and 0.6 versus 0.0 per hour respectively. For Digital TV, 693 food advertisements were identified, with an average of one non-core food advertisement per hour per channel. The most frequently advertised food products on digital TV were baby and toddler milk formulae. Food and beverage advertising on Thai television is predominantly unhealthy. Therefore, the Government and related agencies should introduce and enforce policies to address this issue. Current regulations should be adapted to control both the frequency and nature of unhealthy on-air food marketing to protect the health of Thai children.

  11. Empire: New Mexico's First Television Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-14

    In recent years, New Mexico has hosted television and motion picture film crews working on both famous and not-so-famous productions. Perhaps the most famous of these productions was the television hit Breaking Bad. Perhaps the least famous production, which almost certainly no one remembers, is the 1962-1963 television series Empire. Empire was an hour long western that chronicled the lives of 1960s ranchers in New Mexico. The series starred Richard Egan, Ryan O’Neal, Denver Pyle, and Charles Bronson. Guest stars included Robert Vaughn (The Man from Uncle), Inger Stevens (The Farmer’s Daughter), Robert Culp (I Spy), and Telly Savalas (Kojak).

  12. Efficiency analysis on platform over the top (OTT) to deploy content and applications (edutainment) in digital television on optical network link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, William S.; Sierra, Javier E.; Moreno, Gustavo A.

    2014-08-01

    The convergence of new technologies in the digital world has made devices with internet connectivity such as televisions, smatphone, Tablet, Blu-ray, game consoles, among others, to increase more and more. Therefore the major research centers are in the task of improving the network performance to mitigate the bottle neck phenomenon regarding capacity and high transmission rates in information and data. The implementation of standard HbbTV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV), and technological platforms OTT (Over the Top), capable of distributing video, audio, TV, and other Internet services via devices connected directly to the cloud. Therefore a model to improve the transmission capacity required by content distribution networks (CDN) for online TV, with high-capacity optical networks is proposed.

  13. Television and the Developing Imagination of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    1981-01-01

    The literature review discusses studies which have been conducted to determine whether television enriches a child's imagination or leads to distortions of reality, and whether adult mediation during a child's television viewing or immediately after can evoke constructive changes or stimulate make-believe play. Thirty-six references are cited.…

  14. Internet for Educational Television: An Opportunity or Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Among several uses, educational use of television is a prominent one. The public broadcasters of many countries routinely provide locally-relevant and useful educational television programs. In other side, there has been phenomenal growth in Internet use worldwide. The researchers are of the view that Internet has challenged the supremacy of…

  15. Batswana audience and the Thokolosi television drama controversy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In February 2006, Botswana Television (BTV) screened a commissioned television drama series entitled Thokolosi. This drama series, which deals with witchcraft, is set in a. Botswana village called Bobonong. The contents of the drama series in relation to the village attracted criticisms from the public, which culminated in a ...

  16. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Children's Television Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, Ali Reza

    1988-01-01

    Describes a 1981 study that compared uses of U.S. television by foreign children residing in the United States and American children in light of theories of acculturation, cultivation, and uses and gratifications. Children's television viewing is discussed, research methodology is described, and results are analyzed. (22 references) (Author/LRW)

  17. Television viewing and physical activity among Latino children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watching television and using other forms of media such as video games, computers, print, music and movies takes up a surprisingly large amount of our children’s time. U.S. children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleep. According to a recent nationwide report on c...

  18. 76 FR 19275 - Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-8; RM-11618, DA 11-516] Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal...

  19. Process Concepts for Semi-automatic Dismantling of LCD Televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in tu...

  20. A stereoscopic television system for reactor inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, D.B.; Jones, A.

    1980-03-01

    A stereoscopic television system suitable for reactor inspection has been developed. Right and left eye views, obtained from two conventional black and white cameras, are displayed by the anaglyph technique and observers wear appropriately coloured viewing spectacles. All camera functions, such as zoom, focus and toe-in are remotely controlled. A laboratory experiment is described which demonstrates the increase in spatial awareness afforded by the use of stereo television and illustrates its potential in the supervision of remote handling tasks. Typical depth resolutions of 3mm at 1m and 10mm at 2m have been achieved with the reactor instrument. Trials undertaken during routine inspection at Oldbury Power Station in June 1978 are described. They demonstrate that stereoscopic television can indeed improve the convenience of remote handling and that the added display realism is beneficial in visual inspection. (author)

  1. Cable Television 1980: Status and Prospect for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, F., Ed.

    Baseline information for the would-be cable television educational programer is provided by two papers, one an overview of the state of the cable television industry, and the other a report on a marketing study conducted to determine consumer attitudes toward cable TV as an educational medium. In "The Promise and Reality of Cable…

  2. Children's understanding of television advertising: a revisit in the Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U

    2004-03-01

    The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the authors interviewed were able to understand that television stations broadcast commercials to earn money. Their understanding of the purposes of television commercials and the persuasive intention of television commercials developed with age. The authors examined the influence of gender, level of advertising, and level of television viewing on children's understanding of television advertising by using 3-way factorial models.

  3. Television Programming for Children: A Report of the Children's Television Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Susan C.; And Others

    These two volumes of a 5-volume report on commercial broadcaster compliance with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 1974 policies on programming and advertising to children provide an overall analysis of children's television, as well as a detailed analysis of broadcast industry compliance. The first volume reviews the social, cognitive,…

  4. Food appearances in children's television programmes in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Berg, Christina

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to advertisements cannot fully explain the associations between young children's dietary intake and the time they spend in front of the television. It is therefore of importance to study television content other than advertisements in this aspect. The present study aimed to examine the nature and extent of verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages in children's television programmes on Icelandic public service television. A total of 27 h of children's programmes (domestic and internationally produced) were watched. All verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages were coded, as well as the context in which the foods/beverages were discussed or appeared. Children's programmes on Icelandic public service television. Two food groups were of special interest for their importance from a public health perspective: high-calorie and low-nutrient (HCLN) foods and fruits and vegetables (F&V). The χ 2 test and logistic regression were performed to analyse if the occurrence of the two groups was associated with the context where foods/beverages appeared. Of the 125 different programmes, a food or beverage appeared in 86 %. Of the total food appearances (n 599), HCLN foods accounted for 26 % and F&V for 23 %. HCLN foods were presented as desirable by appearing more frequently with child characters (Pfood and eating is presented in children's programmes, as young childhood is a critical period for founding healthy habits for later life.

  5. Progress Report of the Schools Television Research Project--III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelfield, Graeme

    1969-01-01

    "This concluding article provides the first published account of a series of psychological experiments which are presently being undertaken by the Schools Television Research Project, examining presentation factors in instructional television. (Editor)

  6. Television and video game exposure and the development of attention problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swing, Edward L; Gentile, Douglas A; Anderson, Craig A; Walsh, David A

    2010-08-01

    Television viewing has been associated with greater subsequent attention problems in children. Few studies have examined the possibility of a similar association between video games and attention problems, and none of these has used a longitudinal design. A sample of 1323 middle childhood participants were assessed during a 13-month period by parent- and child-reported television and video game exposure as well as teacher-reported attention problems. Another sample of 210 late adolescent/early adult participants provided self-reports of television exposure, video game exposure, and attention problems. Exposure to television and video games was associated with greater attention problems. The association of television and video games to attention problems in the middle childhood sample remained significant when earlier attention problems and gender were statistically controlled. The associations of screen media and attention problems were similar across media type (television or video games) and age (middle childhood or late adolescent/early adult). Viewing television and playing video games each are associated with increased subsequent attention problems in childhood. It seems that a similar association among television, video games, and attention problems exists in late adolescence and early adulthood. Research on potential risk factors for attention problems should be expanded to include video games in addition to television.

  7. Just Images. Television News Coverage of High-Profile Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trossman, Mindy S.

    This guide describes "Just Images" a series of television programs and exhibitions that offers a public forum for analyzing television's influential portrayals of trials, lawyers, and the legal system. Contending that television portrayals of high-profile trials has altered the public's perception of law and the role of lawyers in the legal…

  8. Fetishism or Ideology? A Contribution to the Political Economy of Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Yuran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The dominant approach to the political economy of television argues that television produces "audience commodity" which is sold to advertisers. It situates the economic effects of television in the sphere of subjects and subjectivity. This article presents a different approach, according to which television produces objects. Television advertising produces brands as economic objects possessing qualities that material goods cannot provide. For that purpose, it changes the basis of a critical study of television form ideology, which is primarily an epistemological category, to the ontological category of fetishism. This change entails a shift in the topology of critique of the visual image. Instead of seeing images as inverted representations of reality, in fetishism, according to Marx, things “appear as what they are”. The article argues that broadcast television is the distinctive fetishistic visual medium, in both the Marxian and the psychoanalytic senses of the term.

