Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration
One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.
Wu, Hsiao-ping; Guerra, Myriam Jimena
Pre-service teacher preparation in the United States is becoming progressively more challenging with respect to the demands on teachers. This study examined the impact of tutoring approach on pre-service teachers? skills to work with English language learners through a qualitative research design. Content analysis was used at the thematic level on…
Grainger, Michael J.
Under the mandates of No Child Left Behind, supplemental educational services (SES) in the form of tutoring are provided to eligible students who attend schools in the 3rd year of program improvement status. A local suburban school district in the southern California currently uses a 3rd party tutoring model to provide tutoring services in both…
Gaughf, Natalie White; Foster, Penni Smith
Peer tutoring has been found to be beneficial to both students and peer tutors in health sciences education programs. This article describes the implementation of a centralized, institutional peer tutoring program at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, an academic health science center in the U.S. The Program: This multispecialty peer tutoring program paired students experiencing academic difficulties with peer tutors who showed prior academic success, professionalism and effective communication skills. The program allowed students and peer tutors to coordinate their own tutoring services. Evaluations by both students and peer tutors showed satisfaction with the program. Recommendations for developing and implementing an effective peer tutoring program are presented, including utilization of an online system, consistent program policy with high professionalism expectations, funding, program evaluation and data tracking.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and... What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and health care services must homeliving programs provide? All homeliving programs must provide for appropriate student safety, academic tutoring...
Olivares-Urueta, Mayra; Williamson, Jon W
Pre-admission factors tend to serve as indicators of student success in health professions educational programs, but less is known about the effects that academic assistance programs have on student success. This study sought to determine whether specific pre-admission factors could help to identify students who may require academic support during their health professions education. This retrospective analysis aimed to identify differences in pre-admission variables between those students requiring tutoring and a matched sample of students who did not require tutoring. One-way ANOVA was used to assess differences for dependent variables-age, cumulative GPA (cGPA), science GPA (sGPA), verbal graduate record examination (GRE) score, quantitative GRE score, analytical GRE score and combined GRE score, community college hours, average credit hours per semester, and highest semester credit hour load-across three groups of students who received no tutoring (NT 0 hrs), some tutoring (ST tutoring (MT >8 hrs). Total GRE and average semester hours differentiated NT from ST from MT (ptutoring: quantitative GRE, sGPA, cGPA and average semester hours taken. The combination of lower GRE scores and lighter average semester course load were most predictive of the need for academic assistance as defined by hours of tutoring. While the value of the GRE in admissions processes is generally accepted, the average semester hour load in college can also provide important information regarding academic preparation and the need for tutoring services.
Morrison, Julie Q.; English, Sarah Baker
This article describes a multiagency initiative to evaluate academic tutoring services by focusing on the processes that contribute to effective program implementation. Community-based tutoring service providers serving students in the Cincinnati Public Schools (OH) partnered to initiate a "Seal of Approval" process for promoting…
Full Text Available Computer services are normally assumed to work well all the time. This usually happens for crucial services like bank electronic services, but not necessarily so for others, that there is no commercial interest in their operation. In this work we examined the operation and the errors of information services and tried to find clues that will help predicting the consistency of the behavior and the quality of the harvesting, which is harder because of the transient conditions and the many services and the huge amount of harvested information. We found many unexpected situations. The services that always successfully satisfy a request may in fact return part of it. A significant part of the OAI services have ceased working while many other serves occasionally fail to respond. Some services fail in the same way each time, and we pronounce them dead, as we do not see a way to overcome that. Others also always, or sometimes fail, but not in the same way, and we hope that their behavior is affected by temporary factors, that may improve later on. We categorized the services into classes, to study their behavior in more detail.
Erdemir, Mustafa; Ingeç, Sebnem Kandil
The purpose of this study is to identify pre-service primary mathematics teachers' views regarding on Web-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems (WBITS) in relation to its usability and influence on teaching. A survey method was used. The study was conducted with 43 students attending the mathematics teaching program under the department of elementary…
Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter
Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts...... are abstracted to (timed) automata and from there a simulation is set up, which is checked using automated tools for analyzing networks of finite state processes. Here we use the Concurrency Work Bench. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a case study that include otherwise difficult to analyze fault...
McFarlane, Kathryn J.
The research into personal tutoring in higher education from a tutor's perspective suggests that tutors lack training in tutoring and may lack clarity as to the purpose and boundaries of the role. This article explores personal tutors' perceptions of their confidence and competence in relation to personal tutoring and identifies strategies that…
Odo, Dennis Murphy
Many pre-service teachers lack deep understanding of assessment concepts and have low selfefficacy for using assessments but pre-service on-campus programs have been shown to support their assessment literacy development. Likewise, individualized tutoring has helped pre-service candidates improve instructional practice and peer debriefing has been…
Full Text Available Service-learning courses are designed to promote civic engagement and social justice, and to connect the classroom with the community in an environment of cooperation and mutual interest. In this article, a service-learning course of Spanish at the university level is supported as a reciprocal language exchange between the campus and the community. According to this course proposal, students attend a Latino community site once a week, where their members are tutored in English and American culture, while students are tutored in Spanish and Spanish-speaking culture. This way, service-learning is connected to the Spanish classroom through “Reflection” sessions led by mentors visiting the class periodically. This course was designed so that students would be able to improve their conversation skills in this exchange tutoring service while they are involved with the community by seeing their members as equal peers.
Swindle, Nicholas; Wimsatt, Leslie
Peer tutoring can benefit both tutors and tutored students, but information is lacking regarding establishing and measuring outcomes of such a program at new medical schools. To examine the outcomes of a pilot peer tutoring initiative and explore the implications for long-term program development. Fifty-one osteopathic medical students who participated in a pilot peer tutoring program during the 2013-2014 academic year were surveyed regarding satisfaction with the program. Course grade means for the tutors (all courses) and tutored students (specific courses) were analyzed before and after participating in the tutoring experience. Data analyses were performed using frequency distributions, t tests, and qualitative assessment of emergent themes. The survey had a 76% response rate (39 of 51 students). Both tutored students and tutors were satisfied with the tutoring program. Statistically significant changes in course grades for the tutored courses were noted at 3 to 4 and 8 to 9 months among the tutored students who were most at risk for failure (P=.001). Tutor course grades showed no significant changes for any of the courses in which they were enrolled (P=.445). Learning gains were realized by the students at greatest academic risk. Additional research is needed to evaluate long-term outcomes.
Full Text Available The Curtin Coaches program represents a dynamic outreach opportunity for pre-service teachers enrolled in their first year of study at Curtin University to engage with school-aged students as classroom tutors. Research has shown that cross-age tutoring experiences in schools can benefit both the students receiving support and those who tutor, particularly in settings where individuals are engaging in community support work. According to program feedback, participants were able to develop a range of profession-related skills such as relationship building and gain new knowledge such as understanding how students learn. These competencies are salient as they align with the newly implemented standards for graduate teachers. Understanding the benefits such outreach programs bring pre-service teachers is vital as the future of HEPPP funded programs such as the Curtin Coaches is uncertain but the importance of Work Integrated Learning is increasing.
Mumford, Thomas J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Student Support Services peer tutoring on rural community college students' success in an Anatomy and Physiology class as measured changes in self-reported learning and study strategies, the final grade in Anatomy and Physiology class, and persistence/retention in the following semesters. A secondary goal was to assess the relative merits of two training methods: standard peer tutoring and standard peer tutoring plus introduction to attribution theory. This Anatomy and Physiology class typically has a failure rate of 50%. The federal government annually funds more than 700 Student Support Services (SSS) grants and 162 Health Career Opportunities Programs (HCOP). Nearly 94% of these SSS programs included a tutoring component, and 84% of these programs use peer tutoring. Peer tutors were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions and students were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions. There were 31 students in the attribution condition and 28 students in the standard condition. Students were required to have a minimum of 10 hours of tutoring to be included in the analysis. Each tutored student was yoked to a control student who had not sought peer tutoring assistance. Participants were matched for age, marital status, number of adults in the family, number of children in the family and incoming academic skills (CPT Reading Test Results), financial status, and race. The results support peer tutoring as an effective method of increasing student success. The findings support the use of attribution training for tutors as a theoretical base of intervention. Students tutored by attribution trained tutors scored significantly higher on LASSI, had higher Anatomy and Physiology grades, and returned to college at a higher rate than their yoked controls. Standard trained tutors scored significantly higher on the LASSI Test Taking subscale and returned to college at a higher rate than their
Kim, Mikyong Minsun
This paper focuses on the important roles of peer tutoring and peer tutoring services that utilize student tutors in higher education. First, the roles and potential benefits of peer tutoring are identified and reviewed as they apply to various dimensions of student development. Second, the impacts, benefits, and extended beneficiaries of peer…
Serfon, C; The ATLAS collaboration
With the continuously increasing volume of data produced by ATLAS and stored on the WLCG sites, the probability of data corruption or data losses, due to software and hardware failures is increasing. In order to ensure the consistency of all data produced by ATLAS a Consistency Service has been developed as part of the DQ2 Distributed Data Management system. This service is fed by the different ATLAS tools, i.e. the analysis tools, production tools, DQ2 site services or by site administrators that report corrupted or lost files. It automatically corrects the errors reported and informs the users in case of irrecoverable file loss.
Serfon, C; The ATLAS collaboration
With the continuously increasing volume of data produced by ATLAS and stored on the WLCG sites, the probability of data corruption or data losses, due to software and hardware failure is increasing. In order to ensure the consistency of all data produced by ATLAS a Consistency Service has been developed as part of the DQ2 Distributed Data Management system. This service is fed by the different ATLAS tools, i.e. the analysis tools, production tools, DQ2 site services or by site administrators that report corrupted or lost files. It automatically correct the errors reported and informs the users in case of irrecoverable file loss.
Gallagher, Tiffany L.; Woloshyn, Vera E.; Elliott, Anne
Teacher candidates were tracked to monitor whether their former tutoring experience influenced their experiences as teacher candidates. Through interviews, email and group discussions, participants reflected on their teacher preparation experiences and their orientations to effective reading and writing instruction. At times, teacher candidates…
While starting a tutoring program may seem like a daunting and time-consuming task, it does not have to be. The best way to approach the creation and development of a tutoring service is with a list of clear objectives. In this article, the author describes the process she used to create a tutoring program with her English as a foreign language…
Gyimah, Emmanuel Kofi; Amoako, R.
The study aimed at exploring the perceptions tutors in Colleges of Education have on how the Colleges of Education Curriculum adequately prepare pre-service teachers to enable them to identify and assess children with special educational needs and disabilities for effective inclusive education in Ghana. A descriptive survey design was adopted and…
Full Text Available The study examined the ODL learners’ perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University’s (ZOU Bachelor of Education (Educational Management research students’ experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the ZOU. It purposively sampled 40 out of 160 research participants because they possessed desirable research characteristics for this study. The study was deemed significant in influencing tutors and policy makers to consider their research students’ supervision experiences as a basis for improving the quality of services for future research supervision practices and research projects. The study was guided by a two fold theory namely, thee Facilitation Theory (Nyawaranda, 2005 and the Nurturing Theory (Anderson, Pay and Mac Laughlin, 2006. Both theories advocate for the need of the supervisors to give their students a big heart. In terms of research supervision services offered by tutors the study indicated the time students were offered to meet research supervisors, prompt returns of marked work, and tutor student motivation and counselling as key services. In connection with the joys about research supervision, the students highly regarded: the manner in which tutors motivated them, tutors guidance in choosing research topic, tutor mentorship during research supervision and provision of workshops to polish up their research skills. In line with the challenges to the provision of research support services, three categories of challenges emerged. First, student-related challenges included lack of time, lack of money, lack of library facilities, lack of motivation and commitment to do research, lack of adequate theory in the area being researched on and family problems. Second, supervisor-related challenges included: too little direction, too little practical help given, too few meeting with students
Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn; Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael
Little is known about the way in which variations in service quality influence outcomes when youth are clients of more than one service system. This article reports on a study of 1,210 adolescents (aged 13-17 years), half were concurrent clients of two or more services and half were not involved in two or more services. Youth completed a self-report questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer. It was hypothesized that youth reporting two positive service experiences would report lower risks, higher resilience, and better outcomes than youth reporting inconsistent or two negative service experiences and that their resilience, risks, and outcomes would be similar to those of youth not involved in two or more services. MANCOVA was used to determine the relationship among service quality and resilience, risk, and outcomes with four covariates that assessed family and neighborhood environments, history of abuse and neglect, and chronic need. Results indicate that service quality had an effect on resilience, risks, and outcomes. These relationships were mediated quite strongly by the influence of the risks youth faced in their neighborhoods and to a lesser extent by the other three covariates. Of the three dependent variables, risk appeared to be the most consistently influenced by all the covariates, and it also differentiated service experience groups. Results point to the importance of services developing strategies to effectively address risks confronted by youth and also to ensure that when more than one service is involved with youth, consistency in service delivery is achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The researcher conducted present study with the objectives to a. evaluate attitude of learners towards academic and tutoring skills of distance education tutors, b. assess the opinion of distance learners about assessment and evaluation skills of their tutors and c. examine reflection of learners on scaffolding skills of distance education tutors. The population of the study consisted of learners of pre-service teacher education (B.Ed semester spring 2010 programme of Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad. The sample of the study was taken through the convenient sampling technique from three regions of Allama Iqbal Open University situated in the Punjab Province. A questionnaire was designed using a five-point (rating/Likert scale to elicit the reflection of (600 learners. However, the response rate was 78% (468 of the total sample. Interview schedule was also used as a research tool for collecting qualitative data from (50 respondents in five groups. The researcher analysed data quantitatively and qualitatively. The study concluded that the overall reflection of distance learners on andragogical skills of their tutors was positive. Apparently they were satisfied with andragogical skills of their tutors. They asserted that their tutors had academic and tutoring skills (consisting of encouraging, guiding & facilitating –emboldening and enabling skills, assessment & evaluation skills, and technical and social skills. However, tutors needed training to use social websites, Skype and mobile phone conferences and online discussion. Keeping in view the conclusion of the study, the researcher recommended short and long term training of tutors to use information and communication technologies appropriately.
Vogel, Gila; Fresko, Barbara; Wertheim, Cheruta
Peer tutoring is a commonly provided support service for students with learning disabilities (LD) in institutions of higher education. A large-scale survey was conducted to evaluate the PERACH peer tutoring project for students with LD at 25 universities, regional colleges, and teacher training colleges in Israel. The purpose of the study was to understand the tutoring process from the point of view of both tutees and tutors with respect to 5 main areas: tutees' needs, focus of tutoring activities, difficulties surrounding the tutoring endeavor, importance of similar study experiences, and satisfaction with the project. It is our supposition that major discrepancies in perceptions are likely to undermine the effectiveness of the tutoring. Similarities and differences in perceptions were identified, and implications that can be useful in guiding service providers are discussed.
Leach-López, Maria A.
Students enrolled in Principles of Accounting courses might require peer tutoring services. Accounting Departments (schools) can assist these students by maintaining a list of students offering tutoring services for a fee. The opportunity to be included in the list of tutors must be offered to all university students, both domestic and foreign.…
Gerhardt, Jill; Olan, Michael
This article describes our experience with peer tutoring in introductory programming courses. This tutoring concept was one of the integral support services out of five student services, which were part of a National Science Foundation Grant, designed to improve education, increase retention, improve professional development and employability, and…
Soft system methodology (SSM) is described as a system-based methodology for tackling real world problems. SSM may be used as a means of articulating complex social processes in a particular way. SSM allows peoples' viewpoints and assumptions about the world to be bought to light, challenged and tested. This paper reports on the use of SSM in a service-focussed study (SFS) to explore the role of a personal tutor in nurse education. [Checkland, P., 1981. Systems Thinking Systems Practice. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester] highlighted the importance of considering cultural, social and political systems in the analysis. The seven stages of SSM are discussed in relation to the SFS and some of the findings are expressed through a 'Rich Picture'. It encourages commitment, brings diverse interests together and opens up the organizational culture. It also enables feasible and desirable changes to be recommended within the context of limited resources and competing demands upon lecturers' time. The SSM was an appropriate systematic model for this study and could be potentially useful in nurse education research.
NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.
Alqadoumi, Omar Mohamed
Previous studies in the field of e-tutoring dealt either with asynchronous tutoring or synchronous conferencing as modes for providing e-tutoring services to English learners. This qualitative research study reports the experiences of Arab ESL tutees with both asynchronous tutoring and synchronous conferencing. It also reports the experiences of…
Chen, Chao-Hsiu; Liao, Chen-Hung; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Chen-Feng
To well prepare pre-service teachers for their future teaching, researchers and teacher-educators have been employing information and communication technology to improve pre-service teachers' learning of subject-matter knowledge, pedagogies, classroom-management skills, and so on. This study illustrates a service-learning project we conducted to…
Colver, Mitchell; Fry, Trevor
The present study examined undergraduate peer tutoring in three phases. Phase I qualitatively surveyed students' perceptions about the effectiveness of tutoring. Phase II examined the usefulness of promoting regular use of services through a tutoring contract. Phase III utilized an archival, quasi-experimental approach to estimate the effect of…
Sligar, Steven R.; Pelletier, Christopher D.; Bonner, Heidi Stone; Coghill, Elizabeth; Guberman, Daniel; Zeng, Xiaoming; Newman, Joyce J.; Muller, Dorothy; Dennis, Allen
Online tutoring is made possible by using videos to replace or supplement face to face services. The purpose of this research was to examine student reactions to the use of lecture capture technology in a university tutoring setting and to assess student knowledge of some features of Tegrity lecture capture software. A survey was administered to…
Gordon, Edward E.
Tutoring has become a familiar tool that schools use to reinforce classroom teaching and improve student achievement. That's especially been the case because of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its provisions for supplemental education. Educators faced with developing or supporting tutoring services for students should consider five practical…
Bruce, Jennifer E.; Trammell, Jack
Discusses a study that examines the effects of paired tutoring and mentoring on academic achievement of college freshmen in a probationary program. Results show that students with mentoring and tutoring services by the same person show greater academic gains as measured by compliance and academic achievement than do those students who were…
Blessing, Stephen B.; Gilbert, Stephen B.; Ourada, Stephen; Ritter, Steven
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) that employ a model-tracing methodology have consistently shown their effectiveness. However, what evidently makes these tutors effective, the cognitive model embedded within them, has traditionally been difficult to create, requiring great expertise and time, both of which come at a cost. Furthermore, an…
Gurun, Ayfer; Millimet, Daniel L.
We assess the causal effect of private tutoring on the probability of university placement in Turkey. We find that tutoring increases the probability of being placed in a university when non-random selection is ignored. Moreover, among those utilizing private tutoring, greater expenditure on tutoring is also positively associated with university placement. However, we find evidence of positive selection into tutoring, but negative selection into greater expenditures among those receiving tuto...
Asare Yaw Obeng; Mkhize L Peter
The key to long-term success in banking is consistent improvement and delivering of quality product and or value-added service that conform to the expectations of customers. IT-innovative products/services and processes (technological innovation) facilitate these key elements of customer satisfaction and critical factors for retaining valued customers. The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of technological innovation on service consistency and the consequential effects on cust...
This article is a review of experiments comparing the effectiveness of human tutoring, computer tutoring, and no tutoring. "No tutoring" refers to instruction that teaches the same content without tutoring. The computer tutoring systems were divided by their granularity of the user interface interaction into answer-based, step-based, and…
One high-leverage strategy rooted in a strong research base--the revitalized tutoring center--provides a wealth of opportunity to students who may be otherwise underserved. This embedded, open-all-day tutoring center supports collaborative teacher teams by using peer tutors and community volunteers. By centralizing resources and providing supports…
Fan, Linjun; Tang, Jun; Ling, Yunxiang; Li, Benxian
This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA). Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service's evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA) is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA), which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs) based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average) is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12%) is the second biggest one, and the service version's confusion (1.2%) is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA.
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA. Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service’s evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA, which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12% is the second biggest one, and the service version’s confusion (1.2% is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA.
Knott, Anne Marie; Corredoira, Rafael; Kimberly, John
Addiction treatment providers face serious problems in delivering consistent, high-quality services over time. Among those providers with multiple treatment sites, there is also intersite variability. This is a serious problem in the addiction field, likely to be made worse as new technologies are introduced and/or as there is industry consolidation (Corredoira, R., Kimberly, J. (2006) Industry evolution through consolidation: Implications for addiction treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31, 255-265.). Although serious, these problems in managing and monitoring to assure consistent service quality have been faced by many other industries. Here, we review evidence from research in other industries regarding three different forms of management (vertical integration, franchising, and licensing) across a chain of individual service providers. We show how each management form affects the level, consistency, and improvement of service delivery over time. In addition, we discuss how such performance advantages affect customer demand as well as regulatory endorsement of the consolidated firm and its approach.
Paquette, Kelli R.; Laverick, DeAnna M.
This qualitative study explores preservice teachers' experiences in a service-learning literacy tutoring program offered at a university with children in grades one through eight. This study examines briefly the history of literacy centers and service-learning, the specific instructional tutoring methods employed by preservice teachers connected…
Asare Yaw Obeng
Full Text Available The key to long-term success in banking is consistent improvement and delivering of quality product and or value-added service that conform to the expectations of customers. IT-innovative products/services and processes (technological innovation facilitate these key elements of customer satisfaction and critical factors for retaining valued customers. The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of technological innovation on service consistency and the consequential effects on customer satisfaction and loyalty covering seven universal banks in Ghana. The results of the empirically tested model reveal new/improved product/process functionalities, service consistency and innovative product/process satisfaction contribute significantly to customer loyalty (p < 0.001. Service consistency has a marginal higher impact (β = .373 on customer loyalty than the others. Product/process quality contributes significantly (with β ranging from .345 to .742 and p < 0.001 to each of the above three antecedents than all other items.
Salah Eldin Kassab
Discussion: Analyzing the tutors’ scores of their motivation for PBL tutoring yielded three significantly correlated constructs representing tutoring self-efficacy, tutoring interest and tutoring value. The findings demonstrated high internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire, strong correlation between the three constructs as well as correlations between the constructs and the self-rated tutoring skills scores. Taken together, the current study demonstrates that the newly developed instrument measuring motivation for PBL tutoring exhibits good psychometric properties. The findings in this paper pave the way for further studies for refining the measurement of this construct in different problem-based contexts.
Stott, Angela; Hattingh, Annemarie
The paper presents a case study of the use of conceptual tutoring software to promote deep learning of the scientific concept of density among 50 final year pre-service student teachers in a natural sciences course in a South African university. Individually-paced electronic tutoring is potentially an effective way of meeting the students' varied…
Yogev, Abraham; Ronen, Rachel
The psychological benefits of a high school tutoring program were investigated. Results gathered from questionnaires answered by high school students tutoring junior high school students, both before and after the tutoring experience, indicated that tutors' empathy, altruism, and self-esteem increased as a result of program participation.…
Johnson, David L.
After decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive psychology, a number of companies have emerged that offer intelligent tutor system (ITS) soft ware to schools. These systems try to mimic the help that a human tutor would provide to an individual student, something nearly impossible for teachers to accomplish in the…
Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.
Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programmes have largely neglected programmes catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA programme through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviours already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....
Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.
Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programs have largely neglected programs catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA program through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviors already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....
interpretation. The overview plots provide the user with a visual display of the variation in presentation of cases for a given disease. An important aspect of the research is the evaluation of the accuracy of this representation and its usability in browsing cases in a tutoring environment. A prototype tutoring environment has been designed based around case based teaching, and an image browser which offers the majority of the functionality available in the tutoring environment was used in the evaluations. A series of evaluations was undertaken to examine the accuracy and usability of the overview plot and its associated measures of typicality and similarity. The overview plot is shown to provide a good first approximation to the experts similarity estimates of cases within a disease and as such provides a representation of a disease that closely matches the experts view of the similarity of cases. A second series of evaluations involving novice, intermediate and expert radiologists using the computer based image browser demonstrated significant differences in how the experts, novices and intermediates interact with the image archive via the overview plot. These findings are consistent with those found in previous novice-expert studies involving chest x-ray interpretation. There were significant differences between the experts and novice/intermediates in terms of their placement of cases within the overview plot with the experts placement of cases closer to the statistical placements. The users reaction to the overview plot were favourable with subjects commenting on its intuitiveness and ease of use. Hence, it is concluded that the overview space could serve as a useful tool in assisting the training of novice and intermediate radiologists providing a vehicle for moving the less experienced subjects towards the experts' conception of a disease. The research offers a methodology for teaching based on the integration of principles from cognitive science and statistics, and as
interpretation. The overview plots provide the user with a visual display of the variation in presentation of cases for a given disease. An important aspect of the research is the evaluation of the accuracy of this representation and its usability in browsing cases in a tutoring environment. A prototype tutoring environment has been designed based around case based teaching, and an image browser which offers the majority of the functionality available in the tutoring environment was used in the evaluations. A series of evaluations was undertaken to examine the accuracy and usability of the overview plot and its associated measures of typicality and similarity. The overview plot is shown to provide a good first approximation to the experts similarity estimates of cases within a disease and as such provides a representation of a disease that closely matches the experts view of the similarity of cases. A second series of evaluations involving novice, intermediate and expert radiologists using the computer based image browser demonstrated significant differences in how the experts, novices and intermediates interact with the image archive via the overview plot. These findings are consistent with those found in previous novice-expert studies involving chest x-ray interpretation. There were significant differences between the experts and novice/intermediates in terms of their placement of cases within the overview plot with the experts placement of cases closer to the statistical placements. The users reaction to the overview plot were favourable with subjects commenting on its intuitiveness and ease of use. Hence, it is concluded that the overview space could serve as a useful tool in assisting the training of novice and intermediate radiologists providing a vehicle for moving the less experienced subjects towards the experts' conception of a disease. The research offers a methodology for teaching based on the integration of principles from cognitive science and statistics, and
The purpose of this effort was to develop an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) to train test administrators how to operate computerized adaptive testing Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (CAT-ASVAB...
Students can make huge gains in academic grades and confidence with the help of peer tutoring. This book provides practical, research-based strategies for anyone wanting to run a peer tutoring programme or to improve their own tutoring practice. The book focuses on two key components of tutoring: the tutoring relationship and tutoring tools. The…
Chi, Michelene T H; Roy, Marguerite; Hausmann, Robert G M
The goals of this study are to evaluate a relatively novel learning environment, as well as to seek greater understanding of why human tutoring is so effective. This alternative learning environment consists of pairs of students collaboratively observing a videotape of another student being tutored. Comparing this collaboratively observing environment to four other instructional methods-one-on-one human tutoring, observing tutoring individually, collaborating without observing, and studying alone-the results showed that students learned to solve physics problems just as effectively from observing tutoring collaboratively as the tutees who were being tutored individually. We explain the effectiveness of this learning environment by postulating that such a situation encourages learners to become active and constructive observers through interactions with a peer. In essence, collaboratively observing combines the benefit of tutoring with the benefit of collaborating. The learning outcomes of the tutees and the collaborative observers, along with the tutoring dialogues, were used to further evaluate three hypotheses explaining why human tutoring is an effective learning method. Detailed analyses of the protocols at several grain sizes suggest that tutoring is effective when tutees are independently or jointly constructing knowledge: with the tutor, but not when the tutor independently conveys knowledge. 2008 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Bendjebar, Safia; Lafifi, Yacine; Zedadra, Amina
In e-learning systems, tutors have a significant impact on learners' life to increase their knowledge level and to make the learning process more effective. They are characterized by different features. Therefore, identifying tutoring styles is a critical step in understanding the preference of tutors on how to organize and help the learners. In…
This research sought to determine if a teaching intervention using tutors in a South African university could promote epistemological access to university for first-year students. Although hiring, developing and managing tutors takes oney, time and energy, the effectiveness of tutors in the South African context is ...
The research report presents a consistent concept of elastic-plastic fatigue fracture mechanics, to be used for numerical description of crack initiation and propagation behaviour within and out of notched areas of circular notched specimens for Woehler tests, two-phase fatigue tests and tests under service conditions. It is shown that a fracture-mechanics approach yields results capable of describing the load history over the whole service life of a structural member. A J-integral-related crack propagation model is derived that takes into account the crack opening and closure behaviour. The model is based on specially developed formulas, algorithms and approximation formulas required for description of crack opening and closure behaviour as well as calculation of the stress intensity factor K and the J-integral of cracks at notches. The values relating to crack opening were compared with experimental data, and those describing the stress intensity factor K and the J-integrals with 2D and 3D elastic-plastic FE calculations. Good and very good agreement of results was achieved. (orig./CB) [de
Valk, van der W.; Iwaarden, van J.
Organisations increasingly outsource service delivery to specialist subcontractors. These buyers, their subcontractors and their end customers operate in a triadic service relationship. In these triads, the buyer lacks direct control over service delivery and completely depends on the subcontractor
Rasche, Alexander N.
This study investigated the tutoring practices of mathematics tutors working in one university tutoring center and the corresponding rationale exhibited by the mathematics tutors. This study illustrates how the tutoring practices of mathematics tutors align with the Eight Mathematics Teaching Practices outlined in NCTM's recent publication…
Mustafa Ayroutt; Heba hammad
Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons of tutoring phenomena among secondary stage students in Amman City as perceived by School Principals. Approach: The sample of the study consisted of (117 male principals and 57 female principals). Results: The evaluations of principals regarding tutoring reasons were high, factors related to students came first, followed by the factors related to the family while the factors related to the cur...
Full Text Available The author deals with tutorship as one of the most effective forms of one-to-one learning. The relationship between a tutor and a student is studied in detail and it is established that the quality of such a relationship can be considerably better than the one, where a tutor and a student arc engaged in a more formal one. The article, which is based on the data gathered from a research, speaks about conditions, which are necessary for an informal tutor-student re lationship to evolve. The author also answers the question of the characteristics the students expect from their tutors. What should, therefore, a personal profile of an informal tutor be? This also partly answers the question of a good leader and the characteristics a good leader possesses, since leaders are also good tutors. Informal tutors, who offered skills, knowledge and useful insight, were mostly people's male and female friends (80 % , individual teachers if they've become close (65 %, a spouse (50% and a co-worker (42 %. When considering the development of a tutor-student relationship, the basis was knowledge and expertise of the other person (29 % of replies, moreover personal characteristics of a tutor were underlined (71 %. The research also revealed that only certain people can assume a role of a tutor. As a single, most important characteristic the following were selected: has the ability to listen, is emphatic and tolerant to the other person. Everybody,without exception selected these characteristics. The second characteristic (53 %, but of a much lesser importance than the first one was: friendly, likeable, amicable, warm, nice, humane. It is of equal importance for a tutor to be open, honest and broad-minded. Everybody believes they could successfully develop (or have successfully developed if being (having been engaged in a relationship with such a tutor.
Drawing on the nationally representative "Participation and Expenditure in Education" surveys, we document the incidence and cost of private tutoring at different stages of schooling over the last two decades in India. As private tutoring involve two decisions: a) whether to take private tuition or not, and b) how much to spend on private tutoring conditional on positive decision in (a), we analyze the determinants of the two decisions separately using a Hurdle model. We find that private tut...
Szczyrba, Birgit; Wildt, Johannes
Consulting, Coaching und Supervision, Tutoring, Mentoring und kollegiale Beratung: Beratungsangebote verschiedenster Art werden wie selbstverständlich in den Berufen nachgefragt, die mit Beziehung und Interaktion, mit komplexen sozialen Organisationen und Systemen, mit hoher Verantwortlichkeit, aber unsicheren Handlungsbedingungen zu tun haben. Mittlerweile beginnt diese Nachfrage auch in den Hochschulen zu steigen. Eine solche Steigerung wird ausgelöst durch den Wandel in den Lehr-Lernkultur...
