WorldWideScience

Sample records for tutoring parent engagement

  1. Teachers Engaging Parents as Tutors to Improve Oral Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupzyk, Sara S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the application of evidence-based tutoring for oral reading fluency (ORF) to a natural setting, using teachers as parent trainers. Measures used to determine the impact of parent tutoring included treatment integrity, student reading outcomes, attitudes towards involvement and reading, and social validity. Six teachers…

  2. Feeling Engaged: College Writers as Literacy Tutors

    OpenAIRE

    Langdon, Lance-David Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Feeling Engaged: College Writers as Literacy Tutors brings together scholarship in the rhetoric of emotion and in civic writing to show how emotions - confidence, anger, embarrassment, pride, hope, fear, gratitude, guilt, shame, compassion, enthusiasm, and ennui - shape the roles we take on in K-16 literacy networks. This dissertation takes as a case study the community-engaged composition courses, poetry workshops, and literature classes I coordinated in 2011-2013. The undergraduates I led i...

  3. Responsibilising Parents: The Nudge towards Shadow Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Catherine; Dooley, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article considers moral agendas projected onto parents that mobilise them to supplement school literacy education with private tutoring. The theoretical frame draws on the concepts of responsibilisation as emerging market-embedded morality, 'nudge' social policies, edu-business and hidden privatisation in education. This framing is applied to…

  4. Engaging Students as Tutors, Trainers, and Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    While starting a tutoring program may seem like a daunting and time-consuming task, it does not have to be. The best way to approach the creation and development of a tutoring service is with a list of clear objectives. In this article, the author describes the process she used to create a tutoring program with her English as a foreign language…

  5. Rules of engagement: developing the online tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Golden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers professional development in a context that is familiar and problematic to teaching teams in tertiary education everywhere, that of delivering online programmes with an ever-decreasing complement of staff. The Teaching Qualification Further Education (TQFE teaching team at University of Dundee confronted the reality of reduced staff numbers by centralising tutoring and support for programme participants. The new system involves standardising tutoring as far as possible through generic email, blog and microblog accounts, all badged “TQFE-Tutor” and staffed on a roster basis. Once the new “rules of engagement” via TQFE-Tutor were in place, it became clear that in addition to benefits in terms of student support, there were other unintended positive consequences: opportunities for informal professional development for staff and the promotion of effective team working. The experience of collective tutoring has facilitated collaboration on a range of innovations within online learning. This paper describes the evolution of the TQFE-Tutor innovation and reports upon a small scale study which was carried out to gather the views of the tutor team working with TQFE-Tutor. The authors conclude that the centralisation of communication and tutoring on the TQFE programme has been highly beneficial in terms of professional development for the team.

  6. Peer tutoring – assisted instruction, parent supportiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of peer tutoring-assisted instruction, parent supportiveness and students locus of control on achievement in Senior Secondary Mathematics. It adopted a non-randomized pretest posttest control group design in a quasi experimental setting. It involves 300 senior secondary II students from six ...

  7. A Window into Mathematical Support: How Parents' Perceptions Change Following Observations of Mathematics Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenskow, Arla; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the perceptions of 24 parents of rising 5th-grade students with mathematics learning difficulties as part of a 10-week summer mathematics tutoring experience. During the summer tutoring program, parents observed their children participating in mathematics learning experiences during one-to-one tutoring sessions. At the…

  8. Engaging Parents in Parent Engagement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Steven; List, John; Metcalfe, Robert; Sadoff, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers, and educators have long recognized the role of parents in shaping student achievement. A large body of observational studies documents the strong relationship between family background and educational outcomes, but to date there have been very few experimental studies in this area. In this study, the authors offer a…

  9. Considering the Role of Tutoring in Student Engagement: Reflections from a South African University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faroa Brendon Duran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Student engagement has been defined as the extent to which students are engaged in activities that higher education research has shown to be linked with high-quality learning outcomes. The ubiquitous influence of the term ‘student engagement’ has been felt throughout the higher education landscape.  This is especially true for South African higher education where student success has been poor. South African universities have been tasked to improve the student learning experience as a component of improving success. Some of the innovative teaching and learning practices often highlighted by research which are thought to improve student engagement include: having students adopt teaching roles such as peer assessment, tutoring and mentoring. These practices are thought to promote student engagement, leading to greater student academic success. Tutoring can therefore be seen as one of the key strategies to facilitate student engagement in order to achieve academic success. The following paper considers the role of tutoring in student engagement while reflecting on strategies used at a South African university to address the challenges associated with student success.

  10. Considering the Role of Tutoring in Student Engagement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student engagement has been defined as the extent to which students are engaged in activities that higher education research has shown to be linked with high-quality learning outcomes. The ubiquitous influence of the term 'student engagement' has been felt throughout the higher education landscape. This is especially ...

  11. Peer Tutoring – Assisted Instruction, Parent Supportiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    effect of treatment (peer tutoring) on mathematics achievement, it also revealed a ..... academic achievement of college students have demonstrated that the ... basic for suggesting the use of the treatment in classrooms irrespective of students' ...

  12. Visible Pedagogic Work: Parenting, Private Tutoring and Educational Advantage in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprakash, Arathi; Proctor, Helen; Hu, Betty

    2016-01-01

    This article explores parents' use of private tutoring services for their primary school children in Sydney, Australia's largest city. Using Bernstein's theories of invisible and visible pedagogies, we look, through the eyes of a small group of middle-class Chinese-background interviewees, at the tensions between certain pedagogic forms associated…

  13. Peer-tutoring in academic writing: the infectious nature of engagement

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Íde; Cleary, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Students often struggle with writing as they are unaware of the process of writing and of strategies and skills to help them write well. They often focus on the product of writing rather than engaging with the process of writing. However, it is in the process of writing, and in the discovery of that process, that learning happens (Murray 1973, Emig 1977, Berlin 1982). It is thought that the inductive, non-intrusive model of student peer-tutoring practiced at the Regional ...

  14. Engaging Parents through Better Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Matthew A. Kraft, an assistant professor of education and economics at Brown University, highlights new research showing that frequent, personalized outreach to parents can boost parent engagement and student achievement. He offers tips on how schools can create infrastructures, including digital technology tools, to better support such…

  15. Parental Engagement: Beyond Parental Involvement in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kathleen

    This study critically analyzes parents' complex stories of engagement in school and science education. The purpose is not to essentialize parental involvement, but rather to understand the processes of parental involvement and push forward the current discourse on the engagement of low-income minority and immigrant parents in schools and specifically science education. Employing critical grounded theory methods over a four-year span, this study had three areas of focus. First, voices of marginalized parents in the context of various spaces within the school system are examined. Using a qualitative approach, informal, formal, and research spaces were explored along with how minority parents express voice in these various spaces. Findings indicate parents drew on capital to express voice differently in different spaces, essentially authoring new spaces or the type of engagement in existing spaces. Second, the values and beliefs of traditionally marginalized people, the Discourse of mainstream society, and how they can inform a third, more transformative space for parental engagement in science are considered. The voices of low-income, marginalized parents around science and parental engagement (i.e., first space) are contrasted with the tenets of major national science policy documents (i.e., second space). Findings indicate a disparity between the pathways of engagement for low-income parents and policymakers who shape science education. Third, methodological questions of responsibility and assumption in qualitative research are explored. The author's complex struggle to make sense of her positionality, responsibilities, and assumptions as a researcher is chronicled. Findings focused on insider/outsider issues and implications for culturally sensitive research are discussed. Finally, the implications for policy, teaching, and research are discussed.

  16. Parental Belief and Parental Engagement: How Do They Interact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature has shown the importance of parental engagement for children's outcomes; a largely separate body of literature has shown that there are clear effects on children's outcomes related to parental religion. This article is a literature review of these two fields, with the aim of relating them to each other. The article suggests two…

  17. Service-learning for students of spanish: promoting civic engagement and social justice through an exchange tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Burgo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning courses are designed to promote civic engagement and social justice, and to connect the classroom with the community in an environment of cooperation and mutual interest. In this article, a service-learning course of Spanish at the university level is supported as a reciprocal language exchange between the campus and the community. According to this course proposal, students attend a Latino community site once a week, where their members are tutored in English and American culture, while students are tutored in Spanish and Spanish-speaking culture. This way, service-learning is connected to the Spanish classroom through “Reflection” sessions led by mentors visiting the class periodically. This course was designed so that students would be able to improve their conversation skills in this exchange tutoring service while they are involved with the community by seeing their members as equal peers.

  18. College Students' Engagement in E-Tutoring Children in Remote Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan; Lin, Hong-Yen; Lu, Tze-Han

    2016-01-01

    To bridge the digital divide and learning gap among children in remote areas, an online tutoring service has been initiated for after-school learning in remote schools. College students were recruited for the role of teaching and supporting remote learners through online tutoring. This research aimed to study college students' involvement in…

  19. Tutoring Styles That Encourage Learner Satisfaction, Academic Engagement, and Achievement in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo Eun; Shin, Jae-Han

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to find which tutoring styles significantly predict learners' satisfaction with an e-learning service, academic involvement, and academic achievement. The tutoring styles included subject expert, facilitator, guider, and administrator. In this study, 818 Korean sixth-grade students (ages 11-12 years), enrolled in the…

  20. Implementing a Principal Tutor to Increase Student Engagement and Retention within the First Year of a Professional Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Lodge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With ongoing changes to the requirements for professional registration, greater demand for professional services, and targets for increasing participation, universities must adapt quickly to ensure that the quality of accredited professional programs is continually improving. The problem of retaining students is particularly relevant in accredited professional courses where students often have unrealistic expectations about course content and the profession. In order to address issues surrounding student engagement and retention in an accredited psychology course, a Principal Tutor was appointed to a first year cohort. By using a transition pedagogy framework to support student engagement through incorporating administrative and profession-specific advice within and outside the formal curriculum, the program appears to have been successful in increasing student engagement. Indicators of student engagement were higher than national averages and retention rates improved. Implications for possible application of the initiatives included in this program elsewhere are discussed. 

  1. Community Engagement in K-12 Tutoring Programs: A Research-Based Guide for Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozolic, Jennifer; Shuster, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This report on historical trends and recent findings in the literature on academic tutoring is the first step in a community-based research collaboration between faculty and students at a small liberal arts college, the local public school district, and a nonprofit foundation that supports public K-12 education. Each year, this nonprofit…

  2. Tutoring the Tutors: Supporting Effective Personal Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    The research into personal tutoring in higher education from a tutor's perspective suggests that tutors lack training in tutoring and may lack clarity as to the purpose and boundaries of the role. This article explores personal tutors' perceptions of their confidence and competence in relation to personal tutoring and identifies strategies that…

  3. Supporting Head Start Parents: Impact of a Text Message Intervention on Parent-Child Activity Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Anthony; Wartella, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Head Start emphasises parent engagement as a critical strategy in promoting children's long-term learning. Parents can support children's positive development by engaging them in stimulating activities. The following study assessed whether a service that delivered parenting tips via text message could prompt parents of children enrolled in Head…

  4. Process into Products: Supporting Teachers to Engage Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the need for novice teachers to receive exposure and experiences related to family engagement as part of their academic preparation to better facilitate their actual parent involvement practices. In a graduate-level parent involvement in education course, early childhood educators had an opportunity to engage in a variety of…

  5. Ecologies of Parental Engagement in Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Angela Calabrese; Drake, Corey; Perez, Jose Gustavo; St. Louis, Kathleen; George, Magnia

    2004-01-01

    What we know about parental involvement in schools cuts across two areas: how and why parental involvement is important and the structural barriers that impede parental participation. However, it has been difficult to construct an account of parental involvement, grounded in everyday practice that goes beyond a laundry list of things that good…

  6. Assessing the Academic, Social, and Language Production Outcomes of English Language Learners Engaged in Peer Tutoring: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; deMarín, Sharon; Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Etchells, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that allows students to help one another learn content material through the repetition of key concepts. In more than 40 years of published studies, literature reviews, and meta-analyses of peer tutoring, this quantitative synthesis of the literature is the first to examine the impact of peer tutoring on…

  7. Considering the Role of Tutoring in Student Engagement: Reflections from a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroa, Brendon Duran

    2017-01-01

    Student engagement has been defined as the extent to which students are engaged in activities that higher education research has shown to be linked with high-quality learning outcomes. The ubiquitous influence of the term "student engagement" has been felt throughout the higher education landscape. This is especially true for South…

  8. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged with Mobile Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad(TM) were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21-75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child's positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents' perceptions of their child's technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. The Upside of Helicopter Parenting: Engaging Parents to Reduce First-Year Student Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Andrew M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    University personnel tend to view "helicopter" parents as problematic. This article presents an alternative view in which these highly engaged parents can instead be utilized productively. The authors describe and assess the fidelity of a novel program in which involved parents were effectively leveraged to mitigate student…

  10. A Framework for Engaging Parents in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Karen A.; Fincham, Frank; Radey, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The literature on engaging families in prevention programs is informed by the Health Beliefs Model (HBM), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Family Systems theory. Although useful, these frameworks have not facilitated the development of prevention-based practice strategies that recognize different levels of prevention (i.e., universal,…

  11. The Effect of a Robot's Social Character on Children Task Engagement: Peer Versus Tutor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaga, Cristina; Lohse, M.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Evers, Vanessa; Tapus, Adriana; André, Elisabeth; Martin, Jean-Claude; Ferland, François; Ammi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of applications for social robots focuses on learning and playing with children. One of the unanswered questions is what kind of social character a robot should have in order to positively engage children in a task. In this paper, we present a study on the effect of two

  12. Cross-Contextual Variability in Parents' and School Tutors' Conflict Resolution Styles and Positive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Beatriz; Rodrigo, María José; Martínez-González, Raquel-Amaya

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how the variability in adult conflict resolution styles in family and school contexts was related to adolescents' positive development. Cluster analysis classified 440 fathers, 440 mothers, and 125 tutors into 4 clusters, based on self-reports of their conflict resolution styles. Adolescents exposed to Cluster 1 (inconsistency…

  13. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged With Mobile Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eWood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad™ were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21- 75.9 months. Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users. Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child’s positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents’ perceptions of their child’s technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Can technology and the media help reduce dysfunctional parenting and increase engagement with preventative parenting interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R; Miller, Chloe; Sadhnani, Vaneeta; Carmont, Sue-Ann

    2008-11-01

    In an evaluation of the television series "Driving Mum and Dad Mad," 723 families participated and were randomly assigned to either a standard or technology enhanced viewing condition (included additional Web-support). Parents in both conditions reported significant improvements from pre- to postintervention in their child's behavior, dysfunctional parenting, parental anger, depression, and self-efficacy. Short-term improvements were maintained at 6-months follow-up. Regressions identified predictors of program outcomes and level of involvement. Parents who watched the entire series had more severe problems at preintervention and high sociodemographic risk than parents who did not watch the entire series. Few sociodemographic, child, or parent variables assessed at preintervention predicted program outcomes or program engagement, suggesting that a wide range of parents from diverse socioeconomic status benefited from the program. Media interventions depicting evidence-based parenting programs may be a useful means of reaching hard to engage families in population-level child maltreatment prevention programs.

  15. The Perceived Success of Tutoring Students with Learning Disabilities: Relations to Tutee and Tutoring Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rinat

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the contribution of two types of variables to the perceived success of a tutoring project for college students with learning disabilities (LD): tutoring-related variables (the degree of engagement in different tutoring activities and difficulties encountered during tutoring), and tutee-related variables (learning…

  16. Expectant Fathers’ Intuitive Parenting: Associations with Parent Characteristics and Postpartum Positive Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Altenburger, Lauren E.; Settle, Theresa A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior, its correlates, and its associations with fathers’ postpartum positive engagement. One hundred eighty-two expectant couples completed the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play in the third trimester of pregnancy. Coders rated expectant fathers’ and mothers’ intuitive parenting behavior during this procedure. Expectant parents also completed surveys regarding their psychological and demographic characteristics. At 3 months postpartum, fathers completed time diaries that assessed the time they spent in developmentally appropriate positive engagement activities with their infants. Examination of correlates of expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior revealed that expectant fathers showed lower levels of these behaviors than expectant mothers, that intuitive parenting behavior was moderately positively associated for mothers and fathers, and that individual differences in expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior were associated with parent demographic and psychological characteristics. In particular, expectant fathers showed greater intuitive parenting behavior when they had greater human capital and more progressive beliefs about parent roles, and when their partners had lower parenting self-efficacy. Findings also indicated that expectant fathers’ greater intuitive parenting behavior was predictive of fathers’ greater subsequent engagement in developmentally appropriate activities at 3 months postpartum, but only when expectant mothers demonstrated low levels of intuitive parenting behavior. PMID:25798492

  17. Framing clean energy campaigns to promote civic engagement among parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Nichole; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Hoyos, Lisa; Rauch, Molly

    2018-03-01

    Civic engagement is one important way citizens can influence the rate of decarbonization in the electricity sector. However, motivating engagement can be challenging even if people are affected and interested in participating. Here we employed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of clean energy campaigns emphasizing cost savings, health, climate, or health and climate, or no additional information at all (control) on civic engagement behaviors (signing a petition or making a phone call). We targeted parents as they have been shown to be powerful agents of political and business practice change in other contexts, and hence, could play an important role in the decarbonization of the electricity sector. In Study 1, we recruited n = 292 parents already engaged in climate advocacy; in Study 2, we recruited a representative sample of n = 1254 parents drawn from the general public. Both studies were conducted in Michigan, Florida, and California, as these states have sizable advocacy group membership, divergent energy profiles, and strategic importance to the climate movement. In both studies, we find the odds of taking action are reduced by over 90% when participants are asked to make a phone call and leave a voicemail message, versus signing an online petition. Among the parents already engaged in advocacy, we observe a ceiling effect regarding attitudes towards clean energy and find the cost campaign produces unintended consequences. Among our public sample, we find that participants who believe the campaign to be credible and comprehendible are more likely to take action than those who discredit the campaign or do not understand its message. Additionally, we find parents who have children under the age of 18 negatively adjust their attitudes towards fossil fuels after being presented with health information. Ultimately, we find that campaign messages can influence energy attitudes and parents are willing to take action on the topic if the

  18. Engaging parents in evidence-based treatments in schools: Community perspectives from implementing CBITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Pears, Gillian; Baweja, Shilpa; Vona, Pamela; Tang, Jennifer; Kataoka, Sheryl H

    2013-12-01

    This study explored parent engagement in an evidence-based treatment, the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS), which was delivered in a school setting. To examine the successes and challenges in engaging parents in this school-based program, we conducted qualitative interviews by phone to obtain data from clinicians, parents, and other school personnel across eleven schools from 3 different regions of the United States. Almost all of these schools served low-income and ethnically diverse communities. We describe general impressions of parent engagement, parent reactions and preferences with regard to CBITS, barriers to parent engagement, and how to overcome barriers from multiple perspectives. Parent engagement across schools varied, with extensive outreach and relatively good parent engagement in CBITS described in some schools, while in other schools, efforts to engage parents were not as consistent. Implications for future efforts to engage parents in school-based treatments are discussed.

  19. Engaging Parents and Pupils in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Rod

    2016-04-01

    "The British National Space Centre partnership has recognised for some time that Space and Astronomy are particularly attractive subjects for school students and that including these in the science curriculum can have a positive effect on student interest in science. Drivers are that the number of young people studying science and engineering subjects at A-level and beyond is declining; young people should have an understanding of the importance of science and technology to the world around them; and that UK space industry (including technology, engineering, space science, Earth observation science) must renew itself." BRINGING SPACE INTO SCHOOL Professor Martin Barstow, University of Leicester Published by PPARC on behalf of the British National Space Centre Partnership October 2005 "It has become more and more difficult to persuade young people to follow a career in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics) subjects. Across the EU, the number of graduates in STEM subjects has dropped from 24.3% in 2002 to 22.6% in 2011" (Source EUSTAT) It was Martin Barstow's report in 2005 that started my attempt to interest people in Science and Technology, At Ormiston Victory Academy (OVA) for the past two years, we have embarked on a program to enthuse pupils to study science related subject through the medium of Astronomy. We teach Edexcel GCSE Astronomy to a joint parent and pupil group. They study together and at the end of the course, both take the GCSE examination. The idea is that the pupils see that science is important to their parents and that a very practical facet of science is also fun. Astronomy is a multidisciplinary course bringing together elements of Science, Maths, Technology, Geography and History. It is hoped that the enthusiasm shown by the pupils will spill over into the mainstream subjects including maths. The parents get an idea of the work and level of knowledge required by their children to complete a GCSE level subject. They also report

  20. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11-13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families ( N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation.

  1. Coming to grips with autism: Parents engaging with science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Noah Robert

    When and how does science matter to people in their everyday lives? In this dissertation, I explore the importance of science to parents of young children recently diagnosed with autism. I examine the questions parents ask and the resources they use as they attempt to understand and advocate for their children, and use this data to develop a new conceptual model of engagement with science: the intrapersonal and interpersonal process through which people connect science with their lived experience. I recruited a socio-economically diverse sample of ten parents, each with at least one young child (18 months--7 years) who had been diagnosed with autism 6--24 months prior to recruitment. Each parent completed a series of 8--12 semi-structured interviews over a period of approximately six months. These interviews were analyzed using both grounded theory and conceptually driven coding strategies. Two findings stand out. First, only a small fraction of parents' questions (15%) and resources (11%) were directly related to science. A much larger fraction (41% and 42%) fell into the broader categories of near-science questions and resources. Second, half of the parents demonstrated an iterative pattern of activity that I referred to as progressive engagement with science. In each case, a science or near-science question led the parent to a science or near-science resource, which transformed the question. The new question led to different science or near-science resources, which led to new questions and so forth. Parents who did not undertake progressive engagement with science were also less interested in autism as an organizing construct for understanding their children. Drawing on the work of Peter Galison, I propose that the idea of autism helps create a "trading zone" between the distinct social systems of family life and medical science. Parents who ask near-science questions must find near-science resources to help them direct their questions appropriately. They must

  2. The Upside of Helicopter Parenting: Engaging Parents to Reduce First-Year Student Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Earle, Andrew M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    University personnel tend to view ?helicopter? parents as problematic. This paper presents an alternative view in which these highly engaged parents can instead be utilized productively. We describe and assess the fidelity of a novel program in which involved parents were effectively leveraged to mitigate student alcohol-related risk. The feasibility of utilizing similar programs at other schools is discussed as are implications for alcohol risk prevention.

  3. Obstacles to engaging in young driver licensing: Perspectives of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Sehana; Scott-Parker, Bridie

    2017-02-01

    Young novice drivers remain at greater risk of injury and death despite a wealth of interventions including graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs. The key to implementing safer practices inherent in GDL appears to lie with optimising the role of parents. This qualitative research explored the parent's perspectives of obstacles to engaging in the driver licensing process within a GDL program. Parents also shared advice on what they found helpful, and where relevant, recommended changes in the process to enable safer practices for young drivers. Twenty-three parents (aged 35-60 years, M=49.52, SD=8.01, 11 males) participated in semi-structured interviews regarding licensing experiences with their young driver children. The young drivers included learner (n=11), provisional (restricted/intermediate) (n=9) and open (unrestricted/full) licence drivers (n=3), ranging from 16 to 24 years (M=18.04, SD=2.21, 13 males). Content analysis revealed that most obstacles were encountered at the learner licensing phase, with the parent-reported difficult temperament of the learner driver the most prominent. Unsurprisingly, advice to other parents to be patient and remain calm featured heavily during the same phase. Anxiety from not having control of the vehicle was another obstacle at the learner phase, translating to anxieties for child safety in the early stages of provisional driving. Recommendations for the current GDL included more rigorous road rule testing, with general support for the program, professional driver training at learner and provisional stages facilitated parental engagement through the licensing phases. The findings overwhelmingly suggest a need for parents to be educated regarding their importance in, and of, the driver licensing process, and the efficacy of their instruction, content and practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Engaging children and parents in service design and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford Russell, A R; Passant, M; Kitt, H

    2014-12-01

    The involvement of all user groups, including children, young people (CYP) and their parents, encourages people to take responsibility for healthier lifestyle behaviours, improves treatment compliance and leads to more appropriate use of healthcare resources. Initiatives to engage CYP in the UK are gathering momentum, but significant improvements are still needed. There is a national drive from the department of health (DH) and NHS England, strategic clinical networks, operational delivery networks (including newborn networks), charities, parent groups and a number of other bodies to embed CYP involvement in service design and delivery. User engagement and patient choice, is underpinned by the NHS outcomes framework, and a myriad of other DH and NHS England policies and practice frameworks. It is now everybody's business. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Who were my tutors? Who can tutor me?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krajnc

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with tutorship as one of the most effective forms of one-to-one learning. The relationship between a tutor and a student is studied in detail and it is established that the quality of such a relationship can be considerably better than the one, where a tutor and a student arc engaged in a more formal one. The article, which is based on the data gathered from a research, speaks about conditions, which are necessary for an informal tutor-student re lationship to evolve. The author also answers the question of the characteristics the students expect from their tutors. What should, therefore, a personal profile of an informal tutor be? This also partly answers the question of a good leader and the characteristics a good leader possesses, since leaders are also good tutors. Informal tutors, who offered skills, knowledge and useful insight, were mostly people's male and female friends (80 % , individual teachers if they've become close (65 %, a spouse (50% and a co-worker (42 %. When considering the development of a tutor-student relationship, the basis was knowledge and expertise of the other person (29 % of replies, moreover personal characteristics of a tutor were underlined (71 %. The research also revealed that only certain people can assume a role of a tutor. As a single, most important characteristic the following were selected: has the ability to listen, is emphatic and tolerant to the other person. Everybody,without exception selected these characteristics. The second characteristic (53 %, but of a much lesser importance than the first one was: friendly, likeable, amicable, warm, nice, humane. It is of equal importance for a tutor to be open, honest and broad-minded. Everybody believes they could successfully develop (or have successfully developed if being (having been engaged in a relationship with such a tutor.

  6. Successful Therapist-Parent Coaching: How In Vivo Feedback Relates to Parent Engagement in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Miya L; Niec, Larissa N; Peer, Samuel O; Jent, Jason F; Weinstein, Allison; Gisbert, Patricia; Simpson, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Although behavioral parent training is considered efficacious treatment for childhood conduct problems, not all families benefit equally from treatment. Some parents take longer to change their behaviors and others ultimately drop out. Understanding how therapist behaviors impact parental engagement is necessary to improve treatment utilization. This study investigated how different techniques of therapist in vivo feedback (i.e., coaching) influenced parent attrition and skill acquisition in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT). Participants included 51 parent-child dyads who participated in PCIT. Children (age: M = 5.03, SD = 1.65) were predominately minorities (63% White Hispanic, 16% African American or Black). Eight families discontinued treatment prematurely. Therapist coaching techniques during the first session of treatment were coded using the Therapist-Parent Interaction Coding System, and parent behaviors were coded with the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System, Third Edition. Parents who received more responsive coaching acquired child-centered parenting skills more quickly. Therapists used fewer responsive techniques and more drills with families who dropped out of treatment. A composite of therapist behaviors accurately predicted treatment completion for 86% of families. Although group membership was correctly classified for the treatment completers, only 1 dropout was accurately predicted. Findings suggest that therapist in vivo feedback techniques may impact parents' success in PCIT and that responsive coaching may be particularly relevant.

  7. Social media and gamification: Engaging vulnerable parents in an online evidence-based parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Susan M; Sanders, Matthew R; Turner, Karen M T; Maurange, Marianne; Knott, Theresa; Prinz, Ronald; Metzler, Carol; Ainsworth, Andrew T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility (accessibility, engagement and impact) of adding social media and gaming features (e.g., social sharing with anonymity, badges to incentivize skills practice, an accredited facilitator for support) and access via smartphones to an evidenced-based parenting program, Triple P Online. The highly vulnerable population included 155 disadvantaged, high-risk parents (e.g., 76% had a family annual income of less than $15,000; 41% had been incarcerated; 38% were in drug/alcohol treatment; and 24% had had a child removed due to maltreatment). The ethnic groups most commonly identified were African American (24%) and Hispanic (66%). Respondents were primarily mothers (86%) from five community programs in Los Angeles. The study used a single group repeated measures design (pre, post, 6-month follow-up). Data collected included standardized self-report measures, post-intervention focus groups and interviews, website usage reports, and Google Analytics. Significant multivariate ANOVA time effects were found, demonstrating reductions in child behavioral problems, reduced lax/permissive and over-reactive parenting, and decreased parental stress. No effects were found for parental confidence, attributions, or depression and anxiety (which were in the normal range at baseline). Positive effects were maintained or improved at 6-month follow-up. The participants engaged in the online community and valued its flexibility, anonymity, and shared learning. This foundational implementation trial provides support for future rigorous evaluation of social media and gaming features as a medium for increasing parental engagement in evidence-based parenting programs online--a public health approach to protect and improve the development of vulnerable children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Student-Teacher Ratio in Parents' Perceptions of Schools' Engagement Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Elbaum, Batya

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests a positive relationship between schools' efforts to engage parents and parents' involvement in their child's education. The authors investigated school socioeconomic status, school size, grade level, and student-teacher ratio as predictors of schools' efforts to engage parents of students receiving special education services. The…

  9. Parental Engagement Strategies in Greek and Nigerian Preschool Settings: Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Ekine, Adefunke

    2017-01-01

    Acknowledging the fact that parental engagement is more beneficial during early childhood compared to other developmental stages many countries have institutionalised parental engagement. In Nigeria, the government has taken initiatives in order to involve parents in their child's development by encouraging the establishment of School Management…

  10. Invisible Perceptions: Understanding the Perceptions of University Tutors towards Trainee Teachers with Parental Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, Higher Education has undoubtedly changed giving rise to an increasingly diverse student population. However, there has been only limited research on students with parental responsibilities. When they are considered, this is often in a somewhat pejorative way. The challenges faced by such trainees are often invisible. This paper…

  11. Parental Attributions and Perceived Intervention Benefits and Obstacles as Predictors of Maternal Engagement in a Preventive Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Alicia H.; Dumas, Jean E.; Gitter, Alexandra H.

    2008-01-01

    This study integrates and applies theoretical models linking parent cognitions to maternal engagement in a parenting program to prevent child aggression and conduct problems. African American and European American mothers of preschoolers (N = 347) reported on their child's behavior, family demographics, and parental cognitions (i.e., parenting…

  12. The Role of Parental Engagement in the Intergenerational Transmission of Smoking Behavior and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Nisha C; Hussong, Andrea M; Ennett, Susan T; Rothenberg, W Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Prior research has found that the protective effect of parental engagement on adolescent smoking behaviors may be weaker if parents smoke. We examine parental influence on adolescent smoking using a social learning theory framework. We hypothesize that adolescents are more likely to mimic parental smoking behavior if they perceive parents as being more engaged and if the parent is the same gender of the adolescent. Hypotheses were tested using a diverse sample of 6,998 adolescents who were followed for seven waves (grades 6-12). Adolescent gender, time-stable and time-varying effects of parental engagement, adolescent perceptions of parental smoking, and interactions among the effects of these variables are tested using multilevel mediation models. We use a traditional measure of past 3-month adolescent smoking and a novel measure of smoking identity. Parental smoking was associated with a developmental increase in adolescent smoking and time-stable and time-varying parental engagement protected against adolescent smoking, whereas maternal engagement and smoking exerted independent and opposite effects with no moderation and time-stable paternal engagement moderated the effects of perceived paternal smoking on adolescent smoking outcomes. Parental smoking was more strongly associated with adolescent smoking outcomes when adolescent gender was congruent with parent gender. Even when parents smoke, parental engagement confers protection. Protective effects of engagement may be enhanced among parents who smoke through increased antismoking communication, particularly as adolescents reach the legal smoking age. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ofsted's Judgement of Parental Engagement: A Justification of Its Place in Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the recent change to Ofsted's inspection criteria, which now includes a judgement on schools' engagement with parents as part of the overall Leadership and Management judgement. The article argues that this is the correct place for this judgement, linking effective parental engagement with the development of a broad and…

  14. Modeling the Relations among Parental Involvement, School Engagement and Academic Performance of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwan, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    The author proposed a model to explain how parental involvement and school engagement related to academic performance. Participants were (671) 9th and 10th graders students who completed two scales of "parental involvement" and "school engagement" in their regular classrooms. Results of the path analysis suggested that the…

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial Examination of a Remote Parenting Intervention: Engagement and Effects on Parenting Behavior and Child Abuse Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Kathleen; Davis, Betsy; Feil, Edward; Sheeber, Lisa; Landry, Susan; Leve, Craig; Johnson, Ursula

    2017-11-01

    Technology advances increasingly allow for access to remotely delivered interventions designed to promote early parenting practices that protect against child maltreatment. Among low-income families, at somewhat elevated risk for child maltreatment, there is some evidence that parents do engage in and benefit from remote-coaching interventions. However, little is known about the effectiveness of such programs to engage and benefit families at high risk for child maltreatment due to multiple stressors associated with poverty. To address this limitation, we examined engagement and outcomes among mothers at heightened risk for child abuse, who were enrolled in a randomized controlled, intent-to-treat trial of an Internet adaptation of an evidence-based infant parenting intervention. We found that engagement patterns were similar between higher and lower risk groups. Moreover, an intervention dose by condition effect was found for increased positive parent behavior and reduced child abuse potential.

  16. Effects of Monetary Incentives on Engagement in the PACE Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean E.; Begle, Angela Moreland; French, Brian; Pearl, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated parental engagement in an 8-week parenting program offered through daycare centers that were randomly assigned to a monetary incentive or nonincentive condition. Of an initial sample of 1,050 parents who rated their intent to enroll in the program, 610 went on to enroll--319 in the incentive and 291 in the nonincentive…

  17. Impact of Latino Parent Engagement on Student Academic Achievement: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araque, Juan Carlos; Wietstock, Cathy; Cova, Heather M.; Zepeda, Steffanie

    2017-01-01

    The current pilot study examines the impact of the "Ten Education Commandments for Parents" program on (1) new immigrant Latino parents' knowledge of the U.S. public education system, (2) parent engagement, and (3) their children's academic achievement. Utilizing a pre-experimental, pre- and post-test research design, four schools with…

  18. Dare to Dialogue: Engaging Parents in System Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Patrick; Kennedy, Sara; Lynch, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Determined parents are powerful advocates at all levels of our society. Parents can move mountains for their child, and they often do. State teams that actively collaborate with parents gain new perspectives, ideas, and energy. Statewide transition planning teams welcomed the authors--three parents who are also professionals active in the deaf…

  19. Enhancing the Quality of Early Childhood Education and Care: ECEC Tutors' Perspectives of Family Engagement in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Albo Prieto, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Access to high-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) is important for developmental outcomes and school success. The first years of life are a critical period for learning and the quality of early experiences can have a significant impact later in life. Parenting is one of the primary influences on children's development and family…

  20. An early social engagement intervention for young children with autism and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ty W; Koegel, Robert L; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-12-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized that parent delivery of such strategies can invoke increases in these core social behaviors and parent engagement. This study examined the effects of teaching parents to implement a social engagement intervention with their children. The results indicated that the use of this parent-delivered social intervention led to (a) increases in their children's use of eye contact, directed positive affect, and verbal initiations, (b) increases in parent positive affect and synchronous engagement, and (c) generalized increases in parent and child behaviors.