  9. Television for Children in Japan: Trends and Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi

    In Japan, the production and broadcasting of television (TV) programs for children began in 1953. After the first few years of trial and error, children's programs gradually rose in popularity with the introduction of TV animation, dramas, special-effects photography, music/variety and quiz shows, comedies, and action dramas. Since the inception…

  10. Evaluation of high-definition television for remote task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Fujita, Y.; Herndon, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution TV) of horizontal scan lines that standard-resolution TV provides. The improvement in picture quality (compared to standard-resolution TV) that the extra scan lines provide is impressive. Objects in the HDTV picture have more sharply defined edges, better contrast, and more accurate reproduction of shading and color patterns than do those in the standard-resolution TV picture. Because the TV viewing system is a key component for teleoperator performance, an improvement in TV picture quality could mean an improvement in the speed and accuracy with which teleoperators perform tasks. This report describes three experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The performance of HDTV was compared to that of standard-resolution, monochromatic TV and standard-resolution, stereoscopic, monochromatic TV in the context of judgment of depth in a televised scene, visual inspection of an object, and performance of a typical remote handling task. The results of the three experiments show that in some areas HDTV can lead to improvement in teleoperator performance. Observers inspecting a small object for a flaw were more accurate with HDTV than with either of the standard-resolution systems. High resolution is critical for detection of small-scale flaws of the type in the experiment (a scratch on a glass bottle). These experiments provided an evaluation of HDTV television for use in tasks that must be routinely performed to remotely maintain a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. 5 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Trends in US newspaper and television coverage of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David E; Pederson, Linda L; Mowery, Paul; Bailey, Sarah; Sevilimedu, Varadan; London, Joel; Babb, Stephen; Pechacek, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The news media plays an important role in agenda setting and framing of stories about tobacco control. The purpose of this study was to examine newspaper, newswire and television coverage of tobacco issues in the USA over a 7-year period. Analyses of 2004-2010 news media surveillance system data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health, based on content analysis and quantitative methods. Information on extent of news coverage, and types of tobacco-related themes, were examined from articles in 10 newspapers and 2 major newswires, as well as transcripts from 6 national television networks. The overall extent of newspaper, newswire and television stories about tobacco, and level of coverage by specific media outlets, varied over time, especially for newspapers. Nevertheless, there was an average of 3 newspaper stories, 4 newswire stories, and 1 television tobacco-related story each day. Television stories were more likely to contain cessation/addiction or health effects/statistics themes and less likely to contain secondhand smoke or policy/regulation themes than newspaper/newswire stories. There was more variation in the choice of tobacco theme among individual newspapers/newswires than television media outlets. News coverage of tobacco in the USA was relatively constant from 2004 to 2010. Audiences were more likely to be exposed to different tobacco themes in newspapers/newswires than on television. Tracking information about tobacco news stories can be used by advocates, programs and others for planning and evaluation, and by researchers for hypothesis generation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Nutritional Content of Food and Beverage Products in Television Advertisements Seen on Children's Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. Methods: TV ratings data for children 2–5 and 6–11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. Results: A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2–5 and 6–11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Conclusions: Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required. PMID:24206260

  13. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    abstractIn this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’

  14. Underwater television camera for monitoring inner side of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Kazuhiko.

    1997-01-01

    An underwater television support device equipped with a rotatable and vertically movable underwater television camera and an underwater television camera controlling device for monitoring images of the inside of the reactor core photographed by the underwater television camera to control the position of the underwater television camera and the underwater light are disposed on an upper lattice plate of a reactor pressure vessel. Both of them are electrically connected with each other by way of a cable to rapidly observe the inside of the reactor core by the underwater television camera. The reproducibility is extremely satisfactory by efficiently concentrating the position of the camera and image information upon inspection and observation. As a result, the steps for periodical inspection can be reduced to shorten the days for the periodical inspection. Since there is no requirement to withdraw fuel assemblies over a wide reactor core region, and the device can be used with the fuel assemblies being left as they are in the reactor, it is suitable for inspection of detectors for nuclear instrumentation. (N.H.)

  15. WHO OWNS THE BROADCASTING TELEVISION NETWORK BUSINESS IN INDONESIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra WIDYATAMA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting TV occupies a significant position in the community. Therefore, all the countries in the world give attention to TV broadcasting business. In Indonesia, the government requires TV stations to broadcast locally, except through networking. In this state, there are 763 private TV companies broadcasting free to air. Of these, some companies have many TV stations and build various broadcasting networks. In this article, the author reveals the substantial TV stations that control the market, based on literature studies. From the data analysis, there are 14 substantial free to network broadcast private TV broadcasters but owns by eight companies; these include the MNC Group, EMTEK, Viva Media Asia, CTCorp, Media Indonesia, Rajawali Corpora, and Indigo Multimedia. All TV stations are from Jakarta, which broadcasts in 22 to 32 Indonesian provinces.

  16. Sensation seeking, gender and programme preferences in televised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport has emerged as one of the major media events of our time of such magnitude that it is no more possible to distinguish between the phenomena of television and sport. The purpose of this study is to determine the relations between sensation seeking, gender and preferences in viewing televised sport. The reason ...

  17. Research on School Television in Japan, 1953-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takashiro

    Published on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the school television broadcasting industry in Japan, this document reviews and summarizes the results of past research on the Japanese school television system and considers its future direction. After a brief introduction, the document is divided into six sections: (1) a prehistory of school…

  18. 29 CFR 793.16 - “Radio or television station.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âRadio or television station.â 793.16 Section 793.16 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTION OF CERTAIN RADIO AND TELEVISION... Requirements for Exemption § 793.16 “Radio or television station.” The employee must be employed by a “radio or...

  19. Public Relations Applications in Librarianship and Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Yılmaz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Public relations is an indispensable management function for an organization to reach its target audiences so as to serve them better and, at the same time, to upgrade its status in society as an organization. Television, as mass communication medium, is used effectively in public relations in librarianship. Researches showed that planned public relations is not utilized in the field of librarianship in our country, and television is not made use of for this purpose.

  20. Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: probing exposure to television marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Hernández-Torres, Juan José; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; López, Juan Carlos; Macías, Victoria; Campoy, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutrient dense, low energy), non-core (NCFA) (unbalanced energy profile or high in energy), or others (OFA) (supermarkets and special food). One thousand two hundred sixty-three food advertisements were recorded (TC: 579/GC: 684) in 2013. NCFA were the most shown (54.9%) in the regular full day TV programming (p fast food advertisements than when watching TC (RR = 2.133, 95% CI: 1.398-3.255); CFA were broadcast most frequently in 2013 (GC: 23.7%; and TC: 47.2%) vs. 2007 (TC: 22.9%) (p food advertisements in children's peak time slots was higher on TC (203/162) during 2013 than on GC (189/140), and significantly higher than that shown on TC in 2007 (180/36, p food advertising on TC is lower today than six years ago; but, children's exposure to TV advertising of unhealthy food is worrying in Spain, and there is more exposure to unhealthy than healthy food by TV. Watching GC in 2013 had higher risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than watching TC.

  1. Iranian Television Advertisement and Children's Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadehoghaz, Masoomeh; Amini, Maryam; Abdollahi, Afsoun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the nature of food commercials in children's television (TV) was monitored and analyzed; simultaneously, the relationship between recalling TV food commercials and children's interest in them and in the consumption of the same food products was evaluated. A total of 108 h children's programs broadcast on two channels (Two and Amouzesh) of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) media organization were monitored (May 6-12, 2015). Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study using 403 primary schoolchildren (201 boys) in four schools of Shirvan, Northeast of Iran, was executed. The children were prompted to recall all TV commercials broadcast on IRIB. Meanwhile, they were directed to define in the list of recalled TV food commercials those were interested in and the commercials (food products) they actually were willing to consume. Regarding the frequency and duration of broadcasting, food commercials ranked fifth and sixth, respectively. Fruit leather and plum paste were the most frequently broadcast food commercials. "High quality" (19%), "good taste" (15%), "novelty", and "message on nutritional composition" (13%) were the most frequent messages used in promoting the sale of food products, respectively. In addition, focus on "high quality/precision in the preparation of the food products" was the most frequently used appeals in TV commercials. There was a significant relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in five out of eight of the commercials (62.5%) ( P TV food commercials and the interest in the consumption of the same food product ("Tomato paste B") was statistically significant for 12.5% of the commercials ( P TV food commercials do not encourage healthy eating. The current study provides convincing evidence for policy-makers and researchers to pay more attention to this area.

  2. Television food advertising to children in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Daniel; Reiff, Sascha; Knai, Cecile; Gauci, Charmaine; Spiteri, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    To undertake a cross-sectional survey of the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising to children on Maltese national television stations. Seven national free-to-air channels were recorded for seven consecutive days in March 2014 between 07:00 and 22:00 h. Advertisements were coded according to predefined categories, with a focus on advertisements aired during 'peak' children's viewing times, defined as periods during which more than 25% of children were likely to be watching television on any channel. Food and beverage advertisements were classified as core (healthy), non-core (unhealthy) or miscellaneous foods. Malta. Whole population, with a focus on children. Food and drinks were the most heavily advertised product category (26.9% of all advertisements) across all channels. The proportion of non-core food/drink advertisements was significantly greater during peak compared with non-peak children's viewing times (52 vs 44.6%; p ≤ 0.001). A majority of advertisements aimed at children are for non-core foods, and are typically shown during family-oriented programmes in the late evening rather than being restricted to children's programmes. 'Taste', 'enjoyment' and 'peer status' were the primary persuasive appeals used in adolescent and child-focused advertisements. This first content analysis of television advertising in Malta suggests that there is scope for the implementation of statutory regulation regarding advertising of foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) during times when children are likely to watch television, rather than during children's programmes only. Ongoing, systematic monitoring is essential for evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations designed to reduce children's exposure to HFSS food advertising on television. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Unhealthy food advertising directed to children on New Zealand television: extent, nature, impact and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Soupen, Alanna; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-12-01

    To comprehensively assess the extent, nature and impact of unhealthy food advertising targeted to children on New Zealand television. Four weekdays and four weekend days were randomly selected over the period June-August 2015. Programming was recorded from 06.00 to 00.00 hours (midnight), for a total of 432 h. Audience ratings were used to identify children's peak viewing times. New Zealand. The three major free-to-air channels. The majority of foods advertised (n 1807) were unhealthy; 68·5 % of food advertisements included at least one food not permitted to be marketed to children according to the WHO nutrient profiling model. The mean hourly rate of unhealthy food advertising was 9·1 (sd 5·2). One-third of unhealthy food advertisements included a promotional character and one-third a premium offer. About 88 % of unhealthy food advertisements were shown during children's peak viewing times. If unhealthy food advertisements were to be restricted during times when at least 25 % of children are watching television, this would reduce the average unhealthy food advertising impact by 24 % during weekdays and 50 % during weekend days, and if the WHO instead of the current nutrient profiling model were used to restrict unhealthy food advertising to children, the average impact would be reduced by 24 % during weekdays and 29 % during weekend days. Current self-regulation is ineffective in protecting children from exposure to unhealthy food advertising on television. The WHO nutrient profiling model needs to be used to restrict unhealthy food advertising, especially during children's peak viewing times.