McKee, Peter; Hughes, Carmel; Hanna, Lezley-Anne
Health care services offered to the public should be based on the best available evidence. We aimed to explore pharmacy tutors' and trainees' views on the importance of evidence when making decisions about over-the-counter (OTC) medicines and also to investigate whether the tutor influenced the trainee in practice. Following ethical approval and piloting, semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacy graduates (trainees) and pharmacist tutors. Transcribed interview data were entered into the NVivo software package (version 10), coded and analysed via thematic analysis. Twelve trainees (five males, seven females) and 11 tutors (five males, six females) participated. Main themes that emerged were (in)consistency and contradiction, confidence, acculturation, and continuation and perpetuation. Despite having an awareness of the importance and potential benefits, an evidence-based approach did not seem to be routinely or consistently implemented in practice. Confidence in products was largely derived from personal use and patient feedback. A lack of discussion about evidence was justified on the basis of not wanting to lessen patient confidence in requested product(s) or possibly negating the placebo effect. Trainees became acculturated to 'real-life' practice; university teaching and evidence was deemed less relevant than meeting customer expectations. The tutor's actions were mirrored by their trainee resulting in continuation and perpetuation of the same professional attitudes and behaviours. Evidence appeared to have limited influence on OTC decision making. The tutor played a key role in the trainee's professional development. More work could be performed to investigate how evidence can be regarded as relevant and something that is consistently implemented in practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Reading is the basis for learning and school success. While reading is learned primarily in the classroom, many students need extra time and help. Research shows that tutoring is a great way for individuals and groups outside school to support learning, but effective tutoring requires appropriate training and careful planning. This brochure,…
Zainal Zaffan Farhana
Full Text Available Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric designs consistency where the drivers make mistakes errors due to the road geometric features causes the accident kept rising in Malaysia. Hence, models are based on operating speed to calculate design consistency of road. The profiles were obtained by continuous speed profile using GPS data. The continuous operating speed profile models were plotted based on operating speed model (85th percentile. The study was conduct at F0023 from km 16 until km 20. The purpose of design consistency is to know the relationship between the operating speed and elements of geometric design on the road. As a result, the integrated design consistency motorcycle and cars along a segment at F0023, the threshold shows poor design quality for motorcycles and cars.
ChanLin, Lih-Juan; Lin, Hong-Yen; Lu, Tze-Han
To bridge the digital divide and learning gap among children in remote areas, an online tutoring service has been initiated for after-school learning in remote schools. College students were recruited for the role of teaching and supporting remote learners through online tutoring. This research aimed to study college students' involvement in…
Chae, Soo Eun; Shin, Jae-Han
This study was aimed to find which tutoring styles significantly predict learners' satisfaction with an e-learning service, academic involvement, and academic achievement. The tutoring styles included subject expert, facilitator, guider, and administrator. In this study, 818 Korean sixth-grade students (ages 11-12 years), enrolled in the…
Baker, Ryan S.
The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…
The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...
Holland, Alicia L.; Grant, Chris; Donthamsetty, Reshema
The objective for the current qualitative case study was to examine participants' perceptions on the tutor coaching and session review frameworks. The location of the study was at the tutor coaches' place of business. At the beginning of the study, tutor coaches were trained on how to implement the tutoring coaching framework with their tutors,…
Lee, Hye-Jung; Hong, Youngil; Choi, Hyoseon
This study explores issues related to the tutor's role when initiating tutoring as an institutional strategy at a conventional university. Based on a pilot tutoring program implemented in four college courses, we investigated the perceptions of instructors, tutors and students regarding the role of tutoring and whether it affected the…
One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…
Bauer, Frank H.; Parker, Joel Jefferson Konkl; Valdez, Jennifer Ellen
GPS availability and signal strength originally specified for users on or near surface of Earth with transmitted power levels specified at edge-of-Earth, 14.3 degrees. Prior to the SSV specification, on-orbit performance of GPS varied from block build to block build (IIA, IIRM, IIF) due to antenna gain and beam width variances. Unstable on-orbit performance results in significant risk to space users. Side-lobe signals, although not specified, were expected to significantly boost GPS signal availability for users above the constellation. During GPS III Phase A, NASA noted significant discrepancies in power levels specified in GPS III specification documents, and measured on-orbit performance. To stabilize the signal for high altitude space users, NASA DoD team in 2003-2005 led the creation of new Space Service Volume (SSV) definition and specifications.
Full Text Available South African institutions of higher education (HE have increasingly come under pressure to broaden access to historically under-represented groups who are often underprepared for tertiary education as a result of apartheid-era secondary schooling (White Paper, 2013. This has resulted in student enrolments becoming increasingly diverse with respect to racial, cultural, socio-economic and linguistic backgrounds (Underhill & McDonald, 2010. In an attempt to address these issues and promote increased throughput rates, institutions of HE have increasingly begun to introduce tutoring, including supplemental instruction (SI and peer-assisted learning (PAL and mentoring programmes.
This paper is based on a case study of tutoring in the Namibian Environmental Education Certificate (NEEC) Course. In order to support tutoring, the National NEEC Coordinator investigated the way NEEC tutors are supported and the kinds of challenges faced in the tutoring process. The case study was framed within a ...
Hrastinski, Stefan; Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Stenbom, Stefan
Online tutors play a critical role in e-learning and need to have an appropriate set of skills in addition to subject matter expertise. This paper explores how digital badges can be used to encourage the development of online tutoring skills. Based on previous research, we defined three digital badges, which are examples of essential tutoring…
Hautala, Jarkko; Baker, Doris Luft; Keurulainen, Aleksi; Ronimus, Miia; Richardson, Ulla; Cole, Ronald
The purpose of this pilot study with a within-subject design was to gain a deeper understanding about the promise and restrictions of a virtual tutoring system designed to teach science to first grade students in Finland. Participants were 61 students who received six tutoring science sessions of approximately 20 min each. Sessions consisted of a…
Alvarez, Simone; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik
Almost all medical faculties in Germany actively employ peer tutors. However, little is known about the roles these tutors play from a faculty point of view. Also, there are only few descriptions of the tutor recruitment and selection processes. 32 of the medical faculties in Germany, where tutors are used in the training of medical students, were asked to provide information on the role and recruitment of tutors by means of a partially standardized questionnaire. At the surveyed faculties (return rate 28%), tutors are mostly employed for the purpose of teaching staff support. Even though desired in individual cases, tutors rarely play an active role in curriculum- or faculty development. The way tutor recruitment is handled strongly depends on the capabilities of the individual faculties and the way tutors are utilized. In many cases this process is structured, consisting of written and oral application phases, in other cases recruitment takes place without formal application procedures. The selection criteria, however, were found to be very similar at most faculties. The role of tutors from the faculties' point of view depends strongly on the respective nature of the tutorials, which are just as diverse as the approaches to tutor recruitment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Velasco, Jonathan B.; Stains, Marilyne
It has been established that both tutors and tutees gain from tutoring sessions. However, tutors' benefits may be enhanced or limited depending on the type of behaviours they perform during the tutoring sessions. Although behaviours enhancing both tutor and tutee learning can be promoted by training, generalized tutor training models that are…
García-Iglesias, María J; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Díez-Laiz, Raquel; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana M
Tutoring is a useful tool in the university teaching-learning binomial, although its development is impaired in large classes. Recent improvements in information and communication technologies have made tutoring possible via the Internet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mixed-method academic tutoring in two basic subjects in Veterinary Science studies at the University of León (Spain) to optimize the usefulness of tutoring support in the college environment. This quasi-experimental study was firstly carried out as a pilot study in a small group of tutored students of "Cytology and Histology" (CH) (47/186; 25.3%) and "Veterinary Pharmacology" (VP) (33/141; 23.4%) subjects, and was implemented in a large class of CH the next academic year (150 students) while comparing the results with those obtained in a previous tutorless course (162 students). Tutored students were given access to online questionnaires with electronic feedback on each subject. In addition to traditional tutoring carried out in both tutored and tutorless students, the pilot study included three sessions of face-to-face tutoring in order to monitor the progress of students. Its efficacy was assessed by monitoring students' examination scores and attendance as well as a satisfaction survey. Although the examination attendance rate in the pilot study was not significantly different between tutored and tutorless groups in both subjects, an increase for numerical scores in tutored groups was observed, with a significant higher final score in VP (p = 0.001) and in the CH practice exams (first term, p = 0.009; final, p = 0.023). Good and merit scores were also better in tutored students with significant differences in VP (p = 0.005). Students felt comfortable with the tutoring service (100% in CH; 91.7% in VP). Implementation of this additional support in CH also resulted in a significant increase of attendance at the final exam in tutored courses (87.3% versus 77
Nye, Benjamin D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen
AutoTutor is a natural language tutoring system that has produced learning gains across multiple domains (e.g., computer literacy, physics, critical thinking). In this paper, we review the development, key research findings, and systems that have evolved from AutoTutor. First, the rationale for developing AutoTutor is outlined and the advantages…
The current study examined the contribution of two types of variables to the perceived success of a tutoring project for college students with learning disabilities (LD): tutoring-related variables (the degree of engagement in different tutoring activities and difficulties encountered during tutoring), and tutee-related variables (learning…
Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.; Sewall, Jonathan; van Velsen, Martin; Popescu, Octav; Demi, Sandra; Ringenberg, Michael; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
In 2009, we reported on a new Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) technology, example-tracing tutors, that can be built without programming using the Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT). Creating example-tracing tutors was shown to be 4-8 times as cost-effective as estimates for ITS development from the literature. Since 2009, CTAT and its…
Matsuda, Noboru; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
SimStudent is a machine-learning agent initially developed to help novice authors to create cognitive tutors without heavy programming. Integrated into an existing suite of software tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT), SimStudent helps authors to create an expert model for a cognitive tutor by tutoring SimStudent on how to solve…
Hetzel, Carole J.; Laskey, Marcia L.; Hardt-Schultz, Roberta F.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the length of a weekly tutoring session and student GPA for the first two semesters of college. The study was conducted at a private, midsize university in the Midwest. The sample consisted of 124 students admitted with academic stipulations to the university, meaning that…
Chappell, Shanan; Arnold, Pamela; Nunnery, John; Grant, Melva
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine the impact of synchronous online tutoring services on struggling middle school students' mathematics achievement. The online tutoring was provided as a response to intervention (RTI) Tier 3 support (intensive, individualized intervention) in schools implementing a school-wide mathematics…
Çakiroglu, Ünal; Öngöz, Sakine
This study attempted to examine students' experiences on collaborative work with peer tutoring in projects. The study also focused impact of peer tutoring on remedying misconceptions. The study was conducted in the context of an operating system course in which 30 pre-service ICT teachers are the participants. Data were gathered from pre-tests,…
Turrentine, Penny; MacDonald, Lucy
Is tutoring online more than just email? Two yearlong studies explored tutoring online in two different modes. One, from Atlantic Community College in New Jersey, looked at asynchronous (not real time) tutoring online using a discussion board. The other, at Pima Community College in Arizona, used synchronous (real time) online software. The…
Chou, Chih-Yueh; Chan, Tak-Wai
"Reciprocal tutoring," as reported in "Exploring the design of computer supports for reciprocal tutoring" (Chan and Chou 1997), has extended the meaning and scope of "intelligent tutoring" originally implemented in stand alone computers. This research is a follow-up to our studies on a "learning companion…
Simons, P.R.J.; Ligorio, M.B.; Talamo, A.
The role of tutors has changed over time, depending on models of learning and on the technology available. This article discusses the evolution of the tutor role and presents a new model concerning the tutoring functions in a synchronous virtual community. The definition of a virtual community
This article explores the identities of tutors working in one-to-one instructional arrangements, which entail a tutor and an adult English learner working together to meet the particular language learning needs and goals of the learner. The tutors in this study are matched with their partners through an organization in New Zealand which aims to…
Massaro, Dominic W.; Bosseler, Alexis; Stone, Patrick S.; Connors, Pamela
We have developed computer-assisted speech and language tutors for deaf, hard of hearing, and autistic children. Our language-training program utilizes our computer-animated talking head, Baldi, as the conversational agent, who guides students through a variety of exercises designed to teach vocabulary and grammer, to improve speech articulation, and to develop linguistic and phonological awareness. Baldi is an accurate three-dimensional animated talking head appropriately aligned with either synthesized or natural speech. Baldi has a tongue and palate, which can be displayed by making his skin transparent. Two specific language-training programs have been evaluated to determine if they improve word learning and speech articulation. The results indicate that the programs are effective in teaching receptive and productive language. Advantages of utilizing a computer-animated agent as a language tutor are the popularity of computers and embodied conversational agents with autistic kids, the perpetual availability of the program, and individualized instruction. Students enjoy working with Baldi because he offers extreme patience, he doesn't become angry, tired, or bored, and he is in effect a perpetual teaching machine. The results indicate that the psychology and technology of Baldi holds great promise in language learning and speech therapy. [Work supported by NSF Grant Nos. CDA-9726363 and BCS-9905176 and Public Health Service Grant No. PHS R01 DC00236.
Research on intelligent tutoring systems is discussed from the point of view of providing moment-by-moment adaptation of content and form of instruction to the changing cognitive needs of individual learners. Implications of this goal for cognitive diagnosis, subject matter analysis, teaching tactics, and teaching strategies are analyzed. (Author)
interactive tutor in a Pentium based laptop computer. The first version of MILT with keyboard input was designed for Spanish and Arabic and can recognize... NLP ). The goal of the MILT design team was an authoring system which would require no formal external training and which could be learned within four
Dmitrieva, Olga; Michalakidis, Georgios; Mason, Aaron; Jones, Simon; Chan, Tom; de Lusignan, Simon
One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In
Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to research the feasibility of training mental health consumers as tutors for 4th year medical students in psychiatry. Methods A partnership between a consumer network and an academic unit in Psychological Medicine was formed to jointly develop a training package for consumer tutors and a curriculum in interviewing skills for medical students. Student attitudes to mental health consumers were measured pre and post the program. All tutorial evaluation data was analysed using univariate statistics. Both tutors and students evaluated the teaching program using a 4 point rating scale. The mean scores for teaching and content for both students and tutors were compared using an independent samples t-test. Results Consumer tutors were successfully trained and accredited as tutors and able to sustain delivery of tutorials over a 4 year period. The study found that whilst the medical students started with positive attitudes towards consumers prior to the program, there was a general trend towards improved attitude across all measures. Other outcomes for tutors and students (both positive and negative are described. Conclusions Consumer tutors along with professional tutors have a place in the education of medical students, are an untapped resource and deliver largely positive outcomes for students and themselves. Further possible developments are described.
Full Text Available Modern undergraduates join science and engineering courses with poorer mathematical background than most contemporaries of the current faculty had when they were freshers. The problem is very acute in the United Kingdom but more and more countries adopt less resource intensive models of teaching and the problem spreads. University tutors and lecturers spend more and more time covering the basics. However, most of them still rely on traditional methods of delivery which presuppose that learners have a good memory and considerable time to practice, so that they can memorize disjointed facts and discover for themselves various connections between the underlying concepts. These suppositions are particularly unrealistic when dealing with a large number of undergraduates who are ordinary learners with limited mathematics background. The first author has developed a teaching system that allows such adult learners achieve relatively deep learning of mathematics – and remarkably quickly – through a teacher-guided (often called Socratic dialog, which aims at the frequent reinforcement of basic mathematical abstractions through Eulerian sequencing. These ideas have been applied to create a prototype of a Cognitive Mathematics Tutoring System aimed at teaching basic mathematics to University freshers., an electronic Personal Algebra and Calculus Tutor (e- PACT.
A. S. Aleshchenko
Full Text Available The aim of the research is intelligent tutoring system for planning and development of individual learning programs for students. One of the important components of modern training programs is the individual practice programs that are formed from the first course and built up in the process of learning in the subsequent courses. Each individual practice program is formed on the basis of the Working program of practice for a specific group. At later practice stages planning and adjustment of the individual program are worked out for a particular student.The agent-oriented approach for the planning of individual learning programs is used for the formation of individual practice program. Agents of the intelligent learning systems are created according to the requirements of service-oriented architecture. To apply knowledge there used an integrated approach to represent knowledge.As a result of research, the authors propose the architecture of intelligent educational systems of the University Department, using the repository of learning objects, telecommunication systems and such agents as: the learner, the assessment of the student’s knowledge, the formation of individual programs for learning, the personal learning environment, the methodical support, the businesses. The authors demonstrate the possibility for the formation of individual practice programs using an agent of the methodical support.Application of the approaches and technologies which were considered in the article will allow to solve problems of the formation of individual practice programs. The use of such applications will extend the possibilities of intelligent tutoring systems of the University departments.
This in-situ, descriptive case study examined the potential of implementing computer mathematics games as an anchor for tutoring of mathematics. Data were collected from middle school students at a rural pueblo school and an urban Hispanic-serving school, through in-field observation, content analysis of game-based tutoring-learning interactions,…
Gehret, Austin U.; Elliot, Lisa B.; MacDonald, Jonathan H. C.
An exploratory case study approach was used to describe remote tutoring in biochemistry and general chemistry with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Data collected for analysis were based on the observations of the participant tutor. The research questions guiding this study included (1) How is active learning accomplished in…
The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…
Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to
Full Text Available This paper considers professional development in a context that is familiar and problematic to teaching teams in tertiary education everywhere, that of delivering online programmes with an ever-decreasing complement of staff. The Teaching Qualification Further Education (TQFE teaching team at University of Dundee confronted the reality of reduced staff numbers by centralising tutoring and support for programme participants. The new system involves standardising tutoring as far as possible through generic email, blog and microblog accounts, all badged “TQFE-Tutor” and staffed on a roster basis. Once the new “rules of engagement” via TQFE-Tutor were in place, it became clear that in addition to benefits in terms of student support, there were other unintended positive consequences: opportunities for informal professional development for staff and the promotion of effective team working. The experience of collective tutoring has facilitated collaboration on a range of innovations within online learning. This paper describes the evolution of the TQFE-Tutor innovation and reports upon a small scale study which was carried out to gather the views of the tutor team working with TQFE-Tutor. The authors conclude that the centralisation of communication and tutoring on the TQFE programme has been highly beneficial in terms of professional development for the team.
"An Architecture for Plug-in Tutor Agents" (Ritter and Koedinger 1996) proposed a software architecture designed around the idea that tutors could be built as plug-ins for existing software applications. Looking back on the paper now, we can see that certain assumptions about the future of software architecture did not come to be, making…
Nelson-Royes, Andrea M.
In this article the author suggests that tutoring has helped students to become more organized, self-assured, and proficient at identifying relationships between ideas. Successful tutoring requires: (1) at least one attentive adult who has the time to speak with students about academic matters, personal problems, and the importance of performing…
Rudland, Joy R; Rennie, Sarah C
Peer tutoring is a well-researched and established method of learning defined as 'a medical student facilitating the learning of another medical student'. While it has been adopted in many medical schools, other schools may be reluctant to embrace this approach. The attitude of the teaching staff, responsible for organizing and or teaching students in an undergraduate medical course to formal peer teaching will affect how it is introduced and operationalized. This study elicits faculty opinions on how best to introduce peer tutoring for medical students. Structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. The interviews were with medically qualified staff responsible for organizing or teaching undergraduate medical students at a New Zealand medical school. Six questions were posed regarding perceived advantages and disadvantages of peer tutoring and how the school and staff could support a peer-tutoring scheme if one was introduced. Staff generally supported the peer tutoring concept, offering a safe environment for learning with its teachers being so close in career stage to the learners. They also say disadvantages when the student-teachers imparted wrong information and when schools used peer tutoring to justify a reduction in teaching staff. Subjects felt that faculty would be more accepting of peer tutoring if efforts were made to build staff 'buy in' and empowerment, train peer tutors and introduce a solid evaluation process. Staff of our school expressed some concerns about peer tutoring that are not supported in the literature, signaling a need for better communication about the benefits and disadvantages of peer tutoring.
Michael, Joel; Rovick, Allen; Glass, Michael; Zhou, Yujian; Evens, Martha
CIRCSIM-Tutor is a computer tutor designed to carry out a natural language dialogue with a medical student. Its domain is the baroreceptor reflex, the part of the cardiovascular system that is responsible for maintaining a constant blood pressure. CIRCSIM-Tutor's interaction with students is modeled after the tutoring behavior of two experienced…
Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt
The authors investigated whether some advantages of tutoring over other instructional methods are due to microadaptation, or, tutors basing their actions on assessments of tutees they develop during tutoring. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment, independent variables were shared experience (tutors either worked with the same or a different…
Grünke, Matthias; Leidig, Tatjana
This single-case study tested a peer tutoring model using a visualizing strategy (story mapping) to teach struggling students better text comprehension. Three teams each consisting of a tutor and a tutee attending a fourth-grade general education classroom participated in the experiment. A short series of observations was carried out before and…
Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter
This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor-tutee pairs of fourth year secondary school students were created
Hsiao, Ya Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor--tutee pairs of fourth-year secondary school students were created and assigned to one of the two treatments.…
Kalisz, Eugenia; Florea, Adina Magda
Emotions have been shown to have an important impact on several human processes such as decision-making, planning, cognition, and learning. In an e-learning system, an artificial tutor capable of effectively understanding and anticipating the student emotions during learning will have a significantly enhanced role. The paper presents a model of an artificial tutor endowed with synthesized emotions according to the BDE model, previously developed by the authors. It also analyzes possible student reactions while interacting with the learning material and the way the artificial tutor could anticipate and should respond to these reactions, with adequate actions.
Heni, Martin; Lammerding-Köppel, Maria; Celebi, Nora; Shiozawa, Thomas; Riessen, Reimer; Nikendei, Christoph; Weyrich, Peter
Peer-assisted learning is widely used in medical education. However, little is known about an appropriate didactic preparation for peer tutors. We herein describe the development of a focused didactic training for skills lab tutors in Internal Medicine and report on a retrospective survey about the student tutors' acceptance and the perceived transferability of attended didactic training modules. The course consisted of five training modules: 1. 'How to present and explain effectively': the student tutors had to give a short presentation with subsequent video analysis and feedback in order to learn methods of effective presentation. 2. 'How to explain precisely': Precise explanation techniques were trained by exercises of exact description of geometric figures and group feedback. 3. 'How to explain on impulse': Spontaneous teaching presentations were simulated and feedback was given. 4. 'Peyton's 4 Step Approach': Peyton's Method for explanation of practical skills was introduced and trained by the participants. 5. 'How to deal with critical incidents': Possibilities to deal with critical teaching situations were worked out in group sessions. Twenty-three student tutors participated in the retrospective survey by filling out an electronic questionnaire, after at least 6 months of teaching experience. The exercise 'How to present and explain effectively' received the student tutors' highest rating for their improvement of didactic qualification and was seen to be most easily transferable into the skills lab environment. This module was rated as the most effective module by nearly half of the participants. It was followed by 'Peyton's 4 Step Approach' , though it was also seen to be the most delicate method in regard to its transfer into the skills lab owing to time concerns. However, it was considered to be highly effective. The other modules received lesser votes by the tutors as the most helpful exercise in improving their didactic qualification for skills lab
Santee, Jennifer; Garavalia, Linda
Peer tutoring programs may be one method of maintaining quality of pharmacy education in the face of growing student enrollment and a small faculty body. A critical review of the literature was performed to ascertain whether peer tutoring programs improve or maintain the academic performance of health care professional students. Various electronic databases and abstracts from past American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's annual meetings were searched to identify pertinent research. Only those articles with quantitative data, an experimental design, and comparative statistical analysis were included for review. Most studies found that peer tutoring had a positive impact on academic performance. These results may not be readily generalizable as there were numerous methodological flaws and limited descriptions of the programs and participants. Studies with better designs and more detail are needed to answer definitively whether peer tutoring is of benefit. Details of what resources were required should be included in the study to allow the reader to determine the feasibility of the intervention.
During the 2003 NEEC course, the coordinator conducted research into tutor support as part of the requirements of the University of South Africa for the ... opportunity for participants' ongoing professional development was accommodated.
Ezquerra Lezcano, Matilde; Tamayo Ojeda, Carmen; Calvet Junoy, Silvia; Avellana Revuelta, Esteve; Vila-Coll, María Antonia; Morera Jordán, Concepción
To describe the experience of using self-audit (SA) as a means of accrediting family and community medicine tutors, to analyse the knowledge that the tutors have on this self-assessment methodology, and to record their opinions on this method. Retrospective descriptive study and analysis of an opinion questionnaire. Family and community medicine teaching units (TU) in Catalonia. Tutors from family and community medicine TU in Catalonia (July 2001-July 2008). Training of the tutors in SA methodology, creation of a reference group and a correction cycle. Correction by peers of the SAs performed by the tutors according to previously determined criteria and subsequent issue of a report-feedback. Self-administered questionnaire by a group of TU tutors. A total of 673 SA were performed. The most frequent topic selected was diabetes mellitus in 27.9% of cases. The overall evaluation of the SA from a methodological point of view was correct in 44.5% of cases, improvable in 45.3%, and deficient in 10.2%. A total of 300 opinion questionnaires were issued. The response rate was 151/300 (50.03%). On the question about the usefulness of the SA in professional practice, 12% considered it very useful, 56% adequate, and 32% of little use or not useful. As regards whether it was a good means for the re-accreditation or accreditation of tutors, 66% considered that it was not. A high percentage of the SAs analysed are not carried out correctly, which indicates that tutors do not know this self-assessment method very well. They consider that SAs are a useful tool for improving clinical practice, but not a good means for accreditation and re-accreditation.
This study investigates the pedagogical skills and knowledge of three tertiary-level mathematics support tutors in a large group classroom setting. This is achieved through the use of video analysis and a theoretical framework comprising Rowland's Knowledge Quartet and general pedagogical knowledge. The study reports on the findings in relation to these tutors' provision of mathematics support to first and second year undergraduate engineering students and second year undergraduate science students. It was found that tutors are lacking in various pedagogical skills which are needed for high-quality learning amongst service mathematics students (e.g. engineering/science/technology students), a demographic which have low levels of mathematics upon entering university. Tutors teach their support classes in a very fast didactic way with minimal opportunities for students to ask questions or to attempt problems. It was also found that this teaching method is even more so exaggerated in mandatory departmental mathematics tutorials that students take as part of their mathematics studies at tertiary level. The implications of the findings on mathematics tutor training at tertiary level are also discussed.
Sriprakash, Arathi; Proctor, Helen; Hu, Betty
This article explores parents' use of private tutoring services for their primary school children in Sydney, Australia's largest city. Using Bernstein's theories of invisible and visible pedagogies, we look, through the eyes of a small group of middle-class Chinese-background interviewees, at the tensions between certain pedagogic forms associated…
Abdul Jabbar BHATTI,
Full Text Available This study explores; the library needs of students and tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU, utilization level of the library facilities and resources, the problems in the use of library, and suggestions for improvement of library facilities for students and tutors. Data collected from 4080 students and 526 tutors belonging to 15 different regional offices showed that students and tutors needed library for various educational purposes, the regional libraries were not being used much, and both tutors and students were facing various problems such as unsuitable library timing, long distance between library and their residence, non availability of latest journals, non availability of required material, lack of temperature control in the library, insufficient study area, lack of latest books, and inadequate staff. For improving library facility at regional level, the students and tutors suggested to; provide more books and journals, expand library timings, arrange library facility at workshop venues, make arrangements to advertise the resources and services at the library to the students, provide computers and internet service, provide trained staff, and arrange partnership with other academic libraries.
Korner, Marianne; Hopf, Martin
International comparisons reveal that lower-secondary-level students in Austria perform below the OECD mean in science. Guided by the search for remedies and improvements in science teaching, this study investigates whether cross-age peer tutoring is an appropriate method for teaching physics. A modern and concise definition of peer tutoring is…
Nye, Benjamin D.; Morrison, Donald M.; Samei, Borhan
Archived transcripts from tens of millions of online human tutoring sessions potentially contain important knowledge about how online tutors help, or fail to help, students learn. However, without ways of automatically analyzing these large corpora, any knowledge in this data will remain buried. One way to approach this issue is to train an…
Private tutoring has become popular throughout the world. However, evidence for the effect of private tutoring on students' academic outcome is inconclusive; therefore, this paper presents an alternative framework: a nonparametric bounds method. The present examination uses, for the first time, a large representative data-set in a European setting…
Katz, Sandra; Albacete, Patricia L.
For some time, it has been clear that students who are tutored generally learn more than students who experience classroom instruction (e.g., Bloom, 1984). Much research has been devoted to identifying features of tutorial dialogue that can explain its effectiveness, so that these features can be simulated in natural-language tutoring systems. One…
Ekins, Kylie; Morphet, Julia
The Australasian Triage Scale aims to ensure that the triage category allocated, reflects the urgency with which the patient needs medical assistance. This is dependent on triage nurse accuracy in decision making. The Australasian Triage Scale also aims to facilitate triage decision consistency between individuals and organisations. Various studies have explored the accuracy and consistency of triage decisions throughout Australia, yet no studies have specifically focussed on triage decision making in rural health services. Further, no standard has been identified by which accuracy or consistency should be measured. Australian emergency departments are measured against a set of standard performance indicators, including time from triage to patient review, and patient length of stay. There are currently no performance indicators for triage consistency. An online questionnaire was developed to collect demographic data and measure triage accuracy and consistency. The questionnaire utilised previously validated triage scenarios.(1) Triage decision accuracy was measured, and consistency was compared by health site type using Fleiss' kappa. Forty-six triage nurses participated in this study. The accuracy of participants' triage decision-making decreased with each less urgent triage category. Post-graduate qualifications had no bearing on triage accuracy. There was no significant difference in the consistency of decision-making between paediatric and adult scenarios. Overall inter-rater agreement using Fleiss' kappa coefficient, was 0.4. This represents a fair-to-good level of inter-rater agreement. A standard definition of accuracy and consistency in triage nurse decision making is required. Inaccurate triage decisions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. It is recommended that emergency department performance indicator thresholds be utilised as a benchmark for national triage consistency. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Full Text Available Aim. We investigated perceptions of a new smartphone application (app as a learning resource. Methods. We developed TraumaTutor, an iPhone app consisting of 150 questions and explanatory answers on trauma management. This was used by 20 hospital staff that either had a special interest in managing trauma or who were studying for relevant exams, such as ATLS. A subsequent questionnaire assessed users’ experience of smartphone applications and their perceptions of TraumaTutor. Results. Of those surveyed, 85% had a device capable of running app software, and 94% of them had used apps for medical education. Specific to TraumaTutor, 85% agreed that it was pitched at the right level, 95% felt that the explanations improved understanding of trauma management, and 100% found the app easy to use. In fact, on open questioning, the clear user interface and the quality of the educational material were seen as the major advantages of TraumaTutor, and 85% agreed that the app would be a useful learning resource. Conclusions. Smartphone applications are considered a valuable educational adjunct and are commonly used by our target audience. TraumaTutor shows overwhelming promise as a learning supplement due to its immediacy, accessibility, and relevance to those preparing for courses and managing trauma.
E. A. Makarova
Full Text Available Introduction. The problems of stimulation cognitive activity and improvement of student learning motivation are of interest for many Russian and foreign researchers. One of the approaches to solve these problems, actively implemented in educational process abroad, is peer tutoring. Peer tutoring is a form of collaborative learning based on the models of student interactions organized in pairs or groups with shared roles «peer tutor- tutee».The aim of the study is to analyze effective models of peer tutoring used abroad, to develop alternate models and apply them while teaching reading and translation at foreign language lessons in non-linguistic university.Methodology and research methods. Peer tutoring is studied by using both qualitative and quantitative research methods such as data collection, analysis and generalizations along with the experiment and observation.Results and scientific novelty. As a result the peer tutoring models have been developed and implemented within the regular classroom settings while teaching reading and translation to students in non-linguistic university. The offered models of tutoring involve preparation realities of the Russian higher education institutions; meanwhile, there are no special centers of mentoring with separate teaching staff and psychologists in foreign universities. The advantages of peer tutoring over traditional forms of education and a group form of work when students solve a problem are designated, but their roles are not accurately distributed. The undertaken experiment lasted for two years, showed that peer tutoring advantages in foreign language training consist in the following: firstly, such way of lessons allows teachers to avoid time-losing monotonous reading and translations of texts discouraging students; secondly, exchanging opinions, students study each other and gain skills of estimation of personal and others' work; thirdly, interacting in pairs or small groups, pupils are more
This training packet, consisting of a workshop guide, two instructional guides, and assorted pamphlets and brochures, is intended for use by volunteer tutors who are themselves learning how to work with adults enrolled in an adult literacy program. The following topics are covered in the training workshop guide: the objectives and workings of…
Scholars have noted PBL is consistent with John Dewey's educational theories and with constructivist philosophies. This paper explores the similarities between the assumptions within Howard Barrows' principles for the PBL tutor's actions with Dewey's theories that address teacher behaviors and with Carl Rogers's conceptual frameworks that support…
Deketelaere, Ann; Degryse, Jan; De Munter, Agnes; De Leyn, Paul
E-tutoring by means of a digital portfolio offers personal guidance in a context in which regular face-to-face contact between supervisor and student is difficult. However, implementing e-tutoring in practice is not always straightforward. This article investigates the conditions for successful e-tutoring of electronic portfolios. A combination of three methods is used: our own experience with e-tutoring, interviews with 14 tutors using an e-portfolio and the answers on questionnaires by 107 students. We present 12 tips to increase the chances of successful e-tutoring when using electronic portfolios. E-tutoring by means of electronic portfolios can be a feasible alternative in contexts in which face-to-face tutoring is difficult.
