WorldWideScience

Sample records for tuticorin tamil nadu

  1. Zooplankton along the Tamil Nadu coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Saraswathy, M.

    Zooplankton abundance along two sectors at Cape Comorin and Tuticorin of Tamil Nadu Coast, southeast coast of India was studied. High biomass contributed by Ostracods, Salps, Chaetognaths etc., were observed along Tuticorin transect. In the Cape...

  2. Aquifer characteristics and its modeling around an industrial complex, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India: A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N C Mondal; V S Singh; R Rangarajan

    2009-06-01

    Anthropogenic pollution of shallow groundwater resources due to industrial activities is becoming a cause of concern in the east coastal belt of the state of Tamil Nadu,India.Integrated hydrogeological,geophysical and tracer studies were carried out in the coastal region encompassing an industrial complex.The objective has been to gain knowledge of aquifer characteristics,ascertaining groundwater movement and its flow direction,which would in turn reveal the possibility of contamination of groundwater regime and its better management.The results of multi-parameters and model study indicate that the velocity of groundwater flow ranges from 0.013 m/d to 0.22 m/d in and around the industrial complex in upstream western part of the catchment and 0.026 m/d to 0.054 m/d in the downstream eastern part,near the coast.These parameters are vital for the development of groundwater management scheme.

  3. Ensuring daughter survival in Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Srinivasan (Sharada); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe south Indian state of Tamil Nadu is a relatively recent entrant to the list of Indian states exhibiting the phenomenon of "missing girls". A substantial proportion of these missing girls may be attributed to the differential survival of girls and boys in the 0-6 age group due to

  4. Ensuring daughter survival in Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Srinivasan (Sharada); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe south Indian state of Tamil Nadu is a relatively recent entrant to the list of Indian states exhibiting the phenomenon of "missing girls". A substantial proportion of these missing girls may be attributed to the differential survival of girls and boys in the 0-6 age group due to daug

  5. Modelling Social Mobility in Rural Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Djurfeldt, Göran; Athreya, Venkatesh B.; N.JAYAKUMAR; Lindberg, Staffan; Rajagopal, A; Vidyasagar, R.

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of social mobility over 25 years in six villages in the former Tiruchy District in Tamil Nadu. The two most important external drivers are local industrialization and social policy in a broad sense. Analyzing mobility matrices by means of regression techniques, it is shown that the overall effect is a centripetal tendency in agrarian structure, with tendencies towards a strengthened position for family farming and for both the topdogs and the underdogs in the old agrarian soci...

  6. Meningococcal meningitis C in Tamil Nadu, public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Kirubah Vasandhi; Pricilla, Ruby Angeline; Thomas, Beeson

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis has rarely been reported in Tamil Nadu. We report here two children diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, on May 2014. The causative strain was Neisseria meningitidis serotype C. The role of the primary care physician in early diagnosis, appropriate referral, and preventive measures of this disease to the immediate family and community is stressed.

  7. A first record of the Lined Wrasse Anampses lineatus Randall, 1972 (Perciformes: Labridae in the Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lined wrasse Anampses lineatus Randall was recorded off the coast of Tuticorin (Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India for the first time. It is easily distinguished by the presence of pale longitudinal lines on the body following scale rows. Broad pale white and black color patch at the base of caudal fin is distinct. Morphological description of A. lineatus is provided based on the present material along with detailed distribution records; habitat and closely related species were also discussed.

  8. Prevalence of multiple pollutants in selected Tamil Nadu coastal waters, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdul Muthalif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea water samples from five different coastal cities (Chennai S1, Cuddalore S2, Nagappattinam S3, Tuticorin S4 and Kanyakumari S5 in Tamil Nadu were collected during premonsoon 2015 for physiochemical, microbiological and trace metal studies. The high bacterial load in the study sites indicated that which received enormous waste materials from different sources like land materials, municipal discharges, agricultural and industrial discharges, and more visits. The higher pollution index (PI ratio (>1 were observed in all sampling sites which indicated the human fecal matters were responsible for sea water pollution. The statistical approach (correlation explained that the physiochemical and trace metal parameters are not supporting the microbial growth in large extend. Based on the report, this study was suggesting that throughout impoundment is needed to protect fresh water sources.

  9. Bureaucratic Activism and Radical School Change in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Activity Based Learning (ABL), a child-centered, activity-based method of pedagogical practice, transformed classrooms in all of the over 37,000 primary-level government schools in Tamil Nadu, India. The large scale, rapid pace, and radical nature of educational change sets the ABL initiative apart from most school reform efforts.…

  10. Occurrence of Bluetongue in ruminants in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Krishnamohan; Brindha, K; Ganesan, P I; Srinivas, K; Reddy, G S; Minakshi, P

    2016-09-30

    Tamil Nadu is located in the South-Eastern part of Indian peninsula, between 8.087° and 13.09°N and 76.50° and 80.27°E. Bluetongue (BT) was first reported in this region in sheep during 1982 with regular occurrence thereafter. In 1989-1990, 1997-1998 and 2005-2006, there was wide spread occurrence of BT resulting in huge mortality of sheep. The present study had the goal of isolating the BTV from outbreaks in sheep occurred in Tamil Naadu between 2003-2011 and comparing the VP2 gene sequences of the BTV isolates involved in such outbreaks. Serotypes 1, 2, 16, and 23 of the Bluetongue virus (BTV) have been isolated from sheep during BT outbreaks. BTV-16 has also been isolated in goats and cattle in the region; BTV-2 isolated in Tamil Nadu has homology with BTV-2 isolated in Africa; whereas the BTV-23 isolated in this area has homology with BTV-23 from South East Asia, indicating that both Eastern and Western topotypes of BTV are circulating in ruminant population in Tamil Nadu.

  11. Inbreeding among some Brahman populations of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S; Mukherjee, D P

    1976-01-01

    A statewide survey of four endogamous Brahman populations of Tamil Nadu reveals a low level of inbreeding in three of them. In the fourth population, the Thengalai, the level is higher, but not as high as in other social castes. The Tamil Brahmans rank next to the Telugu and the Kanarese Brahmans in this respect. Uncle-niece marriages also occur as in Telugu-speaking populations, and these exceed in the two Ayyangar populations in comparison to the Ayyar. A decline of first-cousin marriages and an increase of uncle-niece marriages are detected in the first two living generations in each population.

  12. An Ethnographic Account of Sudalai Cult, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon John

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Worshipping of Demon plays a significant role in the folk religious practices of Tamil Nadu, South India. Sudalai – a male folk deity is considered as a chief of all evil spirits by the people in that region and hundreds of temples for Sudalai exist in the southern region of Tamil Nadu. Several rituals, beliefs, customs, oral narratives etc are associated with this religious practice and an annual worshipping festival is celebrated in order to appease the malevolent deity. This descriptive paper is an attempt to document the living folk tradition associated with Sudalai through fieldwork in the natural context in order to understand how oral myths form the rituals and in what way myths are ritualized

  13. Hydrogeochemical studies of groundwater in Salem District, Tamil Nadu (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, G; Elangovan, K

    2010-01-01

    Salem is one of the industrial, agricultural and mineral deposit based district in Tamil Nadu. In this paper, an attempt is made to assess the quality of groundwater in this district, during the month of May 2007 (pre-monsoon). The government of Tamil Nadu has divided the district into twenty blocks. Sixty six samples were collected covering all the blocks of the district except Yercaud which is a structural hill. The collected samples were tested for the following parameters: electrical conductivity, turbidity, pH, total hardness, iron, chlorides, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite and total alkalinity. The test results were interpreted using IS 10500-1991, statistical methods, SAR, USSL classification and Piper's trilinear diagram. Based on the interpretation it is concluded that the study area is mostly influenced by the presence of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, chloride and total alkalinity whereas the other minerals and salts play a minor role.

  14. Economic Programmes and Poverty Reduction: NGO Experiences from Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekhar, D.; P Shobana

    2000-01-01

    The impact of economic programmes of SHARE, an NGO from Tamil Nadu, on poverty reduction is analysed with the help of data from 84 hosueholds. The economic programmes contributed to savings and income increase, and enhanced the leadership qualities, awareness and knowledge. The member group is not significantly different from the comparison group in terms of control over income and decision-making. This suggests that the NGO economic programmes have limitation is bringing about non-economic b...

  15. Agrarian Change and Social Mobility in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Djurfeldt, Göran; Athreya, Venkatesh B.; N.JAYAKUMAR; Lindberg, Staffan; Vidyasagar, R.; Rajagopal, A

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of social mobility over 25 years in six villages in the former Tiruchy District in Tamil Nadu. The two most important external drivers are local industrialization and social policy in a broad sense. In a mainly descriptive analysis, it is shown that the overall effect seems to be a centripetal tendency in agrarian structure, with tendencies towards a strengthened position for family farming and for both the topdogs and the underdogs in the old agrarian society to leave agricul...

  16. Contraceptive practices among adolescent married women in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotishikha Nanda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the contraceptive practices among adolescent married women of Tamil Nadu state, India. Methods: We used the data of District Level Household Survey-Reproductive Child Health (DLHS-RCH, Round-II which was conducted in two phases (phase-I during 2002-2003 and phase-II during 2003–2004 in Tamil Nadu. The data consist of 25 522 ever-married women. Results: About 92 percent of the subjects are not currently using any of the contraceptive methods. In terms of social characteristics of married women, who were currently using or not using any one of the family planning methods, caste is found to be highly significant (P<0.000. In economic characteristics per cent of using contraception is considerably higher in the women with medium standard of living. Difference between number of children ever born, gravida and using of contraception methods is highly significant (P<0.000. Conclusions: Study is indicative of implementation of new programme, which may increase awareness about family planning programme in Tamil Nadu state.

  17. Threatened coastal monuments at Tranquebar, Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; ManiMurali, R.; Jayakumar, S.

    ”, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. Pillai, R. S., (1989), Cilappatikaram, Tamil University, Thanjavur.150 pp Qasim, S.Z., (1999), The India Ocean: Images & Realities, Oxford IBH, New Delhi, 340 pp. Ramiyan M, Krishna Prasad E and Suresh P K...

  18. Additions to the flora of nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburaj, D S; Nain, S S; Rajan, S

    1991-07-01

    Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by previous collectors. In addition a number of exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine like Homoeopathy and Unani have not been collected and preserved as herbarium records. The present paper lists 36 species of wild plants and 69 species of exotics. Their areas of occurrence, phonological data, accession numbers, and names of collectors have been given.

  19. Metamorphism of the Oddanchatram anorthosite, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Janardhan, A. S.

    1988-01-01

    The Oddanchatram anorthosite is located in the Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, near the town of Palni. It is emplaced into a granulite facies terrain commonly presumed to have undergone its last regional metamorphism in the late Archean about 2600 m.y. The surrounding country rock consists of basic granulites, charnockites and metasedimentary rocks including quartzites, pelites and calc-silicates. The anorthosite is clearly intrusive into the country rock and contains many large inclusions of previously deformed basic granulite and quartzite within 100 meters of its contact. Both this intrusion and the nearby Kaduvar anorthosite show evidence of having been affected by later metamorphism and deformation.

  20. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil

    2016-01-01

    . Objective: The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India...... and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results: HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health...

  1. Assessing effect of climate on the incidence of dengue in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, S; Ramanathan, K; Manoharan, A; Mathai, D; Baruah, K

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of dengue is reported to be influenced by climatic factors. The objective of this study is to assess the association of local climate with dengue incidence, in two geographically distinct districts in Tamil Nadu. The study uses climate data, rainfall and mean maximum and minimum temperature to assess its association if any, with dengue incidence in two districts of Tamil Nadu, South India. According to this study while precipitation levels have an effect on dengue incidence in Tamil Nadu, non-climatic factors such as presence of breeding sites, vector control and surveillance are important issues that need to be addressed.

  2. Agri-technologies and travelling facts: case study of extension education in Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper is motivated by two broad questions: how is technology transferred from academia to non-academic domains, and how well do facts within these technologies travel? These questions are explored in the context of a particular extension education program in Tamil Nadu, south India. The paper explores the extent to which fertigation technologies (drip irrigation) and other farm and postharvest technologies travelled from the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University to the farming community in ...

  3. Attitudes and Health Behavior of Lawyers in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the differences in the behavior and attitudes of male and female lawyers regarding their lifestyles and health habits. Lawyers were randomly chosen. Data was obtained through a structured questionnaire distributed among the lawyers of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu. Lawyers are found to have unfavorable health practices related to use of tobacco and alcohol, exercise, diet, sleeping habits, and stress. This resulted in obesity, depression, and blood pressure. Many lawyers reported use of alcohol regularly, even as often as every day, and nearly half of them smoked. Many of the lawyers had poor feeding habit of skipping meals and eating snacks as breakfast. Most lawyers considered stressful situations to be unavoidable. Thus identifying individual lawyers with poor health behaviors and providing medical help are essential.

  4. Y chromosome STR allelic and haplotype diversity in five ethnic Tamil populations from Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Suhasini, G; Vijaya, M; Kanthimathi, S; Mullins, Nicole; Tracey, Martin; Duncan, George

    2010-09-01

    We have analyzed 17 Y chromosomal STR loci in a population sample of 154 unrelated male individuals of the Tamil ethnic group residing in the state of Tamil Nadu, Southern India using AmpFlSTR(R) Yfiler PCR amplification kit. The population samples consist of the following castes: Kongu Gounder (KOG), Nadar Hindu (NAH), Agamudayar (AGA), Parayar (PAR) and other Tamil individuals (MCT) of mixed castes. A total of 152 unique haplotypes were identified among the 154 individuals studied. The haplotype diversity was found to be 0.9935 or higher for all the five groups. The results of population pairwise Fst p values indicate no statistically significant differentiation between the five populations in this study, but the results were highly significant when compared with 12 other global populations (p<0.05). Comparison of populations in this study with other national and global populations using Principal co-ordinate analysis (PCA) using Rst distance matrix indicates a delineation of all the Indian populations from other unrelated populations.

  5. Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in Tamil Nadu, India, during 2005-2006: relationship of genotype D8 strains from Tamil Nadu to global strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, Raja; Rota, Paul A; Palani, Gunasekaran; Elango, Varalakshmi; Sambasivam, Mohana; Lowe, Luis; Lopareva, Elena; Ramamurty, Nalini

    2012-02-01

    Molecular characterization of measles viruses is a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measles control and elimination programmes. WHO recommends that virological surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control to document circulation of indigenous strains and trace future importation. This report describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Tamil Nadu, India isolated between January 2005 and January 2006. In the study, 304 suspected measles cases (292 from 56 outbreaks and 12 sporadic cases) were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and 11 suspected sporadic cases and tested for the presence of measles and rubella specific IgM. Based on serological results, 53 outbreaks were confirmed as measles, 2 as a combination of measles and rubella, and 1 negative for both. Eight sporadic cases were confirmed as measles and one as rubella. Throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and 28 isolates were obtained. Sequencing and analysis showed that 3 isolates belonged to genotype D4 and 25 to genotype D8. Comparison of the genotype D8 sequences from Tamil Nadu with previously reported genotype D8 sequences from India and abroad showed six distinct clusters with Tamil Nadu strains forming two clusters. This study has established baseline molecular data and is the first report that describes genetic diversity of circulating measles strains in Tamil Nadu, a state in India. D8 has multiple lineages and this has been linked with importation of measles into the USA and UK.

  6. Antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraipandiyan V; Ignacimuthu S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for each extract against human pathogenic fungi. Methods:A total of 45 medicinal plants were collected from different places of Tamil Nadu and identified. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants were assessed for antifungal susceptibility using broth microdilution method. Two known antifungal agents were used as positive controls. Results: Most of the extracts inhibited more than four fungal strains. From the evaluation we found that ethyl acetate extracts inhibited large number of fungal growth. Hexane extracts also nearly showed the same level of inhibition against fungal growth. Methanol extracts showed the minimum antifungal activity. Among the 45 plants tested, broad spectrum antifungal activity was detected in Albizzia procera (A. procera), Atalantia monophylla, Asclepias curassavica, Azima tetracantha, Cassia fistula (C. fistula), Cinnomomum verum, Costus speciosus (C. speciosus), Nymphaea stellata, Osbeckia chinensis, Piper argyrophyllum, Punica granatum, Tinospora cordifolia and Toddalia asiatica (T. asiatica). Promising antifungal activity was seen in A. procera, C. speciosus, C. fistula and T. asiatica. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the plant species assayed possess antifungal properties. Further phytochemical research is needed to identify the active principles responsible for the antifungal effects of some of these medicinal plants.

  7. Antibacterial activity of some actinomycetes from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pachaiyappan Saravana Kumar; John Poonga Preetam Raj; Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To isolate novel actinomycetes and to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methods:Three soil samples were collected from Vengodu (village) in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and plating method on actinomycetes isolation agar. Results: Totally 35 isolates were obtained on the basis of colony characteristics on actinomycetes isolation agar. All the isolates were screened for antibacterial activity by cross streak method. Medium and optimization of day were done for the potent strains using Nathan's agar well diffusion method. Isolation of bioactive compounds from significant active isolates was done by using different media. The most active isolate VAS 10 was identified as Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) using 16s rRNA sequence method. The hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol extracts of VAS 10 were tested against bacteria. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate;maximum zones of inhibition were observed against Enterococcus durans. The rRNA secondary structure and the restriction sites of Actinobacterium Loyola VAS 10 were predicted using Genebee and NEBCutter online tools respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed that among the isolated actinomycetes, Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) showed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.

  8. Environmental Impact of Cage Culture on Poondi Reservoir, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusuya Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out in Poondi reservoir, Tamil Nadu, for a period of 8 months from September, 2014 to April, 2015 where the cage culture has been already initiated by the state fisheries department. The water and sediment samples were collected from the reservoir at point and non- point sources of the cage culture units and were analyzed for their physico-chemical parameters. The total microbial load, E. coli and feacal streptococci population were also assessed from the reservoir. During the study period, pH, sulphate, nitrate and BOD values were found within the permissible range for drinking water quality. The alkalinity values were found optimum in the reservoir water. The sediment characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon and available phosphorus values were also found to be within the standard limit. The optimum water and sediment quality characteristics and the absence of E. coli and feacal streptococci observed in the cage culture unit clearly showed that the small cage farming in the reservoir does not have major environmental impacts on the water and sediment quality.

  9. Towards a better health care delivery system: The Tamil Nadu model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Parthasarathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tamil Nadu model of public health is renowned for its success in providing quality health services at an affordable cost especially to the rural people. Tamil Nadu is the only state with a distinctive public health cadre in the district level and also the first state to enact a Public Health Act in 1939. Tamil Nadu has gained significant ground in the various aspects of health in the last few decades largely because of the significant reforms in its health sector which dates back to 1980s which saw rigorous expansion of rural health infrastructure in the state besides deployment of thousands of multipurpose health workers as village health nurses in rural areas. Effective implementation of Universal Immunization Programme, formation of Tamil Nadu Medical Services Corporation for regulating the drug procurement and promoting generic drugs, early incorporation of indigenous system of medicine into health care service, formulation of a health policy in 2003 by the state with special emphasis on low-income, disadvantaged communities alongside efficient implementation of The Tamil Nadu Health Systems Project (TNHSP are the major factors which contributed for the success of the state. The importance of good political commitment and leadership in the health gains of the state warrants special mention. Moreover, the economic growth of the state, improved literacy rate, gender equality, and lowered fertility rate in the last few decades and contributions from the private sector have their share in the public health success of the state. In spite of some flaws and challenges, the Tamil Nadu Model remains the prototype health care delivery system in resource-limited settings which can be emulated by other states also toward a better health care delivery system.

  10. Towards a Better Health Care Delivery System: The Tamil Nadu model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, R; Sinha, S P

    2016-01-01

    The Tamil Nadu model of public health is renowned for its success in providing quality health services at an affordable cost especially to the rural people. Tamil Nadu is the only state with a distinctive public health cadre in the district level and also the first state to enact a Public Health Act in 1939. Tamil Nadu has gained significant ground in the various aspects of health in the last few decades largely because of the significant reforms in its health sector which dates back to 1980s which saw rigorous expansion of rural health infrastructure in the state besides deployment of thousands of multipurpose health workers as village health nurses in rural areas. Effective implementation of Universal Immunization Programme, formation of Tamil Nadu Medical Services Corporation for regulating the drug procurement and promoting generic drugs, early incorporation of indigenous system of medicine into health care service, formulation of a health policy in 2003 by the state with special emphasis on low-income, disadvantaged communities alongside efficient implementation of The Tamil Nadu Health Systems Project (TNHSP) are the major factors which contributed for the success of the state. The importance of good political commitment and leadership in the health gains of the state warrants special mention. Moreover, the economic growth of the state, improved literacy rate, gender equality, and lowered fertility rate in the last few decades and contributions from the private sector have their share in the public health success of the state. In spite of some flaws and challenges, the Tamil Nadu Model remains the prototype health care delivery system in resource-limited settings which can be emulated by other states also toward a better health care delivery system.

  11. A new variety of Crotalaria ramosissima (Fabaceae) from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binu Thomas; Konickal Mambetta Prabhu Kumar; Satheesh George; Arumugam Rajendran; Indira Balachandran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new variety of Crotalaria ramosissima is described from the Western Ghats of India.Crotalaria ramosissima Roxb. var. kanuvayensis Binu T., K. M. Prabhu et A. Rajendran (Fabaceae) from Kanuvai hills, Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu. Methods: Compare this species with available varieties of Crotalaria and cross checked with previous literature for authetification of this taxa. Results: The current paper provides a detailed description of the new taxa along with illustrations, colour plates and other relevant notes. Conclusions: The present study concluded that this taxa is new to science from the Southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

  12. An evaluation of major placer minerals along the Valinokkam - Tuticorin coast, southern Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Cherian, A.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    from 2.58 to 41.78%, ilmenite weight percentage ranges from 3.15 to 46.49. In the case of zircon, weight percentage increases from 0.42 to 9.09% and that of magnetite accounts 2.91% of the total heavy minerals along the study area. The present study...

  13. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Kragelund Nielsen

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP, i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP, increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP.The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India.Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed.HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP. Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10-2.93; p = 0.019, whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP.The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening.

  14. Areca nut use in rural Tamil Nadu: A growing threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Gunaseelan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Areca nut is the fourth main psychoactive substance in the world. In India, tobacco is added to the quid, and the commercially manufactured nonperishable forms of betel quid (pan masala or gutkha are on the rise in the market. Objective : To find out the prevalence of areca nut among the rural residents of Sriperambudur Taluk . Settings and Design: A community-based survey using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Materials and Methods :0 The survey was conducted in 2 villages and their colonies, which were randomly selected out of 168 villages. Data was collected from 500 residents of the study population. The survey was conducted for a period of 2 months. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 10.0. Results :The study participants were more likely to initiate areca nut use by 22 years of age. As many as 19.8% (n = 99 of the study participants chewed areca nut products, out of whom 11.2% (n = 56 indulged in chewing habit alone (areca nut products. Areca nut use was higher among male study subjects compared to females. The commercial forms of areca nut products (gutkha were the most prevalent ones [47.5% (n = 47 of those who used areca nut] observed in the community. Compared to female participants, male participants were more likely to perceive areca nut use as the most harmful habit draining the community health and wealth. Conclusion :There seems to be an increase in the prevalence of areca nut use. The community also perceives it to be a harmful habit. Therefore, effective interventions should be targeted towards the high-risk subpopulation of the community to decrease the prevalence of areca nut use in rural Tamil Nadu.

  15. Wealth, poverty, and immigration: the role of institutions in the fisheries of Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.; Jentoft, S.; Eide, A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores two concurrent processes in the fisheries of Tamil Nadu, India, over the past century: technological modernization and demographic growth. The first process is closely connected to the Blue Revolution instigated by the Government of India after Independence, as well as to the

  16. Test anxiety levels of board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Revina Ann; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J

    2014-01-01

    The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools.

  17. Wealth, poverty, and immigration: the role of institutions in the fisheries of Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bavinck

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores two concurrent processes in the fisheries of Tamil Nadu, India, over the past century: technological modernization and demographic growth. The first process is closely connected to the Blue Revolution instigated by the Government of India after Independence, as well as to the g

  18. Teacher's Professional Use of Information and Communication Technology in Secondary Schools in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamani, Deepa; Muthuswamy, Prema

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate secondary school teachers' abilities to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in schools in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires method was used for data collection. Around 200 questionnaires were distributed to secondary school teachers and headmasters, in which 157 were completed and returned.…

  19. Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalakshmi, A; Udayasuriyan, V

    2010-07-01

    The Western Ghats of India is the one of the world's 10 "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" that runs along the western part of India through four states including Tamil Nadu. The only biodiversity reserve in the Western Ghats is the Nilgiri biosphere located in the Tamil Nadu state. In the present study, 525 soil samples were collected from all the 14 different divisions of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu state, India. A total of 316 new isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that produce parasporal crystalline inclusions were isolated from 525 soil samples. Seven different types of crystalline inclusions were observed in the 316 new isolates of Bt. Cuboidal inclusion was predominantly present in 26.9% of the Bt isolates when compared to other shapes. Further characterization of 70 of the 316 Bt isolates for crystal protein profile through SDS-PAGE revealed six different types of crystal protein profile viz., 135 and 65, 135, 95, 65, 43, and 30 kDa crystal proteins. Variation in the mass of crystal protein(s) purified from the isolates of Bt revealed molecular diversity of this bacterium prevalent in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

  20. Movement Actors in the Education Bureaucracy: The Figured World of Activity Based Learning in Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

    2014-01-01

    Tamil Nadu has gained international recognition for reforming its government school classrooms into active, child-centered learning environments. Our exploration of the history of the Activity Based Learning movement suggests that this reform was achieved by social movement actors serving in and through the state's administration. Participants in…

  1. Family welfare planning programmes in Tamil Nadu: an appraisal of fertility trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, T V; Norbert, S A

    1989-01-01

    Over the past few years advancements in family welfare programs have occurred in India. One state in the Indian Union, Tamil Nadu, has had significant success in its family planning strategies. Examined is the fertility trends over a period of years within this area. Focus is on fertility decline, calculated from changing birthrates. Decline was differentiated in terms of crude birth rates. Chosen were standardized birth rates adjusted for age (females 15-49 years old), and standardized birth rates adjusted for both age structure and marital status. Family planning programs in Tamil Nadu were classified according to periods of years - 1956-1971 as the pre-intensive program period, and 1971-1986 as the intensive program period. Methodology included simple correlation and regression with additional computations, and multilinear regression measuring impacts on fertility decline of a small number of various factors. Conclusions drawn showed a swift decline in fertility in Tamil Nadu from 1971-1988, more so than during the period of 1956-1971. Family welfare programs were examined as well as through 4 key variables: infant mortality rates, female employment, female educational attainment, and family planning utilization. All 4 variables have shown a positive influence on fertility decline in Tamil Nadu. Both crude and standardized birth rates, as shown by measuring births averted during 1986, can be effectively used in producing births averted in any particular future time period.

  2. Village Level Tsunami Threat Maps for Tamil Nadu, SE Coast of India: Numerical Modeling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    MP, J.; Kulangara Madham Subrahmanian, D.; V, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami (IOT) devastated several countries of North Indian Ocean. India is one of the worst affected countries after Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In India, Tamil Nadu suffered maximum with fatalities exceeding 8,000 people. Historical records show that tsunami has invaded the shores of Tamil Nadu in the past and has made people realize that the tsunami threat looms over Tamil Nadu and it is necessary to evolve strategies for tsunami threat management. The IOT has brought to light that tsunami inundation and runup varied within short distances and for the disaster management for tsunami, large scale maps showing areas that are likely to be affected by future tsunami are identified. Therefore threat assessment for six villages including Mamallapuram (also called Mahabalipuram) which is famous for its rock-cut temples, from the northern part of Tamil Nadu state of India has been carried out and threat maps categorizing the coast into areas of different degree of threat are prepared. The threat was assessed by numerical modeling using TUNAMI N2 code considering different tsunamigenic sources along the Andaman - Sumatra trench. While GEBCO and C-Map data was used for bathymetry and for land elevation data was generated by RTK - GPS survey for a distance of 1 km from shore and SRTM for the inland areas. The model results show that in addition to the Sumatra source which generated the IOT in 2004, earthquakes originating in Car Nicobar and North Andaman can inflict more damage. The North Andaman source can generate a massive tsunami and an earthquake of magnitude more than Mw 9 can not only affect Tamil Nadu but also entire south east coast of India. The runup water level is used to demarcate the tsunami threat zones in the villages using GIS.

  3. Taxonomy and distribution of benthic foraminifera from the sediments of Palk Strait, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gandhi, S.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Nigam, R.

    A systematic study of benthic foraminifera has been made on 42 sediment samples collected between Mandapam and Kodiyakkarai, off Palk Strait, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 102 benthic foraminiferal species belonging to 52 genera, 38 families, 23...

  4. Forest dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Ramachandran, A; Bhaskaran, G; Heo, J

    2009-02-01

    The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have occurred after the implementation of a forest conservation act. The

  5. Distribution of the Grey Slender Loris (Loris lyddekerianus Cabrera, 1908) in Tamil Nadu, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, Honnavalli N; Sasi, R; Chandran, Subash; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2016-01-01

    The grey slender loris Loris lydekkerianus, one of only two nocturnal primates of India, is found in the southern part of the country. Our understanding of its geographical distribution is largely based on historical records and short surveys, and little is known of its occurrence in southern India today. We sought to establish the relative abundance of this species in 26 districts in the state of Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Pondicherry in southern India. We sighted lorises in 19 districts, and their relative abundance ranged from 0.01 to 2.21/km. The south-central districts of Tamil Nadu showed the highest densities of lorises, while the western districts showed the lowest. Based on these results, we recommend increased protection measures for the forest patches of the Eastern Ghats mountains in order to ensure the long-term survival of the grey slender loris.

  6. Tobacco Usage among Males in Rural Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Annadurai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowing the prevalence of tobacco use and the socio-demographic profile of users might prove useful in further strengthening the information, education, communicationand regulatory activities, thereby by decreasing tobacco use. The objective was to study the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among rural men aged 18 years and above in rural area of Tamil Nadu.Methods: A cross sectional study was performed among 714 males aged 18 years and above in Vadagarai village of Tamil Nadu during 2010 and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was used to select the participants. Results: Prevalence of smoking was found to be 36.7%. Cigarette smoking was more common than beedi and smokeless tobacco.Conclusion: Strict enforcement of anti-tobacco legislation and awareness measures targeting ill-effects of tobacco can be intensified to reduce tobacco related morbidity and mortality.