  4. Television viewing and food consumption in Flemish adolescents in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine Anna; Maes, Lea

    2006-01-01

    To examine associations of television viewing with overall food consumption A computerised 24-hour dietary recall and a questionnaire were completed by 1031 adolescents (+/- 12-14 years of age). Those who generally watched more television were more likely to consume frequently advertised items such as soft drinks and snacks. Not all frequently advertised food items (e.g. cereals) were associated with television viewing. An inverse association was found with fruit, water and milk. A negative association was found with brown bread; a positive association was found with white bread. The results indicate that high television viewing and a less nutrient dense food pattern are part of a lifestyle influenced by common underlying factors. Nutrition interventions aimed at improving adolescents' food habits should target high television-viewers. Our findings underline the importance of tackling socio-demographic differences.

  5. Television: the Community Hearth for the College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael J.; Sapp, Aimee

    A study examined how college students watch television: Are there gender differences in how students watch? Is watching a form of socialization or a means of escape and diversion? Is there a relationship between students' GPA and the number of hours they spend watching television? Subjects were 379 full-time undergraduates--half of whom were male…

  6. Use of television, videogames, and computer among children and adolescents in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, Alessandro; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Albano, Luciana; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2009-05-13

    This survey determined the practices about television (video inclusive), videogames, and computer use in children and adolescents in Italy. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire covered socio-demographics; behaviour about television, videogames, computer, and sports; parental control over television, videogames, and computer. Overall, 54.1% and 61% always ate lunch or dinner in front of the television, 89.5% had a television in the bedroom while 52.5% of them always watched television there, and 49% indicated that parents controlled the content of what was watched on television. The overall mean length of time daily spent on television viewing (2.8 hours) and the frequency of watching for at least two hours per day (74.9%) were significantly associated with older age, always ate lunch or dinner while watching television, spent more time playing videogames and using computer. Those with parents from a lower socio-economic level were also more likely to spend more minutes viewing television. Two-thirds played videogames for 1.6 daily hours and more time was spent by those younger, males, with parents that do not control them, who watched more television, and who spent more time at the computer. The computer was used by 85% of the sample for 1.6 daily hours and those older, with a computer in the bedroom, with a higher number of computers in home, who view more television and play videogames were more likely to use the computer. Immediate and comprehensive actions are needed in order to diminish time spent at the television, videogames, and computer.

  7. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús María

    2014-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with a progressive course that affects the corticospinal and spinal cord motor neurons, the main manifestations of which are muscular weakness, amyotrophy and hyperreflexia. It has an incidence of 0.4-2.4 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year, and a prevalence of 4-6 cases/100,000 inhabitants. It is more frequent in adult males over 50 years of age. A number of different neurological diseases have been portrayed in literature, cinema and television, including ALS, which has been presented correctly and realistically. To analysis how literature, cinema and television have addressed ALS. Several different literary works have dealt with ALS, such as El desencuentro, Lou Gehrig: the luckiest man or Tuesdays with Morrie; the cinema has also depicted this disease in films such as The pride of the Yankees, My love beside me (closer to Heaven) or Right to die; and on television this disease has been shown in series, documentaries and television films, such as: Tuesdays with Morrie, Jenifer or A love affair: the Eleanor and Lou Gehrig Story. Most of the works are of a biographical and testimonial nature, and portray the disease realistically, with the intention of making ALS more widely known and raising the population's awareness about the condition. Literature, cinema and television have portrayed ALS in a realistic and believable manner, unlike some other diseases of a neurological origin.

  8. Football on television: technological evolution and entertainment language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor José Siquieri Savenhago

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first broadcast of a World Cup footballon television, to Brazil was in 1970, via Embratel. Before that, the people followed the games of the Brazilian team on the radio. Gradually, the owners of television networks realized that football could generate good financial results, with the exposing of advertisements during the broadcasts, similar to what was already done on the radio. Thus, the television, focused on the growth of audience and number of advertisers, covered football with a language of entertainment. The narration of the matches, in which the figure of the narrator is more like that of an entertainer, and improvement of the transmission technologies that improve the image quality every day, take away from football the characteristic of being just a sport to occupy the place of an entertainment. In this context, the sport becomes an article of purchase and sale. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how this entertainment language was made up on Brazilian television, based on the broadcast sports, especially football, and like the television, which represented a technological leapin the country over the radio, assumed of the sport, country’s most popular as a commodity, interfering with the dynamics of Brazilian society. Finally, an attempt to understand how the researches that allow a technological development change behaviors and vice versa, that is, how the demands of society lead to a race to develop new technologies.

  9. Television violence--reactions from physicians, advertisers and the networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, M; Johnson, G T

    1977-02-24

    In response to our call for letters on television violence we received more than 1500 letters from readers of the Journal. Seventy-two per cent of the leading television advertisers responded to a subsequent letter requesting a description of their policies regarding content of the programs they sponsor. Their responses included exculpating factors such as lack of control over programming, the limited amount of available advertising time and censorship. We presented these responses to network representatives. They commented on the difficulty in defining violence, the current decrease in the amount of violence shown and their activities in response to this issue. We maintain that the burden of proof that television violence does not harm lies with those who introduce it into society. Advertisers and networks will respond, we believe, to the problem of television violence if continuous public pressure is maintained.

  10. Study of the precision guided communication of digital television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lun

    2012-04-01

    Along with the progress and development of the digital technology, there produced the transmission of the new media by medium of such as the network, mobile phones and the digital television, while among them digital TV has the superiority of other media. The appearance and development of digital TV will induce a profound change in the broadcasting and television industry chain. This paper started with discussing the transformation of digital television in profit model, mode of operation and mode of transmission to construct the precision-guided communication theory; And then analyzes the properties and marketing nature of the precision-guided communication to make the construction of the precision-guided communication marketing mode; And put forward the implementing of the precision-guided communication marketing strategies and concrete steps; At the end of the article the author summarized four conclusions.

  11. Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide : ‘Living’ History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, Berber

    2017-01-01

    Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide: “Living” History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform Berber Hagedoorn University of Groningen (NL) E-mail: b.hagedoorn@rug.nl Abstract: Modern audiences engage with representations of the past in a particular way via the medium of television,

  12. Television viewing associates with delayed language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Pruksananonda, Chandhita

    2008-07-01

    To identify impact of television viewing on language development. The case-control study included 56 new patients with language delay and 110 normal children, aged 15-48 months. Language delay was diagnosed by reviewing language milestones and Denver-II. Television viewing variables and child/parental characteristics between both groups were interviewed. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square test. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from multivariate logistic regression model. Forty-six boys and 10 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.11+/-0.47 years of the case group and 59 boys and 51 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.23+/-0.80 years of the control group were enrolled. Children who had language delay usually started watching television earlier at age 7.22+/-5.52 months vs. 11.92+/-5.86 months, p-valuetelevision than normal children (3.05+/-1.90 h/day vs. 1.85+/-1.18 h/day; p-valuetelevision attelevision>2 h/day were approximately six times more likely to have language delays. There is a relationship between early onset and high frequency of TV viewing and language delay.

  13. Factors that affect television viewing time in preschool and primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songül Yalçin, Siddika; Tugrul, Belma; Naçar, NazIre; Tuncer, Murat; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2002-12-01

    Excessive viewing of television (TV) has been linked to aggressive behavior, violence and childhood obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted among preschool children and primary schoolchildren in Ankara during March and April 1999 to detect the factors that affect TV viewing time and to evaluate their parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to TV. The parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire about TV habits of their family, the number and location of TVs in the household and the effect of TV on children. Of 400 questionnaires, 350 answered the questions appropriately for this study. Children were divided into two groups, preschool children and primary schoolchildren. Television viewing time was given daily, as a mean of weekday. The mean age for becoming a TV viewer was 2.7 +/- 1.6 years. Of all, 62% of children spent >/= 2h/day watching TV and 8.3% of children spent > 4 h. The TV viewing time of child was significantly and positively correlated with that of siblings, mother and father for both groups. Age and sleeping time of the child, age and the education level of mother, presence of TV in the child's room and the starting age watching TV did not affect the viewing time. One-half of parents reported that the TV programs watched included violence, and one-third thought TV depicts child abuse, especially emotional abuse. It was found that the TV watching habits of parents had an influence on those of their children. Therefore, pediatricians should take 'TV histories' of children and their parents and educate parents how to become good TV viewers.