  1. Are mothers’ and fathers’ parenting characteristics associated with emerging adults’ academic engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Emily A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2017-01-01

    Although parenting is clearly linked to academic engagement in adolescence, less is known about links between parenting and academic engagement in emerging adulthood. A diverse sample of college students (N = 633; 53.1% female, 45.7% White/European American, 28.3% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 26.4% Hispanic/Latino American, 21.6% Black/African American, and 2.8% Native American/American Indian) answered surveys about mothers’ and fathers’ parenting style, parent-offspring relationship quality, academic attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic performance. Emerging adults with more permissive mothers viewed grades as less important than emerging adults with less permissive mothers. Mothers’ authoritarian parenting, mothers’ permissive parenting, and relationship quality with father were differentially related to academic engagement depending on emerging adults’ gender. Both mothers’ and fathers’ parenting characteristics may impact the academic engagement of emerging adults via past parenting behaviors and current quality of the parent-offspring relationship, despite decreased physical proximity of emerging adults and their parents. PMID:28529398

  2. Are mothers' and fathers' parenting characteristics associated with emerging adults' academic engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Emily A; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2017-06-01

    Although parenting is clearly linked to academic engagement in adolescence, less is known about links between parenting and academic engagement in emerging adulthood. A diverse sample of college students ( N = 633; 53.1% female, 45.7% White/European American, 28.3% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 26.4% Hispanic/Latino American, 21.6% Black/African American, and 2.8% Native American/American Indian) answered surveys about mothers' and fathers' parenting style, parent-offspring relationship quality, academic attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic performance. Emerging adults with more permissive mothers viewed grades as less important than emerging adults with less permissive mothers. Mothers' authoritarian parenting, mothers' permissive parenting, and relationship quality with father were differentially related to academic engagement depending on emerging adults' gender. Both mothers' and fathers' parenting characteristics may impact the academic engagement of emerging adults via past parenting behaviors and current quality of the parent-offspring relationship, despite decreased physical proximity of emerging adults and their parents.

  3. Engaging Parents to Promote Children's Nutrition and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent; Srivastava, Deepa; Murriel, Ashleigh; Arcan, Chrisa; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M

    2017-03-01

    Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Qualitative. State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included-(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included-(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health.

  4. “My Child has Cerebral Palsy”: Parental Involvement and Children’s School Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armanda Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process, high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children’s education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy has received little direct attention from researchers.These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with Cerebral Palsy. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level

  5. Effect of Trajectories of Friends' and Parents' School Involvement on Adolescents' Engagement and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G

    2016-12-01

    In a sample of 527 academically at-risk youth, we investigated trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement across ages 12-14 and the joint contributions of these trajectories to adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement. Girls reported higher levels of friends' and parents' school involvement than boys. Both parents' and friends' school involvement declined across ages 12-14. Combined latent growth models and structural equation models showed effects of the trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement on adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement, over and above adolescents' prior performance. These effects were additive rather than interactive. Strategies for enhancing parent involvement in school and students' affiliation with peers who are positively engaged in school are discussed.

  6. "My Child has Cerebral Palsy": Parental Involvement and Children's School Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Armanda; Moreira, Tânia; Lopes, Sílvia; Nunes, Ana R; Magalhães, Paula; Fuentes, Sonia; Reoyo, Natalia; Núñez, José C; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process), high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children's education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) has received little direct attention from researchers. These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with CP. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level of school engagement

  7. “My Child has Cerebral Palsy”: Parental Involvement and Children’s School Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Armanda; Moreira, Tânia; Lopes, Sílvia; Nunes, Ana R.; Magalhães, Paula; Fuentes, Sonia; Reoyo, Natalia; Núñez, José C.; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process), high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children’s education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) has received little direct attention from researchers. These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with CP. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level of school engagement

  8. Engaging Foster Parents in Treatment: A Randomized Trial of Supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Evidence-based Engagement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D.; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and ...

  9. Parents' Engagement in Adult Literacy and its Impact on their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the positive impact of adults' engagement in literacy classes and its relation to the retention and performance of their children's schooling. It was hypothesized that adults who are pursuing personal goals by engaging and attending literacy classes when perceiving the instrumentality value of the ...

  10. Exploring Community Philosophy as a Tool for Parental Engagement in a Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines Lyon, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I will reflect on the initial reconnaissance, action, and reflection cycle of my doctoral research, exploring Community Philosophy as a tool for critical parental engagement in a primary school (Elliot, 1991). I will examine how I reflexively engaged with my influence on participants, which then significantly influenced the framing…

  11. Increasing Responsive Parent–Child Interactions and Joint Engagement: Comparing the Influence of Parent-Mediated Intervention and Parent Psychoeducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children’s signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents’ responsive behaviour in association with children’s social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention. Eighty-five dyads were randomized to one of two 10-week caregiver-training interventions. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parental responsivity and children’s joint engagement. Significant gains in responsivity and time jointly engaged were found post JASPER parent-mediated intervention over a psychoeducation intervention. Further, combining higher levels of responsive behaviour with greater adoption of intervention strategies was associated with greater time jointly engaged. Findings encourage a focus on enhancing responsive behaviour in parent-mediated intervention models. PMID:26797940

  12. Parents Reading with Their Toddlers: The Role of Personalization in Book Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Messer, David; Whitelock, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of personalized books on parents' and children's engagement during shared book reading. Seven native English parents and their children aged between 12 and 33 months were observed at home when sharing a book made specifically for the child (i.e. a personalized book), a comparable book with no…

  13. Parents' Play Beliefs and Engagement in Young Children's Play at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xunyi; Li, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Play is a fundamental concept in early childhood development and education. As partners in the child's learning, parents play a crucial role in how play is defined, valued, and practised. The present study explores the constructs of parents' beliefs about and engagement in young children's play in two coastal cities in China. A sample of 483…

  14. Relationships between Parenting Practices, Social Engagement, Academic Competency, and High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parenting practices, social engagement, academic competency, and high school dropout. The study revealed students whose parents practiced Reactive Communication along with students that exhibited Truancy and Disciplinary Issues were more likely to drop out. Conversely, students…

  15. Consumer engagement and the development, evaluation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting programs

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Kirby, James N.

    2011-01-01

    A consumer perspective can contribute much to enhancing the “ecological fit” of population level parenting interventions so they meet the needs of parents. This approach involves building relationships with consumer groups and soliciting consumer input into the relevance and acceptability of interventions, clarifying the enablers and barriers to engagement and involvement of parents, and clarifying variables that influence a parent’s program completion. The adoption of a more collaborative ap...

  16. Pilot Randomized Trial of Active Music Engagement Intervention Parent Delivery for Young Children With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Haase, Joan E; Perkins, Susan M; Haut, Paul R; Henley, Amanda K; Knafl, Kathleen A; Tong, Yan

    2017-03-01

    To examine the feasibility/acceptability of a parent-delivered Active Music Engagement (AME + P) intervention for young children with cancer and their parents. Secondary aim to explore changes in AME + P child emotional distress (facial affect) and parent emotional distress (mood; traumatic stress symptoms) relative to controls. A pilot two-group randomized trial was conducted with parents/children (ages 3-8 years) receiving AME + P ( n  =  9) or attention control ( n  =  7). Feasibility of parent delivery was assessed using a delivery checklist and child engagement; acceptability through parent interviews; preliminary outcomes at baseline, postintervention, 30 days postintervention. Parent delivery was feasible, as they successfully delivered AME activities, but interviews indicated parent delivery was not acceptable to parents. Emotional distress was lower for AME + P children, but parents derived no benefit. Despite child benefit, findings do not support parent delivery of AME + P. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. A Comparison of Three Online Recruitment Strategies for Engaging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jodi; Hessel, Heather; Gliske, Kate; Rudi, Jessie H

    2016-10-01

    Family scientists can face the challenge of effectively and efficiently recruiting normative samples of parents and families. Utilizing the Internet to recruit parents is a strategic way to find participants where they already are, enabling researchers to overcome many of the barriers to in-person recruitment. The present study was designed to compare three online recruitment strategies for recruiting parents: e-mail Listservs, Facebook, and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Analyses revealed differences in the effectiveness and efficiency of data collection. In particular, MTurk resulted in the most demographically diverse sample, in a short period of time, with little cost. Listservs reached a large number of participants and resulted in a comparatively homogeneous sample. Facebook was not successful in recruiting a general sample of parents. Findings provide information that can help family researchers and practitioners be intentional about recruitment strategies and study design.

  18. Intelligent Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.

  19. Opening inquiry mathematics to parents: Can they be engaged as teachers’ partners in mathematical work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Papadopoulos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-stage project designed to develop the partnership between teacher and parents. The project began with a workshop constructed to motivate parents to be interested in doing mathematics in a way that is different from the one they experienced as students and, as a result, to be eager to become involved in the co-production of didactic materials for classroom use. Parents were engaged in real, collaborative, high-level mathematical work as a first step in engaging them as partners in mathematical work with their children.  During this first stage, parents were familiarized with inquiry mathematics tasks to provide them with the foundation necessary to become partners and co-producers during the second. The findings give evidence that the learning of reform math tasks and their co-creation supported teacher and parents’ partnership and that parents were moved mathematically and personally by the experience.

  20. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Glanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vaccination. Between 10% and 15% of parents are asking physicians to space out the timing of vaccines, which often poses an ethical dilemma for physicians. This trend reflects a tension between personal liberty and public health, as parents fight to control the decisions that affect the health of their children and public health officials strive to maintain high immunization rates to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Interventions to address this emerging public health issue are needed. We describe a framework by which web-based interventions can be used to help parents make evidence-based decisions about childhood vaccinations.

  1. Warm and Supportive Parenting Can Discourage Offspring's Civic Engagement in the Transition to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2016-11-01

    It is widely believed that warm and supportive parenting fosters all kinds of prosocial behaviors in the offspring, including civic engagement. However, accumulating international evidence suggests that the effects of family support on civic engagement may sometimes be negative. To address this apparent controversy, we identified several scenarios for the negative effects of supportive parenting on youth civic engagement and tested them using four waves of data from the Finnish Educational Transitions Studies. They followed 1549 students (55 % female) from late adolescence into young adulthood, included both maternal (n = 231) and offspring reports of parental support, and assessed civic engagement in young adulthood. Control variables included socioeconomic status, other sociodemographic indicators, church belonging, personality traits, and earlier civic engagement. Higher maternal warmth and support and a stronger identification with the parental family in adolescence predicted offspring's lower political activism up to 10 years later. Perceived parental support in young adulthood predicted lower volunteering 2 years later. There were no significant effects on general organizational involvement (e.g., in student and hobby associations). None of the a priori scenarios that we identified from the literature appeared to explain the pattern of results satisfactorily. We put forth cultural and life stage explanations of our findings.

  2. Using Social Media to Engage and Educate Teen Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kim; Jolly, Christina; Barnes, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    Employing social media to engage youth in real-time learning is a growing trend. Although the use of social media by youth is increasing, barriers exist for Extension educators wanting to capitalize on youth interest in social media, including a lack of information on how best to employ social media in programming. This article highlights a teen…

  3. Facebook: The Use of Social Media to Engage Parents in a Preschool Obesity Prevention Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren M; Ward, Wendy L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Facebook to deliver health-related education materials to augment a preschool classroom-based obesity prevention curriculum. Cross-sectional, mixed methods (descriptive and interviews). Head Start classrooms administered by 2 large agencies (1 rural and 1 urban). Convenience sample of parents in 13 classrooms (cohort 1, 3 classrooms; cohort 2, 10 classrooms). Delivery of nutrition education curriculum content using social media (Facebook). Qualitative interviews assessed barriers and facilitators to Facebook use. Parent views, likes, and comments were measured to reflect parent engagement with Facebook. Content analyses (qualitative data) and descriptive statistics (quantitative data). Family access (views) and interaction (comments and likes) with the posts varied based on type and content of posts. Rural families were more active. Barriers to parental Facebook engagement included a desire to see more posts from classroom teachers, lack of time, and misunderstanding about privacy protections. Facilitators of parental Facebook engagement included perceived utility of the content and social support. Facebook was found to be a feasible platform to provide nutrition education and facilitated varying levels of parental engagement. Lessons learned and implications for prevention and intervention programming are offered. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Supporting Parent Engagement in Programme-Wide Behavioural Intervention Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Katrina P.

    2017-01-01

    Positive behaviour intervention and support (PBIS) models are evolving as an effective means to promote social and emotional competence among young children and address challenging behaviours. This study was designed to gain insights into parental involvement in programme-wide implementation of the "Pyramid" model. Interviews were…

  5. Predictors of school engagement among same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents of Kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2014-10-01

    Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents' self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child's good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child's behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent-teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children's schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents' relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children's schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does Private Tutoring Payoff?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurun, Ayfer; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    We assess the causal effect of private tutoring on the probability of university placement in Turkey. We find that tutoring increases the probability of being placed in a university when non-random selection is ignored. Moreover, among those utilizing private tutoring, greater expenditure on tutoring is also positively associated with university placement. However, we find evidence of positive selection into tutoring, but negative selection into greater expenditures among those receiving tuto...

  7. Engaging Parents Who Quit Smoking in Antismoking Socialization of Children: A Novel Approach to Relapse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kim A.; Dickinson, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Data from a randomized controlled trial designed primarily to test the effect of an antismoking socialization parenting program on child initiation of smoking were used to test the subsidiary hypothesis that providing antismoking socialization to children would lower the odds of relapse within a sub-sample of parents who had recently quit smoking. Methods: Over 13 months, 11 state Quitlines provided contact information for callers who were parents of 8- to 10-year-old children. Of 1604 parents enrolled in the trial, 689 (344 treatment; 345 control) had quit smoking cigarettes for at least 24 hours after calling a Quitline. Their data were used to test for group differences in 30-day abstinence measured using telephone interviews conducted 7 and 12 months post-baseline. Analyses of parents with complete follow-up data and intent-to-treat analyses incorporating parents lost to follow-up are presented. Results: Among 465 parents with complete follow-up data, treatment group parents had twice the odds of being abstinent 12 months post-baseline (adjusted OR = 2.01; P = .001) relative to controls. Intent-to-treat analysis with all 689 parents, in which those lost to follow-up were coded as having relapsed, showed a smaller though significant treatment effect on 30-day abstinence at 12 months (adjusted OR = 1.58; P = .017). Conclusions: This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. Additional research is needed to replicate this finding and to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying the observed effect. Implications: There is a clear the need for research to develop new relapse prevention strategies. This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. PMID:26416824

  8. Predicting Parents’ School Engagement Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents of Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents’ self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child’s good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child’s behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent–teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children’s schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents’ relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children’s schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. PMID:25267169

  9. Buffering effect of parental engagement on the relationship between corporal punishment and children's emotional/behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Anme, Tokie

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has established links between corporal punishment and children's developmental problems, but few studies have investigated the moderating effect of positive parenting between corporal punishment and children's developmental difficulties in detail. This study investigated the buffering effect of parental engagement on the association between corporal punishment and children's emotional/behavioral problems. The main caregivers completed the Evaluation of Environmental Stimulation Scale (EES), which is an evaluation of daily parenting behaviors, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which evaluates children's developmental problems. Corporal punishment was associated with worse emotional and behavioral problems in children, whereas parental engagement in games or sports was associated with fewer emotional symptoms. Similarly, parental engagement in homework or housework significantly moderated the association between corporal punishment and children's behavioral problems. Parental engagement positively moderated the association between parental corporal punishment and children's developmental difficulties. This association varied with child gender. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Parent engagement and attendance in PEACH™ QLD – an up-scaled parent-led childhood obesity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Williams

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH™ is a multicomponent treatment program delivered over ten group sessions to parents of overweight/obese primary school-aged children. It has been shown to be efficacious in an RCT and was recently translated to a large-scale community intervention funded by the Queensland (Australia Government. Engagement (enrolment and attendance was critical to achieving program outcomes and was challenging. The purpose of the present study was to examine sample characteristics and mediating factors that potentially influenced program attendance. Methods Data collected from parents who attended at least one PEACH™ Queensland session delivered between October 2013 and October 2015 (47 programs implemented in 29 discrete sites, was used in preliminary descriptive analyses of sample characteristics and multilevel single linear regression analyses. Mediation analysis examined associations between socio-demographic and parent characteristics and attendance at group sessions and potential mediation by child and parent factors. Results 365/467 (78% enrolled families (92% mothers including 411/519 (79% children (55% girls, mean age 9 ± 2 years attended at least one session (mean 5.6 ± 3.2. A majority of families (69% self-referred to the program. Program attendance was greater in: advantaged (5.9 ± 3.1 sessions vs disadvantaged families (5.4 ± 3.4 sessions (p < 0.05; partnered (6.1 ± 3.1 sessions vs un-partnered parents (5.0 ± 3.1 sessions (p < 0.01; higher educated (6.1 ± 3.0 sessions vs lower educated parents (5.1 ± 3.3 sessions (p = 0.02; and self-referral (6.1 ± 3.1 vs professional referral (4.7 ± 3.3 (p < 0.001. Child (age, gender, pre-program healthy eating and parent (perceptions of child weight, self-efficacy factors did not mediate these relationships. Conclusions To promote reach and effectiveness of up-scaled programs, it is important to

  11. Parent engagement and attendance in PEACH™ QLD - an up-scaled parent-led childhood obesity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Magarey, Anthea; Moores, Carly J; Croyden, Debbie; Esdaile, Emma; Daniels, Lynne

    2017-06-09

    Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH™) is a multicomponent treatment program delivered over ten group sessions to parents of overweight/obese primary school-aged children. It has been shown to be efficacious in an RCT and was recently translated to a large-scale community intervention funded by the Queensland (Australia) Government. Engagement (enrolment and attendance) was critical to achieving program outcomes and was challenging. The purpose of the present study was to examine sample characteristics and mediating factors that potentially influenced program attendance. Data collected from parents who attended at least one PEACH™ Queensland session delivered between October 2013 and October 2015 (47 programs implemented in 29 discrete sites), was used in preliminary descriptive analyses of sample characteristics and multilevel single linear regression analyses. Mediation analysis examined associations between socio-demographic and parent characteristics and attendance at group sessions and potential mediation by child and parent factors. 365/467 (78%) enrolled families (92% mothers) including 411/519 (79%) children (55% girls, mean age 9 ± 2 years) attended at least one session (mean 5.6 ± 3.2). A majority of families (69%) self-referred to the program. Program attendance was greater in: advantaged (5.9 ± 3.1 sessions) vs disadvantaged families (5.4 ± 3.4 sessions) (p parents (5.0 ± 3.1 sessions) (p parents (5.1 ± 3.3 sessions) (p = 0.02); and self-referral (6.1 ± 3.1) vs professional referral (4.7 ± 3.3) (p parent (perceptions of child weight, self-efficacy) factors did not mediate these relationships. To promote reach and effectiveness of up-scaled programs, it is important to identify ways to engage less advantaged families who carry higher child obesity risk. Understanding differences in referral source and parent readiness for change may assist in tailoring program content. The influence of program

  12. Parent Involvement and Academic Outcomes among Urban Adolescents: Examining the Role of School Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Wehrspann, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which parent involvement in education was directly and indirectly (via school engagement) related to academic outcomes in an effort to more fully understand the school experiences of urban adolescents. Participants (80% racial/ethnic minority; n = 108) were in grades 6, 7 or 8. In the Fall and subsequent…

  13. The Connections between Family Characteristics, Parent-Child Engagement, Interactive Reading Behaviors, and Preschoolers' Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katie Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family characteristics (i.e., SES and race), parent-child engagement, and interactive reading behaviors on preschooler's emergent literacy scores. This study used a structural equation model to examine variables that impact emergent literacy development by evaluating data from the Early Childhood…

  14. Engagement and guidance: The effects of maternal parenting practices on children's development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramonte, L.; Gauthier, A.H.; Willms, D.

    2015-01-01

    Problems with inattention, physical aggression, and poor cognitive skills when children enter school can have long-term negative effects on their development. In this study, we address the issues of whether and how parental engagement and guidance are related to children’s behavioral and cognitive

  15. Changes in Parent-Child Relationship Quality across Early Adolescence: Implications for Engagement in Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Alyssa D.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated how changes in specific dimensions of the parent-adolescent relationship predict adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse and oral sex. Longitudinal data from 1,364 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were gathered at…

  16. Engaging military parents in a home-based reintegration program: a consideration of strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Abigail M; DeVoe, Ellen R

    2014-02-01

    For more than a decade, the long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have placed tremendous and cumulative strain on U.S. military personnel and their families. The high operational tempo, length, and number of deployments-and greater in-theater exposure to threat-have resulted in well-documented psychological health concerns among service members and veterans. In addition, there is increasing and compelling evidence describing the significant deleterious impact of the deployment cycle on family members, including children, in military-connected families. However, rates of engagement and service utilization in prevention and intervention services continue to lag far below apparent need among service members and their families, because of both practical and psychological barriers. The authors describe the dynamic and ultimately successful process of engaging military families with young children in a home-based reintegration program designed to support parenting and strengthen parent-child relationships as service member parents move back into family life. In addition to the integration of existing evidence-based engagement strategies, the authors applied a strengths-based approach to working with military families and worked from a community-based participatory foundation to enhance family engagement and program completion. Implications for engagement of military personnel and their loved ones are discussed.

  17. Trajectories of Parental Engagement in Early Childhood among Dual-Earner Families: Effects on Child Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago; Cadima, Joana; Matias, Marisa; Vieira, Joana Marina; Leal, Teresa; Verschueren, Karine; Matos, Paula Mena

    2018-01-01

    Parental engagement in positive activities with the child may show significant variation across time, assuming a crucial influence on child development. In dual-earner families, work-family conflict can interfere with parental engagement, with negative consequences for children's behavior. The current study examined the change trajectories of…

  18. Parent Engagement in Youth Drug Prevention in Chinese Families: Advancement in Program Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra K. M. Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating youth drug abuse problem in Hong Kong has attracted intense attention from the government, schools, and youth service professionals. Most preventive efforts have focused directly on positive youth development, very often through school programs delivered to secondary school students. There have been limited efforts to engage parents even though it is obvious that the family is actually the primary context of children and youth development. This paper will assert the importance of parental engagement in youth drug-prevention work, discuss some barriers in such parental involvement, present some promising local attempts and their strengths and limitations, and propose that sustained efforts are needed to build up theory-driven and evidence-based resources for Chinese communities on the subject.

  19. Engaging Parents of Eighth Grade Students in Parent-Teacher Bidirectional Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Conroy, Waveline

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a classroom-based, low-cost intervention to increase parents' involvement in their children's education. In Phase 1 of the study, 17 parents of 8th grade students in a low-income, high immigrant and minority school district were interviewed to conduct a qualitative assessment of factors…

  20. Consumer engagement and the development, evaluation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Kirby, James N.

    2013-01-01

    A consumer perspective can contribute much to enhancing the “ecological fit” of population level parenting interventions so they meet the needs of parents. This approach involves building relationships with consumer groups and soliciting consumer input into the relevance and acceptability of interventions, clarifying the enablers and barriers to engagement and involvement of parents, and clarifying variables that influence a parent’s program completion. The adoption of a more collaborative approach to working with consumers is important if meaningful population level change in the prevalence of serious social, emotional and behavioral problems in children and young people is to be achieved. Parents seeking assistance for their children’s behavior come from a diverse range of socioeconomic backgrounds, educational levels, cultures and languages. This paper examines consumer engagement strategies that can be employed throughout the process of program development, evaluation, training and dissemination and in “scaling up” the intervention. We argue that a multi-level public health approach to parenting intervention requires a strong consumer perspective to enable interventions to be more responsive to the preferences and needs of families and to ensure improved population reach of interventions. Examples from large scale dissemination trials are used to illustrate how consumer input can result in an increasingly differentiated suite of evidence-based parenting programs. PMID:22440062

  1. Engaging foster parents in treatment: a randomized trial of supplementing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with evidence-based engagement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen et al., 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and one of their foster parents. Attendance, engagement, and clinical outcomes were assessed 1 month into treatment, end of treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. Youth and foster parents who received TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies were more likely to be retained in treatment through four sessions and were less likely to drop out of treatment prematurely. The engagement strategies did not appear to have an effect on the number of canceled or no-show sessions or on treatment satisfaction. Clinical outcomes did not differ by study condition, but exploratory analyses suggest that youth had significant improvements with treatment. Strategies that specifically target engagement may hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and for increasing likelihood of treatment completion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Relative Effectiveness of Human Tutoring, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, and Other Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of experiments comparing the effectiveness of human tutoring, computer tutoring, and no tutoring. "No tutoring" refers to instruction that teaches the same content without tutoring. The computer tutoring systems were divided by their granularity of the user interface interaction into answer-based, step-based, and…

  3. Maternal Prenatal Psychological Distress and Preschool Cognitive Functioning: the Protective Role of Positive Parental Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Johnson, Katrina C

    2017-02-01

    Considerable animal research and available human studies suggest that psychological distress experienced by mothers during gestation is associated with later neurodevelopmental deficits in offspring; however, little research has examined potential protective factors that might mitigate this risk. The current study examined the impact of maternal prenatal psychological distress during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes in preschoolers (ages 2.5-5 years) and positive parenting as a potential protective factor. Mother-child dyads (N = 162, mean child age = 44 months, 49 % female) were recruited from a longitudinal cohort of women who had previously participated in a study of maternal mood disorders during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal distress was assessed with multiple measures collected throughout pregnancy. During a follow-up visit, mothers were interviewed about their psychological symptoms since the birth of the child, parenting behaviors were recorded during a parent-child interaction, and children's cognitive abilities were measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd Edition. Maternal prenatal distress significantly predicted lower general cognitive abilities; however, this relationship was strongest for children whose mothers exhibited low levels of positive engagement and not significant when mothers exhibited high levels of positive engagement. Results suggest that positive parental engagement can protect against the detrimental effects of maternal prenatal distress on preschoolers' cognitive abilities.

  4. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Harsh parenting and academic achievement in Chinese adolescents: Potential mediating roles of effortful control and classroom engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingzhong; Deng, Xueli; Du, Xiuxiu

    2018-04-01

    This study examined (a) the potential mediating roles of effortful control and classroom engagement in the association between harsh parenting and adolescent academic achievement, and (b) the potential moderating role of gender. Sixth through eighth graders in rural China (n=815, mean age=12.55years) reported on harsh parenting, effortful control, and classroom engagement. Parents also reported on each other's harsh parenting. Academic achievement was assessed by students' test scores and teacher-rated academic performance. Results of structural equation modeling revealed gender differences in patterns of association among the model variables. Harsh parenting was negatively and directly associated with academic achievement for both boys and girls. It was also negatively and indirectly associated with academic achievement via effortful control and classroom engagement sequentially, forming a common indirect "path" for boys and girls. The indirect negative effect of harsh parenting on boys' academic achievement was mainly realized through the mediator of effortful control, whereas this same indirect effect for girls was mainly realized through the mediator of classroom engagement. Jointly, effortful control and classroom engagement precipitates more indirect effects for boys than for girls in the association between harsh parenting and academic achievement. The discussion analyzes the potential "paths" from harsh parenting to adolescent academic achievement, as well as gender differences in these "paths." The current study has implications for teachers and parents eager to improve students' classroom engagement and academic achievement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Does One Size Fit All? Ethnic Differences in Parenting Behaviors and Motivations for Adolescent Engagement in Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapka, Jennifer D.; Law, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become a growing concern for adolescents. This study examined differences in cyber-aggression for 518 Canadian adolescents of either East Asian or European descent (61% female; M age = 15.24; SD = 1.68). Associations between parenting behaviors (parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure) and engagement in…

  7. The Revitalized Tutoring Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koselak, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    One high-leverage strategy rooted in a strong research base--the revitalized tutoring center--provides a wealth of opportunity to students who may be otherwise underserved. This embedded, open-all-day tutoring center supports collaborative teacher teams by using peer tutors and community volunteers. By centralizing resources and providing supports…

  8. Engaging Chinese Immigrant Parents in Youth Suicide Prevention: Shifting Parenting Paradigm in a Culturally Relevant Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Irene Wai Ming; Chu, Hsiao-Ching; Bloom, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a school and community collaborative initiative that targeted students of Chinese descent as a suicide at-risk population. Its main focus was to reach out to immigrant parents to help them strengthen communication and relationships with their adolescent children and to facilitate their access to mental health services in the…

  9. Providing a Platform for Parents? Exploring the Nature of Parental Engagement with School Learning Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, N.; Banaji, S.; Hadjithoma-Garstka, C.; Clark, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how schools are supporting parents' involvement with their children's education through the use of "Learning Platform" technologies--i.e. the integrated use of virtual learning environments, management information systems, communications, and other information and resource-sharing technologies. Based on in-depth…

  10. The roles of effective communication and client engagement in delivering culturally sensitive care to immigrant parents of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Desmarais, Chantal; Lindsay, Sally; Piérart, Geneviève; Tétreault, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Delivering pediatric rehabilitation services to immigrant parents of children with disabilities requires the practice of culturally sensitive care. Few studies have examined the specific nature of culturally sensitive care in pediatric rehabilitation, especially the notions of effective communication and client engagement. Interviews were held with 42 therapists (10 social workers, 16 occupational therapists and 16 speech language pathologists) from two locations in Canada (Toronto and Quebec City). Data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach. Study themes included the importance and nature of effective communication and client engagement in service delivery involving immigrant parents. Participants discussed using four main types of strategies to engage immigrant parents, including understanding the family situation, building a collaborative relationship, tailoring practice to the client's situation and ensuring parents' understanding of therapy procedures. The findings illuminate the importance of effective, two-way communication in providing the mutual understanding needed by therapists to engage parents in the intervention process. The findings also richly describe the engagement strategies used by therapists. Clinical implications include recommendations for strategies for therapists to employ to engage this group of parents. Furthermore, the findings are applicable to service provision in general, as engaging families in a collaborative relationship through attention to their specific situation is a general principle of good quality, family-centered care. Implications for Rehabilitation Effective communication permeates the delivery of culturally sensitive care and provides mutual understanding, which is fundamental to client engagement. The findings illuminate the nature of "partnership" by indicating the role of collaborative therapist strategies in facilitating engagement. Four main strategies facilitate effective communication and

  11. Exploring parent attitudes around using incentives to promote engagement in family-based weight management programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Jacob-Files

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Incentives can promote adult wellness. We sought to examine whether incentives might help overcome barriers to engagement in child weight management programs and the ideal value, type and recipient of incentives. In 2017, we conducted semi-structured phone interviews with parents of children ≤17 years old, formerly or currently affected by obesity, who had (n = 11 or had never (n = 12 participated in family-based behavioral treatment (FBT for obesity. Interviews explored the range and type of incentives families would be willing to accept. Interview transcripts were coded and data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. We found that some parents were skeptical about receiving cash incentives. However, once treatment-related costs were identified, some became more interested in reimbursement for out of pocket expenditures. Most parents felt up to $100/month would be adequate and that incentives should be tied to changing behaviors, not BMI. Some interviewees expressed preferences for non-cash incentives (e.g. a gift card over cash incentives. Parents were willing to share incentives with adolescents, up to $50/month, but there was concern about incentives affecting a child's intrinsic motivation for behavior change. All parents acknowledged that moderate incentives alone couldn't overcome the realities of structural and familial barriers to engaging in weight management programs. In summary, we identified aspects of an incentive program to promote engagement in FBT that would be desirable and feasible to implement. Future quantitative work can reveal the value and structure of incentives that are effective for improving obesogenic health behaviors and outcomes. Keywords: Behavioral economics, Family-based treatment, Financial incentives, Health incentives, Childhood obesity

  12. Why Do Children Engage in Sedentary Behavior? Child- and Parent-Perceived Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, Lisan M; Altenburg, Teatske M; van Ekris, Evi; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2017-06-22

    Todays children spend a large amount of their time sedentary. There is limited evidence on the determinants of sedentary behavior in children, and qualitative studies are especially lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore determinants of children's sedentary behavior from the child- and parent perspective. Qualitative data were collected during concept mapping sessions with four groups of 11-13 years old children ( n = 38) and two online sessions with parents ( n = 21). Children and parents generated sedentary behavior motives, sorted related motives, and rated their importance in influencing children's sedentary time. Next, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to create clusters of motives resulting in a concept map. Finally, the researchers named the clusters in the concept map. Concept maps of children yielded eight to ten perceived determinants, and concept maps of parents six to seven. Children and parents identified six similar potential determinants, and both rated as important: Sitting because… "it is the norm (I have to)", and "I can work/play better that way". In addition, children rated "there is nobody to play with" as an important potential determinant for engaging in sedentary behavior. The most important child- and parent perceived determinants were related to the social/cultural and physical environment, indicating that these are promising targets for future interventions.

  13. Why Do Children Engage in Sedentary Behavior? Child- and Parent-Perceived Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisan M. Hidding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Todays children spend a large amount of their time sedentary. There is limited evidence on the determinants of sedentary behavior in children, and qualitative studies are especially lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore determinants of children’s sedentary behavior from the child- and parent perspective. Qualitative data were collected during concept mapping sessions with four groups of 11–13 years old children (n = 38 and two online sessions with parents (n = 21. Children and parents generated sedentary behavior motives, sorted related motives, and rated their importance in influencing children’s sedentary time. Next, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to create clusters of motives resulting in a concept map. Finally, the researchers named the clusters in the concept map. Concept maps of children yielded eight to ten perceived determinants, and concept maps of parents six to seven. Children and parents identified six similar potential determinants, and both rated as important: Sitting because… “it is the norm (I have to”, and “I can work/play better that way”. In addition, children rated “there is nobody to play with” as an important potential determinant for engaging in sedentary behavior. The most important child- and parent perceived determinants were related to the social/cultural and physical environment, indicating that these are promising targets for future interventions.

  14. Rating parent-child interactions: joint engagement, communication dynamics, and shared topics in autism, Down syndrome, and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F; Nelson, P Brooke

    2012-12-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's joint engagement correlated very strongly with state coding of joint engagement and replicated the finding that coordinated joint engagement was less likely in children with autism. Ratings of other child actions, of parent contributions, and of shared topics and communicative dynamics also documented pervasive variations related to diagnosis, language facility, and communicative context.

  15. Parent-youth communication and concordance between parents and adolescents on reported engagement in social relationships and sexually intimate behaviors in Hanoi and Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M; Green, Mackenzie; Lerdboon, Porntip; Riel, Rosemary; Pham, Van; Tho, Le Huu; Ha, Nguyen T; Minh, Truong Tan; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-03-01

    Parent-child communication is associated with positive outcomes for youths' engagement in sexual behaviors. Limited data are available regarding parent-child communication in transitional countries. We present data from Vietnamese parent-youth dyads on parent reproductive health (RH) knowledge, comfort of communication, frequency of talk, and discordancy between youths' reported and parents' perceptions for engagement in relationships and sexually intimate behaviors. The cohort included 185 randomly selected parent-youth dyads in four communes in Hanoi and Khanh Hoa Province. Descriptive and comparative analysis included chi-squared tests, independent samples t-tests, and ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relationships between parental knowledge, level of comfort, frequency of talk, and discordancy. Seventy-six percent of parents and 44% of youth were female. The mean age of youth was 17.2 years. The mean score for parental "RH knowledge" was 24.74 (SD, 3.84; range, 15-34). Lower parental RH knowledge was positively associated with lower levels of education (F = 2.983; df, 184; p = .014). Data indicate a linear model in which knowledge is related to "comfort" (β = .17; p = .048), and "comfort" to frequency of "talk" (β = .6; p sexual touching (β = .57; p = .60). Parent and youth in Vietnam are engaged in limited communication about RH. There is a need for more data to assess the effect of these communication patterns on youths' engagement in sexual behaviors and for development of family-centered interventions to increase parental knowledge and skills for positive communication. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing Responsive Parent-Child Interactions and Joint Engagement: Comparing the Influence of Parent-Mediated Intervention and Parent Psychoeducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children's signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents' responsive behaviour in association with children's social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention.…

  17. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  18. A Natural Variation Study of Engagement and Confidence among Parents of Learners with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Alexandra; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Parents' involvement in their children's education is known to be an important predictor of a range of adaptive outcomes. For learners with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), lack of parental engagement and confidence has been highlighted as a problematic issue. Given this, the objectives of the current study were to: (i) determine…

  19. Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliott, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents reported that social skills were less important. Additionally, adolescents reported that they engaged in social skills more frequently than parents reported them to be engaging in social skills. Parents, but not adolescents, reported...