  7. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

  8. Endoparasites in cattle nearby tribal areas of free-ranging protected areas of Tamil Nadu state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalraj, P G; Jayathangaraj, M G; Sridhar, R; Senthilkumar, T M A; Latchumikanthan, A

    2014-12-01

    Fresh dung samples from cattle nearby and tribal areas of free-ranging regions, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Anamalai Tiger Reserve and forest divisions of Sathyamangalam-Erode of Tamil Nadu state were examined for identification of endoparasitic infection. A total of 50 dung samples were collected and examination of samples revealed the presence of eggs of Strongyle, Strongyloides sp., amphistomes, Toxocara sp. and oocysts of Eimeria sp. The risk of parasitic disease transmission from domestic livestock to wild populations was discussed.

  9. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million, respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million, $23 million (Rs 1,230 million and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million, respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

  10. Present status of edible oil consumption and household demand projection for Tamil Nadu (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj Gurrappanaidu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1990s the major edible oil consumed in Tamil Nadu state was peanut and sesame oil. The technological, economic and policy changes thereafter induced dynamism in consumer demand for food, including edible oils. In this study, the household demand for individual edible oils based on present consumption was assessed and forecasted for 2015 and 2020 for Tamil Nadu. Due to constraints in the secondary data published by National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO, the primary data was used. The Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS model was employed to estimate the income (expenditure elasticities and in turn used to project the demand for edible oils and associated products like ghee and butter. The overall edible oil demand is expected to grow at 7.0% per annum in Tamil Nadu, with the highest growth of sunflower oil (8.7% followed by other oils (7.8%, sesame oil (6.6%, peanut oil (6.6% and palm oil (3.1%. The demand for total edible oil in rural Tamil Nadu increases from 3.14 lakh tonnes (2009-10 to 5.3 lakh tonnes (2020, whereas, in urban areas, it increases from 3.24 lakh tonnes to 5.45 lakh tonnes. The non-traditional oil like sunflower oil and other oils (soybean, corn, rice bran, palm oil has made inroads in the consumption basket and will continue to dominate in the future. Hence, concerted efforts like increasing seed replacement rate, increasing the intensity of adoption of improved technology and appropriate price policy are required to increase productivity of non-traditional crops besides promoting traditional crops (peanut and sesame to meet the growing edible oil demand in the state.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, R; Rani, N; Ponnudurai, G; Anbarasi, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants (Sheep and Goats) in North Western part of Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 630 faecal samples (251-sheep, 379-goats) and 554 blood smears (242-sheep, 312-goats) were examined, for the presence of eggs of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites, respectively. The samples were received from the Veterinary college hospital and Veterinary dispensaries in North Western part of Tamil Nadu. Faecal samples were processed by sedimentation technique and examined under low power objective (×10), and blood smears were stained using Giemsa's technique and examined under oil immersion (×100). The analysis of data on the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of sheep and goats in North Western part of Tamil Nadu for the period from 2004 to 2013, showed an overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 67% and 35% in sheep and goats, respectively, whereas only 11% of sheep and 3% of goats had the haemoprotozoan parasitic infection. Highly, significant difference (pparasitism was observed between sheep and goats. Intestinal parasites such as strongyles, Trichuris, Moniezia, amphistome, and coccidia were identified in which the highest prevalence was observed with coccidia, followed by strongyles, Monezia, Trichuris, and least with amphistome in both the sheep and goats. The haemoprotozoan parasites recorded were Theileria and Anaplasma species, of which, Anaplasma spp. being the highest and Theileria spp. the least prevalent in both the sheep and goats. The seasonal prevalence of intestinal parasites showed highest in rainy season, followed by moderate in winter and least with summer in both the sheep and goats, whereas the haemoprotozoan parasites recorded were the highest in summer followed by winter and least with rainy season. The present study suggests that North Western part of Tamil Nadu is highly endemic for intestinal parasites

  12. Hypertension treatment and control in a rural cohort in Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhdeep Kaur; Sudha Ramachandra Rao; Ramachandran Venkatachalam; Kanagasabai Kaliaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem with low detection and treatment rates in India. We resurveyed 1284 patients with hypertension already identified in baseline survey of the cohort in Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India. The objective was to estimate the proportion of patients with drug treatment, hypertension control and lifestyle modification at follow-up (median follow-up 27 months). Overall, only 19.9% of the patients took drugs and 45.3% had blood pressure under control. Among ...

  13. When Stars Arrives To the Polls: Politics, Cinema and Television in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Val Cubero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Tamil Nadu, one of the most populated states in the South of India, the relationship between cinema, television and politics can explain the success of some of its political leaders. Leaders who started their public activity as directors, actors or script writers, activities which they were successfully able to combine with their roles as public servants. The ethnical and religious diversity of this region, along with the unswayable support of their groups of fans, gave birth to the creation of nationalist political parties which do not hesitate to defend their cultural idiosyncrasy as a sign of social identity. The political game in Tamil Nadu highlights the importance that media, and especially cinema, has had since the forties and fifties of the twentieth century in shaping the political scene. This article, with a historical perspective, has as an objective to determine the turning points of this complex relationship between audiovisual and politics, correlation characteristic of Tamil Nadu but also of India as a whole.

  14. Impact of implementation of NRHM program on NMR in Tamil Nadu (TN): a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumutha, J; Chitra, N; Vidyasagar, Dharmapuri

    2014-12-01

    The Government of India had set up the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in 2005 in an effort towards providing quality healthcare to the underserved rural areas and also to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. While the trends in child and maternal mortality show great progress by India since 1990 with steady decline in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), a comparison of the predicted trend and target of MDGs show that India would fall short by a few points. In contrast, Tamil Nadu has reached its MDGs and is ensuring sustained progress in reducing child and maternal mortality with an effective implementation of the various schemes of NRHM. Tamil Nadu leads the way in ensuring universal health coverage leveraging the expertise and funds of NRHM by providing round the clock services, introducing new and innovative programs to improve outcomes and regular monitoring of the functional operation and outcomes to ensure effective implementation. Adopting the features of the Tamil Nadu model of healthcare system that caters to their particular state and effectively implementing the initiatives of NRHM would help the other states in considerably reducing the child and maternal mortality and also ensure early achievement of MDGs by the nation.

  15. Optimal pricing and investment in the electricity sector in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ranganath Srinivas

    2001-07-01

    Faulty pricing policies and inadequate investment in the power sector are responsible for the chronic power shortages that plague Tamil Nadu and the rest of India. Formulae for optimal pricing rules are derived for a social welfare maximizing Electricity Board which sells electricity that is used both as an intermediate, and as a final good. Because of distributional constraints, the optimal prices deviate systematically from marginal costs. Optimal relative price-marginal cost differentials are computed for Tamil Nadu, and are found to indicate a lower degree of subsidization than the prevailing prices. The rationalization of electricity tariffs would very likely increase the Board's revenues. The cost-effectiveness of nuclear power in India is examined by comparing actual data for the Madras Atomic Power Project and the Singrauli coal-fired thermal power station. The conventional (non-environmental) costs of power generation are compared at both market prices and shadow prices, calculated according to the UNIDO guidelines for project evaluation. Despite favorable assumptions for the costs of the nuclear plant, coal had a decided edge over nuclear in Tamil Nadu. Remarkably, the edge varied little when market prices are replaced by shadow prices in the computations. With regard to the environmental costs, far too much remains unknown. More research is therefore needed on the environmental impacts of both types of power generation before a final choice can be made.

  16. A hitherto unrecorded sighting of the Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samidurai Jayakumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae is recorded for the first time in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. As this species is recorded in other parts of Tamil Nadu, a brief sightings and distribution map is also specified.

  17. Daughter Elimination: Cradle Baby Scheme in Tamil Nadu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Srinivasan (Sharada); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTamil Nadu’s two decade old Cradle Baby Scheme tries to ensure that female babies who would otherwise have been killed are given up for adoption. Civil society activists are not happy with the scheme because they feel that it only encourages parents to abandon female babies and is not a

  18. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund

    2016-01-01

    Nadu, India. Methodology Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated...... attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10–2.93; p = 0.019), whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed...

  19. How deceased donor transplantation is impacting a decline in commercial transplantation-the Tamil Nadu experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram N V; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Daniel, Dolly; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Shroff, Sunil; Reddy, Yogesh

    2012-04-27

    India with a population of 1.2 billion has a renal transplantation rate of 3.25 per million population. The major cause of chronic kidney disease is hypertension and diabetes. The crude and age-adjusted incidence rates of end-stage renal disease are estimated to be 151 and 232 per million population, respectively, in India. There was a remarkable lack of knowledge in the public about deceased organ donation until a decade ago. However, the role played by the media and nongovernmental organizations in partnership with the government has emphasized and implemented deceased donor transplantation in certain states in India-to mention particularly, the Tamil Nadu model. In the last 2 years, deceased organ donation has reached 1.3 per million population in Tamil Nadu, thereby effectively eliminating commercial transplantation. There is no religious bar for organ donation. A central transplant coordinator appointed by the government oversees legitimate and transparent allocation of deceased organs both in the public and private facilities as per the transplant waiting list. This model also takes care of the poor sections of society by conducting donation and transplantation through government-run public facilities free of cost. In the last 2 years, deceased donor transplantation has been performed through this network procuring organs such as the heart, heart valves, lung, liver, kidneys, cornea, and skin. The infrastructural lack of immunological surveillance-including donor-specific antibody monitoring, human leukocyte antigen typing, and panel reactive antibody except in a few tertiary care centers-prevents allocation according to the immunological status of the recipient. This private-public partnership promoting deceased donor transplantation has effectively eliminated commercialization in transplantation in the state of Tamil Nadu with a population of 72 million which is a model for other regions of South Asia and developing countries.

  20. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices among rural women in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world′s major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Various studies have shown that infant feeding could be influenced by socioeconomic status, maternal education, place of living and many other factors. Hence a prevalence study on exclusive breastfeeding was conducted in rural Tamil Nadu. Aim and Objective: To assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices and the factors influencing them among women in a rural area in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Attyampatti Panchyat Union, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, from March 2011-June 2011. All the 291 children in the age group of six months to two years in Attyampatti Panchayat Union were included in the study, irrespective of any sample. The data was analyzed using SPSS package. Results: Among the study population 52.6% were male children and 47.4% were females. Only 99 (34% children were exclusively breastfed for six months. The majority of women (60.5% initiated breastfeeding within half an hour after delivery. Various demographic factors like the education of the mother, type of delivery, type of family, occupation, number of children, monthly income, family size, age at marriage and religion had a direct influence on exclusive breastfeeding, which in turn influenced the weight of the baby and immune status of the child. Most of the mothers (44.7% inferred that the main reason for giving bottle feed is because of inadequate breast milk secretion. Conclusion: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is low in this particular area. Hence promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and focus on the factors affecting them is highly warranted in this area.

  1. Worlds apart 1: Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Reaping rewards of social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1994-01-01

    Tamil Nadu had a 1991 annual growth rate of 1.1% compared to a rate of over 2% in the northern states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The lower fertility and mortality in Tamil Nadu was achieved through a sustained, multifaceted social and economic effort and through promotion, reach, and quality of family planning in a short time period. Political leadership and media efforts since the 1960s have strengthened support for the small family norm, later marriage, and improved status of women. Infrastructure development includes roads and water supplies in every village, rural electrification, and a government center in every village. Tamil Nadu devotes over 33% of its total budget to health and education. Special emphasis was placed on a program initiated in 1982 to provide a nutritious midday meal in school to every child living in poverty. In 1994, this program cost Rs. 3350. The result has been increasing school enrollment, greater retention of female children, reductions in malnutrition, and opportunities for local part-time employment and increased social status in the community. In some locations, the meal program includes day care centers and meals for the aged. Another social program provides cash loans of Rs. 5000 to couples at first marriage who are over the age of 18 years with a completed high school degree. Rs. 300 are provided for nutritional support for the first two pregnancies. Rs. 10,000 are also given to girls whose family income is under Rs. 12,000 a year. Financial assistance is available for widows who remarry and for intercaste marriages. A new program provides a gold ring, educational expenses, and Rs. 20 for families with an only girl child or two girl children and which accept a permanent method of family planning. A negligible 20,000 couples joined the program, although about 15% of the total population was eligible. 50-55% of women receive state subsidies and loans. Collectives exist in 12,000 women's groups. Tamil

  2. Fasting practices in Tamil Nadu and their importance for patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Subramanian; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Seshadri, Krishna; Sadacharan, Dhalapathy; Velayutham, Kumaravel

    2016-01-01

    Religious practices and cultural customs related to eating habits have a significant impact on lifestyle and health of the community. The Ramadan fasting in Muslims and its influence on various metabolic parameters such as diabetes have been reasonably studied. However, literature related to Hindu religious customs related to fasting and food patterns during various festivals and its effect on diabetes are scarce. This article is an attempt to describe the Hindu religious customs related to fasting and food practices from the State of Tamil Nadu (South India) and to raise the awareness among physicians about its relationship with diabetes which may help in managing their diabetic patients in a better way.

  3. Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Jeni Chandar; Basil Rose, M R

    2013-01-01

    In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 μSv h(-1) was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure.

  4. Fasting practices in Tamil Nadu and their importance for patients with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Subramanian; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Seshadri, Krishna; Sadacharan, Dhalapathy; Velayutham, Kumaravel

    2016-01-01

    Religious practices and cultural customs related to eating habits have a significant impact on lifestyle and health of the community. The Ramadan fasting in Muslims and its influence on various metabolic parameters such as diabetes have been reasonably studied. However, literature related to Hindu religious customs related to fasting and food patterns during various festivals and its effect on diabetes are scarce. This article is an attempt to describe the Hindu religious customs related to fasting and food practices from the State of Tamil Nadu (South India) and to raise the awareness among physicians about its relationship with diabetes which may help in managing their diabetic patients in a better way. PMID:27867892

  5. Prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velusamy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants (Sheep and Goats in North Western part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 630 faecal samples (251-sheep, 379-goats and 554 blood smears (242-sheep, 312-goats were examined, for the presence of eggs of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites, respectively. The samples were received from the Veterinary college hospital and Veterinary dispensaries in North Western part of Tamil Nadu. Faecal samples were processed by sedimentation technique and examined under low power objective (×10, and blood smears were stained using Giemsa’s technique and examined under oil immersion (×100. Result: The analysis of data on the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of sheep and goats in North Western part of Tamil Nadu for the period from 2004 to 2013, showed an overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 67% and 35% in sheep and goats, respectively, whereas only 11% of sheep and 3% of goats had the haemoprotozoan parasitic infection. Highly, significant difference (p<0.01 in the prevalence of intestinal (χ2=65, and hemoprotozoan (χ2=15.4 parasitism was observed between sheep and goats. Intestinal parasites such as strongyles, Trichuris, Moniezia, amphistome, and coccidia were identified in which the highest prevalence was observed with coccidia, followed by strongyles, Monezia, Trichuris, and least with amphistome in both the sheep and goats. The haemoprotozoan parasites recorded were Theileria and Anaplasma species, of which, Anaplasma spp. being the highest and Theileria spp. the least prevalent in both the sheep and goats. The seasonal prevalence of intestinal parasites showed highest in rainy season, followed by moderate in winter and least with summer in both the sheep and goats, whereas the haemoprotozoan parasites recorded were the highest in summer followed by winter and

  6. Evidence for CO2-rich fluids in rocks from the type charnockite area near Pallavaram, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E.; Hunt, W.; Jacob, S. C.; Morden, K.; Reddi, R.; Tacy, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fluid inclusion and mineral chemistry data was presented for samples from the type charnockite area near Pallavaram (Tamil Nadu, India). The results indicate the presence of a dense CO2 fluid phase, but the data cannot distinguish between influx of this fluid from elsewhere or localized migration of CO2-rich fluids associated with dehydration melting.

  7. Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

  8. Actinomycetes from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu with its antimicrobial properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valan Arasu M; Ignacimuthu S; Agastian P

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate the actinomycetes from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu with its antimicrobial properties. Methods: Starch casein agar medium supplemented with actidione and nalidixic acid was used to isolate actinomycetes from Western Ghates region of Kanyakumari, Thirunelveli, Dindigul and Nilgiri districts. Modified nutrient medium was used as the base for screening actinomycetes against pathogenic Gram positive, Gram negative and filamentous fungi. Results:Among 367 actinomycetes; 17.71% showed activity against both bacteria and fungi. The highest antibacterial activity was observed against B. subtilis, 140 isolates (38.1%), S. aureus 128 (34.9%);S. epidermidis 123 (33.5%); P. aeruginosa 105 (28.6%); K. pneumoniae 88 (24%); Xanthomonas sp 62 (16.9%). Less number of actinomycetes showed activity against Erwinia, S. typhi, V. fischeri andP. vulgaris. Hundred and three isolates showed activity against B. cinerea and A. niger. Twenty five isolates revealed activity against T. simii. Conclusions: Present investigation concludes that Western Ghats region of Tamil Nadu is the potential place for actinomycetes diversity. Further studying about these medically important strains from this region can be useful in identification of valuable bio-molecules.

  9. Threat of heavy metal pollution in halophytic and mangrove plants of Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chen, F.-A. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Minna J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsumin@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

    2008-09-15

    Mangrove and halophytic plants occur along the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, south India and these plants have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Heavy metals are known to pose a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota. However, little is known on the toxic levels of heavy metals found in mangrove and halophytic plants that are used in traditional medicine in India. To understand heavy metal toxicity, we investigated the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals in leaves collected from eight mangroves and five halophytes in the protected Pichavaram mangrove forest reserve in Tamil Nadu State, south India. Data presented in this paper describe the impact of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn) and non-essential/environmentally toxic trace metals (Hg, Pb and Sn) in mangrove and halophytic medicinal plants. The concentrations of Pb among 13 plant species were higher than the normal range of contamination reported for plants. The average concentration of Hg in the halophytic plants (0.43 {+-} 0.37 {mu}g/g) was seven times higher than mangrove plants (0.06 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/g) and it indicated pollutants from industrial sources affecting halophytes more than mangroves. - Metal effects occur in India's mangrove ecosystem.

  10. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

    2011-07-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1).

  11. Status of microbial diversity in agroforestry systems in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Varadharajan, Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Soil is a complex and dynamic biological system. Agroforestry systems are considered to be an alternative land use option to help and prevent soil degradation, improve soil fertility, microbial diversity, and organic matter status. An increasing interest has emerged with respect to the importance of microbial diversity in soil habitats. The present study deals with the status of microbial diversity in agroforestry systems in Tamil Nadu. Eight soil samples were collected from different fields in agroforestry systems in Cuddalore, Villupuram, Tiruvanamalai, and Erode districts, Tamil Nadu. The number of microorganisms and physico-chemical parameters of soils were quantified. Among different microbial population, the bacterial population was recorded maximum (64%), followed by actinomycetes (23%) and fungi (13%) in different samples screened. It is interesting to note that the microbial population was positively correlated with the physico-chemical properties of different soil samples screened. Total bacterial count had positive correlation with soil organic carbon (C), moisture content, pH, nitrogen (N), and micronutrients such as Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Similarly, the total actinomycete count also showed positive correlations with bulk density, moisture content, pH, C, N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). It was also noticed that the soil organic matter, vegetation, and soil nutrients altered the microbial community under agroforestry systems.

  12. Developing climate change scenarios for Tamil Nadu, India using MAGICC/SCENGEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the projection of climate change scenarios under increased greenhouse gas emissions, using the results of atmospheric-ocean general circulation models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 dataset. A score is given to every model based on global and regional performance. Four out of 20 general circulation models (GCMs) were selected based on skill in predicting observed annual temperature and precipitation conditions. The ensemble of these four models shows superiority over the individual model scores. These models were subjected to increases in future anthropogenic radiative forcings for constructing climate change scenarios. Future climate scenarios for Tamil Nadu were developed with MAGICC/SCENGEN software. Model results show both temperature and precipitation increases under increased greenhouse gas scenarios. Northeast and northwest parts of Tamil Nadu show a greater increase in temperature and precipitation. Seasonally, the maximum rise in temperature occurred during the MAM season, followed by DJF, JJA, and SON. Decreasing trends of precipitation were observed during DJF and MAM.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in southern districts of Tamil Nadu using IgG-ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucilathangam, G; Palaniappan, N; Sreekumar, C; Anna, T

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in and around Tirunelveli by in-house IgG assay using ELISA. Serum samples from 175 immunodeficient and 175 immunocompetent patients were collected at Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu from May 2006 to October 2007. They were subjected into in-house IgG assay using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) in which tachyzoite soluble antigen derived from solubilised whole organisms was used. Out of 350 patients tested by IgG ELISA, 46 patients (13.14%) had antibodies for toxoplasmosis with mean OD value of 0.2 ± 0.073 and the OD value ranged from 0.144 to 0.444. Among the immunocompetent group of 175 patients, 19 patients (10.86%) had antibodies to toxoplasmosis whereas, in immunodeficient group of 175 patients, 27 patients (15.43%) had antibodies for toxoplasmosis. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) between the immunocompetent and immunodeficient group. The sensitivity and specificity of IgG ELISA in detecting toxoplasmosis was 90 and 100%, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in and around Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu was 13.14% based on IgG ELISA. The study has proved ELISA to be a sensitive and specific procedure for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  14. Prevalence of ixodid ticks in Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu state (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kaushal; Balakrishanan, N; Katyal, Rakesh; Gill, Kuldip Singh

    2002-06-01

    The Nilgiri hills provides favourable ecological conditions for the propagation of haematophagous arthropods due to its richness in vegetation and animal fauna. A study was undertaken by the NICD during August to November 1996 on the prevalence of ectoparasitic ticks from different localities of the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu state. The ticks were hand picked from various domestic animals of the study area and identified. A total of 1232 adults and immatures of ticks were collected from domestic animals which comprised of the various species in the order of abundance Boophilus microplus, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Riphicephalus haemaphysaloides and Riphicephalus sanguineus. Studies carried out in the grass lands, meadows and areas adjoining to tea plantations by flagging method revealed mainly immature stages and few adults of Riphicephalus Spp. and Haemaphysalis Spp. The public health importance of the above species have been discussed.

  15. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  16. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  17. Checklist and nesting patterns of avifauna in and around Mayiladuthurai region, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.S. Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-five taxa of birds belonging to 41 families were recorded in the Mayiladuthurai region, Tamil Nadu, India during January 2006 to December 2006. Sixty-two species of these were residents and 13 were local migrants. Among the birds recorded in this study, about 26 species were insectivores and other dominating types included omnivores, predators, granivores and frugivores. Breeding habits of 30 species were recorded, of five different nesting types, viz., cup nesters, cavity / hole nesters, platform nesters, pendant nesters and ground nesters. The birds used a variety of nesting materials, mostly twigs, fibres, sticks, leaves and grasses for nest construction. Thirteen species laid pure white eggs without any markings and nine species laid white eggs with various colour combinations and markings. Some species laid glossy blue, blue green, red and brown coloured eggs.

  18. Physico-chemical and biological study of the river Chittar at Courtallam, Tamil Nadu (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, A G; Perumal, C Muthum; Ruby, John

    2007-04-01

    Courtallam Falls of the river Chittar in Tamil Nadu (India) is a place of tourist attraction during the southwest monsoon season. Particularly, in this season high input of detergents and other anthropogenic activities tend to bring in undesirable materials into the water body, whereby the pristine quality is altered. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the peak southwest tourist season to assess physico-chemical and biological quality of the river Chittar. After carrying out analytical study of various water samples, it was found that although the river was not found highly polluted, biological quality was found significantly poor. Excluding sulphate, all the other physico-chemical parameters analyzed were found within the permissible limits. However, the total and faecal coliforms exceeded the permissible limits, indicating a poor status of the river.

  19. 'Too many girls, too much dowry': son preference and daughter aversion in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Luke, Nancy; McGarvey, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    The southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu has experienced a dramatic decline in fertility, accompanied by a trend of increased son preference. This paper reports on findings from qualitative interviews with women in rural villages about their fertility decision-making. Specifically addressed are the reasons behind increasing son preference and the consequences of this change. Findings suggest that daughter aversion, fuelled primarily by the perceived economic burden of daughters due to the proliferation of dowry, is playing a larger role in fertility decision-making than son preference. The desire for a son is often trumped by the worry over having many daughters. Women use various means of controlling the sex of their children, which in this study appear to be primarily female infanticide. It is important to distinguish between son preference and daughter aversion and to examine repercussions of low fertility within this setting.

  20. Physicochemical parameters and their sources in groundwater in the Thirupathur region, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajil Kumar, P. J.; James, E. J.

    2013-03-01

    This study reports physicochemical characteristics and their sources in groundwater in Thirupathur region in Tamil Nadu, India. For this purpose, groundwater samples were collected and analysed using standard methods. A wide seasonal variation was showed for the majority of the samples; higher concentration was observed in the pre-monsoon season. Concentration of fluoride was quite alarming in many locations. Groundwater is found to be dominated by Na+, Ca+, HCO3 and Cl-. Gibbs plot showed the dominance of rock-water interaction. Geology of the area in comparison with the results obtained in the chemical cross plots showed the dominance of silicate weathering, with a minor contribution from the cation exchange. Other processes such as evaporation dissolution of carbonate and gypsum were proved to be ineffective. However, dissolution of fluoride minerals present in the geological formation is the major source of fluoride in groundwater.

  1. Hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes in Madhuranthakam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Brindha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochemical study was carried out in Madhuranthakam located near Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India with an objective of understanding the suitability of local groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes. Twenty groundwater samples were collected in February 2002 and analysed for physical and chemical parameters. Groundwater in this area was found to be within the desirable Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organisation limits for drinking water. Ca-HCO3 was the dominant groundwater type. Groundwater in this area was assessed for irrigation purposes on the basis of sodium percentage (Na%, magnesium hazard (MH, residual sodium carbonate (RSC, sodium absorption ratio (SAR, permeability index (PI and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA classification. Most of the groundwater samples were suitable for irrigation, except in a few locations (15% based on MH. Overall the groundwater quality was suitable for drinking and domestic purposes and permissible for irrigation activities.

  2. Foraging behavior of selected insectivorous birds in Cauvery Delta region of Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asokan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the foraging behavior of five insectivorous birds, namely White-breasted Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis, Small Bee-eater Merops orientalis, Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis, Common Myna Acridotheres tristis and Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus in Nagapattinam District of Tamil Nadu, India. The birds used a variety of perch types for hunting insect prey; in general the electric power line was a common perch type used by all species except the Common Myna. The perching and foraging height used by birds were classified into 3 meter categories, up to 12m. Aerial feeding or hawking in Bee-eaters and ground feeding in Common Mynas were major feeding techniques, recorded 68% and 86% of the time respectively. The other three species used gleaning as a feeding technique. The highest niche overlap was recorded between Indian Rollers and Black Drongos and between White-breasted Kingfishers and Indian Rollers.

  3. Maxillofacial trauma in Tamil Nadu children and adolescents: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramraj Jayabalan Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, aetiology, complexity and surgical indications of maxillofacial injuries in children and adolescents population of Tamil Nadu state of india during period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted among 500 children and adolescents patients of age group 6 years to 16 years suffered or suffering with maxillofacial and skull fractures presenting to ten Level I trauma centers over a 4 year period.The data collected for this study included age, gender, etiology, associated maxillofacial trauma, anatomic site of fracture and treatment. Results and Conclusion: In our study the most common cause of trauma was traffic 35%, followed by falls 24% and sports 22%. Mandible was commenest bone prone to fracture, followed by maxilla and nasal bone. Mandible fractures accounted for 72% of all maxillofacial fractures.

  4. Self-reported morbidity and health service utilization in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Warren; King, Nia; Humphries, Sally; Little, Matthew; Dewey, Cate

    2016-07-01

    In Tamil Nadu, India, improvements have been made toward developing a high-quality, universally accessible healthcare system. However, some rural residents continue to confront significant barriers to obtaining healthcare. The primary objective of this study was to investigate self-reported morbidity, health literacy, and healthcare preferences, utilization, and experiences in order to identify priority areas for government health policies and programs. Drawing on 66 semi-structured interviews and 300 household surveys (including 1693 individuals), administered in 26 rural villages in Tamil Nadu's Krishnagiri district, we found that the prevalence of self-reported major health conditions was 22.3%. There was a large burden of non-communicable and chronic diseases, and the most common major morbidities were: connective tissue problems (7.6%), nervous system and sense organ diseases (5.0%), and circulatory and respiratory diseases (2.5%). Increased age and decreased education level were associated with higher odds of reporting most diseases. Low health literacy levels resulted in individuals seeking care only once pain interfered with daily activities. As such, individuals' health-seeking behaviour depended on which strategy was believed to result in the fastest return to work using the fewest resources. Although government facilities were the most common healthcare access point, they were mistrusted; 48.8% and 19.2% of respondents perceived inappropriate treatment protocols and corruption, respectively, at public facilities. Conversely, 93.3% of respondents reported high treatment cost as the main barrier to accessing private facilities. Our results highlight that addressing the chronic and non-communicable disease burdens amongst rural populations in this context will require health policies and village-level programs that address the low health literacy and the issues of rural healthcare accessibility and acceptability.

  5. STUDENTS PERCEIVED VALUE TOWARDS QUALITY OF DISTANCE EDUCATION IN TAMIL NADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. JEYARAJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of education of any distance learning programme is maintained by various ways, such as: quality of study material, internal and external evaluation, and student support methods and so on. The above aspects should be available in aspects to the Post graduate degree students. In this research Ex Post Facto research with field survey is used. It was carried out all over Tamil Nadu. The students who have enrolled for Distance post graduate Programme through Study Centres of Tamil Nadu Open University (TNOU ,Anna malai University and Alagappa University were taken into consideration for collecting data. The total sample size was 600 respondents who were selected equally from all locations. The primary data were collected through questionnaire cum interview schedule method. The questionnaire is well structured and tested for reliability, testability and analytical ability. This study concludes that distance education programmes. With such a huge network spanning across the country, and the growth being exponential in a comparatively short period of time, there is a growing concern for the quality in education being imparted through such institutions. This study has confirmed that most of the students are highly satisfied towards the management education by the distance education mode expect few facts, there are students not satisfied with the PCP time schedule, syllabus covered by the course material and stipulated time for the payments of course fees. This study has identified some of the dissatisfying factors and suggested various ways and means to overcome those problems. Based on this research it may presume that there would be grater satisfaction towards most of the tested variables.