  14. Egoist-tv eller bare mere tv?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med artiklen er, at give nogle indsigter i brugernes mediebrug i forhold til implementering af digitalt terrestrisk TV, og se på hvilke fordele og ulemper brugerne mener og oplever de interaktive tjenester har via tv-mediet. Artiklen giver således nogle svar på, hvad der sker når digitalt...... terrestrisk tv (med de øgede interaktive muligheder) vinder indpas i husstanden. Hvem skal bestemme i forhold til hvad der skal ses af interaktivt indhold, og vil digitaliseringen dermed fremme den stigende tendens til at vi ser mere tv hver for sig? Og ønsker seerne overhovedet at være interaktive med deres...

  15. German Television in the U.S. and Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  16. German Television in the United States and Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  17. Audience perceptions of candidates' appropriateness as a function of nonverbal behaviors displayed during televised political debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, John S; Weger, Harry

    2005-04-01

    Compared to televised debates using a single-screen format, such debates using a split screen presenting both debaters simultaneously show viewers the nonverbal reactions of each debater's opponent. The authors examined how appropriate or inappropriate such nonverbal behaviors are perceived to be. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. One version used a single-screen format, showing only the speaker, whereas the other three versions used a split-screen format in which the speaker's oppodent displayed constant, occasional, or no nonverbal disagreement with the speaker. Students then rated the debaters' appropriateness. Analysis indicated that the opponent was perceived to be less appropriate when he displayed any background disagreement compared to when he did not. The students perceived the speaker as most appropriate when his opponent displayed constant nonverbal disagreement.

  18. 47 CFR 74.707 - Low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.707 Low power TV and TV translator station protection. (a)(1) A low power TV or TV translator will be protected from interference from other...

  19. TV FOR CHILDREN : How the Swedish Public Service Television Imagines a Child Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    The study explores how the Swedish public service TV institution imagines a child audience in a societal context where the broadcasting landscape hastransformed greatly over the past thirty years and where TV is seen to  constitute both risks and benefits for children. The concept of TV for children is established to broaden the scope for studying what has been broadcast for a child audience on public service TV. The empirical material consists of both broadcasting policy documents and an ext...

  20. East and West on the Finnish Screen. Early Transnational Television in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajala, Mari

    2014-01-01

    abstractResearch on Finnish television history has so far emphasized Western influences. However, the Finnish television environment was also in many ways shaped by contacts with socialist television cultures. This article analyses the first volume (1960) of the television magazine Katso to trace

  1. Patient-delivered partner treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis infection: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Schmidt, Norine; Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L; Meadors, Bernadette; Sanders, Cheryl; Farley, Thomas A

    2006-07-01

    Infections with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are common and recurrence rates are high. Better methods of treating partners of women with trichomoniasis are needed. To determine if patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT) is better and more cost-effective than partner referral. Women attending a family planning clinic who were culture-positive and treated for TV (N = 463) were randomized to either standard partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or PDPT. At baseline and 1 month, women were interviewed and cultured for TV. Detailed cost information was also collected. Most women had 1 partner, were less than 24 years old, and were black. The percentage of women reporting that their partners were treated was similar for PDPT but significantly lower for BEPR compared to PR. TV follow-up rates were similar. PDPT cost less and was cost saving compared to PR and BEPR. Among women with TV, PDPT did not result in more partners taking the medicine or lower follow-up rates than PR but was less costly.

  2. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY: Federal Communications... waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions stations... first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the reallotment because...

  3. A Consumer Model for TV Audiences: The Case of TV Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Deanna C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explores attitudes toward television violence and censorship using a consumer behavior model. Findings suggest that support for the anti-television-violence campaign is not universal and that excessive violence is only one of four distinct viewer complaints about television programs. (JMF)

  4. Reflections on New Challenges to Television Research in Today’s Digital Media Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenk, Susan; Ohme, Jakob; Seifert, Claudia

    Past research has discussed the change to a new digital media environment for almost a decade. But still, research on television usage and television’s effects does not seem to be up to date: the measurement of watching television in recent studies still focuses traditional television usage......’s effects, this paper intends to reflect changes focusing on the following four challenges for television research: 1. Television needs to be conceptualized differently. 2. Television is becoming more individual. 3. Television is becoming more social. 4. Television needs a new individualized concept...... for media effects....

  5. Folklore Music on Romanian TV. From State Socialist Television to Private Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Urdea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Music genres rooted in folklore have often been interpreted as ideological manoeuvres to forge a sense of national identity (Gordy, Mihailescu, Baker, Cash. This article explores formalized folklore performances of muzică populară as forms ‘media rituals’ (Couldry, and focuses on the role that television has played in establishing the genre as we know it today. It analyses the link between muzică populară as rooted in mass participation activities during communism, and ‘media rituals’ as framed on television (Couldry, indiscriminately and democratically involving the entire population that it addresses (and is available beyond that.

  6. Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across the Globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Jörg; Prieler, Michael; Adam, Karoline

    Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and the working role of the primary character, we concluded that gender stereotypes in TV advertising can be found around the world. A multilevel model further showed that gender stereotypes were independent of a country's gender indices, including Hofstede's Masculinity Index, GLOBE's Gender Egalitarianism Index, the Gender-related Development Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Global Gender Gap Index. These findings suggest that gender stereotyping in television advertising does not depend on the gender equality prevalent in a country. The role of a specific culture in shaping gender stereotypes in television advertising is thus smaller than commonly thought.

  7. Association between television viewing and self-esteem in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Ho, Daniel Sai Yin; Mak, Kwok Hang; Wan, Ka Leung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of excess television (TV) viewing on specific mental health outcomes, such as self-esteem. We explored the cross-sectional association between TV viewing hours and self-esteem in young children. A total of 70,210 primary 4 (US grade 4) participants of the Department of Health Student Health Service, Hong Kong, in 1998-2000 reported TV viewing hours in a standardized questionnaire. Self-esteem was assessed using the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories for Children (SEI) with 4 subscales. Multivariate linear regression yielded beta coefficients (β) for SEI subscale scores by TV hours, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, lifestyle characteristics, and highest parental education and occupational status. Only 10.9% of children watched >4 hours per day, while 45.3% watched TV for 1 to ≤2 hours per day. Compared with children who watched Children who watched >2 hours of TV per day had lower SEI scores than those who watched self-esteem among young children. The development of self-esteem among children who report little or excessive TV viewing should be further studied.

  8. 78 FR 58470 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-182; RM-11701; DA 13-1882] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  9. 76 FR 18415 - Television Broadcasting Services; New Haven, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 09-123; RM-11546, DA 11-501] Television Broadcasting Services; New Haven, CT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  10. 76 FR 19276 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-4; RM-11616, DA 11-530] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  11. 76 FR 28946 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-74, RM-11630; DA 11-746] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman...

  12. Television Food Advertising to Children in Argentina | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will first analyze the current regulatory framework around television food advertising in Argentina, determining the amount and ... the relationship between exposure to television advertising and childhood obesity among Argentinean children, and promote the changes required to reduce their exposure ...

  13. “There Will Still Be Television but I Don’t Know What It Will Be Called!”: Narrating the End of Television in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Given

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Australia and New Zealand, like other countries, have unique TV systems and practices that shape the possibilities enabled by emerging technologies, enterprises, behaviors and ideas. This article explores two recent articulations of the concept of television that have motivated ‘end of television’ narratives in the two countries. One is future-oriented – the introduction of online subscription video services from local providers like Fetch TV, Presto, Stan and from March 2015, the international giant Netflix. It draws on a survey of senior people in TV, technology, advertising, production, audience measurement and social media conducted in late 2014 and early 2015. The other is recent history – the switchover from analogue to digital terrestrial television, completed in both countries in December 2013. Digital TV switchover was a global policy implemented in markedly different ways. Television was transformed, though not in the precise ways anticipated. Rather than being in the center of the digital revolution, as the digital TV industry and policy pioneers enthused, broadcast television was, to some extent, overrun by it. The most successful online subscription video service in Australia and New Zealand so far, Netflix, talks up the end of television but serves up a very specific form of it. The article poses a slightly different question to whether or not television is ending: that is, whether, in the post-broadcast, digital era, distinctions between unique TV systems and practices will endure, narrow, dissolve, or morph into new forms of difference.

  14. A TV Reporter, an Adviser's Internship, a TV Anchor/Reporter, an Assignment Editor, a TV Photojournalist's Bag of Tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrow, Kris; Youngblood, Steve; Madden, Tracy; Hamburger, Jeff; Johnson, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Intends to help high school journalism students understand the field they are preparing for by presenting brief descriptions of a day in the work life of a television news reporter, a TV anchor/reporter, and a television news assignment editor. Describes the five-week internship at a local television news station of a journalism instructor. (SR)

  15. Relationship between parental estimate and an objective measure of child television watching

    OpenAIRE

    Roemmich James N; Fuerch Janene H; Winiewicz Dana D; Robinson Jodie L; Epstein Leonard H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Many young children have televisions in their bedrooms, which may influence the relationship between parental estimate and objective measures of child television usage/week. Parental estimates of child television time of eighty 4–7 year old children (6.0 ± 1.2 years) at the 75th BMI percentile or greater (90.8 ± 6.8 BMI percentile) were compared to an objective measure of television time obtained from TV Allowance™ devices attached to every television in the home over a three week pe...