  20. When Parents Separate and One Parent 'Comes Out' as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual: Sons and Daughters Engage with the Tension that Occurs When Their Family Unit Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhán C Daly

    Full Text Available The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years, who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents' being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested.

  1. When Parents Separate and One Parent 'Comes Out' as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual: Sons and Daughters Engage with the Tension that Occurs When Their Family Unit Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Siobhán C; MacNeela, Pádraig; MacNeela, Pádriag; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-01-01

    The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB) were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years), who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents' being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested.

  2. Cross-Age Tutoring: Effects on Tutors' Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Abraham; Ronen, Rachel

    1982-01-01

    The psychological benefits of a high school tutoring program were investigated. Results gathered from questionnaires answered by high school students tutoring junior high school students, both before and after the tutoring experience, indicated that tutors' empathy, altruism, and self-esteem increased as a result of program participation.…

  3. How can parents get involved in preschool? Barriers and engagement in education by ethnic minority parents of children attending Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Julia L

    2010-01-01

    An intervention was developed to promote parent involvement with ethnic minority families of children attending Head Start preschool programs. Two hundred eighty-eight predominantly African American families from a small southern city were included in this study. Parent satisfaction with the program was high, yet engagement was less than optimal. Some effects were found for the program, despite low levels of participation. Ethnic minority parents who received the intervention increased the frequency of reading to their child as compared with parents in a comparison group who did not receive the program. The quality of the parent-teacher relationship was significantly correlated with parental participation in the intervention. Program participation and the parent-teacher relationship were correlated with higher levels of children's school readiness abilities. Children in the intervention condition showed stronger end-of-year receptive vocabulary and parent-rated social competence as compared with children who did not receive treatment. This research documents the challenges involved in engaging parents in prevention programs. Strategies for maximizing the benefits of preschool for ethnic minority families and their children are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Computer Tutors Get Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    After decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive psychology, a number of companies have emerged that offer intelligent tutor system (ITS) soft ware to schools. These systems try to mimic the help that a human tutor would provide to an individual student, something nearly impossible for teachers to accomplish in the…

  5. Improving implementation of mental health services for trauma in multicultural elementary schools: stakeholder perspectives on parent and educator engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Audra; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Rodríguez, Adriana; Zelaya, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    Although more schools are offering mental health programs, few studies have involved the school community in research to improve their successful implementation. In this community-partnered study, focus groups were conducted with school staff and parents to explore issues related to community engagement and feasibility of a mental health intervention for elementary school students exposed to trauma. Four educator focus groups, including 23 participants, and 2 parent focus groups, consisting of 9 Spanish-speaking and 7 English-speaking parents were conducted. Participants discussed facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of the program. Participants identified the importance of pre-implementation parent education, raising awareness of the impact of student mental health among educators, maintaining ongoing communication during the intervention, and addressing logistical concerns. Participants described clear considerations for parent and educator engagement, both at the pre-implementation phase and during implementation of the program. Implications for next steps of this community-partnered approach are described.

  6. Improving Implementation of Mental Health Services for Trauma in Multicultural Elementary Schools: Stakeholder Perspectives on Parent and Educator Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Rodríguez, Adriana; Zelaya, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Although more schools are offering mental health programs, few studies have involved the school community in research to improve their successful implementation. In this community partnered study, focus groups were conducted with school staff and parents to explore issues related to community engagement and feasibility of a mental health intervention for elementary school students exposed to trauma. Four educator focus groups, including 23 participants, and 2 parent focus groups, consisting of 9 Spanish-speaking and 7 English-speaking parents were conducted. Participants discussed facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of the program. Participants identified the importance of pre-implementation parent education, raising awareness of the impact of student mental health among educators, maintaining ongoing communication during the intervention, and addressing logistical concerns. Participants described clear considerations for parent and educator engagement both at the pre implementation phase and during implementation of the program. Implications for next steps of this community partnered approach are described. PMID:23576136

  7. Parents' views on engaging families of middle school students in obesity prevention and control in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Burton O; Chung, Paul J; Thompson, Lindsey R; Elijah, Jacinta; Lamb, Sheila; Garcia, Vanessa P; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-04-04

    Overweight and obesity remain significant public health risks for youth in the United States, particularly among racial/ethnic minority groups. Efforts at obesity prevention and control have targeted youth and family members in diverse settings. Although involving parents in obesity prevention programs for youth may improve the potential of these programs, less is known about parents' preferred methods of engagement, especially among racial/ethnic minority parents and parents whose primary language is not English. In this qualitative study, parents of middle-school-aged children were asked how best to engage their children in obesity prevention and control efforts. We recruited 38 parents whose children attended Los Angeles middle schools to participate in focus groups. Two English-language focus groups with 14 parents of different racial/ethnic backgrounds and 2 Spanish language groups with 24 Latino parents were conducted from 2010 through 2011. We analyzed focus group transcripts by using content analysis using inductive and deductive techniques. Findings from focus groups confirmed that parents want to help their children avoid obesity but feel constrained in their ability to take action. Participants identified an overarching desire to become better parents as a potential incentive to engage in obesity prevention efforts. Parents advocated for family-focused approaches in obesity prevention programs, including family sports leagues and cooking classes. Most findings were consistent between language groups, but parents in the Spanish language groups cited language-related barriers. The development and testing of simple programs that are sustainable, community-based, and family-focused may empower families to address obesity prevention and control.

  8. Tutoring executives online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programmes have largely neglected programmes catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA programme through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviours already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  9. Tutoring Executives Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programs have largely neglected programs catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA program through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviors already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  10. Parent-administered computer-assisted tutoring targeting letter-sound knowledge: Evaluation via multiple-baseline across three preschool students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Matthew R; Volpe, Robert J; Burns, Matthew K; Hoffman, Jessica A

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of letters sounds has been identified as a primary objective of preschool instruction and intervention. Despite this designation, large disparities exist in the number of letter sounds children know at school entry. Enhancing caregivers' ability to teach their preschool-aged children letter sounds may represent an effective practice for reducing this variability and ensuring that more children are prepared to experience early school success. This study used a non-concurrent multiple-baseline-across-participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of caregivers (N=3) delivering a computer-assisted tutoring program (Tutoring Buddy) targeting letter sound knowledge to their preschool-aged children. Visual analyses and effect size estimates derived from Percentage of All Non-Overlapping Data (PAND) statistics indicated consistent results for letter sound acquisition, as 6weeks of intervention yielded large effects for letter sound knowledge (LSK) across all three children. Large effect sizes were also found for letter sound fluency (LSF) and nonsense word fluency (NWF) for two children. All three caregivers rated the intervention as highly usable and were able to administer it with high levels of fidelity. Taken together, the results of the present study found Tutoring Buddy to be an effective, simple, and usable way for the caregivers to support their children's literacy development. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An integrated 2-year clinical skills peer tutoring scheme in a UK-based medical school: perceptions of tutees and peer tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Several benefits of peer tutoring in medical school teaching have been described. However, there is a lack of research on the perceptions of peer tutoring, particularly from tutees who partake in a long-term clinical skills scheme integrated into the medical school curriculum. This study evaluates the opinions of preclinical tutees at the end of a 2-year peer-tutored clinical skills program and peer tutors themselves. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a UK-based medical school that primarily utilizes peer tutoring for clinical skills teaching. A questionnaire was designed to assess the views of preclinical tutees and peer tutors. Likert scales were used to grade responses and comment boxes to collect qualitative data. Results Sixty-five questionnaires were collected (52 tutees, 13 peer tutors). Seventy-nine percent of students felt satisfied with their teaching, and 70% felt adequately prepared for clinical placements. Furthermore, 79% believed that peer tutoring is the most effective method for clinical skills teaching. When compared to faculty teaching, tutees preferred being taught by peer tutors (63%), felt more confident (73%), and were more willing to engage (77%). All peer tutors felt that teaching made them more confident in their Objective Structured Clinical Examination performance, and 91% agreed that being a tutor made them consider pursuing teaching in the future. Thematic analysis of qualitative data identified 3 themes regarding peer tutoring: a more comfortable environment (69%), a more personalized teaching approach (34%), and variation in content taught (14%). Conclusion Preclinical tutees prefer being taught clinical skills by peer tutors compared to faculty, with the peer tutors also benefitting. Studies such as this, looking at long-term schemes, further validate peer tutoring and may encourage more medical schools to adopt this method as an effective way of clinical skills teaching. PMID:29922105

  12. Tutoring electronic troubleshooting in a simulated maintenance work environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, Sherrie P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of intelligent tutoring systems, or intelligent maintenance simulators, is being developed based on expert and novice problem solving data. A graded series of authentic troubleshooting problems provides the curriculum, and adaptive instructional treatments foster active learning in trainees who engage in extensive fault isolation practice and thus in conditionalizing what they know. A proof of concept training study involving human tutoring was conducted as a precursor to the computer tutors to assess this integrated, problem based approach to task analysis and instruction. Statistically significant improvements in apprentice technicians' troubleshooting efficiency were achieved after approximately six hours of training.

  13. Effects of Role and Assignment Rationale on Attitudes Formed During Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Furman, Wyndol

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of contextual factors, such as assignment rationale, on the attitudinal effects of peer tutoring. Fourth-grade children engaged in brief tutoring experiences as either a tutor or tutee. Subjects received four rationales for being selected as tutor or tutee: (a) a competence rationale, (b) a physical characteristic rationale, (c) a chance rationale, or (d) no rationale. As predicted, tutors had more positive attitudes than tutees when they had been given a competence or physical characteristic rationale but not when the tutors were provided a chance rationale or no rationale. Additionally, the tutors’ and tutees’ attitudes were enhanced when no rationale was provided. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for a role-theory analysis of tutoring and their implications for applied programs. PMID:23946549

  14. Disadvantaged Parents' Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Amos, Amanda

    2016-09-09

    Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 "Right Outside" mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding), motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS)) and opportunities to act (barriers) was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  15. Engaging Parents in Preventive Interventions for Young Children: Working with Cultural Diversity Within Low-Income, Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J; Brotman, Laurie M

    2017-08-01

    A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers. This paper describes the initial development of ParentCorps and ongoing improvements to realize that vision. Initial development focused on creating a parenting intervention that places culture at the center and effectively embedding it in schools. ParentCorps includes core components found in nearly all effective parenting interventions with a culturally informed approach to engaging families and supporting behavior change. As the intervention is implemented at scale in increasingly diverse communities, improvement efforts include augmenting professional development to increase racial consciousness among all staff (evaluators, coaches, and school-based facilitators) and applying an implementation science framework to study and more fully support schools' use of a package of engagement strategies.

  16. Adolescents' Perceptions of the Economy: Its Association with Academic Engagement and the Role of School-Based and Parental Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E; Liang, Belle; Bravo, Diamond Y; Price, Maggi; Polk, Whitney; Perella, John; Savitz-Romer, Mandy

    2018-05-01

    In the context of widespread media coverage of economic problems, un- and under-employment, and overwhelming student loan debt, youth are making sense of the prospects of getting a job and value of education. Further, they are assessing the implications of the job market in curtailing or enhancing their future success. School-based and familial relationships may support students in making sense of the job market. The current study focuses on how youth view the economy, its association with academic engagement, and how parental and school-based relationships shape views of the job market and their impact on academic engagement. With an ethnically diverse sample of high school students (N = 624; 54% female), perceptions of the job market were tested as mediators and moderators of the relations between school-based relationships and parenting on academic engagement. Using structural equation modeling, job market pessimism mediated the relation between school-based relationships and engagement. School-based relationships and parenting practices moderated the relation between job market pessimism and academic engagement. At high levels of parental and school support, interpreted as increased centrality and salience of academic success, there was a stronger negative association between job market pessimism and academic engagement. This set of findings indicates that high school students are thinking about the job market in ways that impact their engagement in school. These findings extend theories that have focused on the job market and the likelihood of dropping out of school or enrolling in post-secondary education. These findings are significant because just staying in school is not enough to succeed. With increased emphasis on college and career readiness, students are required to be more planful and purposeful during high school in order to succeed in the job market.

  17. Implementation evaluation of steering teens safe: engaging parents to deliver a new parent-based teen driving intervention to their teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-08-01

    Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. Steering Teens Safe is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills with their teens. This implementation evaluation focuses on a sample of 83 parents who delivered Steering Teens Safe to their teens. One-, 2- and 3-month follow-up assessments were conducted with intervention parents to evaluate the self-reported quantity and quality of talking about, demonstrating, and practicing safe driving goals with teens; perceived success and benefit of the program; and barriers to implementation. Over 3 months of follow-up, parents discussed driving goals with their teens for a median of 101.5 minutes. The most frequently addressed topics were general safety principles, including distracted driving, driving in bad weather, wearing a seat belt, and being a safe passenger. Parents spent a median of 30 minutes practicing safe driving skills such as changing lanes. Sixty-seven percent of parents talked to their children about rural road safety, but just 36% demonstrated and half practiced these skills with their teens. Barriers to implementation include time and opportunity barriers and resistant attitudes of their teens. However, barriers neither affected frequency of engagement nor parents' perceived benefit and comfort in delivering the program. Parents with time/opportunity barriers also had higher practice and demonstration times than parents without these barriers. Findings indicate high acceptability among parent implementers and promise for real-world delivery. Future studies are needed to assess intervention impact.

  18. Peer Tutoring: A Training and Facilitation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirini, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Students can make huge gains in academic grades and confidence with the help of peer tutoring. This book provides practical, research-based strategies for anyone wanting to run a peer tutoring programme or to improve their own tutoring practice. The book focuses on two key components of tutoring: the tutoring relationship and tutoring tools. The…

  19. Automatic Detection of Tutoring Styles Based on Tutors' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjebar, Safia; Lafifi, Yacine; Zedadra, Amina

    2016-01-01

    In e-learning systems, tutors have a significant impact on learners' life to increase their knowledge level and to make the learning process more effective. They are characterized by different features. Therefore, identifying tutoring styles is a critical step in understanding the preference of tutors on how to organize and help the learners. In…

  20. Do tutors matter? Assessing the impact of tutors on firstyear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research sought to determine if a teaching intervention using tutors in a South African university could promote epistemological access to university for first-year students. Although hiring, developing and managing tutors takes oney, time and energy, the effectiveness of tutors in the South African context is ...

  1. Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliott, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents reported that social skills were less important. Additionally, adolescents reported that they engaged in social skills more frequently than parents reported them to be engaging in social skills. Parents, but not adolescents, reported a discrepancy between importance and engagement, such that the importance of social skills was rated higher than the frequency of adolescent engagement in social skills. These results suggest that social skills interventions for individuals with ASD may need to target awareness of social skill importance and accurate monitoring of social skill engagement. PMID:26077952

  2. Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative approach to building peer tutoring capacity in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherran Clarence

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer tutors in higher education are frequently given vital teaching and learning work to do, but the training or professional development and support opportunities they are offered vary, and more often than not peer tutors are under-supported. In order to create and sustain teaching and learning environments that are better able to facilitate students’ engagement with knowledge and learning, the role of peer tutors needs to be recognised differently, as that of learning and teaching partners to both lecturers and students. Tutors then need to be offered opportunities for more in-depth professional academic development in order to fully realise this role. This paper explores a tutor development programme within a South African writing centre that aimed at offering tutors such ongoing and cumulative opportunities for learning and growth using a balanced approach, which included scholarly research and practice-based training. Using narrative data tutors provided in reflective written reports, the paper explores the kinds of development in tutors’ thinking and action that are possible when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice.

  3. Attitude and flexibility are the most important work place factors for working parents' mental wellbeing, stress, and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Frida; Axmon, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The need to combine active employment and parenthood is a reality for many parents today. Knowing more about which work place factors are associated with better or worse health could help employers to form a work environment that provides optimal conditions to maintain or increase health and work engagement in this group. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between different subjective and objective work factors and benefits, and a range of outcome variables such as stress, symptom report, wellbeing, work-related fatigue, work engagement, and work-family conflict among working mothers and fathers with small children. Cross-sectional analyses of associations between work place factors categorised into three different dimensions; flexibility, benefits, and attitude and the outcome measures were performed, including questionnaire responses from 1562 working parents. The results showed that work place factors related to flexibility and, especially among women, attitude to parenthood appear to have the strongest effect on working parents' subjective stress and wellbeing, while benefits appear to have less impact. Except regarding factors related to attitudes at the work place, most associations were similar among men and women. Most likely, different factors are better suited or more important for some individuals than others depending on their total work, as well as family situation and also depending on individual factors such as personality and priorities. A positive attitude towards parenthood and a flexible work situation seem, however, beneficial for the general wellbeing and work engagement among working parents.

  4. Look! Listen! Learn! Parent Narratives and Grounded Theory Models of Parent Voice, Presence, and Engagement in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maria K.; Millen, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Educators' expectations and understandings of parental involvement in our nation's schools are often disconnected from the reality of students' home lives. This qualitative study purports that educators often lose opportunities to more fully understand and serve students, particularly when perceptions of parental involvement and…

  5. PARENTS 2 study protocol: pilot of Parents' Active Role and ENgagement in the review of Their Stillbirth/perinatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhbakhi, Danya; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Storey, Claire; Heazell, Alexander; Lynch, Mary; Timlin, Laura; Burden, Christy

    2018-01-10

    The perinatal mortality review meeting that takes place within the hospital following a stillbirth or neonatal death enables clinicians to learn vital lessons to improve care for women and their families for the future. Recent evidence suggests that parents are unaware that a formal review following the death of their baby takes place. Many would welcome the opportunity to feedback into the meeting itself. Parental involvement in the perinatal mortality review meeting has the potential to improve patient satisfaction, drive improvements in patient safety and promote an open culture within healthcare. Yet evidence on the feasibility of involving bereaved parents in the review process is lacking. This paper describes the protocol for the Parents' Active Role and Engangement iN the review of their Stillbirth/perinatal death study (PARENTS 2) , whereby healthcare professionals' and stakeholders' perceptions of parental involvement will be investigated, and parental involvement in the perinatal mortality review will be piloted and evaluated at two hospitals. We will investigate perceptions of parental involvement in the perinatal mortality review process by conducting four focus groups. A three-round modified Delphi technique will be employed to gain a consensus on principles of parental involvement in the perinatal mortality review process. We will use three sequential rounds, including a national consensus meeting workshop with experts in stillbirth, neonatal death and bereavement care, and a two-stage anonymous online questionnaire. We will pilot a new perinatal mortality review process with parental involvement over a 6-month study period. The impact of the new process will be evaluated by assessing parents' experiences of their care and parents' and staff perceptions of their involvement in the process by conducting further focus groups and using a Parent Generated Index questionnaire. This study has ethical approval from the UK Health Research Authority. We will

  6. Reports of adolescent emotion regulation and school engagement mediating the relation between parenting and adolescent functioning in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali V; Ward, Rose M; Raval, Pratiksha H; Trivedi, Shwetang S

    2017-02-07

    Much like other parts of Asia, late adolescence in India is a particularly stressful time with academic pressures of a highly competitive examination system that determines future occupational success. The present study examined interrelations among reports of parenting, adolescents' regulation of academics-related emotions, school engagement, adolescent socio-emotional functioning and state-exam performance. Four hundred and fifty 10th and 12th graders from suburban high schools in India participated, along with their mothers. At the beginning of the school year, mothers completed measures of parenting, and adolescents completed measures of emotion regulation, school engagement and behaviour problems. At the end of the school year, grades from state exams were obtained from the schools. A multiple mediator model was tested using structural equation modelling. Authoritarian parenting was positively related to adolescent behaviour problems, but not adolescent state-exam performance. Maternal non-supportive responses to adolescent negative emotion were indirectly positively related to adolescent behaviour problems through adolescent emotion dysregulation. Adolescent school engagement mediated the positive relation between maternal supportive responses to adolescent negative emotion and adolescent state-exam performance. These findings underscore the relevance of adolescent emotions for their academic functioning, with implications for the development of interventions for those who struggle during these highly stressful years. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Toward Improved Parenting Interventions for Disruptive Child Behavior : Engaging Disadvantaged Families and Searching for Effective Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.H.O.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk

  8. Is Tutoring Teaching? Exploring Tutoring's Potential to Improve Mathematics Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Alexander N.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the tutoring practices of mathematics tutors working in one university tutoring center and the corresponding rationale exhibited by the mathematics tutors. This study illustrates how the tutoring practices of mathematics tutors align with the Eight Mathematics Teaching Practices outlined in NCTM's recent publication…

  9. Children's Engagement in Play at Home: A Parent's Role in Supporting Play Opportunities during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…

  10. Are You There for Me? Joint Engagement and Emotional Availability in Parent-Child Interactions for Toddlers With Moderate Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien

    2018-05-11

    This study examined joint engagement and emotional availability of parent-child interactions for toddlers with moderate hearing loss (MHL) compared with toddlers with normal hearing (NH) and in relation to children's language abilities. The participants in this study were 25 children with MHL (40 to 60 dB hearing loss) and 26 children with NH (mean age: 33.3 months). The children and their parents were filmed during a 10-minute free play session in their homes. The duration of joint engagement and success rate of initiations were coded next to the level of emotional availability reflected by the Emotional Availability Scales. Receptive and expressive language tests were administered to the children to examine their language ability. Groups differed in joint engagement: children with MHL and their parents were less successful in establishing joint engagement and had briefer episodes of joint engagement than children with NH and their parents. No differences between groups were found for emotional availability measures. Both joint engagement and emotional availability measures were positively related to children's language ability. Children with MHL and their parents are emotional available to each other. However, they have more difficulties in establishing joint engagement with each other and have briefer episodes of joint engagement compared with children with NH and their parents. The parent-child interactions of children with better language abilities are characterized with higher levels of emotional availability and longer episodes of joint engagement. The results imply that interactions of children with MHL and their parents are an important target for family-centered early intervention programs.

  11. EarthTutor: An Interactive Intelligent Tutoring System for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A. M.; Parton, K.; Smith, E.

    2005-12-01

    Earth science classes in colleges and high schools use a variety of satellite image processing software to teach earth science and remote sensing principles. However, current tutorials for image processing software are often paper-based or lecture-based and do not take advantage of the full potential of the computer context to teach, immerse, and stimulate students. We present EarthTutor, an adaptive, interactive Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) being built for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) that is integrated directly with an image processing application. The system aims to foster the use of satellite imagery in classrooms and encourage inquiry-based, hands-on earth science scientific study by providing students with an engaging imagery analysis learning environment. EarthTutor's software is available as a plug-in to ImageJ, a free image processing system developed by the NIH (National Institute of Health). Since it is written in Java, it can be run on almost any platform and also as an applet from the Web. Labs developed for EarthTutor combine lesson content (such as HTML web pages) with interactive activities and questions. In each lab the student learns to measure, calibrate, color, slice, plot and otherwise process and analyze earth science imagery. During the activities, EarthTutor monitors students closely as they work, which allows it to provide immediate feedback that is customized to a particular student's needs. As the student moves through the labs, EarthTutor assesses the student, and tailors the presentation of the content to a student's demonstrated skill level. EarthTutor's adaptive approach is based on emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Bayesian networks are employed to model a student's proficiency with different earth science and image processing concepts. Agent behaviors are used to track the student's progress through activities and provide guidance when a student encounters difficulty. Through individual

  12. Outcomes in Child Health: Exploring the Use of Social Media to Engage Parents in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Michele P; Shave, Kassi; Fernandes, Ricardo M; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-03-16

    With the rapid growth of technology and its improved accessibility globally, social media is gaining an increasingly important role in health care. Patients are frequently engaging with social media to access information, share content, and interact with others in online health communities. However, the use of social media as a stakeholder engagement strategy has been minimally explored, and effective methods for involving participants in research on the identification of patient-centered outcomes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of using social media to engage parents in identifying patient-centered outcomes, using acute respiratory infections in children as an example to gauge feasibility. We conducted a process evaluation of a two-phase Web-based strategy to engage parents in research on patient-centered outcomes. In the first phase, we developed a website and study-specific Facebook and Twitter accounts to recruit parents to complete a Web-based survey identifying patient-centered outcomes. In the second phase, we used Facebook to host discussion with parents based on the survey results. The reach of social media as an engagement strategy and the characteristics of the population recruited were assessed. During the first phase, there were 5027 visits to the survey site, 110 participants completed the survey, 553 unique users visited the study website (675 visits), the Facebook page received 104 likes, and the Twitter account gained 52 followers over the 14-week study period. Most survey respondents identified Facebook (51.8%, 57/110) or a friend (45.5%, 50/110) as their source of referral. It was found that 70.0% (77/110) of respondents resided in Canada, in urban centers (92.7%, 102/110), and 88.2% (97/110) had a college or university degree or higher. The median year of birth was 1978 and 90.0% (99/110) were female. Most survey responses (88.2%, 97/110) were completed during the first month of the study. In the second phase, 4

  13. Mentoring and Tutoring Your Students through Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes practical procedures in mentoring/tutoring students through self-assessment (SA) to establish and maintain partnership in learning. High school teachers ("n"?=?10) allow their students ("N"?=?515: 359 males) to engage in activities that help them identify standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and…

  14. Prospective association of peer influence, school engagement, drinking expectancies, and parent expectations with drinking initiation among sixth graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2004-02-01

    Early initiation of drinking increases the lifetime risk for substance abuse and other serious health and social problems. An understanding of the predictors of early initiation is needed if successful preventive interventions are to be developed. Surveys were completed by 1009 sixth grade students at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the school year in four schools in one suburban school district. At Time 1, 55/1009 (5.5%) reported drinking in the past 30 days. From Time 1 to Time 2, the percentage of drinkers increase to 127/1009 (10.9%) of whom 101 were new drinkers. In multiple logistic regression analyses, school engagement was negatively associated and peer influence and drinking expectancies were positively associated with drinking initiation. A significant interaction was found between drinking expectancies and parental expectations. Among sixth graders with high drinking expectancies, those with low parental expectations for their behavior were 2.6 times more likely to start drinking than those with parents with high expectations for their behavior. Positive drinking expectancies were significantly associated with drinking initiation only among teens who believed their parents did not hold strong expectations for them not to drink. This finding held for boys and girls, Blacks and Whites and was particularly strong for Black youth. This finding provides new information about the moderating effect of parental expectations on drinking expectancies among early adolescents.

  15. Parental Experiences of Dealing with Disputes in Additional Support Needs in Scotland: Why Are Parents Not Engaging with Mediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin; Stead, Joan; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    Partnerships with parents, particularly in the field of education, have featured prominently in policy rhetoric for many years, but routes of redress have not had much attention until relatively recently. The development of Alternative Dispute Resolution in the UK reflects the situation in several jurisdictions (e.g. Norway, Germany, the…

  16. Private Tutoring: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, Mehtabul

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the nationally representative "Participation and Expenditure in Education" surveys, we document the incidence and cost of private tutoring at different stages of schooling over the last two decades in India. As private tutoring involve two decisions: a) whether to take private tuition or not, and b) how much to spend on private tutoring conditional on positive decision in (a), we analyze the determinants of the two decisions separately using a Hurdle model. We find that private tut...

  17. Tutoring Mentoring Peer Consulting

    OpenAIRE

    Szczyrba, Birgit; Wildt, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Consulting, Coaching und Supervision, Tutoring, Mentoring und kollegiale Beratung: Beratungsangebote verschiedenster Art werden wie selbstverständlich in den Berufen nachgefragt, die mit Beziehung und Interaktion, mit komplexen sozialen Organisationen und Systemen, mit hoher Verantwortlichkeit, aber unsicheren Handlungsbedingungen zu tun haben. Mittlerweile beginnt diese Nachfrage auch in den Hochschulen zu steigen. Eine solche Steigerung wird ausgelöst durch den Wandel in den Lehr-Lernkultur...

  18. A Randomized Trial Examining the Effects of Parent Engagement on Early Language and Literacy: The Getting Ready Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, Lisa L.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Language and literacy skills established during early childhood are critical for later school success. Parental engagement with children has been linked to a number of adaptive characteristics in preschoolers including language and literacy development, and family-school collaboration is an important contributor to school readiness. This study reports the results of a randomized trial of a parent engagement intervention designed to facilitate school readiness among disadvantaged preschool children, with a particular focus on language and literacy development. Participants included 217 children, 211 parents, and 29 Head Start teachers in 21 schools. Statistically significant differences in favor of the treatment group were observed between treatment and control participants in the rate of change over 2 academic years on teacher reports of children’s language use (d = 1.11), reading (d = 1.25), and writing skills (d = .93). Significant intervention effects on children’s direct measures of expressive language were identified for a subgroup of cases where there were concerns about a child’s development upon entry into preschool. Additionally, other child and family moderators revealed specific variables that influenced the treatment’s effects. PMID:21640249

  19. Recruiting, Retaining and Engaging Men in Social Interventions: Lessons for Implementation Focusing on a Prison-Based Parenting Intervention for Young Incarcerated Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie

    2018-01-01

    Recruiting, retaining and engaging men in social interventions can be challenging. The focus of this paper is the successful implementation of a parenting programme for incarcerated fathers, delivered in a Young Offender Institution (YOI) in Scotland. Reasons for high levels of recruitment, retention and engagement are explored, with barriers…

  20. Rights and the Role of Family Engagement in Child Welfare: An International Treaties Perspective on Families' Rights, Parents' Rights, and Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzer, Gertrud; Gran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    According to international human rights treaties, what rights do family members, parents, and children have in family engagement in child welfare decision-making? A sociolegal analytical approach produces a typology of rights, then applies the typology to eight countries' approaches to family engagement to show that strong bundles of rights are…

  1. The Role of Supported Joint Engagement and Parent Utterances in Language and Social Communication Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Yoder, Paul J.; Hochman, Julia M.; Watson, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between three parent-child engagement states and social communication, expressive language, and receptive language at 8 month follow-up, in 63 preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. We extend the literature on supported joint engagement by dividing this state into higher order (HSJE) and lower order…

  2. Consumer Engagement and the Development, Evaluation, and Dissemination of Evidence-Based Parenting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Kirby, James N.

    2012-01-01

    A consumer perspective can contribute much to enhancing the "ecological fit" of population-level parenting interventions so they meet the needs of parents. This approach involves building relationships with consumer groups and soliciting consumer input into the relevance and acceptability of interventions, clarifying the enablers and barriers to…

  3. Literacy Benefits for Latina/o Parents Engaged in a Spanish Literacy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena; Ramirez, Ysabel

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study reports on a Latina/o parent literacy project teaching literacy lessons in Spanish to Latina mothers and their children enrolled at a public elementary school. The participating mothers study and practice reading strategies to later put them into practice with their children. Data sources include: Parents' reflective…

  4. Brief Report: Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…

  5. Proactive Parent Engagement in Public Schools: Using a Brief Strengths and Needs Assessment in a Multiple-Gating Risk Management Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin J.; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Gau, Jeff M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Brown, Kimbree L.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Seeley, John R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the viability of a brief, parent-reported strengths and needs assessment as the first step in a multiple-gating approach to proactive positive behavior support for families. The "Positive Family Support--Strengths and Needs Assessment" (PFS-SaNA) was designed to collaboratively engage parents early in the school year…

  6. Explaining the Impact of Disabled Children's Engagement with Physical Activity on Their Parents' Smartphone Addiction Levels: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet; Tüfekçi, Sakir

    2018-01-01

    In this research, quantitative findings and qualitative follow-up themes were used to quantify, conceptualize and finally try to explain the impact of disabled children's engagement with physical activity on their parents' smartphone addiction levels. An initial phase of quantitative investigation was conducted with 116 parents. Analyses of…

  7. Increasing Responsive Parent–Child Interactions and Joint Engagement: Comparing the Influence of Parent-Mediated Intervention and Parent Psychoeducation

    OpenAIRE

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children’s signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents’ responsive behaviour in association with children’s social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention. Eighty-five dyads were randomized to one of two 10-week caregiver-training interventions. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parental resp...

  8. Tips for Reading Tutors = Consejos para los Tutores en Lectura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Reading is the basis for learning and school success. While reading is learned primarily in the classroom, many students need extra time and help. Research shows that tutoring is a great way for individuals and groups outside school to support learning, but effective tutoring requires appropriate training and careful planning. This brochure,…

  9. Effectiveness of an implementation optimisation intervention aimed at increasing parent engagement in HENRY, a childhood obesity prevention programme - the Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Burton, Wendy; Cundill, Bonnie; Farrin, Amanda J; Nixon, Jane; Stevens, June; Roberts, Kim; Foy, Robbie; Rutter, Harry; Hartley, Suzanne; Tubeuf, Sandy; Collinson, Michelle; Brown, Julia

    2017-01-24

    Family-based interventions to prevent childhood obesity depend upon parents' taking action to improve diet and other lifestyle behaviours in their families. Programmes that attract and retain high numbers of parents provide an enhanced opportunity to improve public health and are also likely to be more cost-effective than those that do not. We have developed a theory-informed optimisation intervention to promote parent engagement within an existing childhood obesity prevention group programme, HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young). Here, we describe a proposal to evaluate the effectiveness of this optimisation intervention in regard to the engagement of parents and cost-effectiveness. The Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial is a cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted across 24 local authorities (approximately 144 children's centres) which currently deliver HENRY programmes. The primary outcome will be parental enrolment and attendance at the HENRY programme, assessed using routinely collected process data. Cost-effectiveness will be presented in terms of primary outcomes using acceptability curves and through eliciting the willingness to pay for the optimisation from HENRY commissioners. Secondary outcomes include the longitudinal impact of the optimisation, parent-reported infant intake of fruits and vegetables (as a proxy to compliance) and other parent-reported family habits and lifestyle. This innovative trial will provide evidence on the implementation of a theory-informed optimisation intervention to promote parent engagement in HENRY, a community-based childhood obesity prevention programme. The findings will be generalisable to other interventions delivered to parents in other community-based environments. This research meets the expressed needs of commissioners, children's centres and parents to optimise the potential impact that HENRY has on obesity prevention. A subsequent cluster randomised controlled pilot

  10. Structured Task versus Free Play: The Influence of Social Context on Parenting Quality, Toddlers' Engagement with Parents and Play Behaviors, and Parent-Toddler Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Bingham, Gary; Lewsader, Joellen; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Elicker, James

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little empirical research examines relations among the quality of both mothers' and fathers' social emotional and linguistic support of toddlers across multiple parent-child interaction contexts. Objective: The current study investigated the influence of parent gender (mother vs. father) and activity setting (structured task vs. free…

  11. Are mothers��� and fathers��� parenting characteristics associated with emerging adults��� academic engagement?

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Emily A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2016-01-01

    Although parenting is clearly linked to academic engagement in adolescence, less is known about links between parenting and academic engagement in emerging adulthood. A diverse sample of college students (N = 633; 53.1% female, 45.7% White/European American, 28.3% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 26.4% Hispanic/Latino American, 21.6% Black/African American, and 2.8% Native American/American Indian) answered surveys about mothers��� and fathers��� parenting style,...

  12. Stupid Tutoring Systems, Intelligent Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…

  13. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  14. Coaching Tutors: An Instrumental Case Study on Testing an Integrated Framework for Tutoring Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alicia L.; Grant, Chris; Donthamsetty, Reshema

    2017-01-01

    The objective for the current qualitative case study was to examine participants' perceptions on the tutor coaching and session review frameworks. The location of the study was at the tutor coaches' place of business. At the beginning of the study, tutor coaches were trained on how to implement the tutoring coaching framework with their tutors,…

  15. Perceptions of Tutoring Roles and Psychological Distance among Instructors, Tutors and Students at a Korean University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Hong, Youngil; Choi, Hyoseon

    2017-01-01

    This study explores issues related to the tutor's role when initiating tutoring as an institutional strategy at a conventional university. Based on a pilot tutoring program implemented in four college courses, we investigated the perceptions of instructors, tutors and students regarding the role of tutoring and whether it affected the…

  16. Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring. ERIC Digest, Number 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…

  17. Tutoring and Mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia Frade

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available South African institutions of higher education (HE have increasingly come under pressure to broaden access to historically under-represented groups who are often underprepared for tertiary education as a result of apartheid-era secondary schooling (White Paper, 2013. This has resulted in student enrolments becoming increasingly diverse with respect to racial, cultural, socio-economic and linguistic backgrounds (Underhill & McDonald, 2010. In an attempt to address these issues and promote increased throughput rates, institutions of HE have increasingly begun to introduce tutoring, including supplemental instruction (SI and peer-assisted learning (PAL and mentoring programmes.