  6. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in the district of Salem, Tamil Nadu, South India: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tamil Nadu is one of the 18 states affected by fluorosis in India. The maximum tolerance limit of fluoride in drinking water specified by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1984 is 1.5 mg/l while it is proved to be above in many areas of Salem. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the following study is to identify the prevalence of dental fluorosis among children in the district of Salem. To compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis between different sexes and age groups. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted in a private school where oral examination was done using mouth mirror and probe under sunlight in 965 students, for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis. As it was a pilot study, the fluorosis indexes were not taken into consideration. Results: In our study, 965 students were examined for dental fluorosis out of which, 624 were boys and 341 were girls. Dental fluorosis was present in 31.1% of boys, and 30.3% of girls 297 students out of 965 (30.8% showed the presence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: The present study showed that Salem is one of the districts affected by dental fluorosis in Tamil Nadu. An extensive study including the grades of fluorosis and estimation of water fluoride levels in different areas is required for better evaluation of the situation. Government should take actions to prevent fluorosis. Awareness should be given to the population to drink only the water supplied by the government.

  7. Origin of Cretaceous phosphorites from the onshore of Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Purnachandra Rao; Pratima M Kessarkar; R Nagendra; E V S S K Babu

    2007-12-01

    Cretaceous phosphorites from the onshore of Tamil Nadu have been investigated for their origin and compared with those in the offshore. Cretaceous phosphorites occur as light brown to yellowish brown or white nodules in Karai Shale of the Uttatur Group in the onshore Cauvery basin. Nodules exhibit phosphatic nucleus encrusted by a chalky shell of carbonate. The nucleus of the nodules consists of light and dark coloured laminae, phosphate peloids/coated grains and detrital particles interspersed between the laminae. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies reveal trapping and binding activity of microbial filaments. A mat structure with linearly arranged microbial filaments and hollow, cell-based coccoid cyanobacterial mat are present. Nodules contain abundant carbonate fluorapatite, followed by minor calcite, quartz and feldspar. The P2O5 content of the phosphorites ranges from 18 to 26%. The CaO/P2O5, Sr and F contents are higher than that of pure carbonate fluorapatite. Concentrations of Si, Al, K, Fe, and Ti are low. We suggest that the nuclei of the nodules represent phosphate clasts related to phosphate stromatolites formed at intertidal conditions. At high energy levels the microbial mats were disintegrated into phosphate clasts, coated with carbonate and then reworked into Karai Shale. On the other hand, Quaternary phosphorites occur as irregular to rounded, grey coloured phosphate clasts at water depths between 180 and 320m on the continental shelf of Tamil Nadu. They exhibit grain-supported texture. Despite Quaternary in age, they also resemble phosphate stromatolites of intertidal origin and reworked as phosphate clasts onto the shelf margin depressions. Benthic microbial mats probably supplied high phosphorus to the sediments. Availability of excess phosphorus seems to be a pre-requisite for the formation of phosphate stromatolites.

  8. Factors influencing timely initiation and completion of gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis - a qualitative study from Tamil Nadu, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Rheinländer, Thilde; Kapur, Anil

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2007, universal screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was introduced in Tamil Nadu, India. To identify factors hindering or facilitating timely initiation and completion of the GDM screening and diagnosis process, our study investigated how pregnant women in rural and u...... similar low and middle income settings. This study stresses the importance of guidelines and diagnostic criteria which are simple and feasible on the ground....

  9. Quantification of Water Energy Nexus for Sustainable Development at Local Level: Case Study of Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S.; Tayal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interdependency between water and energy is generally transacted in trade-off mode; where either of the resource gets affected because of the other. Generally this trade-off is commonly known as water-energy nexus. Many studies have been undertaken in various parts of the world using various approaches to tease out the intricate nexus. This research has adopted a different approach to quantify the inter-dependency. The adopted approach made an attempt to tease out the nexus from demand side for both the resources. For water demand assessment PODIUM Sim model was used and for other parameters available secondary data was used. Using this approach percentage share of water for energy and energy for water was estimated. For an informed decision making and sustainable development, assessment was carried out at state level as most of the policies are made specifically for the state. The research was done for the southernmost state of India, Tamil Nadu which is a rapidly growing industrial hub. Tamil Nadu is energy and water intensive state and the analysis shows that the share of water demand from energy sector compared to water demand from other major sectors is miniscule. While, the energy demand in water sector for various processes in different sectors compared to energy demand as total has a comparable share of range 15-25%. This analysis indicated the relative risk sectors face in competition for the resource. It point outs that water sector faces fierce competition with other sectors for energy. Moreover, the results of the study has assessed that state has negative water balance, which may make access to water more energy intensive with time. But, a projection into future scenario with an assumption based on the ongoing policy program of improving irrigation efficiency was made. It provided a solution of a potential positive equilibrium which conserves both water and energy. This scenario gave promising results which indicated less of water demand from

  10. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2017-09-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  11. Metal contamination in select species of birds in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, R; Muralidharan, S

    2011-08-01

    Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average, Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of copper (53.31 ± 23.19 ppm) followed by Cattle Egret (16.27 ± 9.83 ppm) in liver. Of all the species, Jungle Babbler recorded the maximum concentrations (20.59 ± 9.07 ppm) in muscle. The Pond Heron recorded the maximum concentration (35.38 ± 11.14 ppm) in brain. On an average the maximum level was in the kidney of Common Myna (7.76 ± 1.80 ppm).

  12. Prevalence of sickle cells in Irula, Kurumba, Paniya & Mullukurumba tribes of Nilgiris (Tamil Nadu, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, S; Balakrishnan, K; Pitchappan, R M

    1994-11-01

    A total of 1377 tribals, comprising Irulas (536), Paniyas (196), Kurumbas (87), Mullukrurumbas (156) and Soligas (402), living in the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India were studied for sickle cell trait between 1981-85. Patients attending various tribal clinics at Arayure, Kozhikarai, Kothagiri and Biligiri Rengan hills for various ailments were screened at random by solubility test and by acetate paper electrophoresis, if required. HbAS carrier frequency was 30-37.8 per cent in all the tribals studied except Kurumbas (19.5%). The frequency of carriers were more (37.8%) on the western part of Nilgiris (Nedungode, Kappala and adjoining regions) than the eastern part (30%). Further, the prevalence of carriers was higher (47-49%) in the 10-19 yr age group amongst Paniyas and Mullukurumbas living in the western part of Nilgiris. An episodic, epidemic of malaria so rampant during the early part of this century in the western parts of Nilgiris might have eliminated many children with HbAA and hence the higher frequency of HbAS in this particular age group.

  13. Snakebite and its socio-economic impact on the rural population of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families.

  14. Groundwater resource exploration in Salem district, Tamil Nadu using GIS and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, G.; Selvarani, A. Geetha; Elangovan, K.

    2016-03-01

    Since last decade, the value per barrel of potable groundwater has outpaced the value of a barrel of oil in many areas of the world. Hence, proper assessment of groundwater potential and management practices are the needs of the day. Establishing relationship between remote sensing data and hydrologic phenomenon can maximize the efficiency of water resources development projects. Present study focuses on groundwater potential assessment in Salem district, Tamil Nadu to investigate groundwater resource potential. At the same, all thematic layers important from ground water occurrence and movement point of view were digitized and integrated in the GIS environment. The weights of different parameters/themes were computed using weighed index overlay analysis (WIOA), analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic technique. Through this integrated GIS analysis, groundwater prospect map of the study area was prepared qualitatively. Field verification at observation wells was used to verify identified potential zones and depth of water measured at observation wells. Generated map from weighed overlay using AHP performed very well in predicting the groundwater surface and hence this methodology proves to be a promising tool for future.

  15. An exploratory study on occurrence and impact of climate change on agriculture in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, R. Jayakumara; Kumar, Pramod; Jha, Girish Kumar; Pal, Suresh; Singh, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    This study has been undertaken to examine the occurrence of climate change in Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state of India and its impact on rainfall pattern which is a primary constraint for agricultural production. Among the five sample stations examined across the state, the minimum temperature has increased significantly in Coimbatore while the same has decreased significantly in Vellore whereas both minimum and maximum temperatures have increased significantly in Madurai since 1969 with climate change occurring between late 1980s and early 1990s. As a result, the south-west monsoon has been disturbed with August rainfall increasing with more dispersion while September rainfall decreasing with less dispersion. Thus, September, the peak rainfall month of south-west monsoon before climate change, has become the monsoon receding month after climate change. Though there has been no change in the trend of the north-east monsoon, the quantity of October and November rainfall has considerably increased with increased dispersion after climate change. On the whole, south-west monsoon has decreased with decreased dispersion while north-east monsoon has increased with increased dispersion. Consequently, the season window for south-west monsoon crops has shortened while the north-east monsoon crops are left to fend against flood risk during their initial stages. Further, the incoherence in warming, climate change and rainfall impact seen across the state necessitates devising different indigenous and institutional adaptation strategies for different regions to overcome the adverse impacts of climate change on agriculture.

  16. Bioprospecting marine actinomycetes for multidrug-resistant pathogen control from Rameswaram coastal area, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaab, Femina; Subramaniam, Kalidass

    2017-08-07

    A potent Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 was isolated for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 131 actinomycetes were isolated from the Rameswaram coastal region, Tamil Nadu, India. Among 131 actinomycetes, maximum number of actinomycetes (55%) isolated at the distance of 3-6 m from seashore. Out of 131 actinomycetes, 85% of the actinomycetes exhibited different degree of antagonistic activity against test pathogens. The antagonistic activity evaluated using actinomycetes direct culture filtrate and culture filtrate extracts. Among these culture filtrate, extracts had supreme antagonistic activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria and the solvent ethyl acetate was the best for extracting secondary metabolites from actinomycetes. In HPTLC analysis, the presence of macrolides, terpenoids, and quinolones was identified in RAM25C4 extract. In GC-MS analysis, various potent compounds such as phenolic compound-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, alkaloid compound-1H, 5H, pyrrolo (1' 2':3, 4) imidazo, and quinolone compound-1,4-benzenediol, 2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) were identified in the ethyl acetate extract of RAM25C4. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence of RAM25C4 isolate was deposited in NCBI with name Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 and accession number KM513543.

  17. Microbiological analysis of drinking water quality of Ananthanar channel of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Mary Antony

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological analyses were carried out on Ananthanar channel water of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India. The Ananthanar channel was selected in this study because this channel runs about nearly 28 km and supplies water for many villages for drinking and bathing purposes. Fecal and total coliform counts were performed using the standard membrane filtration technique and multiple tube technique. The results obtained were compared with reports of All India Institute of Medical Sciences Standards for Drinking and Recreational Water. Faecal coliform counts varied from 12 to 180 MPN/100 ml while Escherichia coli counts ranged from 6 to 161 MPN/100 ml for all the sampled sites. Among the total coliform Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii and Proteus mirabilis are reported. The Faecal coliform and the E. coli counts exceeding acceptable limits are indicative of pollution from domestic wastes from several informal settlements located along the riverbank. Water uses in the area were determined and were found to be mainly domestic and recreational. The gross pollution of the river exposes the local people who depend on it for their primary water source to serious health risk.

  18. Effect of vehicular traffic on wild animals in Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a road, directly and indirectly, impacts on the ecosystems where the road is built.  Highways passing through national reserves/wildlife sanctuaries have an adverse impact on wild animals.  The present survey was conducted to estimate the road kills on the state highways passing through the Nilgiri north territorial forest division (19km and Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (15km in Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu, India.  The road kills were monitored three times a month between July 2013 and December 2013 (six months and a total of 176 road kills belonging to 30 species were recorded.  Reptiles were the most affected taxa (39%, followed by mammals (33% and birds (21%.  Amphibians were least affected by vehicular traffic and comprised 7% of the total kills.  According to road stretch category, the overall road kill was N=135 in the forested area and N=41 in human habitations.  A total of 812 food materials were encounterd  612km with average of  1.32 food materials / km. Conservation and management implications are essential to prevent the local extinction of wildlife. 

  19. Groundwater resource exploration in Salem district, Tamil Nadu using GIS and remote sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Maheswaran; A Geetha Selvarani; K Elangovan

    2016-03-01

    Since last decade, the value per barrel of potable groundwater has outpaced the value of a barrel of oil in many areas of the world. Hence, proper assessment of groundwater potential and management practices are the needs of the day. Establishing relationship between remote sensing data and hydrologic phenomenon can maximize the efficiency of water resources development projects. Present study focuses on groundwater potential assessment in Salem district, Tamil Nadu to investigate groundwater resourcepotential. At the same, all thematic layers important from ground water occurrence and movement point of view were digitized and integrated in the GIS environment. The weights of different parameters/themes were computed using weighed index overlay analysis (WIOA), analytic hierarchy process (AHP) andfuzzy logic technique. Through this integrated GIS analysis, groundwater prospect map of the study area was prepared qualitatively. Field verification at observation wells was used to verify identified potential zones and depth of water measured at observation wells. Generated map from weighed overlay using AHP performed very well in predicting the groundwater surface and hence this methodology proves to be a promising tool for future.

  20. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2016-07-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  1. Hypertension treatment and control in a rural cohort in Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhdeep; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Venkatachalam, Ramachandran; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem with low detection and treatment rates in India. We resurveyed 1284 patients with hypertension already identified in baseline survey of the cohort in Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India. The objective was to estimate the proportion of patients with drug treatment, hypertension control and lifestyle modification at follow-up (median follow-up 27 months). Overall, only 19.9% of the patients took drugs and 45.3% had blood pressure under control. Among 256 patients on drugs, 179 (69.9%) were on a single drug, 71 (27.7%) on two drugs, and six (2.3%) on three drugs. Commonly prescribed drugs based on the prescription review were beta blockers (50.4%), calcium channel blockers (36.7%), angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (18.4%), and diuretics (11.7%). Salt reduction was reported by 49.7% of the patients. There is a need for strengthening the health systems for effective management of hypertension and patient education to ensure active involvement in the long-term care.

  2. An exploratory study on occurrence and impact of climate change on agriculture in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, R. Jayakumara; Kumar, Pramod; Jha, Girish Kumar; Pal, Suresh; Singh, Rashmi

    2017-02-01

    This study has been undertaken to examine the occurrence of climate change in Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state of India and its impact on rainfall pattern which is a primary constraint for agricultural production. Among the five sample stations examined across the state, the minimum temperature has increased significantly in Coimbatore while the same has decreased significantly in Vellore whereas both minimum and maximum temperatures have increased significantly in Madurai since 1969 with climate change occurring between late 1980s and early 1990s. As a result, the south-west monsoon has been disturbed with August rainfall increasing with more dispersion while September rainfall decreasing with less dispersion. Thus, September, the peak rainfall month of south-west monsoon before climate change, has become the monsoon receding month after climate change. Though there has been no change in the trend of the north-east monsoon, the quantity of October and November rainfall has considerably increased with increased dispersion after climate change. On the whole, south-west monsoon has decreased with decreased dispersion while north-east monsoon has increased with increased dispersion. Consequently, the season window for south-west monsoon crops has shortened while the north-east monsoon crops are left to fend against flood risk during their initial stages. Further, the incoherence in warming, climate change and rainfall impact seen across the state necessitates devising different indigenous and institutional adaptation strategies for different regions to overcome the adverse impacts of climate change on agriculture.

  3. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of leptospiral strains isolated from two geographic locations of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagavel, Murugesan; Princy Margreat, Alphonse Asirvatham; Arunkumar, Manivel; Prabhakaran, Shanmugarajan Gnanasekaran; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2016-01-01

    Here the rodent carrier status for the transmission of human leptospirosis in Tiruchirappalli, district, Tamil Nadu, India was assessed. The predominantly circulating leptospiral STs were recognized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 113 rodents were trapped from different provinces of the Tiruchirappalli district. The most prevalent rodent was Bandicota bengalensis (37.2%), and of the total, 52.2% (n=59) rodents were found to be positive for leptospiral 16S rRNA. These results were validated with a leptospiral culture positivity of 45.8% (n=27). Three isolates from Chennai (2 rodents and 1 human) and 1 human isolate from Tiruchirappalli were included to understand the spatial variations and to track the source of human leptospirosis. The serogroup, serovar, and species level identification of all 31 isolates identified 28 to be Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Javanica and three as Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis. MLST analysis defined all isolates to the existing ST profiles (ST145 and ST27) with the exception of 6 L. borgpetersenii (ST DR) isolates that showed variations in the sucA and pfkB loci. The DR ST was locally confined to Chatram province of Tiruchirappalli suggesting an epidemiological link. The predominant STs, ST145 and ST-DR form a group, indicating the presence of original strain that subsequently diverged evolutionarily into two STs. The variations between L. borgpetersenii in sucA and pfkB loci may be an indication that evolutionary changes transpired in Tiruchirappalli.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Meteorological Drought in the Parambikulam-Aliyar Basin, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, M.; Tamilmani, D.

    2015-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological drought in the Parambikulam-Aliyar basin, Tamil Nadu using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as an indicator of drought severity. The basin was divided into 97 grid-cells of 5 × 5 km with each grid correspondence to approximately 1.03 % of total area. Monthly rainfall data for the period of 40 years (1972-2011) from 28 rain gauge stations in the basin was spatially interpolated and gridded monthly rainfall was created. Regional representative of SPI values calculated from mean areal rainfall were used to analyse the temporal variation of drought at multiple time scales. Spatial variation of drought was analysed based on highest drought severity derived from the monthly gridded SPI values. Frequency analyse was applied to assess the recurrence pattern of drought severity. The temporal analysis of SPI indicated that moderate, severe and extreme droughts are common in the basin and spatial analysis of drought severity identified the areas most frequently affected by drought. The results of this study can be used for developing drought preparedness plan and formulating mitigation strategies for sustainable water resource management within the basin.

  5. Diversity and community structure of butterfly of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, T; Sekar, M; Manimozhi, A; Baskar, N; Archunan, G

    2011-03-01

    Investigation was carried out on the diversity of butterfly fauna in selected localities of conservation and breeding center of Arignar Anna Zoological Park (AAZP), Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Atotal of 56 species were recorded, 15 of them belonged to Pieridae, 12 Nymphalidae, 9 Satyridae, 8 Papilionidae, 7 Danaidae, 3 Lycaenidae and 1 species each belonged to the families Acraeidae and Hesperidae. Qualitatively and quantitatively Pieridae family were comparatively dominant than that of other families. The notable addition to the 25 more species listed during this observation were compared to previous field survey. Comparison of butterfly species distribution between the different localities revealed that butterfly species richness was higher at mountain region with 52 species and lowest of 25 species at public visiting areas. Visitor's activities may be that reason for effects on butterfly distribution and lack of vegetation. Each five endemic and protected species (i.e. endangered) listed under the Wildlife (Protection)Act were highlighted greater conservation importances of the AAZP. It is suggest that butterfly species diversity generally increase with increase in vegetation and declines with the increase in disturbance.

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of macrobenthos in different mangrove ecosystems of Tamil Nadu Coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidurai, K; Saravanakumar, A; Kathiresan, K

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with the spatial distribution and diversity of macrobenthos and their relationships between physico-chemical parameters of the water and sediment in different mangrove habitats of Tamil Nadu, India during different seasons (2008). Among the different ecosystems of mangrove benthic faunal assemblages, macrofauna species number, density, richness, and Shannon-Wiener index were the highest and the Simpson dominance index was medial at riverine mangrove community. However, the Pielou Evenness index of riverine mangrove community was slightly lower than other communities. The similarities among the macrobenthic communities at different sampling sites were determined using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient and ordinations of non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS). Thirty-one species were recorded in developing (16 polychaetes, six bivalves, seven gastropods, and two crustaceans), 35 species were recorded in riverine (20 polychaetes, six bivalves, five gastropods, and four crustaceans) and 31 species were recorded in island mangrove ecosystem (19 polychaetes, four bivalves, five gastropods, and three crustaceans). Among the three ecosystems, a total of 46 benthic macrofauna consisting of 27 species of polychaetes, eight species of gastropods, seven species of bivalves, and four species of crustaceans were recorded. However, there were obvious differences among the community structures in the three mangrove habitats. This result implied that the different mangrove ecosystem had different effects on the macrofauna communities and shed light on the macrofauna adaptation capability to specific habitats.

  7. Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall over Tamil Nadu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Balachandran; R Asokan; S Sridharan

    2006-06-01

    The local and teleconnective association between Northeast Monsoon Rainfall (NEMR)over Tamil Nadu and global Surface Temperature Anomalies (STA)is examined using the monthly grid-ded STA data for the period 1901-2004.Various geographical regions which have significant tele-connective signals associated with NEMR are identi fied.During excess (deficient)NEMR years,it is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and north Africa,in the month of September is directed from the subtropics (higher latitudes)to higher latitudes (subtropics).It is also observed that North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)during September in fluences the surface air temperature distribution over north Africa and Europe.Also,the NAO index in January shows significant inverse relationship with NEMR since recent times.The central and eastern equatorial Pacific oceanic regions have signi ficant and consistent positive correlation with NEMR while the western equatorial region has significant negative correlation with NEMR. A zonal temperature anomaly gradient index (ZTAGI)de fined between eastern equatorial Pacific and western equatorial Pacific shows stable significant inverse relationship with NEMR.

  8. Natural products used by the Kanikkars of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mary Mettilda Bai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to identify folklore medicinally important plants frequently used by the Kannikars tribal residing in the part of Kanyakumari Wild Life Sanctuary of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu. Kannikars are the dominant tribal group in this region. The survey was conducted in eighteen Kannikars settlelment of Pechiparai Panchayat. Through general conversations with traditional healers the details of medicinal plants used, mode of treatments, methods of preparation and type of administration was collected and documented. About 38 plants belonging to 22 families are documented. The wild plants found in this region are used for treating skin diseases, fever and other ailments including bites of snakes, spiders and scorpions are enumerated in the present paper. Kannikars are mostly using the leaves of plants followed by roots sometimes the whole plants, seed and fruits. The common diseases treated by the herbal practitioner were asthma, digestive problems, animal bites and skin diseases. Most of the plants are belonging to Fabaceae followed by Asteraceae and Acanthaceae.

  9. HLA antigens in South India: II. Selected caste groups of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, R; Kakkanaiah, V N; Pitchappan, R M

    1987-09-01

    HLA-A, B antigen and haplotype frequencies were studied in four different caste groups of Tamil Nadu living in Madurai. A total number of 101 Nadars, 36 Kallars, 54 Iyers and 57 Telugu-speaking Naidus were studied. HLA A3 and B15 were significantly higher in Nadars; A10 & B8 in Kallars and Aw19, B12 & B35 in Iyers. HLA A-B haplotypes A10-B7, A28-B17 & A24-B- were characteristic of Nadars; A10-B8 & A1-B-, Kallars; Aw19-B12 & A1-B15, Iyers and A2-B-, Naidus. Negative linkage disequilibria for Aw19-B7, A28-B15 & A9-B51 were significant in Nadars; A1-B5, A1-B12 & Aw19-B- in Iyers and A2-B17 in Naidus. Heterogeneity chi-square based on antigen frequency and genetic distance also suggest the heterogeneous nature of the population of South India. Will these caste groups with such diverse haplotypic combinations differ from one another in their immune response and susceptibility to a given epidemic or infection?

  10. Evaluation of age-standardized cancer burden in western Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Selvaraj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of cancer is growing globally and is one of the top leading causes of death. Information on cancer patterns is essential for effective planning of cancer control interventions. Aims and Objectives: The present cross sectional study aims to explore the patterns and trends of the cancer incidences in the western regions of Tamil Nadu, India including Coimbatore, Erode, Tiruppur, Salem, Namakkal and Nilgiris. Materials and Methods: A sum of 14392 cancer cases were recorded from the hospital based cancer registries of Coimbatore district. The cancer cases were segregated district-wise for specific cancer sites and the age-standardized incident rates were calculated for different age groups. Results: Coimbatore district recorded the highest number of incidences among all districts. Among all age-groups the adults aged 50-74 carry the highest burden of cancer. Among men, head and neck and gastrointestinal cancers are predominant while among women, breast and gynecological cancers are high. The age-standardized incidence rates were found to be higher in Coimbatore and least in Salem. Conclusion: Through this study, it is observed that Coimbatore district is under major threat and needs further investigation of risk factors for implementing optimized treatment and prevention strategies for reducing the adverse effects of cancer.

  11. Occurrence of mycotoxins in livestock feeds and feed stuffs of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathchandra, G; Muralimanohar, B

    2013-07-01

    The livestock feed and feed ingredients were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, citrinin, penicillic Acid, T2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone. The samples were collected from different livestock farmers/farms of Tamil Nadu. Mycotoxins were determined in all the samples. The present study clearly indicates high occurrence of citrinin highly predominant followed by Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in feedstuffs and feeds. Aflatoxins B1, citrinin, ochratoxin A were the most common mycotoxins observed. The aflatoxin B1 levels ranged between 50 to 80 microg kg(-1), ochratoxin A levels ranged between 20 to 160 microg kg(-1), Citrinin levels ranged between 20 to 350 microg kg(-1), penicillic acid levels ranged between 20 to 30 microg kg(-1), T2 Toxin levels ranged between 75 to 450 microg kg(-1) and zearalenone levels ranged between 150 to 1000 microg kg(-1) respectively. The results of the study warrant the need for sustained monitoring of these commodities periodically and evolve policies which discourage the marketing of toxin contaminated feeds as existing in the developed countries.

  12. Studies on community knowledge and behavior following a dengue epidemic in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, V; Rajendran, R; Manavalan, R; Tewari, S C; Arunachalam, N; Ayanar, K; Krishnamoorthi, R; Tyagi, B K

    2010-08-01

    In 2001, a major dengue outbreak was recorded in Chennai city, with 737 cases (90%) out of a total of 861 cases recorded from Tamil Nadu state. A KAP survey was carried out to assess the community knowledge, attitude and practice on dengue fever (DF), following the major dengue outbreak in 2001. A pre- tested, structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The multistage cluster sampling method was employed and 640 households (HHs) were surveyed. Among the total HHs surveyed, 34.5% of HHs were aware of dengue and only 3.3% of HHs knew that virus is the causative agent for DF. Majority of the HHs (86.5%) practiced water storage and only 3% of them stored water more than 5 days. No control measures were followed to avoid mosquito breeding in the water holding containers by majority of HHs (65%). Sixty percent of HHs did not know the biting behaviour of dengue vector mosquitoes. The survey results indicate that the community knowledge was very poor on dengue, its transmission, vector breeding sources, biting behavior and preventive measures. The lack of basic knowledge of the community on dengue epidemiology and vector bionomics would be also a major cause of increasing trend of dengue in this highly populated urban environment. There is an inevitable need to organize health education programmes about dengue disease to increase community knowledge and also to sensitize the community to participate in integrated vector control programme to resolve the dengue problem.

  13. Ethnic Forces in Collective Action: Diversity, Dominance, and Irrigation in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Waring

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that ethnic interactions damage cooperation in the provision of public goods, yet very few studies of collective action in common pool resource management have found strong evidence for the effects of ethnic diversity. Research on both public goods and common pool resource management that does find negative ethnic effects on cooperation tend to ignore the importance of interethnic relationships, particularly ethnic inequality, stratification, or dominance. This study presents data from agricultural villages in Tamil Nadu's Palani Hills to test the importance of a range of ethnic effects using caste interactions in a traditional irrigation system. I provide corroborating evidence of a negative cooperative effect of ethnic diversity, but also demonstrate that factors of ethnic dominance such as hierarchical stratification and demographic dominance strongly determine outcomes in collective irrigation management. I argue that the most important measure of equity, irrigation access, is socially, technologically, and institutionally embedded, and demonstrate that the distribution of irrigation channels is explained by measures of inequality, such as wealth inequality, Dalit status, and demographic dominance.

  14. Distribution of catfishes in wetlands of two flood plain districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rajagopal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the distribution of catfishes in selected wetlands in Kancheepuram and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu, southern India. Different types of wetlands such as tanks, pools, lakes, open wells and estuaries were selected for the study based on their different environmental set up. Fishes were collected with the help of fishermen using cast and seine nets. Twelve species of catfishes from five families (Ariidae, Bagridae, Heteropneustidae, Schilbeidae and Siluridae were recorded, of which 10 species from four families were from Kanyakumari and six species belonging to three families were from Kancheepuram District. In Kancheepuram, the species recorded were Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus seengtee, M. gulio, M. keletius, M. vittatus and Neotropius atherinoides, and in Kanyakumari the species recorded were Arius arius, Arius subrostratus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus armatus, M. seengtee, M. gulio, M. montanus, M. vittatus, Ompok bimaculatus and O. malabaricus. Among the wetlands, the highest species richness was seen in Puthery and Erachakulam tanks in Kanyakumari and Chembarampakkam Lake in Kancheepuram. The lowest species richness was observed was in Vishnupuram, Thotiode tanks and Mavadi pool of the former district and Vandalur Tank, Kalpakkam Estuary of the latter. Environmental factors such as microhabitat diversity and substrate diversity in the wetlands significantly influenced species richness.

  15. Geomatics Based Landslide Vulnerability Zonation Mapping - Parts Of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Landslide includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rock falls, deep failure of slope, and shallow debris flows. Although gravity acting on an over steepened slope is the primary reason for a landslide. The Nilgiri Hills (Mountains of Tamil Nadu, India are prone to landslides, which often result in considerable damage to private property, public infrastructure, and loss of life. The mapping of LVZ includes, the preparation of various thematic layers from different data sources, such as Survey of India topographic sheets, Satellite data, Geological Survey of India maps etc. These landslides are typically the result of the structural failure of thick laterite soils that have been saturated by heavy rains during the monsoon season. . GIS have proved to be useful tools for analyzing and managing landslide related data. GIS has been widely used in quantitative estimation landslide susceptibility. The methodology adopted for the identification of landslide vulnerable zones, and suggestion of remedial measures based on the vulnerability of landslides on different terrain parameters per unit area. Through this study, it is evinced again that the geomatics technology is a proven tool for landslide studies in order to properly understand, identify and suggest remedial measures.

  16. Elastic properties of granulite facies rocks of Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V M S Rao; K J Prasanna Lakshmi; L P Sarma; K B Chary

    2006-12-01

    Compressional and shear wave velocities and attenuation measurements have been carried out in some of the borehole samples of acidic, basic and intermediate granulites of Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, India. The results have been obtained at ambient conditions using ‘time-of-flight’ pulse transmission technique at 1.0MHz frequency. The results show linear relationships between velocity and density, and velocity and attenuation properties of the rocks. The acidic granulites show lower velocities and higher attenuation than the intermediate and basic granulites. The average values of the Poisson’s ratio of acidic, intermediate and basic granulites have been found to be 0.210, 0.241 and 0.279 respectively. The variations in velocities and attenuation in these low porosity crystalline rocks are found to be strongly influenced by their mineral composition. The laboratory velocity data (extrapolated to high pressure) of the present study and the published field velocity data from deep seismic sounding studies indicate that these granulite facies rocks may belong to mid-crustal depths only.

