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Sample records for tuwayq pivot irrigation

  1. Performance evaluation of a center pivot variable rate irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) for center pivots offers potential to match specific application rates to non-uniform soil conditions along the length of the lateral. The benefit of such systems is influenced by the areal extent of these variations and the smallest scale to which the irrigation syste...

  2. Role of transpiration reduction during center-pivot sprinkler irrigation in application efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Urrego Pereira, Yenny Fernanda; Cavero Campo, José; Medina Pueyo, Eva Teresa; Martínez-Cob, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude and duration of corn transpiration reduction during center-pivot sprinkler irrigation was analyzed on a commercial plot. The irrigation event was defined as the period during which the pivot arm was passing over the transect AC and water droplets were moistening the plants (moist treatment). Corn transpiration rates were measured at three spots of that transect and simultaneously at another spot (dry treatment) located approximately 270 m east from the transect AC. Corn transpir...

  3. Wireless sensor network effectively controls center pivot irrigation of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust automatic irrigation scheduling has been demonstrated using wired sensors and sensor network systems with subsurface drip and moving irrigation systems. However, there are limited studies that report on crop yield and water use efficiency resulting from the use of wireless networks to automat...

  4. Integration of wireless sensor networks into automatic irrigation scheduling of a center pivot

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-span center pivot system was used as a platform for testing two wireless sensor networks (WSN) of infrared thermometers. The cropped field was a semi-circle, divided into six pie shaped sections of which three were irrigated manually and three were irrigated automatically based on the time tem...

  5. Evaluation of water distribution under pivot irrigation systems using remote sensing imagery in eastern Nile delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Farg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods for center pivot evaluation depend on the water depth distribution along the pivot arm. Estimation and mapping the water depth under pivot irrigation systems using remote sensing data is essential for calculating the coefficient of uniformity (CU of water distribution. This study focuses on estimating and mapping water depth using Landsat OLI 8 satellite data integrated with Heerman and Hein (1968 modified equation for center pivot evaluation. Landsat OLI 8 image was geometrically and radiometrically corrected to calculate the vegetation and water indices (NDVI and NDWI in addition to land surface temperature. Results of the statistical analysis showed that the collected water depth in catchment cans is also highly correlated negatively with NDVI. On the other hand water, depth was positively correlated with NDWI and LST. Multi-linear regression analysis using stepwise selection method was applied to estimate and map the water depth distribution. The results showed R2 and adjusted R2 0.93 and 0.88 respectively. Study area or field level verification was applied for estimation equation with correlation 0.93 between the collected water depth and estimated values.

  6. Manejo da irrigação em pastagem irrigada por pivô-central Irrigated pasture: water management under center pivot irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Xavier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de lâminas de irrigação em pastagem irrigada sob pivô-central é, de maneira geral, realizada sem um critério técnico pertinente ao sistema, pois se deve considerar que para um mesmo período a pastagem se encontra em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento em cada parcela, apresentando taxas de evapotranspiração diferenciadas dentro da área irrigada; todavia, usualmente se aplica uma única lâmina para toda a área. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um modelo para aplicação de lâminas de irrigação distinta para cada parcela do pivô o qual, de modo geral, considera: i a capacidade do pivô-central de aplicar lâminas distintas na área; ii o nível de desenvolvimento da cultura em cada parcela; iii o período de retorno do gado a determinada parcela (ciclo de pastejo; e iv o potencial de desenvolvimento da pastagem de certa região. Para modelar o coeficiente de cultura (Kc foram utilizadas duas metodologias, a primeira com taxa de variação do Kc constante com o número de dias em que a parcela está em descanso (k, e a segunda, com taxa de variação do Kc na forma senoidal com k. O modelo foi aplicado para pastagens hipotéticas nas regiões de Piracicaba e Pereira Barreto, para avaliação e, como resultado, observou-se que o modelo se mostrou sensível ao nível de desenvolvimento de cada parcela e às condições de variação do clima de cada região.The application of irrigation depths in irrigated pasture under center pivot machines, in a general way, is accomplished without a pertinent technical criterion, because it should be considered that for any time period, the pasture plots are at different development stages (rotary pasture, presenting different evapotranspiration rates inside the irrigated area. Furthermore, farmers usually apply a single irrigation depth for the whole area. In this study a model was developed for the application of different irrigation depths in each portion of the pivot (pizza

  7. Development of a methodology for the evaluation of energy efficiency of central irrigation pivots; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para a avaliacao da eficiencia energetica de pivos centrais de irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Aureo Cezar de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET-Pet), PE (Brazil); Guimaraes Junior, Sebastiao Camargo; Camacho, Jose Roberto; Salerno, Carlos Henrique [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (NERFAE/UFU), MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica. Nucleo de Eletricidade Rural e Fontes Alternativas de Energia

    2006-07-01

    It will be presented in this work a methodology for the evaluation of the energy efficiency of irrigation center systems by central pivot. Integrating water efficiency application with the energy associated to the sprinklers, adduction pipeline, pivot arm and pump systems, the proposed indexes make possible to evaluate the energy income of each component of the irrigation system, contributing for the increase of the global efficiency of the irrigated agriculture. (author)

  8. Groundwater Governance and the Growth of Center Pivot Irrigation in Cimarron County, OK and Union County, NM: Implications for Community Vulnerability to Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Wenger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cimarron County, Oklahoma and Union County, New Mexico, neighboring counties in the Southern High Plains, are part of a vital agricultural region in the United States. This region experiences extended periods of cyclical drought threatening its ability to produce, creating an incentive for extensive center pivot irrigation (CPI. Center pivots draw from the rapidly depleting High Plains Aquifer System. As a result, the prospect of long-term sustainability for these agricultural communities is questionable. We use Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems to quantify growth in land irrigated by CPI between the 1950s and 2014, and key informant interviews to explore local perspectives on the causes and impact of such growth. In Cimarron County, OK, CPI increased by the mid-1980s, and has continually increased since. Results suggest adaptation to drought, a depleting aquifer, high corn prices, and less rigid groundwater regulations contribute to CPI growth. Conversely, CPI in Union County, NM, increased until 2010, and then declined. Results also suggest that drought-related agricultural changes and more aggressive well drilling regulations contribute to this decrease. Nevertheless, in both counties, there is a growing concern over the depleting aquifer, the long-term sustainability of CPI, and the region’s economic future.

  9. Qualidade da irrigação controlada por tensiômetros em pivô central Quality of center pivot irrigation controlled by tensiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Saad

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da irrigação foi avaliada durante a safra de inverno do ano de 1988 na cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., irrigado por pivô central, em área de ocorrência de Latossolo Roxo (A moderado, textura argilosa a muito argilosa, distrófico, em Guaíra, SP. Os critérios utilizados para esta avaliação foram a eficiência do uso da água pela cultura e a efetividade da irrigação, esta última representada pela eficiência de aplicação da água, a uniformidade de distribuição da água sobre o solo e a eficiência de armazenagem da água no solo. O monitoramento das irrigações foi realizado através da instalação de 20 baterias de tensiômetros e 60 coletores de água de chuva e irrigação ao longo de uma transeção de 300 metros na direção radial do pivô. Os tensiômetros de cada bateria foram instalados a 15 cm e 30 cm de profundidade e espaçados entre si de 15 metros. Os coletores foram instalados a uma altura de 50 cm da superfície do terreno e distanciados entre si de 5 metros. O controle da irrigação foi feito com base na média ponderada dos 20 valores diários de potencial mátrico a 15 cm de profundidade, tendo como fator de ponderação a área representativa de cada tensiômetro. O valor mínimo de potencial mátrico estabelecido para a definição do momento da irrigação foi -0,06 MPa à profundidade de 15 cm e o valor da lâmina de água a ser aplicada em cada irrigação, calculado tendo-se em conta o valor de -0,008 MPa para o potencial mátrico a capacidade de campo. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as irrigações efetuadas foram de alta qualidade uma vez que foram elevados os valores da eficiência de aplicação (80% e dos coeficientes de uniformidade de distribuição (94 e 91% calculados a partir das 16 irrigações acumuladas, o mesmo ocorrendo com a eficiência de armazenagem (95% e a eficiência de uso da água (0,8 kg/m³.The irrigation quality was evaluated for a center pivot

  10. Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultura do cafeeiro irrigado por pivô central Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of irrigated coffee with a pivot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estimar a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultivo (Kc do cafeeiro "Rubi"� irrigado por pivô central, através do método do balanço hídrico. O experimento foi desenvolvido na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Lavras e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 6 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam à lâmina de água aplicada em função de percentagens de valores de Kc, ou seja, 60, 80, 100, 120 e 140% do valor de Kc, além de um tratamento sem irrigação (testemunha, totalizando 18 parcelas; em cada parcela se consideraram 8 plantas úteis. Os valores de evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc do café encontrados foram de 3,46, 7,14 e 5,41 mm, para os períodos de 01/04 a 31/07 (B, 01/08 a 31/10 (C e 01/11 a 31/12 (D do ano de 2007, respectivamente. Nos períodos de 01/01 a 31/03 (A e de 01/04 a 18/05 (B do ano de 2008, os valores de ETc foram de 5,57 e 3,07 mm d-1, respectivamente, e um valor médio de 4,93 mm d-1. Os valores de Kc do café encontrados para os períodos A, B, C e D, foram de 1,32, 1,06, 1,61, 1,25, respectivamente.Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (Kc were estimated through water balance for coffee crop (cultivar Rubi, irrigated by center pivot. The experiment was carried out at the experimental area of Federal University of Lavras. Randomized block was used as statistical design, with 6 treatment and 3 replicates. The treatment levels were set by water depth applied as percentage of Kc values predefined and used by farmers in the region, established as 60, 80, 100, 120 e 140% of the predefined Kc value for a given period. The experiment included a control (non-irrigated, totalizing 18 plots, being considered in each one 8 effective plants for measurements. According to results obtained for soil water potential, the best treatment levels indicate coffee evapotranspiration of 3.46, 7.14 and 5.41 mm, for periods, B

  11. Circles of live buffer strips in a center pivot to improve multiple ecosystem services and sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the southern great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining Ogallala Aquifer has threatened sustainability of highly productive irrigated agriculture in the region. The region, known for the dust bowl of thirties, is scared of its return. Lower well outputs and increasing pumping costs have compelled farmers to adapt alternative conservation strate...

  12. Parâmetros de desempenho de dezesseis equipamentos de irrigação por pivô central Parameters of performance of sixteen center-pivot irrigation equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvio Sandri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O tempo de uso de sistemas de irrigação por pivô central pode resultar em alteração de suas características hidráulicas, necessitando de avaliações periódicas para manter a uniformidade de distribuição de água em níveis aceitáveis. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar as condições de funcionamento e desempenho de dezesseis pivôs centrais, localizados em onze municípios de Goiás e no Distrito Federal. Estimou-se o coeficiente de uniformidade de Heermann & Hein - CUH e uniformidade de distribuição - CUD, variação da lâmina coletada em relação à projetada e os fatores que interferem no desempenho dos equipamentos. Dos pivôs avaliados, quatro (25% apresentaram CUH inadequado (The time of use of the center-pivot irrigation system may result in alteration of the hydraulic characteristics, frequent evaluations being needed to maintain the efficiency of water distribution at acceptable levels. The aim of this work was to evaluate the conditions of the use and the performance of sixteen center pivots, located in eleven municipal districts of Goiás State and Federal District, Brazil. The Heermann & Hein - CUH coefficient of uniformity and coefficient of distribution - CUD, variation between the collected and projected depth and verification of the main factors that influenced the performance were evaluated. Among the evaluated pivots, four (25% presented inadequate CUH (< 80% and three (18.75% presented inadequate CUD (< 70%. The average depth applied was higher than the projected in three and lower in thirteen pivots, with the difference higher than 10% in only one pivot. Most of the evaluated pivots need maintenance to solve the following problems: emitters with flow rate different from the flow considered appropriate for some intervals of the equipments; emitters totally or partially clogged or damaged; absence of suspension strings; damaged pressure regulators; leaks in several points and speed displacement different

  13. Produtividade e rendimento do cafeeiro nas cinco primeiras safras irrigado por pivô central em Lavras, MG Coffee yield and production during the initial five harvests under irrigation with center pivot in Lavras, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Lima

    2008-12-01

    foi de 225,6 sc e a média anual de 45,12 sc ha-1, com acréscimo de 119% na produtividade do cafeeiro quando comparada ao tratamento não irrigado, que produziu, em média, 24 sc ha-1 ano-1. O grau de maturação, no momento da colheita, influenciou o rendimento dos tratamentos, sendo os frutos nos estádios cereja e seco, os que mais interferiram no rendimento.Search for sustainability on agricultural exploration and incorporation of new technologies impose the necessity for knowledge and management of main factors related to production, such as irrigation. This experiment evaluated the irrigation effect on yield and production efficiency (amount of beans to produce a bag of 60Kg of coffee irrigated by center pivot in Lavras-MG, Brazil. The experiment was planted with the cultivar Rubi MG-1192, planted on March, 1999. spaced 3.5 meters between rows and 0.8 meters between plants. The experimental design was the one of randomized blocks, with six treatment levels and three replicates. The irrigation was applied at intervals of 2 or 3 days, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, based on the amount estimated by the water blance considering the class A pan evaporation (ECA and rain depths. The irrigation was calculated as 0% of the difference between ECA and rain depth - 0% ECA (T1, non irrigated, 60% ECA (T2, 80% ECA (T3, 100% ECA (T4, 120% ECA (T5 and 140% ECA (T6. After harvesting the coffee grains from the experimental plots, coffee samples were packed in ventilated plastic bags and dried on wood benches exposed to air long enough to decrease its moisture content between 11 and 12%, gravimetric water content. After drying, the beans were unpeeled and weighed to calculate the yield and production efficiency. Irrigation increased the yield of irrigated plots compared to non irrigated. Although non significant difference was statistically observed when comparing annual yields, the differences were statistically significant when the total production was compared among

  14. Custo de energia elétrica em cultura do feijoeiro irrigado por pivô central, afetado pelo manejo da irrigação e sistemas de cultivo Cost of electric energy in irrigated dry bean for center pivot affected by the irrigation management and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. P. Turco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o consumo e o custo de energia elétrica em cultura do feijoeiro irrigado por pivô central, cultivar IAC-Carioca, submetida a dois manejos de irrigação: TENS - tensiometria; TCA - balanço hídrico-climatológico, baseado no tanque "Classe A"; e dois sistemas de cultivo em Latossolo Vermelho: PD - plantio direto; PC - plantio convencional, no ano de 2002. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na Área Demonstrativa e Experimental de Irrigação - ADEI da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal - SP. O consumo de energia elétrica do sistema de irrigação foi monitorado, e seu custo, analisado para dois grupos tarifários: A e B, sendo os preços do kWh dos sistemas tarifários de energia elétrica obtidos na CPFL (Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz. Os tratamentos em que o manejo da irrigação foi realizado pelo método do tanque "Classe A", ocasionaram os maiores consumos e custos de energia elétrica, em relação aos tratamentos em que o manejo foi realizado por tensiometria; entre os sistemas de plantio, não foram observadas diferenças. A tarifa Horo-Sazonal (verde e/ou azul, com desconto, foi a melhor opção para os quatro tratamentos.The objective of this work was to analyze the consumption and cost of electric energy in dry bean crop, IAC-Carioca, irrigated by center pivot, submitted to two irrigation managements: tensiometry and climatoligical water balance with Class A pan, under conventional and no-tillage systems, growed in Oxisol, in the year of 2002. The research was developed at the Demonstrative and Experimental Area of Irrigation - ADEI, of FCAV/UNESP, Campus of Jaboticabal - SP, Brazil. The irrigation system electric energy consumption was monitored for two tariff groups: A and B. The prices of kWh of the tariff systems of electric energy had been gotten in the CPFL (São Paulo Company of Force and Light. The treatments where the irrigation management was carried through the method of the Class A

  15. Desenvolvimento de software e hardware para irrigação de precisão usando pivô central Development of software and hardware for precision irrigation using the center pivot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu M. de Queiroz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver softwares e hardwares para aplicação ao monitoramento e controle automático para a irrigação de precisão usando sistemas do tipo pivô central. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Departamento de Engenharia Rural - LER, da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ, da Universidade de São Paulo - USP, em Piracicaba - SP. Foram utilizados componentes eletrônicos discretos, circuitos integrados diversos, módulos de radiofreqüência, microcontroladores da família Basic Step e um microcomputador. Foram utilizadas as linguagens Delphi e TBasic. O hardware é constituído de dois circuitos eletrônicos, sendo um deles para "interface" com o computador e o outro para monitoramento e transmissão da leitura de tensiômetros para o computador via radiofreqüência. Foram feitas avaliações do alcance e da eficiência na transmissão de dados dos módulos de radiofreqüência e do desempenho do software e do hardware. Os resultados mostraram que tanto os circuitos quanto os aplicativos desenvolvidos apresentaram funcionamento satisfatório. Os testes de comunicação dos rádios indicaram que esses possuem alcance máximo de 50 m. Concluiu-se que o sistema desenvolvido tem grande potencial para utilização em sistemas de irrigação de precisão usando pivô central, bastando para isso que o alcance dos rádios seja aumentado.The objective of this work was to develop softwares and hardwares applied to the management and automatic control for precision irrigation using center pivot systems. They were developed in the Rural Engineering Department - LER, at the "Luiz de Queiroz" College of Agriculture - ESALQ, of São Paulo University - USP, in Piracicaba, SP-Brazil. It was used discrete electronic components, several integrated circuits, radio frequency modules, microcontrollers from the Basic Step family and a microcomputer. The computer software was developed in Delphi language, and

  16. Uso de motores monofásicos acoplados mecanicamente em série, em irrigação por pivô central Utilization of mechanically coupled single phase motors in series in central pivot irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delly Oliveira Filho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de sistemas de irrigação por pivô central requer elevada potência elétrica, o que, em geral, implica em alto investimento inicial. No Brasil, a maioria das fazendas é eletrificada no sistema monofásico, devido ao fato de sua implantação requerer cerca de 40% do investimento inicial exigido pelo sistema trifásico. Salienta-se que a maior potência disponível no mercado de motores monofásicos no Brasil é de 9,2 kW (12,5 cv. Para suprir demanda de potência acima desta com sistema monofásico, propõe-se acoplar os motores monofásicos mecanicamente em série. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar o rendimento de um sistema de acoplamento e sua viabilidade técnico-econômica, comparado-o com outras formas de fornecimento de energia, diesel e sistema elétrico trifásico.The utilization of central pivot irrigation system requires in most cases high electric power which imply in high initial investment. Most of the Brazilian farms are electrified in the single phase electrical system, due to the fact that their implementation requires only about 40% of the initial investment as compared to three phase system. In Brazilian market the highest available power of single phase motors is 9.2 kW (12.5 hp. To supply power demand above this limit with single phase system one could couple mechanically the single phase motors in series. The objective of this work was to estimate the efficiency of such coupling system and to evaluate the economic and technical feasibility compared with other forms of energy supply such as diesel and three phase electrical system.

  17. Micromechanisms with floating pivot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-03-06

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use floating pivot structures to relieve some of the problems encountered in the use of solid flexible pivots.

  18. Preset pivotal tool holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmanes, Charles

    1979-01-01

    A tool fixture is provided for precise pre-alignment of a radiused edge cutting tool in a tool holder relative to a fixed reference pivot point established on said holder about which the tool holder may be selectively pivoted relative to the fixture base member to change the contact point of the tool cutting edge with a workpiece while maintaining the precise same tool cutting radius relative to the reference pivot point.

  19. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  20. Flexural pivot device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaherty, Robert.

    1986-01-01

    A flexural pivot device or rotational actuator comprises first and sceond tubular members connected by flexural members of shape-memory-alloy. These are curved in the austenitic phase at a first temperature and after cooling to the martensitic phase are flattened. On heating one of the flexural members, it bends causing relative rotation of the tubular members. Heating of another member can produce opposite rotation. Heating is electrical or by hot gas. The device may be used in a nuclear reactor. (author)

  1. Analysis of Pivot Sampling in Dual-Pivot Quicksort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebel, Markus E.; Wild, Sebastian; Martinez, Conrado

    2016-01-01

    The new dual-pivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy—used in Oracle’s Java runtime library since version 7—features intriguing asymmetries. They make a basic variant of this algorithm use less comparisons than classic single-pivot Quicksort. In this paper, we extend the analysis to the case where...

  2. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  3. Soil water balance calculation using a two source energy balance model and wireless sensor arrays aboard a center pivot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent developments in wireless sensor technology and remote sensing algorithms, coupled with increased use of center pivot irrigation systems, have removed several long-standing barriers to adoption of remote sensing for real-time irrigation management. One remote sensing-based algorithm is a two s...

  4. A new pivot system with hydromagnetic support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauvergne, J.P.

    1980-02-01

    A type of pivot is described which acts as both a bearing and an end stop. The pivot avoids any mechanical contact between the moving and stationary parts, and operates with practically no friction and thus no wear. (orig.)

  5. A review of mechanical move sprinkler irrigation control and automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic sensors, equipment controls, and communication protocols have been developed to meet the growing interest in site-specific irrigation using center pivot and lateral move irrigation systems. Onboard and field-distributed sensors can collect data necessary for real-time irrigation manageme...

  6. HPC s Pivot to Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parete-Koon, Suzanne [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Caldwell, Blake A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Canon, Richard Shane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Sciences Network (ESnet); Hick, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Hill, Jason J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Layton, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Pelfrey, Daniel S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Shipman, Galen M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Skinner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Nam, Hai Ah [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Wells, Jack C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Zurawski, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Sciences Network (ESnet)

    2014-05-03

    Computer centers such as NERSC and OLCF have traditionally focused on delivering computational capability that enables breakthrough innovation in a wide range of science domains. Accessing that computational power has required services and tools to move the data from input and output to computation and storage. A ''pivot to data'' is occurring in HPC. Data transfer tools and services that were previously peripheral are becoming integral to scientific workflows. Emerging requirements from high-bandwidth detectors, high-throughput screening techniques, highly concur- rent simulations, increased focus on uncertainty quantification, and an emerging open-data policy posture toward published research are among the data-drivers shaping the networks, file systems, databases, and overall compute and data environment. In this paper we explain the pivot to data in HPC through user requirements and the changing resources provided by HPC with particular focus on data movement. For WAN data transfers we present the results of a study of network performance between centers.

  7. Pivot design in bileaflet valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallana, F; Rinaldi, S; Galletti, P M; Nguyen, A; Piwnica, A

    1992-01-01

    The design criteria leading to the development of a new bileaflet valve (Sorin Bicarbon) were derived from the analysis of functional requirements, the performance of existing prostheses, and the availability of an advanced carbon coating technology (Carbofilm). The hinge is the critical element affecting fluid dynamics, durability, and thrombus formation in bileaflet valves. A comparative study of three existing models led to a new hinge design that was based on coupling two spheric surfaces with different radii of curvature (leaflet pivot and hinge recess) and obtained by electroerosion into a Carbofilm-coated metallic housing. In this valve, the point of contact moves continuously by rolling, not sliding. This minimizes friction and wear and allows uninterrupted washing of the blood exposed surfaces even during diastole (a finding established in patients using transesophageal echocardiography). Tricuspid implantation without anticoagulation in 33 sheep did not lead to thrombotic events (follow-up, 40-400 days). In the first 36 clinical implants observed for 15 months (mitral position, size 29; two unrelated deaths), the mean diastolic gradient by echo Doppler was 4 +/- 1.25 mmHg; the functional area was 3.2 +/- 0.6 cm2. No leaflet fracture and no thrombotic or embolic complications were observed clinically using a standard anticoagulant regimen.

  8. Novel approach to evaluate the dynamic variation of wind drift and evaporation losses under moving irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Mohammad Z. Amini; Sparkle L. Malone; Hank W. Loescher

    2015-01-01

    The increased need for water and food security requires the development of new approaches to save water through irrigation management strategies, particularly for center pivot irrigation. To do so entails monitoring of the dynamic variation in wind drift and evaporation losses (WDELs) of irrigation systems under different weather conditions and for relatively long time...

  9. How Good Is Multi-Pivot Quicksort?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumüller, Martin; Dietzfelbinger, Martin; Klaue, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    of the partitioning cost is caused by rearranging elements. A rigorous analysis of an algorithm for rearranging elements in the partitioning step is carried out, observing mainly how often array cells are accessed during partitioning. The algorithm behaves best if three to five pivots are used. Experiments show...... that this translates into good cache behavior and is closest to predicting observed running times of multi-pivot quicksort algorithms. Finally, it is studied how choosing pivots from a sample affects sorting cost. The study is theoretical in the sense that although the findings motivate design recommendations...... as the standard sorting algorithm in Sun’s Java 7. In 2014 at ALENEX, Kushagra et al. introduced an even faster algorithm that uses three pivots. This article studies what possible advantages multi-pivot quicksort might offer in general. The contributions are as follows: Natural comparison-optimal algorithms...

  10. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  11. Gypsiferous mine water use in irrigation on rehabilitated open-cast mine land: Crop production, soil water and salt balance

    OpenAIRE

    Annandale, J.; Jovanovic, N.; Pretorius, J.; Lorentz, S.; Rethman, N.; Tanner, P.

    2001-01-01

    The use of gypsiferous mine water for irrigation of agricultural crops is a promising technology, which could alleviate a shortage of irrigation water and address the problem of disposal of mine effluent. A field trial was established at Kleinkopje Colliery in Witbank (Mpumalanga Province, South Africa) during the 1997-1998 season. Sugar beans and wheat were irrigated with three center pivots, on both virgin and rehabilitated land. The objectives were to determine crop response to irrigation ...

  12. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  13. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper....... The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  14. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    . The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following......When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  15. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation pot...

  16. Developing a Simple Unique Head-Discharge Equation for Pivot Weirs with Different Side Contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    neda Sheikh Rezazadeh Nikou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pivot weirs (sharp crested inclined weirs, Fig. 1-a is frequently used for discharge measurement, controlling water surface and flow diversion. Some typical features of pivot weirs are: (a overshot design for better water level control, (b Their application as head gates, turnout or check structure which requiring low head loss and high accuracy, (c ease of removing sediment deposit behind the weir, and (d ability to manage and monitor on-site or operating remotely when connected to a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA network. Kindsvater and Carter (8 derived a weir discharge equation based on energy and continuity equations. Hulsing (4 determined head-discharge relationship of inclined suppressed sharp crested weir with the slope of 3:3, 2:3 and 1:3 toward downstream and compared them with the equivalent normal sharp crested weir. In the USBR report on pivot weirs (regarding The Boulder Canyon Project,1948 the head discharge data of the suppressed pivot weir were presented in a channel with 5.5m length, 2.9m depth and 0.61m width. Some field experiments were also carried out in the IID (Imperial Irrigation District on a trapezoidal cross-section (0.61 m bottom width channel with pivot weir of 1.7m length, and two different widths of 1.63m. The flow rate (350-880 lit/s was held constant and different angles (15-50° calibrated instead of holding the angle constant and varying the flow rate. Some other laboratory tests were performed with Wahlin and Replogle (1994 on two pivot weirs with 1.2 m and 1.14 m width for the 0.61 m and 0.46 m length of blade and contraction factor of 0.925. RUBICON Company established an extensive operation on the application and automation of pivot weirs in irrigation channels in Australia (Www.rubicon.com. All previous studies concentrated on modifying the normal rectangular weir head-discharge equation so that it can be used for the pivot weirs. In this study, it is trying to derive a

  17. Conserving energy through new irrigation technologies. Technical briefing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    The benefits and applications of five irrigation technologies are explored: mobile drop-tube irrigation, computerized scheduling, reduced-pressure center pivots, well design and development, and automated gated-pipe systems. Perhaps the most promising of the new irrigation technologies is the low-energy, precision-application (LEPA) system. This mobile system used one-half the energy of conventional sprinkler systems and distributes water with greater efficiency through a series of low-pressure drop tubes suspended above the crop. Computerized methods of irrigation scheduling have been developed to help farmers conserve water and energy. Special computer programs determine when a crop needs water and how much to apply for optimal plant growth, thus preventing the unnecessary costs of pumping more water than the crop needs. Field test results show that replacing traditional scheduling methods of irrigation with computerized scheduling can reduce energy and water use by as much as 35%. The irrigation industry is actively promoting reduced-pressure water application methods, particularly for center-pivot systems. Reduced-pressure systems expend less energy but produce the same crop yields as conventional high-pressure systems, as long as excessive water runoff does not occur. If well design and development techniques are applied when a well is drilled into an unconsolidated acquifer, the well's life expectancy, as well as its operating efficiency, can increase, the later by as much as 40%.

  18. Influence of irrigation on the attack from some insects to sugarcane in the central zone of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Hernández Medina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It was studied, in several experiments with different irrigation levels, by graveness and by aspersion,the incidence of Diatraea saccharalis (Fab., Elasmopalpus lignosellus . Zeller. and Saccharosydne saccharivora. Westwood. on sugarcane. Damage caused by borer increased in varieties Ja60-5, B72-74, C1051-73 and C266-70 with application irrigation by graveness and in the variety C 87-51 with irrigation by aspersion with machine of central pivot. Affectations of antillean grasshopper had similar answer to irrigation. However irrigation by furrows caused significant decrease in attack of ratoons smaller borer to the three evaluated varieties.

  19. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  20. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  1. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  2. Irrigation in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrani, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  3. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  4. Excel PivotTables and PivotCharts Your Visual Blueprint for Creating Dynamic Spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Master two of the most powerful features of Excel. Even if you use Excel all the time, you may not be up to speed on two of Excel's most useful features. PivotTable and PivotChart turn long lists of unreadable data into dynamic, easy-to-read tables and charts that highlight the information you need most; you can tweak results with a click or easily fuse data from several sources into one document. Now you can learn how to tap these powerful Excel tools with this practical guide. Using a series of step-by-step tutorials and easy-to-follow screenshots, this book shows you in a visual way how to

  5. Assessment of the pivot shift using inertial sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Zaffagnini, Stefano; Signorelli, Cecilia; Grassi, Alberto; Yue, Han; Raggi, Federico; Urrizola, Francisco; Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2016-01-01

    The pivot shift test is an important clinical tool used to assess the stability of the knee following an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Previous studies have shown that significant variability exists in the performance and interpretation of this manoeuvre. Accordingly, a variety of techniques aimed at standardizing and quantifying the pivot shift test have been developed. In recent years, inertial sensors have been used to measure the kinematics of the pivot shift. The goal o...

  6. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    2017-01-01

    . We argue that the effect has historical origins: irrigation allowed landed elites in arid areas to monopolize water and arable land. This made elites more powerful and better able to oppose democratization. Consistent with this conjecture, we show that irrigation dependence predicts land inequality...

  7. Effective colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazier, W P; Dignan, R D; Capehart, R J; Smith, B G

    1976-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the cone method of colostomy irrigation is to return patients with colostomies to their former role in society with confidence in themselves to the extent that having a colostomy is not considered a handicap. The results have generally been excellent. We believe all patients with stomas should be afforded the opportunity to attempt colostomy irrigation.

  8. Pivotal issues on relativistic electrons in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2018-03-01

    The transfer of the plasma current from thermal to relativistic electrons is a threat to ITER achieving its mission. This danger is significantly greater in the nuclear than in the non-nuclear phase of ITER operations. Two issues are pivotal. The first is the extent and duration of magnetic surface breaking in conjunction with the thermal quenches. The second is the exponential sensitivity of the current transfer to three quantities: (1) the poloidal flux change required to e-fold the number of relativistic electrons, (2) the time τa after the beginning of the thermal quench before the accelerating electric field exceeds the Connor-Hastie field for runaway, and (3) the duration of the period τ_op in which magnetic surfaces remain open. Adequate knowledge does not exist to devise a reliable strategy for the protection of ITER. Uncertainties are sufficiently large that a transfer of neither a negligible nor the full plasma current to relativistic electrons can be ruled out during the non-nuclear phase of ITER. Tritium decay can provide a sufficiently strong seed for a dangerous relativistic-electron current even if τa and τ_op are sufficiently long to avoid relativistic electrons during non-nuclear operations. The breakup of magnetic surfaces that is associated with thermal quenches occurs on a time scale associated with fast magnetic reconnection, which means reconnection at an Alfvénic rather than a resistive rate. Alfvénic reconnection is well beyond the capabilities of existing computational tools for tokamaks, but its effects can be studied using its property of conserving magnetic helicity. Although the dangers to ITER from relativistic electrons have been known for twenty years, the critical issues have not been defined with sufficient precision to formulate an effective research program. Studies are particularly needed on plasma behavior in existing tokamaks during thermal quenches, behavior which could be clarified using methods developed here.

  9. Multimedia Pivot Tables for Multimedia Analytics on Image Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Zahálka, J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multimedia analytics solution for getting insight into image collections by extending the powerful analytic capabilities of pivot tables, found in the ubiquitous spreadsheets, to multimedia. We formalize the concept of multimedia pivot tables and give design rules and methods for the

  10. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  11. Airborne pathogens from dairy manure aerial irrigation and the human health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of liquid dairy manure by traveling gun or center pivot irrigation systems is becoming more common in Wisconsin because it offers several potential benefits: reduced road impacts from hauling, optimal timing for crop nutrient uptake, and reduced risks of manure runoff and groundwater con...

  12. Vertically loaded pivot bearing for high-speed shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippe, G.; Werner, D.; Keller, A.; Stephan, E.