  18. Peer Tutoring at Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mikyong Minsun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the important roles of peer tutoring and peer tutoring services that utilize student tutors in higher education. First, the roles and potential benefits of peer tutoring are identified and reviewed as they apply to various dimensions of student development. Second, the impacts, benefits, and extended beneficiaries of peer…

  19. Supporting Tutoring Within a Namibian Environmental Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a case study of tutoring in the Namibian Environmental Education Certificate (NEEC) Course. In order to support tutoring, the National NEEC Coordinator investigated the way NEEC tutors are supported and the kinds of challenges faced in the tutoring process. The case study was framed within a ...

  20. Tutoring Online Tutors: Using Digital Badges to Encourage the Development of Online Tutoring Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastinski, Stefan; Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Stenbom, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Online tutors play a critical role in e-learning and need to have an appropriate set of skills in addition to subject matter expertise. This paper explores how digital badges can be used to encourage the development of online tutoring skills. Based on previous research, we defined three digital badges, which are examples of essential tutoring…

  1. Does private tutoring increase students' academic performance? Evidence from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.

  2. Parent-youth communication and concordance between parents and adolescents on reported engagement in social relationships and sexually intimate behaviors in Ha Noi and Khanh Hoa Province, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie; Lerdboon, Porntip; Riel, Rosemary; Pham, Van; Tho, Le Huu; Ha, Nguyen T; Minh, Truong Tan; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Parent-child communication is associated with positive outcomes for youths’ engagement in sexual behaviors. Limited data are available regarding parent-child communication in transitional countries. We present data from Vietnamese parent-youth dyads on parent reproductive health knowledge, comfort of communication, frequency of talk, and discordancy between youths’ reported and parents’ perceptions for engagement in relationships and sexually intimate behaviors. Methods 185 randomly selected parent-youth dyads in four communes in Ha Noi and Khanh Hoa Province. Descriptive and comparative analysis included chi-square tests, independent samples t-tests, and ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was utilized to assess relationships between parental knowledge, level of comfort, frequency of talk, and discordancy. Results Seventy-six percent of parents and 44% of youth were female. Youth mean age was 17.2 years. For parental “reproductive health knowledge” mean score was 24.74 (SD 3.84: range 15–34). Lower parental reproductive health knowledge was positively associated with lower levels of education [F=2.983, df 184: p=0.014]. Data indicate a linear model in which knowledge is related to “comfort” (β =0.17; p=0.048) and “comfort” to frequency of “talk” (β =0.6; psexual touching (β =0.57; p=0.60). Conclusions Parent and youth in Viet Nam are engaged in limited communication about reproductive health. There is need for more data to assess the impact of these communication patterns on youths’ engagement in sexual behaviors and for development of family-centered interventions to increase parental knowledge and skills for positive communication. PMID:21338898

  3. Promoting Parent Engagement in Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with ADHD: Iterative Treatment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee; Belk, Georgia; Custer, Beth; Hatfield, Andrea; Daffner, Molly; Peek, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The most efficacious psychosocial intervention for reducing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in young children is behavioral parent training (BPT). Potential benefits are hindered by limited accessibility, low session attendance, and poor implementation of prescribed strategies. As a result, only approximately half of…

  4. Vaccine Rejecting Parents' Engagement With Expert Systems That Inform Vaccination Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwell, Katie; Leask, Julie; Meyer, Samantha B; Rokkas, Philippa; Ward, Paul

    2017-03-01

    In attempting to provide protection to individuals and communities, childhood immunization has benefits that far outweigh disease risks. However, some parents decide not to immunize their children with some or all vaccines for reasons including lack of trust in governments, health professionals, and vaccine manufacturers. This article employs a theoretical analysis of trust and distrust to explore how twenty-seven parents with a history of vaccine rejection in two Australian cities view the expert systems central to vaccination policy and practice. Our data show how perceptions of the profit motive generate distrust in the expert systems pertaining to vaccination. Our participants perceived that pharmaceutical companies had a pernicious influence over the systems driving vaccination: research, health professionals, and government. Accordingly, they saw vaccine recommendations in conflict with the interests of their child and "the system" underscored by malign intent, even if individual representatives of this system were not equally tainted. This perspective was common to parents who declined all vaccines and those who accepted some. We regard the differences between these parents-and indeed the differences between vaccine decliners and those whose Western medical epistemology informs reflexive trust-as arising from the internalization of countering views, which facilitates nuance.

  5. Engagement in Risky Sexual Behavior: Adolescents' Perceptions of Self and the Parent-Child Relationship Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…

  6. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  7. Mommy Hates Daddy: A Child-Parent Psychotherapy Story of Engagement, Domestic Violence, and Intergenerational Ghosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Markita; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of violence for young children and their caregivers are multidimensional. The story of 2-year-old Tyronne, his mother, Josephine, and his father, James, illustrates the use of a relationship-focused treatment, child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), in addressing the traumatic consequences of exposure to violence. This family's story…

  8. Exploring the Relationships between Perceptions of Tutoring and Tutoring Behaviours: A Focus on Graduate Students Serving as Peer Tutors to College-Level Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Jonathan B.; Stains, Marilyne

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that both tutors and tutees gain from tutoring sessions. However, tutors' benefits may be enhanced or limited depending on the type of behaviours they perform during the tutoring sessions. Although behaviours enhancing both tutor and tutee learning can be promoted by training, generalized tutor training models that are…

  9. Practitioner review: Engaging fathers--recommendations for a game change in parenting interventions based on a systematic review of the global evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Burgess, Adrienne; Eggerman, Mark; McAllister, Fiona; Pruett, Kyle; Leckman, James F

    2014-11-01

    Despite robust evidence of fathers' impact on children and mothers, engaging with fathers is one of the least well-explored and articulated aspects of parenting interventions. It is therefore critical to evaluate implicit and explicit biases manifested in current approaches to research, intervention, and policy. We conducted a systematic database and a thematic hand search of the global literature on parenting interventions. Studies were selected from Medline, Psychinfo, SSCI, and Cochrane databases, and from gray literature on parenting programs, using multiple search terms for parent, father, intervention, and evaluation. We tabulated single programs and undertook systematic quality coding to review the evidence base in terms of the scope and nature of data reporting. After screening 786 nonduplicate records, we identified 199 publications that presented evidence on father participation and impact in parenting interventions. With some notable exceptions, few interventions disaggregate 'father' or 'couple' effects in their evaluation, being mostly driven by a focus on the mother-child dyad. We identified seven key barriers to engaging fathers in parenting programs, pertaining to cultural, institutional, professional, operational, content, resource, and policy considerations in their design and delivery. Barriers to engaging men as parents work against father inclusion as well as father retention, and undervalue coparenting as contrasted with mothering. Robust evaluations of father participation and father impact on child or family outcomes are stymied by the ways in which parenting interventions are currently designed, delivered, and evaluated. Three key priorities are to engage fathers and coparenting couples successfully, to disaggregate process and impact data by fathers, mothers, and coparents, and to pay greater attention to issues of reach, sustainability, cost, equity, and scale-up. Clarity of purpose with respect to gender-differentiated and coparenting

  10. Comparison of methods for recruiting and engaging parents in online interventions: study protocol for the Cry Baby infant sleep and settling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Fallon; Seymour, Monique; Giallo, Rebecca; Cann, Warren; Nicholson, Jan M; Green, Julie; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-11-10

    Anticipatory guidance around the management of sleep and crying problems in early infancy has been shown to improve both infant behaviour and parent symptoms of postnatal depression. Digital technology offers platforms for making such programs widely available in a cost-efficient manner. However, it remains unclear who accesses online parenting advice and in particular, whether the parents who would most benefit are represented amongst users. It is also unknown whether the uptake of online programs can be improved by health professional recommendations, or whether parents require additional prompts and reminders to use the program. In this study we aim to: (1) determine whether weekly email prompts increase engagement with and use of a brief online program about infant sleeping and crying, (2) determine whether encouragement from a maternal and child health nurse promotes greater engagement with and use of the program, (3) examine who uses a brief online program about infant sleeping and crying; and, (4) examine the psychosocial characteristics of participants. This study is a randomised, parallel group, superiority trial, with all participating primary carers of infants aged 2 to 12 weeks, receiving access to the online program. Two modes of recruitment will be compared: recruitment via an online notice published on a non-commercial, highly credible and evidence-based website for parents and carers and via the parent's Maternal and Child Health nurse. After baseline assessment, parents will be randomised to one of two support conditions: online program alone or online program plus weekly email prompts. Follow up data will be collected at 4 months of infant age. Results from this trial will indicate whether involvement from a health professional, and/or ongoing email contact is necessary to engage parents in a brief online intervention, and promote parental use of strategies suggested within the program. Results of this trial will inform the development of

  11. Evaluation of the Factor Structure of the Obstacles to Engagement Scale with Low-income African American Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Winders Davis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parenting anticipatory guidance is one way to promote optimal child health and development and minimize disparities between children from lower socio-economic status families and their higher income peers. However, low rates of attendance at and completion of parenting programs has been demonstrated. Understanding barriers to participation has important implications. The Obstacles to Engagement Scale (OES has been used in some populations, but it has not been evaluated for use with low-income African American samples. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the factor structure of the OES with a sample of low-income, African American parents.Method: Parents or legal guardians with children aged 3-8 years completed a survey in the waiting room of a primary care pediatric academic practice in an urban location in the southern United States of America (N = 114. Almost 87% had < 12th grade education and 93% of the children received Medicaid services. The OES was one measure from a larger study and only participants with complete data on the OES were included in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA.Results: The EFA did not support the previous 4-factor solution (intervention demands, personal or family stressors or obstacles, relevance of or trust in intervention, and time and scheduling demands. Instead, a 3-factor statistical solution emerged, but not all items held together conceptually.Conclusions: The current study supports the necessity for evaluating study instruments for use with specific populations. Larger samples are needed to disentangle the effects of educational and poverty status from race and ethnicity and to develop and validate instruments that are appropriate for the study population.

  12. Effect of private tutoring on university entrance examination performance in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Bircan, Fatma

    2005-01-01

    There is an excess demand for university education in Turkey. Highly competitive university entrance examination which rations the available places at university programs is very central to the lives of young people. In order to increase the chances of success of their children in the university entrance examination parents spend large sums of money on private tutoring (dersane) of their children. In this study, we investigate the factors that determine participation in private tutoring and t...

  13. Community-Engaged Research to Identify House Parent Perspectives on Support and Risk within the House and Ball Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William H.; McNeeley, Miles; Weiss, George; Omni, Legendary Father Taz Ultra; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a community-engaged study with the Los Angeles House and Ball scene, in which the perspectives of the leaders of these communities are captured to better understand how the House and Ball communities may protect and/or increase its members’ risks for HIV infection. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with House parents (N=26). This study identified key features of both support (e.g., family and support; acceptance; validation and recognition) and risk (e.g., members’ struggle to maintain status in the Ballroom scene; sex work; substance use; danger of becoming too involved in the Ball community; perception and stigma of Ballroom scene within the larger gay community) within these communities. Findings are discussed in relation to framing how to leverage the supportive aspects of the House and Ball communities to design relevant HIV prevention interventions. PMID:22206442

  14. Implementing a centralized institutional peer tutoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughf, Natalie White; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-01-01

    Peer tutoring has been found to be beneficial to both students and peer tutors in health sciences education programs. This article describes the implementation of a centralized, institutional peer tutoring program at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, an academic health science center in the U.S. The Program: This multispecialty peer tutoring program paired students experiencing academic difficulties with peer tutors who showed prior academic success, professionalism and effective communication skills. The program allowed students and peer tutors to coordinate their own tutoring services. Evaluations by both students and peer tutors showed satisfaction with the program. Recommendations for developing and implementing an effective peer tutoring program are presented, including utilization of an online system, consistent program policy with high professionalism expectations, funding, program evaluation and data tracking.

  15. Does an intelligent tutor homework system encourage beneficial collaboration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; Hausmann, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Physics instructors agree that homework assignments are an integral part of physics instruction. When students complete their assignments, we know they may work individually or in small groups. Unfortunately, most computer-based homework systems are structured for individual learners. In particular, these systems only evaluate the final answer, putting pressure on any students working in groups to engage in copying. In contrast, Andes is an intelligent tutor homework helper that requires students to show intermediate steps when solving a problem. Andes has been used successfully by instructors at several colleges and high schools. In order to investigate collaborative versus individual problem solving, we conducted a lab study where we recorded verbal self-explanations and logged solution steps as individuals and student pairs used Andes to solve a set of problems. We found that students working in pairs relied less on the tutor's hints and engaged in collaborative sense-making. Implications for instructional practices are discussed.

  16. AutoTutor and Family: A Review of 17 Years of Natural Language Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Benjamin D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2014-01-01

    AutoTutor is a natural language tutoring system that has produced learning gains across multiple domains (e.g., computer literacy, physics, critical thinking). In this paper, we review the development, key research findings, and systems that have evolved from AutoTutor. First, the rationale for developing AutoTutor is outlined and the advantages…

  17. Example-Tracing Tutors: Intelligent Tutor Development for Non-Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.; Sewall, Jonathan; van Velsen, Martin; Popescu, Octav; Demi, Sandra; Ringenberg, Michael; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, we reported on a new Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) technology, example-tracing tutors, that can be built without programming using the Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT). Creating example-tracing tutors was shown to be 4-8 times as cost-effective as estimates for ITS development from the literature. Since 2009, CTAT and its…

  18. Teaching the Teacher: Tutoring SimStudent Leads to More Effective Cognitive Tutor Authoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Noboru; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    SimStudent is a machine-learning agent initially developed to help novice authors to create cognitive tutors without heavy programming. Integrated into an existing suite of software tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT), SimStudent helps authors to create an expert model for a cognitive tutor by tutoring SimStudent on how to solve…

  19. Understanding how different recruitment strategies impact parent engagement with an iPad-based intervention to provide personalized information about adolescent vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Maertens, Julie; Beaty, Brenda L; O'Leary, Sean T

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate provider time for addressing parents' questions and concerns about adolescent vaccines is a barrier to vaccine utilization. We sought to determine how different recruitment strategies impact the degree of engagement with an intervention that provided this information via an iPad placed in a clinical setting. We provided to three pediatric practices in the Denver area the "Teen VaxScene" web site that generates individually customized information for parents about adolescent vaccines. Three recruitment strategies were assessed for their impact on parental use of the intervention as follows: passive recruitment using posters to advertise a "kiosk" version of the intervention; posters plus a $10 incentive for using the kiosk; and posters plus a $10 incentive plus decoupling the iPad from the kiosks to enable "roving." We assessed the engagement with the intervention at multiple levels including log in, consent, and completion of a baseline survey and viewing individually tailored web pages. Surveys were used to assess barriers to using the intervention. During the 14-month study period, 693 people had contact with the iPad, 199 consented, and 48 completed the survey to enable creation of tailored content; and 42 used the tailored site. Five times as many parents (n = 40) consented to participation during the 2 months when the intervention was "roving" than during the 10-month "passive" recruitment period. Engagement with the tailored material was low, with most users viewing only the "table of contents" pages. Utilizers and nonutilizers of the intervention had similar demographic characteristics. Enabling the iPad to "rove" in the clinic greatly increased the proportion of parents consenting to use the intervention. However, meaningful engagement with the material was low. Further research is needed to understand the most effective and time efficient ways to provide vaccine-related educational information to parents of adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society

  20. Learning Behaviours of Low-Achieving Children's Mathematics Learning in Using of Helping Tools in a Synchronous Peer-Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuei, Mengping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of low-achieving children's use of helping tools in a synchronous mathematics peer-tutoring system on the children's mathematics learning and their learning behaviours. In a remedial class, 16 third-grade students in a remedial class engaged in peer tutoring in a face-to-face synchronous online environment during a…

  1. Tutoring Online: Increasing Effectiveness with Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrentine, Penny; MacDonald, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Is tutoring online more than just email? Two yearlong studies explored tutoring online in two different modes. One, from Atlantic Community College in New Jersey, looked at asynchronous (not real time) tutoring online using a discussion board. The other, at Pima Community College in Arizona, used synchronous (real time) online software. The…

  2. Reciprocal Tutoring: Design with Cognitive Load Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2016-01-01

    "Reciprocal tutoring," as reported in "Exploring the design of computer supports for reciprocal tutoring" (Chan and Chou 1997), has extended the meaning and scope of "intelligent tutoring" originally implemented in stand alone computers. This research is a follow-up to our studies on a "learning companion…

  3. Synchronic tutoring of a virtual community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, P.R.J.; Ligorio, M.B.; Talamo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The role of tutors has changed over time, depending on models of learning and on the technology available. This article discusses the evolution of the tutor role and presents a new model concerning the tutoring functions in a synchronous virtual community. The definition of a virtual community

  4. Investigating Language Tutor Social Inclusion Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhuizen, Gary

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the identities of tutors working in one-to-one instructional arrangements, which entail a tutor and an adult English learner working together to meet the particular language learning needs and goals of the learner. The tutors in this study are matched with their partners through an organization in New Zealand which aims to…

  5. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the HPV Clinical Trial Survey for Parents (CTSP-HPV) Using Traditional Survey Development Methods and Community Engagement Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jennifer; Wallston, Kenneth A; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Hull, Pamela C; Miller, Stephania T

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of HPV Clinical Trial Survey for Parents with Children Aged 9 to 15 (CTSP-HPV) using traditional instrument development methods and community engagement principles. An expert panel and parental input informed survey content and parents recommended study design changes (e.g., flyer wording). A convenience sample of 256 parents completed the final survey measuring parental willingness to consent to HPV clinical trial (CT) participation and other factors hypothesized to influence willingness (e.g., HPV vaccine benefits). Cronbach's a, Spearman correlations, and multiple linear regression were used to estimate internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictively validity, respectively. Internal reliability was confirmed for all scales (a ≥ 0.70.). Parental willingness was positively associated (p < 0.05) with trust in medical researchers, adolescent CT knowledge, HPV vaccine benefits, advantages of adolescent CTs (r range 0.33-0.42), supporting convergent validity. Moderate discriminant construct validity was also demonstrated. Regression results indicate reasonable predictive validity with the six scales accounting for 31% of the variance in parents' willingness. This instrument can inform interventions based on factors that influence parental willingness, which may lead to the eventual increase in trial participation. Further psychometric testing is warranted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Perceived risks and benefits of hippotherapy among parents of children currently engaged in or waiting for hippotherapy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léveillé, Audrey; Rochette, Annie; Mainville, Carolyne

    2017-04-01

    Explore the perceived risks and benefits of hippotherapy among parents of children currently engaged in or waiting rehabilitation using hippotherapy. Phenomenological qualitative exploratory pilot study. An interview guide validated by experts was used to conduct the interviews. Summaries were written to capture first impressions. One team member coded the transcripts and the coding was validated by the research team through discussion until consensus was reached. The average age of the participants (n = 4) was 37.3 ± 6.6 years. The few risks they perceived related to physical injuries. Lack of knowledge of contraindications, lack of fear, minimization of risks, and risk-attenuation factors also emerged as important themes. Benefits accounted for a large part of the content of the interviews and were grouped under 13 themes, including motor and postural control, enjoyment and the development of a special relationship. Minimization of the perceived risks compared to the numerous perceived benefits could create clinical issues such as the client putting self at risk of injuries (e.g., bites, falls, and kicks) if not cautious enough or complications insufficiently prevented, which suggests the need to develop educational activities for an informed consent to this type of rehabilitation.

  7. Realizing the American Dream: A Parent Education Program Designed to Increase Latino Family Engagement in Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joan M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler's parent involvement process model, the Realizing the American Dream (RAD) parent education program targets Latino parents' involvement beliefs and knowledge to enhance their involvement behaviors. Comparison of more than 2,000 parents' self-reported beliefs, knowledge, and behavior before and after RAD…

  8. Implementation Evaluation of "Steering Teens Safe": Engaging Parents to Deliver a New Parent-Based Teen Driving Intervention to Their Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. "Steering Teens Safe" is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills…

  9. Some Principles of Intelligent Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan

    1986-01-01

    Research on intelligent tutoring systems is discussed from the point of view of providing moment-by-moment adaptation of content and form of instruction to the changing cognitive needs of individual learners. Implications of this goal for cognitive diagnosis, subject matter analysis, teaching tactics, and teaching strategies are analyzed. (Author)

  10. The Military Language Tutor (MILT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    interactive tutor in a Pentium based laptop computer. The first version of MILT with keyboard input was designed for Spanish and Arabic and can recognize... NLP ). The goal of the MILT design team was an authoring system which would require no formal external training and which could be learned within four

  11. Civic Engagement Patterns of Undocumented Mexican Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, William; Espinoza, Roberta; Ramos, Karina; Coronado, Heidi; Cortes, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the civic engagement of undocumented Mexican students. Civic engagement was defined as providing a social service, activism, tutoring, and functionary work. Survey data results (n = 126) suggest that despite high feelings of rejection because of their undocumented status, part-time employment, and household responsibilities,…

  12. Computer assisted tutoring in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, N.

    1997-02-01

    The computer-based tutoring of visual concepts such as radiological images is a largely unexplored area. A review of the literature highlights limited use of computers as a means of radiological education, with the majority of systems being little more than hypermedia prototypes, on-line teaching files, and passive CD-Roms. Very few of the systems discussed in the research literature draw on the work from cognitive science and educational psychology for tutoring visual concepts. This thesis details and evaluates a method for indexing and retrieving images from large image databases via a cognitively informed graphical representation of visual concepts. This representation is derived using Multiple Correspondence Analysis from a statistical analysis of features present in the images. It is intended that this representation be used to assist in the computer based teaching of any discipline that requires the tutoring of visual concepts. The domain used as a test bed for this research is Magnetic Resonance Imaging in neuroradiology. Tutoring the interpretation of MR scans of the head represents a real practical problem due to the inherent complexity of the brain and variations in tissue contrast within image sequence and disease/pathology. The literature of concept categorisation and representation is critically reviewed to inform the design of a graphical representation of a concept (a pathology in the application domain). A specification for the design of an explicit representation of visual concepts is drawn from this literature review, together with methods of tutoring based around this model. A methodology for producing this representation is described, and implemented in the development of an overview plot for the concept of a disease of the brain, with associated statistical measures derived and operationalised for typicality and similarity of cases within a disease. These measures are precursors to the development of computer based tutoring strategies for image

  13. Computer assisted tutoring in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, N

    1997-02-01

    The computer-based tutoring of visual concepts such as radiological images is a largely unexplored area. A review of the literature highlights limited use of computers as a means of radiological education, with the majority of systems being little more than hypermedia prototypes, on-line teaching files, and passive CD-Roms. Very few of the systems discussed in the research literature draw on the work from cognitive science and educational psychology for tutoring visual concepts. This thesis details and evaluates a method for indexing and retrieving images from large image databases via a cognitively informed graphical representation of visual concepts. This representation is derived using Multiple Correspondence Analysis from a statistical analysis of features present in the images. It is intended that this representation be used to assist in the computer based teaching of any discipline that requires the tutoring of visual concepts. The domain used as a test bed for this research is Magnetic Resonance Imaging in neuroradiology. Tutoring the interpretation of MR scans of the head represents a real practical problem due to the inherent complexity of the brain and variations in tissue contrast within image sequence and disease/pathology. The literature of concept categorisation and representation is critically reviewed to inform the design of a graphical representation of a concept (a pathology in the application domain). A specification for the design of an explicit representation of visual concepts is drawn from this literature review, together with methods of tutoring based around this model. A methodology for producing this representation is described, and implemented in the development of an overview plot for the concept of a disease of the brain, with associated statistical measures derived and operationalised for typicality and similarity of cases within a disease. These measures are precursors to the development of computer based tutoring strategies for image

  14. Two approaches to physics tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomaniuck, Tania

    One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In

  15. Engaging parents in the family check-up in middle school: longitudinal effects on family conflict and problem behavior through the high school transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Adolescence is a time of significant developmental change. During this period, levels of problem behavior that had been relatively innocuous may escalate in the company of peers, with simultaneous reductions in parental monitoring and involvement. In this article, we report the results of a randomized controlled trial of the Family Check-Up (FCU), a family-centered, school-based intervention designed to forestall the escalation of adolescent problem behavior by promoting and motivating skillful parenting through the transition to high school. In this study, 593 ethnically diverse families were randomized to be offered the FCU when their youth were in seventh and eighth grades of middle school. We used complier average causal effect analysis to examine change in family conflict, antisocial behavior, involvement with deviant peers, and alcohol use from sixth through ninth grades. Analyses revealed that when compared with a matched control group, youths whose parents had engaged in the FCU demonstrated significantly lower rates of growth in family conflict (p = .052), antisocial behavior, involvement with deviant peers, and alcohol use. Our results extend current research on the FCU and provide support for theory that links family conflict with a variety of youth problem behavior. These results and the extant research on the FCU suggest that traditional school-based service delivery models that focus on the individual child may benefit from a shift in perspective to engage parents and families. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Parent Academy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fatima; Jabin, Nico; Haywood, Sarah; Kasim, Adetayo; Paylor, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Parent Academy was a series of classes for pupils' parents, designed to improve the English and mathematics attainment of pupils in Years 3 to 6 in English primary schools. Parents were offered the opportunity to participate in 12 Parent Academy classes, 6 on English and 6 on mathematics, delivered fortnightly by tutors with teaching…

  17. The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

  18. Development of an Internet-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy Program (ENGAGE) for Parents of Children Previously Treated for Cancer: Participatory Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman, Anna; Kukkola, Laura; Börjesson, Helene; Cernvall, Martin; Woodford, Joanne; Grönqvist, Helena; von Essen, Louise

    2018-04-18

    Parenting a child through cancer is a distressing experience, and a subgroup of parents report negative long-term psychological consequences years after treatment completion. However, there is a lack of evidence-based psychological interventions for parents who experience distress in relation to a child's cancer disease after end of treatment. One aim of this study was to develop an internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer. Another aim was to identify acceptable procedures for future feasibility and efficacy studies testing and evaluating the intervention. Participatory action research methodology was used. The study included face-to-face workshops and related Web-based exercises. A total of 6 parents (4 mothers, 2 fathers) of children previously treated for cancer were involved as parent research partners. Moreover, 2 clinical psychologists were involved as expert research partners. Research partners and research group members worked collaboratively throughout the study. Data were analyzed iteratively using written summaries of the workshops and Web-based exercises parallel to data collection. A 10-week, internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) was developed in collaboration with parent research partners and expert research partners. The content of the intervention, mode and frequency of e-therapist support, and the individualized approach for feedback were modified based on the research partner input. Shared solutions were reached regarding the type and timing of support from an e-therapist (eg, initial video or telephone call, multiple methods of e-therapist contact), duration and timing of intervention (eg, 10 weeks, 30-min assessments), and the removal of unnecessary support functions (eg, removal of chat and forum functions). Preferences for study procedures in

  19. A Parent's Dream Come True: A Study of Adult Students Who Are Parents and Their Academic Engagement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muser, Heather M.

    2017-01-01

    The context and experiences of student-parents is an important topic for higher education. Educators need to know who these adult students are and where they come from. Due to the additional responsibilities that student-parents carry, educators are challenged by the fact that most of these adult students are enrolled in higher education on a…

  20. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  1. Consumers as tutors – legitimate teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Cathy

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to research the feasibility of training mental health consumers as tutors for 4th year medical students in psychiatry. Methods A partnership between a consumer network and an academic unit in Psychological Medicine was formed to jointly develop a training package for consumer tutors and a curriculum in interviewing skills for medical students. Student attitudes to mental health consumers were measured pre and post the program. All tutorial evaluation data was analysed using univariate statistics. Both tutors and students evaluated the teaching program using a 4 point rating scale. The mean scores for teaching and content for both students and tutors were compared using an independent samples t-test. Results Consumer tutors were successfully trained and accredited as tutors and able to sustain delivery of tutorials over a 4 year period. The study found that whilst the medical students started with positive attitudes towards consumers prior to the program, there was a general trend towards improved attitude across all measures. Other outcomes for tutors and students (both positive and negative are described. Conclusions Consumer tutors along with professional tutors have a place in the education of medical students, are an untapped resource and deliver largely positive outcomes for students and themselves. Further possible developments are described.

  2. Electronic Algebra and Calculus Tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Fradkin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern undergraduates join science and engineering courses with poorer mathematical background than most contemporaries of the current faculty had when they were freshers. The problem is very acute in the United Kingdom but more and more countries adopt less resource intensive models of teaching and the problem spreads. University tutors and lecturers spend more and more time covering the basics. However, most of them still rely on traditional methods of delivery which presuppose that learners have a good memory and considerable time to practice, so that they can memorize disjointed facts and discover for themselves various connections between the underlying concepts. These suppositions are particularly unrealistic when dealing with a large number of undergraduates who are ordinary learners with limited mathematics background. The first author has developed a teaching system that allows such adult learners achieve relatively deep learning of mathematics – and remarkably quickly – through a teacher-guided (often called Socratic dialog, which aims at the frequent reinforcement of basic mathematical abstractions through Eulerian sequencing. These ideas have been applied to create a prototype of a Cognitive Mathematics Tutoring System aimed at teaching basic mathematics to University freshers., an electronic Personal Algebra and Calculus Tutor (e- PACT.

  3. Learning from deaths: Parents' Active Role and ENgagement in The review of their Stillbirth/perinatal death (the PARENTS 1 study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhbakhi, Danya; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Burden, Christy; Jones, Ffion; Yoward, Freya; Redshaw, Maggie; Murphy, Samantha; Storey, Claire

    2017-10-02

    Following a perinatal death, a formal standardised multi-disciplinary review should take place, to learn from the death of a baby and facilitate improvements in future care. It has been recommended that bereaved parents should be offered the opportunity to give feedback on the care they have received and integrate this feedback into the perinatal mortality review process. However, the MBRRACE-UK Perinatal Confidential Enquiry (2015) found that only one in 20 cases parental concerns were included in the review. Although guidance suggests parental opinion should be sought, little evidence exists on how this may be incorporated into the perinatal mortality review process. The purpose of the PARENTS study was to investigate bereaved parents' views on involvement in the perinatal mortality review process. A semi-structured focus group of 11 bereaved parents was conducted in South West England. A purposive sampling technique was utilised to recruit a diverse sample of women and their partners who had experienced a perinatal death more than 6 months prior to the study. A six-stage thematic analysis was followed to explore parental perceptions and expectations of the perinatal mortality review process. Four over-arching themes emerged from the analysis: transparency; flexibility combined with specificity; inclusivity; and a positive approach. It was evident that the majority of parents were supportive of their involvement in the perinatal mortality review process and they wanted to know the outcome of the meeting. It emerged that an individualised approach should be taken to allow flexibility on when and how they could contribute to the process. The emotional aspects of care should be considered as well as the clinical care. Parents identified that the whole care pathway should be examined during the review including antenatal, postnatal, and neonatal and community based care. They agreed that there should be an opportunity for parents to give feedback on both good and

  4. Improving Family Engagement: The Organizational Context and Its Influence on Partnering with Parents in Formal Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Family engagement is widely considered a key component of high-quality early care and education (ECE). While most efforts to improve the quality of family engagement focus on teacher training, strong evidence from health care research suggests that the organizational context is a critical determinant of the quality of client-professional…

  5. Who Is Watching and Who Is Playing: Parental Engagement with Children at a Hands-On Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, Louis S.

    2013-01-01

    Family interactions are common phenomenon at visits to science centers and natural history museums. Through interactions the family can support each other as the members individually and collectively learn from their visits. Interaction is particularly important between child(ren) and parent, which may be facilitated by media provided to parents.…

  6. Principals, Parents and Pregnancy: A Case Study of School Leadership Practices Designed to Engage Families Facing Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carla Deirdre

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study focused on contemporary school leadership and parental interrelationships, exploring the relationship, if any, between school leaders and the families of pregnant and parenting urban African American teen mothers in a northeastern city. The social, emotional, academic, and medical perspectives of ways families can…

  7. Peer tutoring for college students with learning disabilities: perceptions of tutors and tutees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Gila; Fresko, Barbara; Wertheim, Cheruta

    2007-01-01

    Peer tutoring is a commonly provided support service for students with learning disabilities (LD) in institutions of higher education. A large-scale survey was conducted to evaluate the PERACH peer tutoring project for students with LD at 25 universities, regional colleges, and teacher training colleges in Israel. The purpose of the study was to understand the tutoring process from the point of view of both tutees and tutors with respect to 5 main areas: tutees' needs, focus of tutoring activities, difficulties surrounding the tutoring endeavor, importance of similar study experiences, and satisfaction with the project. It is our supposition that major discrepancies in perceptions are likely to undermine the effectiveness of the tutoring. Similarities and differences in perceptions were identified, and implications that can be useful in guiding service providers are discussed.

  8. Facilitating interest and out-of-school engagement in science in secondary school girls: Increasing the effectiveness of the teaching for transformative experience in science model through parental involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin Charles

    This study investigated the impact of adding a parental involvement intervention to the Teaching for Transformative Experience in Science (TTES) model in science courses (biology and chemistry) in an all-girl middle and high school (N = 89). Specifically, the goal was to increase out-of-school engagement, interest, parental involvement, and achievement. Analysis showed that TTES with the addition of a parent intervention (TTES+PI) facilitated more out-of-school engagement and parent involvement than a comparison. Furthermore, a high initial level of situational and individual interest was maintained in the TTES+PI condition; whereas both forms of interest decreased in the comparison. A content analysis of transformative experience journal entries suggested that when parents showed value for science concepts, students' experiential value increased. The results provide evidence that the addition of a parent intervention may increase the effectiveness of TTES and maintain girl's interest in science, which has theoretical and practical implications.

  9. Computer-Game-Based Tutoring of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    This in-situ, descriptive case study examined the potential of implementing computer mathematics games as an anchor for tutoring of mathematics. Data were collected from middle school students at a rural pueblo school and an urban Hispanic-serving school, through in-field observation, content analysis of game-based tutoring-learning interactions,…

  10. Active Collaborative Learning through Remote Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehret, Austin U.; Elliot, Lisa B.; MacDonald, Jonathan H. C.

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory case study approach was used to describe remote tutoring in biochemistry and general chemistry with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Data collected for analysis were based on the observations of the participant tutor. The research questions guiding this study included (1) How is active learning accomplished in…

  11. Student Perceptions of Online Tutoring Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sligar, Steven R.; Pelletier, Christopher D.; Bonner, Heidi Stone; Coghill, Elizabeth; Guberman, Daniel; Zeng, Xiaoming; Newman, Joyce J.; Muller, Dorothy; Dennis, Allen

    2017-01-01

    Online tutoring is made possible by using videos to replace or supplement face to face services. The purpose of this research was to examine student reactions to the use of lecture capture technology in a university tutoring setting and to assess student knowledge of some features of Tegrity lecture capture software. A survey was administered to…

  12. Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štastný, Vít

    2016-01-01

    The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…

  13. 5 Ways to Improve Tutoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Edward E.