  17. Influence of season, age and breed on prevalence of haemoprotozoan diseases in cattle of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velusamy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of haemoprotozoan diseases in cross-bred and indigenous cattle in relation to season, age and breed in Western part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2637 blood smears were screened for haemoprotozoan diseases and samples were received from the college hospital and veterinary dispensaries in Western part of Tamil Nadu, India. Blood smears were stained using Giemsa's technique and examined under oil immersion. Results: Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed an overall prevalence of 16.64 %; of which theileriosis was 13 %, followed by anaplasmosis 2.64 % and then babesiosis 1.0%. Among the haemoprotozoan diseases, the prevalence of theileriosis was significantly (p<0.05 high during summer (14.4%, followed by moderate in monsoon (13.8% and less in fair (11.5% seasons. However, there was no significant seasonal influence on the prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The data on influence of breed revealed that there was a significantly (p<0.05 high prevalence of haemoprotozoan diseases in Holstein Friesian (HF and Jersey cross breeds than indigenous breed and the occurrence of these haemoprotozoan diseases was found to be high among the age groups of 2-7 years in cross-bred animals and below 2 years in indigenous animals. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Western part of Tamil Nadu is highly endemic for theileriosis and occurrence of the disease was high during summer. Cross-bred animals aged 2-7 years are highly susceptible to these haemoprotozoan diseases than indigenous animals.

  18. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS (L. POIT LEAVES FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF TAMIL NADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pandiyarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L. leaves from three different regions of Tamil Nadu was analysed by GC – MS method and the constituents of three different localities were compared. In all 12 compounds were identified and they were α-caryophyllene, α-pinene, α-thujene, camphene, D-limonene, sabinene, β-myrcene, 1, 8-cineole, γ-terpinene, α-terpinolene, α-terpineol, phenentherene. It was found that the constituents of the essential oil differed in quantities in the three different populations of Hyptis suaveolens (L. which may due to local geographical differences.

  19. The Development and Impact of the Livestock Guru: Meeting the Knowledge Needs of Poor Livestock Keepers in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock keepers comprise 2/3rds of the 2.8 billion households living on less than two dollars per day. However, as a group they tend to be marginalised and excluded from formal service provision, particularly in relation to animal health. Therefore, the following paper describes the development of the Livestock Guru, a multi-media learning programme created to meet the knowledge needs of poor livestock keepers in Tamil Nadu, India. The findings from the study illustrate the importance of both appropriate visuals, voice-overs but also the need for addressing issues in the environment in which learning will take place.

  20. Identification Of Ground Water Potential Zones In Tamil Nadu By Remote Sensing And GIS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A case study was conducted to find out the groundwater potential zones in Salem, Erode and Namakkal districts, Tamil Nadu, India with an aerial extent of 360.60 km2 . The thematic maps such as geology, geomorphology, soil hydrological group, land use / land cover and drainage map were prepared for the study area. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM has been generated from the 10 m interval contour lines (which is derived from SOI, Toposheet 1:25000 scale and obtained the slope (% of the study area. The groundwater potential zones were obtained by overlaying all the thematic maps in terms of weighted overlay methods using the spatial analysis tool in Arc GIS 9.3. During weighted overlay analysis, the ranking has been given for each individual parameter of each thematic map and weights were assigned according to the influence such as soil −25%, geomorphology − 25%, land use/land cover −25%, slope − 15%, lineament − 5% and drainage / streams − 5% and find out the potential zones in terms of good, moderate and poor zones with the area of 49.70 km2 , 261.61 km2 and 46.04 km2 respectively. The potential zone wise study area was overlaid with village boundary map and the village wise groundwater potential zones with three categories such as good, moderate and poor zones were obtained. This GIS based output result was validated by conducting field survey by randomly selecting wells in different villages using GPS instruments. The coordinates of each well location were obtained by GPS and plotted in the GIS platform and it was clearly shown that the well coordinates were exactly seated with the classified zones.

  1. Attitudes and perceptions of dental students in Tamil Nadu state toward their curriculum and profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicine and engineering still seems to be the most chosen career and the decision in the choice is largely influenced by the parents. Right attitude toward the chosen profession and the perceptions about the existing curriculum are important for any student to be successful in the college as well as in the career. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 466 undergraduate (bachelor of dental surgery students from randomly chosen dental colleges in Tamil Nadu to assess their attitude and perception toward their curriculum and profession. A validated closed ended questionnaire with 18 questions was used in this study. The information obtained were: Reason to opt for the dental course, the most-hated part of the curriculum, adequacy of lecture and clinical hours, number and duration of lecture classes and clinical hours preferred, reason for not liking a particular subject, and the most important factor to be considered to rate a teacher. The proportion of the response was calculated to assess the overall attitude and perceptions of the students. Results: Forty-two percent of the students opted for the dental course because they did not get admission to the medical course. Written assignments (52% were the most hated part of their curriculum. -42% of the students believed that the ideal attendance percentage should be 75%. Knowledge and teaching skills (79% was the most important factor that was considered to rate a teacher. Conclusion: Majority of the students developed passion toward their profession. There was no serious complains about the existing curriculum, but a newer education model that can enhance the problem solving, and critical evaluation skills of the student is warranted.

  2. Rubella serosurveys at three Aravind Eye Hospitals in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Perumalsamy; Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Prakash, Karthik; Narendran, Kalpana; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Prajna, Lalitha; Brown, David; Robertson, Susan E

    2004-04-01

    To determine the susceptibility of female eye hospital staff to rubella infection and the potential risk for hospital-based rubella outbreaks. A prospective cohort study on the seroprevalence of rubella IgG antibodies was conducted at three large eye hospitals in Coimbatore, Madurai and Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India, where young children with eye abnormalities attributable to congenital rubella are treated. A total of 1000 female hospital employees aged 18-40 years agreed to participate and gave written informed consent. The proportions of rubella-seronegative women were: 11.7% at Coimbatore, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 8.1-16.5; 15% at Madurai (95% CI = 12.3-18.1), and 20.8 at Tirunelveli (95% CI = 14.7-28.6). For the entire cohort the proportion seronegative was significantly higher among married women (21.5%) than among single women (14.0%) (P = 0.02). Rates of seronegativity were highest among physicians and lowest among housekeepers. All 150 seronegative women in the study sample accepted a dose of rubella vaccine. These are the first rubella serosurveys to have been reported from eye hospitals in any country. The relatively high rate of susceptibility indicated a risk of a rubella outbreak, and this was reduced by vaccinating all seronegative women. A policy has been established at all three hospitals for the provision of rubella vaccine to new employees. Other hospitals, especially eye hospitals and hospitals in countries without routine rubella immunization, should consider the rubella susceptibility of staff and the risk of hospital-based rubella outbreaks.

  3. Groundwater quality assessment using geospatial and statistical tools in Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulbalaji, P.; Gurugnanam, B.

    2016-11-01

    The water quality study of Salem district, Tamil Nadu has been carried out to assess the water quality for domestic and irrigation purposes. For this purpose, 59 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), major anions (HCO3 -, CO3 -, F-, Cl-, NO2 - + NO3 -, and SO4 2-), major cations (Ca2+ Mg2+, Na+, and K+), alkalinity (ALK), and hardness (HAR). To assess the water quality, the following chemical parameters were calculated based on the analytical results, such as Piper plot, water quality index (WQI), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH), Kelly index (KI), and residual sodium carbonate (RSC). Wilcox diagram represents that 23% of the samples are excellent to good, 40% of the samples are good to permissible, 10% of the samples are permissible to doubtful, 24% of the samples are doubtful unsuitable, and only 3% of the samples are unsuitable for irrigation. SAR values shows that 52% of the samples indicate high-to-very high and low-to-medium alkali water. KI values indicate good quality (30%) and not suitable (70%) for irrigation purposes. RSC values indicate that 89% of samples are suitable for irrigation purposes. MH reveals that 17% suitable and 83% samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes and for domestic purposes the excellent (8%), good (48%), and poor (44%). The agricultural waste, fertilizer used, soil leaching, urban runoff, livestock waste, and sewages are the sources of poor water quality. Some samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes due to high salinity, hardness, and magnesium concentration. In general, the groundwater of the Salem district was polluted by agricultural activities, anthropogenic activities, ion exchange, and weathering.

  4. Why seawater intrusion has not yet occurred in the Kaluvelli-Pondicherry basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Aude; Violette, Sophie

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, coastal aquifers are threatened by seawater intrusion. The threat is greatest when aquifers are overexploited or when recharge is low due to a semi-arid or arid climate. The Kaluvelli-Pondicherry sedimentary basin in Tamil Nadu (India) presents both these characteristics. Groundwater levels in the Vanur aquifer can reach 50 m below sea level at less than 20 km inland. This groundwater depletion is due to an exponential increase in extraction for irrigation over 35 years. No seawater intrusion has yet been detected, but a sulphate-rich mineralization is observed, the result of upward vertical leakage from the underlying Ramanathapuram aquifer. To characterize the mechanisms involved, and to facilitate effective water management, hydrogeological numerical modelling of this multi-layered system has been conducted. Existing and acquired geological and hydrodynamic data have been applied to a quasi-3D hydrogeological model, NEWSAM. Recharge had been previously quantified through the inter-comparison of hydrological models, based on climatological and surface-flow field measurements. Sensitivity tests on parameters and boundary conditions associated with the sea were performed. The resulting water balances for each aquifer led to hypotheses of (1) an offshore fresh groundwater stock, and (2) a reversal and increase of the upward leakage from the Ramanathapuram aquifer, thus corroborating the hypothesis proposed to explain geochemical results of the previous study, and denying a seawater intrusion. Palaeo-climate review supports the existence of favourable hydro-climatological conditions to replenish an offshore groundwater stock of the Vanur aquifer in the past. The extent of this fresh groundwater stock was calculated using the Kooi and Groen method.

  5. Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera and its Environmental Conditions of Karaikal, Central Coast of Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, R.; Gandhi, S.

    2013-05-01

    Foraminifera have been successful inhabitants of every aquatic environment from deep oceans to brackish water lagoons, estuaries and even rarely in freshwater streams, lakes etc. offshore region of Karaikal the present study has been taken up to enhance the existing knowledge on foraminifera of central coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 21 sediment and water samples were collected from the offshore region. The depth of sample collection in offshore area ranges from 1.5 m to 12 m. Standard procedures adopted for the evaluation of different environmental parameters are incorporated. A total of 33 foraminiferal taxa belonging to 17 genera, 12 subfamilies, 14 superfamilies, and 4 suborders have been identified. In Karaikal , the mean size of the sediments on the foreshore ranges from 1.51 to 2.95 φ indicating the predominance of fine sediments (80-85%) with an admixture of medium-grained sands. Calcium carbonate content is generally found to be directly proportional to the population size in both the estuary and shelf area. It clearly indicates that due to the erosional activities whatever sediments deposited near the Arasalar river in that region are transported to the marine region and were drifted towards northern direction by longshore current, hence the deposition of carbonate in the sediments shows negative correlation. Due to strong high energy environment the current action is more in this region the juvinile forms of A. beccarri, A.tepida, A. dendata, E. crispum, P. calar, and P. nipponica only withstand and the other species are absent. The Correlation between Living vs Dead, Dead Vs Calcium carbonate, Salinity Vs living, Organic matter Vs Living, Organic matter Vs Carbonate content shows positive correlation for all the samples like LT, HT, Beach, River, and Offshore. Even though, all the ecological parameters having good correlation with foraminifera, but the distribution are very less in the study area. M.RAJA Dept.of.Geology University of Madras Chennai

  6. Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

  7. Why seawater intrusion has not yet occurred in the Kaluvelli-Pondicherry basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Aude; Violette, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, coastal aquifers are threatened by seawater intrusion. The threat is greatest when aquifers are overexploited or when recharge is low due to a semi-arid or arid climate. The Kaluvelli-Pondicherry sedimentary basin in Tamil Nadu (India) presents both these characteristics. Groundwater levels in the Vanur aquifer can reach 50 m below sea level at less than 20 km inland. This groundwater depletion is due to an exponential increase in extraction for irrigation over 35 years. No seawater intrusion has yet been detected, but a sulphate-rich mineralization is observed, the result of upward vertical leakage from the underlying Ramanathapuram aquifer. To characterize the mechanisms involved, and to facilitate effective water management, hydrogeological numerical modelling of this multi-layered system has been conducted. Existing and acquired geological and hydrodynamic data have been applied to a quasi-3D hydrogeological model, NEWSAM. Recharge had been previously quantified through the inter-comparison of hydrological models, based on climatological and surface-flow field measurements. Sensitivity tests on parameters and boundary conditions associated with the sea were performed. The resulting water balances for each aquifer led to hypotheses of (1) an offshore fresh groundwater stock, and (2) a reversal and increase of the upward leakage from the Ramanathapuram aquifer, thus corroborating the hypothesis proposed to explain geochemical results of the previous study, and denying a seawater intrusion. Palaeo-climate review supports the existence of favourable hydro-climatological conditions to replenish an offshore groundwater stock of the Vanur aquifer in the past. The extent of this fresh groundwater stock was calculated using the Kooi and Groen method.

  8. Assessment of prescribing practices among urban and rural general practitioners in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekharan Gopalakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studying drug use pattern among medical practitioners is of vital importance in the present scenario where irrational drug use and development of drug resistance is becoming rampant. Objective: To assess, the pattern of prescribing practices among the general practitioners in a defined rural and urban area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A community based descriptive study was conducted to collect 600 prescriptions from the catchment areas of rural and urban health training centers of a medical college using prescribing indicators as per the WHO "How to investigate drug use in health facilities" tool. Results: This prescription study revealed that multivitamins (19.5%, antibiotics (19.3%, drugs for gastro-intestinal tract (GIT (18%, analgesic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/ (NSAID′s (15.1%, and antihistaminic (12.5% were prescribed frequently. Among the antibiotics, amoxicillin (49.2% was the most commonly prescribed followed by gentamicin (31.7%. Percentage of prescriptions with an antibiotic was 55% and nearly 62% of the practitioners prescribed drugs by their generic names. As a practice of poly-pharmacy, it was observed that the average number of drugs prescribed in urban and rural area was nearly 5 and 4, respectively. Nearly 80% of the urban and rural practitioners were prescribing at least one injection. Study of the quality of prescriptions revealed that there was poor legibility, high usage of abbreviations, inadequate details of the drugs, and absence of signature by practitioners in the prescriptions. Conclusion: This study clearly highlights the practice of poly-pharmacy, low usage of generic drugs, injudicious usage of antibiotics and injections and low usage of drugs prescribed from essential drugs list.

  9. An outbreak investigation of measles after the tsunami in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsanam M Balasubramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tsunami struck the entire coastline of Tamil Nadu on 26 th December 2004. After tsunami an outbreak of measles was reported by media in Cuddalore district due to overcrowding of people in relief camps. We had to investigate and report within 12 hours upon this outbreak of measles and determine whether it was related to the tsunami. Materials and Methods: Investigation was done by interviewing health care workers, by visiting villages from where measles was reported and confirmed serologically among children, by looking for clustering of cases and probing for possible reasons for the outbreak. Results : By the day the investigation was carried out, 27 cases had been reported. Of these, 13 cases were from a village not affected by tsunami. There was clustering of cases in a single street in this village. Other reported cases were from villages affected by tsunami, but there was no clustering. No cases were reported from relief camps. All the affected children were above 3 years of age and were immunized previously against measles. No data were available on occurrence of measles in previous years, but it was ascertained that cases of measles occurred around the same season. No common source was identified. Interview with the health workers revealed that reconstituted vaccine was used more than 4 h after reconstitution. A faulty technique was used in route of administration in the immunization. Health workers also said that after the age of 1 year a non-immunized child was not given the vaccine. Conclusions: There was a localized outbreak of measles, but was not related to tsunami. Probable source could not be identified. Possible reasons for outbreak were the faulty use of vaccine and technique of administration. This investigation shows that though in some field situations it may not be possible, or even necessary, to carry out a full-fledged epidemiological investigation, following the epidemiological principles can lead to concrete

  10. Characterization and genotoxicity evaluation of particulate matter collected from industrial atmosphere in Tamil Nadu state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, S; Manju, A; Muthuselvam, P; Shalini, D; Indhumathi, V; Kalaiselvi, K; Palanivel, M; Chandrasekar, P P; Rajaguru, P

    2014-06-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) collected in the vicinity of five industries (Cement, Chemical, Thermal power plant, Sponge-iron and Steel) in Tamil Nadu state, India was characterized for size distribution, metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content. Genotoxicity of PM and organic matter (OM) extracted from PM was measured in human lung cancer cell-line, A549 and in human liver carcinoma cell-line, HepG2, respectively, using the comet assay. PM values varied from 57.0 μg/m(3) of air at Cement industry upstream to 561.0 μg/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry downstream samples. Their metal content varied from 5.758 μg/m(3) of air at Chemical industry to 46.144 μg/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry and PAH concentration varied from 0.5 ng/m(3) air in upstream Thermal power plant to 3302.4 ng/m(3) air in downstream Sponge iron industry samples. While all PM samples induced DNA strand breaks at higher dose levels, downstream samples of Steel and Sponge iron industries which contained relatively higher concentrations of PAHs and metals and exhibited higher levels of pro-oxidant activity as measured by DTT activity induced significantly higher levels of DNA damage in HepG2 and A549 cells. Pretreatment of A549 cells with vitamin C or quercetin significantly reduced PM induced DNA strand breaks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. STUDY ON THE OCCURRENCE OF WORMIAN BONES AMONG THE MALE AND FEMALE SKULLS OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mary Antony Praba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wormian bones, also known as intra sutural bones are extra bone pieces that occur within a suture in the cranium. These are irregular isolated bones which appear in addition to the usual centers of ossification of the cranium and, although unusual, are not rare. The number of sutural bones varies considerably because different individuals and different population have different numbers of sutural bones. They occur mostly along the sutures and meeting point of the cranial sutures. They occur most frequently in the course of the lambdoid suture. They are also occasionally seen within the sagittal and coronal sutures. Materials and Methods: In this present study we analyzed the occurrence of sutural bones among 50 male and female skulls in Tamil Nadu region and we compared the results along with the studies of Indian skulls. Result and Conclusion: Based on the study we concluded that sutural bones are more among male skulls than in females among the skulls of Tamil Nadu and this is exactly the opposite of the results given in Indian population.

  12. Associated factors with cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women community at Sadras, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornam Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the associated factors of cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women residing in the coastal areas of Sadras, Tamil Nadu. Methods: The study was conducted in five fishermen communities under Sadras, a coastal area in Tamil Nadu, India. Two hundred and fifty married fisher women residing in the area. Quantitative descriptive approach with a cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule for identifying the associated factors and Pap smear test was performed for identifying the pre-malignant cervical lesions among the married fisher women. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among 250 women, about six (2.4% of them presented with pre-cancerous lesions such as atypical squamous cell of undifferentiated significance (ASCUS - five (2% and mild dysplasia one (0.4%. Majority of the women, about 178 (71.2% women, had abnormal cervical findings. Statistical analysis showed a significant association of risk factors such as advanced age, lack of education, low socioeconomic status, using tobacco, multiparity, premarital sex, extramarital relationship, using cloth as sanitary napkin, etc. Conclusion: The study findings clearly show the increased vulnerable state of the fisher women for acquiring cervical cancer as they had many risk factors contributing to the same.

  13. Prevalence of Dental Caries, Oral Hygiene Knowledge, Status, and Practices among Visually Impaired Individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rufus John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results. In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5±2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1±2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8±1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5±1.3. Conclusion. Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.

  14. Characterization of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Ramesh; Subramani, Ramkumar; Maray, Suresh; Gothandam, K M; Sivamangala, Karthikeyan; Manohar, Prasanth; Bozdogan, Bülent

    2016-10-01

    Carbapenem resistance is disseminating worldwide among Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to identify carbapenem-resistance level and to determine the mechanism of carbapenem resistance among clinical isolates from two centres in Tamil Nadu. In the present study, a total of 93 Gram-negative isolates, which is found to be resistant to carbapenem by disk diffusion test in two centres, were included. All isolates are identified at species level by 16S rRNA sequencing. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of isolates for Meropenem were tested by agar dilution method. Presence of blaOXA, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaKPC genes was tested by PCR in all isolates. Amplicons were sequenced for confirmation of the genes. Among 93 isolates, 48 (%52) were Escherichia coli, 10 (%11) Klebsiella pneumoniae, nine (%10) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimal inhibitory concentration results showed that of 93 suspected carbapenem-resistant isolates, 27 had meropenem MICs ≥ 2 μg/ml. The MIC range, MIC50 and MIC90 were 128 μg/ml, 0.12 and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Fig. 1 . Among meropenem-resistant isolates, E. coli were the most common (9/48, 22%), followed by K. pneumoniae (7/9, 77%), P. aeruginosa (6/10, 60%), Acinetobacter baumannii (2/2, 100%), Enterobacter hormaechei (2/3, 67%) and one Providencia rettgeri (1/1, 100%). PCR results showed that 16 of 93 carried blaNDM, three oxa181, and one imp4. Among blaNDM carriers, nine were E. coli, four Klebsiella pneumoniae, two E. hormaechei and one P. rettgeri. Three K. pneumoniae were OXA-181 carriers. The only imp4 carrier was P. aeruginosa. A total of seven carbapenem-resistant isolates were negatives by PCR for the genes studied. All carbapenem-resistance gene-positive isolates had meropenem MICs >2 μg/ml. Our results confirm the dissemination of NDM and emergence of OXA-181 beta-lactamase among Gram-negative bacteria in South India. This study showed the emergence of NDM producer in clinical isolates of E

  15. Climate variables as predictors for seasonal forecast of dengue occurrence in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash Kumar, D. D.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Background Dengue is a recently emerging vector borne diseases in Chennai. As per the WHO report in 2011 dengue is one of eight climate sensitive disease of this century. Objective Therefore an attempt has been made to explore the influence of climate parameters on dengue occurrence and use for forecasting. Methodology Time series analysis has been applied to predict the number of dengue cases in Chennai, a metropolitan city which is the capital of Tamil Nadu, India. Cross correlation of the climate variables with dengue cases revealed that the most influential parameters were monthly relative humidity, minimum temperature at 4 months lag and rainfall at one month lag (Table 1). However due to intercorrelation of relative humidity and rainfall was high and therefore for predictive purpose the rainfall at one month lag was used for the model development. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models have been applied to forecast the occurrence of dengue. Results and Discussion The best fit model was ARIMA (1,0,1). It was seen that the monthly minimum temperature at four months lag (β= 3.612, p = 0.02) and rainfall at one month lag (β= 0.032, p = 0.017) were associated with dengue occurrence and they had a very significant effect. Mean Relative Humidity had a directly significant positive correlation at 99% confidence level, but the lagged effect was not prominent. The model predicted dengue cases showed significantly high correlation of 0.814(Figure 1) with the observed cases. The RMSE of the model was 18.564 and MAE was 12.114. The model is limited by the scarcity of the dataset. Inclusion of socioeconomic conditions and population offset are further needed to be incorporated for effective results. Conclusion Thus it could be claimed that the change in climatic parameters is definitely influential in increasing the number of dengue occurrence in Chennai. The climate variables therefore can be used for seasonal forecasting of dengue with rise in minimum

  16. A Population based Study on Alcoholism among Adult Males in a Rural Area, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ruma; Gnanasekaran, Sruthy; Suchithra, S; Srilalitha, V; Sujitha, R; Sivaranjani, S Sowmya; Subitha, S; Dcruze, Lawrence

    2014-06-01

    India's reputation as a country with a culture of abstinence especially in matters regarding alcohol is underserved. There has been a rapid proliferation of city bars and nightclubs in recent years and people are fast shedding its inhibitions about alcohol as a lifestyle choice. This scenario has led to fears of an undocumented rise in alcohol abuse among all sections of society. Policies by the government has been laid down to regulate sales and pricing of alcohol, but not well improvised. Our aim was to find out the prevalence of alcoholism among adult males in a rural population and also to analyze its association between various factors. A cross sectional study in a rural population at Kuthampakkam village, in Poonamallee block of Tiruvallur district in Tamil Nadu, India. The study population included adult male population. Simple random sampling method was adopted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, history of alcoholism and certain social factors. Data entry and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 software. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables and the prevalence of the alcoholism. Chi-square test and p-value were calculated to see the association between alcoholism and social factors. A total of 157 adult male were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the study participants was 37.20 years. The prevalence of alcoholism among the study participants was 35.7%. Among them only 4.5% who presented with symptoms of chronic alcoholism had taken treatment. Reasons for not taking treatment for alcoholism among study population were mainly due to their family problems (55.2%). Although alcohol consumption has existed for many centuries, the quantity, usage pattern, and resultant problems have undergone substantial changes over the past 20 years. These developments have raised concerns about the public health and social

  17. Reasons for default from treatment of chronic illnesses in a primary healthcare program in rural Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennens, Henry R; Ramasamy, Rajkumar; Tenni, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Chronic illnesses are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in rural India. Many patients default from treatment, and exploring their reasons for the same may suggest strategies to improve service accessibility and acceptability. A qualitative study was conducted of 22 patient interviews, six key informant interviews, and two patient focus group discussions for investigating the reasons for default at the KC Patty Primary Health Centre and surrounding villages in Kodaikanal Taluk, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu. The reasons included money or transport difficulties, frequent travel, feeling healthy, focus on work, fear of scolding from clinic staff, medication side effects, preference for alternative therapy, and depression. Some reasons were only divulged after an extended discussion. Support from families and village-level health workers (VLHWs) were also identified as important. Recommendations include more open and patient communication between health workers and defaulting patients, in addition to recruitment of more VLHWs.

  18. Reasons for default from treatment of chronic illnesses in a primary healthcare program in rural Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry R Jennens

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic illnesses are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in rural India. Many patients default from treatment, and exploring their reasons for the same may suggest strategies to improve service accessibility and acceptability. A qualitative study was conducted of 22 patient interviews, six key informant interviews, and two patient focus group discussions for investigating the reasons for default at the KC Patty Primary Health Centre and surrounding villages in Kodaikanal Taluk, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu. The reasons included money or transport difficulties, frequent travel, feeling healthy, focus on work, fear of scolding from clinic staff, medication side effects, preference for alternative therapy, and depression. Some reasons were only divulged after an extended discussion. Support from families and village-level health workers (VLHWs were also identified as important. Recommendations include more open and patient communication between health workers and defaulting patients, in addition to recruitment of more VLHWs.

  19. ‘Too many girls, too much dowry’: son preference and daughter aversion in rural Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIAMOND-SMITH, NADIA; LUKE, NANCY; MCGARVEY, STEPHEN

    2013-01-01

    The southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu has experienced a dramatic decline in fertility, accompanied by a trend of increased son preference. This paper reports on findings from qualitative interviews with women in rural villages about their fertility decision-making. Specifically addressed are the reasons behind increasing son preference and the consequences of this change. Findings suggest that daughter aversion, fuelled primarily by the perceived economic burden of daughters due to the proliferation of dowry, is playing a larger role in fertility decision-making than son preference. The desire for a son is often trumped by the worry over having many daughters. Women use various means of controlling the sex of their children, which in this study appear to be primarily female infanticide. It is important to distinguish between son preference and daughter aversion and to examine repercussions of low fertility within this setting. PMID:18821352

  20. Genomic relations among four Rhizophoraceae species under natural and afforested habitats of Pichavaram mangrove forest, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation becomes essential to conserve and increase the forest area. Mangroves have many endangered species which requires conservation. During afforestation, the species encounters different edaphic and environmental factors. For adopting the new environment, the introduced species tend to change its morphological and physiological characters. To study the variation between the species at natural and afforested habitats, the following species were selected i.e., Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera cylindrica and Ceriops decandra at the Pichavaram Mangrove forest and Mulukuturai (afforested area mudflat of Tamil Nadu, India. Variation has been analyzed using RAPD and found there are variations between the species in the natural habitat itself at various degrees and no significant variation found within plants of natural habitat and afforested habitat, showing that these species are well adopted for afforestation in new areas like mudflats.

  1. Challenges in diagnosing and treating snakebites in a rural population of Tamil Nadu, India: The views of clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harry F; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Hutchinson, Gail; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Bicknell, Andrew B; Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel

    2017-05-01

    Snakebites cause death, disability and economic devastation to their victims, people who live almost exclusively in rural areas. Annually an estimated two million venomous bites cause as many as 100,000 deaths worldwide as well as hundreds of thousands of deformities and amputations. Recent studies suggest that India has the highest incidence of snakebite and associated deaths worldwide. In this study, we interviewed 25 hospital-based clinicians who regularly treat snakebites in Tamil Nadu, India, in order to gauge their opinions and views on the diagnostic tools and treatment methods available at that time, the difficulties encountered in treating snakebites and improvements to snakebite management protocols they deem necessary. Clinicians identified the improvement of community education, training of medical personnel, development of standard treatment protocols and improved medication as priorities for the immediate future.

  2. Herpetofaunal assemblage with special emphasis on community structure and spatiality in amphibians of Cauvery delta region, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anukul Nath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the amphibian community structure, spatial overlap and herpetofaunal assemblage at Mannampandal, Tamil Nadu during October, 2010 to January, 2011. The survey methods involved careful visual estimation of amphibians in all the possible microhabitats present in the study area. Five different microhabitat categories were selected, viz., leaf litters, temporary water pools, tree holes, shrubs & grasses (ground vegetation, pathways, open floor & outer edges of buildings. We identified 26 species of reptiles and 14 species of amphibians. There was a significant difference found among the amphibian species occupying in different microhabitats. Species diversity was calculated, Shanon-Wiener H'= 1.55. The high niche overlap was found between Duttaphrynus scaber and Uperodon systoma followed by Fejervarya sp. and Sphaerotheca breviceps. The present study on amphibian community is just a representation to show the microhabitat occupancy and adjustment by the amphibians in human settlements and competition among them as, spatial resource partitioning.

  3. Distribution of larval and pupal stages of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) flies in the Nilgiris hills of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Arul Prakash, M

    2017-09-01

    Endemicity of onchocerciasis (river blindness) in humans is linked to the location of Simulium spp. (black fly). The distribution of immature stages of Simulium in Sholur, Pykara, Gudalur, Coonoor and Kotagiri streams of the Nilgiris hills of Tamil Nadu was investigated during the months of May and July 2012. Out of these five streams, only Sholur was infested with larval and pupal stages of Simulium spp. Out of six plants collected from various water bodies, larval and pupal stages were found on the leaves and stems of an aquatic plant Nasturtium officinale and on the roots and leaves of Pennisetum glandulosum. The stages of Simulium were observed only during the summer month of May.