    1974-01-01

    The pivot bearing subjected to vertical loads has a pivot with a rounded end and a diametral slot and a cup-shaped recess in the bearing box. The end of the pivot and the recess constitute a gap which widens towards the periphery of the bearing. The bearing box carries an attachment with a clearance, the shape of a hollow cylinder and accomodating the pivot and its shaft. To feed the lubricating oil surrounding and filling the bearing there is a groove either in the wall of the clearance or at the end of the pivot in the direction of rotation of the shaft or against it. The oil carried to the support point flows back into the oil bath surrounding the bearing through a slot in the bearing box. (DG) [de

  13. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 2: Pivot tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    Data analysis at the descriptive stage and the eventual presentation of results requires the tabulation and summarisation of data. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics. Pivot tables and pivot charts are one of Excel's most powerful and underutilised features, with tabulation functions that immensely facilitate descriptive statistics. Pivot tables permit users to dynamically summarise and cross-tabulate data, create tables in several dimensions, offer a range of summary statistics and can be modified interactively with instant outputs. Large and detailed datasets are thereby easily manipulated making pivot tables arguably the best way to explore, summarise and present data from many different angles. This second paper in the WASP series in Early Human Development provides pointers for pivot table manipulation in Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of irrigation performance: contribution to improve water management in a small catchment in the Brazilian savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Marioti, Juliana; Steenhuis, Tammo; Wallender, Wesley

    2010-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the major consumer of surface water in Brazil using over 70% of the total supply. Due to the growing competition for water among different sectors of the economy, sustainable water use can only be achieved by decreasing the portion of water used by the irrigated agriculture. Thus, in order to maintain yield, farmers need to irrigate more efficiently. There is little known on irrigation efficiency in Brazil. Therefore a study was carried out in the Buriti Vermelho basin to assess the irrigation performance of existing system. The experimental basin has a drainage area of 940 hectares and is located in the eastern part of the Federal District, in the Brazilian savanna region. Agriculture is the main activity. There is a dominance of red latosols. Several types of land use and crop cover are encountered in the basin. Conflicts among farmers for water are increasing. As water, in quality and quantity, is crucial to maintain the livelihood of the population in the basin, concern about risk of water lack due to climatic and land use change is in place. Once irrigation is the main water user in the basin, to increase water availability and reduce conflicts a water resource management plan has to be established. For this purpose, irrigation system performance has to be understood. The objective of this work was to assess the performance and the management of irrigation (small and big) that has been carried out by farmers in the Buriti Vermelho experimental watershed. A survey undertaken in 2007 was used to identify the irrigation systems in the basin. It was verified that irrigation is practiced by both small (area up to 6 hectare) and big farmers. Small farmers usually crop limes and vegetables and use micro-irrigation, drip, sprinkler, guns or furrow to irrigate them. Big farmers plant annual crops and use center pivot as irrigation system. In this first assessment 13 irrigation systems were evaluated: five conventional sprinklers, four drip

  15. Multimedia Pivot Tables for Multimedia Analytics on Image Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Zahálka, J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multimedia analytics solution for getting insight into image collections by extending the powerful analytic capabilities of pivot tables, found in the ubiquitous spreadsheets, to multimedia. We formalize the concept of multimedia pivot tables and give design rules and methods for the multimodal summarization, structuring, and browsing of the collection based on these tables, all optimized to support an analyst in getting structural and conclusive insights. Our proposed solution p...

  16. Geospatial compilation and digital map of centerpivot irrigated areas in the mid-Atlantic region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jason S.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate water availability within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Delaware Agricultural Extension, created a dataset that maps the number of acres under center-pivot irrigation in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain study area. For this study, the extent of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain falls within areas of the States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The irrigation dataset maps about 271,900 acres operated primarily under center-pivot irrigation in 57 counties. Manual digitizing was performed against aerial imagery in a process where operators used observable center-pivot irrigation signatures—such as irrigation arms, concentric wheel paths through cropped areas, and differential colors—to identify and map irrigated areas. The aerial imagery used for digitizing came from a variety of sources and seasons. The imagery contained a variety of spatial resolutions and included online imagery from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Imagery Program, Microsoft Bing Maps, and the Google Maps mapping service. The dates of the source images ranged from 2010 to 2012 for the U.S. Department of Agriculture imagery, whereas maps from the other mapping services were from 2013.

  17. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  18. An assessment of colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucks, S S; Mazier, W P; Milsom, J W; Buffin, S E; Anderson, J M; Warwick, M K; Surrell, J A

    1988-04-01

    One hundred patients with permanent sigmoid colostomies were surveyed to determine their satisfaction and success with the "irrigation" technique of colostomy management. Most patients who irrigate their colostomies achieve continence. Odors and skin irritation are minimized. The irrigation method is economical, time efficient, and allows a reasonably liberal diet. It avoids bulky appliances and is safe. In appropriately selected patients, the irrigation technique is the method of choice for management of an end-sigmoid colostomy.

  19. Study of Investments in Irrigation Water Sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation water sector is playing pivotal role in agricultural production and have prominent contribution to GDP (Gross Domestic Product both at provincial and country level. Many of the stakeholders including different ministries/department of Federal and Provincial governments, private sectors, farmers, and NGOs (Non-Government Organizations are investing in this sector. Although that the data and data analysis tools are present in most of the countries, yet a comprehensive information base on investments in irrigation water sector is missing. This has led to duplication at resources and beneficiaries? level on one side, as well as gaps in technical, infrastructural, institutional and managerial strategies of the irrigation water sector projects on the other. This paper analyzes investments in irrigation water sector made by government of KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the last 10 fiscal years? time period (2003-2013 and identifies gaps. Besides recommendations are also made in order to overcome the identified gaps/issues.

  20. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  1. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  2. PowerPivot for advanced reporting and dashboards

    CERN Document Server

    Bosco, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial with focused examples that builds progressively from basic to advanced topics and helps you create business intelligence reports and dashboards quickly and efficiently using the PowerPivot add-in.This book is ideal for data analysts, reporting and MIS professionals, business analysts, managers, dashboard makers, business intelligence professionals, self-service business intelligence personnel, and students. It is assumed that you have basic data analysis skills and intermediate level Excel skills. Familiarity with Pivot Tables as well as basic knowledge of VBA scripting

  3. Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System: The Future of Sugarcane Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. J. P. Gunarathna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may harm the growth and yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. without the introduction of appropriate irrigation facilities. Therefore, new irrigation methods should be developed to maximize water use efficiency and reduce operational costs. OPSIS (optimized subsurface irrigation system is a new solar-powered automatic subsurface irrigation system that creates a phreatic zone below crop roots and relies on capillarity to supply water to the root zone. It is designed for upland crops such as sugarcane. We investigated the performance of OPSIS for irrigating sugarcane and evaluated its performance against sprinkler irrigation under subtropical conditions. We conducted field experiments in Okinawa, Japan, over the period from 2013 to 2016 and took measurements during spring- and summer-planted main crops and two ratoon crops of the spring-planted crop. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, OPSIS produced a significantly higher fresh cane yield, consumed less irrigation water and provided a higher irrigation water use efficiency. We conclude that OPSIS could be adopted as a sustainable solution to sugarcane irrigation in Okinawa and similar environments.

  4. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  5. Book Review Pivotal Love Relationships By Richard Alapack (2007 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Love's Pivotal Relationships: The Chum, First Love, Outlaw and the Intimate Partner. Milton Keynes, UK/Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse Press. Paperback (218 pages). ISBN: 978-1-434-31904-3. Hardcover (232 pages). ISBN: 978-1-434-32452-8. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume 8, Edition 1 May 2008 ...

  6. Classroom Pivotal Response Teaching for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Suhrheinrich, Jessica; Reed, Sarah; Schreibman, Laura; Bolduc, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This practical manual and accompanying DVD-ROM present a research-supported behavioral intervention for children with autism that teachers can easily integrate into their existing classroom curriculum. Classroom Pivotal Response Teaching (CPRT) enhances children's motivation and participation in learning; increases the number of learning…

  7. Examination of Studies Targeting Social Skills with Pivotal Response Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkus Genc, Gulden; Vuran, Sezgin

    2013-01-01

    In early education, especially in effective teaching to children with autism spectrum disorders, the teaching methods which are applicable in natural settings like pivotal response treatment (PRT) are commonly used. It is one of the naturalistic intervention models aiming to facilitate the stimulant-response generalization, decrease the dependency…

  8. Pivotal Teaching Moments in Technology-Intensive Secondary Geometry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayton, Charity; Hollebrands, Karen; Okumus, Samet; Boehm, Ethan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates three teachers' uses of a dynamic geometry program (The Geometer's Sketchpad) in their high school geometry classes over a 2-year period. The researchers examine teachers' actions and questions during pivotal teaching moments to characterize mathematics instruction that utilizes technology. Findings support an association…

  9. Device with pivoting base for the storage of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A storage rack for nuclear fuel assemblies comprising lower and upper bearers to support and hold fuel assemblies in their vertical position is described. The feature of this rack is the lower supporting device which comprises a pivoting base on which rests each fuel assembly, thereby enabling the fuel assembly not be subjected to any fatigue during storage [fr

  10. 'Pivotal politics' in US energy and climate legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skodvin, Tora

    2010-01-01

    In the 110th Congress (2007-2008) legislation related to climate change was introduced at a faster pace than in any previous Congress, yet it did not result in a corresponding increase in enacted climate-related laws. A pertinent example of the political infeasibility of climate policy change in the 110th Congress is the case of tax credit extensions for production of renewable energy. While this issue in itself was uncontroversial, the extensions were only adopted in the 11th hour, after innumerable failed attempts. With an analytical point of departure in Krehbiel's theory of pivotal politics, this paper seeks to identify pivotal legislators in the case of the tax credit extensions and discusses how changes in the composition of pivotal legislators in the 111th Congress (2009-2010) may impact the prospects of moving climate legislation more generally. The analysis indicates that a majority of the legislative pivots in the case of tax credit extensions were Republican senators representing coal-producing states. In the case of climate change, however, the regional dimension is likely to be more significant for Democratic voting behaviour. Thus, the opportunity space for climate legislation in the 111th Congress remains narrow even with a reinforced Democratic majority in Congress.

  11. PIVOT: platform for interactive analysis and visualization of transcriptomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Fisher, Stephen A; Dueck, Hannah; Middleton, Sarah; Khaladkar, Mugdha; Kim, Junhyong

    2018-01-05

    Many R packages have been developed for transcriptome analysis but their use often requires familiarity with R and integrating results of different packages requires scripts to wrangle the datatypes. Furthermore, exploratory data analyses often generate multiple derived datasets such as data subsets or data transformations, which can be difficult to track. Here we present PIVOT, an R-based platform that wraps open source transcriptome analysis packages with a uniform user interface and graphical data management that allows non-programmers to interactively explore transcriptomics data. PIVOT supports more than 40 popular open source packages for transcriptome analysis and provides an extensive set of tools for statistical data manipulations. A graph-based visual interface is used to represent the links between derived datasets, allowing easy tracking of data versions. PIVOT further supports automatic report generation, publication-quality plots, and program/data state saving, such that all analysis can be saved, shared and reproduced. PIVOT will allow researchers with broad background to easily access sophisticated transcriptome analysis tools and interactively explore transcriptome datasets.

  12. [Irrigation in colostomies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Juana; Lecona, Ana; Caparrós, M Rosario; Barbero, M Antonia; Javier Cerdán, F

    2002-01-01

    The degree of acceptation of irrigation from a colostomy varies ostensibly from some cases to others, therefore, we study what occurs in our medium, separating those patients which have previously undergone other procedures (Group A) from those patients who have been informed and trained about the immediate postoperative period (Group B). 48 patients, 22 or 46% of these patients were considered not apt for irrigation. Of the 26 to whom this procedure was proposed, 14 or 54% accepted. Of these, 5 or 36% abandoned its use while 9 continued its use; this is 64% of those who accepted this procedure, 35% of those to whom it was proposed and 19% of the total study group. 189 patients. This procedure was not recommended to 95 patients, 50%. Of the 94 patients to whom this procedure was proposed, 65 or 69% accepted. Of these, 22 or 34% abandoned its use while 43 continued its use; this is 66% of those; who accepted this procedure, 46% of those to whom it was proposed and 23% of the total study group. In our medium, the practice of irrigation oscillates between 19 and 23% of patients who have undergone a colostomy, without any significant difference referring to the moment when a patient started this procedure. A first report on this study was submitted in the III National Congress for Nursing in Colostomies.

  13. Modified rib pivot lateral thoracotomy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgrein, C; Hosgood, G

    2018-01-01

    To describe a modified rib pivot thoracotomy and its clinical application in client-owned dogs and cats. Case series of 24 dogs and 1 cat requiring a thoracotomy. A lateral thoracic incision over the required thoracic segment was made. The latissimus dorsi muscle was reflected dorsally. The predetermined rib was identified and the periosteum overlying the rib was elevated circumferentially, avoiding the intercostal neurovascular structures. Holes were pre-placed above and below the proposed osteotomy site. The rib was osteotomised and pivoted cranially. The pleura was incised and the required intrathoracic procedure was then performed. The thoracic cavity was closed by pre-placement of a suture through the pre-placed holes within the osteotomised rib. The pleura and intercostal musculature were closed, avoiding the intercostal neurovascular structures. The rib was re-apposed and the lateral approach was closed. The cases included were reviewed for both the rib pivoted as per the procedure required and postoperative complications. The study group comprised 8 Staffordshire Bull Terriers, 2 Poodles, 2 German Shepherd Dogs, 1 each of Basset Hound, Rhodesian Ridgeback, Golden Retriever, Australian Shepherd, Vizsla, Bull Mastiff, Schnauzer, Jack Russell Terrier, Bulldog, Deerhound, Labrador Retriever and Australian Terrier, and 1 cat. A modified rib pivot thoracotomy was performed for lung lobectomy (n = 11), oesophagectomy (7), subtotal pericardectomy (5), patent ductus arteriosus ligation (1) and thoracic duct ligation (1). Follow-up ranged from 2 to 40 weeks postoperatively. Postoperative complications included seroma formation in two dogs. A modified rib pivot thoracotomy should be considered as an alternative lateral thoracic approach with good exposure, minimal complications and low morbidity. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  15. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  16. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  17. Agriculture Irrigation and Water Use

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Rajinder S.; Crosswhite, William M.; Hostetler, John E.; Wright, Olivia W.; United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1992-01-01

    The 17 Western States, plus Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, account for 91 percent of all U.S. irrigated acreage, with the Western States alone contributing over 85 percent. This report integrates data on the distribution, characteristics, uses, and management of water resources from a wide variety of data sources. The report includes charts and tables on water use in irrigation; farm data comparing selected characteristics of irrigated and nonirrigated farms; and data on water applicatio...

  18. Irrigation management of sigmoid colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, S W; Beart, R W; Wendorf, L J; Ilstrup, D M

    1985-08-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 270 patients who had undergone abdominoperineal resection and sigmoid colostomy at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the ten years from 1972 to 1982; 223 patients returned their questionnaires with evaluable data. Sixty percent of the patients were continent with irrigation, and 22% were incontinent with irrigation. Eighteen percent had discontinued irrigation for various reasons. The proportion continent was higher in women, younger patients, and previously constipated patients. A poorly constructed colostomy may cause acute angle, parastoma hernia, stomal prolapse, or stenosis and thus be the cause of failure of irrigation.

  19. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  20. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  1. Average Case Analysis of Java 7's Dual Pivot Quicksort

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Sebastian; Nebel, Markus E.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a new Quicksort variant due to Yaroslavskiy was chosen as standard sorting method for Oracle's Java 7 runtime library. The decision for the change was based on empirical studies showing that on average, the new algorithm is faster than the formerly used classic Quicksort. Surprisingly, the improvement was achieved by using a dual pivot approach, an idea that was considered not promising by several theoretical studies in the past. In this paper, we identify the reason for this unexpe...

  2. How Patients Experience Antral Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blomgren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Antral irrigation earlier had an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Nowadays, it is often considered too unpleasant. However, the experience of patients of this procedure has been very seldom evaluated. Nor has the effect on pain in rhinosinusitis been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ experience of discomfort and pain during antral irrigation. We also assessed facial pain caused by rhinosinusitis before the procedure and pain soon after the procedure. Methods Doctors and 121 patients completed their questionnaires independently after antral irrigation in a university clinic, in a private hospital, and at a communal health center. Results Patients experienced mild pain during antral irrigation (mean and median visual analog scale score: <3. Their experience of pain during antral irrigation was closely comparable to pain during dental calculus scaling. Facial pain assessed before antral irrigation decreased quickly after the procedure. Conclusions Antral irrigation was well tolerated as an outpatient procedure. The procedure seems to relieve facial pain caused by the disease quickly. The role of antral irrigation in the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis will need further investigation.

  3. Irrigation management in organic greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Balendonck, J.; Berkelmans, R.; Enthoven, N.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigation in protected cultivation is essential due to the absence of natural precipitation. High evapotranspiration, due to higher temperature and prolonged cropping period, requires ample an adequate supply of water. The water supply in a greenhouse is solely carried out by irrigation and thus

  4. Scintigraphic assessment of colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P.; Olsen, N.; Krogh, K.; Laurberg, S.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate colonic transport following colostomy irrigation with a new scintigraphic technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To label the bowel contents 19 patients (11 uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, 8 complicated colostomy irrigation) took 111In-labelled polystyrene pellets one and two days before investigation. 99mTc-DTPA was mixed with the irrigation fluid to assess its extent within the bowel. Scintigraphy was performed before and after a standardized washout procedure. The colon was divided into three segments 1: the caecum andascending colon; 2: the transverse colon; 3: the descending and sigmoid colon. Assuming ordered evacuation of the colon, the contribution of each colonic segment to the total evacuation was expressed as a percentage of the original segmental counts. These were added to reach a total defaecation score (range: 0-300). RESULTS: In uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, the median defaecation score was 235 (range: 145-289) corresponding to complete evacuation of the descending and transverse colon and 35% evacuation of the caecum/ascending colon. In complicated colostomy irrigation it was possible to distinguish specific emptying patterns. The retained irrigation fluid reached the caecum in all but one patient. CONCLUSION: Scintigraphy can be used to evaluate colonic emptying following colostomy irrigation.

  5. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  6. pH Control of Untreated Water for Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyen, Faruk Bin; Kundu, Palash K.; Ghosh, Apurba K.

    2018-05-01

    Irrigation in India still plays a pivotal role in the country's economic and employment structure. But due to unawareness and lack of technological upgradations and ill and careless agricultural practices, the yield from the fields is poor and not to its best capacity. There exists a lot of reasons and factors that brings down the crop productivity. One among them is the quality of irrigation water that is supplied to the fields. It is a common practice in India and other sub-continental countries not to access the water qualitatively before getting fed to the fields. Albeit, it does not have catastrophic effects on the productivity, but it affects the nourishment of the crops to some good extent. Water pH has a strong effect on the soil and crop, when it comes to absorption of nutrients by the plant bodies. With properly regulating the pH level of the irrigation water, it is possible to create an ambiance where the symbiotic effects between the soil and the plant can be optimized. In this paper, it is tried to regulate the pH levels of the water based on the type of soil and the optimal requirement by the crop. The work in this paper involves neutralization of acidic or alkaline water before it is being supplied to the farmlands. The process model is simulation based which gave considerably good and acceptable results.

  7. Irrigating The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water insecurity and water inequality are international issues that reduce economic growth. Countries are adopting alternative approaches to rebalance the share of water between all users to mitigate economic loss for this and future generations. However, recent reforms have struggled to provide the necessary arguments to obtain political protection of the process. In the absence of proof, rent-seeking arguments have challenged the benefit of restoring environmental flows by arguing that policy design fails to maximise the environmental benefits. This is a problem in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), where despite establishing 3,200GL of environmental water, the policy is still under threat. Applied water economic policy advice fails, when it does not deal with uncertainty. The state-contingent analysis approach can map how individual decision makers can adapt to alternative states of water supply (i.e. drought, normal and wet) by reallocating inputs to obtain state-described outputs. By modelling changes to the states, or the frequency of the states occurring, climate change can modelled, and decision management responses explored. By treating the environment as another set of production systems, lessons learnt from managing perennial and annual agricultural production systems during the Millennium Drought in the MDB can be applied to explore the limits of irrigating the environment. The demand for water by a production system is a combination of state-general (must be irrigated every year e.g. perennial crop or permanent wetland) and state specific inputs (irrigate in response to the realise state). In simple terms, the greater the component of state-general water requirements a production system has, the less resilience it has when water supply is highly variable and if water is not available then production systems are irreversibly lost. While production systems that only need state-allocable water can adapt to alternative levels of scarcity without

  8. Failures to be celebrated: an analysis of major pivots of software startups

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Sohaib Shahid; Wang, Xiaofeng; Duc, Anh Nguyen; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    In the context of software startups, project failure is embraced actively and considered crucial to obtain validated learning that can lead to pivots. A pivot is the strategic change of a business concept, product or the different elements of a business model. A better understanding is needed on different types of pivots and different factors that lead to failures and trigger pivots, for software entrepreneurial teams to make better decisions under chaotic and unpredictable environment. Due t...

  9. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  10. New variants of finite criss-cross pivot algorithms for linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we generalize the so-called first-in-last-out pivot rule and the most-often-selected-variable pivot rule for the simplex method, as proposed in Zhang \\\\cite{Z91}, to the criss-cross pivot setting where neither the primal nor the dual feasibility is preserved. The finiteness

  11. Colostomy irrigation: are we offering it enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Fran

    This article discusses the use of irrigation for suitable colostomists and reasons why it can have a very positive effect on lifestyle. While it is evidence-based it also includes anecdotal tips from patients who irrigate. The suitability of patients to irrigate and ways to 'get started' with irrigation are discussed.

  12. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. The. Blackburn Press, New Jersey, USA. Li JS, Rao MJ (1999). Evaluation method of sprinkler irrigation nonuniformity. Trans. CSAE. 15(4): 78-82. Lin Z, Merkley GP (2011). Relationships between common irrigation application uniformity indicators. Irrig Sci. Online First™, 27 January. 2011.

  13. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  14. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Nordell, B

    2006-01-01

    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  15. N-Dimensional LLL Reduction Algorithm with Pivoted Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovász (LLL lattice reduction algorithm and many of its variants have been widely used by cryptography, multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO communication systems and carrier phase positioning in global navigation satellite system (GNSS to solve the integer least squares (ILS problem. In this paper, we propose an n-dimensional LLL reduction algorithm (n-LLL, expanding the Lovász condition in LLL algorithm to n-dimensional space in order to obtain a further reduced basis. We also introduce pivoted Householder reflection into the algorithm to optimize the reduction time. For an m-order positive definite matrix, analysis shows that the n-LLL reduction algorithm will converge within finite steps and always produce better results than the original LLL reduction algorithm with n > 2. The simulations clearly prove that n-LLL is better than the original LLL in reducing the condition number of an ill-conditioned input matrix with 39% improvement on average for typical cases, which can significantly reduce the searching space for solving ILS problem. The simulation results also show that the pivoted reflection has significantly declined the number of swaps in the algorithm by 57%, making n-LLL a more practical reduction algorithm.

  16. Wave Energy, Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    The fully instrumented Resen Waves Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF wave energy buoy model has gone through the first stage of testing in regular waves in scale 1:25 of the North Sea wave conditions, in the 3D deep wave basin at the Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering Laboratory of Aalborg...... University in Denmark. The model size was 60cm W x 90cm L x 21cm H. The 60 cm width pointed towards the wave front. The LOPF buoy is characterized by a simple mechanical design with few moving parts and direct electrical output and it is taut moored to the sea bed, so all forces are referenced to the seabed...... for maximum energy output in regular as well as irregular waves. During storms the buoy pivots and streamlines itself to minimize loads on the mooring line. A conservative estimate shows that a full scale system for North Sea conditions has a float size width of 15 m that will, with 60% generator efficiency...

  17. PowerPivot for Business Intelligence Using Excel and SharePoint

    CERN Document Server

    Ralston, Barry

    2011-01-01

    PowerPivot comprises a set of technologies for easy access to data mining and business intelligence analysis from Microsoft Excel and SharePoint. Power users and developers alike can create sophisticated, online analytic processing (OLAP) solutions using PowerPivot for Excel, and then share those solutions with other users via PowerPivot for SharePoint. Data can be pulled in from any of the leading database platforms, as well as from spreadsheets and flat files. PowerPivot for Business Intelligence Using Excel and SharePoint is your key to mastering PowerPivot. The book takes a scenario-based

  18. Subexponential lower bounds for randomized pivoting rules for the simplex algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedmann, Oliver; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Zwick, Uri

    2011-01-01

    The simplex algorithm is among the most widely used algorithms for solving linear programs in practice. With essentially all deterministic pivoting rules it is known, however, to require an exponential number of steps to solve some linear programs. No non-polynomial lower bounds were known, prior...... to this work, for randomized pivoting rules. We provide the first subexponential (i.e., of the form 2Ω(nα), for some α>0) lower bounds for the two most natural, and most studied, randomized pivoting rules suggested to date. The first randomized pivoting rule considered is Random-Edge, which among all improving...... pivoting steps (or edges) from the current basic feasible solution (or vertex) chooses one uniformly at random. The second randomized pivoting rule considered is Random-Facet, a more complicated randomized pivoting rule suggested by Kalai and by Matousek, Sharir and Welzl. Our lower bound for the Random...

  19. Carbon and water fluxes and footprints in tropical agricultural systems under rainfed and irrigated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Morillas, L.; Dalmagro, H. J.; D'Acunha, B.; Kim, Y.; Suarez, A.; Couto, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    In this talk, we will summarize results obtained using three tropical agricultural water observatories in Guanacaste, Costa Rica and Mato Grosso, Brazil. These flux towers and associated sensors enable detailed assessments of carbon use and water use efficiencies for crops under rain-fed and irrigated conditions. In addition to directly assessing water consumption from crops via eddy covariance, determination of water footprints and water use efficiencies using sensors and integrating it with remotely sensed data make it possible to (i) evaluate and compare different irrigation systems used in the study regions (drip, pivot and flood irrigation), (ii) assess the effect of irrigation over the local water balance to identify vulnerabilities associated with intensive water extraction for irrigation, and (iii) study the effect of inter-annual water availability fluctuations on crop water use. We conclude by comparing volumetric water footprints for crops, their carbon footprints, and water and carbon use efficiencies of crops produced under business-as-usual and alternative soil and water management scenarios.

  20. Perturb and Observe Control for an Embedded Point Pivoted Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brando

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine energy sources represent an attractive and inexhaustible reservoir able to contribute to the fulfillment of the world energy demand in accordance with climate/energy regulatory frameworks. Wave energy converter (WEC integration into the main grid requires both the maximization of the harvested energy and the proper management of the generation variability. The present paper focuses on both these mentioned issues. More specifically, it presents an embedded point pivoted absorber (PPA and its related control strategy aimed at maximizing the harvested energy. Experimental and numerical investigations have been carried out in a wave/towing tank facility in order to derive the design characteristics of the full-scale model and demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  1. Wave energy, lever operated pivoting float LOPF study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margheritini, L.

    2012-11-01

    The fully instrumented Resen Waves Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF wave energy buoy model has gone through the first stage of testing in regular waves in scale 1:25 of the North Sea wave conditions, in the 3D deep wave basin at the Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering Laboratory of Aalborg University in Denmark. The model size was 60cm W x 90cm L x 21cm H. The 60 cm width pointed towards the wave front. The LOPF buoy is characterized by a simple mechanical design with few moving parts and direct electrical output and it is taut moored to the sea bed, so all forces are referenced to the seabed for maximum energy output in regular as well as irregular waves. During storms the buoy pivots and streamlines itself to minimize loads on the mooring line. A conservative estimate shows that a full scale system for North Sea conditions has a float size width of 15 m that will, with 60% generator efficiency, produce 610 MWh/y (609.497 kWh/y) with an average power output of 69.6 kW, which requires a generator capacity of 700 kW. It is expected the generator efficiency can be increased to 90% in the future. More specific calculations (from EnergiNet) show that with one generator of 695 kW the expected power production is 585 MWh/y; with a generator of 250 kW and 100 kW, the expected power production is 481 MWh/y and 182 MWh/y respectively. In addition there are several areas for future improvements for increased power production. (Author)

  2. performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at mambilla

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    ratio (DPR), irrigation productivity (IP), labour requirements and water quality. Standard procedure was ... The exchangeable cations analysis of Kakara irrigation ... Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  3. Comparison and analysis of empirical equations for soil heat flux for different cropping systems and irrigation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, A.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Verma, S.B.; Suyker, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of four models for estimating soil heat flux density (G) in maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) fields under different irrigation methods (center-pivot irrigated fields at Mead, Nebraska, and subsurface drip irrigated field at Clay Center, Nebraska) and rainfed conditions at Mead. The model estimates were compared against measurements made during growing seasons of 2003, 2004, and 2005 at Mead and during 2005, 2006, and 2007 at Clay Center. We observed a strong relationship between the G and net radiation (Rn) ratio (G/Rn) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). When a significant portion of the ground was bare soil, G/Rn ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 and decreased with increasing NDVI. In contrast to the NDVI progression, the G/Rn ratio decreased with crop growth and development. The G/Rn ratio for subsurface drip irrigated crops was smaller than for the center-pivot irrigated crops. The seasonal average G was 13.1%, 15.2%, 10.9%, and 12.8% of Rn for irrigated maize, rainfed maize, irrigated soybean, and rainfed soybean, respectively. Statistical analyses of the performance of the four models showed a wide range of variation in G estimation. The root mean square error (RMSE) of predictions ranged from 15 to 81.3 W m-2. Based on the wide range of RMSE, it is recommended that local calibration of the models should be carried out for remote estimation of soil heat flux.

  4. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  5. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  6. Dynamic behavior of air lubricated pivoted-pad journal-bearing, rotor system. 2: Pivot consideration and pad mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1972-01-01

    Rotor bearing dynamic tests were conducted with tilting-pad journal bearings having three different pad masses and two different pivot geometries. The rotor was vertically mounted and supported by two three-pad tilting-pad gas journal bearings and a simple externally pressurized thrust bearing. The bearing pads were 5.1 cm (2.02 in.) in diameter and 2.8 cm (1.5 in.) long. The length to diameter ratio was 0.75. One pad was mounted on a flexible diaphragm. The bearing supply pressure ranged from 0 to 690 kilonewtons per square meter (0 to 100 psig), and speeds ranged to 38,500 rpm. Heavy mass pad tilting-pad assemblies produced three rotor-bearing resonances above the first two rotor critical speeds. Lower supply pressure eliminated the resonances. The resonances were oriented primarily in the direction normal to the diaphragm.

  7. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  8. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  9. [Continent colostomy and colon irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, D; Temelkov, T; Kiriazov, E; Ivanov, K; Ignatov, V; Kobakov, G

    2000-01-01

    The authors have studied a functional activity of a continent colostomy at 20 patients, undergone an abdomeno-perineal extirpation of rectum and carried out periodic colonirrigations, during a period of 6 months. A conus type, closed irrigating system has been used. The degree of an incontinency at patients has been compared before and after the beginning of the colonirrigations. The irrigating procedures have reduced spontaneous defications at patients during a week 28 times and have improved the quality of life significantly. The application of colostomy bags has been restricted in 8 (40%) patients. An intraluminal ultrasonographic investigation has been done at 12 (60%) patients at the end of 6 month irrigating period. No changes of the ultrasonographic image of the precolostomic segment of colon has been observed.

  10. AGROCLIMATIC DETERMINANTS OF IRRIGATION NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Łabędzki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the so far used in Poland methods and criteria for assessing the needs of irrigation for planning purposes, the assessment because of the agroclimatic conditions and taking into account the soil water retention. Irrigation needs of the most are determined taking into account crop water deficits. This is the factor that is characterized by a shortage of precipitation in relation to the water requirements of crops. Some methods use only the meteorological parameters that determine the state of the atmosphere-soil-plant system, and some also take into account soil water retention and its availability for plants.

  11. Mechanical design of deformation compensated flexural pivots structured for linear nanopositioning stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Kearney, Steven P.; Preissner, Curt A.

    2015-02-17

    A method and deformation compensated flexural pivots structured for precision linear nanopositioning stages are provided. A deformation-compensated flexural linear guiding mechanism includes a basic parallel mechanism including a U-shaped member and a pair of parallel bars linked to respective pairs of I-link bars and each of the I-bars coupled by a respective pair of flexural pivots. The basic parallel mechanism includes substantially evenly distributed flexural pivots minimizing center shift dynamic errors.

  12. Investigation on hard coating of pivot-jewel bearing and wearing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Kun; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of high speed rotating machine is related to the anti-wear properties of pivot jewel bearing used in the system. To reduce its wearing process, hard coating method is used on the steel pivot. Through the wearing test on specialized facilities, its founded that the TiN coating shows better performance than DLC coating, and multi-layer TiN coating can slow down the pivot's wearing process obviously compared to other methods. (authors)

  13. Soil Suitability Classification of Tomas Irrigation Scheme for Irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for sustainable rice production in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Since rice can be grown both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, the need for soil suitability evaluation becomes very necessary in order for supply to meet up with demand. Six land qualities viz; climate, soil physical properties, drainage, ...

  14. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation

  15. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrutia Cobo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands

  16. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  17. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  18. Comparative efficiency of trickle and furrow irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Qureshi, R.H.; Sandhu, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Comparison of furrow and trickle methods of irrigation to know their relative efficiency with respect to water applied and fertilizer used on tomatoes, cauliflower and lettuce as test crops using canal water, showed a significant saving of about 44 and 41 per cent respectively for irrigation water and fertilizer applied with trickle as compared to furrow irrigation. Trickle irrigated crops also showed a better response as regards the rate of survival, crop growth and time of maturity

  19. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  20. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food... DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator. (a) Identification. An ostomy irrigator is a device that consists of a container for fluid, tubing with a cone-shaped...