    2009-01-01

    Tutoring has become a familiar tool that schools use to reinforce classroom teaching and improve student achievement. That's especially been the case because of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its provisions for supplemental education. Educators faced with developing or supporting tutoring services for students should consider five practical…

  14. Peer Tutoring in Programming: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Jill; Olan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article describes our experience with peer tutoring in introductory programming courses. This tutoring concept was one of the integral support services out of five student services, which were part of a National Science Foundation Grant, designed to improve education, increase retention, improve professional development and employability, and…

  15. Authoring Model-Tracing Cognitive Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, Stephen B.; Gilbert, Stephen B.; Ourada, Stephen; Ritter, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) that employ a model-tracing methodology have consistently shown their effectiveness. However, what evidently makes these tutors effective, the cognitive model embedded within them, has traditionally been difficult to create, requiring great expertise and time, both of which come at a cost. Furthermore, an…

  16. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  17. Plug-In Tutor Agents: Still Pluggin'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Steven

    2016-01-01

    "An Architecture for Plug-in Tutor Agents" (Ritter and Koedinger 1996) proposed a software architecture designed around the idea that tutors could be built as plug-ins for existing software applications. Looking back on the paper now, we can see that certain assumptions about the future of software architecture did not come to be, making…

  18. Impact of Paired Tutoring and Mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jennifer E.; Trammell, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a study that examines the effects of paired tutoring and mentoring on academic achievement of college freshmen in a probationary program. Results show that students with mentoring and tutoring services by the same person show greater academic gains as measured by compliance and academic achievement than do those students who were…

  19. Tutors Can Improve Students' Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Royes, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author suggests that tutoring has helped students to become more organized, self-assured, and proficient at identifying relationships between ideas. Successful tutoring requires: (1) at least one attentive adult who has the time to speak with students about academic matters, personal problems, and the importance of performing…

  20. Consideration of Insulin Pumps or Continuous Glucose Monitors by Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes and Their Parents: Stakeholder Engagement in the Design of Web-Based Decision Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Tim; Hirschfeld, Fiona; Miller, Louis; Izenberg, Neil; Dowshen, Steven A; Taylor, Alex; Milkes, Amy; Shinseki, Michelle T; Bejarano, Carolina; Kozikowski, Chelsea; Kowal, Karen; Starr-Ashton, Penny; Ross, Judith L; Kummer, Mark; Carakushansky, Mauri; Lyness, D'Arcy; Brinkman, William; Pierce, Jessica; Fiks, Alexander; Christofferson, Jennifer; Rafalko, Jessica; Lawson, Margaret L

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the stakeholder-driven design, development, and testing of web-based, multimedia decision aids for youth with type 1 diabetes who are considering the insulin pump or continuous glucose monitoring and their parents. This is the initial phase of work designed to develop and evaluate the efficacy of these decision aids in promoting improved decision-making engagement with use of a selected device. Qualitative interviews of 36 parents and adolescents who had previously faced these decisions and 12 health care providers defined the content, format and structure of the decision aids. Experts in children's health media helped the research team to plan, create, and refine multimedia content and its presentation. A web development firm helped organize the content into a user-friendly interface and enabled tracking of decision aid utilization. Throughout, members of the research team, adolescents, parents, and 3 expert consultants offered perspectives about the website content, structure, and function until the design was complete. With the decision aid websites completed, the next phase of the project is a randomized controlled trial of usual clinical practice alone or augmented by use of the decision aid websites. Stakeholder-driven development of multimedia, web-based decision aids requires meticulous attention to detail but can yield exceptional resources for adolescents and parents contemplating major changes to their diabetes regimens. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Medical faculty opinions of peer tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudland, Joy R; Rennie, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Peer tutoring is a well-researched and established method of learning defined as 'a medical student facilitating the learning of another medical student'. While it has been adopted in many medical schools, other schools may be reluctant to embrace this approach. The attitude of the teaching staff, responsible for organizing and or teaching students in an undergraduate medical course to formal peer teaching will affect how it is introduced and operationalized. This study elicits faculty opinions on how best to introduce peer tutoring for medical students. Structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. The interviews were with medically qualified staff responsible for organizing or teaching undergraduate medical students at a New Zealand medical school. Six questions were posed regarding perceived advantages and disadvantages of peer tutoring and how the school and staff could support a peer-tutoring scheme if one was introduced. Staff generally supported the peer tutoring concept, offering a safe environment for learning with its teachers being so close in career stage to the learners. They also say disadvantages when the student-teachers imparted wrong information and when schools used peer tutoring to justify a reduction in teaching staff. Subjects felt that faculty would be more accepting of peer tutoring if efforts were made to build staff 'buy in' and empowerment, train peer tutors and introduce a solid evaluation process. Staff of our school expressed some concerns about peer tutoring that are not supported in the literature, signaling a need for better communication about the benefits and disadvantages of peer tutoring.

  2. Differential impact of student behaviours on group interaction and collaborative learning: medical students' and tutors' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Maha; Velan, Gary M; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Balasooriya, Chinthaka

    2016-08-22

    Collaboration is of increasing importance in medical education and medical practice. Students' and tutors' perceptions about small group learning are valuable to inform the development of strategies to promote group dynamics and collaborative learning. This study investigated medical students' and tutors' views on competencies and behaviours which promote effective learning and interaction in small group settings. This study was conducted at UNSW Australia. Five focus group discussions were conducted with first and second year medical students and eight small group tutors were interviewed. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. Students and tutors identified a range of behaviours that influenced collaborative learning. The main themes that emerged included: respectfulness; dominance, strong opinions and openness; constructiveness of feedback; active listening and contribution; goal orientation; acceptance of roles and responsibilities; engagement and enthusiasm; preparedness; self- awareness and positive personal attributes. An important finding was that some of these student behaviours were found to have a differential impact on group interaction compared with collaborative learning. This information could be used to promote higher quality learning in small groups. This study has identified medical students' and tutors' perceptions regarding interactional behaviours in small groups, as well as behaviours which lead to more effective learning in those settings. This information could be used to promote learning in small groups.

  3. Social interaction with a tutor modulates responsiveness of specific auditory neurons in juvenile zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Shin; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko

    2018-04-12

    Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors. They also learn from playback of recorded songs however, learning can be greatly improved when song models are provided through social communication with tutors (Eales, 1989; Chen et al., 2016). Recently we found a subset of neurons in the higher-level auditory cortex of juvenile zebra finches that exhibit highly selective auditory responses to the tutor song after song learning, suggesting an auditory memory trace of the tutor song (Yanagihara and Yazaki-Sugiyama, 2016). Here we show that auditory responses of these selective neurons became greater when juveniles were paired with their tutors, while responses of non-selective neurons did not change. These results suggest that social interaction modulates cortical activity and might function in state-dependent song learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning from a Computer Tutor with Natural Language Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel; Rovick, Allen; Glass, Michael; Zhou, Yujian; Evens, Martha

    2003-01-01

    CIRCSIM-Tutor is a computer tutor designed to carry out a natural language dialogue with a medical student. Its domain is the baroreceptor reflex, the part of the cardiovascular system that is responsible for maintaining a constant blood pressure. CIRCSIM-Tutor's interaction with students is modeled after the tutoring behavior of two experienced…

  5. Investigating Microadaptation in One-to-One Human Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether some advantages of tutoring over other instructional methods are due to microadaptation, or, tutors basing their actions on assessments of tutees they develop during tutoring. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment, independent variables were shared experience (tutors either worked with the same or a different…

  6. Supplementary tutoring in Trinidad and Tobago: Some implications for policy making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Dorian A.; Lochan, Samuel N.

    2012-06-01

    Globally, private supplementary tutoring is a huge business and the practice is expanding rapidly in many regions of the world where it never existed before. In some of these regions it is posing a novel set of challenges for education planners and policy makers. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which supplementary tutoring is impacting on the goals of the formal education system in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). The participation rate in supplementary tutoring at primary school level in T&T was found to be high (88.2 per cent at Standard Five level), with the majority of the students being privately tutored by their regular school teachers. Their main motivation for taking private tutoring lessons was to try to secure a place in one of the few elite secondary schools in the country. The authors of this paper admit that there is no quick solution to the problem, especially if it is understood as a part of the process of cultural change. They contend that the key to breaking the elitist tradition lies in modifying public understanding about education and convincing parents and citizens at large that a wide range of options and opportunities exists outside the narrow confines of the old colonial economy and the old colonial schools.

  7. Engaging parents of children with and without asthma in smoking-specific parenting: Results from a 3-year randomized controlled trial evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringlever, L.; Hiemstra, J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Schayck, C.P. van; Otten, R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated long-term effects of a home-based smoking prevention program targeting smoking-specific parenting in families with children with and without asthma. A total of 1398 non-smoking children (mean age 10.1) participated, of which 197 (14.1%) were diagnosed with asthma.

  8. Engaging Parents of Children with and without Asthma in Smoking-Specific Parenting: Results from a 3-Year Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringlever, Linda; Hiemstra, Marieke; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Otten, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated long-term effects of a home-based smoking prevention program targeting smoking-specific parenting in families with children with and without asthma. A total of 1398 non-smoking children ("mean age" 10.1) participated, of which 197 (14.1%) were diagnosed with asthma. Families were blinded to group assignment.…

  9. Effects of training peer tutors in content knowledge versus tutoring skills on giving feedback to help tutees’ complex tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor-tutee pairs of fourth year secondary school students were created

  10. Effects of Training Peer Tutors in Content Knowledge versus Tutoring Skills on Giving Feedback to Help Tutees' Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor--tutee pairs of fourth-year secondary school students were created and assigned to one of the two treatments.…

  11. Could Intelligent Tutors Anticipate Successfully User Reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisz, Eugenia; Florea, Adina Magda

    2006-06-01

    Emotions have been shown to have an important impact on several human processes such as decision-making, planning, cognition, and learning. In an e-learning system, an artificial tutor capable of effectively understanding and anticipating the student emotions during learning will have a significantly enhanced role. The paper presents a model of an artificial tutor endowed with synthesized emotions according to the BDE model, previously developed by the authors. It also analyzes possible student reactions while interacting with the learning material and the way the artificial tutor could anticipate and should respond to these reactions, with adequate actions.

  12. The Curtin Coaches: Benefits of an outreach tutoring program for first year pre-service teachers. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Karnovsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Curtin Coaches program represents a dynamic outreach opportunity for pre-service teachers enrolled in their first year of study at Curtin University to engage with school-aged students as classroom tutors. Research has shown that cross-age tutoring experiences in schools can benefit both the students receiving support and those who tutor, particularly in settings where individuals are engaging in community support work. According to program feedback, participants were able to develop a range of profession-related skills such as relationship building and gain new knowledge such as understanding how students learn. These competencies are salient as they align with the newly implemented standards for graduate teachers. Understanding the benefits such outreach programs bring pre-service teachers is vital as the future of HEPPP funded programs such as the Curtin Coaches is uncertain but the importance of Work Integrated Learning is increasing.

  13. Residential Arrangements and Children's School Engagement: The Role of the Parent-Child Relationship and Selection Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Nele; Sodermans, An Katrien; Matthijs, Koen

    2017-01-01

    The increase in shared residential arrangements is driven by the belief that it is in the best interest of the child. The maintenance of contact between child and parents can mitigate negative consequences of separation. However, selection mechanisms may account for a positive relationship between shared residential arrangements and child…

  14. Children's Self-Concept: Parental School Engagement and Student-Teacher Relationships in Rural and Urban Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Denny, Bianca; Davis, Kate; Francis, Andrew; Jackson, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept is one important yet understudied construct, often associated with healthy children's well-being, and particularly crucial for those raised in rural disadvantaged communities. Also, commonly acknowledged is that adults, including parents and teachers, play an important role in fostering self-concept. The overall aim of the current…

  15. Engaging Stakeholders in Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jo Nell

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the importance of parent and community engagement in curriculum development, along with curriculum leadership, engaging stakeholders, and the importance of curriculum. Parent and community member engagement is examined in light of curriculum committee participation as reported by Missouri superintendents. Survey responses…

  16. Peer tutoring programs in health professions schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santee, Jennifer; Garavalia, Linda

    2006-06-15

    Peer tutoring programs may be one method of maintaining quality of pharmacy education in the face of growing student enrollment and a small faculty body. A critical review of the literature was performed to ascertain whether peer tutoring programs improve or maintain the academic performance of health care professional students. Various electronic databases and abstracts from past American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's annual meetings were searched to identify pertinent research. Only those articles with quantitative data, an experimental design, and comparative statistical analysis were included for review. Most studies found that peer tutoring had a positive impact on academic performance. These results may not be readily generalizable as there were numerous methodological flaws and limited descriptions of the programs and participants. Studies with better designs and more detail are needed to answer definitively whether peer tutoring is of benefit. Details of what resources were required should be included in the study to allow the reader to determine the feasibility of the intervention.

  17. Supporting Tutoring Within a Namibian Environmental Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    During the 2003 NEEC course, the coordinator conducted research into tutor support as part of the requirements of the University of South Africa for the ... opportunity for participants' ongoing professional development was accommodated.

  18. [Self-audit and tutor accreditation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquerra Lezcano, Matilde; Tamayo Ojeda, Carmen; Calvet Junoy, Silvia; Avellana Revuelta, Esteve; Vila-Coll, María Antonia; Morera Jordán, Concepción

    2010-02-01

    To describe the experience of using self-audit (SA) as a means of accrediting family and community medicine tutors, to analyse the knowledge that the tutors have on this self-assessment methodology, and to record their opinions on this method. Retrospective descriptive study and analysis of an opinion questionnaire. Family and community medicine teaching units (TU) in Catalonia. Tutors from family and community medicine TU in Catalonia (July 2001-July 2008). Training of the tutors in SA methodology, creation of a reference group and a correction cycle. Correction by peers of the SAs performed by the tutors according to previously determined criteria and subsequent issue of a report-feedback. Self-administered questionnaire by a group of TU tutors. A total of 673 SA were performed. The most frequent topic selected was diabetes mellitus in 27.9% of cases. The overall evaluation of the SA from a methodological point of view was correct in 44.5% of cases, improvable in 45.3%, and deficient in 10.2%. A total of 300 opinion questionnaires were issued. The response rate was 151/300 (50.03%). On the question about the usefulness of the SA in professional practice, 12% considered it very useful, 56% adequate, and 32% of little use or not useful. As regards whether it was a good means for the re-accreditation or accreditation of tutors, 66% considered that it was not. A high percentage of the SAs analysed are not carried out correctly, which indicates that tutors do not know this self-assessment method very well. They consider that SAs are a useful tool for improving clinical practice, but not a good means for accreditation and re-accreditation.

  19. Cross-Age Peer Tutoring in Physics: Tutors, Tutees, and Achievement in Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, Marianne; Hopf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    International comparisons reveal that lower-secondary-level students in Austria perform below the OECD mean in science. Guided by the search for remedies and improvements in science teaching, this study investigates whether cross-age peer tutoring is an appropriate method for teaching physics. A modern and concise definition of peer tutoring is…

  20. Automated Session-Quality Assessment for Human Tutoring Based on Expert Ratings of Tutoring Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Benjamin D.; Morrison, Donald M.; Samei, Borhan

    2015-01-01

    Archived transcripts from tens of millions of online human tutoring sessions potentially contain important knowledge about how online tutors help, or fail to help, students learn. However, without ways of automatically analyzing these large corpora, any knowledge in this data will remain buried. One way to approach this issue is to train an…

  1. Does Private Tutoring Work? The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Private tutoring has become popular throughout the world. However, evidence for the effect of private tutoring on students' academic outcome is inconclusive; therefore, this paper presents an alternative framework: a nonparametric bounds method. The present examination uses, for the first time, a large representative data-set in a European setting…

  2. A Tutoring System That Simulates the Highly Interactive Nature of Human Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sandra; Albacete, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    For some time, it has been clear that students who are tutored generally learn more than students who experience classroom instruction (e.g., Bloom, 1984). Much research has been devoted to identifying features of tutorial dialogue that can explain its effectiveness, so that these features can be simulated in natural-language tutoring systems. One…

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Harsh Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined harsh parenting across generations by means of parents' and adolescents' reports. Found that grandparents who had engaged in aggressive parenting produced parents who used similar practices. Harsh discipline of male children was a function of socioeconomic characteristics. (BC)

  4. What can we learn from problem-based learning tutors at a graduate entry medical school? A mixed method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Doherty, Diane; Mc Keague, Helena; Harney, Sarah; Browne, Gerard; McGrath, Deirdre

    2018-05-04

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been adopted by many medical schools as an innovative method to deliver an integrated medical curriculum since its inception at McMaster University (Dornan et al., Med Educ 39(2):163-170, 2005; Finucane et al., Med Educ 35(1):56-61, 2001; Barrows, Tutorials in problem-based learning: A new direction in teaching the health professions, 1984). The student experience in PBL has been explored in detail (Merriam, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 89: 3-13, 2001; Azer, Kaohsiung J Med Sci 25(5): 240-249, 2009; Boelens et al., BMC Med Ed 15(1): 84, 2015; Dolmans et al., Med Teach 24(2):173-180, 2002; Lee et al., Med Teach 35(2): e935-e942, 2013) but the tutors who facilitate PBL have valuable insight into how PBL functions and this aspect has not been extensively researched. The integrated curriculum for years 1 and 2 at the Graduate Entry Medical School at the University of Limerick is delivered though problem-based learning (PBL). This programme requires collaborative teamwork between students and the tutors who facilitate small-group tutorial sessions. All PBL tutors at GEMS are medically qualified, with the majority (68%) currently working in clinical practice. A mixed-methods approach was adopted, utilising two surveys and follow-up focus groups to fully understand the tutor experience. Thirty-three tutors took part in two online surveys with a response rate of 89%. Thirteen tutors participated in two focus groups. Descriptive analysis was completed on survey data and thematic analysis on focus group discussions which highlighted five main themes. Tutors reported challenges with managing group dynamics, development of confidence in tutoring with experience and a willingness to learn from peers to improve practice. Findings are in keeping with previously published work. Results also identified several less commonly discussed issues impacting student engagement in PBL including the use of mobile device technology

  5. The relationship between adolescents' news media use and civic engagement: the indirect effect of interpersonal communication with parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Michelle J; Zaff, Jonathan F; Phelps, Erin; Weiner, Michelle B; Lerner, Richard M

    2011-12-01

    Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate whether news media use is predictive of a set of civic indicators (civic duty, civic efficacy, neighborhood social connection, and civic participation) for youth in Grades 8, 9, and 10, via an indirect effect of interpersonal communication about politics with parents. The proposed model had a good fit within each grade. News media use was predictive of interpersonal communication with parents and in turn, interpersonal communication was predictive of civic duty, civic efficacy, neighborhood social connection, and civic participation. The cross-group comparison of the structural model suggests that the predictive qualities of news media use and interpersonal communication are comparable across grades. The role of media use and interpersonal communication in fostering civic development and socialization as well as implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Arte Juntos/Art Together: Promoting School Readiness among Latino Children through Parent Engagement and Social Inclusion in a Suburban Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Tazi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Census data reveal that suburban communities are becoming increasingly diverse. Once considered affluent and predictable places, American suburbs are now confronting increasing poverty rates as well as ethnic, racial and linguistic diversity. Currently, more than half of US Latinos live in the suburbs. Schools and public institutions such as museums are challenged to provide programming that meets the needs of Latinos, who are disproportionately poor (Ackerman and Tazi 2015:3. Promoting school readiness among Latino children is an important effort in maximizing the potential and educational attainment of this growing population. In one suburban community, a school-museum collaboration resulted in a bilingual parent-child program promoting school readiness and social inclusion for Latino families. Arte Juntos/Art Together engaged parents and children using art andculture-based activities that developed observation skills, creativity, critical thinking, vocabulary, and aesthetic appreciation. Celebrating diverse perspectives and self-expression, the program provided access to museums as enriching spaces for informal learning, personal empowerment and social inclusion

  7. Twelve tips for successful e-tutoring using electronic portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deketelaere, Ann; Degryse, Jan; De Munter, Agnes; De Leyn, Paul

    2009-06-01

    E-tutoring by means of a digital portfolio offers personal guidance in a context in which regular face-to-face contact between supervisor and student is difficult. However, implementing e-tutoring in practice is not always straightforward. This article investigates the conditions for successful e-tutoring of electronic portfolios. A combination of three methods is used: our own experience with e-tutoring, interviews with 14 tutors using an e-portfolio and the answers on questionnaires by 107 students. We present 12 tips to increase the chances of successful e-tutoring when using electronic portfolios. E-tutoring by means of electronic portfolios can be a feasible alternative in contexts in which face-to-face tutoring is difficult.

  8. Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... paper explores the kinds of development in tutors' thinking and action that are possible when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice. Keywords: academic development, academic literacies, cumulative learning, higher education, peer tutoring, writing centres.

  9. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring Programs in Elementary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Melinda

    2004-01-01

    The present review examined the effectiveness of three peer tutoring programs: cross-age peer tutoring, Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), and Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), for elementary students in the academic areas of math and reading. The research reviewed indicates students who participated in cross-age peer tutoring and CWPT had improved test scores on basic math facts as well as increased math scores on standardized assessments. Students also showed improvement in reading flu...

  10. Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Synthesis of Research and Input from the Listening Session Held by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjoura, G. Roger; DuBois, David L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Haight, Konrad A.

    2013-01-01

    In September 2013, a Listening Session on Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents was held in Washington, DC. This session was organized by the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in partnership with the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement. It continues the…

  11. Coaching tutors to observe and regulate leadership in PBL student teams or you can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen O'Shea

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate how PBL student teams develop specific leadership configurations when implementing interdisciplinary projects and whether or not tutors help in dealing with the group interactions that are subsequently generated. The data set was drawn from 2 cohorts of first-year students engaged in PBL activities in an engineering school in Belgium in 2011 and 2012. Following qualitative content analysis of tutor and student feedback and the use of sociometric testing, findings for 2011 showed that students developed 4 specific leadership configurations, each of them being positively correlated to specific perceived work outcomes. Findings for 2012 were based on using the sociogram as a pedagogical tool to enable tutors to describe and regulate group dynamics. We found that tutors positively perceive their role in facilitating production outcomes but are more uncomfortable when it comes to regulating the interpersonal problems that arise in student self-managed teams.

  12. At the Bridging Point: Tutoring Newly Arrived Students in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, tutoring in the mother tongue is a special support measure primarily intended for newly arrived students to facilitate their transition into the Swedish school system. Tutoring is premised on the collaboration between the class teacher, responsible for subject-related expertise, and the tutor, who contributes with knowledge of the…

  13. The Effectiveness of Tutoring on Developmental English Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Nicholas; Robles-Piña, Rebecca A.; Martirosyan, Nara M.; Kite, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Tutoring is an important form of academic support for developmental education students. A comparison study was conducted to investigate the benefits of tutoring on the final grades for developmental English students who participated in tutoring versus those students who did not. The final grades for three consecutive semesters were analyzed to…

  14. Evidence to Support Peer Tutoring Programs at the Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Mitchell; Fry, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate peer tutoring in three phases. Phase I qualitatively surveyed students' perceptions about the effectiveness of tutoring. Phase II examined the usefulness of promoting regular use of services through a tutoring contract. Phase III utilized an archival, quasi-experimental approach to estimate the effect of…

  15. Tutoring Adolescents in Literacy: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Seung Won; Ramirez, Gloria; Cumming, Alister

    2010-01-01

    What does research reveal about tutoring adolescents in literacy? We conducted a meta-analysis, identifying 152 published studies, of which 12 met rigorous inclusion criteria. We analyzed the 12 studies for the effects of tutoring according to the type, focus, and amount of tutoring; the number, age, and language background of students; and the…

  16. International Students as Peer Tutors: Is It Lawful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach-López, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in Principles of Accounting courses might require peer tutoring services. Accounting Departments (schools) can assist these students by maintaining a list of students offering tutoring services for a fee. The opportunity to be included in the list of tutors must be offered to all university students, both domestic and foreign.…

  17. Holistic curriculum development: tutoring as a support process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tutor's role in these involves different aspects of teaching and learning. In this article I explore the value of tutoring as a means of supporting the holistic curriculum development process. I reflect on the reason for introducing a system of tutoring for students in curriculum studies and the results of its implementation on ...

  18. The Politics of Tutoring: Feminism within the Patriarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbright, Meg

    1992-01-01

    Examines a writing conference between a tutor and a student, both feminists. Discusses the conflicts expressed by the tutor and the student as they attempt to espouse feminist values within a patriarchal system. Concludes that feminism (and good tutoring) will have a chance only if students have options and the power to choose. (RS)

  19. Perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana: Implications for health sector staff internal migration control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Beyere, Christopher B; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Mwini-Nyaledzigbor, Prudence P

    2017-01-01

    The population of Ghana is increasingly becoming urbanized with about 70% of the estimated 27 million people living in urban and peri-urban areas. Nonetheless, eight out of the ten regions in Ghana remain predominantly rural where only 32% of the national health sector workforce works. Moreover, the rural-urban disparities in the density of health tutors (staff responsible for pre-service training of health professionals) are enormous. This paper explores perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana. This is a descriptive qualitative study conducted in the Greater Accra and Northern regions of Ghana. The Study used the deductive thematic and sub-thematic analysis approaches. Five health training institutions were randomly sampled, and 72 tutors engaged in separate focus group discussions with an average size of 14 participants per group in each training institution. Perceived rural-urban disparities among health tutors were found in the payment of extra duty allowances; school infrastructure including libraries and internet connectivity; staff accommodation; and opportunities for scholarships and higher education. Health tutors in rural areas generally expressed more frustration with these work conditions than those in urban areas. There is the need to initiate and sustain work incentives that promote motivation of rural health tutors to control ongoing rural-urban migration of qualified staff. It is recommended the following incentives be prioritized to promote retention of qualified health tutors in rural health training schools: payment of research, book and rural allowances; early promotion of rural staff; prioritizing rural tutors for scholarships, and introduction of national best health tutor awards.

  20. Tutoring system for nondestructive testing using computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Koo; Koh, Sung Nam [Joong Ang Inspection Co.,Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Yun Ju; Kim, Min Koo [Dept. of Computer Engineering, Aju University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-15

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing.

  1. Tutoring system for nondestructive testing using computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Koo; Koh, Sung Nam; Shim, Yun Ju; Kim, Min Koo

    1997-01-01

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing.

  2. Analysis of the Dynamics among Tutors in an After-School Tutoring Program in a Homeless Shelter for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Goode, Gretchen S.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers of after-school tutoring primarily focus on educational outcomes with little attention to the social dynamics of such programs. In our qualitative case study, we examined the nature of interactions among tutors in a tutoring program at a homeless shelter for families. Employing Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and…

  3. Development and Validation of the Motivation for Tutoring Questionnaire in Problem-Based Learning Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Hassan, Nahla; El-Araby, Shimaa; Salem, Abdel Halim; Alrebish, Saleh Ali; Al-Amro, Ahmed S.; Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Hamdy, Hossam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: There are no published instruments, which measure tutor motivation for conducting small group tutorials in problem-based learning programs. Therefore, we aimed to develop a motivation for tutoring questionnaire in problem-based learning (MTQ-PBL) and evaluate its construct validity. Methods: The questionnaire included 28 items representing four constructs: tutoring self-efficacy (15 items), tutoring interest (6 items), tutoring value (4 items), and tutoring effort (3 items). Tutor...

  4. Student Modeling in an Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-17

    Multi-Agent Architecture." Advances in Artificial Intelligence : Proceedings of the 12 th Brazilian Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence , edited by...STUDENT MODELING IN AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM THESIS Jeremy E. Thompson Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/96D-27 DIMTVMON* fCKAJWINT A Appr"v*d t=i...Air Force Base, Ohio AFIT/GCS/ENG/96D-27 STUDENT MODELING IN AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM THESIS Jeremy E. Thompson Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/96D

  5. A tutoring package to teach pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of a tutoring package (verbal modeling, prompts, and contingent praise/ Chinese conversations with the tutor) on the performance of a college student's Mandarin Chinese pronunciation. The effects of the tutoring package were analyzed using a multiple baseline design across two sets of 50 Chinese characters. The tutoring package produced improvement in the student's correct pronunciation of Chinese characters from 48% (pretutoring) to 90% (posttutoring). Results suggested that the tutoring package produced mastery pronunciation of targeted Mandarin Chinese vocalizations by a nonnative speaker.

  6. Research Methods Tutor: evaluation of a dialogue-based tutoring system in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Elizabeth; Hastings, Peter; Allbritton, David

    2008-08-01

    Research Methods Tutor (RMT) is a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system for use in conjunction with undergraduate psychology research methods courses. RMT includes five topics that correspond to the curriculum of introductory research methods courses: ethics, variables, reliability, validity, and experimental design. We evaluated the effectiveness of the RMT system in the classroom using a nonequivalent control group design. Students in three classes (n = 83) used RMT, and students in two classes (n = 53) did not use RMT. Results indicated that the use of RMT yieldedstrong learning gains of 0.75 standard deviations above classroom instruction alone. Further, the dialogue-based tutoring condition of the system resulted in higher gains than did the textbook-style condition (CAI version) of the system. Future directions for RMT include the addition of new topics and tutoring elements.

  7. Adaptive Tutoring for Self-Regulated Learning: A Tutorial on Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    impact learning with effect sizes equivalent to raising average (“C”) students to experts (“A” students) through tailored instruction and...classification using physiological sensors (Brawner and Goldberg, 2012; Goldberg & Brawner, 2012; Kokini, et al, 2012) • EEGs – Advanced Brain ... IQ , EQ, adaptability…) Merrill, D. , Reiser, B, Ranney, M., and Trafton, J. (1992). Effective Tutoring Techniques: A Comparison of Human Tutors and

  8. Facial Affect Displays during Tutoring Sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2005-01-01

    An emotionally intelligent tutoring system should be able to provide feedback to students, taking into account relevant aspects of the mental state of the student. Facial expressions, put in context, might provide some cues with respect to this state. We discuss the analysis of the facial expression

  9. EGS4, case study and tutor problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Tutor problems having sub-directory of EGS4 code for electron transfer through medium like metal plate of tantalum, sodium iodides radiation detectors are discussed. Semi infinite slab of material is placed in a vacuum and a pencil beam of electrons or photons is incident at the origin travelling along the Z-axis is described

  10. Intelligent Tutoring Agent for Settlers of Catan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Jeroen; van den Broek, Egon; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    An Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) for the board game Settlers of Catan (SoC) is introduced. It uses CLIPS knowledge bases, connected by JCLIPS to a JAVA implementation of SoC. It is founded on a new theoretical framework that describes the development of negotiation skills in children. Using this

  11. Guidelines for Tutoring Adult ESL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Marcella

    This document is a copy of a talk regularly given to new volunteers of English in Action, a community-based organization that provides conversation practice to non-native English speakers. The volunteer tutors typically have no formal English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) training. This packet is designed to help these volunteers be effective ESL…

  12. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Scientific Inquiry Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey

    Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…

  13. Professionalizing tutors and tutorials in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colunga, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the necessity of professionalizing training of university teachers performing tutorial activities in higher education as a response to the demands of pupils following a part-time model. Permanent training of tutor is emphasized as a way to enhance professional and personal accomplishments. This training gives priority to educative orientation and interventional actions.

  14. Some Steps towards Intelligent Computer Tutoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchogovadze, Gotcha G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes one way of structuring an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) in light of developments in artificial intelligence. A specialized intelligent operating system (SIOS) is proposed for software for a network of microcomputers, and it is postulated that a general learning system must be used as a basic framework for the SIOS. (Author/LRW)

  15. Tutoring and Mentoring for Student Development

    OpenAIRE

    Luescher Thierry M.; Schreiber Birgit; Moja Teboho

    2017-01-01

    This guest-edited issue of JSAA focuses on tutoring and mentoring and draws in parts on papers that were presented at the 2016 joint conference of the International Consortium for Educational Development (ICED) and the Higher Education Learning and Teaching Association of Southern Africa (HELTASA).

  16. The desktop interface in intelligent tutoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudendistel, Stephen; Hua, Grace

    1987-01-01

    The interface between an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) and the person being tutored is critical to the success of the learning process. If the interface to the ITS is confusing or non-supportive of the tutored domain, the effectiveness of the instruction will be diminished or lost entirely. Consequently, the interface to an ITS should be highly integrated with the domain to provide a robust and semantically rich learning environment. In building an ITS for ZetaLISP on a LISP Machine, a Desktop Interface was designed to support a programming learning environment. Using the bitmapped display, windows, and mouse, three desktops were designed to support self-study and tutoring of ZetaLISP. Through organization, well-defined boundaries, and domain support facilities, the desktops provide substantial flexibility and power for the student and facilitate learning ZetaLISP programming while screening the student from the complex LISP Machine environment. The student can concentrate on learning ZetaLISP programming and not on how to operate the interface or a LISP Machine.

  17. Peer tutoring in a medical school: perceptions of tutors and tutees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Dornan, Tim; Clarke, Antonia J; Menezes, Audrey; Mellis, Craig

    2016-03-08

    Peer tutoring has been described as "people from similar social groupings who are not professional teachers helping each other to learn and learning themselves by teaching". Peer tutoring is well accepted as a source of support in many medical curricula, where participation and learning involve a process of socialisation. Peer tutoring can ease the transition of the junior students from the university class environment to the hospital workplace. In this paper, we apply the Experienced Based Learning (ExBL) model to explore medical students' perceptions of their experience of taking part in a newly established peer tutoring program at a hospital based clinical school. In 2014, all students at Sydney Medical School - Central, located at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital were invited to voluntarily participate in the peer tutoring program. Year 3 students (n = 46) were invited to act as tutors for Year 1 students (n = 50), and Year 4 students (n = 60) were invited to act as tutors for Year 2 students (n = 51). Similarly, the 'tutees' were invited to take part on a voluntary basis. Students were invited to attend focus groups, which were held at the end of the program. Framework analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. In total, 108/207 (52 %) students participated in the program. A total of 42/106 (40 %) of Year 3 and 4 students took part as tutors; and of 66/101 (65 %) of Year 1 and 2 students took part as tutees. Five focus groups were held, with 50/108 (46 %) of students voluntarily participating. Senior students (tutors) valued the opportunity to practice and improve their medical knowledge and teaching skills. Junior students (tutees) valued the opportunity for additional practice and patient interaction, within a relaxed, small group learning environment. Students perceived the peer tutoring program as affording opportunities not otherwise available within the curriculum. The peer teaching program provided a framework within the

  18. Language Analysis and Generation in Algebra Tutorial Dialogues for Language-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Jung

    2004-01-01

    The North Carolina A&T State University algebra tutoring dialogue project collects and analyzes algebra tutoring dialogues with the aim of describing tutoring strategies and language with enough rigor that they may...

  19. 45 CFR 2522.940 - What are the requirements for a program in which AmeriCorps members serve as tutors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for a program in which..., PROGRAMS, AND APPLICANTS Program Management Requirements for Grantees § 2522.940 What are the requirements for a program in which AmeriCorps members serve as tutors? A program in which members engage in...

  20. Coaching Tutors to Observe and Regulate Leadership in PBL Student Teams or You Can Lead a Horse to Water but You Can't Make It Drink…

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Noreen; Verzat, Caroline; Raucent, Benoit; Ducarme, Delphine; Bouvy, Thérèse; Herman, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how PBL student teams develop specific leadership configurations when implementing interdisciplinary projects and whether or not tutors help in dealing with the group interactions that are subsequently generated. The data set was drawn from 2 cohorts of first-year students engaged in PBL activities in an…

  1. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…

  2. Merging the Forces of Asynchronous Tutoring and Synchronous Conferencing: A Qualitative Study of Arab ESL Academic Writers Using E-Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqadoumi, Omar Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in the field of e-tutoring dealt either with asynchronous tutoring or synchronous conferencing as modes for providing e-tutoring services to English learners. This qualitative research study reports the experiences of Arab ESL tutees with both asynchronous tutoring and synchronous conferencing. It also reports the experiences of…

  3. Tutoring in higher education in Portugal and Spain : lessons learned from six initiatives in place

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Maria Assunção; Simão, Ana Margarida Veiga; Carrasco, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Tutoring has been one of the issues which have received growing interest within the context of restructuring process in higher education under the so-called Bologna process in Europe. In this paper six tutoring initiatives currently being implemented in Portuguese and Spanish universities are examined in the light of the framework within which tutoring operates in higher education contexts. The various kinds of tutoring — mentoring, curricular tutoring, academic tutoring and training-related ...