  4. Abundance and diversity of Odonata in temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arulprakash

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Odonata diversity was assessed in 13 temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu. Assessment revealed the presence of 21 species of Odonata (14 species of Anisoptera and seven species of Zygoptera belonging to 17 genera under four families. Libellulidae (Anisoptera was represented by the maximum number of species and individuals. Pantala flavescens (Libellulidae was the most abundant among 21 species. Among the temporary water bodies, the maximum number of individuals as well as species was recorded from Utkulam tank (Coimbatore district. Odonata diversity was higher in Kamalapuram tanks 1 and 2 (Salem district and lower in Ukkadam tank (Coimbatore District. Diplacodes trivialis (Rambur, Orthetrum sabina (Drury and Pantala flavescens (Fabricius were identified as temporary water body specialists because of their presence in all the 13 temporary water bodies sampled.

  5. Perception of Web-Based Tools and Services by College Library Professionals in South Tamil Nadu, India: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Isabella Mary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the perception of web technology tools by library professionals in various engineering colleges in the South Tamil Nadu, India. The purpose of the study is to determine to what extent the library professionals there are familiar with web-based tools and use them in library operations. 140 copies of a questionnaire were distributed to library professionals in that region, of which 123 were completed and returned. Simple percentage and weighted average maturity (WAM were used to analyze the data collected. The findings show that of the 123 college library professionals participated in the survey, a large percentage of them are expert users of many web-based tools such as digital library software, e-learning management systems, and content management systems.

  6. Diversity and distribution of macrofungi in the man-made Pitchandikulam Forest of Tamil Nadu, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and distribution of macrofungi in relation to rainfall and humidity in the man-made Pitchandikulam Forest of Tamil Nadu, southern India were studied. The 335 samples from five study plots were composed of 18 species assigned to 14 genera and eight families. Species density ranged from 46 to 87 individuals per plot. Of these, 164 collections were from soil, 147 from leaf litter, 21 from twig and 3 from dead wood. The Shannon diversity index ranged from 0.64 to 0.91. Overall, four species, i.e. Lycoperdon sp. (63 individuals, Marasmiellus nigripes (58, Termitomyces sp.1 (53 and Marasmiellus sp.1 (39 were recorded from all the plots. The species rank abundance measures were used to visualize distribution. Linear regression indicated no relationship between rainfall and species density. The quantitative analysis of macrofungi revealed a positive trend towards re-creation of forest too.

  7. Predictors of maternal health services utilization by poor, rural women: a comparative study in Indian States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Kranti Suresh; Koblinsky, Sally A; Koblinsky, Marge A

    2015-07-31

    India leads all nations in numbers of maternal deaths, with poor, rural women contributing disproportionately to the high maternal mortality ratio. In 2005, India launched the world's largest conditional cash transfer scheme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to increase poor women's access to institutional delivery, anticipating that facility-based birthing would decrease deaths. Indian states have taken different approaches to implementing JSY. Tamil Nadu adopted JSY with a reorganization of its public health system, and Gujarat augmented JSY with the state-funded Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) scheme, contracting with private physicians for delivery services. Given scarce evidence of the outcomes of these approaches, especially in states with more optimal health indicators, this cross-sectional study examined the role of JSY/CY and other healthcare system and social factors in predicting poor, rural women's use of maternal health services in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Using the District Level Household Survey (DLHS)-3, the sample included 1584 Gujarati and 601 Tamil rural women in the lowest two wealth quintiles. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined associations between JSY/CY and other salient health system, socio-demographic, and obstetric factors with three outcomes: adequate antenatal care, institutional delivery, and Cesarean-section. Tamil women reported greater use of maternal healthcare services than Gujarati women. JSY/CY participation predicted institutional delivery in Gujarat (AOR = 3.9), but JSY assistance failed to predict institutional delivery in Tamil Nadu, where mothers received some cash for home births under another scheme. JSY/CY assistance failed to predict adequate antenatal care, which was not incentivized. All-weather road access predicted institutional delivery in both Tamil Nadu (AOR = 3.4) and Gujarat (AOR = 1.4). Women's education predicted institutional delivery and Cesarean-section in Tamil Nadu, while husbands

  8. Quantitative traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat livestock diseases from Kudavasal taluk of Thiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medicinal plants are treating and preventing various diseases. There is urgency in recording such data. This is first ethno botanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are done by Informant Consensus Factor method in the study area. The aim of the present study is to identify plants collected for medicinal purposes by the traditional healers of Kudavasal taluk located in Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu, India and to document prepare and use the traditional names of these plants. Field study was carried out for a period of one year in (tk, located in Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu. The ethnoveterinary information's were collected through interviews among traditional healers. The collected data were analyzed through RFC, UV, CI, FI, RI and ICF. A total of 54 species of plants distributed in 51 genera belonging to 33 families were identified as commonly used ethno medicinal plants by traditional healers in Kudavasal (tk for the treatment of 12 ailment categories based on the animal body systems treated. Leaves are the most frequently used plant parts and most of the medicines are prepared in the form of paste, administrated orally and inhalation. The most important species according to their use value are Oryza sativa (0.977. In these studies some of the plant species are first position in relative importance Datura metel (2.00 followed by Azadirachta indica (1.80. ICF values of the present study indicate that a urological ailment is the highest use report. In this study, documenting the medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area and for validation of these plant preparations for veterinary treatment. The study has various socioeconomic dimensions associated with the local communities.

  9. High rates of ofloxacin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis among both new and previously treated patients in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Selvakumar

    Full Text Available Periodic drug resistance surveillance provides useful information on trends of drug resistance and effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB control measures. The present study determines the prevalence of drug resistance among new sputum smear positive (NSP and previously treated (PT pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed at public sector designated microscopy centers (DMCs in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. In this single-stage cluster-sampling prevalence survey, 70 of 700 DMCs were randomly selected using a probability-proportional to size method. A cluster size of 24 for NSP and a varying size of 0 to 99 for PT cases were fixed for each selected DMC. Culture and drug susceptibility testing was done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium using the economic variant of proportion sensitivity test for isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RMP, ofloxacin (OFX and kanamycin (KAN. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV status was collected from patient records. From June 2011 to August 2012, 1524 NSP and 901 PT patients were enrolled. Any RMP resistance and any INH resistance were observed in 2.6% and 15.1%, and in 10.4% and 30% respectively in NSP and PT cases. Among PT patients, multi drug resistant TB (MDR-TB was highest in the treatment failure (35% group, followed by relapse (13% and treatment after default (10% groups. Extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB was seen in 4.3% of MDR-TB cases. Any OFX resistance was seen in 10.4% of NSP, 13.9% of PT and 29% of PT MDR-TB patients. The HIV status of the patient had no impact on drug resistance levels. RMP resistance was present in 2.6% of new and 15.1% of previously treated patients in Tamil Nadu. Rates of OFX resistance were high among NSP and PT patients, especially among those with MDR-TB, a matter of concern for development of new treatment regimens for TB.

  10. Climate change projections for Tamil Nadu, India: deriving high-resolution climate data by a downscaling approach using PRECIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Prasanta Kumar; Ramachandran, A.; Geetha, R.; Bhaskaran, B.; Thirumurugan, P.; Indumathi, J.; Jayanthi, N.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present regional climate change projections for the Tamil Nadu state of India, simulated by the Met Office Hadley Centre regional climate model. The model is run at 25 km horizontal resolution driven by lateral boundary conditions generated by a perturbed physical ensemble of 17 simulations produced by a version of Hadley Centre coupled climate model, known as HadCM3Q under A1B scenario. The large scale features of these 17 simulations were evaluated for the target region to choose lateral boundary conditions from six members that represent a range of climate variations over the study region. The regional climate, known as PRECIS, was then run 130 years from 1970. The analyses primarily focus on maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall over the region. For the Tamil Nadu as a whole, the projections of maximum temperature show an increase of 1.0, 2.2 and 3.1 °C for the periods 2020s (2005-2035), 2050s (2035-2065) and 2080s (2065-2095), respectively, with respect to baseline period (1970-2000). Similarly, the projections of minimum temperature show an increase of 1.1, 2.4 and 3.5 °C, respectively. This increasing trend is statistically significant (Mann-Kendall trend test). The annual rainfall projections for the same periods indicate a general decrease in rainfall of about 2-7, 1-4 and 4-9 %, respectively. However, significant exceptions are noticed over some pockets of western hilly areas and high rainfall areas where increases in rainfall are seen. There are also indications of increasing heavy rainfall events during the northeast monsoon season and a slight decrease during the southwest monsoon season. Such an approach of using climate models may maximize the utility of high-resolution climate change information for impact-adaptation-vulnerability assessments.

  11. High rates of ofloxacin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis among both new and previously treated patients in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, N; Kumar, Vanaja; Balaji, S; Prabuseenivasan, S; Radhakrishnan, R; Sekar, Gomathi; Chandrasekaran, V; Kannan, T; Thomas, Aleyamma; Arunagiri, S; Dewan, Puneet; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Periodic drug resistance surveillance provides useful information on trends of drug resistance and effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) control measures. The present study determines the prevalence of drug resistance among new sputum smear positive (NSP) and previously treated (PT) pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed at public sector designated microscopy centers (DMCs) in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. In this single-stage cluster-sampling prevalence survey, 70 of 700 DMCs were randomly selected using a probability-proportional to size method. A cluster size of 24 for NSP and a varying size of 0 to 99 for PT cases were fixed for each selected DMC. Culture and drug susceptibility testing was done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium using the economic variant of proportion sensitivity test for isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ofloxacin (OFX) and kanamycin (KAN). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status was collected from patient records. From June 2011 to August 2012, 1524 NSP and 901 PT patients were enrolled. Any RMP resistance and any INH resistance were observed in 2.6% and 15.1%, and in 10.4% and 30% respectively in NSP and PT cases. Among PT patients, multi drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) was highest in the treatment failure (35%) group, followed by relapse (13%) and treatment after default (10%) groups. Extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB) was seen in 4.3% of MDR-TB cases. Any OFX resistance was seen in 10.4% of NSP, 13.9% of PT and 29% of PT MDR-TB patients. The HIV status of the patient had no impact on drug resistance levels. RMP resistance was present in 2.6% of new and 15.1% of previously treated patients in Tamil Nadu. Rates of OFX resistance were high among NSP and PT patients, especially among those with MDR-TB, a matter of concern for development of new treatment regimens for TB.

  12. Genetic diversity based on 28S rDNA sequences among populations of Culex quinquefasciatus collected at different locations in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelkumar, S; Ramaraj, P; Veeramani, V; Janarthanan, S

    2015-09-01

    The basis of the present study was to distinguish the existence of any genetic variability among populations of Culex quinquefasciatus which would be a valuable tool in the management of mosquito control programmes. In the present study, population of Cx. quinquefasciatus collected at different locations in Tamil Nadu were analyzed for their genetic variation based on 28S rDNA D2 region nucleotide sequences. A high degree of genetic polymorphism was detected in the sequences of D2 region of 28S rDNA on the predicted secondary structures in spite of high nucleotide sequence similarity. The findings based on secondary structure using rDNA sequences suggested the existence of a complex genotypic diversity of Cx. quinquefasciatus population collected at different locations of Tamil Nadu, India. This complexity in genetic diversity in a single mosquito population collected at different locations is considered an important issue towards their influence and nature of vector potential of these mosquitoes.

  13. Record of Tropical Rat Mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) from Domestic and Peridomestic Rodents (Rattus rattus) in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab Jyoti-Bhuyan; Anjan Jyoti-Nath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) is reported from many parts of the world and is considered important in transmitting rickettsial pathogens. There have been scanty reports on prevalence of this parasite from India. Following a recent report of O. bacoti infestation in a laboratory mice colony from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, In­dia, attempts were made to detect the parasite in its natural reservoir, ie the domestic and peridomestic rats (Rattus rattus).Methods: The National Cent...

  14. Response of sheltered and built-up coasts in the wake of natural hazards: The aftermath of the December 2004 Tsunami, Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.; Mascarenhas, A.

    lack of appropriate administrative, management and plantation guidelines. It is confirmed that the profusely vegetated stretches of Tamil Nadu coast displayed an exceptional resilience by dissipating high waves. Our field measurements confirmed... restaurants, thatched shops and shacks, washed off in 11 totality in December 2004 were back in January 2006, and standing even today. It is business as usual at this pilgrimage site. Similarly, the tsunami had over topped the sea wall at Nagapattinam port...

  15. Dental Caries and the Associated Factors Influencing It in Tribal, Suburban and Urban School Children of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    J Baby John; Sharath Asokan; Aswanth KP; Geetha Priya, P. R.; Shanmugaavel, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups Design and methods Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from vario...

  16. Range extension of the endangered Salim Ali’s Fruit Bat Latidens salimalii (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in the Anamalai Hills, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire F.R. Wordley

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salim Ali’s Fruit Bat Latidens salimalii is an IUCN Red listed Endangered species known only from a few locations in southern India.  Here we report three records of Latidens salimalii from the Valparai plateau and Anamalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu where this species has not been previously recorded.  This bat was caught in riparian habitats close to or inside intact tropical wet forest in the Western Ghats. 

  17. Productivity and Profitability Impact of Genetically Modified Crops – An Economic Analysis of Bt Cotton Cultivation in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Loganathan, R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Mani, K.; Gurunathan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton production in India is at cross roads for the past few years. Till recently it was the hybrid that was at the focus but the era of genetically modified cotton has arrived. There has been lot of hue and cry regarding the commercialization of Bt cotton in India since Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) has approved the use of Bt cotton seeds. This study has analysed the economic impact of biotechnologically engineered cotton cultivation in Tamil Nadu and the factors affecting t...

  18. Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Maize Farms and Farm Household Incomes in South India: A Case Study from Tamil Nadu. 9; Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Paramasivam; Vellingiri, Geethalakshmi; Danda, Raji Reddy; Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Murthy, Dakshina; Prema, Sunandini; Gade, Sreenivas; McDermid, Sonali P.; Valdivia, Roberto O.

    2015-01-01

    South India is characterized by a wide variety of landscapes, soils and climatic zones. It is comprised of tropical, semi-arid, humid-moist, and high-altitude environments, which support a diversity of agricultural systems. Our study focused on the state of Tamil Nadu, which is characterized by a generally tropical climate, and receive rainfall during both the southwest monsoon season (SWM, June to September) and the northeast monsoon (NEM, September to December). Agriculture continues to be an important sector in the state economy, as more than 56 of the people depend on agriculture and allied sectors for their livelihood. Analysis of land-use patterns in Tamil Nadu reveals that in the past decade there has been a reduction in net sown area and current fallow, while the share of cultivable wastelands has increased. The area under cereals, pulses, and oilseeds had marginally declined, although area under commercial crops like turmeric, sugar-cane, banana, fruits, and vegetables has shown an increasing trend. The production performance of major crops like cereals, pulses, and oilseeds has not shown any significant increase. Demand and supply gap of important crops in Tamil Nadu for the year 2010 indicates that the state is lagging far behind in the production of various crops.

  19. Dimensions of social capital of families with thalassemia in an indigenous population in Tamil Nadu, India - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Bharathi; Kosalram, Kalpana; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2017-06-24

    Studies have shown that social capital is positively associated with health, and the association is context-based. Indigenous populations with poor access to health care largely depend on social capital for their health care needs. This study was conducted to explore the dimensions and types of social capital and its utilization by families with thalassemia for their health and well-being in an indigenous population in Tamil Nadu, India. The participants in the study were parents who had children with thalassemia, belonged to an indigenous community in Tamil Nadu, were poor and marginalized, and had poor access to health care. Different dimensions and types of social capital were examined with the help of qualitative in-depth interviews using a phenomenological approach. A total of 8 in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed. Thematic analysis of the data was performed. The social capital identified through the in-depth interviews consisted of various levels of family support, financial support from relatives and neighbors, the provision of information from formal and informal networks, and trust in the physician. Indigenous communities are close-knit due to their geographical remoteness and limited accessibility. Family ties were a form of social capital that encouraged bonding, and provided support and care to the children affected by thalassemia. The bonding also helped to meet the regular requirement of blood donation for the children. Relatives and neighbors were an asset that served as a bridge for the families affected, helping them in times of immediate and urgent financial need, making it easier to sustain long-term treatment and providing emotional support. There were informal networks that bridged parents belonging to indigenous and non-indigenous communities, with the latter providing the former with information to help them choose better health care at an affordable cost. The other formal links were the ties between the parents and

  20. Genetic admixture studies on four in situ evolved, two migrant and twenty-one ethnic populations of Tamil Nadu, south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Suhasini; E. Sonaa; S. Shila; C. R. Srikumari; G. Jayaraman; A. Ramesh

    2011-08-01

    We analysed the genetic structure of ∼1000 samples representing 27 ethnic groups settled in Tamil Nadu, south India, derived from two linguistic families (Dravidians and Indo–Europeans) representing four religious groups (Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism) using 11 mtDNA markers. Out of 27 ethnic groups, four are in situ populations (Anglo-Indian, Labbai Muslim, Nadar Christian and south Indian Jain) and two are migrants (Gypsy and north Indian Jain) from north India to Tamil Nadu, and 21 are native ethnic groups. Six of the markers we used were monomorphic (HaeIII663, HpaI3592, AluI5176, AluI7025, AluI13262, 9-bp deletion) and five markers were polymorphic (DdeI10394, AluI10397, HinfI12308, HincII13259 and HaeIII16517). Haplogroup frequencies, genetic affinities and admixture analysis are based on the genotype data of polymorphic markers observed in these populations. Haplogroup frequencies indicate that various ethnic groups entered Tamil Nadu during different time periods. Genetic affinities and admixture estimates revealed that the ethnic groups possessing advanced knowledge of farming cluster in a branch (C), and could be the late arrived settlers as agriculture, was introduced to this region at about 5 to 3 thousand years ago. In situ ethnic groups appear to have arisen at various times as a result of the prevailing dominant socio-cultural forces. Hierarchical Hindu caste system created many ethnic groups in the history of its existence; some of them became isolated for considerable period of time. Over all, among Tamil ethnic groups, in spite of caste systems’ rigidity, built in flexibility in the system in the form of hypergamy and hypogamy had allowed maternal gene flow between them.

  1. Genetic admixture studies on four in situ evolved, two migrant and twenty-one ethnic populations of Tamil Nadu, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhasini, G; Sonaa, E; Shila, S; Srikumari, C R; Jayaraman, G; Ramesh, A

    2011-08-01

    We analysed the genetic structure of ≈ 1000 samples representing 27 ethnic groups settled in Tamil Nadu, south India, derived from two linguistic families (Dravidians and Indo-Europeans) representing four religious groups (Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism) using 11 mtDNA markers. Out of 27 ethnic groups, four are in situ populations (Anglo-Indian, Labbai Muslim, Nadar Christian and south Indian Jain) and two are migrants (Gypsy and north Indian Jain) from north India to Tamil Nadu, and 21 are native ethnic groups. Six of the markers we used were monomorphic (HaeIII663, HpaI3592, AluI5176, AluI7025, AluI13262, 9-bp deletion) and five markers were polymorphic (DdeI10394, AluI10397, HinfI12308, HincII13259 and HaeIII16517). Haplogroup frequencies, genetic affinities and admixture analysis are based on the genotype data of polymorphic markers observed in these populations. Haplogroup frequencies indicate that various ethnic groups entered Tamil Nadu during different time periods. Genetic affinities and admixture estimates revealed that the ethnic groups possessing advanced knowledge of farming cluster in a branch (C), and could be the late arrived settlers as agriculture, was introduced to this region at about 5 to 3 thousand years ago. In situ ethnic groups appear to have arisen at various times as a result of the prevailing dominant socio-cultural forces. Hierarchical Hindu caste system created many ethnic groups in the history of its existence; some of them became isolated for considerable period of time. Over all, among Tamil ethnic groups, in spite of caste systems' rigidity, built in flexibility in the system in the form of hypergamy and hypogamy had allowed maternal gene flow between them.

  2. Genetic affinity between diverse ethnoreligious communities of Tamil Nadu, India: a microsatellite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaaswarkhanth, M; Vasulu, T S; Haque, Ikramul

    2008-12-01

    Historically, a number of local Hindu caste groups have converted to Islam and formed religious endogamous groups. Therefore the local caste groups and religious communities in a region are expected to show genetic relatedness. In this study we investigate the genetic relationship between Tamil-speaking (Dravidian language) Muslims (Sunni), six endogamous Hindu castes, and a tribal ethnic group (Irulars) using 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) autosomal microsatellite markers. Muslims show the highest average heterozygosity (0.405) compared to the other groups. The neighbor-joining tree and the multidimensional-scaling plot show clustering of Tamil-speaking Muslims with three caste groups (Gounder, Paraiyar, and Vanniyar), whereas the Irular tribe is separated out of the cluster.

  3. Development of Solar and Wind Power in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This publication analyzes the performance of two states in India— Karnataka and Tamil Nadu— in their efforts toward installing solar and wind energy. It attempts to distill thereasons for their success, albeit in two very different renewable energy programs. It covers the major initiatives taken by the country in the form of policy and regulations including the formation of a full-fledged Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. The report focuses on lessons learned from these states so that a s...

  4. Sex differentials in the risk factors of post traumatic stress disorder among tsunami survivors in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T T, Pyari; T K, Sundari Ravindran

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed if pre disaster, with-in disaster and post disaster factors predicted Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) differently, among men and women survivors of the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami in Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India. PTSD was identified using a validated tool, Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) among the participants in a cross-sectional community based survey (n=485). Case control analysis of 299 subjects was done to determine the predictors of PTSD. The odds of having PTSD were 6.35 times higher in women than men. Higher odds for PTSD was seen among women who were married, aged over 40, belonged to low socioeconomic status and resided in heavily damaged areas. Protective odds for PTSD was found among women who had received more than three times of counseling services whereas men were not at risk if they were free from fear of recurrence of tsunami, when adjusted for other variables. Women were vulnerable to PTSD because of their socially constructed roles. It is important to consider gender based vulnerabilities while designing interventions to combat mental health problems among disaster affected communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnobotanical studies on the wild edible plants of Irula tribes of Pillur Valley, Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Rasingam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an ethnobotanical studies and collect information about the wild edible plants collected and utilized by the Irula tribes of Pillur valley, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: The study was conducted among the Irula peoples of Pillur valley through survey, interview and field work along with the knowledgeable individuals during January 2009 -September 2010. All the traditional and other knowledge related to the collection and consumption of wild edible plants on which the communities depend was documented. Results: A total of 74 plant species have been recorded as wild edible in the study areas, of which, fruits yielding plants ranked first with 42 species, green leaves, tubers, young shoots and flowers ranked next with 26, 7, 4 and 2 species respectively. Conclusions: Our study revealed that the adivasi community in the Pillur Valley continues to have and use the knowledge about the wild edible plants, including their habitat, collection period, sustainable collection, mode of preparation and consumption. To date, this knowledge appear to be fairly well conserved and used as a result of continued reliance of local community on the wild uncultivated foods.

  6. Molecular Serotyping and Pathogenic Potential of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Raman; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, an important bacterial pathogen, is responsible for foodborne illnesses worldwide. Examination of food samples for the presence of L. monocytogenes and assessment of their pathogenicity is usually an effective strategy in the prevention of listeriosis. In the present study, we have tested 307 samples of milk and milk products from various places in Tamil Nadu, India for the presence of L. monocytogenes using ISO 11290 and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual methods. 16S rDNA sequencing and duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for prs and iap genes were used to identify L. monocytogenes at the species level. Fifteen of the 307 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Molecular serotyping of the L. monocytogenes isolates by multiplex PCR revealed the predominance of the serogroups 1/2a and 4b. Fourteen of the 15 isolates contained all the virulence genes (inlA, inlB, hlyA, and plcA) screened for using multiplex PCR. Only one isolate of L. monocytogenes was negative for the plcA gene and in vitro phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C activity. L. monocytogenes strains that belong to the serogroup 4b exhibited higher nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans than the serogroup 1/2a. Worms infected with L. monocytogenes were symptomatic with aberrant contraction of body muscles, loss of pharyngeal pumping, and decreased locomotion, which highlights the pathogenic potential of the L. monocytogenes isolates.

  7. AN ASSESSMENT OF LEGALLY PROTECTED MARINE FAUNA IN CURIO TRADE – A MARKET STUDY FROM TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajan JOHN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In an endeavor to prioritize the conservation of marine environment, species that are threatened were given protection under various Schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972. Though the protection is sturdy on paper, marine fauna, such as sea shells, corals and sea horses are often illegally collected from their natural environment and are traded as marine curiosities. To assess those protected marine species in the curio trade in the state of Tamil Nadu, South India, certain major tourist and pilgrimage hot spots were surveyed during 2007. Among surveyed curio markets, Kanyakumari was found to have an alarming number of protected species being traded through huge number of marine curio shops. 15 species of legally protected mollusks, 10 species of corals and one sea horse species were found, along with other non-protected marine taxa in curio trade. Species protected through Schedule I were often highly priced than those under Schedule IV. The present survey suggests that protected marine species are an integral part in the growing marine curio business. High market demand, coupled with a lack of awareness and an inadequate enforcement were found to be major driving forces for the illegal marine curio trade. Awareness campaigns, along with a promotion of viable and alternate sources of income for seashell / coral collectors and strengthening of law enforcement may curtail the illegal marine curio trade.

  8. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some tree species growing near rail roads of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambavani, D Sarala; Kamala, C

    2010-10-01

    Biological monitoring and assessment studies due to urban--rail road pollutants were carried out using Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. Four plant (leaf) parameters--namely ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, relative water content and leaf extract pH were combined together in a formulation signifying the APTI of plants. APTI was calculated for five different species such as Azadirachta indica, Delonix regia, Ficus religiosa, Pongamia pinnata and Polyalthia longifolia growing in two different areas, i.e. control area and along the railway track of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India). The control site was selected in the college campus. None of the four plant parameters indicated a consistent response to pollutants. In the present study, Delonix regia and Pongamia pinnata lost the tolerance towards air pollutants and became more sensitive, but Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, and Polyalthia longifolia indicated high APTI values over control area and hence considered as tolerant species. The APTI of plants showed a marked gradation as the pollutant load decreased from rail road to control area. The APTI can be used as a good indicator of impact of the air pollution on plants.

  9. Price Transmission Process in Vertical Markets: an Empirical Analysis of Onion Markets in Tamil Nadu State (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu Rajendran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to examine price transmission process between wholesale and retail markets by adopting Asymmetric Price Transmission (APT Model.  The paper has taken a case of Onion ((Allium cepa L. wholesale and retail markets in Tamil Nadu state, India.   The paper used wholesale and retail prices data from secondary sources.  The results show that high margin at retail and wholesale levels of prices points to possibility of distortion in prices which may lead to an asymmetric process in the vertical market. The speed and magnitude of price changes and also the type of asymmetry in the vertical market system has identified the presence of both positive and negative asymmetry. With respect to speed, where the markets have shown negative asymmetry, there is evidence of retail prices responding much faster to decrease in wholesale prices than to increases in wholesale prices. Where a positive asymmetry holds, the result is the opposite. Keywords: Vegetables, Asymmetry, Efficiency, Market Integration and Symmetry 

  10. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition – central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Joevivek; N Chandrasekar

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  11. Japanese Encephalitis vector abundance and infection frequency in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India: a five-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Philip Samuel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An entomological monitoring of Japanese encephalitis vectors from the Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu was undertaken at biweekly intervals for 1 hr after dusk for five years to find out the abundance and JE virus activity longitudinally in three villages. A total of 95,644 vectors belonging to 31 species constituted predominantly by Culex vishnui subgroup and Culex gelidus 98.5%. JE virus was identified from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (18, Cx. vishnui (1 and Cx. gelidus (6 giving infection rate of 0.482, 0.608 and 0.221 respectively. Abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus differed significantly by area, season and year (P<0.05 whereas Cx. vishuni differed significantly by season and year (P<0.05. Transmission was not observed throughout all the seasons and the infection rate was recorded maximum during Hot-Wet season 0.46 (confidence interval: 0.17-1.02. Culex tritaeniorhynchus dominated the catch and the Culex gelidus steadily increased in its abundance during this period compared to the earlier studies conducted from these areas which acts as a secondary vector along with the major vector, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus.

  12. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition - central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  13. Molecular characterization of a distinct bipartite Begomovirus species infecting ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L.) in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, K; Satya, V K; Mohankumar, S; Karthikeyan, G

    2016-02-01

    A distinct bipartite begomovirus was found to be associated with the mosaic disease on ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L.) in Tamil Nadu, India. The complete DNA A and DNA B components were cloned by rolling circle amplification. Genome organization of this virus is found to be typical of Old World bipartite begomovirus. The association of betasatellite component with this virus is absent. The closest nucleotide identity of 73.4 % was seen with the Loofa yellow mosaic virus (LYMV-[VN]-AF509739) suggesting that it is a new virus species Coccinia mosaic virus (CoMoV-Ivy gourd [TN TDV Coc1]) and distantly related to the other known begomoviruses. The DNA B component shared a maximum identity of 55 % with that of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In the phylogenetic analysis, CoMoV-Ivy gourd form cluster separate from other begomoviruses. Recombination analysis showed that there was no recombination event in the genome. This is the distinct begomovirus infecting ivy gourd.

  14. No CAG repeat expansion of polymerase gamma is associated with male infertility in Tamil Nadu, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Poongothai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria contains a single deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA polymerase, polymerase gamma (POLG mapped to long arm of chromosome 15 (15q25, responsible for replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA. Exon 1 of the human POLG contains CAG trinucleotide repeat, which codes for polyglutamate. Ten copies of CAG repeat were found to be uniformly high (0.88 in different ethnic groups and considered as the common allele, whereas the mutant alleles (not -10/not -10 CAG repeats were found to be associated with oligospermia/oligoasthenospermia in male infertility. Recent data suggested the implication of POLG CAG repeat expansion in infertility, but are debated. The aim of our study was to explore whether the not -10/not -10 variant is associated with spermato g enic failure. As few study on Indian population have been conducted so far to support this view, we investigated the distribution of the POLG CAG repeats in 61 infertile men and 60 normozoospermic control Indian men of Tamil Nadu, from the same ethnic background. This analysis interestingly revealed that the homozygous wild type genotype (10/-10 was common in infertile men (77% - 47/61 and in normozoospermic control men (71.7% - 43/60. Our study failed to confirm any influence of the POLG gene polymorphism on the efficiency of the spermatogenesis.