  16. Pitfalls of the self-regulation of advertisements directed at children on Mexican television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théodore, F L; Tolentino-Mayo, L; Hernández-Zenil, E; Bahena, L; Velasco, A; Popkin, B; Rivera, J A; Barquera, S

    2017-08-01

    There are no academic studies that characterize advertisements directed at children from the companies that signed the self-regulation. The aim of this paper was to assess the extent and nature of food advertisements and the persuasive techniques used to market unhealthy food and beverages (UFB) to children, by signatory companies of self-regulation. From December 2012 to April 2013, 600 h of programming were recorded on the four broadcast public television channels in Mexico with the highest rating nationwide. Marketing aimed at children directly (broadcast on children's programmes or advertisements with a specific appeal to children) or indirectly (aimed at other target audiences with messages or scenes that link children to the product) were considered. About 74.9% (2148) of the total food and beverage advertisements tried to influence children directly and indirectly. Companies, which had signed the self-regulation, focused 92.7% of their advertisements on UFB. Of the total number, 23.9% were aimed at children, 7.1% at adolescents, 12.5% at parents and 56.2% at the general public. Most of these advertisements were broadcast on movies (29.8%), cartoons (18%), soap operas (17.6%), entertainment shows (17.2%) and sports programs (6.4%). Despite the self-regulation of television marketing, children were surrounded by UFB advertisements. Signatory companies influence children indirectly by targeting other audiences and by marketing during family television programs, which are also watched by children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. 76 FR 4078 - Television Broadcasting Services; North Pole and Plattsburgh, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2443; MM Docket No. 99-238; RM-9669] Television Broadcasting Services; North Pole and Plattsburgh, NY AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  18. A randomized treatment trial: single versus 7-day dose of metronidazole for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Mena, Leandro; Levison, Judy; Clark, Rebecca A; Gatski, Megan; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Rosenthal, Susan L; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H

    2010-12-15

    To determine if the metronidazole (MTZ) 2-gm single dose (recommended) is as effective as the 7-day 500 mg twice a day dose (alternative) for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV+ women. Phase IV randomized clinical trial; HIV+ women with culture confirmed TV were randomized to treatment arm: MTZ 2-gm single dose or MTZ 500 mg twice a day 7-day dose. All women were given 2-gm MTZ doses to deliver to their sex partners. Women were recultured for TV at a test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 6-12 days after treatment completion. TV-negative women at TOC were again recultured at a 3-month visit. Repeat TV infection rates were compared between arms. Two hundred seventy HIV+/TV+ women were enrolled (mean age = 40 years, ±9.4; 92.2% African American). Treatment arms were similar with respect to age, race, CD4 count, viral load, antiretroviral therapy status, site, and loss-to-follow up. Women in the 7-day arm had lower repeat TV infection rates at TOC [8.5% (11 of 130) versus 16.8% (21 of 125) (relative risk: 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.25, 1.00; P TV among HIV+ women.

  19. Sexualizing reality television: associations with trait and state self-objectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Muise, Amy; Eggermont, Steven; Impett, Emily A

    2015-03-01

    Two studies combining cross-sectional and daily experience methods tested whether watching sexualizing reality television is associated with self-objectification in women. In Study 1, an online survey of 495 undergraduate women, we demonstrated that watching sexualizing reality television was associated with higher levels of trait self-objectification. In Study 2, an online daily experience study of 94 undergraduate women, we extended the results from Study 1 by focusing on state self-objectification and showed that changes in daily exposure to sexualizing reality television correspond to fluctuations in the importance participants attached to appearance, but were unrelated to the importance attached to body-competence. The results of these two studies with multiple methods provide support for the influence of exposure to sexualizing reality television to the development of an objectified self-concept but also underline differences in how exposure to sexualizing reality television relates to trait and state self-objectification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Television and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  1. Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: probing exposure to television marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Hernández-Torres, Juan José; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; López, Juan Carlos; Macías, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Material and methods Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutrient dense, low energy), non-core (NCFA) (unbalanced energy profile or high in energy), or others (OFA) (supermarkets and special food). Results One thousand two hundred sixty-three food advertisements were recorded (TC: 579/GC: 684) in 2013. NCFA were the most shown (54.9%) in the regular full day TV programming (p advertisements than when watching TC (RR = 2.133, 95% CI: 1.398–3.255); CFA were broadcast most frequently in 2013 (GC: 23.7%; and TC: 47.2%) vs. 2007 (TC: 22.9%) (p advertisements in children's peak time slots was higher on TC (203/162) during 2013 than on GC (189/140), and significantly higher than that shown on TC in 2007 (180/36, p advertising on TC is lower today than six years ago; but, children's exposure to TV advertising of unhealthy food is worrying in Spain, and there is more exposure to unhealthy than healthy food by TV. Watching GC in 2013 had higher risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than watching TC. PMID:27478462

  2. The Popularity of Picture Books with Television Tie-in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Ladd

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes circulation statistics of television tie-in picture books from the Wake County Public Library System in North Carolina to determine their popularity among patrons. Caldecott winning picture books were used as a point of comparison. This study also examined OPAC holdings from North Carolina public libraries to determine television tie-in picture book popularity among collection builders. The findings of the study show that television tie-in picture books are found to some degree in the vast majority of North Carolina public libraries, and are more popular than award winners in the Wake County system.

  3. Television use and binge eating in adults seeking weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Carels, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Binge eating has a complex etiology and is likely influenced by a wide range of biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors. Among the environmental and behavioral contributors, television use has been strongly linked to obesity and unhealthy eating behaviors. The current study tested whether television use predicts binge eating symptomatology in adults seeking behavioral weight loss treatment. Participants (N=116) were adults seeking weight loss treatment in group-based behavioral weight loss programs. Average body mass index was 38.5; average age was 45.3. They completed measures of binge eating symptomatology, television use, internalized weight stigma, depression, body satisfaction, and habitual physical activity. The amount of television participants watched per week was associated with binge eating symptomatology even after controlling for relevant covariates. Binge eating symptomatology was positively associated with television use, internalized weight stigma, depression, and decreased body satisfaction. The findings of the current study support the hypothesis that television use is a significant predictor of binge eating symptomatology for adults attempting weight loss. Determining the causal nature of the relationship and whether binge eating is occurring during television viewing will be important areas of future inquiry. © 2013.

  4. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children's Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Maryam; Omidvar, Nasrin; Yeatman, Heather; Shariat-Jafari, Shadab; Eslami-Amirabadi, Maryam; Zahedirad, Malihe

    2014-10-01

    Advertisements can influence children's health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children's television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children's programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s) and mode of presentation (s) were coded. A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31%) across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%). The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54%) and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Although the total number of food advertisements during children's television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.

  5. Roles and Characteristics of Television and Some Implications for Distance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Tony W.

    1982-01-01

    Explores some recent theory and research developments on the role and character of television, and its impact on learning in distance education. The implications for learning of distributional and social, control, and symbolic (audiovisual) characteristics of television are discussed. Fifteen references and an outline of television applications…

  6. The National Television Violence Study: Key Findings and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes findings of the Television Violence Study indicating that the context of much television violence is dangerous to viewers, perpetrators go unpunished in the majority of programs, negative consequences of violence are often ignored, guns feature prominently, and presentation of violence differs greatly across networks and across…

  7. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 1) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  8. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  9. Property-driven Urban Change in Post-Socialist Shanghai: Reading the Television Series Woju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Y. Liang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In late 2009, the television series Woju (蜗居 received extremely high audience ratings in major Chinese cities. Its visual narratives engage the public and comment on social developments by presenting detailed pictures of urban change in Shanghai and the everyday lives of a range of urban characters who are involved in and affected by the urban-restructuring process and represent three distinct social groups: “white-collar” immigrants, low-income local residents, and powerful officials. By analysing the visual narratives of these characters, this article highlights the loss of the city’s historical identity and shows how the reorganization of urban space translates into a reallocation of resources, power and prestige among the social groups. The article also shows that Woju repre-sents a new development in literary and television production in the age of the Internet and globalization; its imaginative construct of the city was based on transnational and virtual rather than local and neighbourhood experience. This also testifies to the loss of the city’s established identity in cultural production.

  10. Three-dimensional television system for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbreck, A.A.; Abel, E.

    1988-01-01

    The paper refers to work previously described on the development of 3-D Television Systems. 3-D TV had been developed with a view to proving whether it was a useful remote handling tool which would be easy to use and comfortable to view. The paper summarizes the work of evaluation trials at UK facilities and reviews the developments which have subsequently taken place. 3-D TV systems have been found to give improved performance in terms of speed and accuracy of operations and to reduce the number of camera views required. (author)

  11. [Parkinson's disease in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2014-02-01

    INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.

  12. [Multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2016-12-16

    Today, the care of patients with multiple sclerosis and those around them represents a clinical and therapeutic challenge for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study is to analyse the appearance of multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television, and to reflect upon the image it has in these media. Several representative works that have addressed multiple sclerosis were reviewed, and many of them were seen to offer a very true-to-life vision of the disease. Likewise, a review was also conducted of the most relevant films and TV series that, on occasions, offer the general public a close look at the impact of the disease on patients or relatives, although they are sometimes somewhat exaggerated for the sake of increased dramatic effect and offer a slightly distorted view of reality. Literature largely reflects the real epidemiology, the symptoms and development of the disease, while less attention seems to be given to the diagnostic and therapeutic options open to patients. Cinema and television have offered a correct image but sometimes with the addition of more dramatic effects. It is important for literature, cinema and television to offer a realistic view of this neurological disease so as to make it better known among the public and to help lessen the stigma attached to it.