  1. On the Controllability and Observability of Actively Lubricated Journal Bearings with Pads Featuring Different Nozzle-Pivot Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    tilt angle, (iii) the vertical pad movement-due to the pivot flexibility, and (iv) the controllable force as the hydraulic DOF. The test rig consists of a rigid rotor supported by a single rocker-pivoted rigid pad. A thorough parametric study is carried out by investigating the effects of: (a) nozzle-pivot...... offset, (b) pivot flexibility, and (c) bearing loading on these control basics in order to determine the pad with the best control characteristics. Different nozzle-pivot offsets can be set by varying the positioning of either the injection nozzle or the pivot line. The influence of the pivot compliance...... on the bearing dynamics is assessed by benchmarking the results obtained with the flexible pivot against the rigid pivot. Three different bearing loads are studied. According to the results, the proposed configurations, especially the offset-pivot pad with slight offsets, improve the bearing control...

  2. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  3. Position paper : Whole bowel irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) should not be used routinely in the management of the poisoned patient. Although some volunteer studies have shown substantial decreases in the bioavailability of ingested drugs, no controlled clinical trials have been performed and there is no conclusive evidence that

  4. Pivotal response treatment for autism spectrum disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jiedi Lei, Pamela Ventola Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Pivotal response treatment (PRT is an evidence-based behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis principles aimed to improve social communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. PRT adopts a more naturalistic approach and focuses on using a number of strategies to help increase children’s motivation during intervention. Since its conceptualization, PRT has received much empirical support for eliciting therapeutic gains in greater use of functional social communication skills in individuals with ASD. Building upon the empirical evidence supporting PRT, recent advancements have increasingly turned to using interdisciplinary research integrating neuroimaging techniques and behavioral measures to help identify objective biomarkers of treatment, which have two primary purposes. First, neuroimaging results can help characterize how PRT may elicit change, and facilitate partitioning of the heterogeneous profiles of neural mechanisms underlying similar profile of behavioral changes observed over PRT. Second, neuroimaging provides an objective means to both map and track how biomarkers may serve as reliable and sensitive predictors of responder profiles to PRT, assisting clinicians to identify who will most likely benefit from PRT. Together, a better understanding of both mechanisms of change and predictors of responder profile will help PRT to serve as a more precise and targeted intervention for individuals with ASD, thus moving towards the goal of precision medicine and improving quality of care. This review focuses on the recent emerging neuroimaging evidences supporting PRT, offering current perspectives on the importance of interdisciplinary research to help clinicians better understand how PRT works and predict who will respond to PRT. Keywords: PRT, ASD, biomarkers, neuroimaging

  5. Quantification of the impacts of coalmine water irrigation on the underlying aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, D.; Usher, B.; van Tonder, G. [University of Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute of Groundwater Studies

    2009-07-15

    It is predicted that vast volumes of affected mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa, The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. Research over a period of more than 10 years has shown that this water can be used successfully for the irrigation of a range of crops. There is, however, continuing concern from the local regulators regarding the long-term impact that large-scale mine water irrigation may have on groundwater quality and quantity. Detailed research has been undertaken over the last three years to supplement the groundwater monitoring programme at five different pilot sites, on both virgin soils (greenfields) and in coalmining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The research has included soil moisture measurements, collection of in situ soil moisture over time, long-term laboratory studies of the leaching and attenuation properties of different soils and the impact of irrigation on acid rock drainage processes, and in depth determination of the hydraulic properties of the subsurface at each of these sites, including falling head tests, pumping tests and point dilution tests. This has been supported by geochemical modelling of these processes to quantify the impacts. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that in the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts have been contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From this mixing ratios have been calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers.

  6. 78 FR 64415 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Ground Pivoting Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...-abreast economy class layout, and accommodates side-by- side placement of LD-3 containers in the cargo... Committee, the Loads and Dynamics Harmonization Working Group developed criteria for determining pivoting... pivoting maneuver that takes into account the effects of the braking system and tire characteristics, in...

  7. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  8. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  9. Pivotal behavior as the mediator of the relationship between parental responsiveness and children's symbolic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Chu-Sui; Mahoney, Gerald; Cheng, Shu-Fen; Chang, Shu-Hui

    2017-08-01

    Previous research with parents and children with developmental disabilities indicated that the relationship between mothers' responsive style of interaction and children's rate of development was mediated by the simultaneous relationship between mothers' responsiveness and children's social engagement, or pivotal behavior. In this study, we attempted to determine whether children's pivotal behavior might also mediate the relationship between responsiveness and child development in a sample of 165 typically developing toddlers and their Taiwanese parents. Child development was assessed with a parent report measure of children's symbolic behavior. Parental responsiveness and children's pivotal behavior were assessed from observations of parent-child play. Results indicated that parental responsiveness was correlated with children's pivotal behavior, and that both of these variables were correlated with children's symbolic behavior. Structural equation models indicated that the relationship between responsiveness and children's symbolic behavior was fully mediated by children's pivotal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Decision-making in irrigation networks: Selecting appropriate canal structures using multi-attribute decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzade, Zeinab; Pagsuyoin, Sheree A; Ponnambalam, Kumaraswamy; Monem, Mohammad J

    2017-12-01

    The stiff competition for water between agriculture and non-agricultural production sectors makes it necessary to have effective management of irrigation networks in farms. However, the process of selecting flow control structures in irrigation networks is highly complex and involves different levels of decision makers. In this paper, we apply multi-attribute decision making (MADM) methodology to develop a decision analysis (DA) framework for evaluating, ranking and selecting check and intake structures for irrigation canals. The DA framework consists of identifying relevant attributes for canal structures, developing a robust scoring system for alternatives, identifying a procedure for data quality control, and identifying a MADM model for the decision analysis. An application is illustrated through an analysis for automation purposes of the Qazvin irrigation network, one of the oldest and most complex irrigation networks in Iran. A survey questionnaire designed based on the decision framework was distributed to experts, managers, and operators of the Qazvin network and to experts from the Ministry of Power in Iran. Five check structures and four intake structures were evaluated. A decision matrix was generated from the average scores collected from the survey, and was subsequently solved using TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method. To identify the most critical structure attributes for the selection process, optimal attribute weights were calculated using Entropy method. For check structures, results show that the duckbill weir is the preferred structure while the pivot weir is the least preferred. Use of the duckbill weir can potentially address the problem with existing Amil gates where manual intervention is required to regulate water levels during periods of flow extremes. For intake structures, the Neyrpic® gate and constant head orifice are the most and least preferred alternatives, respectively. Some advantages

  11. Hevin plays a pivotal role in corneal wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Chaurasia

    with exogenous administration of rhHevin. Thus, hevin plays a pivotal role in the corneal wound healing.

  12. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  13. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  14. IRRIGATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANT NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Airports consume significant amounts of water which can be compared to the volume consumed by mid-size cities, thus practices aimed at reducing water consumption are important and necessar y. The objective of this study was to assess the reuse potential of sewage effluent produced at a mid-size international airport for nursery irri gation. The sewage treatment system consisted of a facultative pond followed by a constructed wetland, which were monitored during one hydrological year a nd the parameters COD, pH, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and Escherichia coli we re analyzed. Removal efficiencies of 85% and 91% were achieved for C OD and solids, respectively. Removal efficiencies for ammonia nitrogen a nd total phosphorus were 77% and 59%, respectively. In terms of E. coli concen tration, the treated effluent met the recommendations by the World Health Organization for reuse in irrigation with the advantage of providing high levels of residual nutrient. The ornamental species Impatiens walleriana was irrigated with treated sewage effluent and plant growth characteristics were evalua ted. The experiment showed that reuse can enhance plant growth without signi ficantly affecting leaf tissue and soil characteristics. This study highlighted th e importance of simple technologies for sewage treatment especially in count ries which still do not present great investment in sanitation and proved that effluent reuse for landscape irrigation can provide great savings of water and financial resources for airport environments.

  15. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  16. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering...... cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and wet seasons. Three hundred and ninety-six lettuce, 72 soil, 15 poultry manure and 32 water samples...... were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: Lettuce irrigated with drip kits had the lowest levels of contamination, with, on average, 4 log units per 100 g, fewer thermotolerant coliforms than that irrigated with watering cans. However, drip kits often got clogged, required...

  17. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  18. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  19. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  20. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

    2013-12-01

    recharge) and by inferring ET through difference, modeling, and gas exchange. In April 2013 prior to planting, we installed 10 passive capillary wick lysimeters below the effective rooting zone (z=100 cm) in potato (n=6) and maize (n=4) cropping systems to collect drainage at a 10-minute time-step under cultivation on Isherwood Farms, a sixth-generation family farm in the Wisconsin Central Sands region. Lysimeters were also instrumented to measure soil moisture and temperature at depth (z=10, 20, 40, 80 cm). Farm operators initiated center-pivot irrigation when soil moisture dropped to approximately 50% of plant available water content. Results show that drainage for May-July 2013 was 43 × 53 mm and 48 × 41 mm in irrigated potato and maize cropping systems, respectively, despite 320 mm of precipitation received during the experimental period, which was 15% above average for this region. Soil moisture consistently fluctuated in response to precipitation/irrigation events at the 10 and 20 cm soil depths, but rarely fluctuated in response to precipitation/irrigation events at the 40 and 80 cm soil depths, supporting the low drainage observed during the growing season. Future work will couple these drainage data to ongoing phenological, micrometeorological, and gas exchange observations in order to infer ET and calculate crop water budgets on a seasonal basis.

  1. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  2. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since

  3. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  4. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  5. Failure Analysis on Tail Rotor Teeter Pivot Bolt on a Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, WANG; Zi-long, DONG

    2018-03-01

    Tail rotor teeter pivot bolt of a helicopter fractured when in one flight. Failure analysis on the bolt was finished in laboratory. Macroscopic observation of the tailor rotor teeter pivot bolt, macro and microscopic inspection on the fracture surface of the bolt was carried out. Chemical components and metallurgical structure was also carried out. Experiment results showed that fracture mode of the tail rotor teeter pivot bolt is fatigue fracture. Fatigue area is over 80% of the total fracture surface, obvious fatigue band characteristics can be found at the fracture face. According to the results were analyzed from the macroscopic and microcosmic aspects, fracture reasons of the tail rotor teeter pivot bolt were analyzed in detail

  6. The influence of applied internal and external rotation on the pivot shift phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Sebastian; Musahl, Volker; Perka, Carsten; Kauert, Ralf; Hoburg, Arnd; Becker, Roland

    2017-04-01

    The pivot shift test is performed in different techniques and the rotation of the tibia seems to have a significant impact on the amount of the pivot shift phenomenon. It has been hypothesised that external rotation will increase the phenomenon due to less tension at the iliotibial band in knee extension. Twenty-four patients with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency were included prospectively. The pivot shift test was performed bilaterally in internal and external tibial rotation under general anaesthesia. Knee motion was captured using a femoral and a tibial inertial sensor. The difference between positive and negative peak values in Euclidean norm of acceleration was calculated to evaluate the amount of the pivot shift phenomenon. The pivot shift phenomenon was significantly increased in patients with ACL insufficiency when the test was performed in external [mean 5.2 ms - 2 (95% CI 4.3-6.0)] compared to internal tibial rotation [mean 4.4 ms - 2 (95% CI 3.5-5.4)] (p = 0.002). In healthy, contralateral knees did not show any difference between external [mean 4.0 ms - 2 (95% CI 3.3-4.7)] and internal tibial rotation [mean 4.0 ms - 2 (95% CI 3.4-4.6)] (ns). The pivot shift phenomenon was increased with external rotation in ACL-insufficient knees, and therefore, one should perform the pivot shift test, rather, in external rotation to easily evoke the, sometimes difficult to detect, pivot shift phenomenon. I (diagnostic study).

  7. Army-Navy Integration and the Pivot to the West: A New Joint Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    rest on several principles focused on maintaining a “broad portfolio of military capabilities, offering versatility across the range of missions.”13...DC: Government Printing Office, 2010), 1; Mark E. Manyin et al., Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration’s “ Rebalancing ” toward Asia...Lawrence, Michael F. Martin, Ronald O’Rourke, and Bruce Vaughn. Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration’s “ Rebalancing ” toward Asia. Washington DC

  8. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  9. improving of irrigation management: a learning based approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Irrigation farms are small businesses and like any other business, the managers or ... human factors and constraints that impact on the adoption of irrigation ... Informal interaction with other irrigation farmers and social networks played a ...

  10. Setting efficiency indicators for center pivots Ajuste de indicadores de eficiência para pivôs centrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo L. Schons

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was discussed the efficiency criteria in each of the elements that compose a central pivot, and this analysis was applied to two sets of systems located in regions of Cruz Alta and Santo Augusto, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The methodology used combines water and energy assessment through an indicator called Normalized Specific Consumption in Irrigation (C ENI, allowing thus a comparison between equipment and projects. The C ENI in Cruz Alta region showed 72% of the equipment above the standard (8.68 kWh mm-1 ha-1 100m-1, and in Santo Augusto region 64.28% with consumption above the standard. The mean irrigation efficiency for Cruz Alta region was 29.85%, with standard deviation of 5.41%, and for Santo Augusto region, it was 29.02%, with standard deviation of 5.15%.Neste trabalho, são discutidos critérios de eficiência em cada um dos elementos que compõem um pivô central, sendo esta análise aplicada a dois conjuntos de sistemas localizados, nas regiões de Cruz Alta e Santo Augusto, Rio Grande do Sul. A metodologia utilizada associa as avaliações hídrica e energética por meio de um indicador denominado Consumo Específico Normalizado na Irrigação (C ENI, possibilitando, desta forma, uma comparação entre equipamentos e entre projetos. O C ENI na região de Cruz Alta apresentou 72% dos equipamentos acima do padrão (8,68 kWh mm-1 ha-1 100m-1, e na região de Santo Augusto, 64,28% com o consumo acima do padrão. A eficiência de irrigação média para a região de Cruz Alta foi de 29,85%, com desvio-padrão de 5,41%; e para a Região de Santo Augusto foi de 29,02%, com desvio padrão de 5,15%.

  11. Operation and monitoring guidelines and the development of a screening tool for irrigating with coal mine water in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, D.; Usher, B. [University of Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute of Groundwater Studies

    2009-07-15

    It is predicted that vast volumes of impacted mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa. The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. Detailed research has been undertaken over the past number of years onl both undisturbed soils and in coal-mining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that over the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts are contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From these data mixing ratios were calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers. One of the outcomes from this study was to define the conditions under which mine-water irrigation can be implemented and the associated operational and monitoring guidelines that should be followed. These have been based on the findings from this study, the fundamental considerations of mine-water irrigation, the regulatory environment and, as far as possible, the practical implementation of mine-water irrigation as part of optimal mine-water management. In an attempt to standardise decision-making regarding mine-water irrigation, the criteria, data, rules and fundamentals discussed have been combined in a user-friendly tool, called GIMI (Groundwater Impacts from Minewater Irrigation). This tool should assist in the practical implementation of mine-water irrigation as part of optimal mine-water management.

  12. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  13. Modelling human agency in ancient irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity is key in understanding ancient irrigation systems. Results of short term actions build up over time, affecting civilizations on larger temporal and spatial scales. Irrigation systems, with their many entities, social and physical, their many interactions within a changing environment

  14. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to analyse the technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among smallholder farmers in the guinea savannah, Nigeria, and determine the cost and returns on irrigated vegetable production. Two-stage sampling technique was used, purposive selection of two states and three Local ...

  15. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  16. Using Automation to Improve Surface Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area (WRA 08), also called the Mid-South, 2 million ha of cropland (80% of the irrigated farmland) employ surface irrigation, almost equally divided between furrow (52%) and controlled flooding (48%). Because Mid-South farmers experience less-than-optimal surf...

  17. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.

    2015-01-01

    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  18. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, Christos; van der Sluis, Lucas; Basrani, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the available information on bacterial disinfection in endodontics, with emphasis on the chemical treatment of root canals based on current understanding of the process of irrigation. It describes recent advances in knowledge of the chemistry associated with irrigants and delivery

  19. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author).

  20. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige

    1991-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with 99m Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author)

  1. Irrigation scheduling with the neutron probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travers, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational theory of the neutron probe is briefly outlined and its application and uses discussed in relation to determination of soil compaction and irrigation scheduling. Graphic examples are given of alluvial soil moisture profiles and how this information can be used to improve trickle irrigation in vineyards. 3 refs., 7 figs

  2. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  3. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed.

  4. Reconciling irrigated food production with environmental flows for Sustainable Development Goals implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, Jonas; Pastor, Amandine; Biemans, Hester; Gerten, Dieter

    2017-07-19

    Safeguarding river ecosystems is a precondition for attaining the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to water and the environment, while rigid implementation of such policies may hamper achievement of food security. River ecosystems provide life-supporting functions that depend on maintaining environmental flow requirements (EFRs). Here we establish gridded process-based estimates of EFRs and their violation through human water withdrawals. Results indicate that 41% of current global irrigation water use (997 km 3 per year) occurs at the expense of EFRs. If these volumes were to be reallocated to the ecosystems, half of globally irrigated cropland would face production losses of ≥10%, with losses of ∼20-30% of total country production especially in Central and South Asia. However, we explicitly show that improvement of irrigation practices can widely compensate for such losses on a sustainable basis. Integration with rainwater management can even achieve a 10% global net gain. Such management interventions are highlighted to act as a pivotal target in supporting the implementation of the ambitious and seemingly conflicting SDG agenda.

  5. Reconciling irrigated food production with environmental flows for Sustainable Development Goals implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, Jonas; Pastor, Amandine; Biemans, Hester; Gerten, Dieter

    2017-07-01

    Safeguarding river ecosystems is a precondition for attaining the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to water and the environment, while rigid implementation of such policies may hamper achievement of food security. River ecosystems provide life-supporting functions that depend on maintaining environmental flow requirements (EFRs). Here we establish gridded process-based estimates of EFRs and their violation through human water withdrawals. Results indicate that 41% of current global irrigation water use (997 km3 per year) occurs at the expense of EFRs. If these volumes were to be reallocated to the ecosystems, half of globally irrigated cropland would face production losses of >=10%, with losses of ~20-30% of total country production especially in Central and South Asia. However, we explicitly show that improvement of irrigation practices can widely compensate for such losses on a sustainable basis. Integration with rainwater management can even achieve a 10% global net gain. Such management interventions are highlighted to act as a pivotal target in supporting the implementation of the ambitious and seemingly conflicting SDG agenda.

  6. Stress optimization of leaf-spring crossed flexure pivots for an active Gurney flap mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Gómez, Jon; Booker, Julian D.; Mellor, Phil H.

    2015-04-01

    The EU's Green Rotorcraft programme is pursuing the development of a functional and airworthy Active Gurney Flap (AGF) for a full-scale helicopter rotor blade. Interest in the development of this `smart adaptive rotor blade' technology lies in its potential to provide a number of aerodynamic benefits, which would in turn translate into a reduction in fuel consumption and noise levels. The AGF mechanism selected employs leaf-spring crossed flexure pivots. These provide important advantages over bearings as they are not susceptible to seizing and do not require maintenance (i.e. lubrication or cleaning). A baseline design of this mechanism was successfully tested both in a fatigue rig and in a 2D wind tunnel environment at flight-representative deployment schedules. For full validation, a flight test would also be required. However, the severity of the in-flight loading conditions would likely compromise the mechanical integrity of the pivots' leaf-springs in their current form. This paper investigates the scope for stress reduction through three-dimensional shape optimization of the leaf-springs of a generic crossed flexure pivot. To this end, a procedure combining a linear strain energy formulation, a parametric leaf-spring profile definition and a series of optimization algorithms is employed. The resulting optimized leaf-springs are proven to be not only independent of the angular rotation at which the pivot operates, but also linearly scalable to leaf-springs of any length, minimum thickness and width. Validated using non-linear finite element analysis, the results show very significant stress reductions relative to pivots with constant cross section leaf-springs, of up to as much as 30% for the specific pivot configuration employed in the AGF mechanism. It is concluded that shape optimization offers great potential for reducing stress in crossed flexure pivots and, consequently, for extending their fatigue life and/or rotational range.

  7. Controlled, Rapid Uprighting of Molars: A surprisingly Simple Solution The Pivot Arm Appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warise, Timothy R; Galella, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic cases where the regional anatomy provides limited room for eruption, there is etiologically a higher occurrence of tipped/impacted second molars. Although second molar extraction with third molar replacement is a useful option, the "Pivot Arm Appliance" encourages the uprighting of the second molar as a preferred treatment. The most unique and important attribute of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" is the rotating tube. In cases of access limitation, the disto-occlusal surface of the molar presents as one area that is accessible. Other features of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" include: The position of the rotator tube delivers optimal rotational force through the pivoting action of the tube/arm complex. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" takes advantage of the efficiency and simplicity of a Class I lever system. The anatomical fulcrum being the dense cortical bone located anterior to the ascending ramus. The vertical spring system is compact, reliable and delivers gentle controlled force in rotational direction. The lingual location of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not hinder the function of the tongue, impinge on the soft tissue or interfere with normal masticatory function. The ease of placement of the rotator tube and subsequent insertion of the spring. It is well to note the uprighting appliance provides a very useful and practical approach to the unique problem of severely tipped second molars with limited buccal access. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not function only in these situations but can be used in all cases of second molar uprighting of a moderate to severe nature.

  8. Scheduling of Irrigation and Leaching Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hassan Al-haddad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iraq depends mainly on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to provide high percentage of agricultural water use for thousands years. At last years, Iraq is suffering from shortage in water resources due to global climate changes and unfair water politics of the neighboring countries, which affected the future of agriculture plans for irrigation, added to that the lack of developed systems of water management in the irrigation projects and improper allocation of irrigation water, which reduces water use efficiency and lead to losing irrigation water and decreasing in agricultural yield. This study aims at studying the usability of irrigation and leaching scheduling within the irrigating projects and putting a complete annual or seasonal irrigation program as a solution for the scarcity of irrigation water, the increase of irrigation efficiency, lessening the salinity in the projects and preparing an integral irrigation calendar through field measurements of soil physical properties and chemical for project selected and compared to the results of the irrigation scheduling and leaching with what is proposed by the designers. The process is accomplished by using a computer program which was designed by Water Resources Department at the University of Baghdad, with some modification to generalize it and made it applicable to various climatic zone and different soil types. Study area represented by large project located at the Tigris River, and this project was (Al-Amara irrigation project. Sufficient samples of project's soil were collected so as to identify soil physical and chemical properties and the salinity of soil and water as well as identifying the agrarian cycles virtually applied to this project. Finally, a comparison was conducted between the calculated water quantities and the suggested ones by the designers. The research results showed that using this kind of scheduling (previously prepared irrigation and leaching scheduling with its properties

  9. Optimization of modern irrigation for biosaline agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, S.A.; Hasbini, B.

    2007-01-01

    Supplementation water is a must to offset the water requirement to produce profitable crops in most arid and semiarid zones, where fresh water resources are insufficient to meet the pressure of irrigated agriculture. This necessitates the use of poor quality water resources. These waters if not properly managed and used can cause serious soil related problems (salinity, sodicity, destruction of soil structure) in addition to decline in crop yields. Biosaline agriculture (using saline water on saline soils to grow salt-tolerant crops) becomes the only option for the farmer when both soil and water resources are saline and the water resource is scarce. In this regards key design considerations must be taken into account when irrigating with salty waters to optimize water uses and to reduce subsequent soil salinity development. Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used in irrigation of large-scale irrigational production systems. However they tend to concentrate salts on the leaves of plants. For this reason discharge and degree of overlap between consecutive sprinkler heads, are key design parameters when applying salty waters. Trickle irrigation is the most efficient system and is gaining importance in the GCC countries in the agriculture and landscape irrigation. The objective of this study was to optimize modern irrigation systems through development of design standards for drip (emitters spacing) and sprinkler irrigation systems (single head jet and overlapping) by applying saline water. The effect of emitter spacing (drip) and overlapping (sprinkler) were tested for the formation of salt contours in soil. The leaching ratio (LR) is the overall soil sanity within rhizosphere divided by the average irrigation water salinity. In this study LR is used to evaluate the effectiveness of irrigation systems in developing soil sanity. From the present investigations it is concluded that when using saline water for irrigation, the soil sanity development can be

  10. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost.

  11. The Temporal Variation of Leaf Water Potential in Pistachio under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf AYDIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the experimental field of Pistachio Research Institute on pistachio trees which has uzun variety that was 30 years old. The aim of this research was to determine the Leaf Water Potential (LWP of Pistacia vera L. under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. In the study, the leaf water potential of pistachio was investigated under fully irrigated and non irrigated conditions. The leaf water potential values were measured one day before and after irrigation by using pressure chamber technique at the beginning, mid and end of irrigation season. According to the results obtained from measurements, the LWP value at the beginning of the irrigation season was -3.7 MPa at noon time due to relatively high temperature for both treatments. At the time of pre-dawn and sunset, this value increased and reached to - 1.6 MPa due to relatively low temperature. In general, the LWP values during the mid of irrigation season, in the irrigated treatments, reached to almost -2.5 MPa in the non-irrigated treatment and the value was measured as -3.68 MPa.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of the pivot shift by image analysis using the iPad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yuichi; Araujo, Paulo; Ahldén, Mattias; Samuelsson, Kristian; Muller, Bart; Hofbauer, Marcus; Wolf, Megan R; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H; Musahl, Volker

    2013-04-01

    To enable comparison of test results, a widely available measurement system for the pivot shift test is needed. Simple image analysis of lateral knee joint translation is one such system that can be installed on a prevalent computer tablet (e.g. iPad). The purpose of this study was to test a novel iPad application to detect the pivot shift. It was hypothesized that the abnormal lateral translation in ACL deficient knees would be detected by the iPad application. Thirty-four consecutive ACL deficient patients were tested. Three skin markers were attached on the following bony landmarks: (1) Gerdy's tubercle, (2) fibular head and (3) lateral epicondyle. A standardized pivot shift test was performed under anaesthesia, while the lateral side of the knee joint was monitored. The recorded movie was processed by the iPad application to measure the lateral translation of the knee joint. Lateral translation was compared between knees with different pivot shift grades. Valid data sets were obtained in 20 (59 %) ACL deficient knees. The remaining 14 data sets were invalid because of failure to detect translation or detection of excessive translation. ACL deficient knees had larger lateral translation than the contra-lateral knees (p iPad application, the potential of the iPad application to classify the pivot shift was demonstrated.

  13. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Naydyonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the state of microbial cenosis of Ukraine’s chernozems under irrigation. Considerable part of Ukraine’s chernozems is located in the areas where humidification is insufficient and unstable. Irrigation is a soil-reclamation measure for chernozems of Ukrainian Forest-steppe and Steppe which enables getting the assured yield, especially vegetable and fodder crops. At the same time, irrigation is a powerful anthropogenic factor that affects the soil, causes a significant transformation of many of its properties and regimes including biological ones. Often these changes are negative. The purpose of our investigation was to identify changes in the state of microbial cenoses of chernozem soils under irrigation which depend on such factors as the quality of irrigation water, the duration and intensity of irrigation, the initial properties of soil, the structure of crop rotation, usage of fertilizing systems and agroameliorative techniques. We identified direction and evaluated a degree of changes in biological properties of chernozems under influence of irrigation in different agro-irrigational and soil-climatic conditions. In the long-term stationary field experiments we identified the following biological indices of irrigated soils and their non-irrigated analogues: a number of microorganisms which belong to main ecological-trophic groups, activity of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidase, soil phytotoxic activity, cellulose destroying capacity of soil, indices of oligotrophy and mineralization, summary biological index (SBI and index of biological degradation (BDI. Results of researches showed that irrigation unbalanced the soil ecosystem and stipulated the forming of microbial cenosis with new parameters. Long-term intensive irrigation of typical chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water under condition of 4-fields vegetable crop rotation led to the degradation changes of its microbial cenosis such as

  14. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  15. Ancestral irrigation method by kanis in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Cañas, José; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation in the Andean region is an ancient practice. For centuries, farmers were able to use the waters of rivers, lakes and springs to complement or supplement the scarce rainfall regime. The inter-Andean valleys of the Department of La Paz are the best areas for the study of traditional irrigation systems. This work has been carried out in the community of Jatichulaya located in te town of Charazani, 300 km from the city of La Paz, which lies 3250 meters above sea level. The annual rainfall ranges around 450 mm distributed mainly between the months of December to March. Therefore, water is needed to achieve adequate crop yields. The traditional irrigation system is done by the method of Kanis, consisting of a surface irrigation already developed by traditional Andean cultures of the country, in harmony with the ecological and productive characteristics of the area. Water enters the irrigation plot through a main channel (mama kani) from which the secondary channels (juchuy kanis) are derived. The fundamental characteristic of this irrigation is that these channels are open at the same time the water enters into the plot. The system works properly, adapting to the topography of the area. The irrigation method practiced in this community does not cause water erosion of soils because water management within the plot is based on the ancient knowledge of farmers following the contour lines. This practice allows good irrigation development and soil protection without causing any problems. However, it was evident a high use of labor in irrigation practice. Irrigation scheduling is done according to requests made by the irrigators in a given period. Delivering of water to the farmers is made by the so-called Water Agent (Agente de Aguas) or person in charge of the distribution of water. The Water Agent is elected annually and its functions include the maintenance and care of all system waterworks. The period between August and January is the highest water demand and

  16. Testing of the rectangular pivot-point bellows for the PPPL tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughian, J.; Lou, K.; Greer, J.; Fong, M.; Scalise, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    The Neutral Beam Pivot Point Bellows (PPB) is installed in the duct which connects the Neutral Beam Enclosure to the Torus. This bellows, located at the pivot point, must fit the severely limited space available at the pivot-point location. Consequently, it has to be made rectangular in cross section with a large inside area for beam access. This leads to small convolutions with high stress concentrations. The function of the bellows is to permit change in the angular positioning of the neutral beam line with respect to the Tokamak, to isolate the Neutral Beam Line from the deflection of the Torus during bake out, and to allow for all misalignments. Internally the bellows will have a vacuum along with such gases such as hydrogen or deuterium. Tests parameters are described

  17. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  18. effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of okro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    reduce the demand for irrigation water (Boland et al., 1993). Deficit irrigation is another way in which water use efficiency can be maximized for higher yields per unit of irrigation water. Stegman (1982) reported that the yield of maize, sprinkler irrigated to induce a 30 - 40 percent depletion of available water between.

  19. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  20. Single-sided natural ventilation through a centre-pivot roof window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Nielsen, Peter V.; Gunner, Amalie

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of centre pivot roof windows for wind driven single-sided ventilation has not been studied before. These types of windows are dominating roof windows in Europe. Knowledge of flow characteristics of this kind of window is essential for accurate designing of natural ventilation...... systems. In this study, numerical methods were used to characterise a centre-pivot roof window for wind-driven single-sided ventilation. A 1:20 scale model house of the Energy Flex House (Denmark) was used in this study. The roof slope was 36o. It was found that the single-sided ventilation through...

  1. An approach to evaluate capacitance, capacitive reactance and resistance of pivoted pads of a thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Har

    1992-07-01

    A theoretical approach is developed for determining the capacitance and active resistance between the interacting surfaces of pivoted pads and thrust collar, under different conditions of operation. It is shown that resistance and capacitive reactance of a thrust bearing decrease with the number of pads times the values of these parameters for an individual pad, and that capacitance increases with the number of pads times the capacitance of an individual pad. The analysis presented has a potential to diagnose the behavior of pivoted pad thrust bearings with the angle of tilt and the ratio of film thickness at the leading to trailing edge, by determining the variation of capacitance, resistance, and capacitive reactance.

  2. Local land-atmosphere feedbacks limit irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Mark; Ma, Shaoxiu; Pitman, Andy

    2017-05-01

    Irrigation is known to influence regional climate but most studies forecast and simulate irrigation with offline (i.e. land only) models. Using south eastern Australia as a test bed, we demonstrate that irrigation demand is fundamentally different between land only and land-atmosphere simulations. While irrigation only has a small impact on maximum temperature, the semi-arid environment experiences near surface moistening in coupled simulations over the irrigated regions, a feedback that is prevented in offline simulations. In land only simulations that neglect the local feedbacks, the simulated irrigation demand is 25% higher and the standard deviation of the mean irrigation rate is 60% smaller. These local-scale irrigation-driven feedbacks are not resolved in coarse-resolution climate models implying that use of these tools will overestimate irrigation demand. Future studies of irrigation demand must therefore account for the local land-atmosphere interactions by using coupled frameworks, at a spatial resolution that captures the key feedbacks.

  3. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  4. 16. PRE-OPERATIVE BLADDER IRRIGATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    effectiveness of using preoperative bladder irrigation with 1% povidone iodine in reducing ... consenting patient who presented to the department of surgery for open ..... infections in a tertiary care center in south-western. Nigeria. International ...

  5. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater quality; irrigation and domestic suitability; ionic balance, Suri I and II ... is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. ... total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study.

  6. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  7. The Regularity of Optimal Irrigation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Jean-Michel; Santambrogio, Filippo

    2010-02-01

    A branched structure is observable in draining and irrigation systems, in electric power supply systems, and in natural objects like blood vessels, the river basins or the trees. Recent approaches of these networks derive their branched structure from an energy functional whose essential feature is to favor wide routes. Given a flow s in a river, a road, a tube or a wire, the transportation cost per unit length is supposed in these models to be proportional to s α with 0 measure is the Lebesgue density on a smooth open set and the irrigating measure is a single source. In that case we prove that all branches of optimal irrigation trees satisfy an elliptic equation and that their curvature is a bounded measure. In consequence all branching points in the network have a tangent cone made of a finite number of segments, and all other points have a tangent. An explicit counterexample disproves these regularity properties for non-Lebesgue irrigated measures.