  15. No CAG repeat expansion of polymerase gamma is associated with male infertility in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongothai, J

    2013-07-01

    Mitochondria contains a single deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase, polymerase gamma (POLG) mapped to long arm of chromosome 15 (15q25), responsible for replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA. Exon 1 of the human POLG contains CAG trinucleotide repeat, which codes for polyglutamate. Ten copies of CAG repeat were found to be uniformly high (0.88) in different ethnic groups and considered as the common allele, whereas the mutant alleles (not -10/not -10 CAG repeats) were found to be associated with oligospermia/oligoasthenospermia in male infertility. Recent data suggested the implication of POLG CAG repeat expansion in infertility, but are debated. The aim of our study was to explore whether the not -10/not -10 variant is associated with spermatogenic failure. As few study on Indian population have been conducted so far to support this view, we investigated the distribution of the POLG CAG repeats in 61 infertile men and 60 normozoospermic control Indian men of Tamil Nadu, from the same ethnic background. This analysis interestingly revealed that the homozygous wild type genotype (10/-10) was common in infertile men (77% - 47/61) and in normozoospermic control men (71.7% - 43/60). Our study failed to confirm any influence of the POLG gene polymorphism on the efficiency of the spermatogenesis.

  16. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India using gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R; Vanasundari, K; Chandrasekaran, A; Rajalakshmi, A; Suganya, M; Vijayagopal, P; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2012-04-01

    The natural level of radioactivity in building materials is one of the major causes of external exposure to γ-rays. The primordial radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the radioactivity level in building materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the specific activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials from Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India, using gamma-ray spectrometer. The radiation hazard due to the total natural radioactivity in the studied building materials was estimated by different approaches. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and the radium equivalent activity in studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  17. Utilization of Antenatal HealthCare Services among Fishermen Population in Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danasekaran, Raja; Raja, Pavithra; Ranganathan, Karnaboopathy

    2017-01-01

    Considering the global and national level commitments in improving the maternal health as well as reducing the maternal mortality, assessment of factors influencing the delivery of antenatal healthcare services becomes essential. The aim is to assess the utilization of antenatal health services and to identify the factors influencing their utilization among women of fishermen population in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu. The cross-sectional study was carried out among the mothers in Kovalam area of Kanchipuram district. Details were collected using a pretested questionnaire and analyzed using statistical software. The study included 284 mothers, of which 35% were illiterates. Nearly 60.21% have got registered with the Government sector, 59.51% of the mothers had three or more antenatal visits, 64.08% have received two doses of tetanus toxoid, and 73.24% have taken iron and folic acid tablets. Factors which were identified to have statistically significant association with better utilization of antenatal health services were age >30 years, higher educational status, skilled workers, those having their first child, and higher socioeconomic class. This study has reported the fact that antenatal healthcare services were not utilized fully by the community and the fishermen population being a special group has to be given the needed attention from the healthcare delivery system.

  18. Environmental monitoring and assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments at Coleroon River Estuary in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramanan, S; Chung, S Y; Ramkumar, T; Selvam, S

    2015-08-01

    The combined studies on grain size distribution, organic matter contents of sediments, sequential extraction and bulk concentration of heavy metals, statistical analysis, and ecological risk assessments were carried out to investigate the contamination sources and ecological risks of surface sediments at Coleroon River Estuary in Tamil Nadu, India. The sequential extraction of metals showed that a larger portion of the metals was associated with the residual phase and also in other fractions. The low concentrations of heavy metals were found in exchangeable and carbonate bounds (bioavailable phases). It revealed that sediments of Coleroon River Estuary were relatively unpolluted and were influenced mainly by natural sources. The observed order of bulk concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > Co. Factor analyses represented that the enrichment of heavy metals was mostly resulted from lithogenic origins associated with anthropogenic sources. These sources were reconfirmed by cluster analysis. Risk assessment code (RAC) suggested that all metals were not harmful in monsoon season. However, Fe was in medium risk, and Mn and Cu were in low risk in summer. According to pollution load index (PLI) of sediments, all heavy metals were toxic. Cu might be related with adverse biological effects on the basis of sediment quality guidelines (SQG) in both seasons. These integrated approaches were very useful to identify the contamination sources and ecological risks of sediments in estuarine environment. It is expected that this research can give a useful information for the remediation of heavy metals in sediments.

  19. BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION STUDIES BETWEEN THE TSUNAMIGENIC SEDIMENTS OF MANDAPAM AND TUTICORIN, SOUTH EAST COAST OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. MOHAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Mannar is a transitional zone between the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean proper and is connected with the Bay of Bengal through a shallow sill, the Palk Strait. The study area extends from Mandapam to Tuticorin on the southern coast of Tamil Nadu (India over a distance of 120 km. It is bound in the northeast by Rameshwaram Island, in the east by the Bay of Bengal, in the west by the Eastern and Western Ghats, and in the south by Tuticorin. A total of 36 sediment samples were collected from the beach (6 and the offshore (30 area in the study region. The offshore samples were collected at six transects keeping the stations at Mandapam (5 nos, Valinokkam (5 nos, Vaippar (5 nos, Vembar (5 nos, Kallar, (5 nos and Tuticorin (5 nos. Totally, 77 benthic foraminiferal species (Post-tsunami and varieties belonging to 39 genera, 13 families, 10 superfamilies and 4 suborders have been reported and illustrated. The following species are widely distributed in the pre and post-tsunami samples namely Spiroloculina communis, Quinqueloculina elongatum, Q.lamarckiana, Q. seminulum, Triloculina trigonula, Cibicides lobatululs, Ammonia beccarii, A. dentata, A.tepida, Elphidium crispum and Assilina ammonoides. Grain size studies shows the frequency curves vary from unimodal to bimodal in places of river discharge from the Vembar, Kallar, Vaippar and Tamiraparani, as a result of which an additional sub-population is deposited. At Mandapam and Tuticorin, the total species are increasing in the deeper depths whereas in Kallar there will be reverse trend which decreases with depth. Similarly, the living species also have the same trend at Vallinokkam. The scatter plot of salinity versus living species shows a positive correlation. The scatter plot of organic matter versus living species shows strong negative correlation and positive correlation with dead species showing a negative relation with the biomass. Further, the trend of organic matter vs. carbonate

  20. Present susceptibility status of rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), vector of plague against organochlorine, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroids 1. The Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamal, Biswas; Ravi Kumar, R; Sohan, Lal; Balakrishnan, N; Veena, Mittal; Shiv, Lal

    2008-03-01

    The susceptibility status of Xenopsylla cheopis, the efficient vector of human plague in India was assessed in erstwhile plague endemic areas of Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu following standard WHO techniques. The studies revealed the development of resistance in rat fleas to DDT--4.0%, Malathion--5.0%, Deltamethrin--0.05% and tolerance to Permethrin--0.75% in all the four blocks of Nilgiris hill district. Development of resistance may be due to the extensive use of insecticides in tea plantations and agricultural sectors where the domestic/peri-domestic rodents find their natural habitats and intermingle with each other.

  1. Assessment of the scale, coverage and outcomes of the Avahan HIV prevention program for female sex workers in Tamil Nadu, India: is there evidence of an effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilakavathi S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, a large-scale HIV prevention program, using peer-mediated approaches and STI services, was implemented for high-risk groups for HIV in six states in India. This paper describes the assessment of the program among female sex workers (FSWs in the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Methods An analytical framework based on the Avahan impact evaluation design was used. Routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional biological and behavioural surveys among FSWs in 2006 (Round 1 and 2009 (Round 2 and quality assessments of clinical services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs were used to assess trends in coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs, HIV and their association with program exposure. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine trends in intermediate outcomes and their associations with intervention exposure. Results The Avahan program in Tamil Nadu was scaled up and achieved monthly reported coverage of 79% within four years of implementation. The cross-sectional survey data showed an increasing proportion of FSWs being reached by Avahan, 54% in Round 1 and 86% in Round 2 [AOR=4.7;p=0.001]. Quality assessments of STI clinical services showed consistent improvement in quality scores (3.0 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2008. Condom distribution by the program rose to cover all estimated commercial sex acts. Reported consistent condom use increased between Round 1 and Round 2 with occasional (72% to 93%; AOR=5.5; p=0.001 and regular clients (68% to 89%; AOR=4.3; p=0.001 while reactive syphilis serology declined significantly (9.7% to 2.2% AOR=0.2; p=0.001. HIV prevalence remained stable at 6.1% between rounds. There was a strong association between Avahan exposure and consistent condom use with commercial clients; however no association was seen with declines in STIs. Conclusions The Avahan program in Tamil Nadu achieved high coverage of FSWs, resulting in outcomes of improved

  2. Biomass Resource Assessment and Existing Biomass Use in the Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu States of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Natarajan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available India is experiencing energy crisis and a widening gap between energy supply and demand. The country is, however, endowed with considerable, commercially and technically available renewable resources, from which surplus agro-biomass is of great importance and a relatively untapped resource. In the policy making process, knowledge of existing biomass use, degree of social reliance, and degree of biomass availability for energy production is unequivocal and pre-conditional. Field observations, documentation, and fill-in sheet tools were used to investigate the potential of biomass resources and the existing domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of biomass in selected Indian states. To do so, a team of field observers/supervisors visited three Indian states namely: Maharashtra (MH, Madhya Pradesh (MP, and Tamil Nadu (TN. Two districts from each state were selected to collect data regarding the use of biomass and the extent of biomass availability for energy production. In total, 471 farmers were interviewed, and approximately 75 farmers with various land holdings have been interviewed in each district. The existing uses of biomass have been documented in this survey study and the results show that the majority of biomass is used as fodder for domestic livestock followed by in-site ploughing, leaving trivial surplus quantities for other productive uses. Biomass for cooking appeared to be insignificant due to the availability and access to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG cylinders in the surveyed districts. Opportunities exist to utilize roadside-dumped biomass, in-site burnt biomass, and a share of biomass used for ploughing. The GIS-based maps show that biomass availability varies considerably across the Taluks of the surveyed districts, and is highly dependent on a number of enviromental and socio-cultural factors. Developing competitive bioenergy market and enhancing and promoting access to more LPG fuel connections seem an appropriate socio

  3. Disclosure of Leprosy by Health Care Providers in South-India: Patients' Perception and Relevance to Leprosy Control, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilakavathi, S; Manickam, P; Mehendale, S M

    2015-01-01

    Stigma, isoIation and discrimination are typically associated with diagnosis of leprosy and its disclosure. Health care providers (HCPs) find it challenging to disclose the diagnosis of leprosy to patients and their family members. A qualitative study was done in a rural community near Chennai in Tamil Nadu, from August 2011 to March 2012, covering 155 out of 648 (23.9%) purposively selected leprosy patients from 53 out of 148 panchayats, representing 264 villages in the study area; Out of these 155 patients, 59% were males; 30% were illiterates; 70% were married; 56% were living in nuclear families; half the leprosy patients were either agricultural labourers or skilled workers (50%).Thirty two percent were multibacillary (MB) cases and 68% were pauci bacillary (PB) cases; 77% were old patients and 23% were new patients; 22% had leprosy deformity 12% had disfiguration; 23% had anaesthesia and 3% were with lagophthalmous. Of the 155 patients, 31 (20%) reported that they were not informed about diagnosis of their disease by the concerned HCPs. They were informed to be having a skin disease or a skin patch. Of these 31 patients, 22 (71%) were women; all except one with PB leprosy. Seven patients (23%) had not yet started on treatment 3 patients (10%) were given treatment when they were young and neither, them nor their parents were informed about this disease. Seven (33%) of the married patients who had the disease during their child had or when they were young, were not informed of the diagnosis by the HCPs. Ten respondents (32%) were neither bothered nor concerned about non disclosure of the disease by HCPs. Now, after knowing the diagnosis of the disease 4 females (13%) mentioned that they were having some fear, worry or stigma. As non-disclosure of leprosy by HCPs may adversely affect acceptance and adherence, to treatment by the patients, appropriate communication strategies should be developed and implemented.

  4. Identification of suitable housing system for dairy cattle in North East Zone of Tamil Nadu, India, with respect to microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, T.; Suraj, P. T.; Yasotha, A.; Phukon, Jayashree

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To identify the suitable roofing pattern for dairy cattle in North East Zone of Tamil Nadu, India, based on micro climatic conditions. Materials and Methods: Initially, survey was conducted to identify and categorize the major housing patterns existing in the region for further detailed investigation. In total, 30 farmers/farms consisting of five housing types with six replicates were selected. Temperature and temperature humidity index (THI) were recorded using the maximum-minimum thermometer and digital thermo-hygrometers. The study was conducted for 1 year covering four seasons namely South West monsoon (June-August), North East monsoon (September-November), cold season (December-February), and summer season (April-May). The data were statistically analyzed using statistical package SPSS 17. Results: Animal shelters with cement sheets recorded the highest temperature (26.71±1.13°C) and THI (77.23±1.76) at 8.00 am, whereas the lowest temperature (24.83±1.17°C) and THI (74.54±1.72) were recorded in the thatched shed. There was significant difference (p<0.01) in temperature and THI at 8.00 am during South West monsoon and North East monsoon seasons between the housing types. During cold and summer seasons, there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) in the environmental variables among various shelter systems. Conclusion: Thatched housing is found to be the suitable one with respect to the climatic variables, followed by tile roof and metal roof. The cement sheet roofed housing is found to be the most unsuitable one in the region for dairy cattle.

  5. Seasonal abundance & role of predominant Japanese encephalitis vectors Culex tritaeniorhynchus & Cx. gelidus Theobald in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, D.; Muniaraj, M.; Samuel, P. Philip; Thenmozhi, V.; Venkatesh, A.; Nagaraj, J.; Tyagi, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. The first major JE outbreak occurred in 1978 and since 1981 several outbreaks had been reported in the Cuddalore district (erstwhile South Arcot), Tamil Nadu, India. Entomological monitoring was carried out during January 2010 - March 2013, to determine the seasonal abundance and transmission dynamics of the vectors of JE virus, with emphasis on the role of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus. Methods: Mosquito collections were carried out fortnightly during dusk hours in three villages viz. Soundara Solapuram, Pennadam, Erappavur of Cuddalore district. Mosquitoes were collected during dusk for a period of one hour in and around the cattle sheds using oral aspirator and torch light. The collected mosquitoes were later identified and pooled to detect JE virus (JEV) infection by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: A total of 46,343 mosquitoes comprising of 25 species and six genera were collected. Species composition included viz, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (46.26%), Cx. gelidus (43.12%) and other species (10.62%). A total of 17,678 specimens (403 pools) of Cx. gelidus and 14,358 specimens (309 pools) of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were tested, of which 12 pools of Cx. gelidus and 14 pools of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were positive for JE virus antigen. The climatic factors were negatively correlated with minimum infection rate (MIR) for both the species, except mean temperature (P<0.05) for Cx. gelidus. Interpretation & conclusions: High abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus was observed compared to other mosquito species in the study area. Detection of JEV antigen in the two species confirmed the maintenance of virus. Appropriate vector control measures need to be taken to reduce the vector abundance. PMID:26905238

  6. Health camps in schools and content analysis of the school textbooks: A cross-sectional study in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Geetha Priya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: School textbooks have been considered as an effective platform for promoting oral health. The information on oral health in the Indian school textbooks has not been evaluated. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contents of school textbooks on oral health and to quantitatively analyze the school health camps and guest lectures/demonstrations conducted in the schools of three districts in Tamil Nadu. Methodology: Twenty schools which participated in the study followed the Central Board of Secondary Education, matriculation, or the state board syllabus. A questionnaire was designed to collect information about the medical camps, dental camps, guest lectures, and demonstrations conducted in the last academic year from the schools. The questionnaires were distributed among the school teachers of grades I–V. They were asked to provide photocopies of the topics on oral health which were included in the syllabus. Content analysis of the information on oral health-related topics in the school textbooks was done. Descriptive statistics of the details of the camps and lectures was done using Pearson's Chi-square test (SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: There was no significant difference in the number of medical camps (P = 0.445, dental camps (P = 0.055, and guest lectures (P = 0.069 organized among the three boards of schools. Basic information on the parts and type of teeth, tooth decay, and brushing were present in the textbooks of all three boards of schools. Conclusion: The school textbooks of all the three boards contained basic and adequate information on oral health. Periodic revisions of the content and quality of information in the school textbooks are essential. To make the information sticky for long-term, reinforcements in the form of school health education is needed.

  7. Seasonal abundance & role of predominant Japanese encephalitis vectors Culex tritaeniorhynchus & Cx. gelidus Theobald in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, D; Muniaraj, M; Samuel, P Philip; Thenmozhi, V; Venkatesh, A; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-12-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. The first major JE outbreak occurred in 1978 and since 1981 several outbreaks had been reported in the Cuddalore district (erstwhile South Arcot), Tamil Nadu, India. Entomological monitoring was carried out during January 2010 - March 2013, to determine the seasonal abundance and transmission dynamics of the vectors of JE virus, with emphasis on the role of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus. Mosquito collections were carried out fortnightly during dusk hours in three villages viz. Soundara Solapuram, Pennadam, Erappavur of Cuddalore district. Mosquitoes were collected during dusk for a period of one hour in and around the cattle sheds using oral aspirator and torch light. The collected mosquitoes were later identified and pooled to detect JE virus (JEV) infection by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 46,343 mosquitoes comprising of 25 species and six genera were collected. Species composition included viz, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (46.26%), Cx. gelidus (43.12%) and other species (10.62%). A total of 17,678 specimens (403 pools) of Cx. gelidus and 14,358 specimens (309 pools) of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were tested, of which 12 pools of Cx. gelidus and 14 pools of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were positive for JE virus antigen. The climatic factors were negatively correlated with minimum infection rate (MIR) for both the species, except mean temperature (P<0.05) for Cx. gelidus. High abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus was observed compared to other mosquito species in the study area. Detection of JEV antigen in the two species confirmed the maintenance of virus. Appropriate vector control measures need to be taken to reduce the vector abundance.

  8. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of chidambaram taluk, cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Kalyani, C; Vijayarani, Mp; Jayakodi, P; Felix, Ajw; Nagarajan, S; Arunmozhi, P; Krishnan, V

    2008-07-01

    Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean's fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997). Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls) were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI) score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Three out of six villages studied were in 'borderline' public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6). A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors associated with the condition in the study region.

  9. Associated oral lesions in human immunodefeciency virus infected children of age 1 to 14 years in anti retroviral therapy centers in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of oral lesions status in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected children of age 1 to 14 years in Anti Retro viral therapy (ART centres in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A of total 326 HIV infected children, age 1 to 14 years of which 174 male children and 152 female children were examined for Oral lesions in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University in association with the ART centers in Villupuram, Vellore and HIV Homes in Thiruvannamalai, Trichy and Salem in Tamil Nadu towns. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (version 11 code: 3000135939012345. Result: Of the total 326 children, 201 (61.65% had oral lesions. (68 [20.86%] with Oral Candidiasis [OC], 54 [16.56%] with Angular Cheilitis, 27 [8.28%] with Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis [NUG], 25 [7.66%] with Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis [NUP], 18 [5.53%] with Linear Gingival Erythema [LGE] and 9 [2.76%] with Apthous Ulcer. Conclusion Among the oral lesions in HIV infected children, OC 20.86% was the predominant oral lesion followed by Angular Chelitis 16.56%, NUG 8.28%, NUP 7.66%, LGE5.53% and Apthous Ulcer 2.76%.

  10. Costs and health effects of screening and delivery of hearing aids in Tamil Nadu, India: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Anand

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of disease of hearing disorders among adults is high, but a significant part goes undetected. Screening programs in combination with the delivery of hearing aids can alleviate this situation, but the economic attractiveness of such programs is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of alternative delivering hearing aids models in Tamil Nadu, India Methods In an observational study design, we estimated total costs and effects of two active screening programs in the community in combination with the provision of hearing aids at secondary care level, and the costs and effects of the provision of hearing aids at tertiary care level. Screening and hearing aid delivery costs were estimated on the basis of program records and an empirical assessment of health personnel time input. Household costs for seeking and undergoing hearing health care were collected with a questionnaire (see Additional file 2. Health effects were estimated on the basis of compliance with the hearing aid, and associated changes in disability, and were expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. Results Active screening and provision of hearing aids at the secondary care level costs around Rs.7,000 (US$152 per patient, whereas provision of hearing aids at the tertiary care level costs Rs 5,693 (US$122 per patient. The cost per DALY averted was around RS 42,200 (US$900 at secondary care level and Rs 33,900 (US$720 at tertiary care level. The majority of people did consult other providers before being screened in the community. Costs of food and transport ranged between Rs. 2 (US$0,04 and Rs. 39 (US$0,83. Conclusion Active screening and provision of hearing aids at the secondary care level is slightly more costly than passive screening and fitting of hearing aids at the tertiary care level, but seems also able to reach a higher coverage of hearing aids services. Although crude

  11. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  12. Application of a household-based molecular xenomonitoring strategy to evaluate the lymphatic filariasis elimination program in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Subramanian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and evaluation of lymphatic filariasis (LF has largely relied on the detection of antigenemia and antibodies in human populations. Molecular xenomonitoring (MX, the detection of parasite DNA/RNA in mosquitoes, may be an effective complementary method, particularly for detecting signals in low-level prevalence areas where Culex is the primary mosquito vector. This paper investigated the application of a household-based sampling method for MX in Tamil Nadu, India.MX surveys were conducted in 2010 in two evaluation units (EUs: 1 a hotspot area, defined as sites with community microfilaria prevalence ≥1%, and 2 a larger area that also encompassed the hotspots. Households were systematically selected using a sampling interval proportional to the number of households in the EU. Mosquito pools were collected and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Two independent samples were taken in each EU to assess reproducibility of results. Follow-up surveys were conducted in 2012.In 2010, the proportion of positive pools in the hotspot EU was 49.3% compared to 23.4% in the overall EU. In 2012, pool positivity was significantly reduced to 24.3% and 6.5%, respectively (p<0.0001. Pool positivity based on independent samples taken from each EU in 2010 and 2012 were not significantly different except for the hotspot EU in 2012 (p = 0.009. The estimated prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, measured by PoolScreen, declined from 2.2-2.7% in 2010 to 0.6-1.2% in 2012 in the hotspot area and from 0.9-1.1% to 0.2-0.3% in the larger area.The household-based sampling strategy for MX led to mostly reproducible results and supported the observed LF infection trends found in humans. MX has the potential to be a cost-effective, non-invasive monitoring and evaluation tool with sensitive detection of infection signals in low prevalence settings. Further investigation and application of this sampling strategy for MX are recommended to support

  13. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Chidambaram taluk, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean′s fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997. Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ′borderline′ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6. A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors

  14. Dental caries and the associated factors influencing it in tribal, suburban and urban school children of Tamil Nadu, India: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J Baby; Asokan, Sharath; Aswanth, K P; Priya, P R Geetha; Shanmugaavel, A K

    2015-02-20

    The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal), Tiruchengode (suburban) and Erode (urban), Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT), decayed and filled teeth (dft) and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent's education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001) between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018) in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents' income. Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents' educational status and mass media influenced the oral health of these children but

  15. Impact of large-scale organic conversion on food production and food security in two Indian states, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panneerselvam, P.; Hermansen, John Erik; Halberg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The millions of food insecure people in India are not solely due to inadequate food production, but also because some people are simply too poor to buy food. This study assessed how a large-scale conversion from conventional to organic production would impact on the economics of marginal and small...... farmers in Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh, and on the total food production in these states. This study also considered a situation where fertilizer subsidies would be discontinued, with farmers having to carry the full cost of fertilizer. Results show that conversion to organic improved the economic...... situation of farmers although food production was reduced by 3-5% in the organic situation. Thus, the estimated economic values were higher in the organic system (5-40% in fertilizer subsidy scenario and 22-132% in no fertilizer subsidy scenario) than in the conventional system, whereas the total state...

  16. Short-term population dynamics of tree species in tropical forests at Kodayar in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaiah Sundarapandian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of tree species were studied in both deciduous and evergreen forests at Kodayar in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. The mortality of trees was less than the number of new recruits, resulting in a net gain in population density and basal area. The increase in net population density and basal area of tree species could be because of their entry into the adult stage from the already existing sapling and seedling bank. Greater mortality of juveniles than that of adults could be due to intense competition for limited available resources at the juvenile stage. The present study concludes that to a larger extent, the forest ecosystems here are at building phase. Long-term studies are needed to understand the regeneration niche.

  17. A report of the threatened plant Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae from the mid elevation forests of Pachamalai Hills of the Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anburaja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pachamalai Hills are a part of the Eastern Ghats and are situated in the central region of Tamil Nadu. The vegetated area is distributed into 35 reserved forests of Pachamalai Hills. The plant Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. is one of the threatened plant found in the study area. This indicates that the Pachamalai Hills can harbour good vegetation which are the vestiges of a luxuriant vegetation cover of the past era, hence, need to be protected. The hills are most significant socio-culturally because of the diversified forest patches found there. These hills have been studied earlier mainly for floristic analysis. Before this, D. hamiltonii has not been collected from Pachamalai.

  18. Hospital and urban effluent waters as a source of accumulation of toxic metals in the sediment receiving system of the Cauvery River, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Naresh; Laffite, Amandine; Ngelikoto, Patience; Elongo, Vicky; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Piana, Pius T M; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-09-01

    Hospital and urban effluents contain a variety of toxic and/or persistent substances in a wide range of concentrations, and most of these compounds belong to the group of emerging contaminants. The release of these substances into the aquatic ecosystem can lead to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk. Sediments receiving untreated and urban effluent waters from the city of Tiruchirappalli in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, are analyzed for potential environmental and human health risks. The sediment samples were collected from five hospital outlet pipes (HOP) and from the Cauvery River Basin (CRB) both of which receive untreated municipal effluent waters (Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India). The samples were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals in HOP, reaching values (mg kg(-1)) of 1851 (Cr), 210 (Cu), 986 (Zn), 82 (Pb), and 17 (Hg). In contrast, the metal concentrations in sediments from CRB were lower than the values found in the HOP (except for Cu, Pb), with maximum values (mg kg(-1)) of 75 (Cr), 906 (Cu), 649 (Zn), 111 (Pb), and 0.99 (Hg). The metal concentrations in all sampling sites largely exceed the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC) for the Protection of Aquatic Life recommendation. The ecotoxicity test with ostracods exposed to the sediment samples presents a mortality rate ranging from 22 to 100 % (in sediments from HOP) and 18-87 % (in sediments from CRB). The results of this study show the variation of toxic metal levels as well as toxicity in sediment composition related to both the type of hospital and the sampling period. The method of elimination of hospital and urban effluents leads to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk.

  19. Dental caries and the associated factors influencing it in tribal, suburban and urban school children of Tamil Nadu, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baby John

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups. Design and methods. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal, Tiruchengode (suburban and Erode (urban, Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT, decayed and filled teeth (dft and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent’s education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. Results. The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001 between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001 in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018 in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents’ income. Conclusions. Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational

  20. Genetic trend for growth and wool performance in a closed flock of Bharat Merino sheep at sub temperate region of Kodai hills, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Mallick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at Southern Regional Research Center, ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI, Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu to estimate genetic trends for birth weight (BWT, weaning weight (3WT, 6 months weight (6WT, and greasy fleece weight (GFY in a Bharat Merino (BM flock, where selection was practiced for 6WT and GFY. Materials and Methods: The data for this study represents a total of 1652 BM lambs; progeny of 144 sires spread over 15 years starting from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the BM flock of ICAR-SRRC (CSWRI, Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India. The genetic trends were calculated by regression of average predicted breeding values using software WOMBAT for the traits BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY versus the animal’s birth year. Results: The least square means were 3.28±0.02 kg, 19.08±0.23 kg, 25.00±0.35 kg and 2.13±0.07 kg for BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY, respectively. Genetic trends were positive and highly significant (p<0.01 for BWT, while the values for 3WT, 6WT and GFY though positive, were not significant. The estimates of genetic trends in BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 5 g, 0.8 g, 7 g and 0.3 g/year gain and the fit of the regression shows 55%, 22%, 42% and 12% coefficient of determination with the regressed value, respectively. In this study, estimated mean predicted breeding value (kg in BWT and 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 0.067, 0.008, 0.036 and −0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Estimates of genetic trends indicated that there was a positive genetic improvement in all studied traits and selection would be effective for the improvement of body weight traits and GFY of BM sheep.

  1. Determinants of patient′s adherence to hypertension medications in a rural population of Kancheepuram District in Tamil Nadu, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Non-communicable diseases, no longer a disease of the rich, impose a great threat in the developing nations due to demographic and epidemiological transition. This increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors is worrisome. Adherence to hypertension (HT medication is very important for improving the quality of life and preventing complications of HT. Aim: To study the factors determining adherence to HT medication. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, with a total population of around 16,005. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out over a period of 6 months (February-July using a pre-structured and validated questionnaire. All eligible participants were selected by house-to-house survey and individuals not available on three consecutive visits were excluded from the study. The questionnaire included information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, adherence to HT medication, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI. Caste was classified based on Tamil Nadu Public Service commission. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed in SPSS version 16. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Ethical Consideration: Informed verbal consent was obtained prior to data collection. The patient′s adherence to HT medication was assessed using the Morisky 4-Item Self-Report Measure of Medication-taking Behavior [MMAS-4]. Results: We studied 473 hypertensive patients of which 226 were males and 247 were females. The prevalence of adherence was 24.1% (n = 114 in the study population. Respondents with regular physical activity, non-smokers and non-alcoholics were more adherent to HT medication as compared with respondents with sedentary lifestyle, smoking and alcohol intake (P < 0.005. Based on health belief model, the respondents who perceived high susceptibility, severity

  2. Direct comparison of recent cyclone and tsunami deposits from the Tamil Nadu coastline, south-eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Karthikeyan, A.; Seshachalam, S.; Switzer, A.; Pham, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally. However, as storm and tsunami deposits are both the result of inundation by ocean waves, they can have similar sedimentological and geomorphological signatures. To demarcate storm and tsunami deposits in the geological record, a number of criteria have been proposed to distinguish the two types of deposits. However, these criteria have been assembled from storm and tsunami deposits from coastlines of markedly different onshore and offshore geomorphologies, sedimentary characteristics and sediment sources. Thus, a primary goal for coastal hazard scientists is to define a suite of characteristics that can be used to discern storm from tsunami deposits. This can only be accomplished by identifying recent, known tsunami and storm deposits from the same coastline to directly compare the sedimentary characteristics deposited by these types of events. Here we compare the sedimentology, microfauna and sedimentary structures of two recent events, the 26th December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 31st December 2011 Cyclone Thane, from three sites along the Tamil Nadu coastline, south-east India and categorise the similarities and differences between the two deposits. Three sites were investigated, two (SB-1 and SB-2) at Silver Beach, Cuddalore and a third (Pit DPM-3a) at the now blocked Pennai River Mouth north of Cuddalore. At all sites the sedimentary deposits of Cyclone Thane overlie aeolian sands which in turn overly the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami deposits. In SB-1 the tsunami deposits have been partially reworked by mangroves that fringed the blocked river. The tsunami deposit found in pit SB-2 overlays a marine intertidal - beach sequence. Pit DPM-3a contains the upper part of the2004 tsunami. In each pit, heavy mineral-rich layers characterise the tsunami and the cyclone deposit, whereas the intervening aeolian sands have only a minor heavy mineral content. Also

  3. Analysis of reproductive traits of broiler rabbits reared in sub-temperate climate of Kodai hills, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajapandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out at Institute Rabbit Farm of Southern Regional Research Centre, Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India having sub-temperate climate with winter temperature during night hours going below 0°C with an objective of finding the influence of different factors such as breed, year, season and parity on different reproductive traits of broiler rabbits in order to come out with the best strategies for improving the productivity. Materials and Methods: A total of 1793 records (946 White Giant and 847 Soviet Chinchilla for weight at mating (WM, weight at kindling (WK, gestation length (GL, litter size at birth (LSB and litter size at weaning (LSW, litter weight at birth (LWB, and litter weight at weaning (LWW were collected in the period between 2000 and 2009 and the data was analyzed using general linear model option of SAS 9.2. Results: The overall mean GL, WM, WK, LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW were 31.68±0.04 days, 3.65±0.01 kg, 3.84±0.01 kg, 6.91±0.08, 5.49±0.09, 387.62±4.07 g, and 4.66±0.07 kg, respectively. The breed has significantly influenced GL, WK, LSW, LWB, and LWW. The LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW were 7.05±0.11, 5.76±0.13, 399.55±5.88 g, and 4.87±0.10 kg, respectively in White Giant and corresponding values for Soviet Chinchilla were 6.78±0.11, 5.22±0.12, 375.91±5.64 g, and 4.46±0.09 kg, respectively. The year of kindling had significantly affected all the reproductive traits under study and is varying over different years. The parity significantly influenced the WM, WK, and LWW. The LWW increased from first (4.16±0.21 kg to second parity (4.86±0.19 kg and remained in the same range from third parity onward. WM was significantly higher in spring season (3.72±0.02 than the animals in rainy (3.59±0.02 and winter season (3.65±0.02. Better reproductive performance in terms of higher LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW as observed in the present study might be due to conducive environmental conditions prevailing

  4. Mental health in Tamil cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangala, R; Thara, R

    2009-06-01

    Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.