  13. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  14. ATS-6 engineering performance report. Volume 4: Television experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, R. O. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments sponsored by the US Department of Health Education and Welfare are discussed, including telecommunications, Alaskan health service, Appalachian education satellite project, and the University of the West Indies. The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment in India is reviewed. Independent television experiments are addressed, including AIDSAT and Project Look Up.

  15. Impact of the Children's Television Act on Children's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra; Kotler, Jennifer; Kuhl, Alison; Riboli, Michael

    The impact of the Children's Television Act, which requires broadcasters to provide educational and informational programs for children, was examined by having 141 second through sixth graders watch 16 popular and unpopular television programs and then assess the motivational appeal of, and children's learning from, these programs. Popular and…

  16. 76 FR 44280 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-74; RM-11630, DA 11-1185] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...

  17. The Effects of Dubbing Versus Subtitling of Television Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Fattawi B.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate viewers' knowledge of program content under various television translation modes and viewing experiences. Subjects were 176 students from the Center for Matriculation Program, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Penang, Malaysia. The Spanish version of an instructional television program was used; the program…

  18. Television in a New Media Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Car

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the 21st century has brought about comprehensive changes for media and communications in general. The new multimedia landscape has broken traditional boarders between telecommunications, the audiovisual industry, and information technology. Still, the border between traditional and new media is quite defined, yet there exists a tendency to mitigate it. Changes in media content production will play the dominant role in that process, as well the fact that the three-step flows of communication encompass new configurations of one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many communication across the online/offline divide. In such processes of development and transformation, video content, once reserved exclusively for film and television using the one-way channel of communication (from content provider to viewers, now plays an increasingly important role. New media provides opportunities for video content to use three-step flows of communication, which subsequently enables space for new video genres and formats. This article presents the results of the study entitled, ”Media Accountability”, and compares them with the author’s own research on television news and with Forrester’s research on youth as a media audience. Finally, this article provides insights on the future of television as a medium and its existence as a traditional medium.

  19. Educational Television Broadcasting in Germany: Prevailing Practices, Existing Challenges and Adoptable Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Television is widely used for educational purposes but has still not achieved its fullest potential neither in developed nor in developing countries. This worldwide under performance invite experts and academics to join hands to search causes and provide suggestions to make television a better and popular learning tool. Guided by this philosophy, the present paper analyzes the educational television broadcasting in Germany from different perspectives. The focus of analysis includes measures and practices adopted by German institutions/broadcasters to promote educational television. Besides dealing with these issues, the paper discusses existing challenges and suggests best adoptable educational television broadcasting polices from Germany to promote educational television in global perspectives.

  20. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bourdon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier than usually assumed: television managers andprofessionals, public authorities, and, last but not least, advertisers. The paper will explore both change andcontinuity. First, change: the professional origin and training of measurerschanged much over the years. In the early days, they could have an almostliterary profile. The first person in charge of the audience at the RadioTélévision Française was a teacher of philosophy. His followers had a formationin sociology and semiology. They all insisted on the fact that they were not"simply" measurers, and also worried about appreciation, quality,culture. They always figures did produce figures, but rarely only about thenumber of people present in front of the screen, mostly about satisfaction,appreciation, preferences for given genres, viewing habits. As there was onlyone channel – until 1964, with the number of TV sets rising sharply, ratings,in the modern sense, were not critical.Things started to change gradually. In 1974,the public broadcasting corporation was divided into several companies,including three competing channels. The service in charge of measuring audiencewas put under the direct authority of the Prime Minister. Audience figuresplayed a part in the distribution of resources, not only advertising but throughthe license fee sharing. However, the law also provided a clause about an indexof quality, which never functioned satisfactorily, although the service incharge of audiences put much effort into it. In 1985, around the time of deregulation,change came. From outside, this was translated into the rise of daily,detailed, fast produced figures of the audience through audimeters, thenpeoplemeters

  1. Relationships between use of television during meals and children's food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, K A; Goldberg, J; Rogers, B L; Tucker, K L

    2001-01-01

    We examined relationships between the presence of television during meals and children's food consumption patterns to test whether children's overall food consumption patterns, including foods not normally advertised, vary systematically with the extent to which television is part of normal mealtime routines. Ninety-one parent-child pairs from suburbs adjacent to Washington, DC, recruited via advertisements and word of mouth, participated. Children were in the fourth, fifth, or sixth grades. Socioeconomic data and information on television use were collected during survey interviews. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls, conducted with each child, were used to construct nutrient and food intake outcome variables. Independent sample t tests were used to compare mean food and nutrient intakes of children from families in which the television was usually on during 2 or more meals (n = 41) to those of children from families in which the television was either never on or only on during one meal (n = 50). Multiple linear regression models, controlling for socioeconomic factors and other covariates, were used to test strength of associations between television and children's consumption of food groups and nutrients. Children from families with high television use derived, on average, 6% more of their total daily energy intake from meats; 5% more from pizza, salty snacks, and soda; and nearly 5% less of their energy intake from fruits, vegetables, and juices than did children from families with low television use. Associations between television and children's consumption of food groups remained statistically significant in multiple linear regression models that controlled for socioeconomic factors and other covariates. Children from high television families derived less of their total energy from carbohydrate and consumed twice as much caffeine as children from low television families. There continued to be a significant association between television and children

  2. Television and Social Behavior; Reports and Papers, Volume V: Television's Effects: Further Explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George A., Ed.; And Others

    The studies in this fifth volume of technical reports to the Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior explore the role of mediated aggression and violence on relevant human behaviors in some new and interesting ways. The volume begins with an overview of the studies, presenting a statement of the principal questions asked,…

  3. Danish television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Danish television drama series have become an internationally acclaimed export success. This article analyses the development on the domestic market lying behind this international recognition. A change in production dogmas has formed the characteristics of these successful Danish...... the characteristics of these productions and the development of their audience profiles across age, gender and educational level....

  4. Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910

  5. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  6. Cable Television: Technical Considerations in Franchising Major Market Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Carl

    The 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) regulations on cable television were intended to assist the penetration of cable television into the large metropolitan regions of the United States. In these major market areas, the task for developing an appropriate franchise is complicated by the changing functional nature of the cable systems…

  7. Short-Term Effects of Televised Aggression on Children's Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Recently collected data appear to warrant advancing some tentative conslusions concerning the short-term effects of violence in television on children: 1) children are exposed to a substantial amount of violent content on television, and they can remember and learn from such exposure; 2) correlational studies have disclosed a regular association…

  8. Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

  9. Food and beverage advertising during children's television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, P; Macken, A; Leddin, D; Cullen, W; Dunne, C; Gorman, C O

    2015-03-01

    Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns. Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising of food during children's programming, we sought to examine the advertising content in children-specific television broadcasts on Irish television. Advertisement content analysis for 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting from 0700 to 1700 hours on Irish television was performed. Data were coded and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage advertisements were coded based on type of product, nutritional content, intended age group and outcome. 322 advertisements were broadcast during the recording period. 31 % (n = 101) of advertisements related to food or beverage products with 66.3 % (n = 68) of food advertisements being for foods that should be eaten in moderation. The most frequently recorded food advertisement was for fast food products (27.3 %, n = 24), followed by sweets/candy (21.6 %, n = 19) and dairy products (17.0 %, n = 15). The most frequently recorded beverage advertisement was for natural orange juices (46.2 %, n = 6). 54.7 % (n = 176) of advertisements were adult specific with 27.3 % (n = 88) being children specific. All food and beverage advertisements were associated with a positive outcome (n = 322). These results demonstrate that food and beverages depicted in advertisements during children's programming are predominantly unhealthy foods with high salt and sugar contents. The findings from this study again highlight the ongoing need for new rules regarding food advertising in children's programming.

  10. Sensing Methods for Detecting Analog Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Song, Chunyi; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper introduces a unified method of spectrum sensing for all existing analog television (TV) signals including NTSC, PAL and SECAM. We propose a correlation based method (CBM) with a single reference signal for sensing any analog TV signals. In addition we also propose an improved energy detection method. The CBM approach has been implemented in a hardware prototype specially designed for participating in Singapore TV white space (WS) test trial conducted by Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of the Singapore government. Analytical and simulation results of the CBM method will be presented in the paper, as well as hardware testing results for sensing various analog TV signals. Both AWGN and fading channels will be considered. It is shown that the theoretical results closely match with those from simulations. Sensing performance of the hardware prototype will also be presented in fading environment by using a fading simulator. We present performance of the proposed techniques in terms of probability of false alarm, probability of detection, sensing time etc. We also present a comparative study of the various techniques.

  11. [The portrayal of multiple sclerosis in television series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenberg, A

    2009-04-01

    An increasing number of television series deal with neurological disorders, including fictional portrayals of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this paper was to analyze every available TV episode with an MS character. Productions were identified by film databases and by hand search. Each episode was evaluated along neurologic and cinematic lines. Between 1985 and 2006, portrayals of MS appeared in 17 episodes produced in Germany, the US, and the UK. The frequency of symptoms shown onscreen strongly differed from epidemiological data. In particular sensory, cognitive, and bladder symptoms as well as difficulties with sexual function were under-represented. The authenticity of the disease depiction was strongly dependent upon the genre. Coping stories could be identified as the most prominent genre. Television patients were often portrayed as "brave fighters", "refined characters", and "afflicted without symptoms". Television series attract millions of viewers and thus shape the public image of a disease. Sound knowledge of how symptoms, diagnosis, and therapeutic options are presented in mass media is therefore indispensable for all who deal with MS patients, relatives, and caregivers.