  8. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-10-05

    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  9. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  10. Decision support system for surface irrigation design

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, José M.; Pereira, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The SADREG decision support system was developed to help decision makers in the process of design and selection of farm surface irrigation systems to respond to requirements of modernization of surface irrigation—furrow, basin, and border irrigation. It includes a database, simulation models, user-friendly interfaces, and multicriteria analysis models. SADREG is comprised of two components: design and selection. The first component applies database information, and through several si...

  11. System contemplations for precision irrigation in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Martin J. W.

    2017-04-01

    This communication contemplates political, biological and technical aspects for efficient and profitable irrigation in sustainable agriculture. A standard for irrigation components is proposed. The need for many, and three-dimensionally distributed, soil measurement points is explained, thus enabling the control of humidity in selected layers of earth. Combined wireless and wired data transmission is proposed. Energy harvesting and storage together with mechanical sensor construction are discussed.

  12. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  13. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  14. European Marketing Authorizations Granted Based on a Single Pivotal Clinical Trial: The Rule or the Exception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Anne Vinther; Vestergaard, Henrik Tang

    2018-07-01

    A minimum of two positive, adequate, and well-controlled clinical trials has historically been the gold standard for providing substantial evidence to support regulatory approval of a new medicine. Nevertheless, the present analysis of European Marketing Authorizations granted between 2012 and 2016 showed that 45% of new active substances were approved based on a single pivotal clinical trial. For therapeutic areas such as oncology and cardiovascular diseases, approvals based on a single pivotal trial are the rule rather than the exception, whereas new medicines within the nervous system area were generally supported by two or more pivotal trials. While overall similar trends have been observed in the US, the recent US Food and Drug Administration approvals of nervous system medicines based on a single pivotal trial suggest that a case-by-case scientific evaluation of the totality of evidence is increasingly applied to facilitate faster access of new medicines to patients suffering from serious diseases. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. Plant responses, climate pivot points, and trade-offs in water-limited ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, S. M.; Bunting, E.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem transitions and thresholds are conceptually well-defined and have become a framework to address vegetation response to climate change and land-use intensification, yet there are few approaches to define the environmental conditions which can lead to them. We demonstrate a novel climate pivot point approach using long-term monitoring data from a broad network of permanent plots, satellite imagery, and experimental treatments across the southwestern U.S. The climate pivot point identifies conditions that lead to decreased plant performance and serves as an early warning sign of increased vulnerability of crossing a threshold into an altered ecosystem state. Plant responses and climate pivot points aligned with the lifespan and structural characteristics of species, were modified by soil and landscape attributes of a site, and had non-linear dynamics in some cases. Species with strong increases in abundance when water was available were most susceptible to losses during water shortages, reinforcing plant energetic and physiological tradeoffs. Future research to uncover the heterogeneity of plant responses and climate pivot points at multiple scales can lead to greater understanding of shifts in ecosystem productivity and vulnerability to climate change.

  16. Weighted Traffic Equilibrium Problem in Non Pivot Hilbert Spaces with Long Term Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffre, Sofia; Pia, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    In the paper we consider a weighted traffic equilibrium problem in a non-pivot Hilbert space and prove the equivalence between a weighted Wardrop condition and a variational inequality with long term memory. As an application we show, using recent results of the Senseable Laboratory at MIT, how wireless devices can be used to optimize the traffic equilibrium problem.

  17. Pivotal Ways of Improving Leadership and the Scholarship of Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sue; Christie, Michael; Graham, Wayne A.; Call, Kairen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new model of leadership that can improve the knowledge and skills needed by school leaders who undertake Masters of Business and Masters of Education. The model is called PIVOTAL which stands for Partnerships, Innovation and Vitality--Opportunities for Thriving Academic Leadership. The model is compared and contrasted with…

  18. The effect of gap width on viscous stresses within the leakage across a bileaflet valve pivot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travis, Brandon R; Andersen, Morten E; Fründ, Ernst Torben

    2008-01-01

    reported within the pivots in previous studies. Velocities measured experimentally were even larger than those estimated computationally. CONCLUSION: These experiments suggest that viscous stresses in leakage flow across a bileaflet mitral valve increase with gap width, and may contribute more to blood...

  19. Pivoting output unit control systems activated by jacks. [for controlling aircraft flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliere, P.

    1978-01-01

    An invention to be used for controlling aircraft flaps is described. It is applicable to control systems with two coaxial output units which pivot simultaneously with respect to two fixed units and which are activated by two opposed, straight coaxial jacks.

  20. Problem of unstable pivots in the incomplete LU-conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    Incomplete LU and incomplete-Cholesky conjugate gradient methods are becoming widely used in both laser and magnetic fusion research. In my original presentation of these methods, the problem of what to do if a pivot [L/sub ii/U/sub ii/) becomes very small or zero was raised and only partially answered by the suggestion that it be arbitrarily set to some non-zero value. In what follows it will be shown precisely how small the pivot can become before it must be fixed and precisely what value it should be set to in order to minimize the error in LU. Numerical examples will be given to show that not only does this prescription improve incomplete LU-conjugate gradient methods , but exact LU decomposition carried out with this prescription for handling small pivots and followed by a few linear or conjugate gradient iterations can be much faster than the permutations of rows and columns usually employed to circumvent small pivot problems

  1. Pivotal Response Treatment for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W.; Klin, Ami; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was…

  2. Neural Mechanisms of Improvements in Social Motivation after Pivotal Response Treatment: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Avery C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Tirrell, Jonathan; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Vander Wyk, Brent; Kaiser, Martha D.; McPartland, James C.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Ventola, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is an empirically validated behavioral treatment that has widespread positive effects on communication, behavior, and social skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). For the first time, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the neural correlates of successful response to…

  3. Unique characteristics of regulatory approval and pivotal studies of orphan anticancer drugs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hiroki; Tsukamoto, Katsura

    2018-04-17

    The approval of orphan anticancer drugs has increased, with the number exceeding that of non-orphan drugs in Japan in recent years. Although orphan anticancer drugs may have unique characteristics due to their rarity, these have not been fully characterized. We investigated anticancer drugs approved in Japan between April 2004 and November 2017 to reveal the characteristics of regulatory approval and pivotal studies on orphan anticancer drugs compared to non-orphan drugs. The median regulatory review time and number of patients in pivotal studies on orphan anticancer drugs (281.0 days [interquartile range, 263.3-336.0]; 222.5 patients [66.0-454.3]) were significantly lower than those on non-orphan drugs (353.0 days [277.0-535.5]; 521.0 patients [303.5-814.5], respectively) (P < 0.001). Phase II, non-randomized and non-controlled designs were more frequently used in pivotal studies on orphan anticancer drugs (45.9%, 41.9% and 43.2%) than non-orphan drugs (17.2%, 14.1% and 14.1%, respectively). Response rate was more commonly used as a primary endpoint in pivotal studies on orphan anticancer drugs (48.6%) than non-orphan drugs (17.2%). Indications limited by molecular features, second or later treatment line, and accelerated approval in the United States were associated with the use of response rate in orphan anticancer drug studies. In conclusion, we demonstrated that orphan anticancer drugs in Japan have unique characteristics compared to non-orphan drugs: shorter regulatory review and pivotal studies frequently using phase II, non-randomized, or non-controlled designs and response rate as a primary endpoint, with fewer patients.

  4. Efficient Storage and Querying of Horizontal Tables Using a PIVOT Operation in Commercial Relational DBMSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Hyun; Moon, Yang-Sae; Kim, Jinho; Kim, Sang-Wook

    In recent years, a horizontal table with a large number of attributes is widely used in OLAP or e-business applications to analyze multidimensional data efficiently. For efficient storing and querying of horizontal tables, recent works have tried to transform a horizontal table to a traditional vertical table. Existing works, however, have the drawback of not considering an optimized PIVOT operation provided (or to be provided) in recent commercial RDBMSs. In this paper we propose a formal approach that exploits the optimized PIVOT operation of commercial RDBMSs for storing and querying of horizontal tables. To achieve this goal, we first provide an overall framework that stores and queries a horizontal table using an equivalent vertical table. Under the proposed framework, we then formally define 1) a method that stores a horizontal table in an equivalent vertical table and 2) a PIVOT operation that converts a stored vertical table to an equivalent horizontal view. Next, we propose a novel method that transforms a user-specified query on horizontal tables to an equivalent PIVOT-included query on vertical tables. In particular, by providing transformation rules for all five elementary operations in relational algebra as theorems, we prove our method is theoretically applicable to commercial RDBMSs. Experimental results show that, compared with the earlier work, our method reduces storage space significantly and also improves average performance by several orders of magnitude. These results indicate that our method provides an excellent framework to maximize performance in handling horizontal tables by exploiting the optimized PIVOT operation in commercial RDBMSs.

  5. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  6. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  7. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  8. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  9. Chemical colostomy irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, A; Bossom, C; Gangoli, S; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2001-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation may improve patient quality of life, but is time consuming. This study tests the hypothesis that irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution, by inducing gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation, may accelerate expulsion of stool by passive emptying, thereby reducing irrigation time. Fifteen colostomy irrigators(with more than 3 years' experience) performed washout with tap water compared with water containing 0.025 mg/kg glyceryl trinitrate. Fluid inflow time, total washout time, and hemodynamic changes occurring during glyceryl trinitrate irrigation were documented by an independent observer. Subjects recorded episodes of fecal leakage and overall satisfaction on a visual analog scale. Cramps, headaches, and whether or not a stoma bag was used were expressed as a percentage of number of irrigations. Comparison of fluid inflow time, total washout time, leakage, and satisfaction was by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and headaches, cramps, and stoma bag use was by McNemar's test. Pulse rate (paired t-test), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (Wilcoxon's test) at 20 and 240 minutes after washout with glyceryl trinitrate solution were compared with baseline. Fifteen patients (9 female), with a mean age of 53 (31-73) years, provided 30 sessions (15 with water and 15 with glyceryl trinitrate). Medians (interquartile ranges) for water vs. glyceryl trinitrate were fluid inflow time 7 (4-10) vs. 4, (3-5; P = 0.001); total washout time 40 (30-55) vs. 21, (15-24; P colostomy irrigation time compared with the generally recommended tap water. Patients suffer fewer leakages and are highly satisfied, but side effects are potential drawbacks. Other colonoplegic agent solutions should now be evaluated.

  10. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effect of declining well capacities on the usefulness of cotton ET (ETc for irrigation. Thirty years (1975–2004 of daily ETc data were used to compare irrigation demand vs. irrigation responses at four locations, analyzed for multiple years and range of well capacities for three irrigation-intervals. Results indicated that when well capacities declined to the point that over-irrigation was not possible, the lower well capacities reduced the value of ETc in terms of the number of irrigations and total amount of water applied. At well capacities <1514 L·min−1 the fraction of irrigations for which ETc information was used to determine the irrigation amount was <35% across years and irrigation intervals. The value of an ETc-based irrigation may fall into disuse when irrigation-water supplies decline.

  11. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  12. The effect of irrigation time and type of irrigation fluid on cartilage surface friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärke, F; Awiszus, F; Lohmann, C H; Stärke, C

    2018-01-01

    It is known that fluid irrigation used during arthroscopic procedures causes a wash-out of lubricating substances from the articular cartilage surface and leads to increased friction. It was the goal of this study to investigate whether this effect depends on the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. Rabbit hind legs were used for the tests. The knees were dissected and the friction coefficient of the femoral cartilage measured against glass in a boundary lubrication state. To determine the influence of irrigation time and fluid, groups of 12 knees received either no irrigation (control), 15, 60 or 120min of irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution or 60min of irrigation with normal saline or a sorbitol/mannitol solution. The time of irrigation had a significant effect on the static and kinetic coefficient of friction (CoF), as had the type of fluid. Longer irrigation time with Ringer's solution was associated with increased friction coefficients (relative increase of the kinetic CoF compared to the control after 15, 60 and 120min: 16%, 76% and 88% respectively). The sorbitol/mannitol solution affected the static and kinetic CoF significantly less than either Ringer's or normal saline. The washout of lubricating glycoproteins from the cartilage surface and the associated increase of friction can be effectively influenced by controlling the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. The time of exposure to the irrigation fluid should be as short as possible and monosaccharide solutions might offer a benefit compared to salt solutions in terms of the resultant friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon and water footprints of irrigated corn and non-irrigated wheat in Northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; Carvalho, Monica; Causapé, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation increases yields and allows several crops to be produced in regions where it would be naturally impossible due to limited rainfall. However, irrigation can cause several negative environmental impacts, and it is important to understand these in depth for the correct application of mitigation measures. The life cycle assessment methodology was applied herein to compare the main irrigated and non-irrigated crops in Northeast Spain (corn and wheat, respectively), identifying those processes with greater contribution to environmental impacts (carbon and water footprint categories) and providing scientifically-sound information to facilitate government decisions. Due to concerns about climate change and water availability, the methods selected for evaluation of environmental impacts were IPCC 2013 GWP (carbon footprint) and water scarcity indicator (water footprint). The area studied, a 7.38-km 2 basin, was monitored for 12 years, including the period before, during, and after the implementation of irrigation. The functional unit, to which all material and energy flows were associated with, was the cultivation of 1 ha, throughout 1 year. The overall carbon footprint for irrigated corn was higher, but when considering the higher productivity achieved with irrigation, the emissions per kilogram of corn decrease and finally favor this irrigated crop. When considering the water footprint, the volumes of irrigation water applied were so high that productivity could not compensate for the negative impacts associated with water use in the case of corn. Nevertheless, consideration of productivities and gross incomes brings the results closer. Fertilizer use (carbon footprint) and irrigation water (water footprint) were the main contributors to the negative impacts detected.

  14. Loss of surface horizon of an irrigated soil detected by radiometric images of normalized difference vegetation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The use of the soil in the Humid Pampa of Argentina has changed since the mid-1990s from agricultural-livestock production (that included pastures with direct grazing) to a purely agricultural production. Also, in recent years the area under irrigation by central pivot has been increased to 150%. The waters used for irrigation are sodium carbonates. The combination of irrigation and rain increases the sodium absorption ratio of soil (SARs), consequently raising the clay dispersion and reducing infiltration. This implies an increased risk of soil loss. A reduction in the development of white clover crop (Trifolium repens L.) was observed at an irrigation plot during 2015 campaign. The clover was planted in order to reduce the impact of two maize (Zea mays L.) campaigns under irrigation, which had increased soil SAR and deteriorated soil structure. SPOT-5 radiometric normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images were used to determine two zones of high and low production. In each zone, four random points were selected for further geo-referenced field sampling. Two geo-referenced measures of effective depth and surface soil sampling were carried out in each point. Texture of soil samples was determined by Pipette Method of Sedimentation Analysis. Data exploratory analysis showed that low production zone had a media effective depth = 80 cm and silty clay loam texture, while high production zone had a media effective depth > 140 cm and silt loam texture. The texture class of the low production zone did not correspond to prior soil studies carried out by the INTA (National Institute of Agricultural Technology), which showed that those soil textures were silt loam at surface and silty clay loam at sub-surface. The loss of the A horizon is proposed as a possible explanation, but further research is required. Besides, the need of a soil cartography actualization, which integrates new satellite imaging technologies and geo-referenced measurements with soil sensors is

  15. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  16. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-06-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  17. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  18. Two independent pivotal statistics that test location and misspecification and add-up to the Anderson-Rubin statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.

    2002-01-01

    We extend the novel pivotal statistics for testing the parameters in the instrumental variables regression model. We show that these statistics result from a decomposition of the Anderson-Rubin statistic into two independent pivotal statistics. The first statistic is a score statistic that tests

  19. Max-out-in pivot rule with Dantzig's safeguarding rule for the simplex method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipawanna, Monsicha; Sinapiromsaran, Krung

    2014-01-01

    The simplex method is used to solve linear programming problem by improving the current basic feasible solution. It uses a pivot rule to guide the search in the feasible region. The pivot rule is used to select an entering index in simplex method. Nowadays, many pivot rule have been presented, but no pivot rule shows superior performance than other. Therefore, this is still an active research in linear programming. In this research, we present the max-out-in pivot rule with Dantzig's safeguarding for simplex method. This rule is based on maximum improvement of objective value of the current basic feasible point similar to the Dantzig's rule. We can illustrate by Klee and Minty problems that our rule outperforms that of Dantzig's rule by the number of iterations for solving linear programming problems

  20. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  1. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  2. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  3. Pivotal temperature and sexual dimorphism of Podocnemis expansa hatchlings (Testudines: Podocnemididae from Bananal Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélio Lubiana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A common problem when trying to identify the sex of hatchling turtles is that juveniles are not obviously externally dimorphic and current techniques to identify sex are often invasive. In this paper, 300 eggs of Podocnemis expansa from Bananal Island, state of Tocantins (Brazil, were incubated at constant temperatures. The carapaces of the hatchlings were photographed and subjected to geometric morphometric analysis. The hatchlings were subsequently euthanized and had their gonads removed for sex determination. The pivotal temperature of P. expansa was 33.5ºC, confirming that this species has the highest pivotal temperature among reptiles. Geometric morphometric analysis of the shape of the carapace proved efficient in differentiating the sex of the hatchlings and confirmed that this methodology can be efficient for studies that need to ascertain the sex ratio in P. expansa hatchlings.

  4. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  5. Thermal–Hydrodynamic Behaviour of Coated Pivoted Pad Thrust Bearings: Comparison between Babbitt, PTFE and DLC

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Katsaros; Dimitrios A. Bompos; Pantelis G. Nikolakopoulos; Stephanos Theodossiades

    2018-01-01

    The hydrodynamic lubrication and thermal analysis of tilting pad thrust bearings has been a major subject for many studies in the field of tribology. There is only a limited number of studies regarding thrust bearings with coated surfaces. The purpose of this study is to build a parametric, iterative algorithm in order to perform a complete thermal and hydrodynamic lubrication analysis for pivoted pad thrust bearings with coatings. The analytical model is mainly based on the energy, continuit...

  6. Design charts for arbitrarily pivoted, liquid-lubricated flat-sector-pad thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsion, I.

    1977-01-01

    A flat, sector-shaped geometry for a liquid-lubricated thrust bearing is analyzed considering both the pitch and roll of the pad. Results are presented in design charts that enable a direct approach to the design of point- and line-pivoted, tilting pad bearings. A comparison is made with the Mitchell bearing approximation and it is found that this approximation always overestimates load capacity.

  7. Inertial sensors to quantify the pivot shift test in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury

    OpenAIRE

    ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; LOPOMO, NICOLA; SIGNORELLI, CECILIA; MUCCIOLI, GIULIO MARIA MARCHEGGIANI; BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; GRASSI, ALBERTO; RAGGI, FEDERICO; VISANI, ANDREA; MARCACCI, MAURILIO

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this article was to describe in detail, from the perspective of the clinical end user, a previously presented non-invasive methodology, applied in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury, in which inertial sensors are used to quantify the pivot shift test. The outcomes obtained and relative considerations were compared with findings emerging from a review of the relevant updated literature. The detailed description here provided covers the system, the parameters...

  8. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water - deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    1995-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through -water deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of refraining from supplying water during specific stages of the cycle so as to identy the period(s) during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early and during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. However, one water application during the tillering stage allowed the yield to be lower only to that of the treatement with three irrigations. Irrigation during the stage of grain filling caused the kernel weight to be as high as under three irrigations. The lowest value corresponded to the treatement with one irrigation during grain filling and that under rainfed conditions. For sugar beet, when water stress was was applied early in the crop cycle, its effect could be almost entirely recovered with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the opposite, good watering early in cycle, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. Water deficit during the maturity stage had also a limited effect on yield. The most crucial periods for adequate watering were which correspond to late filiar development and root growth which coincided with the highest water requirements period. For the same amount of water savings through deficit irrigation, it was better to partition the stress throughout the cycle than during the critical stages of the crop. However, at the national level, it would have been more important to practice deficit irrigation and the irrigated area. For both crops, high yields as high as water - use efficiency values could have been obtained. 8 tabs; 5 refs ( Author )

  9. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  10. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  11. "Palmar pivot flap" for resurfacing palmar lateral defects of the fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Andrew; Peng, Yeong-Pin; Pho, Robert Wan-Heng

    2008-12-01

    Soft tissue defects on the lateral borders of the digits are difficult to reconstruct using local or local-regional flaps. We describe a "palmar pivot flap" to resurface an adjacent defect on the palmar-lateral aspect of the digit. The surgical technique is described. This flap is an axial pattern flap based on the subcutaneous transverse branches of the digital artery. The flap is pivoted up to 90 degrees on the neurovascular bundle in its base, into an adjacent defect. The flap can be raised from either the proximal or the middle phalangeal segments. It can cover defects sited from the level of the proximal interphalangeal joint up to the fingertip. The donor defect is limited to the same digit and is covered with a full-thickness skin graft. We have used this flap on 3 patients with defects at the middle phalangeal segment, the distal interphalangeal joint, and the fingertip. All healed primarily. One patient had a mild flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint, whereas the other 2 had no complications. The patients with distal interphalangeal joint and fingertip defects had excellent sensation in the flap (2-point discrimination of 5-6 mm). The palmar pivot flap is useful for resurfacing otherwise difficult defects on the lateral borders of the digits around and distal to the proximal interphalangeal joint, including those at the fingertip. It provides sensate, glabrous skin. The donor defect is on the same digit and is well hidden, producing an aesthetic and functional reconstruction.

  12. The testing of the Rectangular Pivot-point bellows for the PPPL Tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughian, J.; Fong, M.; Greer, J.; Lou, K.; Scalise, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Neutral Beam Pivot Point Bellows (PPB) is installed in the duct which connects the Neutral Beam Enclosure to the Torus. This bellows, located at the pivot point, must fit the severely limited space available at the pivot-point location. Consequently, it has to be made rectangular in cross section with a large inside area for beam access. This leads to small convolutions with high stress concentrations. The function of the bellows is to permit change in the angular positioning of the neutral beam line with respect to the Tokamak, to isolate the Neutral Beam Line from the deflection of the Torus during bake out, and to allow for all misalignments. Internally the bellows will have a vacuum along with such gases such as hydrogen or deuterium. Externally, air or nitrogen gas will be present. It is constructed of Inconel 718 convolutions welded together to provide a clear rectangular opening of 23.4 by 32.2 inches, joined to a 625 Inconel flange at each end

  13. Time-Resolved Micro PIV in the Pivoting Area of the Triflo Mechanical Heart Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennemann, Bernhard M; Rösgen, Thomas; Carrel, Thierry P; Obrist, Dominik

    2016-09-01

    The Lapeyre-Triflo FURTIVA valve aims at combining the favorable hemodynamics of bioprosthetic heart valves with the durability of mechanical heart valves (MHVs). The pivoting region of MHVs is hemodynamically of special interest as it may be a region of high shear stresses, combined with areas of flow stagnation. Here, platelets can be activated and may form a thrombus which in the most severe case can compromise leaflet mobility. In this study we set up an experiment to replicate the pulsatile flow in the aortic root and to study the flow in the pivoting region under physiological hemodynamic conditions (CO = 4.5 L/min / CO = 3.0 L/min, f = 60 BPM). It was found that the flow velocity in the pivoting region could reach values close to that of the bulk flow during systole. At the onset of diastole the three valve leaflets closed in a very synchronous manner within an average closing time of 55 ms which is much slower than what has been measured for traditional bileaflet MHVs. Hot spots for elevated viscous shear stresses were found at the flanges of the housing and the tips of the leaflet ears. Systolic VSS was maximal during mid-systole and reached levels of up to 40 Pa.

  14. to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in Zuru, Northern Guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Response of Onion (Allium cepa L.) to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in ... The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Irrigation ..... System and Agronomic Practice in. Tropical Climates.

  15. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  16. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  17. The Reticulation Irrigation Scheme at Sankana, Upper West Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    farmers utilizing the irrigation project are food secure. ... The effects of ... Often, lack of maintenance, bad management and financial difficulties decrease the ...... and Mushunje A. (2010), 'Analysis of Irrigation Development Post Fast Track Land ...

  18. Modernisation strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, Mona Liza Fortunado

    2017-01-01

    The performance of publicly funded canal irrigation systems or more commonly called national irrigation systems (NIS) in the Philippines remained below expectations despite considerable system rehabilitation and improvement efforts. The continued suboptimal performances were attributed to

  19. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moniri Far

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  20. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... Many methods have been described and sensors developed to manage irrigation ... time, and automated irrigation systems based on crop water needs can .... output components, and a software program for decision support.

  1. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    water quality and permissible levels of metals in food and water. It revealed that the heavy .... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by .... Reuse of domestic grey water for irrigation of food crops, unpublished ...

  2. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  3. Is the Revitalisation of Smallholder Irrigation Schemes (RESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... including rainwater harvesting, flood recession, flood water spreading, river ... Smallholder irrigation systems can comprise farmers who use shared or ...... on Irrigation and Drainage, 15-17 November 2006, Aventura. Swadini.

  4. Economic Analysis of Crop Production under Jibiya Irrigation Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the farmers were married and can read and write. Most of ... The performance of the farmers, though ... holder irrigation dependent on the shadoof system of lifting water as .... implies that in Jibiya Irrigation Project, women were not.

  5. Performance of arthroscopic irrigation systems assessed with automatic blood detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; de Vaal, M. M.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Blankevoort, L.; van der List, M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    During arthroscopies, bleeding episodes occur as a result of tissue damage. Irrigation systems assist in minimizing these disturbances. The performance of three arthroscopic irrigation systems in clearing bleeding episodes was evaluated objectively. One surgeon performed 99 shoulder arthroscopies

  6. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  7. Irrigation of steppe soils in the south of Russia: Problems and solutions (Analysis of Irrigation Practices in 1950-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minashina, N. G.

    2009-07-01

    Experience in irrigation of chernozems in the steppe zone of Russia for a period from 1950 to 1990 is analyzed. By the end of this period and in the subsequent years, the areas under irrigation reduced considerably, and the soil productivity worsened. This was caused by the improper design of irrigation systems, on the one hand, and by the low tolerance of chernozems toward increased moistening upon irrigation, on the other hand. The analysis of the factors and regimes of soil formation under irrigation conditions shows that irrigation-induced changes in the soil hydrology also lead to changes in the soil physicochemical, biochemical, and other properties. In particular, changes in the composition of exchangeable cations lead to the development of solonetzic process. In many areas, irrigation of chernozems was accompanied by the appearance of solonetzic, vertic, saline, and eroded soils. The development of soil degradation processes is described. In general, the deterioration of irrigated chernozems was related to the absence of adequate experience in irrigation of steppe soils, unskilled personnel, improper regime of irrigation, and excessively high rates of watering. In some cases, the poor quality of irrigation water resulted in the development of soil salinization and alkalization. To improve the situation, the training of personnel is necessary; the strategy of continuous irrigation should be replaced by the strategy of supplementary irrigation in the critical periods of crop development.

  8. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe Demissie; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and

  9. Assessment of FAO AquaCrop Model for Simulating Maize Growth and Productivity under Deficit Irrigation in a Tropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneille E. Greaves

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crop simulation models have a pivotal role to play in evaluating irrigation management strategies for improving agricultural water use. The objective of this study was to test and validate the AquaCrop model for maize under deficit irrigation management. Field observations from three experiments consisting of four treatments were used to evaluate model performance in simulating canopy cover (CC, biomass (B, yield (Y, crop evapotranspiration (ETc, and water use efficiency (WUE. Statistics for root mean square error, model efficiency (E, and index of agreement for B and CC suggest that the model prediction is good under non-stressed and moderate stress environments. Prediction of final B and Y under these conditions was acceptable, as indicated by the high coefficient of determination and deviations <10%. In severely stressed conditions, low E and deviations >11% for B and 9% for Y indicate a reduction in the model reliability. Simulated ETc and WUE deviation from observed values were within the range of 9.5% to 22.2% and 6.0% to 32.2%, respectively, suggesting that AquaCrop prediction of these variables is fair, becoming unsatisfactory as plant water stress intensifies. AquaCrop can be reliably used for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed irrigation management strategies for maize; however, the limitations should be kept in mind when interpreting the results in severely stressed conditions.

  10. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  11. Ring Irrigation System (RIS) design through customer preference representation

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Infandra I.Z.; Rianmora Suchada; Werawatganon Siwat

    2018-01-01

    In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent ...

  12. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the performance of irrigation investments was far below its potential. The size of this underperformance is well represented by Seckler's alarming conclusion that the average irrigation investment costs twi...

  13. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  14. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  15. Potentials for Supplemental Irrigation in Some Rainfall Areas of Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, there were up to five months of the year during which rainwater was much in deficit of evapotranspiration. All these stress the need for irrigation. Analysis of water quality (surface, groundwater, and rainfall runoff) showed their suitability for irrigation. Quantity assessment of supplemental irrigation during the dry ...

  16. Greenhouse evaluation of deficit irrigation on the growth of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficit irrigation is considered to be an important approach for crop cultivation in dry regions where water resources are scarce. Deficit irrigation can be used also to decrease the level of infections by some moisturedependent plant pests and diseases such as root-knot nematode disease. Therefore, deficit irrigation at levels ...

  17. Field evaluation of deficit irrigation effects on tomato growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted using a common tomato cultivar (GS12) to assess the effect of deficit irrigation (DI) regimes on tomato growth performance, and on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica galling and abundance. Irrigation treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and ...

  18. The impact of smallholder irrigation on household welfare: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of smallholder irrigated agriculture to enhance food security and alleviate rural poverty has led the South African Government to prioritise and invest significantly in irrigation establishment, rehabilitation and revitalisation. The question addressed in this study pertains to the extent to which smallholder irrigation ...

  19. Effects of seven different irrigation techniques on debris and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Conventional manual irrigation with a syringe and needle remains widely accepted technique in the irrigation procedures. However, its flushing action has some limitations. Currently, several techniques and systems are available and reported to improve the insufficiency of syringe irrigation. The aim of this study was to ...

  20. Critical parameters for maize yield under irrigation farming in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the critical variables that determine maize yield under irrigation farming in the savanna ecological zone of Kwara State. Seventy-five soil samples were randomly collected from irrigation farm of Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority Ilorin and bulked into 15 ...

  1. Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.M.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in

  2. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  3. Scheduling irrigation for jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill. ) | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to select suitable indicator for scheduling the irrigation of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) grown in the Loess Plateau. The relationships between plant-based indicators and soil matrix potential as well as meteorological factors of jujube under deficit irrigation compared with well irrigation were ...

  4. Limited irrigation research and infrared thermometry for detecting water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Limited Irrigation Research Farm, located outside of Greeley Colorado, is an experiment evaluating management perspectives of limited irrigation water. An overview of the farm systems is shown, including drip irrigation systems, water budgeting, and experimental design, as well as preli...

  5. Irrigation development and management in Ghana: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... existing schemes. It is envisaged that irrigation will be seen in its right perspective as a multidisciplinary activity to ensure the success of schemes. There is the need for running a postgraduate programme in irrigation at the KNUST to enhance the nations efforts at developing and managing irrigation projects successfully.

  6. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Soil Water Irrigation Planning and Energy Management (SWIP-E) mathematical programming model was developed and applied in this paper to provide decision support regarding the optimal mainline pipe diameter, irrigation system delivery capacity and size of the irrigation system. SWIP-E unifies the interrelated ...

  7. Tracking antibiotic resistance genes in soil irrigated with dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern Idaho, the application of dairy wastewater to agricultural soils is a widely used practice to irrigate crops and recycle nutrients. In this study, small-scale field plots were irrigated monthly (6 times) with dairy wastewater (100%), wastewater diluted to 50% with irrigation (canal) wate...

  8. Sustainable Irrigation Development in the White Volta Sub-Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofosu, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study on sustainable irrigation development identified growing markets for irrigated products as an important driving force behind the expansion of irrigation which has given rise to new technologies. The new technologies have spread because they gave farmers direct control over water sources.

  9. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P

  10. Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture sensors were evaluated and used for irrigation scheduling in humid region. Soil moisture sensors were installed in soil at depths of 15cm, 30cm, and 61cm belowground. Soil volumetric water content was automatically measured by the sensors in a time interval of an hour during the crop g...

  11. Measurement Of Technical Efficiency In Irrigated Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study measured technical efficiency and identified its determinants in irrigated vegetable production in Nasarawa State of Nigeria using a stochastic frontier model. A complete enumeration of 193 NADP-registered vegetable farmers was done. The predicted farm technical efficiency ranges from 25.94 to 96.24 per cent ...

  12. CORRELATION AMONG FLUORIDE AND METALS IN IRRIGATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The levels of fluoride and selected metals in Ethiopian Rift Valley soils and irrigation water in the nearby sources were ... exhaust fumes, process waters and waste from various industrial processes [1]. The uses of ... into four sub-systems: Lake Rudolf, Chew Bahir, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and the Afar. The seismically ...

  13. Water quality and irrigation [Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    Water is the single most important biological factor affecting plant growth and health. Water is essential for almost every plant process: photosynthesis, nutrient transport, and cell expansion and development. In fact, 80 to 90 percent of a seedling's weight is made up of water. Therefore, irrigation management is the most critical aspect of nursery operations....

  14. Irrigation performance assessment in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Roerink, G.J.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Popovych, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic

  15. Irrigation management of muskmelon with tensiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The production and consumption of muskmelon have been increasing (MELO et al., 2014, thus, information on techniques for higher field productions are necessary. The experiment described in the present work was conducted in the IFTM, Uberaba, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the muskmelon yield under different soil water tensions. A randomized block experimental design was used with five treatments (soil water tensions of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kPa and four replications (plots of two rows of 14 plants. Two harvests were carried out and the fruit yield, stem diameter, number of fruits per plant and efficiency of water use were evaluated. Irrigation was performed with a drip irrigation system and managed with tensiometry. The cultivar Bonus n.2 was used with spacing of 1.0 x 0.6 m. The data of the variables were subjected to the F test and regression test. The treatments showed statistical differences in number of fruits per plant, fruit weight (fruit yield and stem diameter. The highest fruit yield found was 1.36 kg fruit-1 and the highest water use efficiency was 4.08 g mm-1 with irrigation for a soil water tension of 10 kPa. The lowest fruit yield was found with irrigation for a soil water tension of 50 kPa.