... paper explores the kinds of development in tutors' thinking and action that are possible when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice. Keywords: academic development, academic literacies, cumulative learning, higher education, peer tutoring, writing centres.
This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....
The present review examined the effectiveness of three peer tutoring programs: cross-age peer tutoring, Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), and Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), for elementary students in the academic areas of math and reading. The research reviewed indicates students who participated in cross-age peer tutoring and CWPT had improved test scores on basic math facts as well as increased math scores on standardized assessments. Students also showed improvement in reading flu...
Consistent workforce management cuts the cost incurred for network maintenance, fault clearance, and other utility services; Konsequentes Einsatzmanagement senkt die Kosten im Servicebereich. Mehr Leistungen fuer weniger Geld
Zimmermann, M. [Deneg GmbH, Garbsen (Germany); Hillmann, G. [Tema Technologie Marketing AG, Berlin (Germany)
The electric utilities and grid operators have to cope with a wide range of difficult, new challenges since the onset of electricity market liberalisation in 1998. The sometimes contradictory requirements of the customers or the legal regime can be managed only by a consistent optimization of procedures and operational processes in the service environment, as for example workforce management, order processing and execution. Workforce management is the particularly efficient approach at the organizational and service leve, which is demonstrated in the article. (orig./CB) [German] Alle Netzbetreiber sehen sich als Folge der Liberalisierung des Strommarktes seit 1998 erhoehten Anforderungen ausgesetzt. Diese sich teilweise widersprechenden Anforderungen sind aber nur durch eine Optimierung der Ablaeufe im Servicebereich bei Einsatzplanung, Auftragserfassung und -abwicklung zu bewaeltigen. Workforce Management ist das geeignete Hilfsmittel, um organisatorisch und technisch die Folgen der erforderlichen Einsparungen abzufangen und trotzdem die Qualitaet der Versorgung aufrecht zu erhalten, auch mit weniger Mitarbeitern. (orig./CB)
Traditional classroom teaching is the standard of education. However, there may be some students who feel uncomfortable approaching their teachers and may feel more at ease if they ask for assistance from their peers. There are two types of student-to-student tutoring methods that are supplements to classroom learning: peer tutoring between same-age students and cross-age tutoring between different-age children. Cross-age tutoring programs in which the tutor is 2-3 years older than the tutee have been reported to be more effective than those between same-age students in promoting student responsibility, empowerment and academic performance. A pilot online cross-age tutoring program was launched in September 2014 at Crescent School. A new website was designed, created and implemented with the permission and regular monitoring of the Student Services faculty for the online program - Crescent School Virtual Learning (vLearning). The program was well received and will undergo evaluation in the future.
In Sweden, tutoring in the mother tongue is a special support measure primarily intended for newly arrived students to facilitate their transition into the Swedish school system. Tutoring is premised on the collaboration between the class teacher, responsible for subject-related expertise, and the tutor, who contributes with knowledge of the…
Vick, Nicholas; Robles-Piña, Rebecca A.; Martirosyan, Nara M.; Kite, Valerie
Tutoring is an important form of academic support for developmental education students. A comparison study was conducted to investigate the benefits of tutoring on the final grades for developmental English students who participated in tutoring versus those students who did not. The final grades for three consecutive semesters were analyzed to…
Jun, Seung Won; Ramirez, Gloria; Cumming, Alister
What does research reveal about tutoring adolescents in literacy? We conducted a meta-analysis, identifying 152 published studies, of which 12 met rigorous inclusion criteria. We analyzed the 12 studies for the effects of tutoring according to the type, focus, and amount of tutoring; the number, age, and language background of students; and the…
The tutor's role in these involves different aspects of teaching and learning. In this article I explore the value of tutoring as a means of supporting the holistic curriculum development process. I reflect on the reason for introducing a system of tutoring for students in curriculum studies and the results of its implementation on ...
Examines a writing conference between a tutor and a student, both feminists. Discusses the conflicts expressed by the tutor and the student as they attempt to espouse feminist values within a patriarchal system. Concludes that feminism (and good tutoring) will have a chance only if students have options and the power to choose. (RS)
Kim, Jin Koo; Koh, Sung Nam [Joong Ang Inspection Co.,Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Yun Ju; Kim, Min Koo [Dept. of Computer Engineering, Aju University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing.
Kim, Jin Koo; Koh, Sung Nam; Shim, Yun Ju; Kim, Min Koo
This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing.
MacGillivray, Laurie; Goode, Gretchen S.
Researchers of after-school tutoring primarily focus on educational outcomes with little attention to the social dynamics of such programs. In our qualitative case study, we examined the nature of interactions among tutors in a tutoring program at a homeless shelter for families. Employing Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and…
Kassab, Salah Eldin; Hassan, Nahla; El-Araby, Shimaa; Salem, Abdel Halim; Alrebish, Saleh Ali; Al-Amro, Ahmed S.; Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Hamdy, Hossam
Purpose: There are no published instruments, which measure tutor motivation for conducting small group tutorials in problem-based learning programs. Therefore, we aimed to develop a motivation for tutoring questionnaire in problem-based learning (MTQ-PBL) and evaluate its construct validity. Methods: The questionnaire included 28 items representing four constructs: tutoring self-efficacy (15 items), tutoring interest (6 items), tutoring value (4 items), and tutoring effort (3 items). Tutor...
Multi-Agent Architecture." Advances in Artificial Intelligence : Proceedings of the 12 th Brazilian Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence , edited by...STUDENT MODELING IN AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM THESIS Jeremy E. Thompson Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/96D-27 DIMTVMON* fCKAJWINT A Appr"v*d t=i...Air Force Base, Ohio AFIT/GCS/ENG/96D-27 STUDENT MODELING IN AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM THESIS Jeremy E. Thompson Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/96D
Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith
We examined the effects of a tutoring package (verbal modeling, prompts, and contingent praise/ Chinese conversations with the tutor) on the performance of a college student's Mandarin Chinese pronunciation. The effects of the tutoring package were analyzed using a multiple baseline design across two sets of 50 Chinese characters. The tutoring package produced improvement in the student's correct pronunciation of Chinese characters from 48% (pretutoring) to 90% (posttutoring). Results suggested that the tutoring package produced mastery pronunciation of targeted Mandarin Chinese vocalizations by a nonnative speaker.
Myneni, Lakshman Sundeep
Students in middle school science classes have difficulty mastering physics concepts such as energy and work, taught in the context of simple machines. Moreover, students' naive conceptions of physics often remain unchanged after completing a science class. To address this problem, I developed an intelligent tutoring system, called the Virtual Physics System (ViPS), which coaches students through problem solving with one class of simple machines, pulley systems. The tutor uses a unique cognitive based approach to teaching simple machines, and includes innovations in three areas. (1) It employs a teaching strategy that focuses on highlighting links among concepts of the domain that are essential for conceptual understanding yet are seldom learned by students. (2) Concepts are taught through a combination of effective human tutoring techniques (e.g., hinting) and simulations. (3) For each student, the system identifies which misconceptions he or she has, from a common set of student misconceptions gathered from domain experts, and tailors tutoring to match the correct line of scientific reasoning regarding the misconceptions. ViPS was implemented as a platform on which students can design and simulate pulley system experiments, integrated with a constraint-based tutor that intervenes when students make errors during problem solving to teach them and to help them. ViPS has a web-based client-server architecture, and has been implemented using Java technologies. ViPS is different from existing physics simulations and tutoring systems due to several original features. (1). It is the first system to integrate a simulation based virtual experimentation platform with an intelligent tutoring component. (2) It uses a novel approach, based on Bayesian networks, to help students construct correct pulley systems for experimental simulation. (3) It identifies student misconceptions based on a novel decision tree applied to student pretest scores, and tailors tutoring to
Arnott, Elizabeth; Hastings, Peter; Allbritton, David
Research Methods Tutor (RMT) is a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system for use in conjunction with undergraduate psychology research methods courses. RMT includes five topics that correspond to the curriculum of introductory research methods courses: ethics, variables, reliability, validity, and experimental design. We evaluated the effectiveness of the RMT system in the classroom using a nonequivalent control group design. Students in three classes (n = 83) used RMT, and students in two classes (n = 53) did not use RMT. Results indicated that the use of RMT yieldedstrong learning gains of 0.75 standard deviations above classroom instruction alone. Further, the dialogue-based tutoring condition of the system resulted in higher gains than did the textbook-style condition (CAI version) of the system. Future directions for RMT include the addition of new topics and tutoring elements.
Full Text Available With our busy schedules today and the rising cost of education there is a need to find a convenient and cost effective means of maximizing our educational/training experiences. New trends in the delivery/access of information are becoming more technology based in all areas of society with education being no exception. The ubiquitous use of mobile devices has led to a boom in m-commerce. Mobile devices provide many services in commercial environments such as mobile banking, mobile purchasing, mobile learning, etc. It is therefore fitting that we seek to use mobile devices as a platform in delivering our convenient and cost effective solution. The proposed agent based Mobile tutoring system seeks to provide a student with a rich learning experience that will provide them with the relevant reading material based on their stage of development which allows them to move at their own pace. The system will allow the user to be able to ask certain questions and get explanations as if they were interacting with a human tutor but with the added benefit of being able to do this anytime in any location via their mobile phone.
impact learning with effect sizes equivalent to raising average (“C”) students to experts (“A” students) through tailored instruction and...classification using physiological sensors (Brawner and Goldberg, 2012; Goldberg & Brawner, 2012; Kokini, et al, 2012) • EEGs – Advanced Brain ... IQ , EQ, adaptability…) Merrill, D. , Reiser, B, Ranney, M., and Trafton, J. (1992). Effective Tutoring Techniques: A Comparison of Human Tutors and
Heni, Martin; Lammerding-Köppel, Maria; Celebi, Nora; Shiozawa, Thomas; Riessen, Reimer; Nikendei, Christoph; Weyrich, Peter
Objective: Peer-assisted learning is widely used in medical education. However, little is known about an appropriate didactic preparation for peer tutors. We herein describe the development of a focused didactic training for skills lab tutors in Internal Medicine and report on a retrospective survey about the student tutors’ acceptance and the perceived transferability of attended didactic training modules. Methods: The course consisted of five training modules: ‘How to present and explain effectively’: the student tutors had to give a short presentation with subsequent video analysis and feedback in order to learn methods of effective presentation. ‘How to explain precisely’: Precise explanation techniques were trained by exercises of exact description of geometric figures and group feedback. ‘How to explain on impulse’: Spontaneous teaching presentations were simulated and feedback was given. ‘Peyton’s 4 Step Approach’: Peyton‘s Method for explanation of practical skills was introduced and trained by the participants. ‘How to deal with critical incidents’: Possibilities to deal with critical teaching situations were worked out in group sessions. Twenty-three student tutors participated in the retrospective survey by filling out an electronic questionnaire, after at least 6 months of teaching experience. Results: The exercise ‘How to present and explain effectively’ received the student tutors’ highest rating for their improvement of didactic qualification and was seen to be most easily transferable into the skills lab environment. This module was rated as the most effective module by nearly half of the participants. It was followed by ‘Peyton’s 4 Step Approach’ , though it was also seen to be the most delicate method in regard to its transfer into the skills lab owing to time concerns. However, it was considered to be highly effective. The other modules received lesser votes by the tutors as the most helpful exercise in
Doherty, Catherine; Dooley, Karen
This article considers moral agendas projected onto parents that mobilise them to supplement school literacy education with private tutoring. The theoretical frame draws on the concepts of responsibilisation as emerging market-embedded morality, 'nudge' social policies, edu-business and hidden privatisation in education. This framing is applied to…
Ghijsen, M.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.
An emotionally intelligent tutoring system should be able to provide feedback to students, taking into account relevant aspects of the mental state of the student. Facial expressions, put in context, might provide some cues with respect to this state. We discuss the analysis of the facial expression
Tutor problems having sub-directory of EGS4 code for electron transfer through medium like metal plate of tantalum, sodium iodides radiation detectors are discussed. Semi infinite slab of material is placed in a vacuum and a pencil beam of electrons or photons is incident at the origin travelling along the Z-axis is described
Geuze, Jeroen; van den Broek, Egon; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel
An Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) for the board game Settlers of Catan (SoC) is introduced. It uses CLIPS knowledge bases, connected by JCLIPS to a JAVA implementation of SoC. It is founded on a new theoretical framework that describes the development of negotiation skills in children. Using this
This document is a copy of a talk regularly given to new volunteers of English in Action, a community-based organization that provides conversation practice to non-native English speakers. The volunteer tutors typically have no formal English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) training. This packet is designed to help these volunteers be effective ESL…
Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey
Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the necessity of professionalizing training of university teachers performing tutorial activities in higher education as a response to the demands of pupils following a part-time model. Permanent training of tutor is emphasized as a way to enhance professional and personal accomplishments. This training gives priority to educative orientation and interventional actions.
Tchogovadze, Gotcha G.
Describes one way of structuring an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) in light of developments in artificial intelligence. A specialized intelligent operating system (SIOS) is proposed for software for a network of microcomputers, and it is postulated that a general learning system must be used as a basic framework for the SIOS. (Author/LRW)
Luescher Thierry M.; Schreiber Birgit; Moja Teboho
This guest-edited issue of JSAA focuses on tutoring and mentoring and draws in parts on papers that were presented at the 2016 joint conference of the International Consortium for Educational Development (ICED) and the Higher Education Learning and Teaching Association of Southern Africa (HELTASA).
Baudendistel, Stephen; Hua, Grace
The interface between an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) and the person being tutored is critical to the success of the learning process. If the interface to the ITS is confusing or non-supportive of the tutored domain, the effectiveness of the instruction will be diminished or lost entirely. Consequently, the interface to an ITS should be highly integrated with the domain to provide a robust and semantically rich learning environment. In building an ITS for ZetaLISP on a LISP Machine, a Desktop Interface was designed to support a programming learning environment. Using the bitmapped display, windows, and mouse, three desktops were designed to support self-study and tutoring of ZetaLISP. Through organization, well-defined boundaries, and domain support facilities, the desktops provide substantial flexibility and power for the student and facilitate learning ZetaLISP programming while screening the student from the complex LISP Machine environment. The student can concentrate on learning ZetaLISP programming and not on how to operate the interface or a LISP Machine.
Analia Maria de Fátima Costa
Full Text Available This article is part of a research developed in the master's PPGECT UTFPR - Campus Ponta Grossa. This cut includes the themes: inclusion; teaching natural sciences and the role of the teacher; students with intellectual disabilities and the mentoring process in mainstream education. For realization of this research, references from different authors on these issues were analyzed. The application and data collection were developed in a class of 5th grade of elementary school to a private school teaching Ponta Grossa / PR, there is among the students, one with intellectual disabilities. Also participating in the study students of the Teacher Training Course (CFD of the school, the researcher teacher and four teachers. The pedagogical action developed with the gang was systematized in a notebook of educational activities with a focused instructional sequence for teaching Natural Sciences, organized in an interdisciplinary manner, with an emphasis on mediation of the tutor as an adjunct in the child's teaching and learning process disability, since the tutelage of relationship is seen as beneficial for both the one who helps, the tutor, the one who is helped, the tutored. Through the mentoring process can adjust the educational response to the particular needs of students, before curriculum and methodological adaptations. The survey results confirmed the need for the presence of a tutor for specialized educational services, mediating the process of teaching and student learning with special educational needs so that the inclusion really becomes effective.
Burgess, Annette; Dornan, Tim; Clarke, Antonia J; Menezes, Audrey; Mellis, Craig
Peer tutoring has been described as "people from similar social groupings who are not professional teachers helping each other to learn and learning themselves by teaching". Peer tutoring is well accepted as a source of support in many medical curricula, where participation and learning involve a process of socialisation. Peer tutoring can ease the transition of the junior students from the university class environment to the hospital workplace. In this paper, we apply the Experienced Based Learning (ExBL) model to explore medical students' perceptions of their experience of taking part in a newly established peer tutoring program at a hospital based clinical school. In 2014, all students at Sydney Medical School - Central, located at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital were invited to voluntarily participate in the peer tutoring program. Year 3 students (n = 46) were invited to act as tutors for Year 1 students (n = 50), and Year 4 students (n = 60) were invited to act as tutors for Year 2 students (n = 51). Similarly, the 'tutees' were invited to take part on a voluntary basis. Students were invited to attend focus groups, which were held at the end of the program. Framework analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. In total, 108/207 (52 %) students participated in the program. A total of 42/106 (40 %) of Year 3 and 4 students took part as tutors; and of 66/101 (65 %) of Year 1 and 2 students took part as tutees. Five focus groups were held, with 50/108 (46 %) of students voluntarily participating. Senior students (tutors) valued the opportunity to practice and improve their medical knowledge and teaching skills. Junior students (tutees) valued the opportunity for additional practice and patient interaction, within a relaxed, small group learning environment. Students perceived the peer tutoring program as affording opportunities not otherwise available within the curriculum. The peer teaching program provided a framework within the
Full Text Available In this presentation the author explains how the Dr Math service works; how tutors are recruited to act as Dr Math; and how school pupils can reach Dr Math for help with their mathematics homework....
Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Beyere, Christopher B; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Mwini-Nyaledzigbor, Prudence P
The population of Ghana is increasingly becoming urbanized with about 70% of the estimated 27 million people living in urban and peri-urban areas. Nonetheless, eight out of the ten regions in Ghana remain predominantly rural where only 32% of the national health sector workforce works. Moreover, the rural-urban disparities in the density of health tutors (staff responsible for pre-service training of health professionals) are enormous. This paper explores perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana. This is a descriptive qualitative study conducted in the Greater Accra and Northern regions of Ghana. The Study used the deductive thematic and sub-thematic analysis approaches. Five health training institutions were randomly sampled, and 72 tutors engaged in separate focus group discussions with an average size of 14 participants per group in each training institution. Perceived rural-urban disparities among health tutors were found in the payment of extra duty allowances; school infrastructure including libraries and internet connectivity; staff accommodation; and opportunities for scholarships and higher education. Health tutors in rural areas generally expressed more frustration with these work conditions than those in urban areas. There is the need to initiate and sustain work incentives that promote motivation of rural health tutors to control ongoing rural-urban migration of qualified staff. It is recommended the following incentives be prioritized to promote retention of qualified health tutors in rural health training schools: payment of research, book and rural allowances; early promotion of rural staff; prioritizing rural tutors for scholarships, and introduction of national best health tutor awards.
Lo Biondo, Paolo; Avino, Nicola; Podavini, Enrica; Prandelli, Matteo
Among the various methods of learning and experience in the literature, the methodology of Peer Tutoring is particularly important for the formation of the student nurses. The Peer Tutoring identifies a model of cooperative learning, aiming to activate a spontaneous process to transfer knowledge, emotions and experiences from some members of a group to other members of equal status but with a difference in the knowledge and cognitive skills or relational. The First level degree course in Nursing, section of Desenzano del Garda (Brescia, Italy) has been applying a methodology that can be defined as Peer Tutoring for the last four years. The applicability of the method is based on the coupling of an expert student of the 3rd year of the course to a group of students from the 1st or 2nd year. The study has the main objective to analyze the experience in the branch of Desenzano del Garda and see if the learning method of the Peer Tutoring is valid within the context of clinical internship. The study, of descriptive-observational type, was conducted in the academic year 2013-2014. The samples in the research are two: the first sample consisted of 53 students in their first year of studies, 46 students of the 2nd year of the course and 30 students of the 3rd year of the course who attended the experience as tutoring students (students tutors), for a total of 129 students; the second sample consisted of 15 students of the 3rd year of the course who attended the experience of the Peer Tutoring applied to the Stage clinical students as tutors (students Tutor). The research allowed important information to be gathered regarding the utility and interventions to improve the quality of the project of Peer tutoring. Peer Tutoring is a learning methodology that works and that can be applied in learning pathways for nursing students. The training of students Tutor is a matter of considerable importance: in fact the students ask to be trained to respect the structure and functions
Kateryna P. Osadcha
Full Text Available The paper describes the tutor activity in the process of mathematics teaching support on the basis of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT. The author has analysed the available Internet resources and mobile applications in mathematics, which are classified according to their functional purposes into groups: systems of mass open courses, platforms for adaptive learning, video channels, mathematical online simulators, online tasks, mathematical games, mathematical portals, online platforms, mathematical sites, mathematical online platforms, mathematical services, mobile applications in mathematics (simulators, games, generators of example, assistant programs, training complexes, calculators. In accordance with the student age categories mathematical information and communication technologies are divided into three groups: for elementary school students, secondary school students and high school students. The basic ICT tools for teaching mathematics are outlined. The algorithm for constructing tutorial classes with their application is presented.
The North Carolina A&T State University algebra tutoring dialogue project collects and analyzes algebra tutoring dialogues with the aim of describing tutoring strategies and language with enough rigor that they may...
A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…
Flores, Maria Assunção; Simão, Ana Margarida Veiga; Carrasco, Vicente
Tutoring has been one of the issues which have received growing interest within the context of restructuring process in higher education under the so-called Bologna process in Europe. In this paper six tutoring initiatives currently being implemented in Portuguese and Spanish universities are examined in the light of the framework within which tutoring operates in higher education contexts. The various kinds of tutoring — mentoring, curricular tutoring, academic tutoring and training-related ...
Full Text Available Computer-supported learning is an increasingly important form of study since it allows for independent learning and individualized instruction. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach to developing an intelligent tutoring system for teaching textbook-style mathematical proofs. We characterize the particularities of the domain and discuss common ITS design models. Our approach is motivated by phenomena found in a corpus of tutorial dialogs that were collected in a Wizard-of-Oz experiment. We show how an intelligent tutor for textbook-style mathematical proofs can be built on top of an adapted assertion-level proof assistant by reusing representations and proof search strategies originally developed for automated and interactive theorem proving. The resulting prototype was successfully evaluated on a corpus of tutorial dialogs and yields good results.
LUIS BERNARDO PEÑA-BORRERO
Full Text Available This article presents partial results of a qualitative research on the Project of Inquiry (PRIN that takes place in the Psychology Degree Program at Javeriana University. This project is a formative experience focused on the importance of learning investigative abilities, through academic writing. The research was based on peer-tutoring interactions with 85 ethnographic records, which were subjected to an open and axial codification, in accordance to guidelines developed by Strauss and Corbin. The recordswere organized in emerging categories for their interpretation, in order to establish the potential significance of the pedagogic interaction. The results established the advantages of peer-tutoring in the integral progress of students and specifically the promotion of reading and writing abilities at a College level.
Luckhardt-Redfield, Carol A.
Artificial Intelligence has been used in many space applications. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have only recently been developed for assisting training of space operations and skills. An ITS at Southwest Research Institute is described as an example of an ITS application for space operations, specifically, training console operations at mission control. A distinction is made between critical skills and knowledge versus routine skills. Other ITSs for space are also discussed and future training requirements and potential ITS solutions are described.
Langdon, Lance-David Bennett
Feeling Engaged: College Writers as Literacy Tutors brings together scholarship in the rhetoric of emotion and in civic writing to show how emotions - confidence, anger, embarrassment, pride, hope, fear, gratitude, guilt, shame, compassion, enthusiasm, and ennui - shape the roles we take on in K-16 literacy networks. This dissertation takes as a case study the community-engaged composition courses, poetry workshops, and literature classes I coordinated in 2011-2013. The undergraduates I led i...
Bell, A. M.; Parton, K.; Smith, E.
Earth science classes in colleges and high schools use a variety of satellite image processing software to teach earth science and remote sensing principles. However, current tutorials for image processing software are often paper-based or lecture-based and do not take advantage of the full potential of the computer context to teach, immerse, and stimulate students. We present EarthTutor, an adaptive, interactive Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) being built for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) that is integrated directly with an image processing application. The system aims to foster the use of satellite imagery in classrooms and encourage inquiry-based, hands-on earth science scientific study by providing students with an engaging imagery analysis learning environment. EarthTutor's software is available as a plug-in to ImageJ, a free image processing system developed by the NIH (National Institute of Health). Since it is written in Java, it can be run on almost any platform and also as an applet from the Web. Labs developed for EarthTutor combine lesson content (such as HTML web pages) with interactive activities and questions. In each lab the student learns to measure, calibrate, color, slice, plot and otherwise process and analyze earth science imagery. During the activities, EarthTutor monitors students closely as they work, which allows it to provide immediate feedback that is customized to a particular student's needs. As the student moves through the labs, EarthTutor assesses the student, and tailors the presentation of the content to a student's demonstrated skill level. EarthTutor's adaptive approach is based on emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Bayesian networks are employed to model a student's proficiency with different earth science and image processing concepts. Agent behaviors are used to track the student's progress through activities and provide guidance when a student encounters difficulty. Through individual
Als eine der erfolgreichsten und empirisch gut erforschten Methoden ist das Peer-Tutoring in den pädagogischen Kreisen äußerst beliebt. Neue organisatorische Anforderungen an Schule, wie die Einführung von G8 und die steigende Erwerbstätigkeit beider Elternteile, sowie neue didaktische Anforderungen, wie etwa Inklusion, eröffnen neue Möglichkeiten und Potentiale für den Einsatz des Peer-Tutoring. Die vorliegende Arbeit hat die Bearbeitung zweier Schwerpunkte zum Ziel. Zunächst wird das kla...
that of learning and teaching partners to both lecturers and students. ... learning and growth using a balanced approach, which included scholarly research and .... peer tutors to be the kind of academic advisors to students that universities ... In terms of advantages, student peer tutors are closer in experience to the students.
This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…
Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Sabol, Mark A.; Wisher, Robert A.; Seidel, Robert J.
Discusses the Military Language Tutor (MILT), a language-tutor authoring system, examining the development of a proof of principal version of MILT's two-dimensional Arabic microworld, which uses speech input to control an animated agent in solving an authored problem and describing an evaluation of the speech-driven microworld at Fort Campbell,…
Whetstone, Patti; Clark, Amy; Flake, Mari Wheeler
This study explores elementary teacher perceptions related to the implementation of an online tutoring program. Teachers were surveyed regarding factors that affected use of the online tutoring program as a supplement to mathematics instruction. Results indicated that teachers overwhelmingly reported positive views of the training and support…
Kulik, James A.; Fletcher, J. D.
This review describes a meta-analysis of findings from 50 controlled evaluations of intelligent computer tutoring systems. The median effect of intelligent tutoring in the 50 evaluations was to raise test scores 0.66 standard deviations over conventional levels, or from the 50th to the 75th percentile. However, the amount of improvement found in…
Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu
Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…
As more primary and secondary students worldwide seek after-school tutoring in academic subjects, concerns are being raised about whether after-school tutoring can raise average test scores without widening the variability in student performance, and whether students of certain ability levels may benefit more than others from after-school…
Heylen, Dirk K.J.; André, E.; Vissers, M.; Dybkjaer, L.; Minker, W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heisterkamp, P.; Nijholt, Antinus
We discuss the affective aspects of tutoring dialogues in an ITS -called INES- that helps students to practice nursing tasks using a haptic device and a virtual environment. Special attention is paid to affective control in the tutoring process by means of selecting the appropriate feedback, taking
While the delivery and reception of advice is a practice integral to a wide range of settings, little attention has been given to the detailed practices of advice resistance and how it leads to advice negotiation. Based on 7 hours of videotaped tutoring interactions among 6 tutors and 11 tutees, this conversation analytic study examines the…
Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan
SQL-Tutor is the first constraint-based tutor. The initial conference papers about the system were published in 1998 (Mitrovic 1998a, 1998b, 1998c), with an "IJAIED" paper published in 1999 (Mitrovic and Ohlsson, "International Journal Artificial Intelligence in Education," 10(3-4), 238-256, 1999). We published another…
Gunel, Korhan; Asliyan, Rifat
The object of this study is to model the level of a question difficulty by a differential equation at a pre-specified domain knowledge, to be used in an educational support system. For this purpose, we have developed an intelligent tutoring system for mathematics education. Intelligent Tutoring Systems are computer systems designed for improvement…
Alrajhi, Marwa N.; Aldhafri, Said S.
Based on the social cognitive learning theory (1997), peer learning can be viewed as an effective way of enhancing learning. In this study, peer tutoring, a form of peer learning, was examined. The current study investigated the influence of a peer tutoring program implemented at Sultan Qaboos University on students' English self-concept. 125…
Bokser, Julie A.
Continues a discussion of critiquing peer tutoring groups by underscoring a typically unacknowledged component: the way in which an emphasis on "peerness" disguises the inherent aggression in tutoring relationships. Defines "peerness" as a complicated relation that involves power and aggression as well as equality. (SG)
The article explores peer tutoring in the context of outdoor learning at a primary school in Lesotho. The peer-tutoring approach was trialled to explore its effectiveness in promoting learning in large class sizes which characterise primary and secondary schools in Lesotho. An urban primary school was purposively selected ...
Vavreck, Sarah; Esposito, Judy
The focus of this paper is on responses from fifth grade peer tutors who were trained to use child-centered play therapy language during tutoring sessions with kindergarteners. The focus of this project was to identify academic and social/emotional benefits of participating in the program. Results indicated that participation in the program…
Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa
The paper focuses on teacher-supplied private tutoring in the context of post-Soviet Georgia, and elucidates the ways in which teacher-supplied private tutoring can be related to educational corruption. The paper draws on data from in-depth interviews of 18 school teachers in different parts of Georgia in 2013. The findings of the qualitative…
McKellar, Nancy A.
The relative effectiveness of tutoring for both partners was examined by comparing tutoring with other learning activities that differed either in the amount of exposure to the learning materials or the presence of a helping relationship or both. The subjects were 160 undergraduates who were evaluated on their acquisition of Esperanto. Subjects…
Buchanan, Emily; Morrison, Jo; Walker, Matthew; Aston, Helen; Cook, Rose
The Tutor Trust is a Manchester-based charity that aims to provide affordable small group and one-to-one tuition, predominantly to disadvantaged pupils in schools in challenging communities. The tutors are university students and recent graduates, enabling tuition to be provided at a competitive rate on a not-for-profit basis. This three-year…
Kupzyk, Sara S.
This dissertation examined the application of evidence-based tutoring for oral reading fluency (ORF) to a natural setting, using teachers as parent trainers. Measures used to determine the impact of parent tutoring included treatment integrity, student reading outcomes, attitudes towards involvement and reading, and social validity. Six teachers…
Research into motivation in education mainly centres on students' learning motivation. This article reports on an interview study of teacher motivation with the aim of investigating the effects of student-related factors and tutors' personal factors on the motivation of language tutors in the distance learning context. Findings from the study…
This article reports on a study of the perspectives of new tutors teaching traditional vocational trades who recently commenced teaching in the Institutes of Technologies and Polytechnics (ITPs) sector in New Zealand. The perspectives are collated from questionnaires and interviews of 13 tutors, from five ITPs, who have been teaching full-time for…
Mitrovic, Antonija; Suraweera, Pramuditha
Design tasks are difficult to teach, due to large, unstructured solution spaces, underspecified problems, non-existent problem solving algorithms and stopping criteria. In this paper, we comment on our approach to develop KERMIT, a constraint-based tutor that taught database design. In later work, we re-implemented KERMIT as EER-Tutor, and…
Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Jucks, Regina
Although tutoring is very effective, tutors often neglect certain strategies such as direct negative feedback. This might be because they want to avoid threatening their tutee's face. The concept of face derives from politeness theory and refers to the aspects of autonomy and social appreciation people claim for themselves and strive to negotiate…
It reveals the uniqueness tutor support preparation of future teachers in humanities within the magistracy, the ways and means of professional development tomorrow's specialists. Substantiates the importance and meaning of revealed teaching tutor help first-year students, which manifests itself in optimizing individual learning trajectories, leading to efficient fulfillment and positive socialization of students.
Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen; Nye, Benjamin D.; VanLehn, Kurt; Kumar, Rohit; Heffernan, Cristina; Heffernan, Neil; Woolf, Beverly; Olney, Andrew M.; Rus, Vasile; Andrasik, Frank; Pavlik, Philip; Cai, Zhiqiang; Wetzel, Jon; Morgan, Brent; Hampton, Andrew J.; Lippert, Anne M.; Wang, Lijia; Cheng, Qinyu; Vinson, Joseph E.; Kelly, Craig N.; McGlown, Cadarrius; Majmudar, Charvi A.; Morshed, Bashir; Baer, Whitney
Background: The Office of Naval Research (ONR) organized a STEM Challenge initiative to explore how intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) can be developed in a reasonable amount of time to help students learn STEM topics. This competitive initiative sponsored four teams that separately developed systems that covered topics in mathematics,…
Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language…
Skelin, Silvia; Huwendiek, Sören; Nikendei, Christoph; Dieter, Peter; Kirschfink, Michael; Bosse, Hans-Martin
Many faculties worldwide apply the method of problem-based learning (PBL) in their curricula as a form of instruction by which students in small groups develop problem-solving strategies on the basis of a specific case. This approach fosters self-responsible and context-dependent learning, which aims at providing an improved anchoring of knowledge. For this reason, the previous decades have seen a distribution of the method to medical schools across the world. The role of the tutor assumes particular importance since, in contrast to the traditional university system, he or she serves as a facilitator who fosters and structures content-related and group-dynamic learning processes. In some cases, this requires an intervention by the tutor. The major challenge is to intervene at the right time and in an appropriate manner. This paper presents examples of difficult PBL situations using short film sequences to demonstrate and comments on potential approaches of the tutor in attempting to resolve the problem. Standard problem situations within a PBL tutorial were defined and produced in a film. A collection of seven frequent critical PBL situations are presented in short film sequences. Potential instruments of intervention are demonstrated in the videos and discussed. The film sequences may be downloaded in the supplementary of the electronic version of this article (www.sciencedirect.com). Within the framework of a tutor-training programme, the problematic situations and interventions presented in this article will help to sensitise tutors to potentially critical PBL tutorial situations and aid the development of individual resolution approaches.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study to determine the learning outcome volleyball mini through peer tutoring approach for fourth grade students Sabarwangi District Subdistrict Kajen Pekalongan.Reseach using action research. The subjects used were fourth grade students of SD Negeri 23 Sabarwangi the number of students consisting of 14 boys and 9 student daughter .Tecnic with observations and data collection dokumentasi.Instrumen used in the data collection was obtained from the test results that show student performance when implementation. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that the application of mini volleyball lessons through peer tutoring approach has a positive effect, which can increase the yield student learning that can facilitate students to understand and perform the movement correctly. Suggestion of this study can be used as an alternative learning materials if there were teachers who experience the same learning problems.
Jose Dutra de Oliveira Neto
Full Text Available This study aims to develop and implement a tool called intelligent tutoring system in an online course to help a formative evaluation in order to improve student learning. According to Bloom et al. (1971,117 formative evaluation is a systematic evaluation to improve the process of teaching and learning. The intelligent tutoring system may provides a timely and high quality feedback that not only inform the correctness of the solution to the problem, but also informs the students about the accuracy of the response relative to their current knowledge about the solution. Constructive and supportive feedback should be given to the students to reveal the right and wrong answers immediately after taking the test. A feedback about the right answers is a form to reinforce positive behaviors. Identifying possible errors and relating them to the instruction material may help student to strengthen the content under consideration. The remedial suggestion should be given for each answer with detailed prescription with regards the materials and instructional procedures before taking next step. The main idea is to inform the students what he has learned and what he still has to learn. The open-source LMS called Moodle™ was extended to accomplish the formative evaluation, high-quality feedback, and communal knowledge presented here with a short online financial math course that is being offered at a large University in Brazil. The preliminary results shows that the intelligent tutoring system using high quality feedback helped the students to improve their knowledge about the solution to the problems based on the errors of their past cohorts. The results and suggestion for future work are presented and discussed.
This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008), and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the…
McCloskey, Erin; Cann, Colette N.
In this qualitative case study, we used the framework of positioning to show how college-age tutors and their middle school tutees interact in an afterschool tutoring setting with regard to ability. The authors show how educational tracking and understandings of disability permeated tutoring spaces and influence tutors' instructional decisions.…
Xu, Wei; Zhao, Ke; Li, Yatao; Yi, Zhenzhen
Determining how to provide good tutoring functions is an important research direction of intelligent tutoring systems. In this study, the authors develop an intelligent tutoring system with good tutoring functions, called "FUDAOWANG." The research domain that FUDAOWANG treats is junior middle school mathematics, which belongs to the objective…
Zhan, Shengli; Bray, Mark; Wang, Dan; Lykins, Chad; Kwo, Ora
This paper examines Hong Kong students' perceptions on the effectiveness of private supplementary tutoring relative to mainstream schooling. Drawing on survey and interview data, it shows that large proportions of secondary school students receive private tutoring. Students generally perceive private tutoring and private tutors to be more…
Worldwide private tutoring is documented extensively, but its impact is unclear. I estimate the impact of tutoring on performance to assess the degree to which tutoring is a vehicle of educational stratification in Sri Lanka. I find that on average, five months of tutoring has no impact on Year 5 students' exam scores. I produce suggestive…
Mitchell, Rebekkah J.; Morrison, Timothy G.; Feinauer, Erika; Wilcox, Brad; Black, Sharon
A quasi-experimental study examined some effects of cross-age tutoring on fourth grade tutors' and second grade tutees' ability to spell accurately and correct errors on their own rough drafts. Half of the participating tutors were trained in tutoring skills; half were not. All participants were given pre- and post-assessments. On dictated writing…
Supekar, Kaustubh; Iuculano, Teresa; Chen, Lang; Menon, Vinod
Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction that is characterized by feelings of stress and anxiety in situations involving mathematical problem solving. High math-anxious individuals tend to avoid situations involving mathematics and are less likely to pursue science, technology, engineering, and math-related careers than those with low math anxiety. Math anxiety during childhood, in particular, has adverse long-term consequences for academic and professional success. Identifying cognitive interventions and brain mechanisms by which math anxiety can be ameliorated in children is therefore critical. Here we investigate whether an intensive 8 week one-to-one cognitive tutoring program designed to improve mathematical skills reduces childhood math anxiety, and we identify the neurobiological mechanisms by which math anxiety can be reduced in affected children. Forty-six children in grade 3, a critical early-onset period for math anxiety, participated in the cognitive tutoring program. High math-anxious children showed a significant reduction in math anxiety after tutoring. Remarkably, tutoring remediated aberrant functional responses and connectivity in emotion-related circuits anchored in the basolateral amygdala. Crucially, children with greater tutoring-induced decreases in amygdala reactivity had larger reductions in math anxiety. Our study demonstrates that sustained exposure to mathematical stimuli can reduce math anxiety and highlights the key role of the amygdala in this process. Our findings are consistent with models of exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders and have the potential to inform the early treatment of a disability that, if left untreated in childhood, can lead to significant lifelong educational and socioeconomic consequences in affected individuals. Significance statement: Math anxiety during early childhood has adverse long-term consequences for academic and professional success. It is therefore important to identify ways to alleviate
Lang, Harry G; Biser, Eileen; Mousley, Keith; Orlando, Richard; Porter, Jeff
Seventy-three deaf college students completed a survey examining perceptions about tutoring outcomes and emphases, characteristics of tutors, and responsibilities associated with learning through tutoring. The comparisons revealed that while baccalaureate and sub-baccalaureate students have many similar perceptions about tutoring, there are also some striking differences. In particular, as compared to the sub-baccalaureate students, baccalaureate students have a stronger preference for focusing on course content and for working with tutors who actively involve them during the tutoring sessions. In addition, baccalaureate students prefer to decide the focus of the tutoring themselves while sub-baccalaureate students tend to leave the decision to the tutor. The results of the analyses with three scales measuring perceptions of tutoring dimensions are summarized and recommendations for the selection and preparation of tutors, as well as for future research, are provided.
Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.; Buehlman, J. D.; Middlecamp, C. H.
The Peer Mentor Tutor (PMT) program in the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Physics Department matches upper level undergraduate physics majors in small groups with students potentially at-risk for having academic trouble with their gateway introductory non-calculus physics course or for feeling isolated at the University. The program enhances students'learning and confidence by providing an emphasis on problem solving, a supportive environment for asking questions, and opportunities for acquiring missing math skills. The students assisted include, among others, returning adults, students of color,students with English as a second language, and students who have never taken physics in high school. The tutors acquire teaching and leadership experience with ongoing training throughout the year. The Physics PMT program is run in collaboration with a similar program in Chemistry. The peer model is also being applied to other science courses at the University of Wisconsin. We will describe the structure of the Physics PMT program and our current efforts to expand the program into a broader Physics Learning Center that may serve multiple purposes and courses.
Full Text Available A pharmacy degree in Finland includes a six-month obligatory internship. The internship is integrated with theoretical studies and adds up to 30 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS credits of the BSc (Pharm degree. Learning is supported by reflective assignments from the university. The preceptors have an important role in organizing the internship and tutoring students successfully in community pharmacy settings. Objective: to assess whether the preceptors of University of Helsinki’s teaching pharmacies need pedagogic support in tutoring and if so, in which core pharmaceutical tasks or tutoring skills. Methods: The survey was sent to all preceptors of University of Helsinki´s teaching pharmacies (n=326 in 2011 (response rate 58%, n=190. The data was analyzed statistically using Excel (version 12.3.6. The open-ended questions were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: The majority of preceptors found their skills in tutoring the students mainly good. However, assessment of learning (27% of the respondents, giving feedback (23% and organizing the learning situations supportive for learning (23% were the areas in which the preceptors mostly indicated a need for support. Teaching current care guidelines and pharmaceutical care (36% and multi-professional collaboration (28% were the areas in which the preceptors expressed that they needed to update their skills. Conclusions: The faculty should focus the support on the pedagogic skills of preceptors, particularly in improving their skills in assessment of learning and in reflective dialogue. In addition, their skills in teaching clinical and patient care aspects of pharmacy practice should be enhanced. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings
Sehrawat, Anjali; Keelan, Robert; Shimada, Kenji; Wilfong, Dona M; McCormick, James T; Rabin, Yoed
As a part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, the current study presents a proof of concept for a computerized tool for cryosurgery tutoring. The tutoring system lists geometrical constraints of cryoprobes placement, simulates cryoprobe insertion, displays a rendered shape of the prostate, enables distance measurements, simulates the corresponding thermal history, and evaluates the mismatch between the target region shape and a preselected planning isotherm. The quality of trainee planning is measured in comparison with a computer-generated planning, created for each case study by previously developed planning algorithms. The following two versions of the tutoring system have been tested in the current study: (1) an unguided version, where the trainee can practice cases in unstructured sessions and (2) an intelligent tutoring system, which forces the trainee to follow specific steps, believed by the authors to potentially shorten the learning curve. Although the tutoring level in this study aims only at geometrical constraints on cryoprobe placement and the resulting thermal histories, it creates a unique opportunity to gain insight into the process outside the operation room. Post-test results indicate that the intelligent tutoring system may be more beneficial than the nonintelligent tutoring system, but the proof of concept is demonstrated with either system. © The Author(s) 2015.
Luis Roberto de Camargo Ribeiro
Full Text Available This article brings the analysis of a study—of a descriptive-analytical nature—about online tutoring, some of its characteristics and peculiarities as compared to face-to-face education. To this end it analyzes the results of an online questionnaire answered by 222 tutors pertaining to programs offered at Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar in partnership with Universidade Aberta do Brasil (UAB and Brazilian townships. The analysis focused on tutors’ characteristics (e.g., sex, education background and teaching experience, their work organization and activities, the division of labor (between tutors and teachers responsible for subjects, and their perceptions about the nature of tutoring and education at a distance (DE. This study is chiefly based on authors such as Lortie, Tardif, and Shulman—about face-to-face teaching—and Mill, Maggio, and Kenski—on distance education. The results of this study point to the predominance of female tutors, which resembles the makeup of the teaching body in face-to-face education at the lower levels, and indicate the respondents’ high levels of schooling and considerable face-to-face teaching experience. Despite the difficulties encountered by the tutors in this study, mainly due to their lack of experience in DE and varied technical problems, most of the tutors found it easy and pleasurable to work online. The dada also suggest that the tutors enjoyed comparative autonomy as regards actions associated with content transmission as well as actions related to (virtual classroom management. This autonomy may be the basis for the respondents’ perception that the online tutor, in the context under consideration, performs a genuine teaching function.
Gott, Sherrie P.
A series of intelligent tutoring systems, or intelligent maintenance simulators, is being developed based on expert and novice problem solving data. A graded series of authentic troubleshooting problems provides the curriculum, and adaptive instructional treatments foster active learning in trainees who engage in extensive fault isolation practice and thus in conditionalizing what they know. A proof of concept training study involving human tutoring was conducted as a precursor to the computer tutors to assess this integrated, problem based approach to task analysis and instruction. Statistically significant improvements in apprentice technicians' troubleshooting efficiency were achieved after approximately six hours of training.
Drozd, Ewa; Zembrzuska, Agnieszka
Celem artykułu jest dokonanie opisu koncepcji i metody tutoringu szkolnego w odniesieniu do kilkuletnich doświadczeń programu Kolegium Tutorów realizowanego przy wsparciu lokalnych władz oświatowych. Tutoring ma korzenie akademickie jako zindywidualizowana metoda pracy studenta z profesorem, jego istotą jest otwarcie na potrzeby drugiego człowieka i wspieranie w rozwoju. Można wskazać kilka źródeł filozoficznych, które dookreślają czym współcześnie jest tutoring (sokratejski dialog, filozofia...
Full Text Available Peer tutors in higher education are frequently given vital teaching and learning work to do, but the training or professional development and support opportunities they are offered vary, and more often than not peer tutors are under-supported. In order to create and sustain teaching and learning environments that are better able to facilitate students’ engagement with knowledge and learning, the role of peer tutors needs to be recognised differently, as that of learning and teaching partners to both lecturers and students. Tutors then need to be offered opportunities for more in-depth professional academic development in order to fully realise this role. This paper explores a tutor development programme within a South African writing centre that aimed at offering tutors such ongoing and cumulative opportunities for learning and growth using a balanced approach, which included scholarly research and practice-based training. Using narrative data tutors provided in reflective written reports, the paper explores the kinds of development in tutors’ thinking and action that are possible when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice.
Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Pickering, Brad
HyperCard is a popular hypertext-like system used for building user interfaces to databases and other applications, and CLIPS is a highly portable government-owned expert system shell. We developed HyperCLIPS in order to fill a gap in the U.S. Army's computer-based instruction tool set; it was conceived as a development environment for building adaptive practical exercises for subject-matter problem-solving, though it is not limited to this approach to tutoring. Once HyperCLIPS was developed, we set out to implement a practical exercise prototype using HyperCLIPS in order to demonstrate the following concepts: learning can be facilitated by doing; student performance evaluation can be done in real-time; and the problems in a practical exercise can be adapted to the individual student's knowledge.
Vale, Z.A. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Fernandes, M.F.; Marques, A. [Electricity of Portugal, Sacavem (Portugal)
Power systems are presently remotely operated and controlled from control centers that receive on-line information about the power system state. Control center operators have very high-demanding tasks what makes their training a key issue for the performance of the whole power system. Simulators are usually used by electrical utilities for this purpose but they are very expensive applications and their use requires the preparation of the training sessions by qualified training staff which is a very time consuming task. Due to this, these simulators are only used a few times a year. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) provide some new possibilities for control center operator training making easier its use without much assistance of the teaching staff. On the other hand, an expert system in use in a control center can be adapted to an ITS to train operators without much effort. 18 refs
Stottler, Richard H; Jensen, Randy; Pike, Bill; Bingham, Rick
...). It was determined that the addition of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to BC2010 would off-load the instructor from these duties and allow the students to execute scenarios without requiring an instructor for the AAR...
Watts, Tessa E
Support is imperative for nursing students worldwide as they face the many challenges associated with learning and working. Moreover enhancing student retention is an increasing concern for institutions across the globe. The personal tutor is a frequently hidden yet potentially significant figure in many students' experience of higher education. This paper offers some critical reflections on a structured approach to personal tutoring within an undergraduate nursing programme in a research focused Welsh university. Structured personal tutoring can provide an organised, coherent and proactive support system throughout students' educational programmes. However the approach changes the shape of personal tutoring and has the potential to increase academics' workloads and with it costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
High attrition rates among students in associate degree nursing programs are a concern for faculty, administrators, and students. Programs offering academic and emotional support for students at risk for failing a clinical course may decrease attrition rates and improve academic performance. A peer tutoring program was developed for returning nursing students who were unsuccessful in a previous clinical course. Peer tutors met with returning students weekly to review course work, complete case studies and practice NCLEX questions. Trusting, supportive relationships developed among students and a significant increase in grades was noted at the end of the course for 79% of students. Implementation of peer tutoring was beneficial for returning students, tutors, and the nursing program and may be valuable in other courses where academic achievement is a concern.
Rowe, Neil C; Schiavo, Sandra
... critical. We describe a tutor incorporating two programs. The first program uses artificial-intelligence planning methods to generate realistic audit files reporting actions of a variety of simulated users (including intruders...
effect of treatment (peer tutoring) on mathematics achievement, it also revealed a ..... academic achievement of college students have demonstrated that the ... basic for suggesting the use of the treatment in classrooms irrespective of students' ...
Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Lincoln, David T.
This user's guide describes how to use the Intelligent Tutoring Systems for the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK) and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and how to use the C code that runs the mockup version of the MSK.
Full Text Available The paper describes the internal architecture of an Intelligent Tutoring System, CS-Tutor. The architectural design of the tutorial system was developed in a collaborative work at the Department of Computer Science of the University of Galati and the Department of Applied Informatics of the Faculty of Computer Science of Iasi. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS are software packages which use the Artificial Intelligence techniques to aid in learning of some subject or skill. In recent years, Hypermedia has been gained the interest of many researchers working in the teaching field of study. The CS-Tutor internal architecture is based upon integrating Hypermedia Objects in an Intelligent Knowledge-Based frame.
... the effectiveness of the tutors as they are developed. The Alliance for Education was tasked with selecting schools, purchasing, installing and maintaining hardware, supporting local teachers and administrators, assisting Armstrong Laboratory personnel...
Enma Gallardo Barroso
Full Text Available This article highlights the great importance an appropriate strategy for the development of the formation of tutors has, due to the role they play in the entire formation of thousands of youngsters as well as teachers and professors. Tutors have the duty of transmitting, together with the professor of the territorial university center, the basic knowledge of the sciences of Education and to endow them of tools for their future professional work.
Science Air Force Summer Study on Fault Isolation in Air Force Weapons and Support Systems. He is an expert in simulation-oriented computer-based...Tutoring (Collins, 1976.) Reprinted with permission of Lawrence Erlbauni Assoc., Inc., Publishers, ( 1976. It should be clear that understanding natural...Grignetti, M., Hausman , C., & Gould, L. (1975). An intelligent on-line assistant and tutor: NLS-Scholar. In Proceedings of the National Computer
Ningrum Pusporini Anggorowati
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pelaksanaannya model pembelajaran tutor sebaya (peer teaching di SMAN I Brebes. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah guru sosiologi kelas XI IPS 1 dan siswa kelas XI IPS 1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan peer teaching memerlukan persiapan yang matang, dan setiap tahap pelaksanaan hendaknya dievaluasi untuk mendapatkan hasil yang baik. Faktor pendukung dalam pelaksanaan model pembelajaran tutor sebaya antara lain yaitu adanya interaksi antara guru dengan siswa, minat belajar siswa cukup tinggi, guru dan siswa lebih akrab dalam kegiatan pembelajaran, keterlibatan tutor sebaya dalam kelompok belajar membuat suasana pembelajaran lebih menarik, sedangkan faktor penghambatnya antara lain yaitu kurangnya persiapan dari para tutor, sarana dan prasarana kurang memadai, kegiatan pembelajaran kurang kondusif, dan sumber belajar kurang memadai. The objective of this study is to examine the implementation of peer tutoring learning model (peer teaching in SMAN I Brebes. Subjects in this study were teachers sociology class XI IPS 1 and class XI IPS 1. Results show that the implementation of peer teaching requires preparation, and each stage of the implementation should be evaluated to obtain good results. Factors supporting the implementation of peer tutoring learning model, among others, the interaction between teachers and students, and also student interest is high; teachers and students are more familiar in learning activities, and peer tutor involvement in the study group to make the learning environment more attractive. The inhibiting factor of peer teaching strategy include among others the lack of preparation of the tutors, inadequate infrastructure, lack of conducive learning activities, and learning resources are inadequate.
Full Text Available Markus Krautter,1 Sven Andreesen,2 Nadja Köhl-Hackert,2 Katja Hoffmann,3 Wolfgang Herzog,2 Christoph Nikendei2 1Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, 2Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, 3Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective.Purpose: To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors.Methods: A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80. The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants. The discussions were analyzed using content analysis.Results: The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available.Conclusion: On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance
Salerno-Kennedy, Rossana; Henn, Pat; O'Flynn, Siun
In modern times, peer tutoring methods have been explored in health care education for over 30 years. In this paper, we report our experience of implementing a peer-tutoring approach to Clinical Skills Laboratory (CSL) training in the Graduate Entry in Medicine Programme (GEM) at University College Cork. Eighteen fourth-year medical students were recruited as peer tutors for CSL sessions on physical examination. In order to standardise the process, we developed a training course for peer tutors that comprised two stages. They then ran the practical sessions with junior students, under the watchful eye of medical educators. At the end of the last CSL session, the students were given 10 minutes to reflect individually on the experience, and were asked to complete a feedback form. Twenty-four of the 42 GEM students and six of the seven Senior Tutors (STs) completed and returned their feedback forms. With the caveats of small sample sizes and low response rates, both groups reported that they had both positive and negative experiences of peer tutoring, but that the positive experiences predominated. The overall experience was positive. In terms of the primary thesis of this study, the STs thought that they were well prepared by the teaching staff to take part in these teaching sessions. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.
Background Several benefits of peer tutoring in medical school teaching have been described. However, there is a lack of research on the perceptions of peer tutoring, particularly from tutees who partake in a long-term clinical skills scheme integrated into the medical school curriculum. This study evaluates the opinions of preclinical tutees at the end of a 2-year peer-tutored clinical skills program and peer tutors themselves. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a UK-based medical school that primarily utilizes peer tutoring for clinical skills teaching. A questionnaire was designed to assess the views of preclinical tutees and peer tutors. Likert scales were used to grade responses and comment boxes to collect qualitative data. Results Sixty-five questionnaires were collected (52 tutees, 13 peer tutors). Seventy-nine percent of students felt satisfied with their teaching, and 70% felt adequately prepared for clinical placements. Furthermore, 79% believed that peer tutoring is the most effective method for clinical skills teaching. When compared to faculty teaching, tutees preferred being taught by peer tutors (63%), felt more confident (73%), and were more willing to engage (77%). All peer tutors felt that teaching made them more confident in their Objective Structured Clinical Examination performance, and 91% agreed that being a tutor made them consider pursuing teaching in the future. Thematic analysis of qualitative data identified 3 themes regarding peer tutoring: a more comfortable environment (69%), a more personalized teaching approach (34%), and variation in content taught (14%). Conclusion Preclinical tutees prefer being taught clinical skills by peer tutors compared to faculty, with the peer tutors also benefitting. Studies such as this, looking at long-term schemes, further validate peer tutoring and may encourage more medical schools to adopt this method as an effective way of clinical skills teaching. PMID:29922105
Zimmer, Ron; Hamilton, Laura; Christina, Rachel
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation has created pressure for districts to improve their students' proficiency levels on state tests. Districts that fail to meet their academic targets for 3 years must use their Title I funds to pay for supplemental education services (SES) that provide tutoring or other academic instruction. Many…
Start, coordinates the federal commodities food distribution program for low-income people, and maintains an updated human service resource manual for...organization also publishes a comprehensive resource manual on social services in Laramie County. One-to-One Tutoring provides volunteers to tutor...services by other organizacions . eoresent the total OOr-lati:n. Rate of volunteer ans •" ;rowth is forecast as follcs..: 1983 z 70.467, half tine green
Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey
Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...
Full Text Available A meaningful tutor-student interaction requires a new insight into pedagogical principles and proper implementation of modern teaching strategies. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of online tutoring in blended learning settings and the impact of the tutor-student interaction on the learning process. The article reports on the results of the study on students’ evaluation of the tutor’s role and the tutor-student interaction in a blended university course. The findings show that professional tutoring and the effective tutor-student interaction help students to improve their learning efficacy and to have a greater personal responsibility for their outcomes.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of ontology for the use and development of intelligent tutoring systems. We consider the shortcomings of educational software and distance learning systems and the advantages of using ontology’s in their design. Actuality creates educational computer systems based on systematic knowledge. We consider classification of properties, use and benefits of ontology’s. Characterized approaches to the problem of ontology mapping, the first of which – manual mapping, the second – a comparison of the names of concepts based on their lexical similarity and using special dictionaries. The analysis of languages available for the formal description of ontology. Considered a formal mathematical model of ontology’s and ontology consistency problem, which is that different developers for the same domain ontology can be created, syntactically or semantically heterogeneous, and their use requires a compatible broadcast or display. An algorithm combining ontology’s. The characteristic of the practical value of developing an ontology for electronic educational resources and recommendations for further research and development, such as implementation of other components of the system integration, formalization of the processes of integration and development of a universal expansion algorithms ontology’s software
Miller, David; Topping, Keith; Thurston, Allen
Paired reading (PR) is an application of peer tutoring. It has been extensively researched, and its efficacy across a range of outcomes has been established. Benefits include improvements in key reading skills, and also in affective aspects of learning. Several studies have shown gains in self-esteem, although measurement methods have varied, and the model of self-esteem has rarely been clearly articulated. To investigate the changes in self-esteem of children participating in a randomized trial of PR over a 15-week treatment period. To investigate the relative contribution of self-worth and self-competence to any gains in self-esteem. To investigate whether the pattern of change differs in children who take on different roles in the PR process. The participants comprised a subset of a large-scale randomized trial of peer learning (The Fife Peer Learning Project). Four schools were randomly selected from schools allocated to the same-age PR condition, and four schools from those allocated to the cross-age PR condition. The same-age group consisted of 87 primary 6 children (10-11 years old). The cross-age group consisted of 81 primary 6 children. The controls, from schools randomly selected from a neighbouring authority, consisted of 92 primary 6 children. A pre-post design employing self-report measures of self-esteem. Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale was used, with scores analysed for worth and competence. The treatment period was 15 weeks, with the participants following a prescribed PR process. Significant pre-post gains were noted in self-esteem, driven predominantly by improved beliefs about competence, in both same-age and cross-age conditions, but not for controls. Gains were also seen in self-worth in the cross-age condition. Further analyses of the influence of organizational condition (same-age or cross-age) and role played (tutor vs. tutee) showed significant differences between same-age tutors and cross-age tutors in relation to self-worth. Effect sizes
Kamps, Debra; And Others
Nonhandicapped fifth-grade students conducted tutoring sessions in math, language, and reading for two elementary-aged children with autism. Results demonstrated that normal peers could effectively increase academic behaviors of autistic students through tutoring activities. (Author/JDD)
Krasnova, Tatiana Ivanovna; Popova, Anna
A meaningful tutor-student interaction requires a new insight into pedagogical principles and proper implementation of modern teaching strategies. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of online tutoring in blended learning settings and the impact of the tutor-student interaction on the learning process. The article reports on the results of the study on students’ evaluation of the tutor’s role and the tutor-student interaction in a blended university course. The findings show th...
Sehrawat, Anjali; Keelan, Robert; Shimada, Kenji; Wilfong, Dona M.; McCormick, James T.; Rabin, Yoed
As a part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, the current study presents a proof-of-concept for a computerized tool for cryosurgery tutoring. The tutoring system lists geometrical constraints of cryoprobes placement, simulates cryoprobe insertion, displays a rendered shape of the prostate, enables distance measurements, simulates the corresponding thermal history, and evaluates the mismatch between the target region shape and a pre-selected planning isotherm. The quality of trainee planning is measured in comparison with a computer-generated planning, created for each case study by previously developed planning algorithms. Two versions of the tutoring system have been tested in the current study: (i) an unguided version, where the trainee can practice cases in unstructured sessions, and (ii) an intelligent tutoring system (ITS), which forces the trainee to follow specific steps, believed by the authors to potentially shorten the learning curve. While the tutoring level in this study aims only at geometrical constraints on cryoprobe placement and the resulting thermal histories, it creates a unique opportunity to gain insight into the process outside of the operation room. Posttest results indicate that the ITS system maybe more beneficial than the non-ITS system, but the proof-of-concept is demonstrated with either system. PMID:25941163
Shute, Valerie J.
Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) have been in existence for over a decade. However, few controlled evaluation studies have been conducted comparing the effectiveness of these systems to more traditional instruction methods. Two main promises of ITSs are examined: (1) Engender more effective and efficient learning in relation to traditional formats; and (2) Reduce the range of learning outcome measures where a majority of individuals are elevated to high performance levels. Bloom (1984) has referred to these as the two sigma problem; to achieve two standard deviation improvements with tutoring over traditional instruction methods. Four ITSs are discussed in relation to the two promises. These tutors have undergone systematic, controlled evaluations: (1) The LISP tutor (Anderson Farrell and Sauers, 1984); (2) Smithtown (Shute and Glaser, in press); (3) Sherlock (Lesgold, Lajoie, Bunzo and Eggan, 1990); and (4) The Pascal ITS (Bonar, Cunningham, Beatty and Well, 1988). Results show that these four tutors do accelerate learning with no degradation in final outcome. Suggestions for improvements to the design and evaluation of ITSs are discussed.
Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit
This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.
Hooshyar, D.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yousefi, M.; Yusop, F. D.; Horng, S.-J.
Intelligent tutoring and personalization are considered as the two most important factors in the research of learning systems and environments. An effective tool that can be used to improve problem-solving ability is an Intelligent Tutoring System which is capable of mimicking a human tutor's actions in implementing a one-to-one personalized and…
Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…
Westenskow, Arla; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.
This research study examined the perceptions of 24 parents of rising 5th-grade students with mathematics learning difficulties as part of a 10-week summer mathematics tutoring experience. During the summer tutoring program, parents observed their children participating in mathematics learning experiences during one-to-one tutoring sessions. At the…
Darder Mesquida, Antònia; Pérez Garcias, Adolfina
Research project tutoring appears as a crucial element for teaching; it is a planned action based on the relationship between a tutor and a student. This paper presents the findings of a design and development research which has as its main aim to create an organization system for the tutoring of online research projects. That system seeks to…
Altinyelken, H.K.; Bray, M.; Mazawi, A.E.; Sultana, R.G.
This chapter focuses on the private tutoring phenomenon in Turkey. It seeks to analyse the impact of the revision of primary school curriculum on the demand for private tutoring. It also outlines various academic, economic and social implications of private tutoring. Based on interviews with school
Rickard, Brian; Mills, Melissa
Tutoring centres are common in universities in the United States, but there are few published studies that statistically examine the effects of tutoring on student success. This study utilizes multiple regression analysis to model the effect of tutoring attendance on final course grades in Calculus I. Our model predicted that every three visits to…
Fong, Lin Siew
Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…
Kassab, Salah Eldin; Hassan, Nahla; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan F; Sequeira, Reginald P
Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL) programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69) who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS), Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring) using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent). The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students' questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000). Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives.
Lindo, Endia J.; Weiser, Beverly; Cheatham, Jennifer P.; Allor, Jill H.
This study examines the effectiveness of minimally trained tutors providing a highly structured tutoring intervention for struggling readers. We screened students in Grades K-6 for participation in an after-school tutoring program. We randomly assigned those students not meeting the benchmark on a reading screening measure to either a tutoring…
Beasley, V. J.
The tutor system within a university hall of residence at Flinders University of South Australia and a method of inquiry used to study the system are examined. Interviews with residence hall tutors revealed four concerns: the need for guidelines, the nature of academic tutoring, pastoral care and its implications, and communication channels within…
Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.
In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…
Full Text Available Dr Math is a mobile tutoring system which has been running in South Africa for three years. It links primary and secondary school pupils to tutors in mathematics. The pupils use the popular Mxit chat client on their cell phones. The tutors use full...
Mitrovic, Antonija; Martin, Brent; Suraweera, Pramuditha; Zakharov, Konstantin; Milik, Nancy; Holland, Jay; McGuigan, Nicholas
Over the last decade, the Intelligent Computer Tutoring Group (ICTG) has implemented many successful constraint-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) in a variety of instructional domains. Our tutors have proven their effectiveness not only in controlled lab studies but also in real classrooms, and some of them have been commercialized.…
Full Text Available Dr Math is a mobile, online tutoring project which allows primary and secondary school pupils to contact tutors in mathematics using text based chat systems on their cell phones. The tutors use traditional Internet based workstations. Dr Math...