  4. Towards an Intelligent Tutor for Mathematical Proofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Autexier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer-supported learning is an increasingly important form of study since it allows for independent learning and individualized instruction. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach to developing an intelligent tutoring system for teaching textbook-style mathematical proofs. We characterize the particularities of the domain and discuss common ITS design models. Our approach is motivated by phenomena found in a corpus of tutorial dialogs that were collected in a Wizard-of-Oz experiment. We show how an intelligent tutor for textbook-style mathematical proofs can be built on top of an adapted assertion-level proof assistant by reusing representations and proof search strategies originally developed for automated and interactive theorem proving. The resulting prototype was successfully evaluated on a corpus of tutorial dialogs and yields good results.

  5. Peer Tutoring: Developing Writing in College Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS BERNARDO PEÑA-BORRERO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents partial results of a qualitative research on the Project of Inquiry (PRIN that takes place in the Psychology Degree Program at Javeriana University. This project is a formative experience focused on the importance of learning investigative abilities, through academic writing. The research was based on peer-tutoring interactions with 85 ethnographic records, which were subjected to an open and axial codification, in accordance to guidelines developed by Strauss and Corbin. The recordswere organized in emerging categories for their interpretation, in order to establish the potential significance of the pedagogic interaction. The results established the advantages of peer-tutoring in the integral progress of students and specifically the promotion of reading and writing abilities at a College level.

  6. Online access and motivation of tutors of health professions higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Federico; Sarli, Leopoldo; Guasconi, Massimo; Alfieri, Emanuela

    2016-11-22

    The case study of PUNTOZERO as an open web lab for activities, research and support to 5 Master's courses for the health professions is described. A virtual learning environment integrated in a much wider network including social networks and open resources was experimented on for five Master's Courses for the health professions at the University of Parma. A social learning approach might be applied by the engagement of motivated and skilled tutors. This is not only needed for the improvement and integration of the digital and collaborative dimension in higher education, but it aims to introduce issues and biases of emerging e-health and online networking dimensions for future healthcare professionals. Elements of e-readiness to train tutors and improve their digital skills and e-moderation approaches are evident. This emerged during an online and asynchronous interview with two tutors out of the four that were involved, by the use of a wiki where interviewer and informants could both read and add contents and comments.

  7. Intelligent tutoring systems for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhardt-Redfield, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence has been used in many space applications. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have only recently been developed for assisting training of space operations and skills. An ITS at Southwest Research Institute is described as an example of an ITS application for space operations, specifically, training console operations at mission control. A distinction is made between critical skills and knowledge versus routine skills. Other ITSs for space are also discussed and future training requirements and potential ITS solutions are described.

  8. Digitales Peer-Tutoring - Explorative Analyse eines Peer-Video-Tutoring auf YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedynska, Viktoriya

    2016-01-01

    Als eine der erfolgreichsten und empirisch gut erforschten Methoden ist das Peer-Tutoring in den pädagogischen Kreisen äußerst beliebt. Neue organisatorische Anforderungen an Schule, wie die Einführung von G8 und die steigende Erwerbstätigkeit beider Elternteile, sowie neue didaktische Anforderungen, wie etwa Inklusion, eröffnen neue Möglichkeiten und Potentiale für den Einsatz des Peer-Tutoring. Die vorliegende Arbeit hat die Bearbeitung zweier Schwerpunkte zum Ziel. Zunächst wird das kla...

  9. Comparison of methods for recruiting and engaging parents in online interventions: study protocol for the Cry Baby infant sleep and settling program

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Fallon; Seymour, Monique; Giallo, Rebecca; Cann, Warren; Nicholson, Jan M.; Green, Julie; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Background Anticipatory guidance around the management of sleep and crying problems in early infancy has been shown to improve both infant behaviour and parent symptoms of postnatal depression. Digital technology offers platforms for making such programs widely available in a cost-efficient manner. However, it remains unclear who accesses online parenting advice and in particular, whether the parents who would most benefit are represented amongst users. It is also unknown whether the uptake o...

  10. 39 Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that of learning and teaching partners to both lecturers and students. ... learning and growth using a balanced approach, which included scholarly research and .... peer tutors to be the kind of academic advisors to students that universities ... In terms of advantages, student peer tutors are closer in experience to the students.

  11. Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…

  12. The Military Language Tutor (MILT) Program: An Advanced Authoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Sabol, Mark A.; Wisher, Robert A.; Seidel, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Military Language Tutor (MILT), a language-tutor authoring system, examining the development of a proof of principal version of MILT's two-dimensional Arabic microworld, which uses speech input to control an animated agent in solving an authored problem and describing an evaluation of the speech-driven microworld at Fort Campbell,…

  13. Teacher Perceptions of an Online Tutoring Program for Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Patti; Clark, Amy; Flake, Mari Wheeler

    2014-01-01

    This study explores elementary teacher perceptions related to the implementation of an online tutoring program. Teachers were surveyed regarding factors that affected use of the online tutoring program as a supplement to mathematics instruction. Results indicated that teachers overwhelmingly reported positive views of the training and support…

  14. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Skillsets and Professionalism through Literacy Tutoring Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Kelli R.; Laverick, DeAnna M.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explores preservice teachers' experiences in a service-learning literacy tutoring program offered at a university with children in grades one through eight. This study examines briefly the history of literacy centers and service-learning, the specific instructional tutoring methods employed by preservice teachers connected…

  15. Effectiveness of Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, James A.; Fletcher, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes a meta-analysis of findings from 50 controlled evaluations of intelligent computer tutoring systems. The median effect of intelligent tutoring in the 50 evaluations was to raise test scores 0.66 standard deviations over conventional levels, or from the 50th to the 75th percentile. However, the amount of improvement found in…

  16. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  17. After-School Tutoring and the Distribution of Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    As more primary and secondary students worldwide seek after-school tutoring in academic subjects, concerns are being raised about whether after-school tutoring can raise average test scores without widening the variability in student performance, and whether students of certain ability levels may benefit more than others from after-school…

  18. Affective feedback in a tutoring system for procedural tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; André, E.; Vissers, M.; Dybkjaer, L.; Minker, W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heisterkamp, P.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the affective aspects of tutoring dialogues in an ITS -called INES- that helps students to practice nursing tasks using a haptic device and a virtual environment. Special attention is paid to affective control in the tutoring process by means of selecting the appropriate feedback, taking

  19. Stepwise Advice Negotiation in Writing Center Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Innhwa

    2014-01-01

    While the delivery and reception of advice is a practice integral to a wide range of settings, little attention has been given to the detailed practices of advice resistance and how it leads to advice negotiation. Based on 7 hours of videotaped tutoring interactions among 6 tutors and 11 tutees, this conversation analytic study examines the…

  20. Implementing CBM: SQL-Tutor after Fifteen Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan

    2016-01-01

    SQL-Tutor is the first constraint-based tutor. The initial conference papers about the system were published in 1998 (Mitrovic 1998a, 1998b, 1998c), with an "IJAIED" paper published in 1999 (Mitrovic and Ohlsson, "International Journal Artificial Intelligence in Education," 10(3-4), 238-256, 1999). We published another…

  1. Determining Difficulty of Questions in Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunel, Korhan; Asliyan, Rifat

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study is to model the level of a question difficulty by a differential equation at a pre-specified domain knowledge, to be used in an educational support system. For this purpose, we have developed an intelligent tutoring system for mathematics education. Intelligent Tutoring Systems are computer systems designed for improvement…

  2. Peer Tutoring Effects on Omani Students' English Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, Marwa N.; Aldhafri, Said S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the social cognitive learning theory (1997), peer learning can be viewed as an effective way of enhancing learning. In this study, peer tutoring, a form of peer learning, was examined. The current study investigated the influence of a peer tutoring program implemented at Sultan Qaboos University on students' English self-concept. 125…

  3. Peer Tutoring and Gorgias: Acknowledging Aggression in the Writing Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    Continues a discussion of critiquing peer tutoring groups by underscoring a typically unacknowledged component: the way in which an emphasis on "peerness" disguises the inherent aggression in tutoring relationships. Defines "peerness" as a complicated relation that involves power and aggression as well as equality. (SG)

  4. Learners' Experiences of Peer Tutoring in the Context of Outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article explores peer tutoring in the context of outdoor learning at a primary school in Lesotho. The peer-tutoring approach was trialled to explore its effectiveness in promoting learning in large class sizes which characterise primary and secondary schools in Lesotho. An urban primary school was purposively selected ...

  5. Peer Tutoring with Child-Centered Play Therapy Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavreck, Sarah; Esposito, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on responses from fifth grade peer tutors who were trained to use child-centered play therapy language during tutoring sessions with kindergarteners. The focus of this project was to identify academic and social/emotional benefits of participating in the program. Results indicated that participation in the program…

  6. Corruption Risks of Private Tutoring: Case of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on teacher-supplied private tutoring in the context of post-Soviet Georgia, and elucidates the ways in which teacher-supplied private tutoring can be related to educational corruption. The paper draws on data from in-depth interviews of 18 school teachers in different parts of Georgia in 2013. The findings of the qualitative…

  7. Peer Tutoring: An Evaluation of the Relative Cognitive Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Nancy A.

    The relative effectiveness of tutoring for both partners was examined by comparing tutoring with other learning activities that differed either in the amount of exposure to the learning materials or the presence of a helping relationship or both. The subjects were 160 undergraduates who were evaluated on their acquisition of Esperanto. Subjects…

  8. Tutor Trust Secondary: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Emily; Morrison, Jo; Walker, Matthew; Aston, Helen; Cook, Rose

    2015-01-01

    The Tutor Trust is a Manchester-based charity that aims to provide affordable small group and one-to-one tuition, predominantly to disadvantaged pupils in schools in challenging communities. The tutors are university students and recent graduates, enabling tuition to be provided at a competitive rate on a not-for-profit basis. This three-year…

  9. What Do Distance Language Tutors Say about Teacher Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Research into motivation in education mainly centres on students' learning motivation. This article reports on an interview study of teacher motivation with the aim of investigating the effects of student-related factors and tutors' personal factors on the motivation of language tutors in the distance learning context. Findings from the study…

  10. Perspectives of New Trades Tutors: Boundary Crossing between Vocational Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the perspectives of new tutors teaching traditional vocational trades who recently commenced teaching in the Institutes of Technologies and Polytechnics (ITPs) sector in New Zealand. The perspectives are collated from questionnaires and interviews of 13 tutors, from five ITPs, who have been teaching full-time for…

  11. Conceptual Tutoring Software for Promoting Deep Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Angela; Hattingh, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the use of conceptual tutoring software to promote deep learning of the scientific concept of density among 50 final year pre-service student teachers in a natural sciences course in a South African university. Individually-paced electronic tutoring is potentially an effective way of meeting the students' varied…

  12. Teaching Database Design with Constraint-Based Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Suraweera, Pramuditha

    2016-01-01

    Design tasks are difficult to teach, due to large, unstructured solution spaces, underspecified problems, non-existent problem solving algorithms and stopping criteria. In this paper, we comment on our approach to develop KERMIT, a constraint-based tutor that taught database design. In later work, we re-implemented KERMIT as EER-Tutor, and…

  13. Managing Face Threats and Instructions in Online Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Jucks, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Although tutoring is very effective, tutors often neglect certain strategies such as direct negative feedback. This might be because they want to avoid threatening their tutee's face. The concept of face derives from politeness theory and refers to the aspects of autonomy and social appreciation people claim for themselves and strive to negotiate…

  14. Organization of the Master Tutor in Higher Education: Methodological Support

    OpenAIRE

    Asya Suchanu

    2013-01-01

    It reveals the uniqueness tutor support preparation of future teachers in humanities within the magistracy, the ways and means of professional development tomorrow's specialists. Substantiates the importance and meaning of revealed teaching tutor help first-year students, which manifests itself in optimizing individual learning trajectories, leading to efficient fulfillment and positive socialization of students.

  15. ElectronixTutor: An Intelligent Tutoring System with Multiple Learning Resources for Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen; Nye, Benjamin D.; VanLehn, Kurt; Kumar, Rohit; Heffernan, Cristina; Heffernan, Neil; Woolf, Beverly; Olney, Andrew M.; Rus, Vasile; Andrasik, Frank; Pavlik, Philip; Cai, Zhiqiang; Wetzel, Jon; Morgan, Brent; Hampton, Andrew J.; Lippert, Anne M.; Wang, Lijia; Cheng, Qinyu; Vinson, Joseph E.; Kelly, Craig N.; McGlown, Cadarrius; Majmudar, Charvi A.; Morshed, Bashir; Baer, Whitney

    2018-01-01

    Background: The Office of Naval Research (ONR) organized a STEM Challenge initiative to explore how intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) can be developed in a reasonable amount of time to help students learn STEM topics. This competitive initiative sponsored four teams that separately developed systems that covered topics in mathematics,…

  16. Tutors' Influence on Distance Language Students' Learning Motivation: Voices from Learners and Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language…

  17. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  18. Connect-Text: Leveraging Text-Message Communication to Mitigate Chronic Absenteeism and Improve Parental Engagement in the Earliest Years of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe-Leistico, Kenneth; Page, Lindsay C.

    2018-01-01

    Poor school attendance in the early grades is predictive of poor subsequent educational outcomes. We report on a pilot intervention aiming to reduce chronic absenteeism in kindergarten. We designed and implemented a two-way, text-based parent-school communication system to encourage daily attendance, provide parents with personalized feedback on…

  19. From Generating in the Lab to Tutoring Systems in Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S; Jacovina, Matthew E; Snow, Erica L; Allen, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    Work in cognitive and educational psychology examines a variety of phenomena related to the learning and retrieval of information. Indeed, Alice Healy, our honoree, and her colleagues have conducted a large body of groundbreaking research on this topic. In this article we discuss how 3 learning principles (the generation effect, deliberate practice and feedback, and antidotes to disengagement) discussed in Healy, Schneider, and Bourne (2012) have influenced the design of 2 intelligent tutoring systems that attempt to incorporate principles of skill and knowledge acquisition. Specifically, this article describes iSTART-2 and the Writing Pal, which provide students with instruction and practice using comprehension and writing strategies. iSTART-2 provides students with training to use effective comprehension strategies while self-explaining complex text. The Writing Pal provides students with instruction and practice to use basic writing strategies when writing persuasive essays. Underlying these systems are the assumptions that students should be provided with initial instruction that breaks down the tasks into component skills and that deliberate practice should include active generation with meaningful feedback, all while remaining engaging. The implementation of these assumptions is complicated by the ill-defined natures of comprehension and writing and supported by the use of various natural language processing techniques. We argue that there is value in attempting to integrate empirically supported learning principles into educational activities, even when there is imperfect alignment between them. Examples from the design of iSTART-2 and Writing Pal guide this argument.

  20. [The good PBL tutor--to be or not to be: instructional films for tutors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelin, Silvia; Huwendiek, Sören; Nikendei, Christoph; Dieter, Peter; Kirschfink, Michael; Bosse, Hans-Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many faculties worldwide apply the method of problem-based learning (PBL) in their curricula as a form of instruction by which students in small groups develop problem-solving strategies on the basis of a specific case. This approach fosters self-responsible and context-dependent learning, which aims at providing an improved anchoring of knowledge. For this reason, the previous decades have seen a distribution of the method to medical schools across the world. The role of the tutor assumes particular importance since, in contrast to the traditional university system, he or she serves as a facilitator who fosters and structures content-related and group-dynamic learning processes. In some cases, this requires an intervention by the tutor. The major challenge is to intervene at the right time and in an appropriate manner. This paper presents examples of difficult PBL situations using short film sequences to demonstrate and comments on potential approaches of the tutor in attempting to resolve the problem. Standard problem situations within a PBL tutorial were defined and produced in a film. A collection of seven frequent critical PBL situations are presented in short film sequences. Potential instruments of intervention are demonstrated in the videos and discussed. The film sequences may be downloaded in the supplementary of the electronic version of this article (www.sciencedirect.com). Within the framework of a tutor-training programme, the problematic situations and interventions presented in this article will help to sensitise tutors to potentially critical PBL tutorial situations and aid the development of individual resolution approaches.

  1. INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Dutra de Oliveira Neto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and implement a tool called intelligent tutoring system in an online course to help a formative evaluation in order to improve student learning. According to Bloom et al. (1971,117 formative evaluation is a systematic evaluation to improve the process of teaching and learning. The intelligent tutoring system may provides a timely and high quality feedback that not only inform the correctness of the solution to the problem, but also informs the students about the accuracy of the response relative to their current knowledge about the solution. Constructive and supportive feedback should be given to the students to reveal the right and wrong answers immediately after taking the test. A feedback about the right answers is a form to reinforce positive behaviors. Identifying possible errors and relating them to the instruction material may help student to strengthen the content under consideration. The remedial suggestion should be given for each answer with detailed prescription with regards the materials and instructional procedures before taking next step. The main idea is to inform the students what he has learned and what he still has to learn. The open-source LMS called Moodle™ was extended to accomplish the formative evaluation, high-quality feedback, and communal knowledge presented here with a short online financial math course that is being offered at a large University in Brazil. The preliminary results shows that the intelligent tutoring system using high quality feedback helped the students to improve their knowledge about the solution to the problems based on the errors of their past cohorts. The results and suggestion for future work are presented and discussed.

  2. Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for Digital Learning Environments on the Basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciss, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008), and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the…

  3. What a Difference a Label Makes: Positioning and Response in an Afterschool Tutoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Erin; Cann, Colette N.

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we used the framework of positioning to show how college-age tutors and their middle school tutees interact in an afterschool tutoring setting with regard to ability. The authors show how educational tracking and understandings of disability permeated tutoring spaces and influence tutors' instructional decisions.…

  4. FUDAOWANG: A Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring System Implementing Advanced Education Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhao, Ke; Li, Yatao; Yi, Zhenzhen

    2012-01-01

    Determining how to provide good tutoring functions is an important research direction of intelligent tutoring systems. In this study, the authors develop an intelligent tutoring system with good tutoring functions, called "FUDAOWANG." The research domain that FUDAOWANG treats is junior middle school mathematics, which belongs to the objective…

  5. The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: Students' Perceptions in Comparison with Mainstream Schooling in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shengli; Bray, Mark; Wang, Dan; Lykins, Chad; Kwo, Ora

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Hong Kong students' perceptions on the effectiveness of private supplementary tutoring relative to mainstream schooling. Drawing on survey and interview data, it shows that large proportions of secondary school students receive private tutoring. Students generally perceive private tutoring and private tutors to be more…

  6. Estimating the Impact of Private Tutoring on Academic Performance: Primary Students in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide private tutoring is documented extensively, but its impact is unclear. I estimate the impact of tutoring on performance to assess the degree to which tutoring is a vehicle of educational stratification in Sri Lanka. I find that on average, five months of tutoring has no impact on Year 5 students' exam scores. I produce suggestive…

  7. Effects of Fourth and Second Graders' Cross-Age Tutoring on Students' Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebekkah J.; Morrison, Timothy G.; Feinauer, Erika; Wilcox, Brad; Black, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study examined some effects of cross-age tutoring on fourth grade tutors' and second grade tutees' ability to spell accurately and correct errors on their own rough drafts. Half of the participating tutors were trained in tutoring skills; half were not. All participants were given pre- and post-assessments. On dictated writing…

  8. Tutoring deaf students in higher education: a comparison of baccalaureate and sub-baccalaureate student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harry G; Biser, Eileen; Mousley, Keith; Orlando, Richard; Porter, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-three deaf college students completed a survey examining perceptions about tutoring outcomes and emphases, characteristics of tutors, and responsibilities associated with learning through tutoring. The comparisons revealed that while baccalaureate and sub-baccalaureate students have many similar perceptions about tutoring, there are also some striking differences. In particular, as compared to the sub-baccalaureate students, baccalaureate students have a stronger preference for focusing on course content and for working with tutors who actively involve them during the tutoring sessions. In addition, baccalaureate students prefer to decide the focus of the tutoring themselves while sub-baccalaureate students tend to leave the decision to the tutor. The results of the analyses with three scales measuring perceptions of tutoring dimensions are summarized and recommendations for the selection and preparation of tutors, as well as for future research, are provided.

  9. A Peer Mentor Tutor Program in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.; Buehlman, J. D.; Middlecamp, C. H.

    2001-05-01

    The Peer Mentor Tutor (PMT) program in the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Physics Department matches upper level undergraduate physics majors in small groups with students potentially at-risk for having academic trouble with their gateway introductory non-calculus physics course or for feeling isolated at the University. The program enhances students'learning and confidence by providing an emphasis on problem solving, a supportive environment for asking questions, and opportunities for acquiring missing math skills. The students assisted include, among others, returning adults, students of color,students with English as a second language, and students who have never taken physics in high school. The tutors acquire teaching and leadership experience with ongoing training throughout the year. The Physics PMT program is run in collaboration with a similar program in Chemistry. The peer model is also being applied to other science courses at the University of Wisconsin. We will describe the structure of the Physics PMT program and our current efforts to expand the program into a broader Physics Learning Center that may serve multiple purposes and courses.

  10. Applying and evaluating computer-animated tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Dominic W.; Bosseler, Alexis; Stone, Patrick S.; Connors, Pamela

    2002-05-01

    We have developed computer-assisted speech and language tutors for deaf, hard of hearing, and autistic children. Our language-training program utilizes our computer-animated talking head, Baldi, as the conversational agent, who guides students through a variety of exercises designed to teach vocabulary and grammer, to improve speech articulation, and to develop linguistic and phonological awareness. Baldi is an accurate three-dimensional animated talking head appropriately aligned with either synthesized or natural speech. Baldi has a tongue and palate, which can be displayed by making his skin transparent. Two specific language-training programs have been evaluated to determine if they improve word learning and speech articulation. The results indicate that the programs are effective in teaching receptive and productive language. Advantages of utilizing a computer-animated agent as a language tutor are the popularity of computers and embodied conversational agents with autistic kids, the perpetual availability of the program, and individualized instruction. Students enjoy working with Baldi because he offers extreme patience, he doesn't become angry, tired, or bored, and he is in effect a perpetual teaching machine. The results indicate that the psychology and technology of Baldi holds great promise in language learning and speech therapy. [Work supported by NSF Grant Nos. CDA-9726363 and BCS-9905176 and Public Health Service Grant No. PHS R01 DC00236.

  11. Simulation-Based Cryosurgery Intelligent Tutoring System Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Anjali; Keelan, Robert; Shimada, Kenji; Wilfong, Dona M; McCormick, James T; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-04-01

    As a part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, the current study presents a proof of concept for a computerized tool for cryosurgery tutoring. The tutoring system lists geometrical constraints of cryoprobes placement, simulates cryoprobe insertion, displays a rendered shape of the prostate, enables distance measurements, simulates the corresponding thermal history, and evaluates the mismatch between the target region shape and a preselected planning isotherm. The quality of trainee planning is measured in comparison with a computer-generated planning, created for each case study by previously developed planning algorithms. The following two versions of the tutoring system have been tested in the current study: (1) an unguided version, where the trainee can practice cases in unstructured sessions and (2) an intelligent tutoring system, which forces the trainee to follow specific steps, believed by the authors to potentially shorten the learning curve. Although the tutoring level in this study aims only at geometrical constraints on cryoprobe placement and the resulting thermal histories, it creates a unique opportunity to gain insight into the process outside the operation room. Post-test results indicate that the intelligent tutoring system may be more beneficial than the nonintelligent tutoring system, but the proof of concept is demonstrated with either system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Evaluation of a pilot peer observation of teaching scheme for chair-side tutors at Glasgow University Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, A M; Bissell, V; Bovill, C

    2013-06-01

    To introduce and examine a pilot peer observation of teaching (POT) scheme within the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at Glasgow Dental School and its associated outreach centres. All tutors teaching paediatric dentistry were invited to be involved in evaluation of the POT scheme. Participants were randomly paired with a peer, who then observed their teaching and provided constructive feedback. For those consenting to be involved in the evaluation of the scheme, semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were carried out by the principal investigator. POT was found by all participants to be a beneficial process, reassuring those of their teaching styles and giving them ideas to adapt their teaching. POT is an effective method for engaging chair-side tutors in the reflection and development of their teaching practice via observations and scholarly discussion.

  13. Relationship quality and student engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Jennifer

    The purpose of this study was to examine the qualities of support, relatedness, and negative interaction within parent-child and teacher-student relationships and their association with cognitive, psychological, and behavioral engagement. Additionally, this study explored the contributions of cognitive and psychological engagement on behavioral engagement. The role of gender, grade, and ethnicity on relationship quality and engagement was also considered. Participants (n=311) were students in grades three through five from a suburban school district in southeastern Michigan. Perceptions of teacher-student relationship quality varied by grade level. In general, younger students reported greater teacher support and relatedness in comparison to older students. Conversely, older students perceived greater conflict within the teacher-student relationship. Student engagement also varied by grade level, with younger students reporting greater engagement than older students. Ethnicity also contributed to variance in student engagement, with African American students reporting significantly more engagement than Caucasian or Multiracial students. Teacher-student relationship quality was a significant predictor of student engagement, even after controlling for student characteristics and parent-child relationship variables. Results of path analysis revealed that cognitive and psychological engagement contributed significantly to behavioral engagement.

  14. HIGHER EDUCATION, ONLINE TUTORING AND THE TEACHING PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roberto de Camargo Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings the analysis of a study—of a descriptive-analytical nature—about online tutoring, some of its characteristics and peculiarities as compared to face-to-face education. To this end it analyzes the results of an online questionnaire answered by 222 tutors pertaining to programs offered at Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar in partnership with Universidade Aberta do Brasil (UAB and Brazilian townships. The analysis focused on tutors’ characteristics (e.g., sex, education background and teaching experience, their work organization and activities, the division of labor (between tutors and teachers responsible for subjects, and their perceptions about the nature of tutoring and education at a distance (DE. This study is chiefly based on authors such as Lortie, Tardif, and Shulman—about face-to-face teaching—and Mill, Maggio, and Kenski—on distance education. The results of this study point to the predominance of female tutors, which resembles the makeup of the teaching body in face-to-face education at the lower levels, and indicate the respondents’ high levels of schooling and considerable face-to-face teaching experience. Despite the difficulties encountered by the tutors in this study, mainly due to their lack of experience in DE and varied technical problems, most of the tutors found it easy and pleasurable to work online. The dada also suggest that the tutors enjoyed comparative autonomy as regards actions associated with content transmission as well as actions related to (virtual classroom management. This autonomy may be the basis for the respondents’ perception that the online tutor, in the context under consideration, performs a genuine teaching function.

  15. Tutoring szkolny jako koncepcja i metoda wsparcia rozwoju ucznia

    OpenAIRE

    Drozd, Ewa; Zembrzuska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Celem artykułu jest dokonanie opisu koncepcji i metody tutoringu szkolnego w odniesieniu do kilkuletnich doświadczeń programu Kolegium Tutorów realizowanego przy wsparciu lokalnych władz oświatowych. Tutoring ma korzenie akademickie jako zindywidualizowana metoda pracy studenta z profesorem, jego istotą jest otwarcie na potrzeby drugiego człowieka i wspieranie w rozwoju. Można wskazać kilka źródeł filozoficznych, które dookreślają czym współcześnie jest tutoring (sokratejski dialog, filozofia...

  16. Student Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conduit, Jodie; Karpen, Ingo; Farrelly, Francis

    2017-01-01

    system (the university), the narrow service system (the course), and the individual dyadic level of engagement (the student-lecturer interaction). These findings could be further considered and empirically tested in other engagement contexts (e.g. employee engagement, customer engagement).......Universities are seeking to actively and strategically manage student engagement through providing opportunities for students to interact and engage with the institution on a range of levels and in different ways. However, this increasingly complex and multi-layered nature of student engagement...... within a tertiary education environment is not well understood. Through qualitative focus groups and a series of interviews with undergraduate and postgraduate students, this study explores and articulates the cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social dimensions of engagement that depict the nature...

  17. Intelligent tutoring using HyperCLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Pickering, Brad

    1990-01-01

    HyperCard is a popular hypertext-like system used for building user interfaces to databases and other applications, and CLIPS is a highly portable government-owned expert system shell. We developed HyperCLIPS in order to fill a gap in the U.S. Army's computer-based instruction tool set; it was conceived as a development environment for building adaptive practical exercises for subject-matter problem-solving, though it is not limited to this approach to tutoring. Once HyperCLIPS was developed, we set out to implement a practical exercise prototype using HyperCLIPS in order to demonstrate the following concepts: learning can be facilitated by doing; student performance evaluation can be done in real-time; and the problems in a practical exercise can be adapted to the individual student's knowledge.

  18. Intelligent tutors for control center operator training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, Z.A. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Fernandes, M.F.; Marques, A. [Electricity of Portugal, Sacavem (Portugal)

    1995-12-31

    Power systems are presently remotely operated and controlled from control centers that receive on-line information about the power system state. Control center operators have very high-demanding tasks what makes their training a key issue for the performance of the whole power system. Simulators are usually used by electrical utilities for this purpose but they are very expensive applications and their use requires the preparation of the training sessions by qualified training staff which is a very time consuming task. Due to this, these simulators are only used a few times a year. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) provide some new possibilities for control center operator training making easier its use without much assistance of the teaching staff. On the other hand, an expert system in use in a control center can be adapted to an ITS to train operators without much effort. 18 refs

  19. Adding an Intelligent Tutoring System to an Existing Training Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stottler, Richard H; Jensen, Randy; Pike, Bill; Bingham, Rick

    2006-01-01

    ...). It was determined that the addition of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to BC2010 would off-load the instructor from these duties and allow the students to execute scenarios without requiring an instructor for the AAR...

  20. Information Processing and Coaching Treatments in an Intelligent Tutoring System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillon, Ronna

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to develop an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) to train test administrators how to operate computerized adaptive testing Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (CAT-ASVAB...

  1. Supporting undergraduate nursing students through structured personal tutoring: Some reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tessa E

    2011-02-01

    Support is imperative for nursing students worldwide as they face the many challenges associated with learning and working. Moreover enhancing student retention is an increasing concern for institutions across the globe. The personal tutor is a frequently hidden yet potentially significant figure in many students' experience of higher education. This paper offers some critical reflections on a structured approach to personal tutoring within an undergraduate nursing programme in a research focused Welsh university. Structured personal tutoring can provide an organised, coherent and proactive support system throughout students' educational programmes. However the approach changes the shape of personal tutoring and has the potential to increase academics' workloads and with it costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Peer tutoring program for academic success of returning nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates among students in associate degree nursing programs are a concern for faculty, administrators, and students. Programs offering academic and emotional support for students at risk for failing a clinical course may decrease attrition rates and improve academic performance. A peer tutoring program was developed for returning nursing students who were unsuccessful in a previous clinical course. Peer tutors met with returning students weekly to review course work, complete case studies and practice NCLEX questions. Trusting, supportive relationships developed among students and a significant increase in grades was noted at the end of the course for 79% of students. Implementation of peer tutoring was beneficial for returning students, tutors, and the nursing program and may be valuable in other courses where academic achievement is a concern.

  3. An Intelligent Tutor for Intrusion Detection on Computer Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, Neil C; Schiavo, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    ... critical. We describe a tutor incorporating two programs. The first program uses artificial-intelligence planning methods to generate realistic audit files reporting actions of a variety of simulated users (including intruders...

  4. User documentation for the MSK and OMS intelligent tutoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Lincoln, David T.

    1991-01-01

    This user's guide describes how to use the Intelligent Tutoring Systems for the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK) and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and how to use the C code that runs the mockup version of the MSK.

  5. Integrating Hypermedia Objects In An Intelligent Tutoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia PECHEANU

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the internal architecture of an Intelligent Tutoring System, CS-Tutor. The architectural design of the tutorial system was developed in a collaborative work at the Department of Computer Science of the University of Galati and the Department of Applied Informatics of the Faculty of Computer Science of Iasi. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS are software packages which use the Artificial Intelligence techniques to aid in learning of some subject or skill. In recent years, Hypermedia has been gained the interest of many researchers working in the teaching field of study. The CS-Tutor internal architecture is based upon integrating Hypermedia Objects in an Intelligent Knowledge-Based frame.

  6. Fundamental Skills Tutoring Project, Year III, Dayton, Ohio Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elling, Sue

    1996-01-01

    ... the effectiveness of the tutors as they are developed. The Alliance for Education was tasked with selecting schools, purchasing, installing and maintaining hardware, supporting local teachers and administrators, assisting Armstrong Laboratory personnel...

  7. Development of Peer Tutoring Services to Support Osteopathic Medical Students' Academic Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Nicholas; Wimsatt, Leslie

    2015-11-01

    Peer tutoring can benefit both tutors and tutored students, but information is lacking regarding establishing and measuring outcomes of such a program at new medical schools. To examine the outcomes of a pilot peer tutoring initiative and explore the implications for long-term program development. Fifty-one osteopathic medical students who participated in a pilot peer tutoring program during the 2013-2014 academic year were surveyed regarding satisfaction with the program. Course grade means for the tutors (all courses) and tutored students (specific courses) were analyzed before and after participating in the tutoring experience. Data analyses were performed using frequency distributions, t tests, and qualitative assessment of emergent themes. The survey had a 76% response rate (39 of 51 students). Both tutored students and tutors were satisfied with the tutoring program. Statistically significant changes in course grades for the tutored courses were noted at 3 to 4 and 8 to 9 months among the tutored students who were most at risk for failure (P=.001). Tutor course grades showed no significant changes for any of the courses in which they were enrolled (P=.445). Learning gains were realized by the students at greatest academic risk. Additional research is needed to evaluate long-term outcomes.

  8. Intelligent tutoring system of the university department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Aleshchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is intelligent tutoring system for planning and development of individual learning programs for students. One of the important components of modern training programs is the individual practice programs that are formed from the first course and built up in the process of learning in the subsequent courses. Each individual practice program is formed on the basis of the Working program of practice for a specific group. At later practice stages planning and adjustment of the individual program are worked out for a particular student.The agent-oriented approach for the planning of individual learning programs is used for the formation of individual practice program. Agents of the intelligent learning systems are created according to the requirements of service-oriented architecture. To apply knowledge there used an integrated approach to represent knowledge.As a result of research, the authors propose the architecture of intelligent educational systems of the University Department, using the repository of learning objects, telecommunication systems and such agents as: the learner, the assessment of the student’s knowledge, the formation of individual programs for learning, the personal learning environment, the methodical support, the businesses. The authors demonstrate the possibility for the formation of individual practice programs using an agent of the methodical support.Application of the approaches and technologies which were considered in the article will allow to solve problems of the formation of individual practice programs. The use of such applications will extend the possibilities of intelligent tutoring systems of the University departments.

  9. Reasons of tutoring Phenomena among Secondary Stage Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ayroutt; Heba hammad

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons of tutoring phenomena among secondary stage students in Amman City as perceived by School Principals. Approach: The sample of the study consisted of (117 male principals and 57 female principals). Results: The evaluations of principals regarding tutoring reasons were high, factors related to students came first, followed by the factors related to the family while the factors related to the cur...

  10. Teacher training tutor of the micro university: issues to reflect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enma Gallardo Barroso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the great importance an appropriate strategy for the development of the formation of tutors has, due to the role they play in the entire formation of thousands of youngsters as well as teachers and professors. Tutors have the duty of transmitting, together with the professor of the territorial university center, the basic knowledge of the sciences of Education and to endow them of tools for their future professional work.