  12. Adoption of energy-efficient televisions for expanded off-grid electricity service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Park

    Full Text Available Even though they dominate the global television (TV market, light-emitting diode backlit liquid crystal display (LED-LCD TVs have received little attention for use with off-grid household-scale renewable energy systems, primarily because of high up-front costs. However, technological advances and price declines mean that these TVs can now provide the same level of electricity service as standard LED-LCD TVs offer but at lower total energy cost. Moreover, LED-LCD TVs are inherently direct-current (DC-powered devices and therefore well suited for use with off-grid solar home systems. We estimate that DC-powered energy-efficient LED-LCD TVs can decrease the retail purchase price of solar home systems by about 25% by allowing use of 50% smaller photovoltaics and battery capacities than would be needed for the same energy system to power a standard LED-LCD TV. We recommend that policies such as awards, bulk procurement, incentives, and energy labels be considered to facilitate the adoption of these energy-efficient TVs in off-grid settings. Keywords: DC television, TV energy efficiency, Electricity access, Off-grid electricity service, Cost-benefit analysis

  13. 47 CFR 74.710 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.710 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection. (a) An application to construct a new low power TV, TV translator, or TV...

  14. Parent-Child Communication about Television: A View from the Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Walter; Weaver, James B., III

    This study examined both general and specific parent-child television viewing experiences together with any interactions related to television viewing whether the child has watched television with a parent or alone. A total of 384 telephone interviews of parents (57% female, 43% male) with children at home between the ages of 6 and 18 were…

  15. The Market for Television Advertising: Model and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kieschnick; B. McCullough; Steven Wildman

    2001-01-01

    We provide a model of television advertising based on an explicit characterization of an advertisement's contribution to an advertiser's profits that suggests that each program faces a downward sloping demand for its ad time. Hence Fournier and Martin's (1983) "law of one price" does not hold in our model. We study these contrasting arguments about television advertising by examining the pricing of broadcast network advertising. In conducting this empirical examination we encounter and solve ...

  16. 21 CFR 886.5820 - Closed-circuit television reading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reading system. (a) Identification. A closed-circuit television reading system is a device that consists of a lens, video camera, and video monitor that is intended for use by a patient who has subnormal... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closed-circuit television reading system. 886.5820...

  17. Virtual set on television. Analysis of the use of virtual set in the realization of a TV program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Esteban Galán Cubillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtual studio is a very recent phenomenon that emerged in the mid-90 'as an application of virtual reality to the television field. This article examines how virtual studio amending process of realizing television affecting their various stages of pre-production, production and post-production of a television program. This research has been carried out considering the impact in technology, creative and economic offered by the use of this technology. The field work that has been used to carry out this analysis has been on-line questionnaires and in-depth interviews with professionals who work with virtual scenery in Spain in public and private television channels with national and regional coverage.

  18. Television food advertising directed towards Bulgarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galcheva, S V; Iotova, V M; Stratev, V K

    2008-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem worldwide with a prevalence rising to epidemic proportions. Television viewing is suspected as an important contributor and along with food advertisements significantly influence children's unhealthy dietary habits, purchase requests and adiposity. To examine the exposure of Bulgarian children to television food advertising and to make a content analysis of the food/beverage advertisements during children's television programmes. 41.5 h of children's television programming on three national networks, were videotaped. All recorded food advertisements were evaluated to identify the marketing strategies used for the stimulation of children's purchase requests. Food/beverage advertisements accounted for 124 (33.4%) of all commercials, with 96.8% being for unhealthy foods. 57% of them were aimed specifically at children as the most advertised products were salty/sweetened snacks and cereals, sweets, soft drinks/carbohydrate juices and salty foods, with no fruit or vegetable commercials. Food advertisements used more themes of adventure, animation, music and gifts to attract children's attention, and gave information based on the product's taste, physical qualities, novelty, presence of premiums/prizes. Of all food/beverage advertisements, 27.4% contained health-related information about the products; three-quarters of the advertisements were shot with young normal-weight actors with a good/healthy appearance. Almost all recorded food advertisements do not support the Bulgarian dietary recommendations for healthy and balanced eating. More activities to reduce the unhealthy food promotion to children are mandatory as restrictions by type of advertised food, target group or limits on the advertisements' account and times shown, as well as parental/self-regulation.

  19. Television viewing associated with adverse dietary outcomes in children ages 2-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C; Ward, D; White, M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the evidence for the association between television viewing and diet in children ages 2-6. Data sources included PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, ERIC, SportDISCUS, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and hand searches of reference lists of relevant articles. Twelve studies were reviewed in which the relationship between television viewing and diet was assessed in children between the ages of 2 and 6. All but one study reported significant relationship between television viewing time and adverse dietary outcomes. Parent-reported television viewing time was used to assay child television viewing in all included studies. Food frequency survey was the most frequent method of dietary assessment, and parent served as proxies for children in all studies. Lower fruit and/or vegetable intake was the most frequently reported dietary outcome, followed by increased energy intake with increased television viewing. The majority of studies reported adverse dietary outcomes with as little as 1 h of daily television exposure. While these results are consistent with recommendations from child health advocates to limit television viewing in young children, they also suggest that further efforts to limit television viewing in young children may be needed to aid in obesity prevention. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Hello, Lenin? Nostalgia On Post-Soviet Television In Russia And Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Khinkulova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Soviet television looked old-fashioned and seemed redundant, with the emerging post-Soviet televisual cultures turning their gazes to global sources of inspiration. The next decade affected Russia and Ukraine in very different ways. In Russia brief exposure to what was seen as “cheap mass-culture” left TV viewers and producers disillusioned. With the change of attitude towards Western TV, the ideas about Soviet TV changed, too. From a grey and unexciting model Soviet TV had become a shining example of “high quality” and nostalgia-driven content set in for the next few years. In Ukraine, where no domestic TV had existed as such prior to 1991 and where Soviet TV was rapidly fading into the past (and some-one else’s past, too, a decade of experimenting with programming had left the TV producers much more open to global television formats and Western ideas, developing programmes very different than the Russian ones.

  1. Parental Mediation of Television Advertising Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Thomas S.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the current research on the effects of television advertising on children and the interaction between parent and child regarding the child's consumer behavior. Suggests areas for future research. (JMF)

  2. Television During Meals in the First 4 Years of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmig, Lindsay M; Cabana, Michael D; Bentz, Michael G; Potocka, Katherine; Beck, Amy; Fong, Lawrence; Chao, Cewin; Caughey, Aaron B; Wong, Angela; McKean, Michelle

    2017-06-01

    The development of children's mealtime television (TV) habits has not been well studied. We assessed whether mealtime TV habits established in infancy will persist into early childhood. We analyzed data collected through parent surveys at birth and at 6-month intervals from a randomized controlled trial. We used t-tests, χ 2 tests, and a multivariable logistic regression to determine if family characteristics were associated with mealtime TV. A McNemar test was used to assess whether mealtime TV exposure changed over time. College-educated fathers and families with an annual income >$50 000 were associated with less-frequent TV exposure during children's mealtimes. It was found that 84% of children retained their level of exposure to TV during mealtimes from the first 24 months through 48 months of life. Clinicians should counsel families about mealtime TV use within the first 2 years of life because these habits seem to develop early and persist into at least early childhood.

  3. Appraising Gender Role Portrayals in TV Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Richard H.; Langefeld, Carl D.

    1993-01-01

    Examines gender role orientations of characters in prime time television advertisements through the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) completed by 426 college students (43.2% females). Results confirm the appropriateness of the scale for self- and person-perception ratings. Uses of the BSRI in gender role research are discussed. (SLD)

  4. Marketing fat and sugar to children on New Zealand television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Signal, Louise; Nicholls, Sarah; Thomson, George

    2006-02-01

    We aimed to determine the frequency and content of television food advertisements during children's viewing times on various New Zealand television channels. A content analysis was conducted of two free-to-air channels covering a total of 155 h of television time during children's viewing times (n = 858 food advertisements in 2005). Comparisons were made with data from 1997 and data from Australia. Compared to Australian channels, both New Zealand channels (TV3 and TV2) had significantly higher proportions of food advertisements that were classified as being "high in fat and/or sugar" (54% versus 80% and 69%, respectively). Using a more detailed classification system, 70.3% of food advertisements on the New Zealand channels were for foods "counter to improved nutrition" (95% CI: 67.1%, 73.3%) compared to those "favoring improved nutrition" at 5.1% (95% CI: 3.8%, 6.9%). The number of food advertisements per hour was higher in 2005 than in 1997 for the channel (TV2) for which there was time trend data (12.8 versus 8.0 per hour for the afternoon time slot). These findings provide further evidence that the majority of food advertising on New Zealand television is counter to nutritional guidelines. They suggest the need for further regulatory or other controls.

  5. DIGITAL BROADCASTING and INTERACTIVE TELEVISION in DISTANCE EDUCATION: Digital And Interactive Television Infrastructure Proposol for Anadolu University Open Education Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Recep ERGUL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes and improvements in the communication and information technologies beginning from the midst of the 20th Century and continuing today require new methods, constructions, and arrangements in the production and distribution of information. While television having the ability of presenting complex or difficult to comprehend concepts, subjects, and experimental studies to learners from different points of view, supported by 2D or 3D graphics and animations with audio visual stimulators replaces its technology from analog to digital and towards digital-interactive, it has also begun to convert the broadcasting technology in Turkey in this direction. Therefore, television broadcast infrastructure of Anadolu University Open Education Faculty needs to be replaced with a digital and interactive one. This study contains basic concepts of digital and interactive broadcasting and the new improvements. Furthermore, it includes the approaches in the basis of why and how a digital television broadcasting infrastructure should be stablished.