  5. Evaluation of Catrosat 1PAN Stereo and Resourcesat Liss 4 MSS Merged Data for Morphometric Analysis, Delineation of Drainage Basins and Codification in Tamil Nadu, India and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, G. S.; Srinivasan, S.; Pandian, R.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Swaminathan. S, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used with Catrosat 1Stereo data to study present morphology of tiny micro watersheds to study the use of High resolution data for delineation and codification of watersheds. This study area is in an inter fluvial drainage basin of Cooum and Kusasthalai rivers. Kusasthalai river drains in Poondi reservoir which is about 50 km from Chennai. The excess water from Kosasthalai is also diverted through Kesawaram weir to Cooum river which passes through Thiruvallur and Chennai city before it's confluence with Bay of Benegal in the east. As Cooum basin is at higher elevation, water for irrigation is again diverted through chain of tanks to Kusasthalai river basin to drain in Poondi reservoir. Delineation of water sheds in this fluvial basin is difficult by manual survey as man made irrigation channels, natural drainage streams etc., have to be clearly identified. The streams of various orders are identified based on Strahler stream order hierarchy of tributaries, slops and contours using large scale satellite data. The micro water sheds are delinated identifying the ridges from Catrosat data for this interfluves basin which has mild slop. To illustrate this research, parts of two micro watersheds which were delineated using 1:50000 data for Tamil Nadu watershed Atlas up to 7th order streams are taken up for a detailed study using high resolution data. 19 Micro watersheds with streams up to 10th order are mapped. The capability of high resolution satellite data for digital as well as visual

  6. EVALUATION OF CATROSAT 1PAN STEREO AND RESOURCESAT LISS 4 MSS MERGED DATA FOR MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS, DELINEATION OF DRAINAGE BASINS AND CODIFICATION IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA AND AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used with Catrosat 1Stereo data to study present morphology of tiny micro watersheds to study the use of High resolution data for delineation and codification of watersheds. This study area is in an inter fluvial drainage basin of Cooum and Kusasthalai rivers. Kusasthalai river drains in Poondi reservoir which is about 50 km from Chennai. The excess water from Kosasthalai is also diverted through Kesawaram weir to Cooum river which passes through Thiruvallur and Chennai city before it's confluence with Bay of Benegal in the east. As Cooum basin is at higher elevation, water for irrigation is again diverted through chain of tanks to Kusasthalai river basin to drain in Poondi reservoir. Delineation of water sheds in this fluvial basin is difficult by manual survey as man made irrigation channels, natural drainage streams etc., have to be clearly identified. The streams of various orders are identified based on Strahler stream order hierarchy of tributaries, slops and contours using large scale satellite data. The micro water sheds are delinated identifying the ridges from Catrosat data for this interfluves basin which has mild slop. To illustrate this research, parts of two micro watersheds which were delineated using 1:50000 data for Tamil Nadu watershed Atlas up to 7th order streams are taken up for a detailed study using high resolution data. 19 Micro watersheds with streams up to 10th order are mapped. The capability of high resolution satellite data for digital

  7. Quantitative ethnomedicinal survey of medicinal plants given for cardiometabolic diseases by the non-institutionally trained siddha practitioners of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakkimuthu, S; Mutheeswaran, S; Arvinth, S; Paulraj, M Gabriel; Pandikumar, P; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-06-20

    The burden of cardiometabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, visceral obesity and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and the use of traditional medicine for the management of such diseases are high in India; hence there is a need to document and analyze such therapies. This study documented and analyzed the medicinal plants prescribed for cardiometabolic diseases by the non-institutionally trained siddha practitioners of Tiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu, India. The field survey was conducted between December 2014 to November 2015. Successive free listing assisted with field-walks was used to interview the informants. After assessing the sampling sufficiency using rarefaction curve analysis, indices such as Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) and Index of Agreement on Remedies (IAR) were calculated for the data. The indicators of informant's medicinal plant knowledge such as Shannon's index, equitability index, etc., were regressed with the demographic profile of the informants. For this study 70 non-institutionally trained Siddha medical practitioners were approached; the data from 36 practitioners who were treating cardiometabolic diseases were documented. This study recorded the use of 188 species which were used to prepare 368 formulations to treat illnesses categorized under cardiometabolic diseases. In this, 53.04% claims were singletons. Regression analysis showed that single species dominance was reduced and the diversity of medicinal plants was increased with the increase in the age and experience. Increase in the years of formal education increased the equitability in the uses. The plants such as Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (cardiovascular diseases), Allium sativum L. (dyslipidemia), Cuminum cyminum L. (hypertension), Macrotyloma uniflorum Verdc. (obesity) and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (type 2 diabetes) were the highly cited medicinal plants. This survey has identified the plants most commonly used by Siddha practitioners of

  8. A study to evaluate cephalometric hard tissue profile of Tamil population for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachiappan, S; Tharanikumar, S; Chandran, Ajay; Anusudha, P; Nandini, G D; Balasubramaniam, Murali

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of this study is to compare, the cephalometric hard tissue profile values and analysis between Tamil and Caucasian population. The study also aims to create a better understanding in the facial proportions of Tamil Nadu population and to have better diagnosis and treatment planning for orthognathic surgery for Tamil population in Tamil Nadu.

  9. Record of Tropical Rat Mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae from Domestic and Peridomestic Rodents (Rattus rattus in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Jyoti-Bhuyan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti is reported from many parts of the world and is considered important in transmitting rickettsial pathogens. There have been scanty reports on prevalence of this parasite from India. Following a recent report of O. bacoti infestation in a laboratory mice colony from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, In­dia, attempts were made to detect the parasite in its natural reservoir, ie the domestic and peridomestic rats (Rattus rattus.Methods: The National Centre for Disease Control, Coonoor is involved in screening plague in domestic and peridomestic rats in Nilgiris and erstwhile plague endemic areas of Southern India. The parasite samples were identi­fied based on the morphological characteristics attributable to O. bacoti and as per description of published literature.Results: Seven mite samples identified as O. bacoti based on morphological characteristics were isolated inci­dentally from domestic and peridomestic rodents in and around the hilly districts of Nilgiris, Southern India, during the routine plague surveillance programme. The identification was based on the morphological characteristics at­tributable to O. bacoti observed under a low power microscope.Conclusion: In India, this is probably the first record of isolation of O. bacoti from domestic and peridomestic ro­dents. Prevalence of such parasite in domestic and peridomestic rats necessitates further investigation on monitoring and surveillance of rickettsial diseases in the locality, as these parasites are considered to be potential vector of transmitting rickettsial pathogens

  10. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  11. Size distribution and roundness of clasts within pseudotachylytes of the Gangavalli Shear Zone, Salem, Tamil Nadu: An insight into its origin and tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bhuban Mohan; Thirukumaran, V.; Soni, Aishwaraya; Mishra, Prasanta Kumar; Biswal, Tapas Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Gangavalli (Brittle) Shear Zone (Fault) near Attur, Tamil Nadu exposes nearly 50 km long and 1-3 km wide NNE-SSW trending linear belt of cataclasites and pseudotachylyte produced on charnockites of the Southern Granulite Terrane. Pseudotachylytes, as well as the country rock, bear the evidence of conjugate strike slip shearing along NNE-SSW and NW-SE directions, suggesting an N-S compression. The Gangavalli Shear Zone represents the NNE-SSW fault of the conjugate system along which a right lateral shear has produced seismic slip motion giving rise to cataclasites and pseudotachylytes. Pseudotachylytes occur as veins of varying width extending from hairline fracture fills to tens of meters in length. They carry quartz as well as feldspar clasts with sizes of few mm in diameter; the clast sizes show a modified Power law distribution with finer ones (0.4) due to thermal decrepitation. In a large instance, devitrification has occurred producing albitic microlites that suggest the temperature of the pseudotachylyte melt was >1000^{circ }\\hbox {C}. Thus, pseudotachylyte veins act as a proxy to understand the genetic process involved in the evolution of the shear zone and its tectonic settings.

  12. Mycological profile of fungal sinusitis: An audit of specimens over a 7-year period in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rajiv

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fungi are being increasingly implicated in the etiopathology of rhinosinusitis. Fungal sinusitis is frequently seen in diabetic or immunocompromised patients, although it has also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. Invasive fungal sinusitis, unless diagnosed early and treated aggressively, has a high mortality rate. Aim: Our aim was to look at the mycological and clinical aspects of fungal sinusitis in a tertiary referral center in Tamil Nadu. Design: This is a retrospective audit conducted on fungal culture positive sinus samples submitted to the Microbiology department from January 2000 to August 2007. Relevant clinical and histopathological details were analysed. Results: A total of 211 culture-positive fungal sinusitis samples were analysed. Of these, 63% had allergic fungal sinusitis and 34% had invasive fungal sinusitis. Aspergillus flavus was the most common causative agent of allergic fungal sinusitis and Rhizopus arrhizus was the most common causative agent of acute invasive sinusitis. A significant proportion of these patients did not have any known predisposing factors. Conclusion: In our study, the etiology of fungal sinusitis was different than that of western countries. Allergic fungal sinusitis was the most common type of fungal sinusitis in our community. Aspergillus sp was the most common causative agent in both allergic and chronic invasive forms of the disease.

  13. Agricultural activities of the malayali tribal for subsistence and economic needs in the mid elevation forest of pachamalai hills, eastern ghats, Tamil nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anburaja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to study the Agricultural activities of the Malayali Tribal for Subsistence and Economic needs in the mid elevation forest of Pachamalai Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil nadu. About 8 percent of the Indian population belongs to a category listed as “Scheduled Tribes” enumerated in the Schedule to Article 342 of the Constitution of India. Tribal people has been seen to be strongly associated with the forests, hills and remote areas, practicing a unique life style, having a unique set of cultural and religious beliefs. For millennia, tribal communities have lived in forests and survived on hunting and gathering. However, with growing population and resource pressure, it is now witnessing that a rise in livelihoods based on settled farming. In the study area, cereals are the major crop cultivated for their edible grains. The tribal people living in the hills tops of the study area were cultivated 11 major agricultural crops. They are, Eleusine coracana, Panicum miliare, Oryza sativa (verity I (Mara Nellu, Oryza sativa (verity II, Manihot esculenta, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Sesamum orientale, Paspalum sp, Pennisetum americanum and Setaria italica. Among them, Paspalum sp gives the maximum yield with 655 kg acre-1.

  14. Geomapping of trematode-induced granulomatous anterior uveitis - a newly identified cause of blindness among children in the Pudukkottai district of the Tamil Nadu State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Duraisamy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that a specific type of allergic conjunctive-uveal granuloma reported from South India could be due to infection by a trematode parasite. In these patients, the histopathological examination of the eye reveals a zonal granulomatous inflammation with purulent material including structures displaying evidence of trematode infection. To investigate this further, medical records describing such cases in the Pudukkottai district, Tamil Nadu State, India, covering the period 2001-2005, were collected. Since trematodes require a snail intermediate host for completing the life cycle, ponds frequently used for bathing in the area were inspected to identify a possible culprit. The hypothesis that ponds with snail habitats could be the source of infection was supported by the finding of a positive correlation between the geographical distribution of patients’ residencies and the location of such ponds. Geographic information systems (GIS were used to study the spatial distribution of ponds and patients, while satellite-based remote sensing (RS was applied to attempt finding a parameter characteristic for ponds with snail habitats that could facilitate risk-identification over larger areas. It was found that ponds carrying risk could be differentiated from others through analysis of their spectral surface properties. This pond classification approach, confirmed by field visits, could thus become a useful tool for the location of snail habitats constituting risk as predicted.

  15. Factors associated with high stress levels in adults with diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes care center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendhilkumar, Muthappan; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Harries, Anthony D; Dongre, Amol R; Deepa, Mohan; Vidyulatha, Ashok; Poongothai, Subramanian; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine perceived stress levels among adults aged >20 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a tertiary care diabetes center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, assess their association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and assess the possible risk factors for stress and coping strategies. A mixed-methods (triangulation design) study with quantitative methodology (survey) and qualitative methodology (interviews) was carried out. Stress levels were assessed among type 2 DM patients attending a diabetes clinic using a 5-point perceived stress scale-10. One-on-one interviews were carried out with 376 participants with DM having high/very high stress levels to understand the reasons for perceived stress and explore their coping mechanisms. The prevalence of high/very high stress was 35% among DM patients. Age 30-40 years, working in professional jobs, and lack of physical activity were factors significantly associated with stress. The perceived major stress inducers were related to family, work, financial issues, and the disease itself. This study showed high levels of stress in more than one-third of DM patients. Potential solutions include regular, formal assessment of stress levels in the clinic, providing integrated counseling and psychological care for DM patients, and promoting physical activity.

  16. Petrology and physical conditions of metamorphism of calcsilicate rocks from low- to high-grade transition area, Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, B. L.; Natarajan, R.; Govil, P. K.

    1988-01-01

    Calc-silicate rocks comprising quartz, plagioclase, diopside, sphene, scapolite, grossularite-andradite and wollastonite occur as lensoid enclaves within the greasy migmatitic and charnockitic gneisses of the Archaean amphibolite- to granulite-facies transition zone in Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu. The calc-silicate rocks are characterized by the absence of K-feldspar and primary calcite, presence of large modal quartz and plagioclase and formation of secondary garnet and zoisite rims around scapolite and wollastonite. The mineral distributions suggest compositional layering. The chemical composition and mineralogy of the calc-silicate rocks indicate that they were derived from impure silica-rich calcareous sediments whose composition is similar to that of pelite-limestone mixtures. From the mineral assemblages the temperature, pressure and fluid composition during metamorphism were estimated. The observed mineral reaction sequences require a range of X sub CO2 values demonstrating that an initially CO2-rich metamorphic fluid evolved with time towards considerably more H2O-rich compositions. These variations in fluid composition suggest that there were sources of water-rich fluids external to the calc-silicate rocks and that mixing of these fluids with those of calc-silicate rocks was important in controlling fluid composition in calc-silicate rocks and some adjacent rock types as well.

  17. Physico-chemical parameters of the SW and post NE monsoon (2009) seawater along the continental slope, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India, Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, V.; Achyuthan, H.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in sea water temperature, salinity, light intensity and availability of nutrients strongly influence the phytoplankton distribution that forms an important part of the coastal food chain. In this paper, we present the results of the physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in seawaters sampled during the 2009 South West (SW) and post North East (NE) monsoon periods along the continental shelf from Chennai to Nagapattinam, east coast, Tamil Nadu. This study was conducted to assess the status of the coastal biogeochemical environment and for this purpose, seawater samples were collected from the sea surface and also at varying depths (surface to 150 m depth) at six different locations. The nutrient analyses and the CTD data reveal a distinct variation with water depth along the continental slope and also the physico-chemical properties of seawater are not homogenous. The observed values of nutrients for the post NE monsoon period are low compared to the SW monsoon period. Contour plots indicate seasonal and spatial variations in physico-chemical parameters along the continental shelf of the east coast of India. The data suggests that during the 2009 SW monsoon period, a significant increase of freshwater input into the Bay of Bengal could have elevated nutrient concentration compared to that observed during the post 2009 NE monsoon.

  18. Use of positive-negative deviant analyses to improve programme targeting and services: example from the TamilNadu Integrated Nutrition Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, M; Habicht, J P; Latham, M C

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of southern rural Indian children who grow best (positive deviants) and worst (negative deviants) as compared to median growers. A 100 each of positive and negative deviants and 120 median growers were selected after analysing the 12-month growth patterns (weight-for-age) of 2954 children enrolled in the TamilNadu Integrated Nutrition Project (TINP), a major health and nutrition intervention project covering nearly one million children in rural south India. The determinants of poor growth that have been left unaddressed by 6 years of TINP exposure are delineated to address the question of what more needs to be done. Further, the rationale for differential targeting of services to negative deviants and to median growers is discussed, as are the implications for programme evaluation. Data indicate that the next generation of projects targeted at the most needy (negative deviants) should address the issues of gender discrimination in childcare, of breastfeeding, of diarrhoeal disease, and of maternal empowerment. Such interventions will, however, not improve the growth of median growers in the direction of positive deviance. Instead, programmes targeted at the median growers need to support the hygienic use of nonbreast milk supplements. Improving family wealth will also improve the nutritional status of the median growers, but less so than for the negative deviants.

  19. Optimization and Cost of Energy of Renewable Energy System in Health Clinic Building for a Coastal Area in Tamil Nadu, India Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Suresh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy potential of coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, India ranks along with the utmost in the world. This study proposes optimization and cost of energy of different hybrid renewable energy system to power a health clinic in that building. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL optimization computer model for distributed power, “HOMER,” is used to estimate the optimization and its cost of energy. The implementation of RE systems to supply Rural Health Clinics will contribute to reduce both electricity generation cost and to reduce the consumption of fuel while improving health care and quality of life in these isolated coastal regions. We conclude that using the PV+Wind+Diesel+Battery system for these types of applications in justified on technical and economic grounds. The experimental results show that the least cost of energy at Rs 5.00/KWh, is obtained from above said system and also experiment result shows that the COE decreases with 0% of interest. It is noted, that the PV+Wind+Diesel+Battery hybrid system shows the lowest COE and high amount of Renewable energy.

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Consistent Condom Usage among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Rastogi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clients of female sex workers (FSWs possess a high potential of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high risk FSWs to the general population. Promotion of safer sex practices among the clients is essential to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of consistent condom use (CCU among clients of FSWs and to assess the factors associated with CCU in Tamil Nadu. 146 male respondents were recruited from the hotspots who reportedly had sex with FSWs in exchange for cash at least once in the past one month. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Overall, 48.6 and 0.8 percent clients consistently used condoms in the past 12 months with FSWs and regular partners, respectively. Logistic regression showed that factors such as education, peers’ use of condoms, and alcohol consumption significantly influenced clients’ CCU with FSWs. Strategies for safe sex-behaviour are needed among clients of FSWs in order to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the general population. The role of peer-educators in experience sharing and awareness generation must also be emphasized.

  1. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Nagarajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality.Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Znwere determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3 - , SO4 2-, NH4 + were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating thatgroundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce furthergroundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

  2. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Rajkumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

  3. Towards elimination of lymphatic filariasis: social mobilization issues and challenges in mass drug administration with anti-filarial drugs in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandha, B; Krishnamoorthy, K; Jambulingam, P

    2013-08-01

    India is a signatory to World Health Assembly resolution for elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and National Health Policy has set the goal of LF elimination by 2015. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) is ongoing in endemic districts since 1996-97. Compliance rate is a crucial factor in achieving elimination and was assessed in three districts of Tamil Nadu for 10th and 11th treatment rounds (TRs). An in-depth study assessed the impact of social mobilization by drug distributors (DDs) in two areas from each of the three districts. Overall coverage and compliance for assessed TRs were 76.3 and 67.7% which is below the optimum level to achieve LF elimination. Modifiable determinants continue to be the reason for non-consumption even in the 11th TR and 20.8% were systematic non-compliers. In 76.4% of the cases, DDs failed to adhere to three mandatory visits as per the guidelines. Number of visits by DDs in relation to low and high MDA coverage areas showed a significant relationship (P ≤ 0.000). MDA is limited to drug distribution alone and efforts by DDs in preparing the community were inadequate. Probable means to meet the challenges in preparation of the community is discussed.

  4. Impact of Health Awareness Campaign in Improving the Perception of the Community about Palliative Care: A Pre- and Post-intervention Study in Rural Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ankit; Sarkar, Sonali; Adinarayanan, S; Balajee, Karthik Laksham

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The only way to provide palliative care to a huge number of people in need in India is through community participation, which can be achieved by improving the awareness of the people about palliative care. We conducted a study to assess the impact of health awareness campaign in improving the awareness of people about palliative care. Materials and Methods: This was a pre- and post-intervention study conducted in Kadaperikuppam village of Vanur Taluk in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu. One respondent each from 145 households in the village was interviewed regarding the knowledge and attitude on palliative care before and after the health awareness campaign using a pretested questionnaire. Health awareness campaign consisted of skit, pamphlet distribution, poster presentation, giving door-to-door information, and general interaction with palliative team in the village. Results: The awareness regarding palliative care during the preintervention was nil. After the intervention, it increased to 62.8%. However, there was a decline in the attitude and the interest of the people toward palliative care. Interpretation and Conclusions: Health awareness campaigns can increase the awareness of people in the rural parts of the country about palliative care. However, to improve the attitude of the community about delivery of palliative care services, more sustained efforts are required to make them believe that palliative care can be provided by community volunteers also and not necessarily only by professionals. PMID:27803570

  5. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.

  6. Size distribution and roundness of clasts within pseudotachylytes of the Gangavalli Shear Zone, Salem, Tamil Nadu: An insight into its origin and tectonic significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhuban Mohan Behera; V Thirukumaran; Aishwaraya Soni; Prasanta Kumar Mishra; Tapas Kumar Biswal

    2017-06-01

    Gangavalli (Brittle) Shear Zone (Fault) near Attur, Tamil Nadu exposes nearly 50 km long and 1–3 km wide NNE–SSW trending linear belt of cataclasites and pseudotachylyte produced on charnockites of the Southern Granulite Terrane. Pseudotachylytes, as well as the country rock, bear the evidence of conjugate strike slip shearing along NNE–SSW and NW–SE directions, suggesting an N–S compression. The Gangavalli Shear Zone represents the NNE–SSW fault of the conjugate system along which a right lateral shear has produced seismic slip motion giving rise to cataclasites and pseudotachylytes. Pseudotachylytes occur as veins of varying width extending from hairline fracture fills to tens of meters in length. They carry quartz as well as feldspar clasts with sizes of few mm in diameter; the clast sizes show a modified Power law distribution with finer ones (<1000 μm2) deviating from linearity. The shape of the clasts shows a high degree of roundness (<0.4) due to thermal decrepitation. In a large instance, devitrification has occurred producing albitic microlites that suggest the temperature of the pseudotachylyte melt was >1000∘C. Thus, pseudotachylyte veins act as a proxy to understand the genetic process involved in the evolution of the shear zone and its tectonic settings.

  7. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among children and adolescents affected by tsunami disaster in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Prashantham Baddam; Russell, Sushila; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2007-01-01

    The Asian earthquake and subsequent tsunami of December 2004, one of the largest natural disasters in recent history, resulted in the deaths of over 250,000 people and massive destruction in 8 countries. As with any disaster, children are at risk for developing short- and long-term psychological consequences, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One area particularly affected by this disaster was southern India. Five hundred twenty-three juvenile survivors of the tsunami were studied to determine the prevalence of PTSD. The survey was conducted in 2 waves. Interviews were conducted by postgraduate psychiatric social work students, proficient in the local language of Tamil and trained in PTSD-related data collection. The Impact of Event Scale-8 items Tamil Version and Child Behaviour Checklist Post-traumatic Stress Disorder-Tamil Revised Version, with age-specific measures and validated for the local culture and language, were used for the study. Our study revealed a prevalence of 70.7% for acute PTSD and 10.9% for delayed onset PTSD. PTSD was more prevalent among girls and more severe among adolescents exposed to loss of life or property. These results indicate that PTSD is widely prevalent among the survivors of the tsunami, reinforcing the need to develop an effective, culturally sensitive outreach therapy strategy for them.

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PERCEIVED APPLICABILITY OF HONEY BEE MATING OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM (HBMO AND PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION (PSO ALGORITHM BY APPLYING THREE FACTOR THEORY AMONG RESEARCHERS IN TAMIL NADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalyani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The perceived applicability of honey bee mating optimization HBMO and Particle Swarm Optimization PSO among the research scholars in Tamil Nadu are understudied. The purpose of the present study is to address this dearth in the literature in three ways: (i providing descriptive data related to the applicability of these algorithm in their area of study. (ii Applying Three Factor theory to assess the perceived range of applicability of the two said theories and to develop, a theoretically-based model that predicts the applicability and robustness of the algorithm in comparative basis grounded on the perceptual data collected from the research scholars from all over Tamil Nadu. (iii Attempting to compare the strength and form of correlation between the factors of influence and perceived applicability of the algorithms in the research process by the researchers. Self-report data were collected from Researchers in Tamil Nadu (n = 869, assessing the levels of individual personal belief factors in influencing the scholars perception of applicability of the algorithm for a range of issues, perception based on the results produced by the application of the algorithm. Perceptions formed in conformity with a group of researchers were analyzed through statistical tools. From the findings analysis, it is evident that perceptions of personal belief level and perception based on conformity with peer group perceptions have significant influences in predicting the applicability of the Algorithms. However, the study results suggest that empirical result is based in on the specified context and level of investigation on which it can produce similar or varied outcomes when the study is conducted to larger domain of subjects.

  9. Pattern of feto-maternal outcome and complications in pregnancy induced hypertension from a tertiary level health care teaching institution of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokeshwari Jayaraman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertensive disorder is the second most common medical disorder seen during pregnancy. They along with hemorrhage and infection, contribute greatly to maternal morbidity and mortality. Most deaths in PIH occur due to its complications and not due to hypertension per sec. Thus, maternal mortality and these complications are preventable. The objective of the present study was undertaken to study pattern of feto-maternal outcome and complications in cases of pregnancy induced hypertension with a view to identify them at the earliest. Methods: The current survey was planned and executed by the department of obstetrics and gynaecology of a tertiary care teaching institution of Tamil Nadu during November 2013 to October 2015 using a pre-designed questionnaire among 245 study participants. The study population consisted of pregnant women seeking care for PIH. Results: 59.6% cases of mild PIH, 22% cases of moderate PIH and 18.4% cases of severe PIH. Regarding maternal complications in PIH, in severe cases of PIH there were CCU admissions in 8.9% cases, imminent eclampsia in 31.1% cases and abruptio placentae, CVA, acute renal failure in 2.2% cases. DIC and maternal mortality was seen in 4.4% cases. Regarding foetal complications in PIH, in severe cases of PIH there was birth asphyxia in 31.1% cases. Intra uterine growth retardation was seen in 24.4% cases. The most common reason for NICU admission was preterm with low birth weight. Conclusions: Emphasis should be on early registration and regular ANC visits. Early detection and prompt intervention of complications is vital for ensure a healthy outcome to both mother and baby. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1402-1406

  10. A study on the tolerance level of farmers toward human-wildlife conflict in the forest buffer zones of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Senthilkumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to study the tolerance level of farmers toward different human-wildlife conflict (HWC situations. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 24 villages of nine blocks from Kancheepuram, Coimbatore, Erode, and Krishnagiri districts of Tamil Nadu by personally interviewing 240 farmers affected with four different HWC situations such as human-elephant conflict (HEC, human-wild pig conflict (HPC, human-gaur conflict (HGC, and human-monkey conflict (HMC. A scale developed for this purpose was used to find out the tolerance level of the farmers. Results: In general, the majority (61.70% of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC, whereas 25.40% and 12.90% belonged to a high and low category, respectively. The mean tolerance level of the farmer’s encountering HMC is low (8.77 among the other three wild animal conflicts. In tackling HWC, the majority (55.00% of the HEC farmers drove the elephant once it entered into their farmland. In the HPC, more than three-fourths of the respondents drove away the wild pig once they were found in farmlands. With regard to the HMC, a less number of them (1.70% drove the monkey away if monkeys were spotted in their village. With regard to HGC, 95.00% of the respondents frightened the gaurs if their family members were threatened by gaurs. Conclusion: The present study suggests that that majority of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC. The tolerance level of the HMC farmers was lower than other three HWC affected farmers. This study emphasizes the need for necessary training to tackle the problem in an effective manner for wild animal conservation.