  11. Proceedings of the Air Force Forum for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Science Air Force Summer Study on Fault Isolation in Air Force Weapons and Support Systems. He is an expert in simulation-oriented computer-based...Tutoring (Collins, 1976.) Reprinted with permission of Lawrence Erlbauni Assoc., Inc., Publishers, ( 1976. It should be clear that understanding natural...Grignetti, M., Hausman , C., & Gould, L. (1975). An intelligent on-line assistant and tutor: NLS-Scholar. In Proceedings of the National Computer

  12. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN TUTOR SEBAYA PADA MATA PELAJARAN SOSIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningrum Pusporini Anggorowati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pelaksanaannya model pembelajaran tutor sebaya (peer teaching di SMAN I Brebes. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah guru sosiologi kelas XI IPS 1 dan siswa kelas XI IPS 1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan peer teaching memerlukan persiapan yang matang, dan setiap tahap pelaksanaan hendaknya dievaluasi untuk mendapatkan hasil yang baik. Faktor pendukung dalam pelaksanaan model pembelajaran tutor sebaya antara lain yaitu adanya interaksi antara guru dengan siswa, minat belajar siswa cukup tinggi, guru dan siswa lebih akrab dalam kegiatan pembelajaran, keterlibatan tutor sebaya dalam kelompok belajar membuat suasana pembelajaran lebih menarik, sedangkan faktor penghambatnya antara lain yaitu kurangnya persiapan dari para tutor, sarana dan prasarana kurang memadai, kegiatan pembelajaran kurang kondusif, dan sumber belajar kurang memadai. The objective of this study is to examine the implementation of peer tutoring learning model (peer teaching in SMAN I Brebes. Subjects in this study were teachers sociology class XI IPS 1 and class XI IPS 1. Results show that the implementation of peer teaching requires preparation, and each stage of the implementation should be evaluated to obtain good results. Factors supporting the implementation of peer tutoring learning model, among others, the interaction between teachers and students, and also student interest is high; teachers and students are more familiar in learning activities, and peer tutor involvement in the study group to make the learning environment more attractive. The inhibiting factor of peer teaching strategy include among others the lack of preparation of the tutors, inadequate infrastructure, lack of conducive learning activities, and learning resources are inadequate.

  13. Implementing peer tutoring in a graduate medical education programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno-Kennedy, Rossana; Henn, Pat; O'Flynn, Siun

    2010-06-01

    In modern times, peer tutoring methods have been explored in health care education for over 30 years. In this paper, we report our experience of implementing a peer-tutoring approach to Clinical Skills Laboratory (CSL) training in the Graduate Entry in Medicine Programme (GEM) at University College Cork. Eighteen fourth-year medical students were recruited as peer tutors for CSL sessions on physical examination. In order to standardise the process, we developed a training course for peer tutors that comprised two stages. They then ran the practical sessions with junior students, under the watchful eye of medical educators. At the end of the last CSL session, the students were given 10 minutes to reflect individually on the experience, and were asked to complete a feedback form. Twenty-four of the 42 GEM students and six of the seven Senior Tutors (STs) completed and returned their feedback forms. With the caveats of small sample sizes and low response rates, both groups reported that they had both positive and negative experiences of peer tutoring, but that the positive experiences predominated. The overall experience was positive. In terms of the primary thesis of this study, the STs thought that they were well prepared by the teaching staff to take part in these teaching sessions. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  14. Development and Validation of the Motivation for Tutoring Questionnaire in Problem-Based Learning Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Eldin Kassab

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Analyzing the tutors’ scores of their motivation for PBL tutoring yielded three significantly correlated constructs representing tutoring self-efficacy, tutoring interest and tutoring value. The findings demonstrated high internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire, strong correlation between the three constructs as well as correlations between the constructs and the self-rated tutoring skills scores. Taken together, the current study demonstrates that the newly developed instrument measuring motivation for PBL tutoring exhibits good psychometric properties. The findings in this paper pave the way for further studies for refining the measurement of this construct in different problem-based contexts.

  15. Exploring the tutor-student interaction in a blended university course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnova Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A meaningful tutor-student interaction requires a new insight into pedagogical principles and proper implementation of modern teaching strategies. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of online tutoring in blended learning settings and the impact of the tutor-student interaction on the learning process. The article reports on the results of the study on students’ evaluation of the tutor’s role and the tutor-student interaction in a blended university course. The findings show that professional tutoring and the effective tutor-student interaction help students to improve their learning efficacy and to have a greater personal responsibility for their outcomes.

  16. Neural imaging to track mental states while using an intelligent tutoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Betts, Shawn; Ferris, Jennifer L; Fincham, Jon M

    2010-04-13

    Hemodynamic measures of brain activity can be used to interpret a student's mental state when they are interacting with an intelligent tutoring system. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected while students worked with a tutoring system that taught an algebra isomorph. A cognitive model predicted the distribution of solution times from measures of problem complexity. Separately, a linear discriminant analysis used fMRI data to predict whether or not students were engaged in problem solving. A hidden Markov algorithm merged these two sources of information to predict the mental states of students during problem-solving episodes. The algorithm was trained on data from 1 day of interaction and tested with data from a later day. In terms of predicting what state a student was in during a 2-s period, the algorithm achieved 87% accuracy on the training data and 83% accuracy on the test data. The results illustrate the importance of integrating the bottom-up information from imaging data with the top-down information from a cognitive model.

  17. Los espacios de tutoría en práctica profesional y sus necesidades de fortalecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ignacio Sánchez Sánchez

    2014-05-01

    results indicate very positive opinions regarding the support system, designed by the University for the students in professional teaching practice and which are specified in the presence of a professional responsibility to support the demands personal, social and professional experienced practitioners. On the other hand, it emphasizes that while recognizing mentoring as a support space classroom practitioner performance with regard to planning, teaching, assessment and reflection, the vision of the performances achieved there tends to be different among the actors. Practitioners perceive a performance that, in general, is at the level of "sufficiently" and "a lot", which would indicate that they consider acquired the different performances pedagogical acquired; however, the tutors´ view is different, and place a significant percentage of practitioners in an acquisition rather partial or "regular" of educational performances engaged in the formation of a teacher.

  18. Getting and Keeping Nora on Board: A Novice Elementary ESOL Student Teacher's Practices for Lesson Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Hansun Zhang; Hruska, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes how a novice ESOL (English to Speakers of Other Languages) student teacher successfully navigates an instructional path in a one-on-one tutoring session with a second grade student. We document the student teacher's strategies to both engage and disengage her student, who alternately resists and cooperates throughout the…

  19. Effects of classwide peer tutoring on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words for seventh grade students with learning disabilities and/or low achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel, Michele Mcmahon

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words and definitions. Participants were 14 seventh grade students at-risk for failure in a general education science course; 3 students had learning disabilities and 2 had a communication disorder. CWPT was conducted daily for 20 minutes during the last period of the school day. Procedures for CWPT were consistent with the Ohio State University CWPT model. Students were engaged in dyadic, reciprocal tutoring. Tutors presented word cards to tutees to identify the word and definition. Tutors praised correct responses and used a correction procedure for incorrect responses. After practicing their vocabulary words, students completed a daily testing procedure and recorded and plotted data. Many of the study's findings are consistent with previous studies using CWPT to teach word identification. Results of this study indicate a functional relationship between CWPT and acquisition of science vocabulary. All students were able to acquire words and definitions. Results for maintenance and generalization varied. When acquisition criterion was changed, maintenance and generalization scores increased for some students, while other students remained consistently high. All students reported that they enjoyed CWPT, and all but student stated it helped them learn science vocabulary.

  20. Increasing Academic Skills of Students with Autism Using Fifth Grade Peers as Tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Debra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Nonhandicapped fifth-grade students conducted tutoring sessions in math, language, and reading for two elementary-aged children with autism. Results demonstrated that normal peers could effectively increase academic behaviors of autistic students through tutoring activities. (Author/JDD)

  1. Exploring the tutor-student interaction in a blended university course

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnova, Tatiana Ivanovna; Popova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A meaningful tutor-student interaction requires a new insight into pedagogical principles and proper implementation of modern teaching strategies. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of online tutoring in blended learning settings and the impact of the tutor-student interaction on the learning process. The article reports on the results of the study on students’ evaluation of the tutor’s role and the tutor-student interaction in a blended university course. The findings show th...

  2. Prevalence for Private Tuition among Parents, Teachers and Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Machakos County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigwi, Lucy Wambui; Maithya, Redempta

    2016-01-01

    Private tuition refers to tutoring offered outside mainstream teaching. The study sought to establish the difference in prevalence for private tuition among parents, teachers and pupils in public primary schools in Machakos County. The study employed descriptive survey design. The target populations were all teachers, parents and pupils of public…

  3. Simulation-Based Cryosurgery Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Anjali; Keelan, Robert; Shimada, Kenji; Wilfong, Dona M.; McCormick, James T.; Rabin, Yoed

    2015-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, the current study presents a proof-of-concept for a computerized tool for cryosurgery tutoring. The tutoring system lists geometrical constraints of cryoprobes placement, simulates cryoprobe insertion, displays a rendered shape of the prostate, enables distance measurements, simulates the corresponding thermal history, and evaluates the mismatch between the target region shape and a pre-selected planning isotherm. The quality of trainee planning is measured in comparison with a computer-generated planning, created for each case study by previously developed planning algorithms. Two versions of the tutoring system have been tested in the current study: (i) an unguided version, where the trainee can practice cases in unstructured sessions, and (ii) an intelligent tutoring system (ITS), which forces the trainee to follow specific steps, believed by the authors to potentially shorten the learning curve. While the tutoring level in this study aims only at geometrical constraints on cryoprobe placement and the resulting thermal histories, it creates a unique opportunity to gain insight into the process outside of the operation room. Posttest results indicate that the ITS system maybe more beneficial than the non-ITS system, but the proof-of-concept is demonstrated with either system. PMID:25941163

  4. Rose garden promises of intelligent tutoring systems: Blossom or thorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) have been in existence for over a decade. However, few controlled evaluation studies have been conducted comparing the effectiveness of these systems to more traditional instruction methods. Two main promises of ITSs are examined: (1) Engender more effective and efficient learning in relation to traditional formats; and (2) Reduce the range of learning outcome measures where a majority of individuals are elevated to high performance levels. Bloom (1984) has referred to these as the two sigma problem; to achieve two standard deviation improvements with tutoring over traditional instruction methods. Four ITSs are discussed in relation to the two promises. These tutors have undergone systematic, controlled evaluations: (1) The LISP tutor (Anderson Farrell and Sauers, 1984); (2) Smithtown (Shute and Glaser, in press); (3) Sherlock (Lesgold, Lajoie, Bunzo and Eggan, 1990); and (4) The Pascal ITS (Bonar, Cunningham, Beatty and Well, 1988). Results show that these four tutors do accelerate learning with no degradation in final outcome. Suggestions for improvements to the design and evaluation of ITSs are discussed.

  5. A Flowchart-Based Intelligent Tutoring System for Improving Problem-Solving Skills of Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, D.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yousefi, M.; Yusop, F. D.; Horng, S.-J.

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tutoring and personalization are considered as the two most important factors in the research of learning systems and environments. An effective tool that can be used to improve problem-solving ability is an Intelligent Tutoring System which is capable of mimicking a human tutor's actions in implementing a one-to-one personalized and…

  6. Help Helps, but Only so Much: Research on Help Seeking with Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…

  7. Online Tutoring Procedure for Research Project Supervision: Management, Organization and Key Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darder Mesquida, Antònia; Pérez Garcias, Adolfina

    2015-01-01

    Research project tutoring appears as a crucial element for teaching; it is a planned action based on the relationship between a tutor and a student. This paper presents the findings of a design and development research which has as its main aim to create an organization system for the tutoring of online research projects. That system seeks to…

  8. The demand for private tutoring in Turkey: unintended consequences of curriculum reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.; Bray, M.; Mazawi, A.E.; Sultana, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the private tutoring phenomenon in Turkey. It seeks to analyse the impact of the revision of primary school curriculum on the demand for private tutoring. It also outlines various academic, economic and social implications of private tutoring. Based on interviews with school

  9. The Effect of Attending Tutoring on Course Grades in Calculus I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Brian; Mills, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Tutoring centres are common in universities in the United States, but there are few published studies that statistically examine the effects of tutoring on student success. This study utilizes multiple regression analysis to model the effect of tutoring attendance on final course grades in Calculus I. Our model predicted that every three visits to…

  10. Facilitating Group Analysis of Two Case Studies Utilising Peer Tutoring: Comparison of Tasks and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lin Siew

    2016-01-01

    Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…

  11. Lecturing skills as predictors of tutoring skills in a problem-based medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Hassan, Nahla; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan F; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL) programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69) who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS), Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring) using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent). The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students' questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000). Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives.

  12. Benefits of Structured After-School Literacy Tutoring by University Students for Struggling Elementary Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Endia J.; Weiser, Beverly; Cheatham, Jennifer P.; Allor, Jill H.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of minimally trained tutors providing a highly structured tutoring intervention for struggling readers. We screened students in Grades K-6 for participation in an after-school tutoring program. We randomly assigned those students not meeting the benchmark on a reading screening measure to either a tutoring…

  13. A Utilization-Focused Program Evaluation of a Supplemental Educational Services Third-Party Tutoring Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Under the mandates of No Child Left Behind, supplemental educational services (SES) in the form of tutoring are provided to eligible students who attend schools in the 3rd year of program improvement status. A local suburban school district in the southern California currently uses a 3rd party tutoring model to provide tutoring services in both…

  14. The Development of a Tutor Programme in a University Hall of Residence--A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, V. J.

    The tutor system within a university hall of residence at Flinders University of South Australia and a method of inquiry used to study the system are examined. Interviews with residence hall tutors revealed four concerns: the need for guidelines, the nature of academic tutoring, pastoral care and its implications, and communication channels within…

  15. Identifying and Describing Tutor Archetypes: The Pragmatist, the Architect, and the Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…

  16. Dr Math moves to C³TO: Chatter call center/tutoring online

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dr Math is a mobile tutoring system which has been running in South Africa for three years. It links primary and secondary school pupils to tutors in mathematics. The pupils use the popular Mxit chat client on their cell phones. The tutors use full...

  17. ASPIRE: An Authoring System and Deployment Environment for Constraint-Based Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Martin, Brent; Suraweera, Pramuditha; Zakharov, Konstantin; Milik, Nancy; Holland, Jay; McGuigan, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, the Intelligent Computer Tutoring Group (ICTG) has implemented many successful constraint-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) in a variety of instructional domains. Our tutors have proven their effectiveness not only in controlled lab studies but also in real classrooms, and some of them have been commercialized.…

  18. Automated topic spotting provides added efficiency in a chat based tutoring environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dr Math is a mobile, online tutoring project which allows primary and secondary school pupils to contact tutors in mathematics using text based chat systems on their cell phones. The tutors use traditional Internet based workstations. Dr Math...

  19. Observing tutorial dialogues collaboratively: insights about human tutoring effectiveness from vicarious learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michelene T H; Roy, Marguerite; Hausmann, Robert G M

    2008-03-01

    The goals of this study are to evaluate a relatively novel learning environment, as well as to seek greater understanding of why human tutoring is so effective. This alternative learning environment consists of pairs of students collaboratively observing a videotape of another student being tutored. Comparing this collaboratively observing environment to four other instructional methods-one-on-one human tutoring, observing tutoring individually, collaborating without observing, and studying alone-the results showed that students learned to solve physics problems just as effectively from observing tutoring collaboratively as the tutees who were being tutored individually. We explain the effectiveness of this learning environment by postulating that such a situation encourages learners to become active and constructive observers through interactions with a peer. In essence, collaboratively observing combines the benefit of tutoring with the benefit of collaborating. The learning outcomes of the tutees and the collaborative observers, along with the tutoring dialogues, were used to further evaluate three hypotheses explaining why human tutoring is an effective learning method. Detailed analyses of the protocols at several grain sizes suggest that tutoring is effective when tutees are independently or jointly constructing knowledge: with the tutor, but not when the tutor independently conveys knowledge. 2008 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. A Case Study on Leadership Identity Development of Tutors in a Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Samantha L.

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of a tutor training program is often only measured by student results rather than tutor outcomes (CRLA, 2016). Experiences in college, such as on-campus employment, greatly contribute to the development of students (Savoca, 2016). However, little research exists on the leadership development of tutors (NADE, 2016). Having a…

  1. The Effects of Trained Peer Tutors on the Physical Education of Children Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskochil, Brian; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Petersen, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of trained peer tutors on the academic learning time-physical education (ALT-PE) scores of children with visual impairments. It found a mean increase of 20.8% for ALT-PE and increases in ALT-PE scores for closed and open skills and that trained peer tutors were more effective than were untrained peer tutors.

  2. Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for digital learning environments on the basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Narciss

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008, and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the regulation of a learning process in order to help learners acquire or improve the competencies needed to master learning tasks. It integrates findings from systems theory with recommendations of prior research on interactive instruction and elaborated feedback, on task analyses, on error analyses, and on tutoring techniques. Based on this multi-dimensional view of formative tutoring feedback methodological implications for designing and investigating multiple effects of feedback under multiple individual and situational conditions are described. Furthermore, the paper outlines how the implications of the ITF-model have been applied in several studies to the design and evaluation of tutoring feedback strategies for digital learning environments (e.g., Narciss, 2004; Narciss & Huth, 2006; Narciss, Schnaubert, Andres, Eichelmann, Goguadze, & Sosnovsky, 2013.

  3. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Nondestructive Testing Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. K.; Koh, S. N. [Joong Ang Inspection Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. K.; Shim, Y. J. [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing

  4. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Nondestructive Testing Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Koh, S. N.; Kim, M. K.; Shim, Y. J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing

  5. The European Nuclear Safety Training and Tutoring Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The European Nuclear Safety Training and Tutoring Institute, ENSTTI, is an initiative of European Technical Safety Organizations (TSO) in order to provide vocational training and tutoring in the methods and practices required to perform assessment in nuclear safety, nuclear security and radiation protection. ENSTTI calls on TSOs' expertise to maximize the transmission of safety and security knowledge, practical experience and culture. Training, tutoring and courses for specialists are achieved through practical lectures, working group and technical visits and lead to a certificate after knowledge testing. ENSTTI contributes to the harmonization of nuclear safety and security practices and to the networking of today and future nuclear safety experts in Europe and beyond. (A.C.)

  6. Qualitative Evaluation of the Java Intelligent Tutoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Sykes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to support the growing trend of the Java programming language and to promote web-based personalized education, the Java Intelligent Tutoring System (JITS was designed and developed. This tutoring system is unique in a number of ways. Most Intelligent Tutoring Systems require the teacher to author problems with corresponding solutions. JITS, on the other hand, requires the teacher to only supply the problem and problem specification. JITS is designed to "intelligently" examine the student's submitted code and determines appropriate feedback based on a number of factors such as JITS' cognitive model of the student, the student's skill level, and problem details. JITS is intended to be used by beginner programming students in their first year of College or University. This paper discusses the important aspects of the design and development of JITS, the qualitative methods and procedures, and findings. Research was conducted at the Sheridan Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, Ontario, Canada.

  7. Tutor system for the application of programming through intelligence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelisse Teresa Machín-Torres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article is part of a research for the development of an intelligent tutor system for the application of programming in the José Martí University of Sancti -Spíritus. The objective of the implementation of this system is to enhance the management knowledge related to programming issues and improve the orientation in solving problems in the university. In order to carry out the implementation of the intelligent tutoring system, the intelligent tutor systems currently in the programming area described the tools and technologies used in the developed solution (methodology, patterns, softwares, programming languages, etc.. It allowed an efficient implementation in a short time of the proposed system. The foregoing is reflected positively in a better student satisfaction and therefore in a higher performance in the teaching-learning process of the university.

  8. Distance learning for training business game tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Toledo Marinho

    Full Text Available Abstract This work is the result of research that proposes the incorporation of Distance Learning into a Business Game as a strategy to enhance tutor training, considering entrepreneurship difficulties faced by public school teachers. Part of the problem could be attributed to subject type, because, in general, it is not common to find entrepreneurship on school curricula. The Distance Learning (DL activities were developed using the Moodle platform and structured by topic to increase educational flexibility and achieve a better balance between individual reflection and online discussion. It was developed in four steps: course content development; course evaluation by computer technicians; restructuring the course based on course evaluation done by computer technicians and course evaluation by teachers from the public school system. A preliminary test was performed with informatics technicians to technically evaluate the learning environment. Based on this, the course was restructured, applying corrections and adjustments to improve environment usability. After corrections, a final test was conducted with public school system teachers to analyze user perception, which gave a positive result. Virtual learning environment evaluation is complex and multidisciplinary, requiring the technical knowledge of internet programming and a conceptual knowledge of education, especially in the field of learning. When the evaluation done by teachers was examined, it was found that deficiencies pointed out by computer technicians had been resolved, giving a positive rating. This current research concludes that DL can improve the use of games, because it is possible to structure the content related to the learning gaps of specific groups of students. In this respect the use of games results can guide the development of content.

  9. An adaptive signal-processing approach to online adaptive tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Bryan; Cline, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Conventional intelligent or adaptive tutoring online systems rely on domain-specific models of learner behavior based on rules, deep domain knowledge, and other resource-intensive methods. We have developed and studied a domain-independent methodology of adaptive tutoring based on domain-independent signal-processing approaches that obviate the need for the construction of explicit expert and student models. A key advantage of our method over conventional approaches is a lower barrier to entry for educators who want to develop adaptive online learning materials.

  10. An intelligent tutoring system for a power plant simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifi, H.; Seifi, A.R. [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran). Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Electrical Engineers

    2002-07-28

    An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) is proposed for a power plant simulator. With a well designed ITS, the need for an instructor is minimized and the operator may readily and efficiently take, in real-time, the control of simulator with appropriate messages he(she) gets from the tutoring system. Using SIMULINK and based on object oriented programming (OOP) and C programming language, a fossil-fuelled power plant simulator with an ITS is proposed. Promising results are demonstrated for a typical power plant.

  11. Where do people look when tutoring a robot?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohan, Katrin Solveig; Fischer, Kerstin; Dondrup, Christian

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between tutors' gaze behavior and particular kinds of linguistic behaviors. In particular, we describe how word classes are distributed over different gazing classes. For this, we collected data from human-robot interactions and used a classification......). The analysis shows that there are, for instance, more object related keywords when people are gazing at an object, and more personal pronouns when people are looking at the robot. Understanding the relationship between human tutors' linguistic and gazing behavior can facilitate bootstrapping the one capability...

  12. Module for adaptative teaching planning for a tutoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyca Ceyca, Jorge Omar; Pazos Rangel, Rodolfo A.; Ruiz Vanoye, Jorge Alberto

    2007-01-01

    La enseñanza ha sido fortalecida con la aparición de las modernas tecnologías computacionales, que han permitido desarrollar la educación a distancia principalmente con el uso de la Internet, siendo los sistemas tutores una de las herramienta más beneficiadas e importantes para esté fin. Sin embargo, la adaptación de los sistemas tutores a las capacidades de los estudiantes es un punto que a penas está siendo explorado [1, 2], es por ello que dada la experiencia en el CENIDET para desarrollar...

  13. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre B., Sé; Depto. Biologia Celular, UnB, Brasília, DF, 70910-900; Passos, Renato M.; Depto. Biologia Celular, UnB, Brasília, DF, 70910-900; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Depto. Biologia Celular, UnB, Brasília, DF, 70910-900

    2004-01-01

    In a previous article we described the relevance of student seminars for the learning process of appliedbiochemistry for medical and nutrition students (Hermes-Lima et al., Biochem. Mol.Biol.Educ. 30:30-34,2002). First semester students of a basic biochemistry course (BioBio) are divided in 10 groupsof 5 members, and each group is assigned to a specic topic (diabetes, cholesterol, etc) under thesupervision of a tutor-student. The tutors have already coursed BioBio and are currently undertakin...

  14. The effect of attending tutoring on course grades in Calculus I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Brian; Mills, Melissa

    2018-04-01

    Tutoring centres are common in universities in the United States, but there are few published studies that statistically examine the effects of tutoring on student success. This study utilizes multiple regression analysis to model the effect of tutoring attendance on final course grades in Calculus I. Our model predicted that every three visits to the tutoring centre is correlated with an increase of a students' course grade by one per cent, after controlling for prior academic ability. We also found that for lower-achieving students, attending tutoring had a greater impact on final grades.

  15. Lecturing skills as predictors of tutoring skills in a problem-based medical curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassab SE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Nahla Hassan,1 Marwan F Abu-Hijleh,2 Reginald P Sequeira3 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 3College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Purpose: Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. Methods: This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69 who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent. The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Results: Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students' questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000. Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Conclusion: Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives. Keywords: PBL, tutor, tutoring skills, lecturing skills

  16. Voluntary undergraduate technical skills training course to prepare students for clerkship assignment: tutees' and tutors' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohm, Mats; Krautter, Markus; Lauter, Jan; Huber, Julia; Weyrich, Peter; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2014-04-04

    Skills lab training has become a widespread tool in medical education, and nowadays, skills labs are ubiquitous among medical faculties across the world. An increasingly prevalent didactic approach in skills lab teaching is peer-assisted learning (PAL), which has been shown to be not only effective, but can be considered to be on a par with faculty staff-led training. The aim of the study is to determine whether voluntary preclinical skills teaching by peer tutors is a feasible method for preparing medical students for effective workplace learning in clerkships and to investigate both tutees' and tutors' attitudes towards such an intervention. A voluntary clerkship preparation skills course was designed and delivered. N = 135 pre-clinical medical students visited the training sessions. N = 10 tutors were trained as skills-lab peer tutors. Voluntary clerkship preparation skills courses as well as tutor training were evaluated by acceptance ratings and pre-post self-assessment ratings. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of skills lab tutors' attitudes towards the course were conducted following principles of grounded theory. Results show that a voluntary clerkship preparation skills course is in high demand, is highly accepted and leads to significant changes in self-assessment ratings. Regarding qualitative analysis of tutor statements, clerkship preparation skills courses were considered to be a helpful and necessary asset to preclinical medical education, which benefits from the tutors' own clerkship experiences and a high standardization of training. Tutor training is also highly accepted and regarded as an indispensable tool for peer tutors. Our study shows that the demand for voluntary competence-oriented clerkship preparation is high, and a peer tutor-led skills course as well as tutor training is well accepted. The focused didactic approach for tutor training is perceived to be effective in preparing tutors for their teaching activity in this context. A

  17. Voices from the Chalkface: Tutor Perceptions in Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Graham

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 66 part-time tutors in Suffolk College's Community and Leisure Learning Program revealed that they spend considerable time in travel and preparation; more than one-third feel isolated and many coped with poor facilities and inadequate resources; and almost half indicated a need for subject-related staff development and subject-based…

  18. Collaboration and peer tutoring in chemistry laboratory education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of collaborative learning with hints and peer tutoring with hints, and individual learning with hints in chemistry laboratory education in a secondary school. A total of 96 eleventh graders participated in this study. The study has a randomized

  19. Interactive Tutoring in Blended Studies: Hindrances and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Ismail Ilyas (Al-Titinchy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper distinguishes between traditional teaching known as lecturing (the teacher centered approach; and tutoring (the contemporary technology-oriented interactive teaching/learning approach. It is based on the implementation of tutoring strategies of ‘blended studies’  at the Arab Open University. It investigates the application of modern interactive teaching/learning strategies, specifying some hindering factors in the AOU-Jordan Branch context. The factors include four variables: tutors, students, course material and assessment. The paper is based on qualitative research in terms of a real teaching/leaning context, using both observation and conversation with learners, besides the use of some quantitative data retrieved from a questionnaire in which learners’ views are sought regarding a number of relevant matters. A number of suggested solutions related to each of the hindering factors are presented, which if applied, may secure shifting the balance of the teaching/learning process to a more interactive technology-based tutoring level, which in turn will enhance learners’ opportunities for the attainment of better academic standards, and secure a higher degree of achievement of the shared educational goals of learners and the educational institution they study in.

  20. Emotion based Agent Architectures for Tutoring Systems : The INES Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; op den Akker, Rieks; Heylen, Dirk; Nijholt, Anton; Trappl, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss our approach to integrate emotions in the agent based tutoring system INES (Intelligent Nursing Education System). First we discuss the INES system where we emphasize the emotional component of the system. Afterwards we show how a more advanced emotion generation

  1. The Nuances of Tutoring and Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Carole J.; Laskey, Marcia L.; Hardt-Schultz, Roberta F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the length of a weekly tutoring session and student GPA for the first two semesters of college. The study was conducted at a private, midsize university in the Midwest. The sample consisted of 124 students admitted with academic stipulations to the university, meaning that…

  2. Examination of Pre-Service Teacher's Training through Tutoring Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiao-ping; Guerra, Myriam Jimena

    2017-01-01

    Pre-service teacher preparation in the United States is becoming progressively more challenging with respect to the demands on teachers. This study examined the impact of tutoring approach on pre-service teachers? skills to work with English language learners through a qualitative research design. Content analysis was used at the thematic level on…

  3. Using the Community of Inquiry Framework to Scaffold Online Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoying; Xie, Jingjing; Liu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Tutoring involves providing learners with a suitable level of structure and guidance to support their learning. This study reports on an exploration of how to design such structure and guidance (i.e., learning scaffolds) in the Chinese online educational context, and in so doing, answer the following two questions: (a) What scaffolding strategies…

  4. Applications of Bayesian decision theory to intelligent tutoring systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    1994-01-01

    Some applications of Bayesian decision theory to intelligent tutoring systems are considered. How the problem of adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to the changing nature of a student's capabilities during the learning process can be situated in the general framework of Bayesian decision

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tutoring: An Easier Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Tacy

    2012-01-01

    Many learning center administrators understand the need to evaluate the effectiveness of their tutoring programs, but they do not have much free time to design and conduct meaningful research. This article presents a method of evaluation that can be used to determine whether students were able to demonstrate understanding after a tutoring…

  6. The Impact of an Online Tutoring Program on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy K.; Whetstone, Patti

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored the impact of an online tutoring program, Math Whizz (Whizz Education, 2014), on student mathematics achievement at 15 elementary schools. Students participated in the use of the Math Whizz program for the duration of the school year as a supplement to mathematics instruction. The Math Whizz program recorded such information…

  7. Validation of an Evaluation Tutoring Task Scale at the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz-Manzanares, María Consuelo; Bol-Arreba, Alfredo; Payo-Hernanz, René Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent investigations have emphasized the need for university teachers to develop tutorial programs for students at university. Many universities are committed to broadening research on university teaching that will sharpen academic performance and levels of student satisfaction. Tutoring programs improve the development of the…

  8. Analysing Student Programs in the PHP Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragama, Dinesha; Reye, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Programming is a subject that many beginning students find difficult. The PHP Intelligent Tutoring System (PHP ITS) has been designed with the aim of making it easier for novices to learn the PHP language in order to develop dynamic web pages. Programming requires practice. This makes it necessary to include practical exercises in any ITS that…

  9. ICT Integration Level of Mathematics Tutors of Colleges of Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICT Integration Level of Mathematics Tutors of Colleges of Education in Ghana. ... International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ... The study used a developmental research design which is a disciplined inquiry conducted in the context of the development of a product or programme for the purpose of ...

  10. Perceptions of tutors in physiotherapy practical skills training

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A near-peer tutorial system was introduced and implemented as part of a second-year module to assist physiotherapy students with the practising of manual techniques. Although not the primary drive for initiating this system, there are potential added benefits for the tutor reported in the literature. Objective.

  11. Virtual tutor systems for robot-assisted instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijing; Zhao, Deyu; Zhang, Zizhen; Wei, Yongji; Qi, Bingchen; Okawa, Yoshikuni

    2004-03-01

    Virtual Reality technology belongs to advanced computer technology, it has been applied in instruction field and gains obvious effect. At the same time, robot assisted instruction comes true with the continuous development of Robot technology and artificial intelligence technology. This paper introduces a virtual tutor system for robot assisted instruction.

  12. An Intelligent Computer-Based System for Sign Language Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…

  13. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  14. Outsiders Looking In: Tutor Expertise in Engineering Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengesai, Annah

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on an academic literacies approach, this article explores the representations of technical communication by non-content expert tutors teaching the Technical Communication for Engineering course at a South African university. The course is offered to all first year engineering students as a developmental academic literacy course. It is…

  15. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Collaborative Learning: Enhancements to Authoring Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jennifer K.; Belenky, Daniel M.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative and individual instruction may support different types of knowledge. Optimal instruction for a subject domain may therefore need to combine these two modes of instruction. There has not been much research, however, on combining individual and collaborative learning with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). A first step is to expand…

  16. The Challenges of Becoming Tutors at Electronic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia López Hurtado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research report of my own experience as a tutor in electronic environments which I have accumulated throughout the guidance for English learners of basic level at a public university. This article looks for illustrating the researcher's own perceptions and challenges as becoming an e-tutor. Therefore, I will introduce an overview of studies and experiences that address this issue in international contexts, and then I will refer to my own experience where I describe the roles that emerged while I was administrating and delivering e- learning pedagogical experiences such as an exploration of some skills and learning activities carried out in an English course; this description embraces three different stages (before, during and after of implementation. Subsequently, some discussion of the results is provided gathered from the research instruments I used. Finally, some conclusions and suggestions are provided in regards to the research question of the study, its outcomes on how tutors' challenges shape tutor's roles in electronic environments.

  17. A Novel Configuration of Feedback's Electric Machine Tutor (EMT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports a successful adaptation of a laboratory teaching machine - Electrical Machine Tutor (EMT) model 180 as an asynchronous composite polyphase electric motor without rotor conductors. The device comprises two such identical machines without rotor conductors, all the conductors being on the stator side, ...

  18. The Franchising of Private Tutoring: A View from Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Aurini, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Private tutoring is a growing industry that is being transformed by an evolution from "shadow education" provision into "learning center" franchises. Traditional shadow educators closely follow the school curriculum, offering short-term homework help and test preparation. Learning centers develop their own curricular and…

  19. Problem based learning: tutors' views 5 years after implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PBL as an appropriate strategy for achieving skills in problem identification, and problem- solving through team work and appropriate use of resources. The other questions were about tutor involvement in providing administrative feed- back (to student learning). In sum- mary there were five questions about student effects,.

  20. Tutor Trust Primary: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Emily; Worth, Jack; Aston, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The Tutor Trust is a Manchester-based charity that aims to provide affordable small group and one to one tuition to schools. The Trust recruits university students and recent graduates, which enables it to provide tuition at a competitive rate. It predominantly aims to support schools in challenging communities and pupils who are looked-after or…

  1. What’s about Peer Tutoring Learning Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthma'innah, M.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematics learning outcomes in Indonesia in general is still far from satisfactory. One effort that could be expected to solve the problem is to apply the model of peer tutoring learning in mathematics. This study aims to determine whether the results of students’ mathematics learning can be enhanced through peer tutoring learning models. This type of research is the study of literature, so that the method used is to summarize and analyze the results of relevant research that has been done. Peer tutoring learning model is a model of learning in which students learn in small groups that are grouped with different ability levels, all group members to work together and help each other to understand the material. By paying attention to the syntax of the learning, then learning will be invaluable peer tutoring for students who served as teachers and students are taught. In mathematics, the implementation of this learning model can make students understand each other mathematical concepts and help students in solving mathematical problems that are poorly understood, due to the interaction between students in learning. Then it will be able to improve learning outcomes in mathematics. The impact, it can be applied in mathematics learning.

  2. Widening the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck for Constraint-Based Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Pramuditha; Mitrovic, Antonija; Martin, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are effective tools for education. However, developing them is a labour-intensive and time-consuming process. A major share of the effort is devoted to acquiring the domain knowledge that underlies the system's intelligence. The goal of this research is to reduce this knowledge acquisition bottleneck and better…

  3. MENO-II: An AI-Based Programming Tutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Elliot; And Others

    This report examines the features and performance of the BUG-FINDing component of MENO-II, a computer-based tutor for beginning PASCAL programming students. A discussion of the use of artificial intelligence techniques is followed by a summary of the system status and objectives. The two main components of MENO-II are described, beginning with the…

  4. Optimizing Knowledge Sharing in Learning Networks through Peer Tutoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Kester, L., & Sloep, P. (2009). Optimizing Knowledge Sharing in Learning Networks through Peer Tutoring. Presentation at the IADIS international conference on Cognition and Exploratory in Digital Age (CELDA 2009). November, 20-22, 2009, Rome, Italy.