  6. Children's Memory for Auditory and Visual Information on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, Kathy; Stevens, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Examines the relationship between preschool children's (n = 96) cognitive processing of video (V) and audio (A) information on television under four conditions: A/V match, A/V mismatch, V alone, and A alone. Results suggest that in regular television programs the video material simply appears to be more salient and more memorable than the audio…

  7. Women's television watching and reproductive health behavior in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has made significant social, economic, and health progress in recent decades, yet many reproductive health indicators remain weak. Access to television (TV is increasing rapidly and provides a potential mechanism for influencing health behavior. We present a conceptual framework for the influence of different types of TV exposure on individual’s aspirations and health behavior through the mechanisms of observational learning and ideational change. We analyze data from two large national surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 to examine the association between women’s TV watching and five reproductive health behaviors controlling for the effects of observed confounders. We find that TV watchers are significantly more likely to desire fewer children, are more likely to use contraceptives, and are less likely to have a birth in the two years before the survey. They are more likely to seek at least four antenatal care visits and to utilize a skilled birth attendant. Consequently, continued increase in the reach of TV and associated growth in TV viewing is potentially an important driver of health behaviors in the country.

  8. Family structure and children's television viewing and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Sarah; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David

    2006-05-01

    This study aimed to examine how physical activity (PA) and television (TV) viewing time of children varied according to family structure. In 2001, 5- to 6-yr-old (N = 296) and 10- to 12-yr-old (N = 919) children and their parents were recruited from 19 state elementary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Children's PA was objectively assessed using accelerometers worn for 8 d. Sociodemographic and family structure information and time spent watching TV was collected via questionnaire completed by parents. ANCOVA revealed that, after controlling for socioeconomic status and age of child, boys without any siblings spent more minutes per day watching TV (153.2 +/- 71.3) compared with those who have siblings (129.0 +/- 64.4, P s sex with PA and between number of siblings and sex with TV viewing. Family structure may be an important source of influence on children's PA and TV viewing time. Aspects of family structure interact differently with PA and TV viewing, suggesting interventions may need to be tailored with consideration of the family structure of children.

  9. Liquid crystal television spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    The spatial light modulation characteristics and capabilities of the liquid crystal television (LCTV) spatial light modulators (SLMs) are discussed. A comparison of Radio Shack, Epson, and Citizen LCTV SLMs is made.

  10. Geometrical calibration television measuring systems with solid state photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiouchenko, V. G.; Strakhov, V. V.; Zhirkov, A. O.

    2000-11-01

    The various optical measuring methods for deriving information about the size and form of objects are now used in difference branches- mechanical engineering, medicine, art, criminalistics. Measuring by means of the digital television systems is one of these methods. The development of this direction is promoted by occurrence on the market of various types and costs small-sized television cameras and frame grabbers. There are many television measuring systems using the expensive cameras, but accuracy performances of low cost cameras are also interested for the system developers. For this reason inexpensive mountingless camera SK1004CP (format 1/3', cost up to 40$) and frame grabber Aver2000 were used in experiments.

  11. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  12. Social Interaction Design for Online Video and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); D. Geerts (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years social networking and social interactions have challenged old conceptions in the media landscape. Web applications that offer video content, connected television sets and set-top boxes, tablets and smartphones as second screens, and online TV widgets have radically

  13. Background Television and Infants' Allocation of Their Attention during Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Alissa E.; Courage, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of background television on 6- and 12-month-olds' attention during 20 min of toy play was examined. During the first or second half of the session, a clip from a variety of commonly available television programs was presented. The duration and frequency of infants' looks to the toys and to the television indicated that regardless of age…

  14. Why Internet didn't replaced Television in Elections but completed it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd STROHMEIER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the internet has become more and more important for election campaigns, but cannot replace television as (central mass medium for campaigning. It is argued that that potential of the internet and the potential of television for election campaigns is completely different. As a consequence, television is substantially complemented, but not substituted by the internet.

  15. 'I Like the Metamorphosis of the Characters': Dynamics of Transnational Television Comedy Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Lockyer, S; Popa, D

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to debates on transnational television comedy audiences through analysis of Eastern European audiences’ engagement with British television comedy. Using questionnaire and focus group data it examines the extent and nature of British television comedy engagement by Romanian audiences and the limits of broadcasting British television comedy to Romanian audiences. The research reveals Romanian audiences’ high involvement with television comedy. Over half of questionna...

  16. The Impact of Background Television on Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Murphy, Lauren A.; Schmidt, Marie E.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that background television affects interactions between parents and very young children. Fifty-one 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children, each accompanied by 1 parent, were observed for 1 hr of free play in a laboratory space resembling a family room. For half of the hour, an adult-directed television program…

  17. Television viewing and forms of bullying among adolescents from eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Pickett, William; Overpeck, Mary; Craig, Wendy; Boyce, William; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2006-12-01

    Based on theories suggesting that frequent television viewers act and react in hostile, malicious, malevolent, or verbally aggressive ways rather than being physically violent, the present study investigates relationships between television viewing and different forms of bullying. Multilevel regression models were estimated based on cross-sectional data from 31,177 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years from Canada, Estonia, Israel, Latvia, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, and the United States who participated in the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-aged Children Survey. Although all different forms of bullying were associated with television viewing in bivariate analyses, only the verbal forms (i.e. "calling mean names" and "spreading rumors") remained significant in multiple regression models. These relationships were observed consistently in all eight participating countries. However, the association between television viewing and physical forms of bullying such as kicking, pushing, or shoving around, varied across countries. In most weekend TV viewing cultures, frequent television viewers were prone to kick or push another student in addition to verbal forms of bullying, which was not the case in weekday viewing cultures. These results demonstrate the importance of limiting adolescents' time engaged in unsupervised television watching, and the need to motivate adolescents to engage in joint family activities or organized after-school activities.

  18. The Role of Television at the Gentrification of Arabesque Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Soydan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Before television became so popular in our daily life, sub-cultural groups could have survived without any contact to mainstream lifestyle. Until the 1990s there were only state controlled radio stations and one television channel on which broadcasting arabesque music was prohibited. It’s after privately owned broadcasting began that arabesque music -by gaining a hybrid identity- has become mainstream. Thanks to privately owned television channels arabesque music were started to be listened by masses and its singers have become popular TV icons. In this paper the term gentrification which is a trend in urban neighborhoods, which results in increased property values and the displacing of lower-income families and small businesses, will be used to stress the integration of mainstream with arabesque music. The purpose of the paper is to point the role of privately owned TV channels on gentrification of arabesque music. In the paper, after the literature review, the relationship between popular culture and arabesque music, the historical background of arabesque music and the role of TV on gentrification of arabesque music will be expressed on an example: Dilber Ay. A popular TV show for arabesque music named “Kadere Mahkumlar” will also be mentioned. The fact that Dilber Ay who has been an icon in the arabesque music realm for forty years, becoming a popular culture figure after she has stood in mainstream TV channels in 2012, shows the role of TV on gentrification of arabesque music.

  19. Television Watching and Telomere Length Among Adults in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong-Mei; Liu, Qian-Qian; Tian, Guo; Quan, Li-Ming; Zhao, Yong; Cheng, Guo

    2017-09-01

    To explore the independent associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with telomere length among Chinese adults. Data on total time of sedentary behavior, screen-based sedentary behavior (including television watching and computer or phone use), moderate to vigorous physical activity, and dietary intake of 518 adults in Chengdu, Guizhou, and Xiamen in China (54.25% women) aged 20 to 70 years were obtained between 2013 and 2015 through questionnaires. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index and percentage of body fat. Telomere length was measured through Southern blot technique. Television watching was inversely related to adjusted telomere length (-71.75 base pair; SE = 34.40; P  = .04). Furthermore, a similar trend between telomere length and television watching was found in the group aged 20 to 40 years after adjusting for all covariates. Adults aged 20 to 40 years in the highest tertile of daily time spent on watching television had 4.0% shorter telomere length than adults in the lowest tertile (P = .03). Although the association is modest, television watching is inversely related to telomere length among Chinese adults, warranting further investigation in large prospective studies.

  20. Factors contributing to background television exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Background television (TV) exposure is harmful to young children, yet few studies have focused on predictors of exposure. This study’s objectives were to elucidate demographic, environmental, and behavioral correlates of background TV exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers and to explore caregiver beliefs about the impact of such exposure. Methods A convenience sample of low-income Mexican American female primary caregivers of preschoolers (3–5 years old, n=309), recruited in safety-net clinics, were surveyed by phone. Caregivers reported the frequency of their child’s exposure to background TV and responded to questions on the home media environment, TV use, and whether they had thought about background TV exposure and its impact on their child. Results Background TV exposure was common; 43% reported that their child was often, very often, or always exposed to background TV. More hours of TV viewing by the caregiver and greater frequency of TV viewing during meals were associated with an increased frequency of exposure to background TV. Only 49% of participants had ever thought about the impact of background TV. Believing that background TV is not harmful was associated with higher levels of background TV exposure. Conclusions Findings suggest that background TV exposure is frequent and caregiver awareness of its potential impact is low in low-income Mexican American families. Beliefs that background TV is not harmful may predict risk of exposure. Potential targets for interventions focused on reducing background TV exposure in this population include increasing caregiver awareness of the potential negative impact of such TV exposure. PMID:27007983