  16. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  17. FAO study on irrigation potential for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.‏ United Nations Development Programme

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record To improve the conjunctive use of sub-surface and surface water in order to increase water resources availability for sustainable small-scale irrigation development in support of food security in West Africa, south of the Sahara.

  18. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  19. Strategies of smallholder irrigation management in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzungu, E.

    1999-01-01

    The smallholder irrigation sub-sector in Zimbabwe, according to literature sources, is under threat due to what are called management problems. Poor water management and low crop yields have been cited, as has also been poor financial and economic viability, resulting in heavy government

  20. Streamflow Prediction in Ungauged, Irrigated Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    The international "predictions in ungauged basins" or "PUB" effort has broadened and improved the tools available to support water resources management in sparsely observed regions. These tools have, however, been primarily focused on regions with limited diversion of surface or shallow groundwater resources. Incorporating anthropogenic activity into PUB methods is essential given the high level of development of many basins. We extended an existing stochastic framework used to predict the flow duration curve to explore the effects of irrigation on streamflow dynamics. Four canonical scenarios were considered in which irrigation water was (i) primarily sourced from water imports, (ii) primarily sourced from direct in-channel diversions, (iii) sourced from shallow groundwater with direct connectivity to stream channels, or (iv) sourced from deep groundwater that is indirectly connected to surface flow via a shallow aquifer. By comparing the predicted flow duration curves to those predicted by accounting for climate and geomorphic factors in isolation, specific "fingerprints" of human water withdrawals could be identified for the different irrigation scenarios, and shown to be sensitive to irrigation volumes and scheduling. The results provide a first insight into PUB methodologies that could be employed in heavily managed basins.

  1. New Approaches to Irrigation Scheduling of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using evapotranspiration (ET data for scheduling irrigations on vegetable farms is challenging due to imprecise crop coefficients, time consuming computations, and the need to simultaneously manage many fields. Meanwhile, the adoption of soil moisture monitoring in vegetables has historically been limited by sensor accuracy and cost, as well as labor required for installation, removal, and collection of readings. With recent improvements in sensor technology, public weather-station networks, satellite and aerial imaging, wireless communications, and cloud computing, many of the difficulties in using ET data and soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling of vegetables can now be addressed. Web and smartphone applications have been developed that automate many of the calculations involved in ET-based irrigation scheduling. Soil moisture sensor data can be collected through wireless networks and accessed using web browser or smartphone apps. Energy balance methods of crop ET estimation, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio, provide research options for further developing and evaluating crop coefficient guidelines of vegetables, while recent advancements in surface renewal instrumentation have led to a relatively low-cost tool for monitoring crop water requirement in commercial farms. Remote sensing of crops using satellite, manned aircraft, and UAV platforms may also provide useful tools for vegetable growers to evaluate crop development, plant stress, water consumption, and irrigation system performance.

  2. Reuse of drainage water from irrigated areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willardson, L.S.; Boels, D.; Smedema, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing competition for water of good quality and the expectation that at least half of the required increase in food production in the near-future decades must come from the world's irrigated land requires to produce more food by converting more of the diverted water into food. Reuse of the

  3. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  4. Solar-thermal jet pumping for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L. D.; Dellenback, P. A.; Bell, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a novel concept in solar powered irrigation pumping, gives measured performance data for the pump unit, and projected system performance. The solar-thermal jet pumping concept is centered around a conventional jet eductor pump which is commercially available at low cost. The jet eductor pump is powered by moderate temperature, moderate pressure Refrigerant-113 vapor supplied by a concentrating solar collector field. The R-113 vapor is direct condensed by the produced water and the two fluids are separated at the surface. The water goes on to use and the R-113 is repressurized and returned to the solar field. The key issue in the solar-thermal jet eductor concept is the efficiency of pump operation. Performance data from a small scale experimental unit which utilizes an electrically heated boiler in place of the solar field is presented. The solar-thermal jet eductor concept is compared with other solar irrigation concepts and optimal application situations are identified. Though having lower efficiencies than existing Rankine cycle solar-thermal irrigation systems, the mechanical and operational simplicity of this concept make it competitive with other solar powered irrigation schemes.

  5. Scheduling irrigation for jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... indicators for diagnosing plant water information, but it is troublesome to measure leaf water potential using a pressure chamber (Turner, 1981). It is also difficult to achieve automatic and continuous records with the pressure chamber. Definition of threshold values of soil moisture for irrigation management ...

  6. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and soil samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, ... So, attention and investment in these areas have been very limited in Africa and ... The shape of the watershed is almost elliptical (Fig. 1). 2.1. Soil. Texturally ..... quality of the irrigation water, soil factors such as structure, degree of compaction, organic.

  7. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management practices in irrigation systems in Nepal. In this respect, this study aimed to understand the social, administrative and political processes involved in the social and institutional chang...

  8. Irrigation et paludisme : un couple infernal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation and Malaria - a Terrible Combination?. Increasing agricultural productivity is a priority in most of the developing countries and using irrigation is one of the most efficient ways of achieving this goal. Almost half a billion people in the world contract malaria every year and approximately one million die as a result. The majority of these victims are farmers or members of their families. In infected areas, malaria continues to have major negative impacts on agricultural productivity. For example, in the Equateur province of the DRC, after access to production means, fevers are considered the second biggest obstacle to the development of agricultural activities. In the Ivory Coast, a study has shown that growers suffering from malaria were about half as productive as their healthy colleagues. The disease often strikes at the start of the rainy season when work begins again in the fields. It reduces the amount of land cultivated and affects the amount of care taken with crops. Agricultural practices influence the risk of contracting malaria. Irrigation, in particular, can encourage the proliferation of vectors of the disease and make it more likely to spread. This tendency can be observed in many locations where irrigated rice production is on the increase. Paradoxically, however, an increased number of mosquitoes does not systematically result in more malaria. In Ethiopia, malaria is more prevalent close to the micro-dams sponsored by the government, whereas, in Tanzania, there is less malaria in irrigated areas. Various theories can be put forward in order to explain this paradox. In particular, increased income due to higher rice yields enables farmers to purchase insecticide-treated mosquito nets. It also allows them to eat better, which strengthens their immune systems. It also appears that the negative impact of irrigation systems is greater in areas, in which immunity levels were low in the population prior to the creation of

  9. Evaluation of hydraulic performance of downstream-controlled Maira-PHLC irrigation canals under crop-based irrigation operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munir, S.; Schultz, B.; Suryadi, F.X.; Bharati, L.

    2012-01-01

    Demand-based irrigation systems are operated according to crop water requirements. As crop water requirements remain variable throughout the growing season, the discharges in the canal also vary to meet demands. The irrigation system under study is a demand-based semi-automatic irrigation system,

  10. Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwesternUSA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producersuse an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to ...

  11. Year-Round Irrigation Schedule for a Tomato–Maize Rotation System in Reservoir-Based Irrigation Schemes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Sekyi-Annan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving irrigation management in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa is crucial to respond to increasing variability in rainfall and overcome deficits in current irrigation schemes. In small-scale and medium-scale reservoir-based irrigation schemes in the Upper East region of Ghana, we explored options for improving the traditional, dry season irrigation practices and assessed the potential for supplemental irrigation in the rainy season. The AquaCrop model was used to (i assess current water management in the typical tomato-maize rotational system; (ii develop an improved irrigation schedule for dry season cultivation of tomato; and (iii determine the requirement for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season under different climate scenarios. The improved irrigation schedule for dry season tomato cultivation would result in a water saving of 130–1325 mm compared to traditional irrigation practices, accompanied by approximately a 4–14% increase in tomato yield. The supplemental irrigation of maize would require 107–126 mm of water in periods of low rainfall and frequent dry spells, and 88–105 mm in periods of high rainfall and rare dry spells. Therefore, year-round irrigated crop production may be feasible, using water saved during dry season tomato cultivation for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season.

  12. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  13. Thermal–Hydrodynamic Behaviour of Coated Pivoted Pad Thrust Bearings: Comparison between Babbitt, PTFE and DLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Katsaros

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic lubrication and thermal analysis of tilting pad thrust bearings has been a major subject for many studies in the field of tribology. There is only a limited number of studies regarding thrust bearings with coated surfaces. The purpose of this study is to build a parametric, iterative algorithm in order to perform a complete thermal and hydrodynamic lubrication analysis for pivoted pad thrust bearings with coatings. The analytical model is mainly based on the energy, continuity and Navier–Stokes equations, which are solved numerically with the Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations Consistent (SIMPLEC method. The analysis focuses on a single pivoted pad of the thrust bearing. The thermal properties of the coating material are taken into account and the resulting thermal and flow fields are solved. The basic hydrodynamic and tribological characteristics are calculated for an uncoated, a Babbitt coated, a PTFE coated and a diamond like carbon (DLC coated pivoted pad thrust bearing. The pressure and the film thickness distribution, as well as the load capacity and the frictional forces, are determined for several pad positions and velocities of the rotor. A mineral oil lubricant is used to estimate the shear thinning or thickening effects on the pad tribological performance. The results indicate that pads coated with PTFE and DLC show lower friction forces compared to the common steel and Babbitt applications. At the same time, the DLC coating seems to affect the bearing’s flow and thermal fields less than the PTFE, making it more suitable for thrust bearings applications.

  14. Automation in irrigation process in family farm with Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianne Crystie Bezerra da Cunha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The small farmers tend not to use mechanical inputs in the irrigation process due to the high cost than conventional irrigation systems have and in other cases, the lack of knowledge and technical guidance makes the farmer theme using the system. Thus, all control and monitoring are made by hand without the aid of machines and this practice can lead to numerous problems from poor irrigation, and water waste, energy, and deficits in production. It is difficult to deduce when to irrigate, or how much water applied in cultivation, measure the soil temperature variables, temperature, and humidity, etc. The objective of this work is to implement an automated irrigation system aimed at family farming that is low cost and accessible to the farmer. The system will be able to monitor all parameters from irrigation. For this to occur, the key characteristics of family farming, Arduino platform, and irrigation were analyzed.

  15. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Root distribution of field grown potatoes (cv. Folva) was studied in 4.32m2 lysimeters and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. Drip irrigation was applied for all irrigations. Irrigations were run in three different soils: coarse sand......, loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... density in the furrow. Most roots accumulated in the surface layers of coarse sand as compared to the other soil types. In the deep soil profile (30–70 cm) a higher root density was found in loamy sand compared with the sandy loam and coarse sand. Approximately twice the amounts of roots were found below...

  16. Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Li, Guitong; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    tBiochar is an amendment that can be used for enhancing soil water storage which may increase cropproductivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar on physiology, yield andquality of tomato under different irrigation regimes. From early flowering to fruit maturity...... stages, theplants were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying irrigation(PRD) and two levels of biochar (0% and 5% by weight). In FI, the plants were irrigated daily to pot waterholding capacity while in DI and PRD, 70% of FI was irrigated on either...... the whole or one side of the pots,respectively. In PRD, irrigation was switched between sides when the soil water content of the dry sidedecreased to 15%. The results showed that addition of biochar increased the soil moisture contents in DIand PRD, which consequently improved physiology, yield, and quality...

  17. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  18. Counting Zeros in Random Walks on the Integers and Analysis of Optimal Dual-Pivot Quicksort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumüller, Martin; Dietzfelbinger, Martin; Heuberger, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    We present an average case analysis of two variants of dual-pivot quicksort, one with a non-algorithmic comparison-optimal partitioning strategy, the other with a closely related algorithmic strategy. For both we calculate the expected number of comparisons exactly as well as asymptotically......, in particular, we provide exact expressions for the linear, logarithmic, and constant terms. An essential step is the analysis of zeros of lattice paths in a certain probability model. Along the way a combinatorial identity is proven....

  19. A new scheduling algorithm for parallel sparse LU factorization with static pivoting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigori, Laura; Li, Xiaoye S.

    2002-08-20

    In this paper we present a static scheduling algorithm for parallel sparse LU factorization with static pivoting. The algorithm is divided into mapping and scheduling phases, using the symmetric pruned graphs of L' and U to represent dependencies. The scheduling algorithm is designed for driving the parallel execution of the factorization on a distributed-memory architecture. Experimental results and comparisons with SuperLU{_}DIST are reported after applying this algorithm on real world application matrices on an IBM SP RS/6000 distributed memory machine.

  20. Clusters and pivots for evaluating a large numberof alternatives in AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Ishizaka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AHP has been successful in many cases but it has a major limitation: a larger number of alternatives requires a high number of judgements in the comparison matrices. In order to reduce this problem,we present a method with clusters and pivots. This method also helps with a further four problems of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. It enlarges the comparison scale, facilitates the construction of a consistent or near consistent matrix, eliminates the problem of the choice of the priorities derivation method and allows the use of incomparable alternatives.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    equation. This equation involves a discharge coefficient of the window. The value of the discharge coefficient is the major cause of erroneous estimation of airflow rates. This paper focuses on the experimental study of the discharge coefficient (CD) of a centre-pivot roof window. The measurements were...... performed in the energy flex house of the Technological Institute - Denmark. The discharge coefficient is evaluated for both inflows and outflows. It is concluded that the use of single value of CD for different flap opening angles is one of the cause of erroneous estimation. Likewise, the value of CD...

  2. A Generalized Pivotal Quantity Approach to Analytical Method Validation Based on Total Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Harry; Zhang, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of method validation is to demonstrate that the method is fit for its intended use. Traditionally, an analytical method is deemed valid if its performance characteristics such as accuracy and precision are shown to meet prespecified acceptance criteria. However, these acceptance criteria are not directly related to the method's intended purpose, which is usually a gurantee that a high percentage of the test results of future samples will be close to their true values. Alternate "fit for purpose" acceptance criteria based on the concept of total error have been increasingly used. Such criteria allow for assessing method validity, taking into account the relationship between accuracy and precision. Although several statistical test methods have been proposed in literature to test the "fit for purpose" hypothesis, the majority of the methods are not designed to protect the risk of accepting unsuitable methods, thus having the potential to cause uncontrolled consumer's risk. In this paper, we propose a test method based on generalized pivotal quantity inference. Through simulation studies, the performance of the method is compared to five existing approaches. The results show that both the new method and the method based on β-content tolerance interval with a confidence level of 90%, hereafter referred to as the β-content (0.9) method, control Type I error and thus consumer's risk, while the other existing methods do not. It is further demonstrated that the generalized pivotal quantity method is less conservative than the β-content (0.9) method when the analytical methods are biased, whereas it is more conservative when the analytical methods are unbiased. Therefore, selection of either the generalized pivotal quantity or β-content (0.9) method for an analytical method validation depends on the accuracy of the analytical method. It is also shown that the generalized pivotal quantity method has better asymptotic properties than all of the current

  3. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  4. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-01-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  5. Instance Analysis for the Error of Three-pivot Pressure Transducer Static Balancing Method for Hydraulic Turbine Runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hanli; Li, Youping

    2017-04-01

    The working principle, process device and test procedure of runner static balancing test method by weighting with three-pivot pressure transducers are introduced in this paper. Based on an actual instance of a V hydraulic turbine runner, the error and sensitivity of the three-pivot pressure transducer static balancing method are analysed. Suggestions about improving the accuracy and the application of the method are also proposed.

  6. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufemi, Olukemi Temiloluwa; Adeyeye, Adeolu Ikechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS) or the distilled water (DW) group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Forty-one (42.3%) of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315). The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389). It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  7. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Olukemi Temiloluwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS or the distilled water (DW group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Results: Forty-one (42.3% of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315. The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389. Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities.

  8. Inertial sensors to quantify the pivot shift test in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; LOPOMO, NICOLA; SIGNORELLI, CECILIA; MUCCIOLI, GIULIO MARIA MARCHEGGIANI; BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; GRASSI, ALBERTO; RAGGI, FEDERICO; VISANI, ANDREA; MARCACCI, MAURILIO

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this article was to describe in detail, from the perspective of the clinical end user, a previously presented non-invasive methodology, applied in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury, in which inertial sensors are used to quantify the pivot shift test. The outcomes obtained and relative considerations were compared with findings emerging from a review of the relevant updated literature. The detailed description here provided covers the system, the parameters identified and the testing procedure; it also includes the technical specifications of the hardware, the features introduced in the updated version of the software and the application of the system in clinical practice. The comparison of the technical considerations and clinical results with the updated literature confirmed the system’s optimal ergonomics, good reproducibility and clinical reliability. The novel approach here analyzed has been shown to overcome the weaknesses of other available devices and systems. Therefore, since it can be considered a new paradigm in the quantification of pivot shift test, we can recommend its routine use in clinical practice. PMID:25606555

  9. [Shushu (ancient Chinese numerology) in Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lian-Shi

    2010-10-01

    Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement) is compared with literatures concerning the Shushu (ancient Chinese numerology) of the Qin Dynasty (221 B. C. - 206 B. C. ) and the Han Dynasty (206 B. C.-220 A. D.) in this article. And it is discovered that "the number of heaven and earth" in Yijing (The Book of Change) was implied in the bone-length measurement. The theory of Shushu is hidden in the sized of head, neck, chest, abdomen, back and 4 extremities according to the measurement. The meaning of establishment of bone-length measurement, which is found to have universality, laid in setting down the measurement of meridians. And it is the origin of the proportional measurement of locating acupoints. Checked with the theory of Shushu, errors in the description of bone-length measurement could also be found in Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement) of the present edition, which is helpful for the modern study on the measurement.

  10. A Virtual Pivot Point MEMS Actuator with Externally Mounted Mirror: Design, Fabrication and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Fahim AMIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of a virtual pivot point micro electromechanical systems (MEMS electrostatic actuator with externally mounted mirror is presented. The point of rotation of the movable arm of the actuator is distant from the physical actuator. This is a requirement for certain applications, such as an external cavity laser in Littman configuration. A maximum rotational radius of 5 mm from the virtual pivot point was achieved. A detailed analytical analysis for the displacement of the structure is presented. The dynamic characterization of the device with a finite element analysis simulation shows that the resonance frequency of the in-plane rotational mode is well separated from that of the out-of-plane bending mode, confirming high in-plane stability. The devices were fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with device layer thickness of 100 µm. Thin mirrors were fabricated by dicing a 100 µm thick silicon wafer. A resonance frequency of about 5.9 ´ 102 Hz for the maximum sized mounted mirror (1.7 mm ´ 100 µm ´ 1.0 mm was determined by optical characterization.

  11. Control system design for concrete irrigation channels

    OpenAIRE

    Strecker, Timm; Aamo, Ole Morten; Cantoni, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Concrete channels find use at the periphery of irrigation networks, for expansion and to replace small earthen channels given the relative ease of maintenance and elimination of seepage losses. In design, it is important to account for control system performance when dimensioning the channel infrastructure. In this paper, the design of a distributed controller is investigated in terms managing water-levels, and thereby the depth profile (i.e., amount of concrete) needed to support peak flow l...

  12. Coolidge solar powered irrigation pumping project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A 150 kW solar thermal electric power plant which includes over 2100 square meters of parabolic trough type collectors and an organic Rankine cycle turbine engine was constructed on an irrigated farm. The plant is interconnected with the electrical utility grid. Operation is providing an evaluation of equipment performance and operating and maintenance requirements as well as the desirability of an on farm location.

  13. Irrigation port hydration in phacoemulsification surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hisaharu Suzuki,1 Yoichiro Masuda,2 Yuki Hamajima,1 Hiroshi Takahashi3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Nippon Medical School Musashikosugi Hospital, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University, Katsushika Medical Center, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan Background: In most cases, hydration is performed by water injection into the stromal tissue with a needle. The technique is simple, however it is sometimes troublesome.Purpose: We describe a simple technique for hydrating the corneal stroma in cataract surgery using an irrigation port.Patients and methods: The technique began by pushing the irrigation port against the corneal stroma for a few seconds during phacoemulsification, which generated edema in the corneal incision that subsequently prevented leakage. This procedure is called the hydration using irrigation port (HYUIP technique. A total of 60 eyes were randomized and placed in two groups, 30 eyes underwent surgeries using the HYUIP technique (HYUIP group and 30 eyes underwent surgeries without the HYUIP technique (control. The three points evaluated during each surgery included 1 the occurrence of anterior chamber collapse during the pulling out of the I/A tip after inserting the intraocular lens, 2 the need for conventional hydration, and 3 watertight completion at the end stage of surgery.Results: The anterior chamber collapse and the need for conventional hydration were significantly smaller in the HYUIP group compared to the control group. Regarding the self-sealing completion, no significant difference was observed between the two groups.Conclusion: The HYUIP technique is an effective method for creating self-sealing wound. In addition, this technique helps to prevent anterior chamber collapse. Keywords: cataract surgery, hydration, irrigation and aspiration, phacoemulsification, wound, self-sealing 

  14. Antimicrobial Irrigants in the Endodontic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of root canal disinfection. It discusses the different endodontic irrigants available and comments on how these can be used most effectively. Eliminating bacteria from the root canal system is an essential stage in endodontic therapy. An objective of endodontic treatment is removal of diseased tissue, elimination of bacteria from the canal system and prevention of recontamination. (1) Disinfection of the root canal system, as part of endodontic therapy, by...

  15. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  16. Colonic irrigation for defecation disorders after dynamic graciloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sacha M; Uludağ, Ozenç; El Naggar, Kadri; van Gemert, Wim G; Baeten, Cor G

    2008-02-01

    Dynamic graciloplasty (DGP) improves anal continence and quality of life for most patients. However, in some patients, DGP fails and fecal incontinence is unsolved or only partially improved. Constipation is also a significant problem after DGP, occurring in 13-90%. Colonic irrigation can be considered as an additional or salvage treatment for defecation disorders after unsuccessful or partially successful DGP. In this study, the effectiveness of colonic irrigation for the treatment of persistent fecal incontinence and/or constipation after DGP is investigated. Patients with defecation disorders after DGP visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Hospital Maastricht were selected for colonic irrigation as additional therapy or salvage therapy in the period between January 1999 and June 2003. The Biotrol(R) Irrimatic pump or the irrigation bag was used for colonic irrigation. Relevant physical and medical history was collected. The patients were asked to fill out a detailed questionnaire about colonic irrigation. Forty-six patients were included in the study with a mean age of 59.3 +/- 12.4 years (80% female). On average, the patients started the irrigation 21.39 +/- 38.77 months after the DGP. Eight patients started irrigation before the DGP. Fifty-two percent of the patients used the irrigation as additional therapy for fecal incontinence, 24% for constipation, and 24% for both. Irrigation was usually performed in the morning. The mean frequency of irrigation was 0.90 +/- 0.40 times per day. The mean amount of water used for the irrigation was 2.27 +/- 1.75 l with a mean duration of 39 +/- 23 min. Four patients performed antegrade irrigation through a colostomy or appendicostomy, with good results. Overall, 81% of the patients were satisfied with the irrigation. Thirty-seven percent of the patients with fecal incontinence reached (pseudo-)continence, and in 30% of the patients, the constipation completely resolved. Side effects of the irrigation were

  17. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains. Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone. However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer. The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in the Ogallala Formation is separated from

  18. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  19. Irrigation Capability Evaluation of Illushi Floodplain, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Umweni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many irrigation projects, especially in the developing tropical regions, are embarked upon without any land capability assessment, resulting in avoidable and undesirable ecological consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the irrigation capability potentials of the soils of a rice growing Illushi/Ega community in Edo State of Nigeria. Soils of Illushi/Ega (200 ha were studied to establish their irrigation capabilities. Water samples were collected from the rivers within and near the sites at the proposed points of intake structures and analyzed for salinity (ECw, permeability (SAR and ion toxicity [Chlorine (Cl and Boron (B]. Gravity irrigation suitability assessment was carried out following the guidelines of the United States Bureau for Land Reclamation (USBR, 1953 and FAO (1979. Results showed that about 5.5 % of the land was non-irrigable, 11.5 % was marginally irrigable, 30.5% was moderately irrigable and 52.5 % highly irrigable.Thus about 83 % of the total land area was found to be irrigable. The results of analyses of irrigation water [ECw, SAR and Cl and B (ion toxicity problems in water sources were 0.1 – 0.7 dS m-1, 1.2 – 1.7, 0.6 – 1.8 cmol kg-1 and 0.5 – 0.7 mg kg-1] also show that there is no indication of salinity or ion toxicity problem.

  20. Review of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jee Yoo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Eliminating the residual debris and bacteria in the root canal system is one of the main purposes of the endodontic treatment. However, the complexity on the anatomy of the root canal system makes it difficult to eliminate the bacterial biofilm existing along the root canal surface and necrotic pulp tissue by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation. Recently, more effective irrigant delivery systems for root canal irrigation have been developed. The purpose of this review was to present an overview of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices available in endodontics. Review The contents of this paper include as follows; - syringe-needle irrigation, manual dynamic irrigation, brushes - sonic and ultrasonic irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, rotary brush, RinsEndo, EndoVac, Laser Conclusion Though technological advances during the last decade have brought to fruition new agitation devices that rely on various mechanisms, there are few evidence based study to correlate the clinical efficacy of these devices with improved outcomes except syringe irrigation with needle and ultrasonic irrigation. The clinicians should try their best efforts to deliver antimicrobial and tissue solvent solutions in predictable volumes safely to working length.

  1. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  2. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  3. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  4. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
    understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
    society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
    changes for women farmers. The

  5. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cessation of irrigation before harvesting in reducing microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in urban vegetable farming in Ghana. METHODS: Assessment was done under actual field conditions with urban vegetable farmers in Ghana. Trials...... were arranged in completely randomized block design and done both in the dry and wet seasons. Seven hundred and twenty-six lettuce samples and 36 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: On average, 0.65 log units for indicator thermotolerant coliforms and 0.......4 helminth eggs per 100 g of lettuce were removed on each non-irrigated day from lettuce in the dry season. This corresponded to a daily loss of 1.4 tonnes/ha of fresh weight of lettuce. As an input for exposure analysis to make risk estimates, the decay coefficient, k, for thermotolerant coliforms was 0...

  6. Energy performance of sprinkler irrigated maize, wheat and sunflower in Vigia irrigation district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Rodrigues, Goncalo Caleia; Paredes, Paula; Pereira, Luis S. [Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER/ISA), Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lspereira@isa.utl.pt

    2008-07-01

    The energy potential of a crop may be evaluated through life cycle assessment methodologies. These refer to the computation of the crop's energy balance and other related indicators, such as the energy ratio and the energetic efficiency, that may be used as to assess how a given irrigated crop may be used for production of biofuel. This study concerns sprinkler irrigated sunflower, wheat and maize crops using data relative to the campaign of 2007 in the Vigia Irrigation District, Alentejo. A model was developed and various scenarios were considered. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that the maize crop is the most efficient in producing energy and sunflower is the least one for all the alternative scenarios considered. (author)

  7. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  8. Traditional Irrigation Management in Betmera-Hiwane, Ethiopia: The Main Peculiarities for the Persistence of Irrigation Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Habtu; Kitamura Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Traditional irrigation, as part of the ancient agricultural practices in northern Ethiopia (Tigray), has persisted for long time since 500 B.C.,while many newly introduced irrigation projects have usually failed there. The main objective of this study is thus to investigate the peculiarities pertinent to irrigation management and those having contributed for the persistence of traditional irrigation practices for a long period of time. The experience gained from such areas can definitely help make irrigation management system of new irrigation schemes sustainable. Betmera-Hiwane, one of the ancient traditional irrigation areas in Tigray region, was selected for the field study. Direct observations through field visits accompanied by interviews to farmers, local officials, local knowledgeable individuals and higher officials were made. After analyzing the collected primary and secondary information, the main peculiarities that contributed to the persistence of traditional irrigation areas were identified, and they are: the presence of communally constructed local rules, locally designed hydraulic control structures, ownership feeling of the irrigators and accountability of water distributors to the irrigation management, the culture for mobilizing communal resources and the culture of self-initiating local water management strategies.

  9. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  10. Performance of the METRIC model in estimating evapotranspiration fluxes over an irrigated field in Saudi Arabia using Landsat-8 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Hassaballa, Abdalhaleem A.; Patil, Virupakshagouda C.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) is essential for hydrological modeling and efficient crop water management in hyper-arid climates. In this study, we applied the METRIC algorithm on Landsat-8 images, acquired from June to October 2013, for the mapping of ET of a 50 ha center-pivot irrigated alfalfa field in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The METRIC-estimated energy balance components and ET were evaluated against the data provided by an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower installed in the field. Results indicated that the METRIC algorithm provided accurate ET estimates over the study area, with RMSE values of 0.13 and 4.15 mm d-1. The METRIC algorithm was observed to perform better in full canopy conditions compared to partial canopy conditions. On average, the METRIC algorithm overestimated the hourly ET by 6.6 % in comparison to the EC measurements; however, the daily ET was underestimated by 4.2 %.

  11. Irrigation and avifaunal change in coastal Northwest Mexico: has irrigated habit attracted threatened migratory species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grason, Emily; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation in desert ecosystems can either reduce or increase species diversity. Groundwater pumping often lowers water tables and reduces natural wetlands, whereas canal irrigation often creates mesic habitat, resulting in great increases in avian diversity from irrigation. Here we compare a dataset of potential natural vegetation to recent datasets from areal and satellite imagery to show that 60% of the land in the coastal plain of southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa lying below 200 m elevation has been converted by irrigation to more mesic habitats. We then use the record of bird specimens in the world’s museums from this same region of Mexico to examine the avian community before and after the development of extensive irrigation. In general these museum records show an increase in the abundance and diversity of breeding birds associated with mesic habitats. Although thorn forest birds have likely decreased in total numbers, most are common enough in the remaining thorn forest that collection records did not indicate their probable decline. Four migrants having most of their breeding ranges in the US or Canada, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Cliff Swallow, Bell’s Vireo, and Orchard Oriole, apparently have increased dramatically as breeders in irrigated habitats of NW Mexico. Because these species have decreased or even largely disappeared as breeding birds in parts of the US or Canada, further research should assess whether their increases in new mesic habitats of NW Mexico are linked to their declines as breeding birds in Canada and the US For Bell’s Vireo recent specimens from Sinaloa suggest its new breeding population in NW Mexico may be composed partly of the endangered Least Bell’s Vireo. PMID:26312181

  12. Comparison of Manual and Automatic Irrigation of Pot Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Vagner

    1975-01-01

    An air-lift principle for transport of water was adapted for automatic irrigation of experimental pots originally constructed for manual irrigation by the weighing method. The two irrigation techniques were compared in an experiment with increasing amounts of nitrogen fertilizer to spring barley....... Productions of grain and straw and chemical composition were almost the same after the two irrigation methods, and it was concluded that the laborious manual watering could be replaced by automatic irrigation. Comparison of the yield from individual plants in the pots showed a large difference between centre...... plants and border plants independent of irrigation principle. The increase in yield per pot with increasing N fertilization was at the highest N level caused only by an increase in yield of the border plants....

  13. Reform of irrigation management and investment policy in African development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KW Easter

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reform of water and irrigation management in Africa and compares it with similar reforms in Asia.  Several things are evident from the review.  First, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is at an earlier stage of irrigation development and reform than Asia.  Second, the articulated need for reform is much stronger in Asia than it is in SSA.  Third, the productivity of small-scale irrigated farms is significantly lower in SSA compared to Asia.  Thus any irrigation investment strategy in SSA should be different from Asia and focus on increasing small-farm productivity as well as small-scale irrigation projects.  Finally, all direct government irrigation investments should be done jointly with decisions regarding the type of project management.

  14. LOW COST SMART SOLAR POWERED AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsermu Alemayehu*, Kena Likassa

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries Photovoltaic energy can find many applications in agriculture, providing electrical energy in various cases, particularly OFF grid and desert area. Today Modern irrigation methods in developing country are needed to fulfill the food demands. Although in these countries Ethiopia, there are many diesel engine operated and rare solar operated water pumps for irrigation; but due to the running cost of diesel and capital cost of photovoltaic irrigation system. So Photovolta...

  15. Memory of irrigation effects on hydroclimate and its modeling challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Xu, Xiaoyu; Barlage, Michael; Rasmussen, Roy; Shen, Shuanghe; Miao, Shiguang; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2018-06-01

    Irrigation modifies land-surface water and energy budgets, and also influences weather and climate. However, current earth-system models, used for weather prediction and climate projection, are still in their infancy stage to consider irrigation effects. This study used long-term data collected from two contrasting (irrigated and rainfed) nearby maize-soybean rotation fields, to study the effects of irrigation memory on local hydroclimate. For a 12 year average, irrigation decreases summer surface-air temperature by less than 1 °C and increases surface humidity by 0.52 g kg‑1. The irrigation cooling effect is more pronounced and longer lasting for maize than for soybean. Irrigation reduces maximum, minimum, and averaged temperature over maize by more than 0.5 °C for the first six days after irrigation, but its temperature effect over soybean is mixed and negligible two or three days after irrigation. Irrigation increases near-surface humidity over maize by about 1 g kg‑1 up to ten days and increases surface humidity over soybean (~ 0.8 g kg‑1) with a similar memory. These differing effects of irrigation memory on temperature and humidity are associated with respective changes in the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes for maize and soybean. These findings highlight great need and challenges for earth-system models to realistically simulate how irrigation effects vary with crop species and with crop growth stages, and to capture complex interactions between agricultural management and water-system components (crop transpiration, precipitation, river, reservoirs, lakes, groundwater, etc.) at various spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Off-design performance loss model for radial turbines with pivoting, variable-area stators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitner, P. L.; Glassman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    An off-design performance loss model was developed for variable stator (pivoted vane), radial turbines through analytical modeling and experimental data analysis. Stator loss is determined by a viscous loss model; stator vane end-clearance leakage effects are determined by a clearance flow model. Rotor loss coefficient were obtained by analyzing the experimental data from a turbine rotor previously tested with six stators having throat areas from 20 to 144 percent of design area and were correlated with stator-to-rotor throat area ratio. An incidence loss model was selected to obtain best agreement with experimental results. Predicted turbine performance is compared with experimental results for the design rotor as well as with results for extended and cutback versions of the rotor. Sample calculations were made to show the effects of stator vane end-clearance leakage.