  5. Optimizing Knowledge Sharing In Learning Networks Through Peer Tutoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Kester, L., & Sloep, P. B. (2009). Optimizing Knowledge Sharing In Learning Networks Through Peer Tutoring. In D. Kinshuk, J. Sampson, J. Spector, P. Isaías, P. Barbosa & D. Ifenthaler (Eds.). Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Cognition and Exploratory Learning

  6. Emotion based Agent Architectures for Tutoring Systems: The INES Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Trappl, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss our approach to integrate emotions in the agent based tutoring system INES (Intelligent Nursing Education System). First we discuss the INES system where we emphasize the emotional component of the system. Afterwards we show how a more advanced emotion generation

  7. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...

  8. A Tutoring Wizard Guiding Tutorial Work in the Virtual University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittrach, Silke; Schlageter, Gunter

    The Virtual University is an Internet-based learning environment developed at the University of Hagen (Germany). Complex teaching activities based on new concepts integrating net-based communication and cooperation facilities take place in the Virtual University. Experiences show that there is a threshold, especially for tutors in non-computer…

  9. perceptions of tutors in physiotherapy practical skills training

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attribute stipulated in most competency charters for health professionals.[11]. Owing to increasing ... used to quantify which competencies or skills student tutors thought they had obtained through the facilitation of the tutorial sessions. The results ... Ethical approval was granted by the SU Health Research. Ethics Committee ...

  10. Reading Confidence with "Tail Waggin' Tutors"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    This report discusses the benefits of canine-assisted reading through the "Tail Waggin' Tutors" program at the Glen Burnie Regional Library in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Presented are the two different types of therapy dog interactions, Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) and Animal-Assisted Activities (AAA). The first canine-assisted…

  11. How To Tutor Students with Reading Comprehension Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Denton, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    Suggestions for tutoring students with reading comprehension problems include careful selection of books with readable text segments, use of comprehension strategies such as paraphrasing brief sections, and reading to find specific information. Several reading comprehension strategies for students are summarized. (Contains 7 references.) (DB)

  12. What makes a successful volunteer Expert Patients Programme tutor? Factors predicting satisfaction, productivity and intention to continue tutoring of a new public health workforce in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Wendy; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Bower, Peter; Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne; Reeves, David

    2009-04-01

    Better management of chronic conditions is a challenge for public health policy. The Expert Patients Programme was introduced into the United Kingdom to improve self-care in people with long-term conditions. To deliver self-care courses, the programme relies on the recruitment and continued commitment to delivering the courses of volunteer lay tutors who have long-term conditions. Ensuring the tutor workforce is productive, satisfied in their role and retained long-term is central to the viability of the programme. This exploratory study aimed to determine what factors predict productivity, intention to continue tutoring, and satisfaction in a sample of volunteer tutors from the Expert Patients Programme. A cross-sectional survey of 895 tutors was carried out and 518 (58%) responded. The questionnaire was designed to describe the characteristics, productivity, intention to continue tutoring, and satisfaction of tutors. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the determinants of productivity, intention to continue tutoring, and satisfaction, such as patient demographics, attitudes, physical and mental health, mastery and self-esteem. Attitudes relating to personal goals, and better health were significant predictors of satisfaction with the tutor role. Only a small proportion of the variance in productivity was accounted for, and tutors were more likely to be productive when they were single, homeowners, car owners, and had lower scores on the depression scale. Overall satisfaction and personal goals were predictors of intention to continue tutoring. Demographic factors, health measures and attitudes each predicted different aspects of the experience of work conducted by the volunteer tutors. The results should prove useful for planning interventions to enhance the success of this new workforce initiative. Attempts to increase participation in courses by people from deprived backgrounds are likely to be enhanced if tutors come from similar

  13. SISTEMAS TUTORES INTELIGENTES COMO APOYO EN EL PROCESO DE APRENDIZAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eduardo Millan Rojas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es la identificación de las principales características de los tutores inteligentes, su origen y evolución los cuales pueden ofrecer elementos para la formulación de nuevos proyectos de investigación relacionados con la educación y el uso de los tutores. El método utilizado es el descriptivo y sistémico, los cuales permiten recopilar los datos necesarios, la información presentada ha sido adquirida de bases de datos especializadas como IEEE, Redalyc, ACM y Science Direct, además de artículos de revistas de universidades internacionales y de proyectos de investigación descargados de Google Académico. Los Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes surgieron al combinar técnicas de inteligencia artificial (IA con los métodos clásicos de enseñanza. Estos son sistemas de software que generan un ambiente idóneo para la interacción y satisfacción de las necesidades del estudiante, adaptable a los conocimientos previos y a la capacidad de evolución de cada alumno respecto a un área del conocimiento. El funcionamiento de los STI se basa en la relación entre tres principales módulos (tutor, estudiante y dominio, para presentar al usuario la información de manera estructurada. La investigación llevada a cabo permitió reunir los aspectos más relevantes de los Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes (STI y presentarlos como una herramienta óptima para llevar a cabo un proceso de aprendizaje.

  14. Exploring the Relationships between Tutor Background, Tutor Training, and Student Learning: A Problem-Based Learning Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Heather; Walker, Andrew; Shelton, Brett E.; Fitt, M. Harrison

    2013-01-01

    Despite years of primary research on problem-based learning and literature reviews, no systematic effort has been made to analyze the relationship between tutor characteristics and student learning outcomes. In an effort to fill that gap the following meta-analysis coded 223 outcomes from 94 studies with small but positive gains for PBL students…

  15. Modifying the 'Positive Parenting Program' for parents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazemakers, I; Deboutte, D

    2013-07-01

    Many parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) want and/or need professional guidance and support to learn skills and strategies to prevent and manage child behaviour problems. However, the available support is rarely suitable, and suitable support is rarely available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a popular mainstream parenting training programme, known as 'Group Triple P' (Positive Parenting Program), could be successfully modified for this parent group. A pilot study was undertaken to determine whether a modified version of Group Triple P would engage and retain parents with ID. A non-experimental, pre-test post-test study, involving a total of 30 parents with ID, was then undertaken to obtain preliminary efficacy data. Parent engagement and participation levels were high. No parent 'dropped out' of the programme. After completing the modified Group Triple P programme, parents reported a decrease in psychological distress, maladaptive parenting and child conduct problems. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the information and support they received. Research-informed adaptation of mainstream behavioural family interventions, such as Group Triple P, could make 'suitable support' more readily available, and more engaging for parents with ID. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  16. Who Is the Preferred Tutor in Clinical Skills Training: Physicians, Nurses, or Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abay, Ece Şükriye; Turan, Sevgi; Odabaşı, Orhan; Elçin, Melih

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Clinical skills centers allow structured training of undergraduate medical students for the acquisition of clinical skills in a simulated environment. Physician, nurse, or peer tutors are employed for training in those centers. All tutors should have appropriate training about the methodology used in the clinical skills training. Many of the studies revealed the effectiveness of various types of tutors. The aim of our study was to evaluate medical students' satisfaction with clinical skills training, and their opinions about the differences in coaching skills among the physician, nurse, and peer tutors. This study was conducted with third-year students (467 students) in 2013-2014 academic year at Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine. Participation rate was 85 % (397 students). The students attended the suturing skill training in groups of 40 students. First, a faculty member from the Department of Medical Education delivered a video demonstration and conducted discussion. After the demonstration, the students were divided into groups of 5-6 students. A physician, nurse, or a peer tutor facilitated each group. The students were asked to complete the Coaching Skills Evaluation Form after the practicum session. It contained 13 criteria for assessing the coaching skills. Additionally, the form included a question for rating the student's satisfaction with the tutor. The performance of the tutors at each step was rated on a three-point scale. Kruskal Wallis analysis was used to compare students' scores for their tutors. The students' satisfaction with tutors was high for all of the tutors. However, there was no difference between students' scores in suturing skill, and between physician, nurse, and peer tutors' coaching skills. Insights: In this study, we revealed that physician, nurse, and peer tutors were equally effective on the students' performances. They were also regarded as effective in their teaching role by students. But the most important

  17. The Effects of the Peer Tutoring Program: An Action Research Study of the Effectiveness of the Peer Tutoring Program at One Suburban Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The results of a study that examined the peer tutoring program at a middle school are discussed in this article. In an effort to determine ways to improve the peer tutoring program an action research (AR) mixed design study was developed. AR is practitioner based research. Its purpose is to examine the work of practitioners for effectiveness and…

  18. Note-Taking within MetaTutor: Interactions between an Intelligent Tutoring System and Prior Knowledge on Note-Taking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory; Duffy, Melissa; Azevedo, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Hypermedia learning environments (HLE) unevenly present new challenges and opportunities to learning processes and outcomes depending on learner characteristics and instructional supports. In this experimental study, we examined how one such HLE--MetaTutor, an intelligent, multi-agent tutoring system designed to scaffold cognitive and…

  19. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    Our mobile phone is with us at all times. Habitually, we pick it up in the morning and carry it around on our daily routes and routines. Increasingly, we use it to locate ourselves and the things and people around us. With ubiquitous computing, technology is moving into the very fabric of our....... First, situationally appropriate forms of engagement that align well with citizens’ own conceptions are necessary in order to provide relevance and meaning of issues in the moment. Second, situated engagement requires a technological setup which facilitates the co-location of people, place...... with sophisticated prototypes in the wild. It proposes walkshops as a technique for collaborative exploration within actual outdoor environments and the use of field trials as part of an iterative design process in order to look ahead toward use practices that are still in the making....

  20. Effects of participation in a cross year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills on volunteer tutors' skills and attitudes towards teachers and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Javier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of students' teaching skills is increasingly recognised as an important component of UK undergraduate medical curricula and, in consequence, there is renewed interest in the potential benefits of cross-year peer tutoring. Whilst several studies have described the use of cross-year peer tutoring in undergraduate medical courses, its use in the clinical setting is less well reported, particularly the effects of peer tutoring on volunteer tutors' views of teachers and teaching. This study explored the effects of participation in a cross-year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills ('OSCE tutor' on volunteer tutors' own skills and on their attitudes towards teachers and teaching. Methods Volunteer tutors were final year MBChB students who took part in the programme as part of a Student Selected Component (SSC. Tutees were year 3 MBChB students preparing for their end of year 'OSCE' examination. Pre and post participation questionnaires, including both Likert-type and open response questions, were used. Paired data was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. All tests were two-tailed with 5% significance level. Results Tutors reflected their cohort in terms of gender but were drawn from among the more academically successful final year students. Most had previous teaching experience. They were influenced to participate in 'OSCE tutor' by a desire to improve their own teaching and associated generic skills and by contextual factors relating to the organisation or previous experience of the OSCE tutor programme. Issues relating to longer term career aspirations were less important. After the event, tutors felt that participation had enhanced their skills in various areas, including practical teaching skills, confidence in speaking to groups and communication skills; and that as a result of taking part, they were now more likely to undertake further teacher training and to make teaching a major part

  1. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sé Alexandre B.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous article we described the relevance of student seminars for the learning process of appliedbiochemistry for medical and nutrition students (Hermes-Lima et al., Biochem. Mol.Biol.Educ. 30:30-34,2002. First semester students of a basic biochemistry course (BioBio are divided in 10 groupsof 5 members, and each group is assigned to a specic topic (diabetes, cholesterol, etc under thesupervision of a tutor-student. The tutors have already coursed BioBio and are currently undertakingan advanced biochemistry course. In order to evaluate the learning of applied biochemistry for BioBiostudents a true or false exam (TFE is performed. This exam is made of 50 questions (5 on eachtopic elaborated by the tutors under the supervision of the teacher. The TFE corresponds to 10percent of the grade of BioBio and focus on clinical and/or applied biochemistry situations. At theend of the exam, BioBio students were asked to share their opinions about TFEs (n = 401, from2001/1 to 2003/2. When asked to give a 0-to-4 score regarding (a the diculty level of the test,(b the technical quality and (c if the exam makes an appropriate evaluation of applied biochemistryknowledge, the scores were 2.9, 3.4 and 2.9, respectively. BioBio students were also asked if they ndvalid to be evaluated by a tutor-made exam and if they would like to participate in the making ofTFEs; 96 and 58 percent answered yes, respectively.In another survey, we interviewed former BioBio students from the 2nd to the 7th semesters (n=95about TFEs (since 1999-1 regarding technical aspects, which included (1 clarity of questions, (2 levelof diculty, (3 clinical application and (4 thinking (as opposed to memorizing abilities demanded;the 0-to-4 scores were 3.1, 2.9, 2.6, and 2.5, respectively. Other four questions were on the validityof tutors writing TFEs and their capacity to perform such a task; the average score was 3.2. Oursurveys show the students good acceptance of the seminar system

  2. The Learning Tutor: A Web based Authoring System to Support Distance Tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abou Khaled

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In distance learning contexts, such as those are being widely promoted and developed with the extensive use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology some important issues have to be carefully addressed, in order to make education more effective and available. Distant students have to face sound organizational problems concerning the working time-management and the regulation of all the learning process. These are far more complex at a distance because of the difficulties to understand and objectively evaluate how the study is progressing in term of knowledge and competence acquisition, both for the students themselves and for the teacher who is supposed to adjust the teaching process in case of need. Moreover, the absence of clear indication for the student of the relative level of importance of each piece of information available comes to be another key issue in distance education. This paper describes a Web-based authoring system, the Learning Tutor, conceived to cover these issues. The environment is composed by several interconnected authoring systems: “The Course Description, the Guiding Thread and the Agenda”, “The Work Plan and Themes Reviewer”, and “The Quizzes self-evaluation facility”. This model of combined tools aims at providing the suitable support for organization, work and time management in distance learning processes using well documented mastery learning principles.

  3. Undergraduate technical skills training guided by student tutors – Analysis of tutors' attitudes, tutees' acceptance and learning progress in an innovative teaching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Peter; Schrauth, Markus; Kraus, Bernd; Habermehl, Daniel; Netzhammer, Nicolai; Zipfel, Stephan; Jünger, Jana; Riessen, Reimer; Nikendei, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Background Skills labs provide a sheltered learning environment. As close supervision and individual feedback were proven to be important in ensuring effective skills training, we implemented a cross-year peer tutor system in our skills lab of internal medicine that allowed intense training sessions with small learning groups (3–4 students) taught by one student tutor. Methods The expectations, experiences and criticisms of peer tutors regarding the tutor system for undergraduate skills lab training were investigated in the context of a focus group. In addition, tutees' acceptance of this learning model and of their student tutors was evaluated by means of a pre/post web-based survey. Results 14 voluntary senior students were intensely prepared by consultants for their peer tutor activity. 127 students participated in the project, 66.9% of which responded to the web-based survey (23 topics with help of 6-point Likert scale + free comments). Acceptance was very high (5.69 ± 0.07, mean ± SEM), and self-confidence ratings increased significantly after the intervention for each of the trained skills (average 1.96 ± 0.08, all p skills training to be provided by faculty staff only. Focus group analyses with tutors revealed 18 different topics, including profit in personal knowledge and personal satisfaction through teaching activities. The ratio of 1:4 tutor/tutees was regarded to be very beneficial for effective feedback, and the personalized online evaluation by tutees to be a strong motivator and helpful for further improvements. The tutors ascribed great importance to the continuous availability of a contact doctor in case of uncertainties. Conclusion This study demonstrates that peer teaching in undergraduate technical clinical skills training is feasible and widely accepted among tutees, provided that the tutors receive sufficient training and supervision. PMID:18400106

  4. The Effect of Tutoring With Nonstandard Equations for Students With Mathematics Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R; Driver, Melissa K; Julian, Tyler E

    2015-01-01

    Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation solving and equal-sign understanding of students with mathematics difficulty (MD). In the present study, second-grade students with MD (n = 51) were randomly assigned to standard equations tutoring, combined tutoring (standard and nonstandard equations), and no-tutoring control. Combined tutoring students demonstrated greater gains on equation-solving assessments and equal-sign tasks compared to the other two conditions. Standard tutoring students demonstrated improved skill on equation solving over control students, but combined tutoring students' performance gains were significantly larger. Results indicate that exposure to and practice with nonstandard equations positively influence student understanding of the equal sign. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  5. Experience Corps Baltimore: Exploring the Stressors and Rewards of High-intensity Civic Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Carlson, Michelle C; Parisi, Jeanine M; Tanner, Elizabeth K; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P; Song, Linda H; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2015-12-01

    Experience Corps (EC) represents a high-intensity, intergenerational civic engagement activity where older adults serve as mentors and tutors in elementary schools. Although high-intensity volunteer opportunities are designed to enhance the health and well being of older adult volunteers, little is known about the negative and positive aspects of volunteering unique to intergenerational programs from the volunteer's perspective. Stressors and rewards associated with volunteering in EC were explored in 8 focus group discussions with 46 volunteers from EC Baltimore. Transcripts were coded for frequently expressed themes. Participants reported stressors and rewards within 5 key domains: intergenerational (children's problem behavior, working with and helping children, observing/facilitating improvement or transformation in a child, and developing a special connection with a child); external to EC (poor parenting and children's social stressors); interpersonal (challenges in working with teachers and bonding/making social connections); personal (enjoyment, self-enhancement/achievement, and being/feeling more active); and structural (satisfaction with the structural elements of the EC program). Volunteers experienced unique intergenerational stressors related to children's problem behavior and societal factors external to the EC program. Overall, intergenerational, interpersonal, and personal rewards from volunteering, as well as program structure may have balanced the stress associated with volunteering. A better understanding of stressors and rewards from high-intensity volunteer programs may enhance our understanding of how intergenerational civic engagement volunteering affects well being in later life and may inform project modifications to maximize such benefits for future volunteers and those they serve. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  6. Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud/Virtual Open Campus Quick Start Guide (Revision 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    ARL-CR-0816 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud/Virtual Open...to the originator. ARL-CR-0816 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT...January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud/Virtual Open Campus Quick-Start Guide (Revision 1

  7. Fundamentals of Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    ARL-SR-0318 ● MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Fundamentals of Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated...Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated Learning by Robert A Sottilare Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fundamentals of Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated Learning 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective by Robert A Sottilare, Keith W...Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective Robert A Sottilare and Keith W Brawner Human Research and Engineering...SUBTITLE An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  9. Reflexiones sobre la tutoría como función del profesor universitario

    OpenAIRE

    López Lucas, María del Carmen

    2002-01-01

    En el artículo se reflexiona sobre la tutoría, los motivos, los ámbitos de aplicación, cómo hacer una tutoría personalizada y cómo la entrevista en la tutoría individual, y por último, se reflexiona sobre el momento más adecuado para realizarse.

  10. Predicting Parental Mediation Behaviors: The Direct and Indirect Influence of Parents' Critical Thinking about Media and Attitudes about Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Eric C.; White, Shawna R.; King, Andy J.; Holiday, Steven; Densley, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Many parents fail to interact with their children regularly about media content and past research has identified few predictors of parents' engagement in parental mediation behaviors. This correlational study explored the relationship between parents' critical thinking about media and parents' provision of both active and restrictive mediation of…

  11. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES IN INTELLIGENT TUTORS FOR COMMUNICATION SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN CUCU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Tutoring Systems have been successfully used to simulate human tutoring in various fields such as mathematics, physics or computer programming. The current paper discusses some of the particularities of designing such systems for the education of communication skills, specifically in a business setting (customer relations, employee communications etc. Since communication is an ill-defined domain (i.e. does not provide a systematic method to obtain a solution, various challenges arise. One of these challenges is the design of educational objectives – the module built on top of the system that would check the users' actions against predefined patterns and would provide the users with feed-back accordingly.

  12. A Visualization-Based Tutoring Tool for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tang-Hung; Khoo, I.-Hung

    2010-06-01

    In engineering disciplines, students usually have hard time to visualize different aspects of engineering analysis and design, which inherently are too complex or abstract to fully understand without the aid of visual explanations or visualizations. As examples, when learning materials and sequences of construction process, students need to visualize how all components of a constructed facility are assembled? Such visualization can not be achieved in a textbook and a traditional lecturing environment. In this paper, the authors present the development of a computer tutoring software, in which different visualization tools including video clips, 3 dimensional models, drawings, pictures/photos together with complementary texts are used to assist students in deeply understanding and effectively mastering materials. The paper will also discuss the implementation and the effectiveness evaluation of the proposed tutoring software, which was used to teach a construction engineering management course offered at California State University, Long Beach.

  13. Mining Social and Affective Data for Recommendation of Student Tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Boff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a learning environment where a mining algorithm is used to learn patterns of interaction with the user and to represent these patterns in a scheme called item descriptors. The learning environment keeps theoretical information about subjects, as well as tools and exercises where the student can put into practice the knowledge gained. One of the main purposes of the project is to stimulate collaborative learning through the interaction of students with different levels of knowledge. The students' actions, as well as their interactions, are monitored by the system and used to find patterns that can guide the search for students that may play the role of a tutor. Such patterns are found with a particular learning algorithm and represented in item descriptors. The paper presents the educational environment, the representation mechanism and learning algorithm used to mine social-affective data in order to create a recommendation model of tutors.

  14. Sistema inteligente para evaluación de programas tutores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Daicy Alvarado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El mecanismo evaluador que se presenta a continuación forma parte de un proyecto que busca el desarrollo de un Sistema de enseñanza asistida por ordenador (EAO basado en tutores inteligentes. Se pretende que este mecanismo, basado en herramientas de «aprendizaje automático», tenga la capacidad para capturar una «imagen» que indique el grado de comprensión de la materia por parte del alumno e identifique los aspectos en los que el estudiante tiene dificultades. Con esa información se retroalimentará a un sistema tutor de manera que este último tome una decisión acerca de la estrategia educativa por seguir.

  15. E-learning environment as intelligent tutoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagyová, Ingrid

    2017-07-01

    The development of computers and artificial intelligence theory allow their application in the field of education. Intelligent tutoring systems reflect student learning styles and adapt the curriculum according to their individual needs. The building of intelligent tutoring systems requires not only the creation of suitable software, but especially the search and application of the rules enabling ICT to individually adapt the curriculum. The main idea of this paper is to attempt to specify the rules for dividing the students to systematically working students and more practically or pragmatically inclined students. The paper shows that monitoring the work of students in e-learning environment, analysis of various approaches to educational materials and correspondence assignments show different results for the defined groups of students.

  16. Engaging Siblingships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Palludan, Charlotte; Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by sociological and anthropological family studies, our point of departure is that there is neither a given nor an unequivocal prototype of sibling relationships. On the basis of qualitative interviews, dialogues and filmed observations of everyday life, we investigate how children...... and young people in contemporary Denmark engage emotionally in sibling relationships. It emerges that siblingships inevitably involve frictions in various forms. In the article, we analyse the impact frictions have on social relations and discuss how such dynamics in sibling relationships both reflect...

  17. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning Android Applications UI Development

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rekhawi , Hazem Awni; Abu Naser , Samy S

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The paper describes the design of a web based intelligent tutoring system for teaching Android Applications Development to students to overcome the difficulties they face. The basic idea of this system is a systematic introduction into the concept of Android Application Development. The system presents the topic of Android Application Development and administers automatically generated problems for the students to solve. The system is automatically adapted at run time ...

  18. Modelo de Comportamiento Afectivo para Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Pérez, María Y.

    2008-01-01

    Las emociones se han reconocido como parte fundamental de la motivación, y la motivación como un componente indispensable en el aprendizaje. En este documento se propone un modelo de comportamiento afectivo para sistemas tutores inteligentes. Dicho modelo combina el estado afectivo y pedagógico de los estudiantes para establecer las acciones tutoriales. En el contexto de este trabajo, el comportamiento afectivo tiene dos funciones principales: 1) inferir el estado afectivo del estudiante; y 2...

  19. USE OF ONTOLOGIES FOR KNOWLEDGE BASES CREATION TUTORING COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Cheremisina Lyubov

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of ontology for the use and development of intelligent tutoring systems. We consider the shortcomings of educational software and distance learning systems and the advantages of using ontology’s in their design. Actuality creates educational computer systems based on systematic knowledge. We consider classification of properties, use and benefits of ontology’s. Characterized approaches to the problem of ontology mapping, the first of which – manual mapping, the s...

  20. Robots show us how to teach them: feedback from robots shapes tutoring behavior during action learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Wrede, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction.

  1. Increased Fos expression among midbrain dopaminergic cell groups during birdsong tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeen, E J; Holtzman, D A; Nordeen, K W

    2009-08-01

    During avian vocal learning, birds memorize conspecific song patterns and then use auditory feedback to match their vocal output to this acquired template. Some models of song learning posit that during tutoring, conspecific visual, social and/or auditory cues activate neuromodulatory systems that encourage acquisition of the tutor's song and attach incentive value to that specific acoustic pattern. This hypothesis predicts that stimuli experienced during social tutoring activate cell populations capable of signaling reward. Using immunocytochemistry for the protein product of the immediate early gene c-Fos, we found that brief exposure of juvenile male zebra finches to a live familiar male tutor increased the density of Fos+ cells within two brain regions implicated in reward processing: the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). This activation of Fos appears to involve both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic VTA/SNc neurons. Intriguingly, a familiar tutor was more effective than a novel tutor in stimulating Fos expression within these regions. In the periaqueductal gray, a dopamine-enriched cell population that has been implicated in emotional processing, Fos labeling also was increased after tutoring, with a familiar tutor again being more effective than a novel conspecific. As several neural regions implicated in song acquisition receive strong dopaminergic projections from these midbrain nuclei, their activation in conjunction with hearing the tutor's song could help to establish sensory representations that later guide motor sequence learning.

  2. Effective e-learning for health professional and medical students: the experience with SIAS-Intelligent Tutoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diana C; Ortiz, Alexandra; González, Carolina; López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Current e-learning systems are still inadequate to support the level of interaction, personalization and engagement demanded by clinicians, care givers, and the patient themselves. For effective e-learning to be delivered in the health context, collaboration between pedagogy and technology is required. Furthermore, e-learning systems should be flexible enough to be adapted to the students' needs, evaluated regularly, easy to use and maintain and provide students' feedback, guidelines and supporting material in different formats. This paper presents the implementation of an Intelligent Tutoring System (SIAS-ITS), and its evaluation compared to a traditional virtual learning platform (Moodle). The evaluation was carried out as a case study, in which the participants were separated in two groups, each group attending a virtual course on the WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy supported by one of the two e-learning platforms. The evaluation demonstrated that the participants' knowledge level, pedagogical strategies used, learning efficiency and systems' usability were improved using the Intelligent Tutoring System.

  3. O feedback e sua importância no processo de tutoria a distância Feedback and its importance to the distance education tutoring process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Martins de Abreu-e-Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o crescimento da Educação a Distância no contexto brasileiro; o ingresso de um novo profissional da educação - o tutor - na equipe pedagógica; e a importância de sua interação com os alunos, este artigo tem como objetivos revisar algumas definições de feedback encontradas na literatura, descrever os modelos de feedback adotados nos cursos de EaD ministrados em uma universidade federal brasileira, apresentar as orientações dadas nos cursos de formação de tutores realizados pela instituição e discutir o papel da linguagem nos processos de feedback. De acordo com a discussão feita, são apontadas as principais diretrizes para a utilização de feedback em ambientes virtuais.Taking into consideration the growth of Distance Education field in the Brazilian educational context, the new roles of teaching such as the tutor in the teaching team, this paper aims to review some definitions of feedback found in current literature as well as to point out the models of feedback adopted at Distance Education programs offered by a Brazilian Federal University. It also aims to present the guidelines given to online tutors engaged in the courses offered by these institutional programs and to discuss the role of language in the feedback process. According with the present discussion, some guidelines to the use of feedback in online environment are given.

  4. An intelligent tutoring system for teaching fundamental physics concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albacete, Patricia Lucia

    1999-12-01

    Students in traditional elementary mechanics classes can master problem solving of a quantitative nature but not those of a qualitative type. Moreover, students' naive conceptions of physics remain unchanged after completing their class. A few approaches have been implemented to improve this situation however none have met with great success. Since elementary mechanics is the foundation for all of physics and it is a required course for most science majors there is a clear need to improve the instruction of the subject. To address this problem I developed a intelligent tutoring system, called the Conceptual Helper, which coaches students during homework problem solving. The tutor uses a unique cognitive based approach to teaching physics, which presents innovations in three areas. (1) The teaching strategy, which focuses on teaching those links among the concepts of the domain that are essential for conceptual understanding yet are seldom learned by the students. (2) The manner in which the knowledge is taught, which is based on a combination of effective human tutoring techniques (e.g., hinting), effective pedagogical methods (e.g., a microscopic view of matter), and less cognitively demanding approaches (e.g., anthropomorphism). (3) The way in which misconceptions are handled which uses the underlying scientific correct line of reasoning to describe to the student the phenomenon that is the basis for the misconception. From a technological point of view the Conceptual Helper was implemented as a model-tracing tutor which intervenes when students make errors and after completion of each problem, at which time the tutor scaffolds the students on post-problem reflection. The remediation is guided by probabilistic assessment of mastery and the interventions are adapted to the errors. The thesis also presents the results of the evaluation of the system which revealed that the gain scores of the experimental group were statistically significantly higher than those of

  5. Learning a Musical Instrument: The Case for Parental Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this research were to identify the ways in which parents may most constructively support their children's musical development, and to ascertain whether styles of parent-teacher and parent-pupil interaction would influence the extent to which parents engage in different types of supportive behaviours. A model of parent involvement as…

  6. Mixed-method tutoring support improves learning outcomes of veterinary students in basic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, María J; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Díez-Laiz, Raquel; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana M

    2018-02-01

    Tutoring is a useful tool in the university teaching-learning binomial, although its development is impaired in large classes. Recent improvements in information and communication technologies have made tutoring possible via the Internet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mixed-method academic tutoring in two basic subjects in Veterinary Science studies at the University of León (Spain) to optimize the usefulness of tutoring support in the college environment. This quasi-experimental study was firstly carried out as a pilot study in a small group of tutored students of "Cytology and Histology" (CH) (47/186; 25.3%) and "Veterinary Pharmacology" (VP) (33/141; 23.4%) subjects, and was implemented in a large class of CH the next academic year (150 students) while comparing the results with those obtained in a previous tutorless course (162 students). Tutored students were given access to online questionnaires with electronic feedback on each subject. In addition to traditional tutoring carried out in both tutored and tutorless students, the pilot study included three sessions of face-to-face tutoring in order to monitor the progress of students. Its efficacy was assessed by monitoring students' examination scores and attendance as well as a satisfaction survey. Although the examination attendance rate in the pilot study was not significantly different between tutored and tutorless groups in both subjects, an increase for numerical scores in tutored groups was observed, with a significant higher final score in VP (p = 0.001) and in the CH practice exams (first term, p = 0.009; final, p = 0.023). Good and merit scores were also better in tutored students with significant differences in VP (p = 0.005). Students felt comfortable with the tutoring service (100% in CH; 91.7% in VP). Implementation of this additional support in CH also resulted in a significant increase of attendance at the final exam in tutored courses (87.3% versus 77

  7. 25 CFR 36.90 - What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and health care services must homeliving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and... What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and health care services must homeliving programs provide? All homeliving programs must provide for appropriate student safety, academic tutoring...

  8. How Does Private Tutoring Mediate the Effects of Socio-Economic Status on Mathematics Performance? Evidence from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalmis, Erkan Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Saatcioglu, Argun

    2016-01-01

    Private tutoring refers to additional instruction out of school. With its determinants and effects, private tutoring has received increasing attention from scholars over the past decades. Because of the increasing role of school and high-stakes exams, the demand for private tutoring has increased tremendously in Turkey. The purpose of this study…

  9. The Effects and Characteristics of Family Involvement on a Peer Tutoring Programme to Improve the Reading Comprehension Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Silvia; Duran, David; Valdebenito, Vanessa; Flores, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of an educational programme involving peer tutoring at school and family tutoring at home on child reading comprehension achievement in Catalunya, Spain. We drew upon a sample of 303 primary school students from 8 to 11 years old and 223 family tutors from home (61.5% mothers, 15% fathers,…

  10. Challenges Experienced by Korean Medical Students and Tutors during Problem-Based Learning: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Tae-Lee, Jong

    2016-01-01

    How people learn is influenced by the cultural contexts in which their learning occurs. This qualitative case study explored challenges Korean medical students and tutors experienced during their PBL sessions from a cultural perspective using Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Twelve preclinical medical students and nine tutors from a large Korean…

  11. The Impact of a Peer-Tutoring Program on Quality Standards in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco-Tirado, Jose L.; Fernandez-Martin, Francisco D.; Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were, on one had, to determine the impact of a peer tutoring program on preventing academic failure and dropouts among first-year students (N = 100), from Civil Engineering, Economics, Pharmacy, and Chemical Engineering careers; while, on the other hand, to identify the potential benefits of such tutoring program on the…

  12. Effectiveness of Tutoring to Improve Academic Performance in Nursing Students at the University of Seville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador

    2017-01-01

    In response to the increase of Higher Education support provided to tutoring programs, this paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a tutoring program to improve the academic performance of at-risk students enrolled in the last year of a nursing degree characterized by academic failure (failed courses). A controlled…

  13. Time-Quality Tradeoff of Waiting Strategies for Tutors to Retrieve Relevant Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Yang, Che-Ching; Liang, Tyne

    2011-01-01

    As more and more undergraduate students act as voluntary tutors to rural pupils after school, there is a growing need for a supporting environment to facilitate adaptive instruction. Among others, a teaching method retrieval system is intended to help tutors find relevant teaching methods for teaching a particular concept. However, teaching…

  14. Applying Matched Sampling to Evaluate a University Tutoring Program for First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, Mark E.; Pleitz, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Our study used a case-control matching design to assess the influence of a voluntary tutoring program in improving first-year students' Grade Point Averages (GPA). To evaluate program effectiveness, we applied case-control matching to obtain 215 pairs of students with or without participation in tutoring, but matched on high school GPA and…

  15. Early Science Learning with a Virtual Tutor through Multimedia Explanations and Feedback on Spoken Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Jarkko; Baker, Doris Luft; Keurulainen, Aleksi; Ronimus, Miia; Richardson, Ulla; Cole, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study with a within-subject design was to gain a deeper understanding about the promise and restrictions of a virtual tutoring system designed to teach science to first grade students in Finland. Participants were 61 students who received six tutoring science sessions of approximately 20 min each. Sessions consisted of a…

  16. Mining Data from Interactions with a Motivational-Aware Tutoring System Using Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Du Boulay, Benedict; Luckin, Rosemary; Benitez-Guerrero, Edgard Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Tutoring systems are a common tool for delivering educational content and recent advances in this field include the detection of and reaction to learners' motivation. A data set derived from interactions in a tutoring system and its motivationally-aware variant provided opportunities to discover patterns of behavior in connection with motivational…

  17. Mapping Psychology Students' Perspective on Group Peer-Tutoring in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantinotti, Michael; Désormeaux-Moreau, Marjorie; Balbinotti, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Students in psychology generally have difficulties to successfully accomplish mandatory courses in statistics. Group peer-tutoring is a pedagogical strategy to support them with a peer that has already successfully mastered the content of such a course. In order to specifically tailor group peer-tutoring to the needs of students and to sustain…

  18. Possibilities and Limitations of the Application of Academic Tutoring in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Anna; Kowalczuk-Waledziak, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In the face of mass education, the need to seek individualized methods of students' teaching-learning is increasing. That causes academic tutoring to become more and more popular in higher education all over the world. The article presents the theoretical background of tutoring, the results of research in that regard and the benefits of its…

  19. The Impact of Peer Tutoring on Librarians in Training at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroma, Francisca N.

    2013-01-01

    Peer tutoring plays a very significant role in teaching and learning, its gain is not limited to positive academic performance but extends to social life development. This work seeks to identify the impact peer tutoring has on librarians in training at the University of Ibadan, including the motives and strategies of the participants, the benefits…

  20. It Takes a Village: An Indigenous Atayal After-School Tutoring Program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hui-Ju; Ho, Hsiu-Zu; Lam, Yeana W.

    2017-01-01

    The Boyo After-School Tutoring Program in Hsinchu County, Taiwan, is a unique training program developed by the Boyo Social Welfare Foundation. The primary focus of this nonprofit foundation, established in 2008, is providing tutoring and support to indigenous youths. The Boyo Foundation also serves to build the capacity of unemployed village…