Crandall, Samantha L.
The effectiveness of a tutor training program is often only measured by student results rather than tutor outcomes (CRLA, 2016). Experiences in college, such as on-campus employment, greatly contribute to the development of students (Savoca, 2016). However, little research exists on the leadership development of tutors (NADE, 2016). Having a…
Wiskochil, Brian; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Petersen, Susan
This study examined the effect of trained peer tutors on the academic learning time-physical education (ALT-PE) scores of children with visual impairments. It found a mean increase of 20.8% for ALT-PE and increases in ALT-PE scores for closed and open skills and that trained peer tutors were more effective than were untrained peer tutors.
Nobel, Michele Mcmahon
This study investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words and definitions. Participants were 14 seventh grade students at-risk for failure in a general education science course; 3 students had learning disabilities and 2 had a communication disorder. CWPT was conducted daily for 20 minutes during the last period of the school day. Procedures for CWPT were consistent with the Ohio State University CWPT model. Students were engaged in dyadic, reciprocal tutoring. Tutors presented word cards to tutees to identify the word and definition. Tutors praised correct responses and used a correction procedure for incorrect responses. After practicing their vocabulary words, students completed a daily testing procedure and recorded and plotted data. Many of the study's findings are consistent with previous studies using CWPT to teach word identification. Results of this study indicate a functional relationship between CWPT and acquisition of science vocabulary. All students were able to acquire words and definitions. Results for maintenance and generalization varied. When acquisition criterion was changed, maintenance and generalization scores increased for some students, while other students remained consistently high. All students reported that they enjoyed CWPT, and all but student stated it helped them learn science vocabulary.
Full Text Available This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008, and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the regulation of a learning process in order to help learners acquire or improve the competencies needed to master learning tasks. It integrates findings from systems theory with recommendations of prior research on interactive instruction and elaborated feedback, on task analyses, on error analyses, and on tutoring techniques. Based on this multi-dimensional view of formative tutoring feedback methodological implications for designing and investigating multiple effects of feedback under multiple individual and situational conditions are described. Furthermore, the paper outlines how the implications of the ITF-model have been applied in several studies to the design and evaluation of tutoring feedback strategies for digital learning environments (e.g., Narciss, 2004; Narciss & Huth, 2006; Narciss, Schnaubert, Andres, Eichelmann, Goguadze, & Sosnovsky, 2013.
Kim, J. K.; Koh, S. N. [Joong Ang Inspection Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. K.; Shim, Y. J. [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing
Kim, J. K.; Koh, S. N.; Kim, M. K.; Shim, Y. J.
This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing
The European Nuclear Safety Training and Tutoring Institute, ENSTTI, is an initiative of European Technical Safety Organizations (TSO) in order to provide vocational training and tutoring in the methods and practices required to perform assessment in nuclear safety, nuclear security and radiation protection. ENSTTI calls on TSOs' expertise to maximize the transmission of safety and security knowledge, practical experience and culture. Training, tutoring and courses for specialists are achieved through practical lectures, working group and technical visits and lead to a certificate after knowledge testing. ENSTTI contributes to the harmonization of nuclear safety and security practices and to the networking of today and future nuclear safety experts in Europe and beyond. (A.C.)
Full Text Available In an effort to support the growing trend of the Java programming language and to promote web-based personalized education, the Java Intelligent Tutoring System (JITS was designed and developed. This tutoring system is unique in a number of ways. Most Intelligent Tutoring Systems require the teacher to author problems with corresponding solutions. JITS, on the other hand, requires the teacher to only supply the problem and problem specification. JITS is designed to "intelligently" examine the student's submitted code and determines appropriate feedback based on a number of factors such as JITS' cognitive model of the student, the student's skill level, and problem details. JITS is intended to be used by beginner programming students in their first year of College or University. This paper discusses the important aspects of the design and development of JITS, the qualitative methods and procedures, and findings. Research was conducted at the Sheridan Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, Ontario, Canada.
Ivelisse Teresa Machín-Torres
Full Text Available The present article is part of a research for the development of an intelligent tutor system for the application of programming in the José Martí University of Sancti -Spíritus. The objective of the implementation of this system is to enhance the management knowledge related to programming issues and improve the orientation in solving problems in the university. In order to carry out the implementation of the intelligent tutoring system, the intelligent tutor systems currently in the programming area described the tools and technologies used in the developed solution (methodology, patterns, softwares, programming languages, etc.. It allowed an efficient implementation in a short time of the proposed system. The foregoing is reflected positively in a better student satisfaction and therefore in a higher performance in the teaching-learning process of the university.
Central catheter dressing in a simulator: the effects of tutor's assistance or self-learning tutorial Parche de catéter central en simulador: efecto de la presencia del tutor o del aprendizaje auto-instruccional Curativo de cateter central em simulador: efeito da presença do tutor ou da aprendizagem autoinstrucional
Milene Thaís Marmol
Full Text Available AIMS: to compare the performance of undergraduate students concerning semi-implanted central venous catheter dressing in a simulator, with the assistance of a tutor or of a self-learning tutorial. METHOD: Randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 35 undergraduate nursing students, who were divided into two groups after attending an open dialogue presentation class and watching a video. One group undertook the procedure practice with a tutor and the other with the assistance of a self-learning tutorial. RESULTS: in relation to cognitive knowledge, the two groups had lower performance in the pre-test than in the post-test. The group that received assistance from a tutor performed better in the practical assessment. CONCLUSION: the simulation undertaken with the assistance of a tutor showed to be the most effective learning strategy when compared to the simulation using a self-learning tutorial. Advances in nursing simulation technology are of upmost importance and the role of the tutor in the learning process should be highlighted, taking into consideration the role this professional plays in knowledge acquisition and in the development of critical-reflexive thoughts and attitudes. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 01614314.OBJETIVO: comparar el desempeño de graduandos en la realización del parche del catéter venoso central semi-implantado, en simulador, con el auxilio del tutor o de un guía auto-instruccional. MÉTODO: estudio experimental controlado hecho aleatorio. La muestra fue compuesta por 35 alumnos de Graduación en Enfermería que fueron asignados en dos grupos después de asistir a una clase expositiva dialogada y a un vídeo. Un grupo realizó el entrenamiento del procedimiento con el tutor y el otro con el auxilio de un guía auto- instruccional. RESULTADOS: con relación al conocimiento cognoscitivo, los dos grupos presentaron desempeño menor en la pre-prueba comparada al pos-prueba. El grupo con presencia del tutor
Mariana de Toledo Marinho
Full Text Available Abstract This work is the result of research that proposes the incorporation of Distance Learning into a Business Game as a strategy to enhance tutor training, considering entrepreneurship difficulties faced by public school teachers. Part of the problem could be attributed to subject type, because, in general, it is not common to find entrepreneurship on school curricula. The Distance Learning (DL activities were developed using the Moodle platform and structured by topic to increase educational flexibility and achieve a better balance between individual reflection and online discussion. It was developed in four steps: course content development; course evaluation by computer technicians; restructuring the course based on course evaluation done by computer technicians and course evaluation by teachers from the public school system. A preliminary test was performed with informatics technicians to technically evaluate the learning environment. Based on this, the course was restructured, applying corrections and adjustments to improve environment usability. After corrections, a final test was conducted with public school system teachers to analyze user perception, which gave a positive result. Virtual learning environment evaluation is complex and multidisciplinary, requiring the technical knowledge of internet programming and a conceptual knowledge of education, especially in the field of learning. When the evaluation done by teachers was examined, it was found that deficiencies pointed out by computer technicians had been resolved, giving a positive rating. This current research concludes that DL can improve the use of games, because it is possible to structure the content related to the learning gaps of specific groups of students. In this respect the use of games results can guide the development of content.
Bergeron, Bryan; Cline, Andrew
Conventional intelligent or adaptive tutoring online systems rely on domain-specific models of learner behavior based on rules, deep domain knowledge, and other resource-intensive methods. We have developed and studied a domain-independent methodology of adaptive tutoring based on domain-independent signal-processing approaches that obviate the need for the construction of explicit expert and student models. A key advantage of our method over conventional approaches is a lower barrier to entry for educators who want to develop adaptive online learning materials.
Seifi, H.; Seifi, A.R. [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran). Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Electrical Engineers
An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) is proposed for a power plant simulator. With a well designed ITS, the need for an instructor is minimized and the operator may readily and efficiently take, in real-time, the control of simulator with appropriate messages he(she) gets from the tutoring system. Using SIMULINK and based on object oriented programming (OOP) and C programming language, a fossil-fuelled power plant simulator with an ITS is proposed. Promising results are demonstrated for a typical power plant.
Lohan, Katrin Solveig; Fischer, Kerstin; Dondrup, Christian
In this paper, we investigate the relationship between tutors' gaze behavior and particular kinds of linguistic behaviors. In particular, we describe how word classes are distributed over different gazing classes. For this, we collected data from human-robot interactions and used a classification......). The analysis shows that there are, for instance, more object related keywords when people are gazing at an object, and more personal pronouns when people are looking at the robot. Understanding the relationship between human tutors' linguistic and gazing behavior can facilitate bootstrapping the one capability...
Ceyca Ceyca, Jorge Omar; Pazos Rangel, Rodolfo A.; Ruiz Vanoye, Jorge Alberto
La enseñanza ha sido fortalecida con la aparición de las modernas tecnologías computacionales, que han permitido desarrollar la educación a distancia principalmente con el uso de la Internet, siendo los sistemas tutores una de las herramienta más beneficiadas e importantes para esté fin. Sin embargo, la adaptación de los sistemas tutores a las capacidades de los estudiantes es un punto que a penas está siendo explorado [1, 2], es por ello que dada la experiencia en el CENIDET para desarrollar...
Alexandre B., Sé; Depto. Biologia Celular, UnB, Brasília, DF, 70910-900; Passos, Renato M.; Depto. Biologia Celular, UnB, Brasília, DF, 70910-900; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Depto. Biologia Celular, UnB, Brasília, DF, 70910-900
In a previous article we described the relevance of student seminars for the learning process of appliedbiochemistry for medical and nutrition students (Hermes-Lima et al., Biochem. Mol.Biol.Educ. 30:30-34,2002). First semester students of a basic biochemistry course (BioBio) are divided in 10 groupsof 5 members, and each group is assigned to a specic topic (diabetes, cholesterol, etc) under thesupervision of a tutor-student. The tutors have already coursed BioBio and are currently undertakin...
Rickard, Brian; Mills, Melissa
Tutoring centres are common in universities in the United States, but there are few published studies that statistically examine the effects of tutoring on student success. This study utilizes multiple regression analysis to model the effect of tutoring attendance on final course grades in Calculus I. Our model predicted that every three visits to the tutoring centre is correlated with an increase of a students' course grade by one per cent, after controlling for prior academic ability. We also found that for lower-achieving students, attending tutoring had a greater impact on final grades.
Full Text Available This research background of their learning outcomes, student of class X IPA 6 SMAN 2 Pamekasan who have not yet reached KKM particularly in the field of physics studies. Therefore, the researchers tried to use cooperative learning model TGT method peer tutor in class X IPA 6 SMAN 2 Pamekasan on the subject Heat and Heat Transfer. The problems of this study are: 1. How completeness of student learning outcomes through the implementation of cooperative learning model TGT method peer tutor in class X IPA 6 SMAN 2 Pamekasan ?. 2. How the student's activity during the implementation of cooperative learning model TGT method peer tutor in class X IPA 6 SMAN 2 Pamekasan ?. The purpose of this study is : 1. To Finalising the student learning outcomes through the implementation of cooperative learning model TGT method peer tutors. 2. To determine the students' learning activities during the implementation of cooperative learning model TGT method peer tutors on the subject Heat and Heat Transfer. This research is a classroom action research. The experiment was conducted three cycles, with each cycle consisting of planning, implementation, observation, evaluation, and reflection. Subjects were students of class X IPA 6 SMAN 2 Pamekasan in academic year 2014/2015. The data analysis technique used is descriptive statistics. From the analyst found that the learning outcomes of students from the first cycle to cycle III has reached completeness criteria with a percentage that is, the first cycle (50%, the second cycle (70%, Cycle III (85% and student activity in accordance with the purpose of learning cooperative. The results of the evaluation of the pretest-posttest is from 10.00% (not exhaustive to 90.00% (complete. Thus, it can be concluded that the type cooperative learning TGT Method Peer Tutor can complete physics learning outcomes and student activity IPA 6 Class X SMAN 2 Pamekasan on the subject Heat and Heat Transfer. Keywords: TGT, Learning Outcomes
Bierman, Karen Linn; Furman, Wyndol
This study examined the role of contextual factors, such as assignment rationale, on the attitudinal effects of peer tutoring. Fourth-grade children engaged in brief tutoring experiences as either a tutor or tutee. Subjects received four rationales for being selected as tutor or tutee: (a) a competence rationale, (b) a physical characteristic rationale, (c) a chance rationale, or (d) no rationale. As predicted, tutors had more positive attitudes than tutees when they had been given a competence or physical characteristic rationale but not when the tutors were provided a chance rationale or no rationale. Additionally, the tutors’ and tutees’ attitudes were enhanced when no rationale was provided. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for a role-theory analysis of tutoring and their implications for applied programs. PMID:23946549
Full Text Available Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Nahla Hassan,1 Marwan F Abu-Hijleh,2 Reginald P Sequeira3 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 3College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Purpose: Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. Methods: This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69 who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent. The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Results: Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students' questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000. Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Conclusion: Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives. Keywords: PBL, tutor, tutoring skills, lecturing skills
Blohm, Mats; Krautter, Markus; Lauter, Jan; Huber, Julia; Weyrich, Peter; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph
Skills lab training has become a widespread tool in medical education, and nowadays, skills labs are ubiquitous among medical faculties across the world. An increasingly prevalent didactic approach in skills lab teaching is peer-assisted learning (PAL), which has been shown to be not only effective, but can be considered to be on a par with faculty staff-led training. The aim of the study is to determine whether voluntary preclinical skills teaching by peer tutors is a feasible method for preparing medical students for effective workplace learning in clerkships and to investigate both tutees' and tutors' attitudes towards such an intervention. A voluntary clerkship preparation skills course was designed and delivered. N = 135 pre-clinical medical students visited the training sessions. N = 10 tutors were trained as skills-lab peer tutors. Voluntary clerkship preparation skills courses as well as tutor training were evaluated by acceptance ratings and pre-post self-assessment ratings. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of skills lab tutors' attitudes towards the course were conducted following principles of grounded theory. Results show that a voluntary clerkship preparation skills course is in high demand, is highly accepted and leads to significant changes in self-assessment ratings. Regarding qualitative analysis of tutor statements, clerkship preparation skills courses were considered to be a helpful and necessary asset to preclinical medical education, which benefits from the tutors' own clerkship experiences and a high standardization of training. Tutor training is also highly accepted and regarded as an indispensable tool for peer tutors. Our study shows that the demand for voluntary competence-oriented clerkship preparation is high, and a peer tutor-led skills course as well as tutor training is well accepted. The focused didactic approach for tutor training is perceived to be effective in preparing tutors for their teaching activity in this context. A
A survey of 66 part-time tutors in Suffolk College's Community and Leisure Learning Program revealed that they spend considerable time in travel and preparation; more than one-third feel isolated and many coped with poor facilities and inadequate resources; and almost half indicated a need for subject-related staff development and subject-based…
Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.G.
The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of collaborative learning with hints and peer tutoring with hints, and individual learning with hints in chemistry laboratory education in a secondary school. A total of 96 eleventh graders participated in this study. The study has a randomized
Asim Ismail Ilyas (Al-Titinchy
Full Text Available This paper distinguishes between traditional teaching known as lecturing (the teacher centered approach; and tutoring (the contemporary technology-oriented interactive teaching/learning approach. It is based on the implementation of tutoring strategies of ‘blended studies’ at the Arab Open University. It investigates the application of modern interactive teaching/learning strategies, specifying some hindering factors in the AOU-Jordan Branch context. The factors include four variables: tutors, students, course material and assessment. The paper is based on qualitative research in terms of a real teaching/leaning context, using both observation and conversation with learners, besides the use of some quantitative data retrieved from a questionnaire in which learners’ views are sought regarding a number of relevant matters. A number of suggested solutions related to each of the hindering factors are presented, which if applied, may secure shifting the balance of the teaching/learning process to a more interactive technology-based tutoring level, which in turn will enhance learners’ opportunities for the attainment of better academic standards, and secure a higher degree of achievement of the shared educational goals of learners and the educational institution they study in.
Poel, Mannes; op den Akker, Rieks; Heylen, Dirk; Nijholt, Anton; Trappl, Robert
In this paper we discuss our approach to integrate emotions in the agent based tutoring system INES (Intelligent Nursing Education System). First we discuss the INES system where we emphasize the emotional component of the system. Afterwards we show how a more advanced emotion generation
Feng, Xiaoying; Xie, Jingjing; Liu, Yue
Tutoring involves providing learners with a suitable level of structure and guidance to support their learning. This study reports on an exploration of how to design such structure and guidance (i.e., learning scaffolds) in the Chinese online educational context, and in so doing, answer the following two questions: (a) What scaffolding strategies…
Vos, Hendrik J.
Some applications of Bayesian decision theory to intelligent tutoring systems are considered. How the problem of adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to the changing nature of a student's capabilities during the learning process can be situated in the general framework of Bayesian decision
Many learning center administrators understand the need to evaluate the effectiveness of their tutoring programs, but they do not have much free time to design and conduct meaningful research. This article presents a method of evaluation that can be used to determine whether students were able to demonstrate understanding after a tutoring…
Clark, Amy K.; Whetstone, Patti
The authors explored the impact of an online tutoring program, Math Whizz (Whizz Education, 2014), on student mathematics achievement at 15 elementary schools. Students participated in the use of the Math Whizz program for the duration of the school year as a supplement to mathematics instruction. The Math Whizz program recorded such information…
Sáiz-Manzanares, María Consuelo; Bol-Arreba, Alfredo; Payo-Hernanz, René Jesús
Introduction: Recent investigations have emphasized the need for university teachers to develop tutorial programs for students at university. Many universities are committed to broadening research on university teaching that will sharpen academic performance and levels of student satisfaction. Tutoring programs improve the development of the…
Weragama, Dinesha; Reye, Jim
Programming is a subject that many beginning students find difficult. The PHP Intelligent Tutoring System (PHP ITS) has been designed with the aim of making it easier for novices to learn the PHP language in order to develop dynamic web pages. Programming requires practice. This makes it necessary to include practical exercises in any ITS that…
ICT Integration Level of Mathematics Tutors of Colleges of Education in Ghana. ... International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ... The study used a developmental research design which is a disciplined inquiry conducted in the context of the development of a product or programme for the purpose of ...
Background. A near-peer tutorial system was introduced and implemented as part of a second-year module to assist physiotherapy students with the practising of manual techniques. Although not the primary drive for initiating this system, there are potential added benefits for the tutor reported in the literature. Objective.
Zhao, Zhijing; Zhao, Deyu; Zhang, Zizhen; Wei, Yongji; Qi, Bingchen; Okawa, Yoshikuni
Virtual Reality technology belongs to advanced computer technology, it has been applied in instruction field and gains obvious effect. At the same time, robot assisted instruction comes true with the continuous development of Robot technology and artificial intelligence technology. This paper introduces a virtual tutor system for robot assisted instruction.
Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy
A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…
Drawing on an academic literacies approach, this article explores the representations of technical communication by non-content expert tutors teaching the Technical Communication for Engineering course at a South African university. The course is offered to all first year engineering students as a developmental academic literacy course. It is…
Olsen, Jennifer K.; Belenky, Daniel M.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol
Collaborative and individual instruction may support different types of knowledge. Optimal instruction for a subject domain may therefore need to combine these two modes of instruction. There has not been much research, however, on combining individual and collaborative learning with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). A first step is to expand…
The study investigated the effect of peer tutoring-assisted instruction, parent supportiveness and students locus of control on achievement in Senior Secondary Mathematics. It adopted a non-randomized pretest posttest control group design in a quasi experimental setting. It involves 300 senior secondary II students from six ...
María Eugenia López Hurtado
Full Text Available This paper presents a research report of my own experience as a tutor in electronic environments which I have accumulated throughout the guidance for English learners of basic level at a public university. This article looks for illustrating the researcher's own perceptions and challenges as becoming an e-tutor. Therefore, I will introduce an overview of studies and experiences that address this issue in international contexts, and then I will refer to my own experience where I describe the roles that emerged while I was administrating and delivering e- learning pedagogical experiences such as an exploration of some skills and learning activities carried out in an English course; this description embraces three different stages (before, during and after of implementation. Subsequently, some discussion of the results is provided gathered from the research instruments I used. Finally, some conclusions and suggestions are provided in regards to the research question of the study, its outcomes on how tutors' challenges shape tutor's roles in electronic environments.
This paper reports a successful adaptation of a laboratory teaching machine - Electrical Machine Tutor (EMT) model 180 as an asynchronous composite polyphase electric motor without rotor conductors. The device comprises two such identical machines without rotor conductors, all the conductors being on the stator side, ...
Davies, Scott; Aurini, Janice
Private tutoring is a growing industry that is being transformed by an evolution from "shadow education" provision into "learning center" franchises. Traditional shadow educators closely follow the school curriculum, offering short-term homework help and test preparation. Learning centers develop their own curricular and…
PBL as an appropriate strategy for achieving skills in problem identification, and problem- solving through team work and appropriate use of resources. The other questions were about tutor involvement in providing administrative feed- back (to student learning). In sum- mary there were five questions about student effects,.
Buchanan, Emily; Worth, Jack; Aston, Helen
The Tutor Trust is a Manchester-based charity that aims to provide affordable small group and one to one tuition to schools. The Trust recruits university students and recent graduates, which enables it to provide tuition at a competitive rate. It predominantly aims to support schools in challenging communities and pupils who are looked-after or…
Mathematics learning outcomes in Indonesia in general is still far from satisfactory. One effort that could be expected to solve the problem is to apply the model of peer tutoring learning in mathematics. This study aims to determine whether the results of students’ mathematics learning can be enhanced through peer tutoring learning models. This type of research is the study of literature, so that the method used is to summarize and analyze the results of relevant research that has been done. Peer tutoring learning model is a model of learning in which students learn in small groups that are grouped with different ability levels, all group members to work together and help each other to understand the material. By paying attention to the syntax of the learning, then learning will be invaluable peer tutoring for students who served as teachers and students are taught. In mathematics, the implementation of this learning model can make students understand each other mathematical concepts and help students in solving mathematical problems that are poorly understood, due to the interaction between students in learning. Then it will be able to improve learning outcomes in mathematics. The impact, it can be applied in mathematics learning.
This paper describes practical procedures in mentoring/tutoring students through self-assessment (SA) to establish and maintain partnership in learning. High school teachers ("n"?=?10) allow their students ("N"?=?515: 359 males) to engage in activities that help them identify standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and…
Suraweera, Pramuditha; Mitrovic, Antonija; Martin, Brent
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are effective tools for education. However, developing them is a labour-intensive and time-consuming process. A major share of the effort is devoted to acquiring the domain knowledge that underlies the system's intelligence. The goal of this research is to reduce this knowledge acquisition bottleneck and better…
Soloway, Elliot; And Others
This report examines the features and performance of the BUG-FINDing component of MENO-II, a computer-based tutor for beginning PASCAL programming students. A discussion of the use of artificial intelligence techniques is followed by a summary of the system status and objectives. The two main components of MENO-II are described, beginning with the…
Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter
Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Kester, L., & Sloep, P. (2009). Optimizing Knowledge Sharing in Learning Networks through Peer Tutoring. Presentation at the IADIS international conference on Cognition and Exploratory in Digital Age (CELDA 2009). November, 20-22, 2009, Rome, Italy.
Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter
Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Kester, L., & Sloep, P. B. (2009). Optimizing Knowledge Sharing In Learning Networks Through Peer Tutoring. In D. Kinshuk, J. Sampson, J. Spector, P. Isaías, P. Barbosa & D. Ifenthaler (Eds.). Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Cognition and Exploratory Learning
Poel, Mannes; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Trappl, R.
In this paper we discuss our approach to integrate emotions in the agent based tutoring system INES (Intelligent Nursing Education System). First we discuss the INES system where we emphasize the emotional component of the system. Afterwards we show how a more advanced emotion generation
Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...
Mittrach, Silke; Schlageter, Gunter
The Virtual University is an Internet-based learning environment developed at the University of Hagen (Germany). Complex teaching activities based on new concepts integrating net-based communication and cooperation facilities take place in the Virtual University. Experiences show that there is a threshold, especially for tutors in non-computer…
attribute stipulated in most competency charters for health professionals.. Owing to increasing ... used to quantify which competencies or skills student tutors thought they had obtained through the facilitation of the tutorial sessions. The results ... Ethical approval was granted by the SU Health Research. Ethics Committee ...
This report discusses the benefits of canine-assisted reading through the "Tail Waggin' Tutors" program at the Glen Burnie Regional Library in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Presented are the two different types of therapy dog interactions, Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) and Animal-Assisted Activities (AAA). The first canine-assisted…
Parker, Richard; Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Denton, Carolyn
Suggestions for tutoring students with reading comprehension problems include careful selection of books with readable text segments, use of comprehension strategies such as paraphrasing brief sections, and reading to find specific information. Several reading comprehension strategies for students are summarized. (Contains 7 references.) (DB)
Park, Sang-Won; Ko, Suhui; An, Hye-Sun; Bang, Ji Hwan; Chung, Woo-Young
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) can be prevented through well-coordinated, multifaceted programs. However, implementation of CLABSI prevention programs requires individualized strategies for different institutional situations, and the best strategy in resource-limited settings is uncertain. Peer tutoring may be an efficient and effective method that is applicable in such settings. A prospective intervention was performed to reduce CLABSIs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at a tertiary hospital. The core interventions consisted of implementation of insertion and maintenance bundles for CLABSI prevention. The overall interventions were guided and coordinated by active educational programs using peer tutoring. The CLABSI rates were compared for 9 months pre-intervention, 6 months during the intervention and 9 months post-intervention. The CLABSI rate was further observed for three years after the intervention. The rate of CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days decreased from 6.9 infections in the pre-intervention period to 2.4 and 1.8 in the intervention (6 m; P = 0.102) and post-intervention (9 m; P = 0.036) periods, respectively. A regression model showed a significantly decreasing trend in the infection rate from the pre-intervention period ( P tutoring in a resource-limited setting was useful and effectively reduced CLABSIs. However, maintaining the reduced CLABSI rate will require further strategies.
What makes a successful volunteer Expert Patients Programme tutor? Factors predicting satisfaction, productivity and intention to continue tutoring of a new public health workforce in the United Kingdom.
Macdonald, Wendy; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Bower, Peter; Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne; Reeves, David
Better management of chronic conditions is a challenge for public health policy. The Expert Patients Programme was introduced into the United Kingdom to improve self-care in people with long-term conditions. To deliver self-care courses, the programme relies on the recruitment and continued commitment to delivering the courses of volunteer lay tutors who have long-term conditions. Ensuring the tutor workforce is productive, satisfied in their role and retained long-term is central to the viability of the programme. This exploratory study aimed to determine what factors predict productivity, intention to continue tutoring, and satisfaction in a sample of volunteer tutors from the Expert Patients Programme. A cross-sectional survey of 895 tutors was carried out and 518 (58%) responded. The questionnaire was designed to describe the characteristics, productivity, intention to continue tutoring, and satisfaction of tutors. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the determinants of productivity, intention to continue tutoring, and satisfaction, such as patient demographics, attitudes, physical and mental health, mastery and self-esteem. Attitudes relating to personal goals, and better health were significant predictors of satisfaction with the tutor role. Only a small proportion of the variance in productivity was accounted for, and tutors were more likely to be productive when they were single, homeowners, car owners, and had lower scores on the depression scale. Overall satisfaction and personal goals were predictors of intention to continue tutoring. Demographic factors, health measures and attitudes each predicted different aspects of the experience of work conducted by the volunteer tutors. The results should prove useful for planning interventions to enhance the success of this new workforce initiative. Attempts to increase participation in courses by people from deprived backgrounds are likely to be enhanced if tutors come from similar
Edwin Eduardo Millan Rojas
Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es la identificación de las principales características de los tutores inteligentes, su origen y evolución los cuales pueden ofrecer elementos para la formulación de nuevos proyectos de investigación relacionados con la educación y el uso de los tutores. El método utilizado es el descriptivo y sistémico, los cuales permiten recopilar los datos necesarios, la información presentada ha sido adquirida de bases de datos especializadas como IEEE, Redalyc, ACM y Science Direct, además de artículos de revistas de universidades internacionales y de proyectos de investigación descargados de Google Académico. Los Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes surgieron al combinar técnicas de inteligencia artificial (IA con los métodos clásicos de enseñanza. Estos son sistemas de software que generan un ambiente idóneo para la interacción y satisfacción de las necesidades del estudiante, adaptable a los conocimientos previos y a la capacidad de evolución de cada alumno respecto a un área del conocimiento. El funcionamiento de los STI se basa en la relación entre tres principales módulos (tutor, estudiante y dominio, para presentar al usuario la información de manera estructurada. La investigación llevada a cabo permitió reunir los aspectos más relevantes de los Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes (STI y presentarlos como una herramienta óptima para llevar a cabo un proceso de aprendizaje.
Leary, Heather; Walker, Andrew; Shelton, Brett E.; Fitt, M. Harrison
Despite years of primary research on problem-based learning and literature reviews, no systematic effort has been made to analyze the relationship between tutor characteristics and student learning outcomes. In an effort to fill that gap the following meta-analysis coded 223 outcomes from 94 studies with small but positive gains for PBL students…
Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.
This report lists support services provided by the Westminster Campus Special Services Department to the Westminster, Brighton, Longmont, and North Boulder Campuses. The Special Services Department provides disability services, including interpreting for the deaf, tutoring, gender equity support, and special populations transition support.…
Abay, Ece Şükriye; Turan, Sevgi; Odabaşı, Orhan; Elçin, Melih
Phenomenon: Clinical skills centers allow structured training of undergraduate medical students for the acquisition of clinical skills in a simulated environment. Physician, nurse, or peer tutors are employed for training in those centers. All tutors should have appropriate training about the methodology used in the clinical skills training. Many of the studies revealed the effectiveness of various types of tutors. The aim of our study was to evaluate medical students' satisfaction with clinical skills training, and their opinions about the differences in coaching skills among the physician, nurse, and peer tutors. This study was conducted with third-year students (467 students) in 2013-2014 academic year at Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine. Participation rate was 85 % (397 students). The students attended the suturing skill training in groups of 40 students. First, a faculty member from the Department of Medical Education delivered a video demonstration and conducted discussion. After the demonstration, the students were divided into groups of 5-6 students. A physician, nurse, or a peer tutor facilitated each group. The students were asked to complete the Coaching Skills Evaluation Form after the practicum session. It contained 13 criteria for assessing the coaching skills. Additionally, the form included a question for rating the student's satisfaction with the tutor. The performance of the tutors at each step was rated on a three-point scale. Kruskal Wallis analysis was used to compare students' scores for their tutors. The students' satisfaction with tutors was high for all of the tutors. However, there was no difference between students' scores in suturing skill, and between physician, nurse, and peer tutors' coaching skills. Insights: In this study, we revealed that physician, nurse, and peer tutors were equally effective on the students' performances. They were also regarded as effective in their teaching role by students. But the most important
Niepostyn, Stanisław J.
The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.
The results of a study that examined the peer tutoring program at a middle school are discussed in this article. In an effort to determine ways to improve the peer tutoring program an action research (AR) mixed design study was developed. AR is practitioner based research. Its purpose is to examine the work of practitioners for effectiveness and…
Trevors, Gregory; Duffy, Melissa; Azevedo, Roger
Hypermedia learning environments (HLE) unevenly present new challenges and opportunities to learning processes and outcomes depending on learner characteristics and instructional supports. In this experimental study, we examined how one such HLE--MetaTutor, an intelligent, multi-agent tutoring system designed to scaffold cognitive and…
Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger
The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...