  17. Critical current scaling and the pivot-point in Nb3Sn strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, Y; Hampshire, D P

    2012-01-01

    Detailed measurements are provided of the engineering critical current density (J c ) and the index of transition (n-value) of two different types of advanced ITER Nb 3 Sn superconducting strand for fusion applications. The samples consist of one internal-tin strand (OST) and two bronze-route strands (BEAS I and BEAS II—reacted using different heat treatments). Tests on different sections of these wires show that prior to applying strain, J c is homogeneous to better than 2% along the length of each strand. J c data have been characterized as a function of magnetic field (B ≤ 14.5 T), temperature (4.2 K ≤ T ≤ 12 K) and applied axial strain ( − 1% ≤ ε A ≤ 0.8%). Strain-cycling tests demonstrate that the variable strain J c data are reversible to better than 2% when the applied axial strain is in the range of − 1% ≤ ε A ≤ 0.5%. The wires are damaged when the intrinsic strain (ε I ) is ε I ≥ 0.55% and ε I ≥ 0.23% for the OST and BEAS strands, respectively. The strain dependences of the normalized J c for each type of strand are similar to those of prototype strands of similar design measured in 2005 and 2008 to about 2% which makes them candidate strands for a round-robin interlaboratory comparison. The J c data are described by Durham, ITER and Josephson-junction parameterizations to an accuracy of about 4%. For all of these scaling laws, the percentage difference between the data and the parameterization is larger when J c is small, caused by high B, T or |ε I |. The n-values can be described by a modified power law of the form n=1+rI c s , where r and s are approximately constant and I c is the critical current. It has long been known that pivot-points (or cross-overs) in J c occur at high magnetic field and temperature. Changing the magnetic field or temperature from one side of the pivot-point to the other changes the highest J c sample to the lowest J c sample and vice versa. The pivot-point follows the B–T phase boundary

  18. Section 504 and student health problems: the pivotal position of the school nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A; Granthom, Margarita Fernan; Lovato, Leanna

    2012-12-01

    News reports illustrate controversies between parents and schools in response to student health problems. Today's school nurse is in a pivotal position for the avoidance and resolution of disputes not only by increasing awareness of student health conditions but also by having a working knowledge of legal developments under Section 504 and its sister statute-the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ADA amendments of 2008 have extended the standards for eligibility and expanded questions about school districts' obligations under Section 504 and the ADA. This article provides a comprehensive synthesis of recent case law and related legal developments under this pair of federal statutes, culminating in practical implications and professional recommendations for school nurses.

  19. Achieving numerical accuracy and high performance using recursive tile LU factorization with partial pivoting

    KAUST Repository

    Dongarra, Jack

    2013-09-18

    The LU factorization is an important numerical algorithm for solving systems of linear equations in science and engineering and is a characteristic of many dense linear algebra computations. For example, it has become the de facto numerical algorithm implemented within the LINPACK benchmark to rank the most powerful supercomputers in the world, collected by the TOP500 website. Multicore processors continue to present challenges to the development of fast and robust numerical software due to the increasing levels of hardware parallelism and widening gap between core and memory speeds. In this context, the difficulty in developing new algorithms for the scientific community resides in the combination of two goals: achieving high performance while maintaining the accuracy of the numerical algorithm. This paper proposes a new approach for computing the LU factorization in parallel on multicore architectures, which not only improves the overall performance but also sustains the numerical quality of the standard LU factorization algorithm with partial pivoting. While the update of the trailing submatrix is computationally intensive and highly parallel, the inherently problematic portion of the LU factorization is the panel factorization due to its memory-bound characteristic as well as the atomicity of selecting the appropriate pivots. Our approach uses a parallel fine-grained recursive formulation of the panel factorization step and implements the update of the trailing submatrix with the tile algorithm. Based on conflict-free partitioning of the data and lockless synchronization mechanisms, our implementation lets the overall computation flow naturally without contention. The dynamic runtime system called QUARK is then able to schedule tasks with heterogeneous granularities and to transparently introduce algorithmic lookahead. The performance results of our implementation are competitive compared to the currently available software packages and libraries. For example

  20. Causes of death from the randomized CoreValve US Pivotal High-Risk Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiani, Vincent; Deeb, G Michael; Popma, Jeffrey J; Adams, David H; Gleason, Thomas G; Conte, John V; Zorn, George L; Hermiller, James B; Chetcuti, Stan; Mumtaz, Mubashir; Yakubov, Steven J; Kleiman, Neal S; Huang, Jian; Reardon, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Explore causes and timing of death from the CoreValve US Pivotal High-Risk Trial. An independent clinical events committee adjudicated causes of death, followed by post hoc hierarchical classification. Baseline characteristics, early outcomes, and causes of death were evaluated for 3 time periods (selected based on threshold of surgical 30-day mortality and on the differences in the continuous hazard between the 2 groups): early (0-30 days), recovery (31-120 days), and late (121-365 days). Differences in the rate of death were evident only during the recovery period (31-120 days), whereas 15 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) (4.0%) and 27 surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) patients (7.9%) died (P = .025). This mortality difference was largely driven by higher rates of technical failure, surgical complications, and lack of recovery following surgery. From 0 to 30 days, the causes of death were more technical failures in the TAVR group and lack of recovery in the SAVR group. Mortality in the late period (121-365 days) in both arms was most commonly ascribed to other circumstances, comprising death from medical complications from comorbid disease. Mortality at 1 year in the CoreValve US Pivotal High-Risk Trial favored TAVR over SAVR. The major contributor was that more SAVR patients died during the recovery period (31-121 days), likely affected by the overall influence of physical stress associated with surgery. Similar rates of technical failure and complications were observed between the 2 groups. This suggests that early TAVR results can improve with technical refinements and that high-risk surgical patients will benefit from reducing complications. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Achieving numerical accuracy and high performance using recursive tile LU factorization with partial pivoting

    KAUST Repository

    Dongarra, Jack; Faverge, Mathieu; Ltaief, Hatem; Luszczek, Piotr R.

    2013-01-01

    The LU factorization is an important numerical algorithm for solving systems of linear equations in science and engineering and is a characteristic of many dense linear algebra computations. For example, it has become the de facto numerical algorithm implemented within the LINPACK benchmark to rank the most powerful supercomputers in the world, collected by the TOP500 website. Multicore processors continue to present challenges to the development of fast and robust numerical software due to the increasing levels of hardware parallelism and widening gap between core and memory speeds. In this context, the difficulty in developing new algorithms for the scientific community resides in the combination of two goals: achieving high performance while maintaining the accuracy of the numerical algorithm. This paper proposes a new approach for computing the LU factorization in parallel on multicore architectures, which not only improves the overall performance but also sustains the numerical quality of the standard LU factorization algorithm with partial pivoting. While the update of the trailing submatrix is computationally intensive and highly parallel, the inherently problematic portion of the LU factorization is the panel factorization due to its memory-bound characteristic as well as the atomicity of selecting the appropriate pivots. Our approach uses a parallel fine-grained recursive formulation of the panel factorization step and implements the update of the trailing submatrix with the tile algorithm. Based on conflict-free partitioning of the data and lockless synchronization mechanisms, our implementation lets the overall computation flow naturally without contention. The dynamic runtime system called QUARK is then able to schedule tasks with heterogeneous granularities and to transparently introduce algorithmic lookahead. The performance results of our implementation are competitive compared to the currently available software packages and libraries. For example

  2. A Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process approach in irrigation networks maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza Permana, Angga; Rintis Hadiani, Rr.; Syafi'i

    2017-11-01

    Ponorogo Regency has 440 Irrigation Area with a total area of 17,950 Ha. Due to the limited budget and lack of maintenance cause decreased function on the irrigation. The aim of this study is to make an appropriate system to determine the indices weighted of the rank prioritization criteria for irrigation network maintenance using a fuzzy-based methodology. The criteria that are used such as the physical condition of irrigation networks, area of service, estimated maintenance cost, and efficiency of irrigation water distribution. 26 experts in the field of water resources in the Dinas Pekerjaan Umum were asked to fill out the questionnaire, and the result will be used as a benchmark to determine the rank of irrigation network maintenance priority. The results demonstrate that the physical condition of irrigation networks criterion (W1) = 0,279 has the greatest impact on the assessment process. The area of service (W2) = 0,270, efficiency of irrigation water distribution (W4) = 0,249, and estimated maintenance cost (W3) = 0,202 criteria rank next in effectiveness, respectively. The proposed methodology deals with uncertainty and vague data using triangular fuzzy numbers, and, moreover, it provides a comprehensive decision-making technique to assess maintenance priority on irrigation network.

  3. Trash-polluted irrigation: characteristics and impact on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaeman, D.; Arif, SS; Sudarmadji

    2018-04-01

    Trash pollution has been a problem in sustainable water resources management. Trash pollutes not only rivers, lakes and seas, but also irrigation canals and rice fields. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of solid waste (type, time of occurrence and sources of trash) and its impact on agriculture. The study was conducted in four irrigation areas, namely Gamping, Merdiko, Nglaren and Karangploso in Bantul District, Yogyakarta Special Region. We applied the Irrigation Rapid Trash Assessment (IRTA) as our field survey instrument. The results showed that trash was found throughout irrigation canals and rice fields, and the occurrence was influenced by water flow, time and farmer activities. The irrigation was dominantly polluted by plastic trash (52.2%), biodegradable waste (17.91%) and miscellaneous trash (12.3%). The IRTA score showed that Gamping Irrigation Area was at marginal condition, bearing a high risk of disturbing the operation and maintenance of the irrigation canals as well as farmers’ health. Trash in irrigation also generated technical impact of the irrigation operation and maintenance, environmental quality, and social life. This research also offered environmental policy integration approach and water-garbage governance approach as an alternative solution to manage water resources and agriculture in a sustainable manner, under the pressure of increasing amount of trash.

  4. 75 FR 67095 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ...; (c) Vehicle and equipment repairs; (d) Equipment costs, including lease fees; (e) Depreciation; (f... Mexico 87104, Telephone: (505) 563-3100. Pine River Irrigation Project..... John Waconda, Superintendent...

  5. 76 FR 58293 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ...) Vehicle and equipment repairs; (d) Equipment costs, including lease fees; (e) Depreciation; (f... Mexico 87104, Telephone: (505) 563-3100. Pine River Irrigation Project..... John Waconda, Superintendent...

  6. Uncertainties in modelling the climate impact of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Irrigation-based agriculture constitutes an essential factor for food security as well as fresh water resources and has a distinct impact on regional and global climate. Many issues related to irrigation's climate impact are addressed in studies that apply a wide range of models. These involve substantial uncertainties related to differences in the model's structure and its parametrizations on the one hand and the need for simplifying assumptions for the representation of irrigation on the other hand. To address these uncertainties, we used the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System model into which a simple irrigation scheme was implemented. In order to estimate possible uncertainties with regard to the model's more general structure, we compared the climate impact of irrigation between three simulations that use different schemes for the land-surface-atmosphere coupling. Here, it can be shown that the choice of coupling scheme does not only affect the magnitude of possible impacts but even their direction. For example, when using a scheme that does not explicitly resolve spatial subgrid scale heterogeneity at the surface, irrigation reduces the atmospheric water content, even in heavily irrigated regions. Contrarily, in simulations that use a coupling scheme that resolves heterogeneity at the surface or even within the lowest layers of the atmosphere, irrigation increases the average atmospheric specific humidity. A second experiment targeted possible uncertainties related to the representation of irrigation characteristics. Here, in four simulations the irrigation effectiveness (controlled by the target soil moisture and the non-vegetated fraction of the grid box that receives irrigation) and the timing of delivery were varied. The second experiment shows that uncertainties related to the modelled irrigation characteristics, especially the irrigation effectiveness, are also substantial. In general the impact of irrigation on the state of the land

  7. Spectral entropy as a mean to quantify water stress history for natural vegetation and irrigated agriculture in a water-stressed tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Johnson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Spectral entropy (Hs) is an index which can be used to measure the structural complexity of time series data. When a time series is made up of one periodic function, the Hs value becomes smaller, while Hs becomes larger when a time series is composed of several periodic functions. We hypothesized that this characteristic of the Hs could be used to quantify the water stress history of vegetation. For the ideal condition for which sufficient water is supplied to an agricultural crop or natural vegetation, there should be a single distinct phenological cycle represented in a vegetation index time series (e.g., NDVI and EVI). However, time series data for a vegetation area that repeatedly experiences water stress may include several fluctuations that can be observed in addition to the predominant phenological cycle. This is because the process of experiencing water stress and recovering from it generates small fluctuations in phenological characteristics. Consequently, the value of Hs increases when vegetation experiences several water shortages. Therefore, the Hs could be used as an indicator for water stress history. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data for a natural area in comparison to a nearby sugarcane area in seasonally-dry western Costa Rica. In this presentation we will illustrate the use of spectral entropy to evaluate the vegetative responses of natural vegetation (dry tropical forest) and sugarcane under three different irrigation techniques (center pivot irrigation, drip irrigation and flood irrigation). Through this comparative analysis, the utility of Hs as an indicator will be tested. Furthermore, crop response to the different irrigation methods will be discussed in terms of Hs, NDVI and yield.

  8. STUDY ON MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN IRRIGATED AND NON-IRRIGATED VERTISOL FROM BOIANU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Dumitru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation, when administered correctly, confers the producers the possibility to overcome drought effects and obtain higher yields, supplementing the quality of food for animals or human consumers. In the mean time, soil erosion, pathogens attack and nutrients or pesticides spreading can be prevented by an adequate management of irrigation water. As a consequence, soil microbial community structure, composition and activities, as well as the organic matter quality can be different from those in non-irrigated soil. Research have been carried out in order to assess changes in bacterial and fungal communities and activity in irrigated Vertisol from Boianu, as compared with non-irrigated. The paper presents the results concerning the taxonomical composition of bacterial and fungalmicroflora in the horizons of the two soil profiles, as well as the level of CO2 released by microorganisms. Chromatographic aspects of humus fractions were used to characterize the organic matter in irrigated and nonirrigated soil. Increased moisture and lowered temperature in Ap horizon of irrigated soil increased bacterial counts(18 x106 viable cells x g-1 dry soil and their metabolic activity expressed by carbon dioxide released (46.838mg CO2 x g-1 dry soil comparatively with non- irrigated soil. Fungal microflora was more abundant after 25-50cm under irrigation. Species diversity slightly increased under irrigation in both upper and lower part of soil profile. In irrigated soil, associations of species belonging to bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus were dominant in surface and white actinomycetes in the depth. Fungal consortia of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium dominated in both soil profiles.Irrigation induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil organic matter, as well as in the aspect of their migration pattern, as revealed on circular chromatograms.

  9. Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-07-01

    The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

  10. Irrigating lives : development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magadlela, D.

    2000-01-01

    This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with

  11. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation

  12. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... 8--Salmon and Steelhead Full Life-Cycle Population Models; and Request 9--Effects of the Project and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project Project... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District...

  13. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  14. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    pharmaceuticals and two personal care products (PPCPs; e.g. betablockers, antibiotics, antiphlogistics, carbamazepine, musk fragrances, iodinated contrast media (ICM) and estrogens). No differences in PPCP pollution of the groundwater were found due to irrigation of STP effluents with and without addition....... In the groundwater and lysimeter samples primarily the ICM diatrizoate and iopamidol, the antiepileptic carbamazepine and the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole were detected up to several mu g l(-1), while the acidic pharmaceuticals, musk fragrances, estrogens and betablockers were likely sorbed or transformed while...

  15. Assessing the changes of groundwater recharge / irrigation water use between SRI and traditional irrigation schemes in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2015-04-01

    To respond to agricultural water shortage impacted by climate change without affecting rice yield in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation, such as SRI methodology, is considered to be adopted in rice-cultivation in Taiwan. However, the flooded paddy fields could be considered as an important source of groundwater recharge in Central Taiwan. The water-saving benefit of this new methodology and its impact on the reducing of groundwater recharge should be integrally assessed in this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of groundwater recharge/ irrigation water use between the SRI and traditional irrigation schemes (continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation). An experimental paddy field located in the proximal area of the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping region in Taiwan) was chosen as the study area. The 3-D finite element groundwater model (FEMWATER) with the variable boundary condition analog functions, was applied in simulating groundwater recharge process and amount under traditional irrigation schemes and SRI methodology. The use of effective rainfall was taken into account or not in different simulation scenarios for each irrigation scheme. The simulation results showed that there were no significant variations of infiltration rate in the use of effective rainfall or not, but the low soil moisture setting in deep soil layers resulted in higher infiltration rate. Taking the use of effective rainfall into account, the average infiltration rate for continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation, and SRI methodology in the first crop season of 2013 were 4.04 mm/day, 4.00 mm/day and 3.92 mm/day, respectively. The groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reducing 4% and 2% compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly

  16. Clinical value of colonic irrigation in patients with continence disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, J W; Schouten, W R; Vlot, E A; Smits, S; van Kessel, I

    1997-07-01

    Continence disturbances, especially fecal soiling, are difficult to treat. Irrigation of the distal part of the large bowel might be considered as a nonsurgical alternative for patients with impaired continence. This study is aimed at evaluating the clinical value of colonic irrigation. Thirty-two patients (16 females; median age, 47 (range, 23-72) years) were offered colonic irrigation on an ambulatory basis. Sixteen patients suffered from fecal soiling (Group I), whereas the other 16 patients were treated for fecal incontinence (Group II). Patients were instructed by enterostomal therapists how to use a conventional colostomy irrigation set to obtain sufficient irrigation of the distal part of their large bowel. Patients with continence disturbances during the daytime were instructed to introduce 500 to 1,000 ml of warm (38 degrees C) water within 5 to 10 minutes after they passed their first stool. In addition, they were advised to wait until the urge to defecate was felt. Patients with soiling during overnight sleep were advised to irrigate during the evening. To determine clinical outcome, a detailed questionnaire was used. Median duration of follow-up was 18 months. Ten patients discontinued irrigation within the first month of treatment. Symptoms resolved completely in two patients. They believed that there was no need to continue treatment any longer. Irrigation had no effect in two patients. Despite the fact that symptoms resolved, six patients discontinued treatment because they experienced pain (n = 2) or they considered the irrigation to be too time-consuming (n = 4). Twenty-two patients are still performing irrigations. Most patients irrigated the colon in the morning after the first stool was passed. Time needed for washout varied between 10 and 90 minutes. Frequency of irrigations varied from two times per day to two times per week. In Group I, irrigation was found to be beneficial in 92 percent of patients, whereas 60 percent of patients in Group II

  17. Irrigation and fertigation frequencies with nitrogen in the watermelon culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Newdmar Vieira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of different irrigation frequencies and different nitrogen fertigation frequencies on the growth performance of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus culture. Two experiments were conducted at the Paraguay farm in the Cruz municipality, Ceará, Brazil. They was randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications. The irrigation frequency experiment consisted of the application of different irrigation frequencies. The treatments were: DM - daily irrigation in the morning with 100% daily dosage; DT - daily irrigation in the afternoon, with 100% daily dosage; DMT - twice daily irrigation, with 50% daily dosage in the morning and 50% daily dosage in the afternoon; 2D - irrigation every two days; 3D - irrigation every three days and 4D - irrigation every four days. To the experiment with different nitrogen fertigation frequencies, the treatments used were: 2F - 2 fertigations in a cycle; 4F - 4 fertigations in a cycle; 8F - 8 fertigations in a cycle; 16F - 16 fertigations in a cycle; 32F - 32 fertigations in a cycle and 64F - 64 fertigations in a cycle. We evaluated the marketable yield (PC, fruit weight (M, polar diameter (DP, equatorial diameter (DE, shell thickness (EC and soluble solids (SS. The irrigation frequency treatments influenced all variables significantly, with twice daily irrigation (DMT, 50% in the morning and the 50% in the afternoon promoting the highest productivity (69.79 t ha-1. The different frequencies of fertigation also significantly influenced all variables, except for the shell thickness, the highest yield (80.69 t ha-1 being obtained with treatment 64 fertigations in a cycle.

  18. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  19. Re-use of pilot data and interim analysis of pivotal data in MRMC studies: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Samuelson, Frank; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    Novel medical imaging devices are often evaluated with multi-reader multi-case (MRMC) studies in which radiologists read images of patient cases for a specified clinical task (e.g., cancer detection). A pilot study is often used to measure the effect size and variance parameters that are necessary for sizing a pivotal study (including sizing readers, non-diseased and diseased cases). Due to the practical difficulty of collecting patient cases or recruiting clinical readers, some investigators attempt to include the pilot data as part of their pivotal study. In other situations, some investigators attempt to perform an interim analysis of their pivotal study data based upon which the sample sizes may be re-estimated. Re-use of the pilot data or interim analyses of the pivotal data may inflate the type I error of the pivotal study. In this work, we use the Roe and Metz model to simulate MRMC data under the null hypothesis (i.e., two devices have equal diagnostic performance) and investigate the type I error rate for several practical designs involving re-use of pilot data or interim analysis of pivotal data. Our preliminary simulation results indicate that, under the simulation conditions we investigated, the inflation of type I error is none or only marginal for some design strategies (e.g., re-use of patient data without re-using readers, and size re-estimation without using the effect-size estimated in the interim analysis). Upon further verifications, these are potentially useful design methods in that they may help make a study less burdensome and have a better chance to succeed without substantial loss of the statistical rigor.

  20. Climate change and irrigation. An Australian response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigram, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Climatic changes on a global or regional scale, resulting from human activities, and the likely effects of such changes on Australia were discussed. Irrigation concerns of the Murray-Darling Basin in southeast Australia associated with global climate were described. Potential risks for regional economies and communities (agriculture in this instance) which may be significant, were assessed. Restructuring of the irrigation industry, and appropriate policy initiatives were urged now, while there is still some time to prepare. Application of the 'Precautionary Principle' to reduce global climate change effects was recommended. (This principle states that in areas threatened by severe climatic change lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as an excuse to delay decisive measures designed to mitigate environmental degradation). Bold policy adjustments and the creation of a new institutional framework to promote sustainable resource management were called for. It was suggested that the region could become a 'laboratory' for the whole world for assessing the effectiveness of managerial responses to environmental changes

  1. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  2. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  3. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  4. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  5. Investigating deficit irrigation as a climate-smart farming option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global water supplies available for irrigation are declining while food demand continues to rise. Deficit irrigation offers a promising strategy to reduce water use with minimal impacts to yields, but is likely to have a range of impacts on soil nutrient cycling processes and climate change mitigati...

  6. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  7. Agriculture and wildlife: ecological implications of subsurface irrigation drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1994-01-01

    Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage is a wastewater with the potential to severely impact wetlands and wildlife populations. Widespread poisoning of migratory birds by drainwater contaminants has occurred in the western United States and waterfowl populations are threatened in the Pacific and Central flyways. Irrigated agriculture could produce subsurface...

  8. Atmospheric effects of irrigation in monsoon climate: the Indian subcontinent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    During the 20th century, an increasing population increased the demand for food. As a consequence, agricultural activity has expanded and become more intense. A part of this intensification is the use of irrigation systems to water crops. Due to this irrigation, dams and channeling systems,

  9. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the entire fruit and wine industries are dependent on irrigation. Cropping in the Eastern and Northern Cape also relies heavily on irrigation. ..... The soils were described as deep, fine sandy, dominantly red, ..... crops. For example, leaves of deciduous fruit trees (apri- ..... Laboratory Handbook 60, USDA, Washington. 160 pp.

  10. Performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at Mambilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in discharge can also be adjusted via use of uniform laterals, risers, and nozzles. This study further recommends an incorporation of a soil and water laboratory for the company to aid in monitoring the soil and water quality of the irrigation area. Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation ...

  11. Effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted during five growing seasons from 2004 to 2008 to investigate effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield and quality of Salak apricot trees in semiarid climatic conditions. There were six irrigation treatments, five of which (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) were based on adjustment ...

  12. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) values varied from 93.1 to 466.3 mm for the treatments. The highest yield was obtained from the S3 and S4 treatments. A significant polynomial correlation was obtained between the yield and irrigation water, and between the yield and ET (P < 0.01). This indicated that when irrigation water and ET ...

  13. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  14. Small private irrigation: Enhancing benefits and managing trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giordano, M.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia benefit from readily available and affordable irrigation technologies. The rapid uptake of small private irrigation in South Asia had a proven positive effect on poverty alleviation. In sub-Saharan Africa similar trends are

  15. [Ecological risks of reclaimed water irrigation: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Wei-Ling; Pan, Neng; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse have become an important approach to alleviate the water crisis in China because of its social, economic and ecological benefits. The irrigation on urban green space and farmland is the primary utilization of reclaimed water, which has been practiced world widely. To understand the risk of reclaimed water irrigation, we summarized and reviewed the publications associated with typical pollutants in reclaimed water including salts, nitrogen, heavy metals, emerging pollutants and pathogens, systematically analyzed the ecological risk posed by reclaimed water irrigation regarding plant growth, groundwater quality and public health. Studies showed that salt and salt ions were the major risk sources of reclaimed water irrigation, spreading disease was another potential risk of using reclaimed water, and emerging pollutants was the hot topic in researches of ecological risk. Based on overseas experiences, risk control measures on reclaimed water irrigation in urban green space and farmland were proposed. Five recommendations were given to promote the safe use of reclaimed water irrigation including (1) strengthen long-term in situ monitoring, (2) promote the modeling studies, (3) build up the connections of reclaimed water quality, irrigation management and ecological risk, (4) evaluate the soil bearing capacity of reclaimed water irrigation, (5) and establish risk management system of reclaimed water reuse.

  16. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardossi, A.; Incrocci, L.; Incrocci, G.; Marlorgio, F.; Battista, P.; Bacci, L.; Rapi, B.; Marzialetti, P.; Hemming, J.; Balendonck, J.

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of

  17. land evaluation for improved rice production in watari irrigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    This study aimed at raising irrigated rice production in Watari Irrigation scheme, in Kano state, as to bridge the gap ... land including details about maintenance and ... Area of Kano state and cover a total of 4,574 .... which requires a depth of more than 50cm for efficient .... raise the productivity of the soils to optimum for.

  18. Smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status and characteristics of the 302 smallholder irrigation schemes found in South Africa are discussed and knowledge on South African smallholder irrigation schemes generated by the Water Research Commission (WRC) over a period of nearly 20 years is reviewed. Themes covered include planning, design and ...

  19. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  20. Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Private Irrigation Supply in Nandom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated farmers willingness to pay (WTP) for private irrigation in Nandom district, Ghana. The study randomly sampled 236 farmers and analyzed data using descriptive statistics and ordered logit regression model. Results revealed that 94.5 percent of the farmers were WTP for private irrigation services with ...

  1. Enhanced fodder yield of maize genotypes under saline irrigation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor quality irrigation water adversely affects the growth and yield of crops. This study was designed to evaluate the growth, fodder yield and ionic concentration of three promising maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under the influence of varying quality irrigation water, with different salinity levels. The genotypes, such as ...

  2. Irrigation and Rural Welfare: Implications of Schistosomiasis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection on the socio-economic health of irrigation farmers in the rural districts of Kazaure Area, Northern Nigeria. It first reviews some general consideration of irrigation environment and schistosomiasis, its major associated health problem.

  3. Remote sensing, GIS and hydrological modelling for irrigation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; Urso, d' G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of literature and of work done by the authors between 1988 and 1993. It was presented at a NATO expert meeting on sustainability of irrigated agriculture in 1994. The paper deals with crop water requirements and crop waterstress, assessing irrigation performance with

  4. Growth and biomass of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Resource managers are challenged with waste disposal and leachate produced from its degradation. Poplar (Populus spp.) trees offer an opportunity for ecological leachate disposal as an irrigation source for managed tree systems. Our objective was to irrigate Populus trees with municipal solid waste landfill leachate or fertilized well water (control...

  5. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the ...

  6. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the

  7. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different irrigation and nitrogen levels on lettuce yield characteristics in greenhouse condition from December 2006 to March 2007. Irrigation levels of 100% of total class A pan (S1), 80% of total class A pan (S2), 60% of total class A pan (S3) and nitrogen levels of 0 kg ...

  8. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Couverture du livre Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Directeur(s) : Christopher Scott, Naser I. Faruqui et Liqa Raschid. Maison(s) d'édition : CABI, IWMI, CRDI.

  9. Bureaucratic designs : the paradox of irrigation management transfer in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhardiman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) policy has been formulated and implemented worldwide, relying on three basic assumptions: that the irrigation agency are motivated to adapt their role in the sector's development; that farmers are willing to take over the system management; and that the process

  10. Which Order? Whose Order? Balinese Irrigation Management in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with irrigation management among Balinese migrant settlers in Sulawesi, Indonesia. As settlers in the command area of a state-built irrigation system, they have become part of its blueprinted managerial structure. However, many settlers derived their experience from subak, the

  11. Horizontal distribution of phosphorus in soils of irrigation ditches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Horizontal distribution of phosphorus in soils of irrigation ditches. ... correlations were found between soil P and stream water P on one hand, and between soil pH and stream water pH on the other, indicating that the irrigation water may indeed, have had little or no influence on the properties of the ditches' soils.

  12. Automated cycled sprinkler irrigation for spring frost protection of cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkler irrigation is essential for preventing spring frost bud damage in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait). Risk-averse growers have been reluctant to adopt the intermittent cycling of irrigation pumps as a standard management practice. In the spring of 2013 and 2014, an experiment was conduc...

  13. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  14. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research Commission projects along the Lower Vaal, Riet, Berg and Breede Rivers. ... It is suggested that a more dynamic approach be used for managing salinity under irrigation at farm level, i.e. the use of models. Amongst others, future research should focus on ...

  15. The Current State of Predicting Furrow Irrigation Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    There continues to be a need to predict furrow irrigation erosion to estimate on- and off-site impacts of irrigation management. The objective of this paper is to review the current state of furrow erosion prediction technology considering four models: SISL, WEPP, WinSRFR and APEX. SISL is an empiri...

  16. Irrigated cotton grown on sierozem soils in South Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gloldnaya steppe has large areas of fertile sierozem soils that are important for crop production and its accompanying economic development. The soils are fertile loams but because of the steppe’s dry environment, they need to be irrigated. Our objective was to study irrigation management of cot...

  17. Profitability of Irrigated Improved Pecan Orchards in the Southern Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Job D.; Swinford, Wyatt; Rohla, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine if an irrigated improved pecan orchard is economical relative to agronomic systems commonly implemented by producers that have access to irrigation. Results show that the improved pecan orchard is more profitable than competitive enterprises after a twenty year time frame, but is sensitive to pecan price, pecan yield and attitude toward risk.

  18. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Yield and water productivity of potatoes grown in 4.32 m2 lysimeters were measured in coarse sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam and imposed to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. PRD and DI as water-saving irrigation treatments received 65% of FI after...

  19. Thermal injury of the colon due to colostomy irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, F.R.; Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.

    1981-07-15

    A case of thermal burn and stricture of the colon following colostomy irrigation with hot water is described. The initial radiographic features on barium enema simulated nonspecific segmental colitis. Colonic stricture and enterolith formation developed subsequently. This case emphasizes that care should be taken in preparing irrigating and barium enema solutions.

  20. Thermal injury of the colon due to colostomy irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, F.R.; Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    A case of thermal burn and stricture of the colon following colostomy irrigation with hot water is described. The initial radiographic features on barium enema simulated nonspecific segmental colitis. Colonic stricture and enterolith formation developed subsequently. This case emphasizes that care should be taken in preparing irrigating and barium enema solutions. (orig.)

  1. ARS irrigation research priorities and projects-An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) Irrigation Scheduling Technologies for Water Productivity; 2) Water Productivity (WP) at Multiple Scales; 3) Irrigation Applicatio...

  2. Quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University at Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of two irrigation systems (trickle and modified furrow irrigation) and five maize (M)-cowpea (C) intercropping patterns (sole M-30, sole M-15, ridge ...

  3. Size and stochasticity in irrigated social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Arnald; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Balbo, Andrea L.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the relation between the size of irrigation systems and the management of uncertainty. We specifically focus on studying, through a stylized theoretical model, how stochasticity in water availability and taxation interacts with the stochastic behavior of the population within irrigation systems. Our results indicate the existence of two key population thresholds for the sustainability of any irrigation system: or the critical population size required to keep the irrigation system operative, and N* or the population threshold at which the incentive to work inside the irrigation system equals the incentives to work elsewhere. Crossing irretrievably leads to system collapse. N* is the population level with a sub-optimal per capita payoff towards which irrigation systems tend to gravitate. When subjected to strong stochasticity in water availability or taxation, irrigation systems might suffer sharp population drops and irreversibly disintegrate into a system collapse, via a mechanism we dub ‘collapse trap’. Our conceptual study establishes the basis for further work aiming at appraising the dynamics between size and stochasticity in irrigation systems, whose understanding is key for devising mitigation and adaptation measures to ensure their sustainability in the face of increasing and inevitable uncertainty.

  4. Status and migration of irrigation in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated agriculture produces 49% of crop market value on 18% of cropped lands in the USA. Irrigation is essential to the most highly productive, intensely managed, and internationally competitive sectors of our agricultural economy, which play a key role in meeting growing global food, fiber, and ...