This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included
Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of students' teaching skills is increasingly recognised as an important component of UK undergraduate medical curricula and, in consequence, there is renewed interest in the potential benefits of cross-year peer tutoring. Whilst several studies have described the use of cross-year peer tutoring in undergraduate medical courses, its use in the clinical setting is less well reported, particularly the effects of peer tutoring on volunteer tutors' views of teachers and teaching. This study explored the effects of participation in a cross-year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills ('OSCE tutor' on volunteer tutors' own skills and on their attitudes towards teachers and teaching. Methods Volunteer tutors were final year MBChB students who took part in the programme as part of a Student Selected Component (SSC. Tutees were year 3 MBChB students preparing for their end of year 'OSCE' examination. Pre and post participation questionnaires, including both Likert-type and open response questions, were used. Paired data was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. All tests were two-tailed with 5% significance level. Results Tutors reflected their cohort in terms of gender but were drawn from among the more academically successful final year students. Most had previous teaching experience. They were influenced to participate in 'OSCE tutor' by a desire to improve their own teaching and associated generic skills and by contextual factors relating to the organisation or previous experience of the OSCE tutor programme. Issues relating to longer term career aspirations were less important. After the event, tutors felt that participation had enhanced their skills in various areas, including practical teaching skills, confidence in speaking to groups and communication skills; and that as a result of taking part, they were now more likely to undertake further teacher training and to make teaching a major part
Sé Alexandre B.
Full Text Available In a previous article we described the relevance of student seminars for the learning process of appliedbiochemistry for medical and nutrition students (Hermes-Lima et al., Biochem. Mol.Biol.Educ. 30:30-34,2002. First semester students of a basic biochemistry course (BioBio are divided in 10 groupsof 5 members, and each group is assigned to a specic topic (diabetes, cholesterol, etc under thesupervision of a tutor-student. The tutors have already coursed BioBio and are currently undertakingan advanced biochemistry course. In order to evaluate the learning of applied biochemistry for BioBiostudents a true or false exam (TFE is performed. This exam is made of 50 questions (5 on eachtopic elaborated by the tutors under the supervision of the teacher. The TFE corresponds to 10percent of the grade of BioBio and focus on clinical and/or applied biochemistry situations. At theend of the exam, BioBio students were asked to share their opinions about TFEs (n = 401, from2001/1 to 2003/2. When asked to give a 0-to-4 score regarding (a the diculty level of the test,(b the technical quality and (c if the exam makes an appropriate evaluation of applied biochemistryknowledge, the scores were 2.9, 3.4 and 2.9, respectively. BioBio students were also asked if they ndvalid to be evaluated by a tutor-made exam and if they would like to participate in the making ofTFEs; 96 and 58 percent answered yes, respectively.In another survey, we interviewed former BioBio students from the 2nd to the 7th semesters (n=95about TFEs (since 1999-1 regarding technical aspects, which included (1 clarity of questions, (2 levelof diculty, (3 clinical application and (4 thinking (as opposed to memorizing abilities demanded;the 0-to-4 scores were 3.1, 2.9, 2.6, and 2.5, respectively. Other four questions were on the validityof tutors writing TFEs and their capacity to perform such a task; the average score was 3.2. Oursurveys show the students good acceptance of the seminar system
Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.
Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.
A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)
Omar Abou Khaled
Full Text Available In distance learning contexts, such as those are being widely promoted and developed with the extensive use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology some important issues have to be carefully addressed, in order to make education more effective and available. Distant students have to face sound organizational problems concerning the working time-management and the regulation of all the learning process. These are far more complex at a distance because of the difficulties to understand and objectively evaluate how the study is progressing in term of knowledge and competence acquisition, both for the students themselves and for the teacher who is supposed to adjust the teaching process in case of need. Moreover, the absence of clear indication for the student of the relative level of importance of each piece of information available comes to be another key issue in distance education. This paper describes a Web-based authoring system, the Learning Tutor, conceived to cover these issues. The environment is composed by several interconnected authoring systems: The Course Description, the Guiding Thread and the Agenda, The Work Plan and Themes Reviewer, and The Quizzes self-evaluation facility. This model of combined tools aims at providing the suitable support for organization, work and time management in distance learning processes using well documented mastery learning principles.
Weyrich, Peter; Schrauth, Markus; Kraus, Bernd; Habermehl, Daniel; Netzhammer, Nicolai; Zipfel, Stephan; Jünger, Jana; Riessen, Reimer; Nikendei, Christoph
Background Skills labs provide a sheltered learning environment. As close supervision and individual feedback were proven to be important in ensuring effective skills training, we implemented a cross-year peer tutor system in our skills lab of internal medicine that allowed intense training sessions with small learning groups (3–4 students) taught by one student tutor. Methods The expectations, experiences and criticisms of peer tutors regarding the tutor system for undergraduate skills lab training were investigated in the context of a focus group. In addition, tutees' acceptance of this learning model and of their student tutors was evaluated by means of a pre/post web-based survey. Results 14 voluntary senior students were intensely prepared by consultants for their peer tutor activity. 127 students participated in the project, 66.9% of which responded to the web-based survey (23 topics with help of 6-point Likert scale + free comments). Acceptance was very high (5.69 ± 0.07, mean ± SEM), and self-confidence ratings increased significantly after the intervention for each of the trained skills (average 1.96 ± 0.08, all p skills training to be provided by faculty staff only. Focus group analyses with tutors revealed 18 different topics, including profit in personal knowledge and personal satisfaction through teaching activities. The ratio of 1:4 tutor/tutees was regarded to be very beneficial for effective feedback, and the personalized online evaluation by tutees to be a strong motivator and helpful for further improvements. The tutors ascribed great importance to the continuous availability of a contact doctor in case of uncertainties. Conclusion This study demonstrates that peer teaching in undergraduate technical clinical skills training is feasible and widely accepted among tutees, provided that the tutors receive sufficient training and supervision. PMID:18400106
Powell, Sarah R; Driver, Melissa K; Julian, Tyler E
Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation solving and equal-sign understanding of students with mathematics difficulty (MD). In the present study, second-grade students with MD (n = 51) were randomly assigned to standard equations tutoring, combined tutoring (standard and nonstandard equations), and no-tutoring control. Combined tutoring students demonstrated greater gains on equation-solving assessments and equal-sign tasks compared to the other two conditions. Standard tutoring students demonstrated improved skill on equation solving over control students, but combined tutoring students' performance gains were significantly larger. Results indicate that exposure to and practice with nonstandard equations positively influence student understanding of the equal sign. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
ARL-CR-0816 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud/Virtual Open...to the originator. ARL-CR-0816 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT...January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud/Virtual Open Campus Quick-Start Guide (Revision 1
ARL-SR-0318 ● MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Fundamentals of Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated...Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated Learning by Robert A Sottilare Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fundamentals of Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated Learning 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c
An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective by Robert A Sottilare, Keith W...Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective Robert A Sottilare and Keith W Brawner Human Research and Engineering...SUBTITLE An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
López Lucas, María del Carmen
En el artículo se reflexiona sobre la tutoría, los motivos, los ámbitos de aplicación, cómo hacer una tutoría personalizada y cómo la entrevista en la tutoría individual, y por último, se reflexiona sobre el momento más adecuado para realizarse.
Full Text Available Intelligent Tutoring Systems have been successfully used to simulate human tutoring in various fields such as mathematics, physics or computer programming. The current paper discusses some of the particularities of designing such systems for the education of communication skills, specifically in a business setting (customer relations, employee communications etc. Since communication is an ill-defined domain (i.e. does not provide a systematic method to obtain a solution, various challenges arise. One of these challenges is the design of educational objectives – the module built on top of the system that would check the users' actions against predefined patterns and would provide the users with feed-back accordingly.
Nguyen, Tang-Hung; Khoo, I.-Hung
In engineering disciplines, students usually have hard time to visualize different aspects of engineering analysis and design, which inherently are too complex or abstract to fully understand without the aid of visual explanations or visualizations. As examples, when learning materials and sequences of construction process, students need to visualize how all components of a constructed facility are assembled? Such visualization can not be achieved in a textbook and a traditional lecturing environment. In this paper, the authors present the development of a computer tutoring software, in which different visualization tools including video clips, 3 dimensional models, drawings, pictures/photos together with complementary texts are used to assist students in deeply understanding and effectively mastering materials. The paper will also discuss the implementation and the effectiveness evaluation of the proposed tutoring software, which was used to teach a construction engineering management course offered at California State University, Long Beach.
Full Text Available This paper presents a learning environment where a mining algorithm is used to learn patterns of interaction with the user and to represent these patterns in a scheme called item descriptors. The learning environment keeps theoretical information about subjects, as well as tools and exercises where the student can put into practice the knowledge gained. One of the main purposes of the project is to stimulate collaborative learning through the interaction of students with different levels of knowledge. The students' actions, as well as their interactions, are monitored by the system and used to find patterns that can guide the search for students that may play the role of a tutor. Such patterns are found with a particular learning algorithm and represented in item descriptors. The paper presents the educational environment, the representation mechanism and learning algorithm used to mine social-affective data in order to create a recommendation model of tutors.
Luz Daicy Alvarado
Full Text Available El mecanismo evaluador que se presenta a continuación forma parte de un proyecto que busca el desarrollo de un Sistema de enseñanza asistida por ordenador (EAO basado en tutores inteligentes. Se pretende que este mecanismo, basado en herramientas de «aprendizaje automático», tenga la capacidad para capturar una «imagen» que indique el grado de comprensión de la materia por parte del alumno e identifique los aspectos en los que el estudiante tiene dificultades. Con esa información se retroalimentará a un sistema tutor de manera que este último tome una decisión acerca de la estrategia educativa por seguir.
The development of computers and artificial intelligence theory allow their application in the field of education. Intelligent tutoring systems reflect student learning styles and adapt the curriculum according to their individual needs. The building of intelligent tutoring systems requires not only the creation of suitable software, but especially the search and application of the rules enabling ICT to individually adapt the curriculum. The main idea of this paper is to attempt to specify the rules for dividing the students to systematically working students and more practically or pragmatically inclined students. The paper shows that monitoring the work of students in e-learning environment, analysis of various approaches to educational materials and correspondence assignments show different results for the defined groups of students.
van de Sande, Brett; Hausmann, Robert
Physics instructors agree that homework assignments are an integral part of physics instruction. When students complete their assignments, we know they may work individually or in small groups. Unfortunately, most computer-based homework systems are structured for individual learners. In particular, these systems only evaluate the final answer, putting pressure on any students working in groups to engage in copying. In contrast, Andes is an intelligent tutor homework helper that requires students to show intermediate steps when solving a problem. Andes has been used successfully by instructors at several colleges and high schools. In order to investigate collaborative versus individual problem solving, we conducted a lab study where we recorded verbal self-explanations and logged solution steps as individuals and student pairs used Andes to solve a set of problems. We found that students working in pairs relied less on the tutor's hints and engaged in collaborative sense-making. Implications for instructional practices are discussed.
Al Rekhawi , Hazem Awni; Abu Naser , Samy S
International audience; The paper describes the design of a web based intelligent tutoring system for teaching Android Applications Development to students to overcome the difficulties they face. The basic idea of this system is a systematic introduction into the concept of Android Application Development. The system presents the topic of Android Application Development and administers automatically generated problems for the students to solve. The system is automatically adapted at run time ...
Hernández Pérez, María Y.
Las emociones se han reconocido como parte fundamental de la motivación, y la motivación como un componente indispensable en el aprendizaje. En este documento se propone un modelo de comportamiento afectivo para sistemas tutores inteligentes. Dicho modelo combina el estado afectivo y pedagógico de los estudiantes para establecer las acciones tutoriales. En el contexto de este trabajo, el comportamiento afectivo tiene dos funciones principales: 1) inferir el estado afectivo del estudiante; y 2...
This paper deals with the use of ontology for the use and development of intelligent tutoring systems. We consider the shortcomings of educational software and distance learning systems and the advantages of using ontology’s in their design. Actuality creates educational computer systems based on systematic knowledge. We consider classification of properties, use and benefits of ontology’s. Characterized approaches to the problem of ontology mapping, the first of which – manual mapping, the s...
Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Wrede, Britta
Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction.
Nordeen, E J; Holtzman, D A; Nordeen, K W
During avian vocal learning, birds memorize conspecific song patterns and then use auditory feedback to match their vocal output to this acquired template. Some models of song learning posit that during tutoring, conspecific visual, social and/or auditory cues activate neuromodulatory systems that encourage acquisition of the tutor's song and attach incentive value to that specific acoustic pattern. This hypothesis predicts that stimuli experienced during social tutoring activate cell populations capable of signaling reward. Using immunocytochemistry for the protein product of the immediate early gene c-Fos, we found that brief exposure of juvenile male zebra finches to a live familiar male tutor increased the density of Fos+ cells within two brain regions implicated in reward processing: the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). This activation of Fos appears to involve both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic VTA/SNc neurons. Intriguingly, a familiar tutor was more effective than a novel tutor in stimulating Fos expression within these regions. In the periaqueductal gray, a dopamine-enriched cell population that has been implicated in emotional processing, Fos labeling also was increased after tutoring, with a familiar tutor again being more effective than a novel conspecific. As several neural regions implicated in song acquisition receive strong dopaminergic projections from these midbrain nuclei, their activation in conjunction with hearing the tutor's song could help to establish sensory representations that later guide motor sequence learning.
The objectives of the services section is (1) to offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers, (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described
Jeronimo Becker Flores
Full Text Available In this article, we analyzed the Calculus and Physics’ tutoring developed by a Higher Education Institution (HEI. The research consists of a qualitative approach of a type of case study. We began from the analytical reading of a theoretical basis which was relevant to the theme and then, we performed interviews with the professors responsible for the monitoring. The material was analyzed in the light of the Discursive Textual Analysis (DTA. As main results, we indicated that, in spite of the commonalities, there is no integrated work between Calculus and Physics subjects. In addition, we aimed the need of a reconciled pedagogical role among teachers, scholarship students and common ones. We also considered the need of future studies that reinforce and increase the discussions developed here.
Full Text Available Adaya Meirovich,1 Rosalie Ber,2 Michael Moore,3 Avi Rotschild4 1Department of Management of Service Organizations, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, 2Medical Education Unit, Ruth and Bruce Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Education in Science & Technology, 4Department of Neonatology, Carmel Medical Center, Ruth and Bruce Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Israeli Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel Background: Curriculum planners and medical teachers attempt to enhance medical students’ empathy and patient-centeredness. Despite educational efforts, there is stability in medical students’ empathy and patient-centered medicine during the preclinical stage and a decline in both of them throughout the clinical years. Student–tutor relationship plays a key role in students’ learning. This study tests the effect of learner-centered tutoring on students’ empathy, patient-centeredness, and behavior. Participants and methods: The cohort of 55 students was divided into groups of seven or eight. The experimental group’s tutors underwent LC mentoring. Empathy was assessed with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy for Students; PC attitude was assessed with the Patient–Provider Orientation Scale (PPOS. Behavior was assessed by simulations of doctor–patient encounters with 32 students at the end of the third year. Each student participated in three such simulations, during which we analyzed ten aspects of physician–patient communication via Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS-coded audiotapes. Results: A significant group difference was found for three RIAS categories: building a relationship and patient-centeredness, where the mean percentage of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and gathering data, where the mean percentage of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group. A significant correlation was found in the experimental group between empathy and
Albacete, Patricia Lucia
Students in traditional elementary mechanics classes can master problem solving of a quantitative nature but not those of a qualitative type. Moreover, students' naive conceptions of physics remain unchanged after completing their class. A few approaches have been implemented to improve this situation however none have met with great success. Since elementary mechanics is the foundation for all of physics and it is a required course for most science majors there is a clear need to improve the instruction of the subject. To address this problem I developed a intelligent tutoring system, called the Conceptual Helper, which coaches students during homework problem solving. The tutor uses a unique cognitive based approach to teaching physics, which presents innovations in three areas. (1) The teaching strategy, which focuses on teaching those links among the concepts of the domain that are essential for conceptual understanding yet are seldom learned by the students. (2) The manner in which the knowledge is taught, which is based on a combination of effective human tutoring techniques (e.g., hinting), effective pedagogical methods (e.g., a microscopic view of matter), and less cognitively demanding approaches (e.g., anthropomorphism). (3) The way in which misconceptions are handled which uses the underlying scientific correct line of reasoning to describe to the student the phenomenon that is the basis for the misconception. From a technological point of view the Conceptual Helper was implemented as a model-tracing tutor which intervenes when students make errors and after completion of each problem, at which time the tutor scaffolds the students on post-problem reflection. The remediation is guided by probabilistic assessment of mastery and the interventions are adapted to the errors. The thesis also presents the results of the evaluation of the system which revealed that the gain scores of the experimental group were statistically significantly higher than those of
Bergantiños, Gustavo; Valencia-Toledo, Alfredo; Vidal-Puga, Juan
The program evaluation review technique (PERT) is a tool used to schedule and coordinate activities in a complex project. In assigning the cost of a potential delay, we characterize the Shapley rule as the only rule that satisfies consistency and other desirable properties.
Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup
This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...
A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Miguel, Correia; Bessani, Alysson
This is report contains the formal proofs for the techniques for increasing the consistency of cloud storage as presented in "Bessani et al. SCFS: A Cloud-backed File System. Proc. of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. June 2014." The consistency anchor technique allows one to increase the consistency provided by eventually consistent cloud storage services like Amazon S3. This technique has been used in the SCFS (Shared Cloud File System) cloud-backed file system for solving rea...
Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; deMarín, Sharon; Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Etchells, Matthew
Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that allows students to help one another learn content material through the repetition of key concepts. In more than 40 years of published studies, literature reviews, and meta-analyses of peer tutoring, this quantitative synthesis of the literature is the first to examine the impact of peer tutoring on…
Atalmis, Erkan Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Saatcioglu, Argun
Private tutoring refers to additional instruction out of school. With its determinants and effects, private tutoring has received increasing attention from scholars over the past decades. Because of the increasing role of school and high-stakes exams, the demand for private tutoring has increased tremendously in Turkey. The purpose of this study…
Blanch, Silvia; Duran, David; Valdebenito, Vanessa; Flores, Marta
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of an educational programme involving peer tutoring at school and family tutoring at home on child reading comprehension achievement in Catalunya, Spain. We drew upon a sample of 303 primary school students from 8 to 11 years old and 223 family tutors from home (61.5% mothers, 15% fathers,…
Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Tae-Lee, Jong
How people learn is influenced by the cultural contexts in which their learning occurs. This qualitative case study explored challenges Korean medical students and tutors experienced during their PBL sessions from a cultural perspective using Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Twelve preclinical medical students and nine tutors from a large Korean…
Arco-Tirado, Jose L.; Fernandez-Martin, Francisco D.; Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel
The purposes of this study were, on one had, to determine the impact of a peer tutoring program on preventing academic failure and dropouts among first-year students (N = 100), from Civil Engineering, Economics, Pharmacy, and Chemical Engineering careers; while, on the other hand, to identify the potential benefits of such tutoring program on the…
Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador
In response to the increase of Higher Education support provided to tutoring programs, this paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a tutoring program to improve the academic performance of at-risk students enrolled in the last year of a nursing degree characterized by academic failure (failed courses). A controlled…
Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Yang, Che-Ching; Liang, Tyne
As more and more undergraduate students act as voluntary tutors to rural pupils after school, there is a growing need for a supporting environment to facilitate adaptive instruction. Among others, a teaching method retrieval system is intended to help tutors find relevant teaching methods for teaching a particular concept. However, teaching…
Walvoord, Mark E.; Pleitz, Jacob D.
Our study used a case-control matching design to assess the influence of a voluntary tutoring program in improving first-year students' Grade Point Averages (GPA). To evaluate program effectiveness, we applied case-control matching to obtain 215 pairs of students with or without participation in tutoring, but matched on high school GPA and…
Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Du Boulay, Benedict; Luckin, Rosemary; Benitez-Guerrero, Edgard Ivan
Tutoring systems are a common tool for delivering educational content and recent advances in this field include the detection of and reaction to learners' motivation. A data set derived from interactions in a tutoring system and its motivationally-aware variant provided opportunities to discover patterns of behavior in connection with motivational…
Cantinotti, Michael; Désormeaux-Moreau, Marjorie; Balbinotti, Marcos
Students in psychology generally have difficulties to successfully accomplish mandatory courses in statistics. Group peer-tutoring is a pedagogical strategy to support them with a peer that has already successfully mastered the content of such a course. In order to specifically tailor group peer-tutoring to the needs of students and to sustain…
Krajewska, Anna; Kowalczuk-Waledziak, Marta
In the face of mass education, the need to seek individualized methods of students' teaching-learning is increasing. That causes academic tutoring to become more and more popular in higher education all over the world. The article presents the theoretical background of tutoring, the results of research in that regard and the benefits of its…
Okoroma, Francisca N.
Peer tutoring plays a very significant role in teaching and learning, its gain is not limited to positive academic performance but extends to social life development. This work seeks to identify the impact peer tutoring has on librarians in training at the University of Ibadan, including the motives and strategies of the participants, the benefits…
Pai, Hui-Ju; Ho, Hsiu-Zu; Lam, Yeana W.
The Boyo After-School Tutoring Program in Hsinchu County, Taiwan, is a unique training program developed by the Boyo Social Welfare Foundation. The primary focus of this nonprofit foundation, established in 2008, is providing tutoring and support to indigenous youths. The Boyo Foundation also serves to build the capacity of unemployed village…
Scholastic Aptitude Test, called SAT, has an immense influence in Chinese education. Most Chinese students choose to attend tutoring programs outside of the school curriculum to help them prepare. This study explores the tutoring programs both in China and the United States to assess variables that affect the quality of their preparation.…
Chang, Sau Hou
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…
Ritter, Gary W.; Barnett, Joshua H.; Denny, George S.; Albin, Ginger R.
This meta-analysis assesses the effectiveness of volunteer tutoring programs for improving the academic skills of students enrolled in public schools Grades K-8 in the United States and further investigates for whom and under what conditions tutoring can be effective. The authors found 21 studies (with 28 different study cohorts in those studies)…
The GIFT Account allows users to log into GIFT Cloud , manage their personal storage in GIFT Cloud , download GIFT Local, and access resources...ARL-CR-0796 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud / Virtual Open...originator. ARL-CR-0796 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud / Virtual
This study was designed to determine the relative effectiveness of peer tutoring and cross-age tutoring on the language achievement of high need primary four pupils of public primary schools. The study adopted the equivalent group design with two experimental groups and a control group. Participants comprised of ninety ...
The present study employed a functional approach to assess the motivations of tutors volunteering at a non-profit tutoring program. Based on the work of Clary et al. (1998), the "Volunteer Functions Inventory" (VFI) was used to differentiate between six different functions or motivations; values, understanding, social, career, protective and…
Yu, Hongxia; Ding, Xiaohao
This paper analyzes the behavior of families in China regarding private tutoring, applying game theory to its discussion of their actions. It finds that families will definitely give their children private tutoring after school in order to obtain better educational opportunities in situations where the distribution of educational resources is…
Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip
This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…
AbdulRaheem, Yusuf; Yusuf, Hamdallat T.; Odutayo, Adesegun O.
Peer tutoring has generated a great deal of scholarly interest in the field of education. It is viewed as an essential instructional strategy for inclusive education because it constitutes one of the strongholds of cooperative learning. This study examines the effect of peer tutoring and the moderating effect of gender on the academic performance…
Qi, Manfei; Ma, Ding; Wang, Wansen
Aiming at emotion deficiency in present Network tutoring system, a lot of negative effects is analyzed and corresponding countermeasures are proposed. The model of Personalized Network tutoring system based on Emotional-cognitive interaction is constructed in the paper. The key techniques of realizing the system such as constructing emotional model and adjusting teaching strategies are also introduced.
Tutors' and students' intentions to use emerging technologies (ETs) in e-learning systems in higher education institutions are a central concern of researchers, academicians, and practitioners. However, tutors' and students' intentions to use ETs in e-learning systems in distance learning are relatively low. The goal of the study, developed in…
Full Text Available Dr MathTM is a mobile, online tutoring system where learners can use MXitTM on their mobile phones to receive help with their mathematics homework from volunteer tutors. These conversations between learners and Dr Math are held in MXit lingo. MXit...
Boyd, Pete; Bloxham, Sue
In the continuing concern about academic standards in the higher education sector a great deal of emphasis has been placed on quality assurance procedures rather than on considering how university tutors learn to grade the quality of work produced by students. As part of a larger research project focused on how tutors grade student coursework,…
Merlo, Jarrad R.; Gruba, Paul A.
Despite an increased emphasis on form-focused instruction (FFI), the use of the computer as a grammar tutor has remained largely unexamined for nearly two decades. With new technologies at hand, there is a need to take a fresh look at online grammar tutors and link designs more strongly to contemporary second language acquisition (SLA) principles…
van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.
When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used part of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (the…
van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.
When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used
Seters, van J.R.; Wellink, J.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M.J.; Ossevoort, M.A.
When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used
This study investigates how literacy was constructed at an adult literacy organization's volunteer tutor-training program. By drawing on qualitative analysis of training texts used during training, such as training evaluations, and data gathered from interviews with experienced tutors, it is possible to identify the assumptions about literacy…
Craig, Scotty D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt
Collaboratively observing tutoring is a promising method for observational learning (also referred to as vicarious learning). This method was tested in the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's Physics LearnLab, where students were introduced to physics topics by observing videos while problem solving in Andes, a physics tutoring system.…
Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine
Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…
Barton, James M.
Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor®The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement scores when Compass Learning's Odyssey Math® is used together with Carnegie Learning's Math Cognitive Tutor® in a mathematics intervention program at ABC Middle School. The…
Marx, Jonathan; Wolf, Michelle G.; Howard, Kimberly
We explore how the dynamics of the tutor-tutee relationship influence students' self-reliance and, ultimately, course performance. We examine 333 tutor and tutee pairs at a student success center at a public, comprehensive, university attended by approximately 5,000 undergraduates enrolled in more than 60 courses during spring 2015. The results…
Abaoud, Abdulrahman A.
This study aimed to measured teachers' attitudes toward implementation of peer tutoring strategies in teaching students with ADHD in Saudi Arabia. The study moreover examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes of implementation of peer tutoring strategies and variables of demographic characteristics. Five hundred thirty eight teachers…
Li, Yatao; Zhao, Ke; Xu, Wei
Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), which provide step-by-step guidance to students in problem-solving activities, have been shown to enhance student learning in a range of domains. However, they tend to be pre-established and cannot supply the tutoring function immediately from the diverse mathematical questions. The MITSAS (multiagent…
Zhao Da Wei
Full Text Available This article explores the current situation of university students taking part time jobs as tutors in families. This is very popular in China, especially in cities and towns. After systematic investigations, the author suggests that the office of student affairs in Chinese universities should play a substantial role by providing opportunities for these students to become better tutors.
Constantinou, Costas S.; Nicolaou, Stella A.
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is well known for enhancing students' problem solving skills and teamwork, while the role of PBL tutors is to facilitate discussion rather than teach. This study used four focus groups to explore PBL tutors' motivation, challenges and support mechanisms, and the relationship between these. The study found that there…
Previous studies show that attending private tutoring has become a necessity to many primary and secondary students in East Asia. Educational policies and their effective implementation are crucial to guarantee the healthy development of the private tutoring industry and thus protect the rights of students and their families. Under the framework…
Court, Krista; Johnson, Helen
Strong arguments have been forwarded for embedding academic writing development into the UK higher education curriculum and for subject tutors to facilitate this development (Hyland, 2000; Lea & Street, 2006; Monroe, 2003; Wingate, 2006). This small-scale case study explores subject tutors' practices and beliefs with regard to the provision of…
Arends, Hugo; Heeren, B.J.; Keuning, H.W.; Jeuring, J.T.
Embedded systems engineers need to learn how I/O programming expressions for microcontrollers evaluate. We designed, implemented, and tested an intelligent tutoring system prototype for learning such evaluations. The Microcontroller Knowledge (MicK) tutor guides a student step-by-step towards a
Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to examine the teaching ways I undertook in teaching medical students and to examine the use of a structured teaching plan for the academic and clinical tutors in psychiatry. The teaching plan was developed for use, initially by Oxford University Academic tutors at the Department of Psychiatry. In addition,…
Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias
We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models
Griffiths, Robert B.
Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics
Learning clinical reasoning is an important core activity of the modern dental curriculum. This article describes an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for clinical reasoning skill acquisition. The system is designed to provide an experience that emulates that of live human-tutored problem-based learning (PBL) sessions as much as possible, while at the same time permitting the students to participate collaboratively from disparate locations. The system uses Bayesian networks to model individual student knowledge and activity, as well as that of the group. Tutoring algorithms use the models to generate tutoring hints. The system incorporates a multimodal interface that integrates text and graphics so as to provide a rich communication channel between the students and the system, as well as among students in the group. Comparison of learning outcomes shows that student clinical reasoning gains from the ITS are similar to those obtained from human-tutored sessions.
The present study examined the effectiveness of a tutoring technique that has been used to identify and address participants' misunderstandings in Wason's selection task. In particular, the study investigated whether the technique would lead to improvements in performance when the task was presented in a deadline format (a condition in which time restrictions are imposed). In Experiment 1, the effects of tutoring on performance were compared in free time (conditions in which no time restrictions are imposed) and deadline task formats. In Experiment 2, improvements in performance were studied in deadline task formats, in which the tutoring and test phases were separated by an interval of 1 day. The results suggested that tutoring improved performance on the selection task under deadline and in free time conditions. Additionally, the study showed that participants made errors because they had misinterpreted the task. With tutoring, they were able to modify their initial misunderstandings.
Antònia Darder Mesquida
Full Text Available Research project tutoring appears as a crucial element for teaching; it is a planned action based on the relationship between a tutor and a student. This paper presents the findings of a design and development research which has as its main aim to create an organization system for the tutoring of online research projects. That system seeks to facilitate the tutoring and supervision task with trainee researchers, providing guidance for its management and instruments for its implementation. The main conclusions arising from this research derive from considering the need to offer a solution to the problem of distance research project supervision and has materialized in organization and sequencing through a model about the variables that influence the research project tutoring problem.
Ray (Arora Suranjana
Full Text Available Background: A Slow Learner (SL is one who has the ability to learn necessary academic skills but at a rate and depth below average of the same age peers. Aims: To identify SL we have to judge them not just by their grade level, but by the fact that they master skills slowly, have difficulty following multistep directives, live in the present and do not have long term goals. The remedial measures for these SL were repetition, peer tutoring, enhancing their self-esteem and improve confidence. With correct monitoring, support and feedback from a teacher facilitator peer tutoring can provide deeper learning, reduce dropout, and improve social behavior. Objective: The aim was to identify SL and to peer tutor them. Material and Methods: In a group of 106 students in the first year of MBBS in a college in Mauritius 20 students were identified as SL, out of the other 86 students 2 to 3 students were selected as peer tutors. The sample size on which the questionnaire was used to determine slow learners were 106 out of which 20 were found to be slow learners. The peer tutors were selected among the 106 students. The facilitator trained the tutors. Conclusion: In our Institute we found an alarming 15-18% of SL. The SL responded positively to the peer tutoring and a significant number improved their academic performance. Peer tutoring has significant cognitive gains for both tutor and tutees. Peer tutoring improves selfconfidence, academic achievement, improves their attitude towards the subject matter and encourages greater persistence in completing tasks. Identifying SL has many pitfalls as we should confirm that they are not 'reluctant' or 'struggling' learners but SL.
Kindler, Pawel; Grant, Christopher; Kulla, Steven; Poole, Gary; Godolphin, William
Tutors report difficult incidents and distressing conflicts that adversely affect learning in their problem-based learning (PBL) groups. Faculty development (training) and peer support should help them to manage this. Yet our understanding of these problems and how to deal with them often seems inadequate to help tutors. The aim of this study was to categorise difficult incidents and the interventions that skilled tutors used in response, and to determine the effectiveness of those responses. Thirty experienced and highly rated tutors in our Year 1 and 2 medical curriculum took part in semi-structured interviews to: identify and describe difficult incidents; describe how they responded, and assess the success of each response. Recorded and transcribed data were analysed thematically to develop typologies of difficult incidents and interventions and compare reported success or failure. The 94 reported difficult incidents belonged to the broad categories 'individual student' or 'group dynamics'. Tutors described 142 interventions in response to these difficult incidents, categorised as: (i) tutor intervenes during tutorial; (ii) tutor gives feedback outside tutorial, or (iii) student or group intervenes. Incidents in the 'individual student' category were addressed relatively unsuccessfully (effective 75% of the time) by response (iii). None of the interventions worked well when used in response to problems related to 'group dynamics'. Overall, 59% of the difficult incidents were dealt with successfully. Dysfunctional PBL groups can be highly challenging, even for experienced and skilled tutors. Within-tutorial feedback, the treatment that tutors are most frequently advised to apply, was often not effective. Our study suggests that the collective responsibility of the group, rather than of the tutor, to deal with these difficulties should be emphasised.
Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of contextual teaching and learning (CTL combined with peer tutoring toward learning achievement on human digestive system concept. This research was conducted at one of State Senior High School in South Tangerang in the academic year of 2016/2017. The research method was quasi experiment with nonequivalent pretest-postest control group design. The sample was taken by simple random sampling. The total of the sampels were 86 students which consisted of 44 students as a controlled group and 42 students as an experimental group. The research instrument was objective test which consisted of 25 multiple choice items of each pretest and posttest. The research also used observation sheets for teacher and students activity. The result of data analysis using t-test on the two groups show that the value of tcount was 2.40 and ttable was 1.99 on significant level α = 0,05, so that tcount > ttable.. This result indicated that there was influence of contextual teaching and learning (CTL combined with peer tutoring toward learning achievement on human digestive system concept.
United States, 2 = other) Publication year (1 = up to 2000, 2 = 2001–2005, 3 = 2006 onward) Grade level (1 = K–12, 2 = postsecondary) Subject (1 = math ...grade levels , (d) the subject taught is math , (e) a multiple-choice test is used to measure outcomes, and (f) Cognitive Tutor is the ITS used in the...conventional levels , or from the 50th to the 75th percentile. However, the amount of improvement found in an evaluation depended to a great extent on
Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas
Two aspects of mathematics with which students with mathematics learning difficulty (MLD) often struggle are word problems and number-combination skills. This article describes a math program in which students receive instruction on using algebraic equations to represent the underlying problem structure for three word-problem types. Students also learn counting strategies for answering number combinations that they cannot retrieve from memory. Results from randomized-control trials indicated that embedding the counting strategies for number combinations produces superior word-problem and number-combination outcomes for students with MLD beyond tutoring programs that focus exclusively on number combinations or word problems. PMID:22661880
D. I. Popov
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the student model for use in an intelligent tutoring system (ITS designed for the evaluation of students’ competencies in different Higher Education Facilities. There are classification and examples of the various student models, the most suitable for the evaluation of competencies is selected and finalized. The dynamic overlay fuzzy student model builded on the domain model based on the concept of didactic units is described in this work. The formulas, chart and diagrams are provided.
Wongkietkachorn, Apinut; Rhunsiri, Peera; Boonyawong, Pangpoom; Lawanprasert, Attaporn; Tantiphlachiva, Kasaya
Tutoring in suturing was developed to compensate for a shortage of suturing cases. The objective of this study was to compare ideal suturing score (ISS; 9 points), suturing time (min:sec), and suture placement error (mm) between medical students completing the suturing tutoring program and medical students attending ordinary medical school training program. Participants consisted of 2 groups of medical students who had never performed suturing. The study group had the role of suturing tutor to teach interested high school students. The control group consisted of volunteers from the ordinary medical school program. Skills measurement was performed by having students from both the groups perform 3 vertical mattress sutures on a model. The study group was tested at weeks 1, 9, and 10 to assess improvement. Both the groups were tested at week 10 to compare final learning outcome. There were 41 and 40 participants in the study group and the control group, respectively. ISS was significantly improved in the study group from week 1-week 10 (7.0 ± 1.3 vs. 8.2 ± 0.9, p = 0.01). At week 10, the study group had a higher mean ISS than the control group (8.2 ± 0.9 vs. 7.8 ± 1.1, p = 0.68). Mean suturing time and mean placement error were also lower in the study group at the end of suturing training (5:1 ± 1:0 vs. 5:2 ± 1:2, p = 0.13; 7.4 ± 7.4 vs. 8.0 ± 10.8, p = 0.44). Tutoring trainees to suture can improve a student's ability to learn how to suture. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El Saadawi, Gilan M; Azevedo, Roger; Castine, Melissa; Payne, Velma; Medvedeva, Olga; Tseytlin, Eugene; Legowski, Elizabeth; Jukic, Drazen; Crowley, Rebecca S
were not sufficient to replace immediate feedback in this study. However, results obtained directly from the tutoring system are not consistent with results obtained from assessments. In order to facilitate transfer to real-world tasks, further research will be needed to determine the optimum methods for supporting metacognition as immediate feedback is faded.
El Saadawi, Gilan M.; Azevedo, Roger; Castine, Melissa; Payne, Velma; Medvedeva, Olga; Tseytlin, Eugene; Legowski, Elizabeth; Jukic, Drazen; Crowley, Rebecca S.
metacognitive scaffolds were not sufficient to replace immediate feedback in this study. However, results obtained directly from the tutoring system are not consistent with results obtained from assessments. In order to facilitate transfer to real-world tasks, further research will be needed to determine the optimum methods for supporting metacognition as immediate feedback is faded. PMID:19434508
Full Text Available O estudo investiga efeitos da tutoria para o tutor, na aprendizagem de noções espaciais, em duas modalidades: explicação oral e explicação oral com demonstração. Participaram 40 crianças de 8 a 9 anos, em três grupos experimentais e um grupo controle. A pesquisa teve delineamento experimental, com pré-teste e pós-testes. No pré-teste e pós-testes 1 e 2 foram aplicadas duas provas de noções espaciais. A tarefa experimental consistiu na realização do jogo do parking em três condições: crianças sozinhas, crianças em díades na modalidade explicação oral ou na modalidade explicação oral com demonstração. Os resultados mostraram que a tutoria favoreceu a aprendizagem das noções espaciais para a criança tutora, com vantagem para a modalidade explicação oral com demonstração. Foram identificadas variações nos progressos alcançados pelos tutores nas duas modalidades tutoriais. São feitas considerações sobre as vantagens da tutoria no campo educacional.The study concerns the effects of tutoring on tutor children, on the learning of spatial notions, in two tutorship modalities, oral explanation and oral explanation with demonstration. Subjects were 40 children aged 8 to 9 years old, randomly assigned to three experimental groups and a control group. The study design is experimental, with pre-test and post-test. Two spatial tasks were employed as pre-test and post-tests (1 and 2. The experimental task consisted in a parking game carried out under three conditions: children alone, children in pairs for both oral explanation and oral explanation with demonstration. Results showed that tutor's learning on the focused spatial notions was favored by tutorship especially under the oral explanation with demonstration condition. Some variations on the tutor's progress were also identified on both modalities. The results provide some grounds on which tutorship may be debated in the educational field.
Ainhoa Ezeiza Ramos
Full Text Available El planteamiento consiste en proponer una manera de planificar algunas herramientas electrónicas presentes comúnmente en las plataformas de aprendizaje, ejemplificando cada caso de la secuencia con materiales reales de estudiantes de las titulaciones de Pedagogía y Psicopedagogía de la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU. Así, se pretende ofrecer una vía de reflexión acerca de la planificación y gestión de la acción tutorial on-line de asignatura. The main idea of this paper is to propose a way for planning some electronic tools which are currently present in e-learning platforms. Every step of the proposal is illustrated by a real example of students from the Education Degree Course or Psycho- Education Postgraduate Course of The University of The Basque Country. Thus, an attempt is made to offer a way to reflect on the planning and management of the online tutoring of the subject.
Ferrarese, Alessia; Buccelli, Claudio; Addeo, Giuseppe; Capasso, Emanuele; Conti, Adelaide; Amato, Maurizio; Compagna, Rita; Niola, Massimo; Martino, Valter
The surgical education in Italy has always been a very important issue. The aim of this article is to bring together the feedback of the definitions of the various components of the learning scheme and to evaluate the importance of the legal point. In March 2016 we performed a literature review. We have also examinated the internet pages of the Italian Department of Education, Health and Medical Order. In Italy the tutor had an unclear role from a legal point of view. He is the person who must be able to perform a specific procedure with expert technical and who must know how to stop the student if this is about to perform a dangerous maneuver. In Italy the ability to work for the trainee is limited in all reality, it depends on several factors including the increase of numbers of medical-legal disputes, the timing, the commitment it requires mentoring and a lack of mentors. In surgery, the problem is greater because of the increasingly of medico-legal implications that we are after surgical procedure. It would be necessary to define a role of the tutor in a regular protocol and a proper assessment of his performance.
Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário
The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance.
Fuchs, Lynn S; Geary, David C; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Douglas; Schatschneider, Christopher; Hamlett, Carol L; Deselms, Jacqueline; Seethaler, Pamela M; Wilson, Julie; Craddock, Caitlin F; Bryant, Joan D; Luther, Kurstin; Changas, Paul
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1st-grade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30-min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. At-risk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice ( n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice ( n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2-digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped at-risk children compensate for weak reasoning ability.
Claudia Alejandra Hernandez Herrera
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the perception of the alumni on tutoring in a public university in Mexico to analyze the way tutoring has contributed to the integral development of students. A questionnaire was applied to a sample of 312 students; the data obtained were analyzed with the IBM SPSS software. In the results, it was found that the students perceive positively the professors’ competences for tutoring. However, just over 50% of the students feel satisfied with the assigned tutor; in so far as 60% consider that their tutor canalize them to regularization courses; in addition, only 50% admit to have a major and life project, also half of the students believe that tutoring has supported to increase their performance and integration to university; and only two thirds think that their professor has pedagogic knowledge. In conclusion, the data indicate that it must be worked on the implementation of educational policies which contribute to strengthen tutoring programs that encourage the youth in Mexico to successfully complete school, thus, prevent scholar underachievement.
Fernanda Abreu de Moraes Figueiredo
Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to identify the most influential theory of learning related to the practice of mentoring from behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, the sociocultural theory and connectivism, and apply the most appropriate theories to solve common problems in distance education. For this purpose, we used the literature method. It was noted that each of the theories end up being influential to the role of tutor. Therefore, the learning tends to be richer in the ratio and effective to apply different theories together. However, that support better substantiating tutor's role is humanism, the sociocultural theory and connectivism. It was noticed that the problems often experienced by students in distance education are due to failures tutor interaction and affection, implying to resolve them closer tutor with the student to have more responsibility in the exchange of information, meeting deadlines and clarity in the disclosure notes assessments. Knowledge are mainly from humanism and sociocultural theory that end up not only reasons for existence of the tutor as serving to improve the development of the quality of tutor-student interaction. Keywords: learning theories; distance learning (DL; tutor distance.
Higgins, Robert; Robinson, Leslie; Hogg, Peter
Aim: To explore the experiences of students and tutors who participated in a residential multi-cultural and multi-professional 3 week summer school event (OPTIMAX). Method: A grounded theory approach was adopted. Two semi-structured focus group interviews (student and tutor) were conducted to explore participant experiences. Both focus groups were audio recorded and then transcribed and coded to identify the main themes and draw conclusions. Results: Inductive coding defined categories and sub-categories to explore the relationships within and between the two sets of focus group data. Discussion: OPTIMAX was seen a positive experience by both students and tutors and provided an opportunity to undertake team learning with peers from different countries or professional backgrounds. However, consideration needs to be given to team size and tutor leadership. Summary: By participating with international collaborative projects such as this, there is an opportunity to develop learning and explore current practices within radiography. - Highlights: • We explored the experiences of students and tutors during a summer school event. • This was a multi-cultural and multi-professional event. • It was found to be a valuable learning experience by both students and tutors. • Key to this was collaborative team learning by students. • However, consideration needs to be given to team size and tutor leadership
Domenici, Andrea; Donno, Flavia; Pucciani, Gianni; Stockinger, Heinz; Stockinger, Kurt
A Data Grid is a wide area computing infrastructure that employs Grid technologies to provide storage capacity and processing power to applications that handle very large quantities of data. Data Grids rely on data replication to achieve better performance and reliability by storing copies of data sets on different Grid nodes. When a data set can be modified by applications, the problem of maintaining consistency among existing copies arises. The consistency problem also concerns metadata, i.e., additional information about application data sets such as indices, directories, or catalogues. This kind of metadata is used both by the applications and by the Grid middleware to manage the data. For instance, the Replica Management Service (the Grid middleware component that controls data replication) uses catalogues to find the replicas of each data set. Such catalogues can also be replicated and their consistency is crucial to the correct operation of the Grid. Therefore, metadata consistency generally poses stricter requirements than data consistency. In this paper we report on the development of a Replica Consistency Service based on the middleware mainly developed by the European Data Grid Project. The paper summarises the main issues in the replica consistency problem, and lays out a high-level architectural design for a Replica Consistency Service. Finally, results from simulations of different consistency models are presented
Adebiyi MARION O.
Full Text Available Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS is an act of impacting knowledge while computer teaches or acts as the tutors which is a supplement to human teachers. The ability to teach each student based on their individual abilities a major advantage posed by ITS and that is why it is being embraced in this work. This work describes the design of an Intelligent Tutoring System that was tagged Scholastic tutor (St*, which has the individual learning and collaborative problem-solving modules. The individual tutoring module was designed to provide appropriate lessons to individuals based on his/her background knowledge level, interest, and learning style and assimilation rate prior to using the tutoring system. A software agent is used to monitor and process these parameters, arrange the learning topic, and exercises, for each individual. The collaborative problem-based tutoring module was designed to present tutorial problems and provides facilities to assist learners with some useful information and advice for problem solving. This is because the present lecturing methodology which is the conventional teaching methodology provides an interactive classroom setting that promotes the open exchange of ideas and allows for the lecturer to communicate directly with the students but has a great disadvantage of not teaching all the students according to their own learning rate and pace. The intelligent tutor solves this problem by providing individualised learning for each student where they can learn according to their own pace and learning abilities it will provide remedy and advice when learners encounter difficulties during learning session. The classical model of ITS architecture has four main modules; domain model, student model, tutoring model and the user interface model.
Full Text Available Aim: The Center for Interprofessional Training in Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany, has offered courses covering interprofessional material since the winter semester 2014/15. The unusual feature of these courses is that they are co-taught by peer tutors from medicine and nursing. This study investigates the subjective experiences of these tutors during the collaborative preparation and teaching of these tutorials with the aim of identifying the effects of equal participation in the perceptions and assessments of the other professional group.Method: Semi-structured, guideline-based interviews were held with six randomly selected tutors. The interviews were analyzed using structuring content analysis.Results: The results show that collaborative work led to reflection, mostly by the university student tutors, on the attitudes held. However, the co-tutors from each professional group were perceived to different degrees as being representative of those in their profession. Asked to master a shared assignment in a non-clinical context, the members of the different professional groups met on equal footing, even if the medical students had already gathered more teaching experience and thus mostly assumed a mentoring role over the course of working on and realizing the teaching units. The nursing tutors were primarily focused on their role as tutor. Both professional groups emphasized that prior to the collaboration they had an insufficient or no idea about the theoretical knowledge or practical skills of the other professional group. Overall, the project was rated as beneficial, and interprofessional education was endorsed.Conclusion: In the discussion, recommendations based on the insights are made for joint tutor training of both professional groups. According to these recommendations, harmonizing the teaching abilities of all tutors is essential to ensure equality during cooperation
DuBois, Matthew R; Volpe, Robert J; Burns, Matthew K; Hoffman, Jessica A
Knowledge of letters sounds has been identified as a primary objective of preschool instruction and intervention. Despite this designation, large disparities exist in the number of letter sounds children know at school entry. Enhancing caregivers' ability to teach their preschool-aged children letter sounds may represent an effective practice for reducing this variability and ensuring that more children are prepared to experience early school success. This study used a non-concurrent multiple-baseline-across-participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of caregivers (N=3) delivering a computer-assisted tutoring program (Tutoring Buddy) targeting letter sound knowledge to their preschool-aged children. Visual analyses and effect size estimates derived from Percentage of All Non-Overlapping Data (PAND) statistics indicated consistent results for letter sound acquisition, as 6weeks of intervention yielded large effects for letter sound knowledge (LSK) across all three children. Large effect sizes were also found for letter sound fluency (LSF) and nonsense word fluency (NWF) for two children. All three caregivers rated the intervention as highly usable and were able to administer it with high levels of fidelity. Taken together, the results of the present study found Tutoring Buddy to be an effective, simple, and usable way for the caregivers to support their children's literacy development. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Debono, Jason; Muscat, Adrian; Porter, Chris; Connections
This paper discusses a web-based eTutor for learning electrical circuit analysis. The eTutor system components, mainly the user-interface and the assessment model, are described. The system architecture developed provides a framework to support interactive sessions between the human and the machine for the case when the human is a student and the machine a tutor and also for the case when the roles of the human and the machine are swapped. To motivate the usefulness of the data...
Lee, Kyong-Hee; Statham, Anne
This study examines the benefits that can be achieved by pre-service teachers tutoring mathematics in after school programs. Analysis of student journal entries show enhanced ability to meet National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) process standards and methods of assessment, as well as greater awareness of the need to teach to…
Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sow, Chew-Fei; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Nadarajah, Vishna Devi
Background While there is an increasing pool of literature documenting the benefits of near-peer tutoring programme, little is known about the benefits for junior and senior peer tutors. Knowledge of the peer tutors' perceived benefits at different levels of seniority will aid in the development of a near-peer tutoring programme that will better fulfil both curricula and personal aspirations of near-peer tutors. We, therefore, investigated the perceived benefits of participation in a near-peer tutoring programme for junior as well as senior near-peer tutors. Methods Pre- and post-participation questionnaires were distributed to near-peer tutors after their clinical skills teaching sessions with Phase I undergraduate medical students. The Peer Tutor Assessment Instrument questionnaires were distributed to the 1) students, and to the 2) near-peer tutors (junior and senior) after each teaching and learning session for self-evaluation. Results The senior near-peer tutors felt that their participation in the programme had enhanced their skills (p=0.03). As a whole, the near-peer tutors were more motivated (Pre 5.32±0.46; Post 5.47±0.50; p=0.210) to participate in future teaching sessions but did not expect that having teaching experiences would make teaching as their major career path in the future (Pre 4.63±1.07; Post 4.54±0.98; p=0.701). The senior near-peer tutors were evaluated significantly higher by the students (p=0.0001). Students' evaluations of near-peer tutors on the domain of critical analysis was higher than self-evaluations (p=0.003). Conclusions Generally, the near-peer tutors perceived that they have benefited most in their skills enhancement and these near-peer tutors were scored highly by the students. However, senior near-peer tutors do not perceive that the programme has a lasting impact on their choice of career path.
Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sow, Chew-Fei; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Nadarajah, Vishna Devi
While there is an increasing pool of literature documenting the benefits of near-peer tutoring programme, little is known about the benefits for junior and senior peer tutors. Knowledge of the peer tutors' perceived benefits at different levels of seniority will aid in the development of a near-peer tutoring programme that will better fulfil both curricula and personal aspirations of near-peer tutors. We, therefore, investigated the perceived benefits of participation in a near-peer tutoring programme for junior as well as senior near-peer tutors. Pre- and post-participation questionnaires were distributed to near-peer tutors after their clinical skills teaching sessions with Phase I undergraduate medical students. The Peer Tutor Assessment Instrument questionnaires were distributed to the 1) students, and to the 2) near-peer tutors (junior and senior) after each teaching and learning session for self-evaluation. The senior near-peer tutors felt that their participation in the programme had enhanced their skills (p=0.03). As a whole, the near-peer tutors were more motivated (Pre 5.32±0.46; Post 5.47±0.50; p=0.210) to participate in future teaching sessions but did not expect that having teaching experiences would make teaching as their major career path in the future (Pre 4.63±1.07; Post 4.54±0.98; p=0.701). The senior near-peer tutors were evaluated significantly higher by the students (p=0.0001). Students' evaluations of near-peer tutors on the domain of critical analysis was higher than self-evaluations (p=0.003). Generally, the near-peer tutors perceived that they have benefited most in their skills enhancement and these near-peer tutors were scored highly by the students. However, senior near-peer tutors do not perceive that the programme has a lasting impact on their choice of career path.
Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Johnson, W. Lewis
We are interested in developing effective performance-oriented training for the operation of systems that are used for monitor and control purposes. We have focused on one such system, the communications Link Monitor and Control (LMC) system used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which is a worldwide system for navigating, tracking and communicating with unmanned interplanetary spacecraft. The tasks in this domain are procedural in nature and require reactive, goal-oriented skills; we have previously described a cognitive model for problem solving that accounts for both novice and expert levels of behavior as well as how skill is acquired. Our cognitive modeling work in this task domain led us to make a number of predictions about tutoring that have influenced the design of the system described in this paper.
Stottler, Richard H; Pike, Bill
We are developing for STRICOM an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) for tank and mechanized infantry company commanders that teaches tactical decision making and the tactical use of FBCB2, a C4I system...
Ichikawa, Nobuki; Homma, Shigenori; Yoshida, Tadashi; Ohno, Yosuke; Kawamura, Hideki; Wakizaka, Kazuki; Nakanishi, Kazuaki; Kazui, Keizo; Iijima, Hiroaki; Shomura, Hiroki; Funakoshi, Tohru; Nakano, Shiro; Taketomi, Akinobu
We retrospectively assessed the efficacy of our mentor tutoring system for teaching laparoscopic colorectal surgical skills in a general hospital. A series of 55 laparoscopic colectomies performed by 1 trainee were evaluated. Next, the learning curves for high anterior resection performed by the trainee (n=20) were compared with those of a self-trained surgeon (n=19). Cumulative sum analysis and multivariate regression analyses showed that 38 completed cases were needed to reduce the operative time. In high anterior resection, the mean operative times were significantly shorter after the seventh average for the tutored surgeon compared with that for the self-trained surgeon. In cumulative sum charting, the curve reached a plateau by the seventh case for the tutored surgeon, but continued to increase for the self-trained surgeon. Mentor tutoring effectively teaches laparoscopic colorectal surgical skills in a general hospital setting.
Pauwels, Henri; Daures, Pascal; Stockmann, Ynte
Aim of Training and Tutoring Projects: Transfer of European Union nuclear safety regulatory experience and best practices. The following courses are listed: Courses in Nuclear Safety Regulation, Licensing and Enforcement; Nuclear Safety Assessment and Inspection
By reviewing data on classroom and tutorial instruction, this document presents a perspective on the value ot technology-based instruction in general and intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) in particular...
Ramachandran, Sowmya; Remolina, Emilio; Fu, Daniel
.... This paper describes FlexiTrainer, an authoring framework that enables the rapid creation of pedagogically rich and performance-oriented learning environments with custom content and tutoring strategies...
Tatiani dos Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed at to investigate of the procedure of peer tutoring on the academic performance of pupils with intellectual disability in common classrooms of Early Education schools. Participate on the study two children with intellectual disability and twelve typical developmental as tutorial. The taught task was the recognition and the nomination of vowels of the alphabet, through playful activities, being that in the condition without peer tutoring the task was individualized and in the tutoring condition, the task was made in pairs. The results even so point that the peer tutoring can be effective in the improvement of the academic performance, although that is not applied for all of the children and the subject deserve more inquiry.
Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html
Full Text Available Tutors are generally considered to be an additional resource in teaching and learning, as a means of augmenting that of the lecturer. This article explores tutors as academic staff with responsibilities for developing practice competencies and integrating student learning in a social care professional training degree programme. The research is small-scale, based upon data from a purposive sample of five interviews; and upon insider-participant observation notes and reflections in one single setting. The author deployed a situated ethnographic methodology alongside a frame analytic approach. The research found that in their academic practice, tutors reveal how their student contact is oriented to developing a reflective practitioner and they discuss how programme inputs impact on the student’s professional self. Simultaneously, tutors seek to create cross programme integration through finding overlaps with academic programme strands.
McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod
The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system.
Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith
This experiment evaluated the effects of training tutors to use an instructional package to teach pronunciation and translation of the Chinese language. Tutors' correct use of the package increased from 68% of trials to 92% after training, and student correct pronunciation increased from 45% to 90%, with similar effects for translation. Continued use of the package, high social validity, and extended follow-up suggest that use of the package may be sustainable.
Brei-Crawley, M. Jo
This teacher research study examined an after-school science program called SSTAR (Science Students Teaching as Resources) to determine if this program encourages early scientific involvement for girls, specifically the investigation of simple machines. SSTAR's overall goal was to develop scientific skills in fourth grade tutors who were partnered with second grade tutees. This study was conducted during two different SSTAR study sessions, identified as the pilot study (year one) and the expanded study (year two). The SSTAR program and the data collection instruments were refined and modified during this two-year process. Four data collection instruments were used to gather data and insights into this program; video-taped interactions between tutor and tutee, a writing assessment, a performance assessment and focus group discussions. The video taped partnership interactions found that tutors used similar instructional strategies and tutees gave similar response strategies. However, these strategies varied according to the gender of the partner. A written assessment, in the form of an open ended question was given to just the tutors at the beginning and end of their session. Additionally, a performance assessment was given. This assessment asked the tutors to construct a machine from the Legos(c) that were provided. This assessment was also done in a pretest/post-test format. Scores from the writing and performance assessment were then compared and the performance assessment showed more tutor growth in knowledge of simple machines than the writing assessment. Overall students made comments stating they enjoyed the SSTAR program and would sign up again. They had no preference for a same gender or opposite gender partner among either tutor or tutee discussions. All the data examined shows evidence that SSTAR was an effective program for tutor growth in the scientific area of simple machines. While the original study focus was specifically on girls, both genders
Tansel, Aysit; Bircan, Fatma
There is an excess demand for university education in Turkey. Highly competitive university entrance examination which rations the available places at university programs is very central to the lives of young people. In order to increase the chances of success of their children in the university entrance examination parents spend large sums of money on private tutoring (dersane) of their children. In this study, we investigate the factors that determine participation in private tutoring and t...
Lander, Arvinder Kaur
This study examines the racialised narratives of White tutors in initial teacher education (ITE) with specific reference to how well initial teacher education (ITE) prepares student teachers to teach in an ethnically diverse society. It draws on critical race theory as a framework to identify how the discourse of whiteness is embedded in the experience, knowledge and hegemonic understandings of these tutors and how it affects their approach to the topic of race equality and teaching in a mult...
Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H J; Schmidt, Henk G
Tutors in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum are thought to play active roles in guiding students to develop frameworks for use in the construction of knowledge. This implies that both subject-matter expertise and the ability of tutors to facilitate the learning process must be important in helping students learn. This study examines the behavioural effects of tutors in terms of subject-matter expertise, social congruence and cognitive congruence on students' learning process and on their final achievement. The extent of students' learning at each PBL phase was estimated by tracking the number of relevant concepts recalled at the end of each learning phase, while student achievement was based on students' ability to describe and elaborate upon the relationship between relevant concepts learned. By using Analysis of Covariance, social congruence of the tutor was found to have a significant influence on learning in each PBL phase while all of the tutor-related behaviours had a significant impact on student achievement. The results suggest that the ability of tutors to communicate informally with students and hence create a less threatening learning environment that promotes a free flow exchange of ideas, has a greater impact on learning at each of the PBL phases as compared to tutors' subject-matter expertise and their ability to explain concepts in a way that is easily understood by students. The data presented indicates that these tutor-related behaviours are determinants of learning in a PBL curriculum, with social congruence having a greater influence on learning in the different PBL phases.
Full Text Available With ongoing changes to the requirements for professional registration, greater demand for professional services, and targets for increasing participation, universities must adapt quickly to ensure that the quality of accredited professional programs is continually improving. The problem of retaining students is particularly relevant in accredited professional courses where students often have unrealistic expectations about course content and the profession. In order to address issues surrounding student engagement and retention in an accredited psychology course, a Principal Tutor was appointed to a first year cohort. By using a transition pedagogy framework to support student engagement through incorporating administrative and profession-specific advice within and outside the formal curriculum, the program appears to have been successful in increasing student engagement. Indicators of student engagement were higher than national averages and retention rates improved. Implications for possible application of the initiatives included in this program elsewhere are discussed.
Nomura, Osamu; Onishi, Hirotaka; Kato, Hiroyuki
Cross-year peer tutoring (CYPT) of medical students is recognized as an effective learning tool. The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority of the objective outcome of medical interview training with CYPT compared with the results of faculty-led training (FLT), and to explore qualitatively the educational benefits of CYPT. We conducted a convergent mixed methods study including a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial and two focus groups. For the CYPT group, teaching was led by six student tutors from year 5. In the FLT group, students were taught by six physicians. Focus groups for student learners (four tutees) and student teachers (six tutors) were conducted following the training session. One hundred sixteen students agreed to participate. The OSCE scores of the CYPT group and FLT group were 91.4 and 91.2, respectively. The difference in the mean score was 0.2 with a 95% CI of -1.8 to 2.2 within the predetermined non-inferiority margin of 3.0. By analyzing the focus groups, we extracted 13 subordinate concepts and formed three categories including 'Benefits of CYPT', 'Reflections of tutees and tutors' and 'Comparison with faculty', which affected the interactions among tutees, tutors, and faculty. CYPT is effective for teaching communication skills to medical students and for enhancing reflective learning among both tutors and tutees.
Adret, Patrice; Meliza, C Daniel; Margoliash, Daniel
We explored physiological changes correlated with song tutoring by recording the responses of caudal nidopallium neurons of zebra finches aged P21-P24 (days post hatching) to a broad spectrum of natural and synthetic stimuli. Those birds raised with their fathers tended to show behavioral evidence of song memorization but not of singing; thus auditory responses were not confounded by the birds' own vocalizations. In study 1, 37 of 158 neurons (23%) in 17 of 22 tutored and untutored birds were selective for only 1 of 10 stimuli comprising broadband signals, early juvenile songs and calls, female calls, and adult songs. Approximately 30% of the selective neurons (12/37 neurons in 9 birds) were selective for adult conspecific songs. All these were found in the song system nuclei HVC and paraHVC. Of 122 neurons (17 birds) in tutored birds, all of the conspecific song-selective neurons (8 neurons in 6 birds) were selective for the adult tutor song; none was selective for unfamiliar song. In study 2 with a different sampling strategy, we found that 11 of 12 song-selective neurons in 6 of 7 birds preferred the tutor song; none preferred unfamiliar or familiar conspecific songs. Most of these neurons were found in caudal lateral nidopallium (NCL) below HVC. Thus by the time a bird begins to sing, there are small numbers of tutor song-selective neurons distributed in several forebrain regions. We hypothesize that a small population of higher-order auditory neurons is innately selective for complex features of behaviorally relevant stimuli and these responses are modified by specific perceptual/social experience during development.
Service Oriented Architectures facilitate loosely coupled composed services, which are established in a decentralized way. One challenge for such composed services is to guarantee consistency, i.e., deadlock-freeness. This paper presents a decentralized approach to consistency checking, which
Full Text Available Background: While there is an increasing pool of literature documenting the benefits of near-peer tutoring programme, little is known about the benefits for junior and senior peer tutors. Knowledge of the peer tutors’ perceived benefits at different levels of seniority will aid in the development of a near-peer tutoring programme that will better fulfil both curricula and personal aspirations of near-peer tutors. We, therefore, investigated the perceived benefits of participation in a near-peer tutoring programme for junior as well as senior near-peer tutors. Methods: Pre- and post-participation questionnaires were distributed to near-peer tutors after their clinical skills teaching sessions with Phase I undergraduate medical students. The Peer Tutor Assessment Instrument questionnaires were distributed to the 1 students, and to the 2 near-peer tutors (junior and senior after each teaching and learning session for self-evaluation. Results: The senior near-peer tutors felt that their participation in the programme had enhanced their skills (p=0.03. As a whole, the near-peer tutors were more motivated (Pre 5.32±0.46; Post 5.47±0.50; p=0.210 to participate in future teaching sessions but did not expect that having teaching experiences would make teaching as their major career path in the future (Pre 4.63±1.07; Post 4.54±0.98; p=0.701. The senior near-peer tutors were evaluated significantly higher by the students (p=0.0001. Students’ evaluations of near-peer tutors on the domain of critical analysis was higher than self-evaluations (p=0.003. Conclusions: Generally, the near-peer tutors perceived that they have benefited most in their skills enhancement and these near-peer tutors were scored highly by the students. However, senior near-peer tutors do not perceive that the programme has a lasting impact on their choice of career path.
Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sow, Chew-Fei; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Nadarajah, Vishna Devi
Background While there is an increasing pool of literature documenting the benefits of near-peer tutoring programme, little is known about the benefits for junior and senior peer tutors. Knowledge of the peer tutors’ perceived benefits at different levels of seniority will aid in the development of a near-peer tutoring programme that will better fulfil both curricula and personal aspirations of near-peer tutors. We, therefore, investigated the perceived benefits of participation in a near-peer tutoring programme for junior as well as senior near-peer tutors. Methods Pre- and post-participation questionnaires were distributed to near-peer tutors after their clinical skills teaching sessions with Phase I undergraduate medical students. The Peer Tutor Assessment Instrument questionnaires were distributed to the 1) students, and to the 2) near-peer tutors (junior and senior) after each teaching and learning session for self-evaluation. Results The senior near-peer tutors felt that their participation in the programme had enhanced their skills (p=0.03). As a whole, the near-peer tutors were more motivated (Pre 5.32±0.46; Post 5.47±0.50; p=0.210) to participate in future teaching sessions but did not expect that having teaching experiences would make teaching as their major career path in the future (Pre 4.63±1.07; Post 4.54±0.98; p=0.701). The senior near-peer tutors were evaluated significantly higher by the students (p=0.0001). Students’ evaluations of near-peer tutors on the domain of critical analysis was higher than self-evaluations (p=0.003). Conclusions Generally, the near-peer tutors perceived that they have benefited most in their skills enhancement and these near-peer tutors were scored highly by the students. However, senior near-peer tutors do not perceive that the programme has a lasting impact on their choice of career path. PMID:26356229
Payne, Velma L; Medvedeva, Olga; Legowski, Elizabeth; Castine, Melissa; Tseytlin, Eugene; Jukic, Drazen; Crowley, Rebecca S
Determine effects of a limited-enforcement intelligent tutoring system in dermatopathology on student errors, goals and solution paths. Determine if limited enforcement in a medical tutoring system inhibits students from learning the optimal and most efficient solution path. Describe the type of deviations from the optimal solution path that occur during tutoring, and how these deviations change over time. Determine if the size of the problem-space (domain scope), has an effect on learning gains when using a tutor with limited enforcement. Analyzed data mined from 44 pathology residents using SlideTutor-a Medical Intelligent Tutoring System in Dermatopathology that teaches histopathologic diagnosis and reporting skills based on commonly used diagnostic algorithms. Two subdomains were included in the study representing sub-algorithms of different sizes and complexities. Effects of the tutoring system on student errors, goal states and solution paths were determined. Students gradually increase the frequency of steps that match the tutoring system's expectation of expert performance. Frequency of errors gradually declines in all categories of error significance. Student performance frequently differs from the tutor-defined optimal path. However, as students continue to be tutored, they approach the optimal solution path. Performance in both subdomains was similar for both errors and goal differences. However, the rate at which students progress toward the optimal solution path differs between the two domains. Tutoring in superficial perivascular dermatitis, the larger and more complex domain was associated with a slower rate of approximation towards the optimal solution path. Students benefit from a limited-enforcement tutoring system that leverages diagnostic algorithms but does not prevent alternative strategies. Even with limited enforcement, students converge toward the optimal solution path.
An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from a Researcher’s or Analyst’s Perspective by Robert A...Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from a Researcher’s or Analyst’s Perspective Robert A Sottilare and Anne M Sinatra Human...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from a Researcher’s or Analyst’s Perspective
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical contact in the early curriculum and workplace learning with active tutorship are important parts of modern medical education. In a previously published study, we found that medical students' tutors experienced a heavier workload, less reasonable demands and less encouragement, than students. The aim of this interview study was to further illuminate physicians' experiences as clinical tutors. Methods Twelve tutors in the Early Professional Contact course were interviewed. In the explorative interviews, they were asked to reflect upon their experiences of working as tutors in this course. Systematic text condensation was used as the analysis method. Results In the analysis, five main themes of physicians' experiences as clinical tutors in the medical education emerged: (a Pleasure and stimulation. Informants appreciated tutorship and meeting both students and fellow tutors, (b Disappointment and stagnation. Occasionally, tutors were frustrated and expressed negative feelings, (c Demands and duty. Informants articulated an ambition to give students their best; a desire to provide better medical education but also a duty to meet demands of the course management, (d Impact of workplace relations. Tutoring was made easier when the clinic's management provided active support and colleagues accepted students at the clinic, and (e Multitasking difficulties. Combining several duties with those of a tutorship was often reported as difficult. Conclusions It is important that tutors' tasks are given adequate time, support and preparation. Accordingly, it appears highly important to avoid multitasking and too heavy a workload among tutors in order to facilitate tutoring. A crucial factor is acceptance and active organizational support from the clinic's management. This implies that tutoring by workplace learning in medical education should play an integrated and accepted role in the healthcare system.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of social skills intervention program via peer tutoring on aggression level of secondary school students. The study was a semi-experimental model using experimental group with pre and post-tests. Eleven (eighth class students were selected to have skills for being peer helper. The population of this research consisted 56 secondary school students at Kahramanmaraş. In order to evaluate aggression level of students, Aggression Scale developed by Tuzgöl (1998 was used. . Additionally, a Personal Information Sheet developed by the researcher was used to record certain demographic variables. Researcher applied social skills invention program to 11 students (peer helpers for eight weeks. Later, peer helpers applied intervention program to selected 56 students as well. After application, last-test was applied to selected 56 students, again. To analyze the data collected, SPSS 15 for computer was used. Results of the research revealed that the social skill program via peer helping (peer guidance considerably decreased the level of aggression of students at secondary school students. Students’ aggression level differentiated according to their sex, but not their class levels. Results were discussed in the light of literature
Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S
Elementary school students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as an operational rather than a relational symbol. Such misunderstanding is problematic because solving equations with missing numbers may be important for higher-order mathematics skills including word problems. Research indicates equal-sign instruction can alter how typically-developing students use the equal sign, but no study has examined effects for students with mathematics difficulty (MD) or how equal-sign instruction contributes to word-problem skill for students with or without MD. The present study assessed the efficacy of equal-sign instruction within word-problem tutoring. Third-grade students with MD (n = 80) were assigned to word-problem tutoring, word-problem tutoring plus equal-sign instruction (combined) tutoring, or no-tutoring control. Combined tutoring produced better improvement on equal sign tasks and open equations compared to the other 2 conditions. On certain forms of word problems, combined tutoring but not word-problem tutoring alone produced better improvement than control. When compared at posttest to 3(rd)-grade students without MD on equal sign tasks and open equations, only combined tutoring students with MD performed comparably.
Petursdottir, Anna-Lind; McComas, Jennifer; McMaster, Kristen; Horner, Kathy
This study examined the effects of scripted peer-tutoring reading activities, with and without programmed common play-related stimuli, on social interactions between a kindergartner with autism spectrum disorder and his typically developing peer-tutoring partners during free play. A withdrawal design with multiple baselines across peers showed no effects of peer tutoring on social interactions. A withdrawal design with 1 peer and continuing baselines across the other 2 peers showed that adding play-related common stimuli to the peer-tutoring activity increased social interactions during free play. PMID:17624077
Helen Susan Setterud
Full Text Available The key role of the tutor in problem-based learning (PBL is to help students become selfregulated learners. Tutors need training to acquire the necessary facilitating skills for this task. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how PBL tutor training is currently arranged at four universities in Sweden: Linköping University, Lund Medical Faculty, Uppsala Medical School and Örebro School of Medicine. Moreover, we seek to analyse how the content and format of the tutor training courses correspond to the desired skills and competencies for PBL tutors described in the literature. We draw especially on work coming out of three pioneering universities for PBL: McMaster University, Canada; Maastricht University, The Netherlands; and Linköping University, Sweden. One aim has been to construct a framework for analysis that uses categories specifying the knowledge base, capabilities and skills to support students’ learning processes which characterise the full-fledged PBL tutor. For this framework, we have used the following categories: Knowledge of PBL and pedagogical theories, Personal traits, Student-centeredness, Ability to handle group processes, and Subject knowledge. We collected descriptions of the course design and content from the four universities, and assessed to what extent these categories were represented within the courses. Our results show that all categories inform the course content at all four universities, though the design varies between courses. In summary, we show that the four PBL tutor training courses are all designed to enable participants to experience PBL first-hand both as members of a tutorial group and as tutors. They all also include a theoretical base and offer opportunities for discussion and reflection with peers; however, there are some differences in design between the courses. According to participants, all four courses provide good preparation for the tutor role. Yet, we see a need for the
Michelle Brust Hackmayer
Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a natureza docente do trabalho de tutoria na Educação a Distância (EAD, utilizando, como referência, os documentos oficiais do Ministério da Educação e Cultura (MEC (Brasil, 2007 sobre as funções do tutor e as avaliações que os tutores do Centro de Educação Superior a Distância do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (CEDERJ fazem de sua prática. Contextualiza a pesquisa, abordando questões teóricas relativas à docência na EAD, a qual envolve vários profissionais em sua atuação, incluindo o tutor. Revela que até o momento inexiste um termo que defina o papel do tutor no trabalho com a EAD, papel este que se torna cada vez maior e mais indefinido. Mostra que, embora tenha, reconhecidamente, uma função importante e determinante nos cursos a distância, o tutor ainda é um profissional que carece de perfil profissiográfico, que lhe confira uma formação definida e um espaço determinado na modalidade. O artigo revela, ainda, que cresce a necessidade de estudos que indiquem quais as suas principais funções, sua identidade profissional e, sobretudo, a caracterização de sua atuação docente na EAD. Analisa as respostas do questionário aplicado aos 38 tutores do CEDERJ/UERJ, no curso de Licenciatura em Pedagogia e, finalmente, conclui que os tutores são unânimes em considerar sua atuação como docente, embora não sejam reconhecidos nem remunerados como tal pela instituição onde atuam.
If It Is To Be, It Is Up to Me To Do It: Overcoming My Reading/Spelling Problems Not in One Day but in 180 Days. A Book for Adults (from 6 to 96) Being Assisted by a Volunteer Tutor (Such as a Family Member).
Used in conjunction with other books in the series, this book is designed to help adults overcome their reading and spelling problems. The book begins with a progress chart, a record of achievement, and a student-tutor contract. The major part of the book consists of worksheets corresponding to the 60 daily lessons explained in a companion book.…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs can be prevented through well-coordinated, multifaceted programs. However, implementation of CLABSI prevention programs requires individualized strategies for different institutional situations, and the best strategy in resource-limited settings is uncertain. Peer tutoring may be an efficient and effective method that is applicable in such settings. Methods A prospective intervention was performed to reduce CLABSIs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU at a tertiary hospital. The core interventions consisted of implementation of insertion and maintenance bundles for CLABSI prevention. The overall interventions were guided and coordinated by active educational programs using peer tutoring. The CLABSI rates were compared for 9 months pre-intervention, 6 months during the intervention and 9 months post-intervention. The CLABSI rate was further observed for three years after the intervention. Results The rate of CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days decreased from 6.9 infections in the pre-intervention period to 2.4 and 1.8 in the intervention (6 m; P = 0.102 and post-intervention (9 m; P = 0.036 periods, respectively. A regression model showed a significantly decreasing trend in the infection rate from the pre-intervention period (P < 0.001, with incidence-rate ratios of 0.348 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98–1.23 in the intervention period and 0.257 (95% CI, 0.07–0.91 in the post-intervention period. However, after the 9-month post-intervention period, the yearly CLABSI rates reverted to 3.0–5.4 infections per 1000 catheter-days over 3 years. Conclusions Implementation of CLABSI prevention bundles using peer tutoring in a resource-limited setting was useful and effectively reduced CLABSIs. However, maintaining the reduced CLABSI rate will require further strategies.
McNamara, Danielle S; Jacovina, Matthew E; Snow, Erica L; Allen, Laura K
Work in cognitive and educational psychology examines a variety of phenomena related to the learning and retrieval of information. Indeed, Alice Healy, our honoree, and her colleagues have conducted a large body of groundbreaking research on this topic. In this article we discuss how 3 learning principles (the generation effect, deliberate practice and feedback, and antidotes to disengagement) discussed in Healy, Schneider, and Bourne (2012) have influenced the design of 2 intelligent tutoring systems that attempt to incorporate principles of skill and knowledge acquisition. Specifically, this article describes iSTART-2 and the Writing Pal, which provide students with instruction and practice using comprehension and writing strategies. iSTART-2 provides students with training to use effective comprehension strategies while self-explaining complex text. The Writing Pal provides students with instruction and practice to use basic writing strategies when writing persuasive essays. Underlying these systems are the assumptions that students should be provided with initial instruction that breaks down the tasks into component skills and that deliberate practice should include active generation with meaningful feedback, all while remaining engaging. The implementation of these assumptions is complicated by the ill-defined natures of comprehension and writing and supported by the use of various natural language processing techniques. We argue that there is value in attempting to integrate empirically supported learning principles into educational activities, even when there is imperfect alignment between them. Examples from the design of iSTART-2 and Writing Pal guide this argument.
Maćkowski, Michał Sebastian; Brzoza, Piotr Franciszek; Spinczyk, Dominik Roland
There are many problems with teaching and assessing impaired students in higher education, especially in technical science, where the knowledge is represented mostly by structural information like: math formulae, charts, graphs, etc. Developing e-learning platform for distance education solves this problem only partially due to the lack of accessibility for the blind. The proposed method is based on the decomposition of the typical mathematical exercise into a sequence of elementary sub-exercises. This allows for interactive resolving of math exercises and assessment of the correctness of exercise solutions at every stage. The presented methods were prepared and evaluated by visually impaired people and students. The article presents the accessible interactive tutoring platform for math teaching and assessment, and experience in exploring it. The results of conducted research confirm good understanding of math formulae described according to elaborated rules. Regardless of the level of complexity of the math formulae the level of math formulae understanding is higher for alternative structural description. The proposed solution enables alternative descriptions of math formulae. Based on the research results, the tool for computer-aided interactive learning of mathematics adapted to the needs of the blind has been designed, implemented and deployed as a platform for on-site and online and distance learning. The designed solution can be very helpful in overcoming many barriers that occur while teaching impaired students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galina V. Rybina
Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to acquaint readers of the journal “Open Education” with the accumulated experience of construction and practical use in the educational process of Cybernetics Department of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI of a special class of intelligent tutoring systems, based on the architectures of tutoring integrated expert systems. The development is carried out on the problem-oriented methodology basis and intelligent software environment of AT-TECHNOLOGY workbench. They provide automation of support of all the stages of construction and maintenance of the life cycle of such systems.In the context of basic models, methods, algorithms and tools that implement the conceptual foundations of a problem-oriented methodology, and which are evolutionarily developed and experimentally investigated in the process of constructing various architectures of training integrated expert systems, including webbased ones, some features of the generalized model of intellectual learning and its components are considered (in particular, the competence-based model of the trainee, the adaptive tutoring model, the ontology model of the course /discipline et al. as well as methods and means of their realization in the current versions of tutoring integrated expert systems.In current versions of tutoring integrated expert systems examples of implementation of typical intelligent tutoring problems are described for the generalized ontology “Intelligent systems and technologies” (individual planning of the method of studying the training course, intelligent analysis of training tasks, intelligent support for decision making.A brief description of the conceptual foundations of the model of the intelligent software environment of the AT-TECHNOLOGY workbench is given and a description of some components of the model is presented with a focus on the basic components – intelligent planner, standard design procedures and reusable
Δουκάκης, Σπυρίδων; Μιχαλοπούλου, Γεωργία
Τα προγράμματα/υπηρεσίες e-tutoring που υλοποιούνται σε πραγματικό χρόνο, προσφέρουν ευκαιρίες εκπαίδευσης και ανάπτυξης των μαθητών και μαθητριών δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης. Στην παρούσα εργασία, αρχικά θα επιχειρηθεί μία επισκόπηση της διεθνούς βιβλιογραφίας σχετικά με την υλοποίηση προγραμμάτων etutoring. Στη συνέχεια θα παρουσιαστεί το Pierce e-tutoring online program, το οποίο ξεκίνησε την πιλοτική του λειτουργία το σχολικό έτος 2012-2013 και από το σχολικό έτος 2013-2014 μέχρι και σήμερ...
Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.
Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha
This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (pcorrelation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.
Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders
When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...
Full Text Available Standar asesmen pembelajaran sains hendaknya ditekankan pada penilaian kemampuan siswa dalam real life situation. Diperlukan adanya sistem penilaian untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penggunaan jurnal belajar sebagai refleksi setelah proses pembelajaran menjadi alternatif untuk melatih cara berpikir siswa yang dipadukan dengan pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring agar siswa lebih aktif. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis pengaruh penggunaan jurnal belajar dalam pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa, mendeskripsikan penerapan jurnal belajar dalam pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring mempengaruhi peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis, dan mendeskripsikan peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis setelah perlakuan penggunaan jurnal belajar dalam pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMP Muhammadiyah di Kabupaten Malang kelas VIII. Jenis penelitian ini adalah Quasy Eksperimen dengan teknik pengambilan Cluster Random Sampling. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMP Muhammadiyah di Kabupaten Malang. Data kemampuan berpikir kritis diperoleh dengan test soal esay. Analisis data yang digunakan yaitu uji Independent t-tes. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan jurnal belajar dalam pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring memiliki pengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis materi fotosintesis pada siswa kelas VIII SMP Muhammadiyah di Kabupaten Malang. Penerapan penggunaan jurnal belajar dilakukan setelah proses pembelajaran. Peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis lebih efektif terjadi pada kelompok eksperimen daripada kontrol.
Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor-student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians.
Wang, Qing; Li, Huiping; Pang, Weiguo
Coaching psychology is of increasing interest to medical educators for its potential benefits as a facilitative method in problem-based learning (PBL). However, the field lacks empirical studies that explore the lived experiences of students and tutors in the PBL coaching process. This study aimed to elicit knowledge regarding medical students' and tutors' experiences and perceptions of PBL coaching in the context of Chinese undergraduate medical education. The qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was employed. Participants comprised third year medical students (n=20) and PBL tutors (n=5) who have adopted a coaching approach in PBL for a semester. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their experiences of PBL coaching. Data analysis followed an iterative four-stage scheme of Biggerstaff and Thompson. Six main themes emerged from diverse experiences and interpretations: 1) mindsets of coaching and learning, 2) the development of learning dispositions and capacities, 3) student group collaboration, 4) tutor-student relationships, 5) personal and professional development, and 6) challenges and difficulties in implementation. It could be concluded that PBL coaching is a dynamic, facilitative process that makes a particular contribution to the learning process from psychological, emotional, and social perspectives, whilst it demonstrates significant overlaps with PBL tutoring in terms of supporting students' cognitive activities in PBL. Further research is needed to identify the barriers and challenges for medical educators to implement coaching in the PBL process.
AlHaqwi, Ali I
To explore opinions of undergraduate medical students regarding learning outcomes of the instructional strategy of Problem Based Learning (PBL). In addition their views were sought about the role of tutors and qualities of effective tutors. This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire based study which was conducted in two colleges of Medicine, Central region, Saudi Arabia during the period of 1st of April to 30(th) June 2012. One hundred seventy four undergraduate medical students participated in this study. Seventy percent of participants have indicated that PBL strategy contributed to the development of their knowledge, presentation skills, team work abilities, and accepting criticism from other colleagues. Regarding the tutors' role in PBL tutorials, majority of the participants (75%) indicated that this role is essential, nevertheless, only 58% of students indicated that this role is clear and well identified. Sixty three percent of participants preferred a member role in the PBL tutorials and 80 percent of participants preferred both content and process expert tutors in the PBL tutorials. Significant statistical difference was noted between the views of students and their schools, gender, and study phase. Majority of the participants believed that PBL had a positive impact on the development of their cognitive, personal and teamwork skills. The view of the students in this study and the available evidence suggest that tutor should have both qualities; content and process expertise, in order to have the best outcomes from the PBL tutorials.
María Dolores Guerra-Martín
Full Text Available In response to the increase of Higher Education support provided to tutoring programs, this paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a tutoring program to improve the academic performance of at-risk students enrolled in the last year of a nursing degree characterized by academic failure (failed courses. A controlled experimental study was carried out to evaluate a tutoring program that included a minimum of nine meetings performed by an expert professor as tutor. A questionnaire for assessing the academic needs was designed and interventions were performed when responses were: nothing, a little or something. Medium to large effects were found in the progress of failed course to passed course (p =.000, rφ = .30, improving the information about courses (p < .001, d = 2.01, the information comprehension (p < .001, d = 0.85 and the strategies to improve academic performance (p < .001, d = 1.37. The intervention group students’ response highlighted program satisfaction and effectiveness. The significance of the study lies in reinforcing the formal tutoring as a tool to improve academic performance in at-risk students.
Copeland, H Liesel; Kinzy, Terri Goss
Many interdisciplinary Ph.D. programs admit students of different educational backgrounds who receive a first year of a general curriculum education. However, student preparation for this curriculum varies, and methods are needed to provide academic support. Graduate student peer tutoring was piloted as an initiative funded by a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Initiative for Minority Student Development award to the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (UMDNJ-RWJMS) and is now offered to all students in the interdisciplinary Molecular Biosciences Ph.D. program between Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, and UMDNJ-RWJMS. Tutoring occurs individually or in small groups and has grown over the past 5 years in the number of students tutored and hours of tutoring. The program was evaluated by surveying and interviewing both tutors and students concerning process variables (e.g. awareness, frequency) and impact variables (e.g. perceived benefits, motivators), as well as by assessing changes in exam scores for the four core courses of the first-year graduate curriculum. Copyright © 2005 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Barrow, Dorian A.; Lochan, Samuel N.
Globally, private supplementary tutoring is a huge business and the practice is expanding rapidly in many regions of the world where it never existed before. In some of these regions it is posing a novel set of challenges for education planners and policy makers. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which supplementary tutoring is impacting on the goals of the formal education system in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). The participation rate in supplementary tutoring at primary school level in T&T was found to be high (88.2 per cent at Standard Five level), with the majority of the students being privately tutored by their regular school teachers. Their main motivation for taking private tutoring lessons was to try to secure a place in one of the few elite secondary schools in the country. The authors of this paper admit that there is no quick solution to the problem, especially if it is understood as a part of the process of cultural change. They contend that the key to breaking the elitist tradition lies in modifying public understanding about education and convincing parents and citizens at large that a wide range of options and opportunities exists outside the narrow confines of the old colonial economy and the old colonial schools.
Iqbal, Maha; Velan, Gary M; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Balasooriya, Chinthaka
Collaboration is of increasing importance in medical education and medical practice. Students' and tutors' perceptions about small group learning are valuable to inform the development of strategies to promote group dynamics and collaborative learning. This study investigated medical students' and tutors' views on competencies and behaviours which promote effective learning and interaction in small group settings. This study was conducted at UNSW Australia. Five focus group discussions were conducted with first and second year medical students and eight small group tutors were interviewed. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. Students and tutors identified a range of behaviours that influenced collaborative learning. The main themes that emerged included: respectfulness; dominance, strong opinions and openness; constructiveness of feedback; active listening and contribution; goal orientation; acceptance of roles and responsibilities; engagement and enthusiasm; preparedness; self- awareness and positive personal attributes. An important finding was that some of these student behaviours were found to have a differential impact on group interaction compared with collaborative learning. This information could be used to promote higher quality learning in small groups. This study has identified medical students' and tutors' perceptions regarding interactional behaviours in small groups, as well as behaviours which lead to more effective learning in those settings. This information could be used to promote learning in small groups.
Full Text Available Every citizen has the similar right to get an education and teaching, either through formal and non formal education or informal, however, it is not easy to access it. It makes an inequity education. but access to them is not an easy issue to arise issues of educational equity . One solution is a non-formal education equity lines held by the “PKBM” through the Programs called “Paket A”, “Paket B” , and “Paket C”. They are more flexible to be implemented. This study aims to determine the motivation of female learners and tutors in non-formal education “Paket B”. This study used qualitative methods. The results showed that the learners from variety of age and social status. Tutors work as educators with variety educational background. The motivation of the learners follow the “Paket B” is to acquire useful knowledge, and motivation of the tutor is to help learners acquire knowledge. It can be concluded that the learners and tutors are motivated to achieve results, social needs and self actualization .Keywords : Motivation, leaners, tutors, non-formal educationCopyright © 2013 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v3i1.69
Yanagihara, Shin; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko
Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors. They also learn from playback of recorded songs however, learning can be greatly improved when song models are provided through social communication with tutors (Eales, 1989; Chen et al., 2016). Recently we found a subset of neurons in the higher-level auditory cortex of juvenile zebra finches that exhibit highly selective auditory responses to the tutor song after song learning, suggesting an auditory memory trace of the tutor song (Yanagihara and Yazaki-Sugiyama, 2016). Here we show that auditory responses of these selective neurons became greater when juveniles were paired with their tutors, while responses of non-selective neurons did not change. These results suggest that social interaction modulates cortical activity and might function in state-dependent song learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
StranshamFord v Minister of Justice and Correctional Services and Others: Can active voluntary euthanasia and doctorassisted suicide be legally justified and are they consistent with the biomedical ethical principles Some suggested guidelines for doct
Full Text Available The recent case of Stransham-Ford v Minister of Justice and Correctional Services and Others held that voluntary active euthanasia and doctor assisted suicide may be legally justified in certain circumstances. The court observed that the distinction between â€˜activeâ€™ and â€˜passiveâ€™ voluntary euthanasia is not legally tenable as in both instances the doctors concerned have the â€˜actualâ€™ or â€˜eventualâ€™ intention to terminate the patientâ€™s life and have caused or hastened the patientâ€™s death. It is argued that as the South African Constitution is the supreme law of the country, the fundamental rights of patients guaranteed in the Constitution cannot be undermined by ethical duties imposed on health care practitioners by international and national professional bodies. The court in the Stransham-Ford case did not use ethical theories and principles to decide the matter. It simply applied the values in the Constitution and the provisions of the Bill of Rights. However, in order to assist medical practitioners with practical guidelines with which many of them are familiar - rather than complicated unfamiliar philosophical arguments - the biomedical ethical principles of patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice or fairness are applied to active voluntary euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide in the context of the Stransham-Ford case. Although the case has not set a precedent or opened the floodgates to doctor-assisted voluntary active euthanasia and it is open to Parliament, the Constitutional Court or other courts to develop the concept or outlaw it, some guidelines are offered for doctors to consider should they be authorized by a court to assist with voluntary active euthanasia.
de Jong, Nynke; Verstegen, Daniëlle M. L.; Könings, Karen D.
The aim of this study is to compare the role of the tutor in an online and a face-to-face problem-based learning (PBL) session to shed light on potential differences of the tutor role in both settings. In this practice-based study we compared the two groups with the same tutor undertaking the same module. Students completed questionnaires about…
With the increasing attention on improving student achievement, private tutoring has been expanding rapidly worldwide. However, the evidence on the effect of private tutoring is inconclusive for education researchers and policy makers. Employing a comprehensive dataset collected from China in 2010, this study tries to identify the effect of…
González-Brenes, José P.; Huang, Yun
Classification evaluation metrics are often used to evaluate adaptive tutoring systems-- programs that teach and adapt to humans. Unfortunately, it is not clear how intuitive these metrics are for practitioners with little machine learning background. Moreover, our experiments suggest that existing convention for evaluating tutoring systems may…
Alzahrani, Turkey; Leko, Melinda
The purposes of this review were to examine the effects of peer tutoring models on the reading comprehension performance of secondary students with disabilities and to provide evidence of the extent to which peer tutoring can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP) for improving reading comprehension performance among secondary students…
Song, Kyoung-Oh; Park, Hyun-Jeong; Sang, Kyong-Ah
Private tutoring has become a worldwide phenomenon, yet there is little empirical evidence for the main factors leading the demand for private tutoring across nations. Using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study of 2003, this study classified the countries into four different groups according to the proportion of student…
Miller, Sarah; Connolly, Paul
Tutoring is commonly employed to prevent early reading failure, and evidence suggests that it can have a positive effect. This article presents findings from a large-scale ("n" = 734) randomized controlled trial evaluation of the effect of "Time to Read"--a volunteer tutoring program aimed at children aged 8 to 9 years--on…
In March 2010, the first floor of the main library at The Florida State University was renovated as a learning commons. With this change in design, all tutoring that existed throughout the library was moved into the commons. The crown jewel of these programs is the library's in-house, late-night peer tutoring program that has seen incredible…
Shields, Helen M.; Leffler, Daniel A.; Peters, Antoinette S.; Llerena-Quinn, Roxana; Nambudiri, Vinod E.; White, Augustus A., III; Hayward, Jane N.; Pelletier, Stephen R.
A specific faculty development program for tutors to teach cross-cultural care in a preclinical gastrointestinal pathophysiology course with weekly longitudinal followup sessions was designed in 2007 and conducted in the same manner over a 6-yr period. Anonymous student evaluations of how "frequently" the course and the tutor were…
Houston, Linda; Johnson, Candice
After much trial and error, the Agricultural Technical Institute of the Ohio State University (ATI/OSO) discovered that training of writing lab tutors can best be done through collaboration of the Writing Lab Coordinator with the "Development of Tutor Effectiveness" course offered at the institute. The ATI/OSO main computer lab and…
Williams, Judith C.; Alwis, W. A. M.; Rotgans, Jerome I.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of three distinct tutor behaviors (1) use of subject-matter expertise, (2) social congruence and (3) cognitive congruence, in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The data comprised the input from 16,047 different students to a survey of 762 tutors administered in three consecutive…
Busher, Hugh; James, Nalita; Piela, Anna
There is a dearth of literature on Access to Higher Education (AHE) tutors, which this paper addresses. Tutors play an important part in constructing emotional and academic support for students. Understanding their constructions of professional identity and their views of the students they teach helps to explain the learning environments they…
Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of fact retrieval tutoring as a function of math difficulty (MD) subtype, that is, whether students have MD alone (MD-only) or have concurrent difficulty with math and reading (MDRD). Third graders (n = 139) at two sites were randomly assigned, blocking by site and MD subtype, to four tutoring conditions: fact retrieval practice, conceptual fact retrieval instruction with practice, procedural computation/estimation instruction, and control (no tutoring). Tutoring occurred for 45 sessions over 15weeks for 15-25 minutes per session. Results provided evidence of an interaction between tutoring condition and MD subtype status for assessment of fact retrieval. For MD-only students, students in both fact retrieval conditions achieved comparably and outperformed MD-only students in the control group as well as those in the procedural computation/estimation instruction group. By contrast, for MDRD students, there were no significant differences among intervention conditions.
Lutter, Stacy L; Thompson, Cheryl W; Condon, Marian C
Failure on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) is a devastating experience. Most research related to NCLEX-RN is focused on predicting and preventing failure. Despite these efforts, more than 20,000 nursing school graduates experience failure on the NCLEX-RN each year, and there is a paucity of literature regarding remediation after failure. The aim of this article is to describe an individualized tutoring approach centered on establishing a trusting relationship and incorporating two core strategies for remediation: the nugget method, and a six-step strategy for question analysis. This individualized tutoring method has been used by three nursing faculty with a 95% success rate on an NCLEX retake attempt. Further research is needed to identify the elements of this tutoring method that influence success. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(12):758-761.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available The exponential growth of higher education enrolment in South Africa has resulted in increased diversity of the student body, leading to a proliferation of factors that affect student performance and success. Various initiatives have been adopted by tertiary institutions to mitigate the negative impact these factors may have on student success, and it is suggested that interventions that include aspects of social integration are the most successful. This paper outlines an approach called Success Tutoring (a non-academic tutorial approach used as part of a student success and support programme in the Faculty of Commerce, Law, and Management at the University of the Witwatersrand, which is underscored by empirical evidence drawn from evaluation data collected during Success Tutor symposia. The authors draw conclusions and make recommendations based on a thematic analysis of the dataset, and ultimately provide readers with a framework for implementing Success Tutoring at their tertiary institutions.
Josefina Salomón Cruz; María Luisa Castillo Orueta; Juan Antonio Córdova Hernández
La tutoría es una estrategia que busca alcanzar la formación integral de los estudiantes, la calidad en la educación y la disminución de indicadores tales como deserción, rezago y reprobación escolar. Por ello, la función del tutor representa un compromiso docente e institucional. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el desempeño de los tutores en la licenciatura de médico cirujano de la división académica de ciencias de la salud de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco a...
Irma Leticia Zapata-Rivera
Full Text Available This article provide an overview of educational inclusion about the challenges and defiances of the PIT-ADIUAS UAS in the formation of the student, through the eyes of teachers-tutors baccalaureate Guasave Nocturna of the Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa. The importance of the article lies in the documentary analysis of the documents and signed in his rift with the reality observed in the classroom by teachers and tutors. Its approach is developed from a mixed methodology under the case study approach, supported by documentary research techniques and social research (observation and interview. The results obtained and conclusions that the team arrives, intended to call attention to the university authorities to order to comply with one of the precepts unsigned: educational inclusion through teacher-tutor professionalism in the globe NEE students.
Razvan Daniel ZOTA
Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.