  5. An overview of soil water sensors for salinity & irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. Accurate irrigation management is even more important in salt affected soils ...

  6. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra

  7. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...

  8. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  9. Treadle pump irrigation in Malawi: adoption, gender and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamwamba-Mtethiwa, J.; Namara, R.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Mangisoni, J.; Owusu, E.

    2012-01-01

    As part of their irrigation strategy, the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Malawi are actively promoting the use of treadle pumps in smallholder irrigation. The positive impact of treadle pumps on food security and poverty reduction in Malawi and elsewhere in sub-Saharan

  10. Implications of rural irrigation schemes on household economy. A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and quality of life as measured through the use of standardised HDI. In light of the above, there is a need to fund and develop more rural irrigation schemes so as to ensure livelihood security and rural development in Zimbabwe. Keywords: Rural livelihood, Poverty, Climate change, Irrigation, Lower Gweru, Extension.

  11. Technology transfer: Promoting irrigation progress and best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational efforts promoting irrigation best management practices are designed to increase adoption of these practices and increase public understanding of the importance of irrigation. They increase visibility and the impact of the Ogallala Aquifer Program and promote affiliated research and exten...

  12. 77 FR 10767 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Irrigation Project on the proposed rates about the following issues: (1) The methodology for O&M rate setting..., Irrigation Project Manager, (Project operations and management contracted to Tribes), R.R.1, Box 980, Harlem... Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of rate adjustments. SUMMARY: The...

  13. Irrigation Management in the Pamirs in Tajikistan: A Man's Domain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossenbroek, L.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Families living in Gorno-Badakhshan—situated in the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan—depend on irrigated agriculture to meet their subsistence needs. Because men predominate, and are most visible in, the operation and management of irrigation systems in this region, water-related activities are often

  14. Wedlock or deadlock? Feminists' attempts to engage irrigation engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I describe my search for ways of thinking about, and conceptualizing, irrigation realities that allow recognition of gender as constitutive of such realities. This effort logically follows from the realization that in mainstream conceptualizations of irrigation it is difficult to

  15. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  16. Sensor-Based Model Driven Control Strategy for Precision Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Lozoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the efficiency of the agricultural irrigation systems substantially contributes to sustainable water management. This improvement can be achieved through an automated irrigation system that includes a real-time control strategy based on the water, soil, and crop relationship. This paper presents a model driven control strategy applied to an irrigation system, in order to make an efficient use of water for large crop fields, that is, applying the correct amount of water in the correct place at the right moment. The proposed model uses a predictive algorithm that senses soil moisture and weather variables, to determine optimal amount of water required by the crop. This proposed approach is evaluated against a traditional irrigation system based on the empirical definition of time periods and against a basic soil moisture control system. Results indicate that the use of a model predictive control in an irrigation system achieves a higher efficiency and significantly reduce the water consumption.

  17. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  18. Infrastructure performance of irrigation canal to irrigation efficiency of irrigation area of Candi Limo in Mojokerto District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisnanto, S.; Hadiani, R. R. R.; Ikhsan, C.

    2018-03-01

    Performance is a measure of infrastructure success in delivering the benefits corresponding it’s design implementation. Debit efficiency is a comparison between outflow debit and inflow debit. Irrigation canal performance is part of the overall performance aspects of an irrigation area. The greater of the canal performance will be concluded that the canal is increasingly able to meet the planned benefits, need to be seen its comparison between the performance and debit efficiency of the canal. The existing problems in the field that the value of the performance of irrigation canals are not always comparable to the debit efficiency. This study was conducted to describe the relationship between the performance of the canal to the canal debit efficiency. The study was conducted at Candi Limo Irrigation Area in Mojokerto Disctrict under the authority of Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Timur. The primary canal and secondary canal are surveyed to obtain data. The physical condition of the primary and secondary canals into the material of this study also. Primary and secondary canal performance based on the physical condition in the field. Measurement inflow and outflow debit into the data for the calculation of the debit efficiency. The instrument used in this study such as the current meter for debit measurements in the field as a solution when there is a building measure in the field were damaged, also using the meter and the camera. Permen PU No.32 is used to determine the value of the performance of the canal, while the efficiency analysis to calculate a comparison value between outflow and inflow debit. The process of data running processing by performing the measurement and calculation of the performance of the canal, the canal debit efficiency value calculation, and display a graph of the relationship between the value of the performance with the debit efficiency in each canal. The expected results of this study that the performance value on the primary canal in the

  19. Irrigation water policy analysis using a business simulation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, M.; Holst, G.; Musshoff, O.

    2016-10-01

    Despite numerous studies on farmers' responses to changing irrigation water policies, uncertainties remain about the potential of water pricing schemes and water quotas to reduce irrigation. Thus far, policy impact analysis is predominantly based upon rational choice models that assume behavioral assumptions, such as a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker. Also, econometric techniques are applied which could lack internal validity due to uncontrolled field data. Furthermore, such techniques are not capable of identifying ill-designed policies prior to their implementation. With this in mind, we apply a business simulation game for ex ante policy impact analysis of irrigation water policies at the farm level. Our approach has the potential to reveal the policy-induced behavioral change of the participants in a controlled environment. To do so, we investigate how real farmers from Germany, in an economic experiment, respond to a water pricing scheme and a water quota intending to reduce irrigation. In the business simulation game, the participants manage a "virtual" cash-crop farm for which they make crop allocation and irrigation decisions during several production periods, while facing uncertain product prices and weather conditions. The results reveal that a water quota is able to reduce mean irrigation applications, while a water pricing scheme does not have an impact, even though both policies exhibit equal income effects for the farmers. However, both policies appear to increase the variation of irrigation applications. Compared to a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker, the participants apply less irrigation on average, both when irrigation is not restricted and when a water pricing scheme applies. Moreover, the participants' risk attitude affects the irrigation decisions.

  20. Stability of Adrenaline in Irrigating Solution for Intraocular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yuuka; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Taogoshi, Takanori; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Kihira, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular irrigating solution containing 1 µg/mL adrenaline is widely used during cataract surgery to maintain pupil dilation. Prepared intraocular irrigating solutions are recommended for use within 6 h. After the irrigating solution is admistered for dilution, the adrenaline may become oxidized, and this may result in a decrease in its biological activity. However, the stability of adrenaline in intraocular irrigating solution is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of adrenaline in clinically used irrigating solutions of varying pH. Six hours after mixing, the adrenaline percentages remaining were 90.6%±3.7 (pH 7.2), 91.1%±2.2 (pH 7.5), and 65.2%±2.8 (pH 8.0) of the initial concentration. One hour after mixing, the percentages remaining were 97.6%±2.0 (pH 7.2), 97.4%±2.7 (pH 7.5), and 95.6%±3.3 (pH 8.0). The degradation was especially remarkable and time dependent in the solution at pH 8.0. These results indicate that the concentration of adrenaline is decreased after preparation. Moreover, we investigated the influence of sodium bisulfite on adrenaline stability in irrigating solution. The percentage adrenaline remaining at 6 h after mixing in irrigating solution (pH 8.0) containing sodium bisulfite at 0.5 µg/mL (concentration in irrigating solution) or at 500 µg/mL (concentration in the undiluted adrenaline preparation) were 57.5 and 97.3%, respectively. Therefore, the low concentration of sodium bisulfite in the irrigating solution may be a cause of the adrenaline loss. In conclusion, intraocular irrigation solution with adrenaline should be prepared just prior to its use in surgery.

  1. Scenario Studies on Effects of Soil Infiltration Rates, Land Slope, and Furrow Irrigation Characteristics on Furrow Irrigation-Induced Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibal, Jibrin M; Ramalan, A A; Mudiare, O J; Igbadun, H E

    2014-01-01

    Furrow irrigation proceeds under several soil-water-furrow hydraulics interaction dynamics. The soil erosion consequences from such interactions in furrow irrigation in Samaru had remained uncertain. A furrow irrigation-induced erosion (FIIE) model was used to simulate the potential severity of soil erosion in irrigated furrows due to interactive effects of infiltration rates, land slope, and some furrow irrigation characteristics under different scenarios. The furrow irrigation characteristics considered were furrow lengths, widths, and stream sizes. The model itself was developed using the dimensional analysis approach. The scenarios studied were the interactive effects of furrow lengths, furrow widths, and slopes steepness; infiltration rates and furrow lengths; and stream sizes, furrow lengths, and slopes steepness on potential furrow irrigation-induced erosion, respectively. The severity of FIIE was found to relate somewhat linearly with slope and stream size, and inversely with furrow lengths and furrow width. The worst soil erosion (378.05 t/ha/yr) was found as a result of the interactive effects of 0.65 m furrow width, 50 m furrow length, and 0.25% slope steepness; and the least soil erosion (0.013 t/ha/yr) was induced by the combined effects of 0.5 l/s, 200 m furrow length, and 0.05% slope steepness. Evidently considering longer furrows in furrow irrigation designs would be a better alternative of averting excessive FIIE.

  2. Irrigated agriculture with limited water supply:Tools for understanding and managing irrigation and crop water use efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water availability for irrigated agriculture is declining in both China and the United States due to increased use for power generation, municipalities, industries and environmental protection. Persistent droughts have exacerbated the situation, leading to increases in irrigated area as farmers atte...

  3. Pond and Irrigation Model (PIM): a tool for simultaneously evaluating pond water availability and crop irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Gary Feng; Theodor D. Leininger; John Read; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural ponds are an important alternative source of water for crop irrigation to conserve surface and ground water resources. In recent years more such ponds have been constructed in Mississippi and around the world. There is currently, however, a lack of a tool to simultaneously estimate crop irrigation demand and pond water availability. In this study, a Pond-...

  4. Clinical Development of a Cytomegalovirus DNA Vaccine: From Product Concept to Pivotal Phase 3 Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gerber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available 2013 marks a milestone year for plasmid DNA vaccine development as a first-in-class cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA vaccine enters pivotal phase 3 testing. This vaccine consists of two plasmids expressing CMV antigens glycoprotein B (gB and phosphoprotein 65 (pp65 formulated with a CRL1005 poloxamer and benzalkonium chloride (BAK delivery system designed to enhance plasmid expression. The vaccine’s planned initial indication under investigation is for prevention of CMV reactivation in CMV-seropositive (CMV+ recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2 proof-of-concept study provided initial evidence of the safety of this product in CMV+ HCT recipients who underwent immune ablation conditioning regimens. This study revealed a significant reduction in viral load endpoints and increased frequencies of pp65-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells in vaccine recipients compared to placebo recipients. The results of this endpoint-defining trial provided the basis for defining the primary and secondary endpoints of a global phase 3 trial in HCT recipients. A case study is presented here describing the development history of this vaccine from product concept to initiation of the phase 3 trial.

  5. Pivot/Remote: a distributed database for remote data entry in multi-center clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, S B; Jiang, K; Plummer, W D; Edens, T R; Stroud, M J; Swindell, B B; Wheeler, A P; Bernard, G R

    1995-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION. Data collection is a critical component of multi-center clinical trials. Clinical trials conducted in intensive care units (ICU) are even more difficult because the acute nature of illnesses in ICU settings requires that masses of data be collected in a short time. More than a thousand data points are routinely collected for each study patient. The majority of clinical trials are still "paper-based," even if a remote data entry (RDE) system is utilized. The typical RDE system consists of a computer housed in the CC office and connected by modem to a centralized data coordinating center (DCC). Study data must first be recorded on a paper case report form (CRF), transcribed into the RDE system, and transmitted to the DCC. This approach requires additional monitoring since both the paper CRF and study database must be verified. The paper-based RDE system cannot take full advantage of automatic data checking routines. Much of the effort (and expense) of a clinical trial is ensuring that study data matches the original patient data. 2. METHODS. We have developed an RDE system, Pivot/Remote, that eliminates the need for paper-based CRFs. It creates an innovative, distributed database. The database resides partially at the study clinical centers (CC) and at the DCC. Pivot/Remote is descended from technology introduced with Pivot [1]. Study data is collected at the bedside with laptop computers. A graphical user interface (GUI) allows the display of electronic CRFs that closely mimic the normal paper-based forms. Data entry time is the same as for paper CRFs. Pull-down menus, displaying the possible responses, simplify the process of entering data. Edit checks are performed on most data items. For example, entered dates must conform to some temporal logic imposed by the study. Data must conform to some acceptable range of values. Calculations, such as computing the subject's age or the APACHE II score, are automatically made as the data is entered. Data

  6. Clinical Development of a Cytomegalovirus DNA Vaccine: From Product Concept to Pivotal Phase 3 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larry R; Wloch, Mary K; Chaplin, Jennifer A; Gerber, Michele; Rolland, Alain P

    2013-09-25

    2013 marks a milestone year for plasmid DNA vaccine development as a first-in-class cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA vaccine enters pivotal phase 3 testing. This vaccine consists of two plasmids expressing CMV antigens glycoprotein B (gB) and phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) formulated with a CRL1005 poloxamer and benzalkonium chloride (BAK) delivery system designed to enhance plasmid expression. The vaccine's planned initial indication under investigation is for prevention of CMV reactivation in CMV-seropositive (CMV⁺) recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2 proof-of-concept study provided initial evidence of the safety of this product in CMV⁺ HCT recipients who underwent immune ablation conditioning regimens. This study revealed a significant reduction in viral load endpoints and increased frequencies of pp65-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells in vaccine recipients compared to placebo recipients. The results of this endpoint-defining trial provided the basis for defining the primary and secondary endpoints of a global phase 3 trial in HCT recipients. A case study is presented here describing the development history of this vaccine from product concept to initiation of the phase 3 trial.

  7. A Pivotal Field Study to Support the Registration of Levothyroxine Sodium Tablets for Canine Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Victoria A; Morrow, Carla M K; Jacobsen, Johnny A; Lloyd, W Eugene

    2018-05-14

    A prospective, pivotal, multicenter field study to evaluate the dose regimen, effectiveness, and safety of levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP for the treatment of hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism-associated clinical signs in dogs was conducted. Ninety-two dogs diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism met the entrance criteria and were enrolled into the study. Levothyroxine sodium was administered to each dog on a daily basis either as the whole dose q 24 hr or as half the dose q 12 hr. Dosing started at 0.1 mg/10 lb (0.022 mg/kg) and continued for approximately 6 mo to Day 182. During this time, the thyroid status of each dog was evaluated at monthly intervals. For the determination of effectiveness, dogs classified as euthyroid at Day 182, based on their thyroid hormone values, were considered treatment successes. Results of the statistical analysis showed that there was no difference between the two dosing regimens (P = .11) and that when the data from both groups were pooled, the overall success rate was 75.64% (95% confidence interval = 66.34%). By Day 182, improvement and/or resolution of hypothyroidism-associated clinical signs was observed in all categories. No abnormal trends in the reported adverse events were observed.

  8. The Pivotal Role of Semantic Memory in Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to a complex and multifaceted process which enables the retrieval of richly detailed evocative memories from the past. In contrast, semantic memory is conceptualized as the retrieval of general conceptual knowledge divested of a specific spatiotemporal context. The neural substrates of the episodic and semantic memory systems have been dissociated in healthy individuals during functional imaging studies, and in clinical cohorts, leading to the prevailing view that episodic and semantic memory represent functionally distinct systems subtended by discrete neurobiological substrates. Importantly, however, converging evidence focusing on widespread neural networks now points to significant overlap between those regions essential for retrieval of autobiographical memories, episodic learning, and semantic processing. Here we review recent advances in episodic memory research focusing on neurodegenerative populations which has proved revelatory for our understanding of the complex interplay between episodic and semantic memory. Whereas episodic memory research has traditionally focused on retrieval of autobiographical events from the past, we also include evidence from the recent paradigm shift in which episodic memory is viewed as an adaptive and constructive process which facilitates the imagining of possible events in the future. We examine the available evidence which converges to highlight the pivotal role of semantic memory in providing schemas and meaning whether one is engaged in autobiographical retrieval for the past, or indeed, is endeavoring to construct a plausible scenario of an event in the future. It therefore seems plausible to contend that semantic processing may underlie most, if not all, forms of episodic memory, irrespective of temporal condition. PMID:23565081

  9. Base excitation testing system using spring elements to pivotally mount wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrell, Jason; Hughes, Scott; Butterfield, Sandy; Lambert, Scott

    2013-12-10

    A system (1100) for fatigue testing wind turbine blades (1102) through forced or resonant excitation of the base (1104) of a blade (1102). The system (1100) includes a test stand (1112) and a restoring spring assembly (1120) mounted on the test stand (1112). The restoring spring assembly (1120) includes a primary spring element (1124) that extends outward from the test stand (1112) to a blade mounting plate (1130) configured to receive a base (1104) of blade (1102). During fatigue testing, a supported base (1104) of a blad (1102) may be pivotally mounted to the test stand (1112) via the restoring spring assembly (1120). The system (1100) may include an excitation input assembly (1140) that is interconnected with the blade mouting plate (1130) to selectively apply flapwise, edgewise, and/or pitch excitation forces. The restoring spring assemply (1120) may include at least one tuning spring member (1127) positioned adjacent to the primary spring element (1124) used to tune the spring constant or stiffness of the primary spring element (1124) in one of the excitation directions.

  10. Dichromatic State Sum Models for Four-Manifolds from Pivotal Functors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärenz, Manuel; Barrett, John

    2017-11-01

    A family of invariants of smooth, oriented four-dimensional manifolds is defined via handle decompositions and the Kirby calculus of framed link diagrams. The invariants are parametrised by a pivotal functor from a spherical fusion category into a ribbon fusion category. A state sum formula for the invariant is constructed via the chain-mail procedure, so a large class of topological state sum models can be expressed as link invariants. Most prominently, the Crane-Yetter state sum over an arbitrary ribbon fusion category is recovered, including the nonmodular case. It is shown that the Crane-Yetter invariant for nonmodular categories is stronger than signature and Euler invariant. A special case is the four-dimensional untwisted Dijkgraaf-Witten model. Derivations of state space dimensions of TQFTs arising from the state sum model agree with recent calculations of ground state degeneracies in Walker-Wang models. Relations to different approaches to quantum gravity such as Cartan geometry and teleparallel gravity are also discussed.

  11. Tlx3 Function in the Dorsal Root Ganglion is Pivotal to Itch and Pain Sensations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Itch, a sensation eliciting a desire to scratch, is distinct from but not completely independent of pain. Inspiring achievements have been made in the characterization of itch-related receptors and neurotransmitters, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of pruriceptors remain poorly understood. Here, our RNAseq and in situ hybridization data show that the transcription factor Tlx3 is required for the expression of a majority of itch-related molecules in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG. As a result, Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice exhibit significantly attenuated acute and dry skin-induced chronic itch. Furthermore, our study indicates that TRPV1 plays a pivotal role in the chronic itch evoked by dry skin and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. The mutants also display impaired response to cold and inflammatory pain and elevated response to capsaicin, whereas the responses to acute mechanical, thermal stimuli and neuropathic pain remain normal. In Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice, TRPV1 is derepressed and expands predominantly into IB4+ non-peptidergic (NP neurons. Collectively, our data reveal a molecular mechanism in regulating the development of pruriceptors and controlling itch and pain sensations.

  12. Intrinsic motivation: how can it play a pivotal role in changing clinician behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantha, Yogarabindranath Swarna

    2013-01-01

    In the light of an increasing healthcare burden, this paper seeks to offer insight about how intrinsic motivation could play a pivotal role in improving the pre-existing healthcare service delivery systems by altering clinician behaviour. The paper argues the case for four salient dimensions worth exploring through the lens of intrinsic motivation--non-financial incentives, positive affective states, organizational culture and prescribing quality. This article reviews literature from both social sciences and health management practices to provide rationale on how intrinsic motivational approaches could optimize healthcare service delivery systems. The scrutiny of the body of evidence leads to the assertion that there is neglect in the initiatives to reinforce intrinsic motivation as a method to address the ailing morale of doctors. This seems to have exacerbated negative outcomes that include job dissatisfaction, compromise in the quality of care and poor patient-doctor relationships. Diminution in positive affective states amongst doctors, largely controlled by intrinsic motivation, led to strained doctor-patient communication and poor quality of care. Barriers in a healthcare organizational culture that restricts autonomy and empowerment seem to directly undermine job satisfaction. The article argues that it is crucial to shift away from the conventional tendencies promoting tangible rewards. A more holistic approach should be adopted by conducting formal research into intrinsic motivation and how it could aid the formulation of policies tailored to meet the current demands of the healthcare system.

  13. Pivoting between calmodulin lobes triggered by calcium in the Kv7.2/calmodulin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Alessandro; Alberdi, Araitz; Gomis-Perez, Carolina; Fernández-Orth, Juncal; Bernardo-Seisdedos, Ganeko; Malo, Covadonga; Millet, Oscar; Areso, Pilar; Villarroel, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Kv7.2 (KCNQ2) is the principal molecular component of the slow voltage gated M-channel, which strongly influences neuronal excitability. Calmodulin (CaM) binds to two intracellular C-terminal segments of Kv7.2 channels, helices A and B, and it is required for exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CaM controls channel trafficking are currently unknown. Here we used two complementary approaches to explore the molecular events underlying the association between CaM and Kv7.2 and their regulation by Ca(2+). First, we performed a fluorometric assay using dansylated calmodulin (D-CaM) to characterize the interaction of its individual lobes to the Kv7.2 CaM binding site (Q2AB). Second, we explored the association of Q2AB with CaM by NMR spectroscopy, using (15)N-labeled CaM as a reporter. The combined data highlight the interdependency of the N- and C-lobes of CaM in the interaction with Q2AB, suggesting that when CaM binds Ca(2+) the binding interface pivots between the N-lobe whose interactions are dominated by helix B and the C-lobe where the predominant interaction is with helix A. In addition, Ca(2+) makes CaM binding to Q2AB more difficult and, reciprocally, the channel weakens the association of CaM with Ca(2+).

  14. Pivoting between calmodulin lobes triggered by calcium in the Kv7.2/calmodulin complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alaimo

    Full Text Available Kv7.2 (KCNQ2 is the principal molecular component of the slow voltage gated M-channel, which strongly influences neuronal excitability. Calmodulin (CaM binds to two intracellular C-terminal segments of Kv7.2 channels, helices A and B, and it is required for exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CaM controls channel trafficking are currently unknown. Here we used two complementary approaches to explore the molecular events underlying the association between CaM and Kv7.2 and their regulation by Ca(2+. First, we performed a fluorometric assay using dansylated calmodulin (D-CaM to characterize the interaction of its individual lobes to the Kv7.2 CaM binding site (Q2AB. Second, we explored the association of Q2AB with CaM by NMR spectroscopy, using (15N-labeled CaM as a reporter. The combined data highlight the interdependency of the N- and C-lobes of CaM in the interaction with Q2AB, suggesting that when CaM binds Ca(2+ the binding interface pivots between the N-lobe whose interactions are dominated by helix B and the C-lobe where the predominant interaction is with helix A. In addition, Ca(2+ makes CaM binding to Q2AB more difficult and, reciprocally, the channel weakens the association of CaM with Ca(2+.

  15. Lymphoid tissue inducer cells: pivotal cells in the evolution of CD4 immunity and tolerance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter John Lane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny suggests that the evolution of placentation in mammals was accompanied by substantial changes in the mammalian immune system: in particular lymph nodes and CD4 high affinity memory antibody responses co-evolved during the same period. Lymphoid tissue inducer cells (LTi are members of an emerging family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs that are crucial for lymph node development, but our studies have indicated that they also play a pivotal role in the long-term maintenance of memory CD4 T cells in adult mammals through their expression of the tumor necrosis family members, OX40- and CD30-ligands. Additionally, our studies have shown that these two molecules are also key operators in CD4 effector function, as their absence obviates the need for the FoxP3-dependent regulatory T cells (Tregs that prevent CD4 driven autoimmune responses. In this perspective article, we summarize findings from our group over the last 10 years, and focus specifically on the role of LTi in thymus. We suggest that like memory CD4 T cells, LTi also play a role in the selection and maintenance of the Tregs that under normal circumstances are absolutely required to regulate CD4 effector cells.

  16. Determining the potential link between irrigation water quality and the microbiological quality of onions by phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Erika M; Duvenage, Francois; Korsten, Lise

    2015-04-01

    , respectively. Phenotypic (antimicrobial) and genotypic (virulence gene prevalence, DNA fingerprinting) analyses showed a link between river, dam, irrigation pivot point, and onion E. coli isolates.

  17. Russian “Pivot to the East” Strategy: Opportunities and Challenges for Coupling with Chinese Transregional Projectsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ukrainian Crisis of 2014 is crucial for Russian pivot to the East which is considered to be a tool for tackling economic challenges and avoiding diplomatic isolation. Economically, this pivot implies cooperation with AsiaPacific region in trade and energy. Politically, it means closer ties with the states of that region. At the same time, the success of the strategy hinges on the state of affairs in energy and on promoting to Asian markets specifi c goods that turns out to be a constraint for diversifi cation of the Russian economy. Moreover, culturally and social Russia is much closer to Europe than Asia, and that is one more obstacle to “Pivot to the East” strategy realization. However, transregional projects of the recent years, including Chinese initiative “One Belt – One Road” and Russian “Pivot to the East” might be key to enhance the strategic potential of Russia-China cooperation which meets Chinese national interests.

  18. Mutation of the conserved Gly83 and Gly94 in Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu. Indication of structural pivots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgård, I V; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Wiborg, O

    1995-01-01

    Elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli cycles between an active conformation where GTP is bound, and an inactive conformation where GDP is bound. Between the two conformations, elongation factor Tu undergoes major structural changes. The aim of this work has been to reveal the role of two ver...... is an important pivot point in elongation factor-Tu. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Feb-15...

  19. Behavioral Cusps: A Person-Centered Concept for Establishing Pivotal Individual, Family, and Community Behaviors and Repertoires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garnett J.; McDougall, Dennis; Edelen-Smith, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Cumulative-hierarchical learning (CHL) and behavior, a premise first introduced by Staats in 1975, describes how higher-level behavioral patterns and structures can emerge from interactions among a set of lower-level actions. Proponents of CHL emphasize the importance of pivotal response interventions, behavior repertoires, generative learning,…

  20. Collaborative School Innovation Project as a Pivot for Teachers' Professional Development: The Case of Acharnes' Second Chance School in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Eleni; Tsafos, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative school innovation project is explored as a pivot for the professional development of the teachers involved. The Second Chance School (SCS) of Acharnes in Greece constitutes such a collaborative innovative project, regarding the underlying theory of multiliteracies, its decentralised character, respect for student individuality, and…

  1. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  2. Capacitive Sensors and Breakthrough Curves in Automated Irrigation for Water and Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy Hussein, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Shortness of water resources is the dominant criterion that dampens agricultural expansion in Egypt. Ten times population increase was recorded versus twice increase in the cultivated area during the last 100 years. Significant increase in freshwater supply is not expected in the near future. Consequently, a great deal of water-conservation is required to ameliorate water-use efficiency and to protect soils against sodicity under the prevailing arid-zone conditions. Modern irrigation (pivot, drip and sprinkling) was introduced during the last three decades in newly cultivated lands. However, this was done without automated watering. Moreover, dynamic chemical profile data is lacking in the cultivated lands. These current water conditions are behind this work. Two experimental procedures were used for a conjunctive goal of water and soil conservation. The first procedure used the resonance of analog-oscillators (relative permittivity sensors) based on capacitive Frequency Domain Reflectometry, FDR. Commercially available FDR sensors were calibrated for three soil textures, and solenoids were used to automatically turn on and off irrigation pipes in three experimental plots (via low power AC latching-valves on relay solid-state boards connected to sensors; the valve got closed when soil became sufficiently moist near saturation and opened before reaching wilting point as the relay contacts were defined by variable-resistor on board after sensor calibration). This article reports the results of sensor mV readings versus soil-moisture in the linear parts of calibration diagrams, for known moisture contents from wilting point to saturation, fitted as "power-law of dielectric mixing". The results showed close to optimum watering at soil-surface in the nursery beds when the sensors were sampled every 10 minutes to update the relays. This work is planned to extend to different sensors and drippers for soils with field crops / fruit trees to account for aspects of concern

  3. Untangling the effects of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on irrigation water productivity in arid region: New conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingyuan; Huo, Zailin; Wang, Fengxin; Kang, Shaozhong; Huang, Guanhua

    2018-04-01

    Water scarcity and salt stress are two main limitations for agricultural production. Groundwater evapotranspiration (ET g ) with upward salt movement plays an important role in crop water use and water productivity in arid regions, and it can compensate the impact of deficit irrigation on crop production. Thus, comprehensive impacts of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on crop water use results in an improvement of irrigation water productivity (IWP). However, it is difficult to quantify the effects of groundwater and deficit irrigation on IWP. In this study, we built an IWP evaluation model coupled with a water and salt balance model and a crop yield estimation model. As a valuable tool of IWP simulation, the calibrated model was used to investigate the coupling response of sunflower IWP to irrigation water depths (IWDs), groundwater table depth (GTDs) and groundwater salinities (GSs). A total of 210 scenarios were run in which five irrigation water depths (IWDs) and seven groundwater table depths (GTDs) and six groundwater salinities (GSs) were used. Results indicate that increasing GS clearly increases the negative effect on a crop's actual evapotranspiration (ET a ) as salt accumulation in root zone. When GS is low (0.5-1g/L), increasing GTD produces more positive effect than negative effect. In regard to relatively high GS (2-5g/L), the negative effect of shallow-saline groundwater reaches a maximum at 2m GTD. Additionally, the salt concentration in the root zone maximizes its value at 2.0m GTD. In most cases, increasing GTD and GS reduces the benefits of irrigation water and IWP. The IWP increases with decreasing irrigation water. Overall, in arid regions, capillary rise of shallow groundwater can compensate for the lack of irrigation water and improve IWP. By improving irrigation schedules and taking advantages of shallow saline groundwater, we can obtain higher IWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)

  5. Ultrasonic flow measurements for irrigation process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Elmostafa; Bennouna, Mustapha; Boissier, Raymond

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of the general principle of liquid flow measurements by ultrasonic method, and problems of flow measurements. We present an ultrasonic flowmeter designed according to smart sensors concept, for the measurement of irrigation water flowing through pipelines or open channels, using the ultrasonic transit time approach. The new flowmeter works on the principle of measuring time delay differences between sound pulses transmitted upstream and downstream in the flowing liquid. The speed of sound in the flowing medium is eliminated as a variable because the flowrate calculations are based on the reciprocals of the transmission times. The transit time difference is digitally measured by means of a suitable, microprocessor controlled logic. This type of ultrasonic flowmeter will be widely used in industry and water management, it is well studied in this work, followed by some experimental results. For pressurized channels, we use one pair of ultrasonic transducer arranged in proper positions and directions of the pipe, in this case, to determine the liquid velocity, a real time on-line analysis taking account the geometries of the hydraulic system, is applied to the obtained ultrasonic data. In the open channels, we use a single or two pairs of ultrasonic emitter-receiver according to the desired performances. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  6. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  7. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  8. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The prog......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area...... mechanism of water resources is not perfect, the model for optimal water resources allocation is not practical, and the basic conditions for optimal allocation of water resources is relatively weak. In order to solve those problems in water resources allocation practice, six important as?pects must...... in irrigation districts, studying the water resources control technology in irrigation districts by hydrology ecological system, studying the technologies of real?time risk dispatching and intelligent management in irrigation districts, and finally studying the technology of cou?pling optimal allocation...

  9. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage.

  10. Stakeholder analysis in the management of irrigation in Kampili area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumiati; Ali, M. S. S.; Fahmid, I. M.; Mahyuddin

    2018-05-01

    Irrigation has appreciable contribution in building food security, particularly rice crops. This study aims to analyze the role of stakeholders involved in distributing of irrigation water. The study was conducted in the Kampili Irrigation Area in South Sulawesi Province Indonesia, the data were obtained through observation and interviews with stakeholders involved, and analysed by stakeholder analysis, based on the interests and power held by the actors. This analysis is intended to provide an optimal picture of the expected role of each stakeholder in the management of irrigation resources. The results show that there were many stakeholders involved in irrigation management. In the arrangement of irrigation distribution there was overlapping authority of the stakeholders to its management, every stakeholder had different interests and power between each other. The existence have given positive and negative values in distributing irrigation water management, then in the stakeholder collaboration there was contestation between them. This contestation took place between the agriculture department, PSDA province, the Jeneberang River Region Hall, the Farmers Group and the P3A.

  11. Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Modulate Irrigation's Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenko, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the local and regional climate effects of irrigated agriculture and other land cover and land use change (LCLUC) phenomena, but there are few studies on the role of ocean- atmosphere interaction in modulating irrigation climate impacts. Here, we compare simulations with and without interactive sea surface temperatures of the equilibrium effect on climate of contemporary (year 2000) irrigation geographic extent and intensity. We find that ocean-atmosphere interaction does impact the magnitude of global-mean and spatially varying climate impacts, greatly increasing their global reach. Local climate effects in the irrigated regions remain broadly similar, while non-local effects, particularly over the oceans, tend to be larger. The interaction amplifies irrigation-driven standing wave patterns in the tropics and mid-latitudes in our simulations, approximately doubling the global-mean amplitude of surface temperature changes due to irrigation. The fractions of global area experiencing significant annual-mean surface air temperature and precipitation change also approximately double with ocean-atmosphere interaction. Subject to confirmation with other models, these findings imply that LCLUC is an important contributor to climate change even in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean, and that attribution studies should include interactive oceans and need to consider LCLUC, including irrigation, as a truly global forcing that affects climate and the water cycle over ocean as well as land areas.

  12. Experimental study of faecal continence and colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, A; Sibbons, P; Doré, C; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2000-07-01

    Colostomy irrigation is a useful method of achieving faecal continence in selected conditions, but remains largely underutilized because it is time consuming. This study investigated the effect of modifying irrigation technique (route, infusion regimen and pharmacological manipulation) on colonic emptying time in a porcine model. An end-colostomy and caecostomy were fashioned in six pigs. Twenty markers were introduced into the caecum immediately before colonic irrigation. Irrigation route (antegrade or retrograde), infusion regimen (tap water, polyethylene glycol (PEG), 1.5 per cent glycine) and pharmacological agent (glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 0.25 mg/kg, diltiazem 3.9 mg/kg, bisacodyl 0.25 mg/kg) were assigned to each animal at random. Colonic transit was assessed by quantifying cumulative expelled markers (CEM) and stool every hour for 12 h. Mean CEM at 6 h for bisacodyl, GTN and diltiazem were 18.17, 12.17 and zero respectively; all pairwise differences in means were significant (P irrigation. PEG and glycine enhance emptying similar to bisacodyl and GTN solution. These findings show promise for improved faecal continence by colostomy irrigation and may justify construction of a Malone conduit at the time of colostomy in selected patients who wish to irrigate. Presented in part to the British Society of Gastroenterology in Glasgow, UK, March 1999, and published in abstract form as Gut 1999; 44(Suppl 1): A135

  13. EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT ENDODONTIC IRRIGATION PROTOCOLS IN CALCIUM HYDROXIDE REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka N. Radeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used in the field of endodontics as a temporary root canal filling. This medicament significantly increases pH and optimizes the treatment outcome. Its total removal before final obturation is very important. Otherwise it could affect the hermetic filling and respectively the endodontic success. Aim: To evaluate the most effective irrigation protocol of calcium hydroxide removal from root canals. Materials and methods: In this study 36 single root canal teeth were observed. They were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each group according to the technique applied for calcium hydroxide removal - manual irrigation, irrigation and Revo-S rotary instrumentation; and passive ultrasonic irrigation, and a control group (n=6 – irrigation with distilled water only. After calcium hydroxide removals following the procedures above, teeth were separated longitudinally in a buccal-lingual direction and remnants of medicaments were observed in the apical, middle and coronal part of each tooth. Then all of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by a specified scale. The results have undergone statistical analysis. Results: In the case of calcium hydroxide in the apex and in the middle with highest average is Revo-S, followed by Ultrasonic and irrigation. In the coronal part the highest average belongs to Revo-S, irrigation and Ultrasonic. In all groups the highest average is represented by control group. Conclusion: There is not a universal technique for removal of intracanal medicaments and applying more than one protocol is required.

  14. Irrigation water quality as indicator of sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Slaviša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable rural development more and more depends on the efficient usage of water resources. Most often, at least in one part of the year, the rain is not sufficient for plant growth and rain plant production significantly depends on the yearly precipitation variation. The increase and stability of the agricultural production is possible in the irrigation conditions. The most part (around 70% of the global water resources is used for food production. Irrigation water quality indicator is used to show if the available water resources have the required quality for application in agriculture. Irrigation is characterised by the complex water-plant-soil relationship, and in that eco-system the man as the end user of the irrigated fields occupies a very important place. That explains the difficulties in producing one universal classification of irrigation water quality. The paper analyses numerous water quality classifications from the aspect of the applicability on the quantifying of this indicator. The adopted classification should possess understandable, qualified and internationally comparable indicator. Thus, local classifications (Neigebauer, Miljkovic cannot be used for this indicator. United Nation Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO and US Salinity Laboratory (USSL classifications are used for the evaluation of the irrigation water quality throughout the world. FAO classification gives the complex picture of the usability of the irrigation water from the point of its influence on the soil and the plants. However, the scope of the analyses is not often suited to the needs of that classification, which makes it difficult to apply. The conclusion is that the USSL (US Salinity Laboratory classification is best suited to this range of chemical water analyses. The evaluation of the irrigation water quality indicator in the Juzna Morava river basin, upstream from the Toplica river estuary is given in this paper. Based on the obtained

  15. Irrigation scheduling of spring wheat using infrared thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegman, E.C.; Soderlund, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Irrigation scheduling for spring wheat requires information on different irrigation timing methods. Irrigation timing based on allowable root zone available water depletion and selected crop water stress index (CWSI) thresholds were evaluated in terms of their effect on spring wheat yield. A field study was conducted at Oakes, North Dakota in 1987 and 1988 on a Maddock sandy loam soil with two varieties of spring wheat (Marshall and Wheaton) using a split plot randomized block design. Irrigation was metered to each plot using trickle irrigation tubing. Neutron soil water measurements along with a water balance model were used to time irrigations that were based on different allowed root zone depletions. Infrared thermometer sensors (IRT) were used to measure in situ canopy temperatures and along with measured climatic information were used to time irrigations using the CWSI approach. Additionally, crop phenological stages and final grain yield were measured. The non-water-stressed baselines necessary for the CWSI differed between the two seasons but were similar to those from previous studies. The CWSI methods were feasible from the Feekes scale S4 (beginning pseudo-stem) to S11.2 (mealy ripe). Minimal yield reductions were observed using the CWSI method for thresholds less than 0.4-0.5 during this period. Minimal yield reductions were observed by maintaining the root zone allowable depletion below 50%. The grain yield-evapotranspiration (ET) relationship was linear in both years but with different slopes and intercepts. When analyzed on a relative basis to maximum ET (ETm), a single relationship fit both years’ data with a yield sensitivity factor of 1.58. Irrigations timed at CWSI = 0.5 reduced seasonal water application by 18% relative to treatments irrigated at CWSI = 0.2. (author)

  16. Fluid regimens for colostomy irrigation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarondo, Lucylynn; Aye Gyi, Aye; Schultz, Tim

    2008-09-01

    Background  Various techniques for managing faecal evacuation have been proposed; however, colostomy irrigation is favoured as it leads to better patient outcomes. Alternative fluid regimens for colostomy irrigation have been suggested to achieve effective evacuation. Aim  The objective of this review was to summarise the best available evidence on the most effective fluid regimen for colostomy irrigation. Search strategy  Trials were identified by electronic searches of CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE. Unpublished articles and references lists from included studies were also searched. Selection criteria  Randomised controlled trials and before-and-after studies investigating any fluid regimen for colostomy irrigation were eligible for inclusion. Outcomes measured included fluid inflow time, total wash-out time, haemodynamic changes during irrigation, cramps, leakage episodes, quality of life and level of satisfaction. Data collection and analysis  Trial selection, quality appraisal and data extraction were carried out independently by two reviewers. Differences in opinion were resolved by discussion. Main results  The systematic literature search strategy identified two cross-over trials that compared water with another fluid regimen. Owing to the differences in irrigating solutions used, the results were not pooled for analysis. Both the polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and glyceryl trinitrate performed significantly better than water. Conclusion  There is some evidence to support the effectiveness of fluid regimens other than water, such as polyethylene glycol electrolyte and glyceryl trinitrate, for colostomy irrigation. Further well-designed clinical trials are required to establish solid evidence on the effectiveness of other irrigating solutions that might enhance colonic irrigation. © 2008 The Authors. Journal Compilation © Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Changes of soil organic matter and microbial activity in irrigated and non irrigated olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Vavoulidou, Evagelia; Doula, Maria; Reppas, Spiros

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of olive cultivation techniques in Greece has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. A LIFE+ project was initiated (oLIVE-CLIMA; LIFE 11/ENV/000942) aiming to introduce new management practices in olive tree crops that lead to increased carbon dioxide uptake by plants as well as carbon sequestration from the atmosphere and reverse the trend of soil organic matter decline, erosion and desertification. This paper presents data on soil organic matter and microbial activity from a soil campaign in a pilot region in Greece, and particularly in the area of Chora, prefecture of Messinia, South west Peloponnese. The soil campaign took place during the period December 2012-February 2013. Twelve soil parcels of olive groves were selected (6 irrigated and 6 rainfed) and in each soil parcel six composite soil samples were taken from 0-10 cm depth at equal intervals along a straight line of the trunk of the tree to the middle of the distance from the nearest tree of the next tree series. The first three samples were under olive tree canopy. An additional composite sample was taken at depth of 10-40 cm. Soil samples were analyzed for soil physicochemical and biological properties. In this study results for total organic carbon (TOC), soil basal microbial respiration (BR), microbial biomass C (MB-C) from the region of Messinia, are presented. Organic matter was determined by dichromate oxidation. The microbial activity was measured by the amount of CO2 evolution, while microbial biomass C was determined by substrate-induced respiration, after the addition of glucose. The results showed considerable differences in TOC, BR and MB-C associated with the sampling position and soil depth. The higher TOC, BR and MB-C values, in most cases, were determined in samples taken from points under the canopy, but not close to the tree trunk compared to the sampling points outside the canopy. This indicates the positive effect of

  18. The pivotal role of semantic memory in remembering the past and imagining the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muireann eIrish

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory refers to a complex and multifaceted process which enables the retrieval of richly detailed evocative memories from the past. In contrast, semantic memory is conceptualised as the retrieval of general conceptual knowledge divested of a specific spatiotemporal context. The neural substrates of the episodic and semantic memory systems have been dissociated in healthy individuals during functional imaging studies, and in clinical cohorts, leading to the prevailing view that episodic and semantic memory represent functionally distinct systems subtended by discrete neurobiological substrates. Importantly, however, converging evidence focusing on widespread neural networks now points to significant overlap between those regions essential for retrieval of autobiographical memories, episodic learning, and semantic processing. Here we review recent advances in episodic memory research focusing on neurodegenerative populations which has proved revelatory for our understanding of the complex interplay between episodic and semantic memory. Whereas episodic memory research has traditionally focused on retrieval of autobiographical events from the past, we also include evidence from the recent paradigm shift in which episodic memory is viewed as an adaptive and constructive process which facilitates the imagining of possible events in the future. We examine the available evidence which converges to highlight the pivotal role of semantic memory in providing schemas and meaning whether one is engaged in autobiographical retrieval for the past, or indeed, is endeavouring to construct a plausible scenario of an event in the future. It therefore seems plausible to contend that semantic processing may underlie most, if not all, forms of episodic memory, irrespective of temporal condition.

  19. Stress analysis of neutral beam pivot point bellows for tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Benda, B.J.; Tiong, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    The neutral beam pivot point bellows serves as an airtight flexible linkage between the torus duct and the neutral beam transition duct in Princeton University's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. The bellows considered here is basically rectangular in cross section with rounded corners; a unique shape. Its overall external dimensions are about 28 in. (about 711 mm) X about 35 in. (about 889 mm). The bellows is formed from 18 convolutions and is of the nested ripple type. It is about 11 in. (about 43.3 mm) in length, composed of Inconel 718, and each leaf has a thickness of 0.034 in. (.86 mm). The bellows is subjected to a series of design loading conditions -- vacuum, vacuum + 2 psi (.12 MPa), vacuum + stroke (10,000 cycles), vacuum + temperature increase + extension, extension to a stress of 120 ksi (838 MPa), and a series of rotational loading conditions induced in the bellows by alignment of the neutral beam injector. A stress analysis of the bellows was performed by the finite element method -- locations and magnitude of maximum stresses were calculated for all of the design loading conditions to check with allowable values and help guide placement of strain gauges during proof testing. A typical center convolution and end convolution were analyzed. Loading conditions were separated into symmetric and antisymmetric cases about the planes of symmetry of the cross-section. Iterative linear analyses were performed, i.e. compressive loading conditions led to predicted overlap of the leaves from linear analysis and restraints were added to prevent such overlap. This effect was found to be substantial in stress predicition and necessary to be taken into account. A total of eleven loading conditions and seven models were analyzed. The results showed peak stresses to be within allowable limits and the number of allowable cycles to be greater than the design condition

  20. The glial scar-monocyte interplay: a pivotal resolution phase in spinal cord repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Shechter

    Full Text Available The inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord, an immune privileged site, has been mainly associated with the poor prognosis. However, recent data demonstrated that, in fact, some leukocytes, namely monocytes, are pivotal for repair due to their alternative anti-inflammatory phenotype. Given the pro-inflammatory milieu within the traumatized spinal cord, known to skew monocytes towards a classical phenotype, a pertinent question is how parenchymal-invading monocytes acquire resolving properties essential for healing, under such unfavorable conditions. In light of the spatial association between resolving (interleukin (IL-10 producing monocytes and the glial scar matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG, in this study we examined the mutual relationship between these two components. By inhibiting the de novo production of CSPG following spinal cord injury, we demonstrated that this extracellular matrix, mainly known for its ability to inhibit axonal growth, serves as a critical template skewing the entering monocytes towards the resolving phenotype. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that this matrix alone is sufficient to induce such monocyte polarization. Reciprocal conditional ablation of the monocyte-derived macrophages concentrated at the lesion margins, using diphtheria toxin, revealed that these cells have scar matrix-resolving properties. Replenishment of monocytic cell populations to the ablated mice demonstrated that this extracellular remodeling ability of the infiltrating monocytes requires their expression of the matrix-degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, a property that was found here to be crucial for functional recovery. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the glial scar-matrix, a known obstacle to regeneration, is a critical component skewing the encountering monocytes towards a resolving phenotype. In an apparent feedback loop, monocytes were found to regulate scar resolution. This

  1. Optodynamic Phenomena During Laser-Activated Irrigation Within Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Nejc; Gregorčič, Peter; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-07-01

    Laser-activated irrigation is a powerful endodontic treatment for smear layer, bacteria, and debris removal from the root canal. In this study, we use shadow photography and the laser-beam-transmission probe to examine the dynamics of laser-induced vapor bubbles inside a root canal model and compare ultrasonic needle irrigation to the laser method. Results confirm important phenomenological differences in the two endodontic methods with the laser method resulting in much deeper irrigation. Observations of simulated debris particles show liquid vorticity effects which in our opinion represents the major cleaning mechanism.

  2. A Reevaluation of Price Elasticities for Irrigation Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Richard E.; Watson, William D.; Adams, Richard M.

    1980-08-01

    The effectiveness of pricing systems in the allocation of irrigation water is linked with the price elasticity of demand of farmers for water. Using microeconomic theory, it is shown that omission of the elasticity of demand for the crop produced leads to an inelastic bias in the demand for irrigated water. Linear programing approaches omit the product elasticity of demand and are consequently biased, whereas quadratic programing approaches to estimating derived demands for irrigation water include product demand functions. The difference between the resulting estimates are empirically demonstrated for regional derived demand functions estimated from a model of California's agricultural industry.

  3. Optimization of irrigation water in stone fruit and table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Jose Mª; Castillo, Cristina; Temnani, Abdel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    In water scarcity areas, it must be highlighted that the maximum productions of the crops do not necessarily imply maximum profitability. Therefore, during the last years a special interest in the development of deficit irrigation strategies based on significant reductions of the seasonal ET without affecting production or quality has been observed. The strategies of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) are based on the reduction of water supply during non critical periods, the covering of water needs during critical periods and maximizing, at the same time, the production by unit of applied water. The main objective of this experiment was to implement, demonstrate and disseminate a sustainable irrigation strategy based on deficit irrigation to promote its large scale acceptance and use in woody crops in Mediterranean agroecosystems, characterized by water scarcity, without affecting the quality standards demanded by exportation markets. Five demonstration plots were established in representative crops of the irrigating community of Campotejar (Murcia, Spain): i) Peach trees, cv. catherina in the "Periquitos" farm; ii) Apricot trees, cv. "Red Carlet" in "La Hoya del Fenazar" farm; iii) Nectarine trees, cv. Viowhite in "Agrícola Don Fernando" farm; iv) Table grape, cv "Crimson Seedless" in "La Hornera" farm; and v) Paraguayan cv. carioca in "The Hornera" farm. In each demonstration plot, at least two irrigation treatments were established: i) Control (CTL), irrigated to ensure non-limiting water conditions (120% of crop evapotranspiration) and ii) Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated as CTL during critical periods and decreasing irrigation in non-critical periods. The plant water status indicators evaluated were midday stem water potential and Trunk Diameter Fluctuation derived indices: maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) and trunk daily growth rate (TGR); vegetative growth of the different crops from trunk diameter and pruning dry weight, fruit growth and fruit

  4. Irrigation Scheduling for Green Bell Peppers Using Capacitance Soil Moisture Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Dukes, M.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Femminella, K.; Munoz-Carpena, R.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable production areas are intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between N-fertilizer rates and irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensor irrigation controllers (SMS) on yield, irrigation water use

  5. The phenology of malaria mosquitos in irrigated rice fields in Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E.; Takken, W.; Huibers, F.P.; Touré, Y.T.

    2003-01-01

    A field study was carried out in the large-scale rice irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali to investigate the relation between anopheline mosquito larval development and small-scale differences in irrigation practices, such as water level, irrigation application and irrigation frequency.

  6. Estimation of furrow irrigation sediment loss using an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The area irrigated by furrow irrigation in the U.S. has been steadily decreasing but still represents about 20% of the total irrigated area in the U.S. Furrow irrigation sediment loss is a major water quality issue and a method for estimating sediment loss is needed to quantify the environmental imp...

  7. Alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation improves fruit quality in tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Holm, Peter Engelund; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Alternate partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation and deficit irrigation (DI) are water-saving irrigation strategies. Here, comparative effects of PRD and DI on fruit quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. The results showed that the irrigation treatments had no effect o...

  8. Automated generation of massive image knowledge collections using Microsoft Live Labs Pivot to promote neuroimaging and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viangteeravat, Teeradache; Anyanwu, Matthew N; Ra Nagisetty, Venkateswara; Kuscu, Emin

    2011-07-15

    Massive datasets comprising high-resolution images, generated in neuro-imaging studies and in clinical imaging research, are increasingly challenging our ability to analyze, share, and filter such images in clinical and basic translational research. Pivot collection exploratory analysis provides each user the ability to fully interact with the massive amounts of visual data to fully facilitate sufficient sorting, flexibility and speed to fluidly access, explore or analyze the massive image data sets of high-resolution images and their associated meta information, such as neuro-imaging databases from the Allen Brain Atlas. It is used in clustering, filtering, data sharing and classifying of the visual data into various deep zoom levels and meta information categories to detect the underlying hidden pattern within the data set that has been used. We deployed prototype Pivot collections using the Linux CentOS running on the Apache web server. We also tested the prototype Pivot collections on other operating systems like Windows (the most common variants) and UNIX, etc. It is demonstrated that the approach yields very good results when compared with other approaches used by some researchers for generation, creation, and clustering of massive image collections such as the coronal and horizontal sections of the mouse brain from the Allen Brain Atlas. Pivot visual analytics was used to analyze a prototype of dataset Dab2 co-expressed genes from the Allen Brain Atlas. The metadata along with high-resolution images were automatically extracted using the Allen Brain Atlas API. It is then used to identify the hidden information based on the various categories and conditions applied by using options generated from automated collection. A metadata category like chromosome, as well as data for individual cases like sex, age, and plan attributes of a particular gene, is used to filter, sort and to determine if there exist other genes with a similar characteristics to Dab2. And

  9. Assessing the Efficacy of the SWAT Auto-Irrigation Function to Simulate Irrigation, Evapotranspiration, and Crop Response to Management Strategies of the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the semi-arid Texas High Plains, the underlying Ogallala Aquifer is experiencing continuing decline due to long-term pumping for irrigation with limited recharge. Accurate simulation of irrigation and other associated water balance components are critical for meaningful evaluation of the effects of irrigation management strategies. Modelers often employ auto-irrigation functions within models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. However, some studies have raised concerns as to whether the function is able to adequately simulate representative irrigation practices. In this study, observations of climate, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET, leaf area index (LAI, and crop yield derived from an irrigated lysimeter field at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory at Bushland, Texas were used to evaluate the efficacy of the SWAT auto-irrigation functions. Results indicated good agreement between simulated and observed daily ET during both model calibration (2001–2005 and validation (2006–2010 periods for the baseline scenario (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency; NSE ≥ 0.80. The auto-irrigation scenarios resulted in reasonable ET simulations under all the thresholds of soil water deficit (SWD triggers as indicated by NSE values > 0.5. However, the auto-irrigation function did not adequately represent field practices, due to the continuation of irrigation after crop maturity and excessive irrigation when SWD triggers were less than the static irrigation amount.

  10. Research progress of antagonistic interactions among root canal irrigations disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy is the most effective way to treat various pulposis and periapical disease. Simple mechanical apparatus can not clean root canal thoroughly, but may affect tight filling instead. It can achieve a satisfactory cleansing effect only when it is combined with a chemical solution. Irrigation fluid for root canal should possess the properties of tissue dissolution, antimicrobial, lubrication, and removal of smear layer. So far, no solution is able to fulfill all these functions. Therefore, a combined use of multiple irrigation solutions is suggested. It can not only achieve good effect in cleaning and disinfection, also it can lower the concentration of different solutions, thus reducing the side effects. Nevertheless, some experiments proved that antagonism existed among the chemicals used for irrigations. The purpose of present article is to review the antagonistic effect among the chemicals used for irrigation when they are used together for root canal treatment.

  11. Sustainable irrigation and nitrogen management of fertigated vegetable crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R.B.; Incrocci, L.; Voogt, W.; Pardossi, A.; Magán, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Fertigation in combination with drip irrigation is being increasingly used in vegetable crop production. From a nutrient management perspective, this combination provides the technical capacity for precise nitrogen (N) nutrition, both spatially and temporally. With these systems, N and other

  12. comparative profitability analysis of selected rainfed and irrigated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    KEYWORDS: Rainfed, irrigated, food crops, profitability, Adamawa, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION .... some or all of three motives (Olayide and Heady, 1982). The major resources .... The third stage was the purposive selection of villages based on ...

  13. Collective action and participation in irrigation water management: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of Mooi River Irrigation Scheme in KwaZulu-Natal. Province ..... Seven principal components were extracted using Pearson cor- relations. By applying the ..... OLSON M (1965) The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the.

  14. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  15. Improving efficiencies of irrigation and nitrogen uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    2000-01-01

    Three years of field studies and lysimeter experiments on irrigated wheat had the objective of finding ways of managing irrigation and N fertilization to minimize losses and reduce contamination of groundwater. Applied N had significant positive effects on crop-water consumptive use. The highest N losses occurred during early growth. Irrigation had little effect on N loss when it was practiced efficiently. Under the prevailing conditions, it is recommended that no N be applied to wheat at planting, in order to limit N losses by leaching caused by the high precipitation that usually occurs during early development when crop-N requirements are small. No more than 120 kg N ha -1 should be applied in total to minimize groundwater pollution and maximize N-uptake efficiency and economic returns. Also, for economic and environmental reasons, irrigation should be limited to 80% of the total requirement and to depths of 40 to 60 mm. (author)

  16. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and it achieves very high irrigation efficiency and uses. *Corresponding ... serious harmful effect on lettuce growing (Table 1). During the ... Seeds were sown in a seed bed under greenhouse conditions on. October 20th in ...

  17. Simulated evapotranspiration from a landfill irrigated with landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Evapotranspiration from a landfill area, irrigated with leachate water, was simulated with the SOIL model. Three different types of vegetation (bare soil, grass ley, and willow) were used both with and without irrigation. The highest simulated evapotranspiration (604 mm) during the growing season was found from an irrigated willow stand with a high interception capacity. The lowest evapotranspiration (164 mm) was found from the bare soil. The relatively high evapotranspiration from the willow was probably caused by the high LAI (Leaf Area Index) and the low aerodynamic resistance within the willow stand. The results indicate that it is possible to reduce most of the leakage water from a landfill by irrigation of willow stands. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. 49 Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR AHMED

    human consumption as they pose serious health risks due to contamination with the metals. For environmental ... mining activities, industrial and domestic effluents, urban ... drinking and bathing water, irrigation, food, fuel and energy.

  19. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... results were obtained from the methods the following critical assumptions were ... system design, irrigation water management and the use of alternative ... to provide decision support regarding pipeline investments. SWIP-E ...

  20. Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation and stress conditions after anthesis stage. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Using biplot graphic method, comparison of indices amounts and mean rating of indices for ...

  1. Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions in the greenhouse. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Genotypes were grouped in cluster analysis (using Ward's method) based on Yp, Ys and ...

  2. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lazicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil nitrate (NO3− tests are an integral part of nutrient management in annual crops. They help growers make field-specific nitrogen (N fertilization decisions, use N more efficiently and, if necessary, comply with California's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program, which requires an N management plan and an estimate of soil NO3− from most growers. As NO3− is easily leached into deeper soil layers and groundwater by rain and excess irrigation water, precipitation and irrigation schedules need to be taken into account when sampling soil and interpreting test results. We reviewed current knowledge on best practices for taking and using soil NO3− tests in California irrigated annual crops, including how sampling for soil NO3− differs from sampling for other nutrients, how tests performed at different times of the year are interpreted and some of the special challenges associated with NO3− testing in organic systems.

  3. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  4. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  5. Effect of irrigation frequency and application levels of sulphur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... both years of experimentation, application of two irrigations significantly increased the India ... marginal lands with poor fertility under rainfed conditions. ... and 40 kg K20 ha-1 as muriate of potash was applied to each plot.

  6. Evapotranspiration-based irrigation scheduling of lettuce and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of crop evapotranspiration supports efficient irrigation water management, which in turn supports water conservation, mitigation of groundwater depletion/degradation, energy savings, and crop quality maintenance. Past research in California has revealed strong relationships between fract...

  7. Water users associations and irrigation water productivity in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Heerink, N.; Dries, L.K.E.; Qu, F.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional irrigation water management systems in China are increasingly replaced by user-based, participatory management through water users associations (WUAs) with the purpose to promote, economically and ecologically beneficial, water savings and increase farm incomes. Existing research shows

  8. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    soil contamination and the cumulative impact of wastewater, we compared two plots, all under orange- ... A slight increase in the concentration of soil enteric bacteria and soil fungal densities was ..... could be used for fruit tree irrigation.

  9. Grey mould development in greenhouse tomatoes under drip and furrow irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Aissat , Kamel; Nicot , Philippe ,; Guechi , Abdelhadi; Bardin , Marc; Chibane , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Several methods can be used to provide water to plants in cropping systems where irrigation is necessary. For instance, drip irrigation has recently received much attention due to its advantages for water conservation. The type of irrigation can also impact the development of several pathogens responsible for soilborne diseases. Here, we studied the effect of drip irrigation and furrow irrigation on the development of grey mould, caused by the airborne fungus Botrytis cinerea, on tomato plant...

  10. Column leaching experiments of a uranium ore by atomizing irrigation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yingying; Lei Zeyong; Chen Haihui

    2007-01-01

    Column leaching experiments ora uranium ore were made by atomizing irrigation technique. The leaching results are compared with the results obtained by spray irrigation and drip irrigation techniques respectively under the same conditions of column leaching experiments. The results show that the atomizing irrigation technique has more uniform solution distribution, higher leaching rate, shorter leaching period, and less ratio of liquid to solid. Consequently, the atomizing irrigation technique is suitable to the ore. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of best management practices under intensive irrigation using SWAT model

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmi, Farida; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Land management practices such as conservation tillage and optimum irrigation are routinely used to reduce non-point source pollution and improve water quality. The calibrated and validated SWAT-IRRIG model is the first modified SWAT version that reproduces well the irrigation return flows (IRF) when the irrigation source is outside of the watershed. The application of this SWAT version in intensive irrigated systems permits to better evaluate the best management practices (BMPs) in such syst...

  12. Irrigation in the Lower Durance: positive impacts of the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Blavoux, B.

    1995-01-01

    The water of river Durance is used to produce hydroelectricity and as stretch of water for tourism and since the thirteenth century for irrigation. The inherited situation is a well extended network of gravitation irrigation canals. This system is spendthrift of water, the water supplies are roughly 5 times the farming needs. The impact of this irrigation on the alluvial aquifer of the Lower Durance is the generalisation of the highest level of the water table in summer on the plain though the water budget has an average deficit of 550 mm. In addition, the nitrate concentration is maintained to an average of 17 mg/l in groundwater and 5 mg/l in streams by dilution. In fact, the irrigation dictates an average input of water with 25.4 mg/l of NO 3- . The natural isotopic tracing (oxygen 18) allows to say that 50 to 75% of the water of the alluvial aquifer come from irrigation. To improve the knowledge about the efficiency of irrigation, a mathematical groundwater model has been created. As a result, 53% of the water is lost while reaching the agricultural parcels, 19% is infiltrated during watering at the parcel and only 28% are used to satisfy the needs of plants. The realisation of this model has allowed to simulate the impact on groundwater of changes in irrigation practices which would lead to reduce the consummation of water. In the case of Lower Durance, the reduction of irrigation losses would have a strong impact on the quantity and quality of water in the alluvial aquifer. (J.S.). 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Temperature-controlled irrigated tip radiofrequency catheter ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In patients with ventricular tachycardias due to structural heart disease, catheter ablation cures radiofrequency ablation. Irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation using power control and high infusion rates enlarges lesion......: We conclude that temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation with irrigated tip catheters using low target temperature and low infusion rate enlarges lesion size without increasing the incidence of cratering and reduces coagulum formation of the tip....

  14. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that the water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) were typically higher in the AIS than in the conventional irrigation control system (CIS). Under the AIS treatment, the WUE and IWUE values were 1.64 and 1.37 k·gm-3 for wheat, and 7.50 and 6.50 kg·m-3 for tomato crops; ...

  15. Irrigation and climate information in Burkina Faso (AARC) | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supplemental irrigation in farming systems : history of a practice and outlooks for Burkina Faso. Études. Adoption et impacts de l'irrigation de complément en zone sahélienne : modélisation bioéconomique d'une exploitation à Kongoussi. Études. Analyse comparative des modes d'exhaure et de deux techniques culturales ...

  16. A personal history of the human exploration initiative with commentary on the pivotal role for life support research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell

    1990-01-01

    The author relates the history of the human exploration initiative from a personal perspective from the 1961 J. F. Kennedy initiative to land a man on the moon up to 1986 when a memo was circulated from NASA Headquarters to its employees which stated as a major goal the expansion of the human presence beyond Earth into the solar system. The pivotal role of life support research is woven into this personalized history.

  17. Comparative study regarding physical characteristics at male handball players activating on wing and pivot positions at Romanian team Steaua Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Maria CURIŢIANU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim and purpose. The main purpose of this article was to evaluate the differences between physical characteristics at wings and pivots (nine subjects, male handball experienced players, from Romanian handball team Steaua Bucharest, previous to their participation in the Romanian National League, competitive season 2013-2014. Material and methods. In order to achieve this research on the motric evaluation of the players that activate in the 6m. line at team Steaua Bucharest, that activates in Romanian National League, before competitive season 2013-2014, we used the following research methods: literature review, testing method conducted by using five control samples in order to establish the physical qualities of the handball players understudy, the data collected was used to analyze the motric performance of wing and pivot players; the statistical and mathematical method was used to underline the differences between the players that activate in the three positions on the team. Results. The interpretation of the results led to establishing the differences in terms of physical qualities between 6m line players from Romanian male handball team Steaua Bucharest. Results revealed that there are no significant differences in terms of physical qualities between wing players and pivot players. Conclusions. After processing and interpretation of results we can state that the performance of the 6m. line players of the Romanian team understudy was a good one with no significant differences between the results obtained by wings and pivots at the battery of tests (five tests but after this analysis, coaches could perfect their training program in order to achieve better physical results because it is known that motivation, tactics and technical skills play a far more important role in team sports than any other characteristics, but without a good physical training these abilities are incomplete.

  18. Effect of Deficit irrigation on the Productivity of Processing Potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.M.; Atallah, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    The area under potatoes in Lebanon has extended to over 15.000 ha to form 17% of irrigated arable land. More farmers rely on processing varieties for prices and marketing reasons. Studies focused so far on irrigation and fertilization of table potatoes. The current recommendations indicate excess N fertilizer input exceeding 600 kg N/ha in the form of compound fertilizers. Potato is irrigated with macro sprinklers with a water input reaching 850 mm/season. Water mismanagement and shortage eventually influence the yield quantity and quality of processing potatoes. Therefore, deficit irrigation is an important water saving tool regarding the increasing pressure on limited water resources in the dry areas. Information on potato response to water stress imposed at different crop stages is available. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of continuous deficit irrigation imposed from the stage of maximum plant development-flowering stage until physiological maturity on the performance of processing potato (Santana) and water and fertilizer use efficiency. Fertilizer placement and irrigation were done through fertigation using drip system. A neutron probe was used to assess water consumption from the soil. The 15 N methodology was used to follow the N recovery as affected by water deficit

  19. Estimation of Maize photosynthesis Efficiency Under Deficit Irrigation and Mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hadithi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research aims at estimating maize photosynthesis efficiency under deficit irrigation and soil mulching. A split-split plot design experiment was conducted with three replicates during the fall season 2000 and spring season 2001 at the experimental Station of Soil Dept./ Iraq Atomic Energy Commission. The main plots were assigned to full and deficit irrigation treatments: (C) control. The deficit irrigation treatment included the omission of one irrigation at establishment (S1, 15 days), vegetation (S2, 35 days), flowering (S3, 40 days) and yield formation (S4, 30 days) stages. The sub-plots were allocated for the two varieties, Synthetic 5012 (V1) and Haybrid 2052 (V2). The sub-sub-plots were assigned to mulch (M1) with wheat straw and no mulch (M0). Results showed that the deficit irrigation did not affect photosynthesis efficiency in both seasons, which ranged between 1.90 to 2.15% in fall season and between 1.18 and 1.45% in spring season. The hybrid variety was superior 9.39 and 9.15% over synthetic variety in fall and spring seasons, respectively. Deficit irrigation, varieties and mulch had no significant effects on harvest index in both seasons. This indicates that the two varieties were stable in their partitioning efficiency of nutrient matter between plant organ and grains under the condition of this experiment. (Author) 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.