  11. A study on the tolerance level of farmers toward human-wildlife conflict in the forest buffer zones of Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Mathialagan, P.; Manivannan, C.; Jayathangaraj, M. G.; Gomathinayagam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work was to study the tolerance level of farmers toward different human-wildlife conflict (HWC) situations. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 24 villages of nine blocks from Kancheepuram, Coimbatore, Erode, and Krishnagiri districts of Tamil Nadu by personally interviewing 240 farmers affected with four different HWC situations such as human-elephant conflict (HEC), human-wild pig conflict (HPC), human-gaur conflict (HGC), and human-monkey conflict (HMC). A scale developed for this purpose was used to find out the tolerance level of the farmers. Results: In general, the majority (61.70%) of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC, whereas 25.40% and 12.90% belonged to a high and low category, respectively. The mean tolerance level of the farmer’s encountering HMC is low (8.77) among the other three wild animal conflicts. In tackling HWC, the majority (55.00%) of the HEC farmers drove the elephant once it entered into their farmland. In the HPC, more than three-fourths of the respondents drove away the wild pig once they were found in farmlands. With regard to the HMC, a less number of them (1.70%) drove the monkey away if monkeys were spotted in their village. With regard to HGC, 95.00% of the respondents frightened the gaurs if their family members were threatened by gaurs. Conclusion: The present study suggests that that majority of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC. The tolerance level of the HMC farmers was lower than other three HWC affected farmers. This study emphasizes the need for necessary training to tackle the problem in an effective manner for wild animal conservation. PMID:27536037

  12. Budgeting of major nutrients and the mitigation options for nutrient mining in semi-arid tropical agro-ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India using NUTMON model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, U; Rama Subramoniam, S; Raja, P; Kumar, V; Murugappan, V

    2016-04-01

    Mining of nutrients from soil is a major problem in developing countries causing soil degradation and threaten long-term food production. The present study attempts to apply NUTrient MONitoring (NUTMON) model for carrying out nutrient budgeting to assess the stocks and flows of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in defined geographical unit based on the inputs, viz., mineral fertilizers, manures, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation, and outputs, viz., harvested crop produces, residues, leaching, denitrification, and erosion losses. The study area covers Coimbatore and Erode Districts, which are potential agricultural areas in western agro-ecological zone of Tamil Nadu, India. The calculated nutrient balances for both the districts at district scale, using NUTMON methodology, were negative for nitrogen (N -3.3 and -10.1 kg ha(-1)) and potassium (K -58.6 and -9.8 kg ha(-1)) and positive for phosphorus (P +14.5 and 20.5 kg ha(-1)). Soil nutrient pool has to adjust the negative balance of N and K; there will be an expected mining of nutrient from the soil reserve. A strategy was attempted for deriving the fertilizer recommendation using Decision Support System for Integrated Fertilizer Recommendation (DSSIFER) to offset the mining in selected farms. The results showed that when DSSIFER recommended fertilizers are applied to crops, the nutrient balance was positive. NUTMON-Toolbox with DSSIFER would serve the purpose on enhancing soil fertility, productivity, and sustainability. The management options to mitigate nutrient mining with an integrated system approach are also discussed.

  13. Caries risk assessment among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitha, Madhu M; Nijesh, J E; Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth; Priyadharshini, Indra; Junaid, Mohammed; Vaishnavi, S

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is as ancient as humankind and has the longest association with the dental profession, an association that is punctuated with agony and ecstasy. The agonizing fact is that despite several efforts toward total eradication, this disease is still prevalent. Nevertheless, an ecstatic success of the profession is the global decline in the incidence compared to the yesteryears' epidemics. Hence, predicting dental caries earlier is a boon. One such model to predict is cariogram developed by Bratthall in 1996. The aim of this study was to assess the caries risk among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district in Tamil Nadu using cariogram computer model. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 136 study subjects of 12-13 year of age, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected using a predesigned questionnaire and scored according to a standardized protocol. The Chi-square test was used to find differences between caries-related factors and cariogram group. The correlation was acquired using Spearman's correlation. Government school study subjects had 56% of chance of avoiding caries whereas the private school study subjects had 66% of chance of avoiding caries in future and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between the chance to avoid dental caries and cariogram sectors. The majority of the study subjects from government school belonged to medium-risk category and private school subjects belonged to low-risk category which inferred that private school students have high chance to avoid dental caries compared to government study subjects.

  14. Coxiellosis in domestic livestock of Puducherry and Tamil Nadu: Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA by polymerase chain reaction in slaughtered ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Jothimani; Stephen, Selvaraj; Pooja, Pratheesh; Akshayavardhini, Anbalagan; Sangeetha, Balakrishnan; Antony, Prabakar Xavier

    2017-06-01

    In the course of our Indian Council of Medical Research project on coxiellosis in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, 5.64% goat, 1.85% sheep, 1.06% buffaloes, and 0.97% cattle were positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit (IDEXX, Liebefeld, Switzerland). In this preliminary study, we have proceeded to look for C. burnetii DNA in those antibody positive specimens employing an imported commercial C. burnetii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit. Blood samples were collected during slaughtering. All 15 blood samples of antibody positive ruminants and three antibody negative samples were subjected to conventional Trans-PCR assay with a commercial PCR kit (Genekam Biotechnology AG, Duisburg, Germany). An in-house Trans-PCR was included in the study for comparison. A total of 15 antibody positive and three antibody-negative serum samples belonging to 11 goat, 4 sheep, 1 cattle, and 2 buffaloes were tested in duplicate for the presence of C. burnetii DNA by the commercial agar gel PCR kit and an in-house Trans-PCR. Only one buffalo serum sample was positive for C. burnetii with a band at 243 bp in in-house Trans-PCR. Seropositivity for C. burnetii need not necessarily translate into infectivity status of the animal. Conversely, seronegative ruminants can shed C. burnetii. Rapid disintegration of C. burnetii DNA during the storage period is an important impediment in QF-PCR research. This is the first time the performance of this commercial PCR kit is being validated in India. Commercial PCR kit, Genekam did not identify any positive sample, probably because it targeted a larger amplicon of 687 bp.

  15. Caries risk assessment among 12–13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu M Mitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is as ancient as humankind and has the longest association with the dental profession, an association that is punctuated with agony and ecstasy. The agonizing fact is that despite several efforts toward total eradication, this disease is still prevalent. Nevertheless, an ecstatic success of the profession is the global decline in the incidence compared to the yesteryears' epidemics. Hence, predicting dental caries earlier is a boon. One such model to predict is cariogram developed by Bratthall in 1996. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the caries risk among 12–13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district in Tamil Nadu using cariogram computer model. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 136 study subjects of 12–13 year of age, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected using a predesigned questionnaire and scored according to a standardized protocol. The Chi-square test was used to find differences between caries-related factors and cariogram group. The correlation was acquired using Spearman's correlation. Results: Government school study subjects had 56% of chance of avoiding caries whereas the private school study subjects had 66% of chance of avoiding caries in future and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001. A negative correlation was observed between the chance to avoid dental caries and cariogram sectors. Conclusion: The majority of the study subjects from government school belonged to medium-risk category and private school subjects belonged to low-risk category which inferred that private school students have high chance to avoid dental caries compared to government study subjects.

  16. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality appraisal of part of south Chennai coastal aquifers, Tamil Nadu, India using WQI and fuzzy logic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Bharani, R.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purposes in the urban coastal aquifers of part of south Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected during March 2012. The minimum and maximum values of pH (6.3-8 on scale), electrical conductivity (620-12,150 μS/cm), total dissolved solids (399.28-7,824.6 mg/l), carbonate (0-30 mg/l), bicarbonate (0.9-58.9 mg/l), chloride (70.9-4,067.89 mg/l), sulphate (17.4-105 mg/l), nitrate (0.4-6.0 mg/l), calcium (30-200 mg/l), magnesium (1.2-164 mg/l), sodium (69-1,490 mg/l) and potassium (8-340 mg/l) were recorded in the coastal aquifers of Chennai city. The groundwater samples show that the majority of the sampling points clustered on the NaCl and mixed CaMgCl facies of the piper trilinear diagram. In the Gibbs diagram, the majority of the sampling points fall under rock water and evaporation dominance field. Fuzzy membership classification suggests that the majority of the samples fall under good water type followed by excellent water and poor water categories. Groundwater quality index showing the majority of the samples falls under excellent to poor category of water. A positive correlation was observed with Cl-, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Na+, K+, EC and TDS. The extracted results of the correlation matrix and geochemical analysis suggest that the dominant ions of groundwater (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Cl- and SO4 2-) were derived from seawater intrusion and gypsum dissolution process. Nitrate concentration is most significantly derived from anthropogenic sources.

  17. Big data in Tamil: opportunities, benefits and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Raj; Khazaei, Babak; Ali, Ashik

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overall introduction on big data and has tried to introduce Big Data in Tamil. It discusses the potential opportunities, benefits and likely challenges from a very Tamil and Tamil Nadu perspective. The paper has also made original contribution by proposing the ‘big data’s’ terminology in Tamil. The paper further suggests a few areas to explore using big data Tamil on the lines of the Tamil Nadu Government ‘vision 2023’. Whilst, big data has something to offer everyone, it ...

  18. BIG DATA IN TAMIL: OPPORTUNITIES, BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Vignesh Raj; Babak Khazaei; Ashik Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overall introduction on big data and has tried to introduce Big Data in Tamil. It discusses the potential opportunities, benefits and likely challenges from a very Tamil and Tamil Nadu perspective. The paper has also made original contribution by proposing the ‘big data’s’ terminology in Tamil. The paper further suggests a few areas to explore using big data Tamil on the lines of the Tamil Nadu Government ‘vision 2023’. Whilst, big data has something to offer everyone, it ...

  19. Gender based comparison of impact of dental pain on the quality of life among out patients of a private dental college in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental pain is the most common reason for the patients to visit a dental office and anxious patients typically expect more pain than they experience. Dental pain has an impact on the patient's oral health and quality of life. Aims: To evaluate and compare the dental pain and anxiety levels in both male and female patients prior to dental treatment and to assess the influence of oral health on the quality of life. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a Private Dental College in Tamil Nadu which included 201 patients consisting of 101 males and 100 females. The origin of dental pain was identified and the patients were asked to indicate the level of pain experienced by them at the moment with the help of a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS, numerical scale (NS, verbal pain rating scale (VRS, and faces pain scale. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS was used to evaluate dental anxiety before self-assessment questionnaire, Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14 was used to assess the impact of dental pain on the quality of life of the patients. GFNx01 Statistical software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of males was of 36.57 years and for females it was 35.50 years. The number of patients who had pulpal pain (68.66% was greater than those who had periodontal pain (29.35%. The mean score of VAS for males (55.41 ± 20.43 was significantly lower than the females (62.51 ± 1.73. The mean score of NS was 54.46 ± 20.71 for males and 62.50 ± 21.38 for females. Severe pain was reported by 27% females and 15.8% males in VRS. It was found using the MDAS that 5% of females and only 1.5% of males had dental phobia. The mean OHIP-14 score was 19.73 ± 9.43 for females and 16.67 ± 8.72 for males. The male patients reported a lower impact on oral health than the females. Conclusions: The level of pain and anxiety experienced by female patients are greater when compared to males. Dental pain

  20. Monsoon Harvests: Assessing the Impact of Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Subsistence-Level Agriculture in the Gundar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiff, M.; Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Lack of consistent water availability for irrigated agriculture is recognized as one of the primary constraints to meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals to alleviate hunger, and in semi-arid landscapes such as those of southern India, which are characterized by high intra-annual variability in rainfall, provision of capabilities for seasonal storage is recognized to be one of the key strategies towards alleviating water scarcity problems and ensuring food security. Although the issue of increased storage can be addressed by centralized infrastructure projects such as large-scale irrigation systems and dams, an alternative is the "soft path" approach, in which existing large-scale projects are complemented by small-scale, decentralized solutions. Such a decentralized approach has been utilized in southern India for thousands of years in the form of village rainwater harvesting tanks or ponds, providing a local and inherently sustainable approach to providing sufficient water for rice cultivation. Over the last century, however, large-scale canal projects and groundwater pumping have replaced rainwater harvesting as the primary source of irrigation water. But with groundwater withdrawals now exceeding recharge in many areas and water tables continuing to drop, many NGOs and government agencies are advocating for a revival of the older rainwater harvesting systems. Questions remain, however, regarding the limits to which rainwater harvesting can provide a solution to decades of water overexploitation. In the present work, we have utilized secondary data sources to analyze the linkages between the tank irrigation systems and the village communities that depend on them within the Gundar Basin of southern Tamil Nadu. Combining socioeconomic data with information regarding climate, land use, groundwater depletion, and tank density, we have developed indicators of sustainability for these systems. Using these indicators, we have attempted to unravel the close

  1. Geospatial Approach on Landslide Hazard Zonation Mapping Using Multicriteria Decision Analysis: A Study on Coonoor and Ooty, Part of Kallar Watershed, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamana, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landslides are one of the critical natural phenomena that frequently lead to serious problems in hilly area, resulting to loss of human life and property, as well as causing severe damage to natural resources. The local geology with high degree of slope coupled with high intensity of rainfall along with unplanned human activities of the study area causes many landslides in this region. The present study area is more attracted by tourist throughout the year, so this area must be considered for preventive measures. Geospatial based Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) technique is increasingly used for landslide vulnerability and hazard zonation mapping. It enables the integration of different data layers with different levels of uncertainty. In this present study, it is used analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to prepare landslide hazard zones of the Coonoor and Ooty, part of Kallar watershed, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. The study was carried out using remote sensing data, field surveys and geographic information system (GIS) tools. The ten factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as elevation, slope aspect, slope angle, drainage density, lineament density, soil, precipitation, land use/land cover (LULC), distance from road and NDVI were considered. These factors layers were extracted from the various related spatial data's. These factors were evaluated, and then, the individual factor weight and class weight were assigned to each of the related factors. The Landslide Hazard Zone Index (LHZI) was calculated using Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) the technique based on the assigned weight and the rating is given by the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The final cumulative map of the study area was categorized into four hazard zones and classified as zone I to IV. There are 3.56% of the area comes under the hazard zone IV fallowed by 48.19% of the area comes under zone III, 43.63 % of the area in zone II and 4.61% of the area comes hazard

  2. Brittle deformation in Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT): A study of pseudotachylyte bearing fractures along Gangavalli Shear Zone (GSZ), Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    mohan Behera, Bhuban; Thirukumaran, Venugopal; Biswal, Tapas kumar

    2016-04-01

    High grade metamorphism and intense deformation have given a well recognition to the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India. TTG-Charnockite and basic granulites constitute the dominant lithoassociation of the area. Dunite-peridotite-anorthosite-shonkinite and syenites are the intrusives. TTG-charnockite-basic granulite have undergone F1 (isoclinal recumbent), F2 (NE-SW) and F3 (NW-SE) folds producing several interference pattern. E-W trending Neoarchean and Palaeoproterozoic Salem-Attur Shear Zone exhibits a low angle ductile thrust as well as some foot print of late stage brittle deformation near Gangavalli area of Tamil Nadu. The thrust causes exhumation of basic granulites to upper crust. Thrusting along the decollement has retrograded the granulite into amphibolite rock. Subsequently, deformation pattern of Gangavalli area has distinctly marked by numerous vertical to sub-vertical fractures mostly dominating along 0-15 and 270-300 degree within charnockite hills that creates a maximum stress (σ1) along NNW and minimum stress (σ3) along ENE. However, emplacement of pseudotachylyte vein along N-S dominating fracture indicates a post deformational seismic event. Extensive fractures produce anastomose vein with varying thickness from few millimeters to 10 centimeters on the outcrop. ICP-AES study results an isochemical composition of pseudotachylyte vein that derived from the host charnockitic rock where it occurs. But still some noticeable variation in FeO-MgO and Na2O-CaO are obtained from different parts within the single vein showing heterogeneity melt. Electron probe micro analysis of thin sections reveals the existence of melt immiscibility during its solidification. Under dry melting condition, albitic rich melts are considered to be the most favorable composition for microlites (e.g. sheaf and acicular micro crystal) re-crystallization. Especially, acicular microlites preserved tachylite texture that suggest its formation before the final coagulation

  3. The scope and limitations of insecticide spraying in rural vector control programmes in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, D; Hyma, B; Ramesh, A

    1982-01-01

    The resurgence of malaria in India began in 1966 and the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were no exception to this phenomenon. In both states the peak occurrence came in 1976. Malaria was largely confined to highly vulnerable and receptive areas. The problem of increased incidence was particularly associated with the development of several irrigation and hydro-electric schemes. Improperly maintained irrigation systems and reservoirs provided ideal breeding grounds. The present paper examines the scope and limitations of a major anti-malaria activity, namely residual insecticide spraying as adopted and practised in rural vector control programmes in irrigation development project areas. Past experiences (as during the National Malaria Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. In view of the current re-emergence of the disease, the states are faced with new obstacles to residual insecticide spraying such as (a) the development of resistance of malaria vectors to DDT and other alternative compounds like BHC (benzene hexachloride), changing vector behaviour with avoidance of contact with indoor insecticide deposits on walls, (c) environmental contamination (risks of chemicals), (d) extensive use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection under an expanding green revolution agricultural technology, particularly in irrigated areas and (e) the existence of outdoor resting populations of the major vector Anopheles culicifacies and their role in extra-domiciliary transmission, making residual insecticide spray less effective. Spraying operations are also hindered by the persistence of certain social and cultural factors. The custom of mud plastering, white-washing and rethatching rural houses, for example, results in the loss of insecticide-treated surfaces. Other outdoor rural activities persist as

  4. Implementation of Environmental Judgments in Context: A Comparative Analysis of Dahanu Thermal Power Plant Pollution Case in Maharashtra and Vellore Leather Industrial Pollution Case in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjoy Sahu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a relatively neglected aspect of understanding the post-environmental judgment scenario: the impact of environmental judgment at the grassroots level and why there has been variation in the implementation of environmental judgments. It examines two Supreme Court environmental judgments on industrial pollution in two different states of India-the Dahanu Power Plant Case in Thane District of Maharashtra and the leather industrial pollution case in Vellore District of Tamil Nadu-and raises one central question-what factors determine the effective implementation of Supreme Court’s environmental judgments. The premise of this paper is that, despite the existence of a well-established regulatory framework to enforce environmental laws and policies in India, there has been a variation in the implementation of environmental judgments. From the judicial activism perspective, emphasis is placed on how the nature and level of judicial intervention in the post-judgment scenario, ensures the effective implementation of its own directions. It is argued that judicial intervention in the implementation of its decisions has become crucial to enforce its directions, and that this intervention is undertaken not to take away the power and functions of implementing agency, but rather to translate its directions into action at the grassroots level. In turn, the successful enforcement of environmental judgments depends on the nature of judicial activism, or the way in which the judges bring changes in the implementation process. As a consequence, it is not the level of judicial activism in itself which is decisive, but the process of activism that contributes towards the effective implementation of its decisions. In establishing this argument, however, the paper also argues that the process of judicial activism in the implementation of its direction is triggered by the active and consistent involvement of civil-society groups at the grassroots

  5. "How often? How much? Where from?" knowledge, attitudes, and practices of mothers and health workers to iron supplementation program for children under five in rural Tamil Nadu, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye Jin; Ramasamy, Rajkumar; Morgan, Alison

    2014-07-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects 70% of under-5 children in India. The primary prevention strategy is regular iron supplementation. Little is known about what helps families adhere to daily iron supplementation. Our study explored the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of mothers and village health workers (VHWs) involved in a community health program in one hill district of Tamil Nadu. We conducted 30 semistructured interviews and 3 group discussions involving mothers, VHWs, and community stakeholders. Knowledge of IDA was widespread, yet no children were receiving the iron supplementation as recommended. The main determinants to adherence included the perception of its need, the ease of access, and the activity of VHWs. Preventive care requiring daily supplements is challenging. Our study suggests that increasing community awareness of mild anemia, simplifying dosage instructions, and further strengthening the supportive environment for VHWs would help in reducing the prevalence of IDA.

  6. Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the

  7. P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Kriyavin Tarkalat Tamil Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English))

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Review of P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Kriyavin Tarkalat Tamil Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English))Resensie van P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Kriyavin Tarkalat Tamil Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English))

  8. A Holotrichous ciliate from the coelom of Chaetognaths

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    A holotrichous ciliate was observed from the body cavity of Chaetognaths Sagitta enflata and S. bedoti collected from the zooplankton samples at Cape Comorin and Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu, India). Species were examined for infected parasites...

  9. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  10. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  11. Underwater investigations off Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.

    on the archaeological evidences on land, the earliest possible date of these structures is estimated to be around 1500 years BP. The major cause of the submergence of these structures is severe coastal erosion prevailing in the region....

  12. Coins from Tranquebar waters, Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_3_p.85.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_3_p.85.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. Shift in Climate Class Over Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, S.; S. Kokilavani; A.P. Ramaraj; G. A. Dheebakaran; T. N. Balasubramania

    2015-01-01

    Climate being a significant driver for best selection of crops in a region, allocation of similar climatic zones has always received plunge.Twenty per cent or more precipitation decrease is anticipated for many parts of the arid regions in the next century. Rainfall is a crucial agro-climatological factor in the seasonally arid parts of the world and its analysis is an essential prerequisite for agricultural planning in India. Ninety years (1911-2000) of both South West Monsoon (SWM) and Nort...

  14. Odonates of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    M. Suhirtha Muhil; Pramod, P

    2017-01-01

    Odonates were surveyed in Coimbatore District from September 2012 to January 2016.  The survey sites covered three major rivers—the Noyyal, Bhavani and Aliyar.  Aquatic habitats such as forest streams, riverine sites, irrigational tanks and paddy fields were surveyed in the study.  A total of 70 species of odonates were recorded in the survey, which brings the list of odonates in Coimbatore to 87 species.  Eighteen species are first time records to the district.  In this paper, we catalogue o...

  15. Odonates of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suhirtha Muhil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Odonates were surveyed in Coimbatore District from September 2012 to January 2016.  The survey sites covered three major rivers—the Noyyal, Bhavani and Aliyar.  Aquatic habitats such as forest streams, riverine sites, irrigational tanks and paddy fields were surveyed in the study.  A total of 70 species of odonates were recorded in the survey, which brings the list of odonates in Coimbatore to 87 species.  Eighteen species are first time records to the district.  In this paper, we catalogue odonates and their distribution from the present survey and pre-existing records. 

  16. P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English)

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Review of P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English)

    Resensie van P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-...

  17. Tamil Chola Bronzes and Swamimalai Legacy: Metal Sources and Archaeotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sharada

    2016-08-01

    This review explores the great copper alloy image casting traditions of southern India from archaeometallurgical and ethnometallurgical perspectives. The usefulness of lead isotope ratio and compositional analysis in the finger-printing and art historical study of more than 130 early historic, Pallava, Chola, later Chola, and Vijayanagara sculptures (fifth-eighteenth centuries) is highlighted, including Nataraja, Buddha, Parvati, and Rama images made of copper, leaded bronze, brass, and gilt copper. Image casting traditions at Swamimalai in Tamil Nadu are compared with artistic treatises and with the technical examination of medieval bronzes, throwing light on continuities and changes in foundry practices. Western Indian sources could be pinpointed for a couple of medieval images from lead isotope analysis. Slag and archaeometallurgical investigations suggest the exploitation of some copper and lead-silver sources in the Andhra and Karnataka regions in the early historic Satavahana period and point to probable copper sources for the medieval images in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. The general lower iron content in southern Indian bronzes perhaps renders the proximal copper-magnetite reserves of Seruvila in Sri Lanka as a less likely source. Given the lack of lead deposits in Sri Lanka, however, the match of the lead isotope signatures of a well-known Ceylonese Buddhist Tara in British Museum with a Buddha image from Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu may underscore ties between the island nation and the southern Indian Tamil regions.

  18. Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

  19. Attitudes towards Literary Tamil and Standard Spoken Tamil in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2007-01-01

    This is the first empirical study that focused on attitudes towards two varieties of Tamil, Literary Tamil (LT) and Standard Spoken Tamil (SST), with the multilingual state of Singapore as the backdrop. The attitudes of 46 Singapore Tamil teachers towards speakers of LT and SST were investigated using the matched-guise approach along with…

  20. Aspiration in Jaffna Tamil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thananjayarajasingham, S.

    1975-01-01

    The article accounts for the phenomenon of aspiration in Jaffna Tamil, a dialect distinct form South Indian dialects of Tamil. Not being distinctive orphonologically determined, aspiration is dealt with as a prosodic feature affecting voiceless stops in various positions. Distribution and symbolic representation are handled; kymographic evidence…

  1. Tamil in Melbourne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sue; Clyne, Michael

    2007-01-01

    There have been few Australian studies of language maintenance amongst immigrant languages from the Indian subcontinent. The present study focuses on Tamil speakers in Melbourne from Sri Lanka or India, who are Hindus or Christians. Tamil is a pluricentric language that has been under the domination of English in these countries, at least amongst…

  2. Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Annamalai, Muthiah

    2009-01-01

    Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezh...

  3. Marine Archaeological Explorations at Kulasekharapattinarn and Manapad Region, Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh;; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.

    , which are being used by the local fishermen. In the course of investigation, an area was discovered which served as a quarry manufacturing stone anchors from early times. The remains in the intertidal zone indicate that various sizes of stone anchors...

  4. Marine archaeological investigations on Tamil Nadu Coast, India: A overview

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    , starting from year one on the Georgian Calendar). Many such port towns that existed on the coastal region vanished or were submerged in the sea probably due to coastal erosion, sea level changes and neo-tectonic activity and other causes. Poompuhar, a...

  5. Directional wave spectra off southeast coast of Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; Gowthaman, R.

    directional spreading. A well established way to describe the energy content in an irregular wind generated surface wave assumes superposition of linear waves and the two dimensional energy spectrum can be conveniently expressed as a product of the one...

  6. Seroepidemiological study of toxoplasmosis in southern districts of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucilathangam, G; Anna, T

    2016-06-01

    The current study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in and around Tirunelveli. Serum samples from 175 immunodeficient and 175 immunocompetent patients were collected and were analyzed by in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors. The present study revealed that anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 13.14 % which constitutes 15.43 % in immunocompromised and 10.86 % in immunocompetent patients. There was a significant difference between sex of the study population and drinking water source. Seroprevalence was increased in the male (19.12 %, p = 0.0075, OR 2.316, 95 % CI 1.2362-4.3405) than the female and with river water consumption other than bore water (12.5 %, p = 0.0483, OR 0.857, 95 % CI 0.1853-3.4641). No significant relations were observed between anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and age, residence, diet and animal contact in the study population. Toxoplasmosis will remain a problem, mainly in risk groups such as pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. Improvement can only be attained by increasing prevention and reducing the risk factors.

  7. Shoreline change analysis of Vedaranyam coast, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Usha; Thulasiraman, N; Deepthi, K; Kathiravan, K

    2013-06-01

    The coastal zone is one of the nation's greatest environmental and economic assets. The present research aims at studying the shoreline changes along Vedaranyam coast using conventional and modern techniques including field sampling, remote sensing, and geographical information system (GIS). The study area was divided into three zones. Dynamic Land/Sea polygon analysis was performed to obtain the shore line changes at different time periods between 1930 and 2005. From the multidate shoreline maps, the rate of shoreline change was computed using linear regression rate and end point rate. Further, the shoreline was classified into eroding, accreting, and stable regions through GIS analysis. The eroding, accreting, and stable coastal stretch along Vedaranyam is observed as 18 %, 80.5 %, and 1.5 %, respectively. Net shoreline movement is seaward, i.e., the coast is progressive with an average rate of 5 m/year. A maximum shoreline displacement of 1.3 km towards the sea is observed near Point Calimere. During the Asian Tsunami 2004, the eastern part of the study area showed high erosion. Sediment transport paths derived from the grain size analysis of beach sediments collected during different seasons help to identify the major sediment source and sinks. Point Calimere acts as the major sink for sediments whereas Agastiyampalli and Kodiakkarai are found to be the major sources for the sediment supply along the Vedaranyam coast. Shoreline change study from field and satellite data using GIS analysis confirms that Vedaranyam coast is accreting in nature.

  8. Epidemiologic evidence of spinal cord injury in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelamegan Sridharan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury is a fearsome disability leading to increased rate of morbidity and mortality. Information about the incidence of spinal cord injury may provide support for the healthcare advancements. The aim of the present study is to investigate the epidemiology of spinal cord injury. Methods: The present study was carried out in Rajiv Gandhi government general hospital, Chennai, India. The study design was approved by the institutional human ethical committee. Questionnaire was used to collect the information from the patients in a prospective manner. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA scoring systems was used to evaluate the severity of spinal cord injury. Results: A total of 245 cases of spinal injury were studied. Among them, 88 % (n=216 were male and 12% (n=29 were female. Spinal cord injuries of falls from height were prominent over the road traffic accident. Cervical level injuries are widespread in males and dorsal level Injuries are common in females. Conclusion: Hence awareness of the spinal cord injury and availability of healthcare facilities may minimise the consequences of spinal cord injury. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 220-223

  9. Tamil Nadu and the Diagonal Divide in Sex Ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); S. Srinivasan (Sharada)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBetween 1961 and 2001, India’s 0-6 sex ratio has steadily declined. Despite evidence to the contrary, this ratio is often characterised in terms of a diagonal divide with low 0-6 sex ratios in northern and western India and normal 0-6 sex ratios in eastern and southern India. While unexp

  10. Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Muthiah

    2009-01-01

    Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezhil and a few example programs are reported here, from the initial proof-of-concept implementation using the Python programming language1. To the best of our knowledge, Ezhil language is the first freely available Tamil programming language.

  11. Party Political Panthers: Hegemonic Tamil Politics and the Dalit Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Gorringe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Viduthalai Ciruthaigal Katchi (VCK, Liberation Panther Party has successfully transformed from the largest Dalit movement in Tamil Nadu into a recognised political organisation. Social movement theorists like Gamson (1990 view political recognition and engagement as one of the main aims and successes of social mobilisation. Despite the obvious achievements of the VCK, however, activists and commentators express disappointment or disillusionment with its performance. The Panthers clearly reject the caste hierarchy, but they increasingly adopt hegemonic forms of politics which can undermine their aims. This paper, thus, engages with the questions of movement institutionalisation by tracing the political trajectory of the VCK and charting its resistance to and compliance with Dravidian hegemony. It argues that institutionalisation needs to be understood within particular socio-political contexts and notes how the hegemony of Dravidian politics partly explains the disjuncture between activist and political perceptions. It portrays how the dominant political parties have set the template for what it means to ‘do’ politics in Tamil Nadu which serves as both an opportunity and a constraint for potential challengers.

  12. Genetic portrait of Tamil non-tribal and Irula tribal population using Y chromosome STR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Rajshree; Krishnamoorthy, Kamalakshi; Balasubramanian, Lakshmi; Kunka Mohanram, Ramkumar

    2016-03-01

    The 17 Y chromosomal short tandem repeat loci included in the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ PCR Amplification Kit were used to analyse the genetic diversity of 517 unrelated males representing the non-tribal and Irula tribal population of Tamil Nadu. A total of 392 unique haplotypes were identified among the 400 non-tribal samples whereas 111 were observed among the 117 Irula tribal samples. Rare alleles for the loci DYS458, DYS635 and YGATAH4.1 were also observed in both population. The haplotype diversity for the non-tribal and Irula tribal population were found to be 0.9999, and the gene diversity ranged from 0.2041 (DYS391) to 0.9612 (DYS385). Comparison of the test population with 26 national and global population using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and determination of the genetic distance matrix using phylogenetic molecular analysis indicate a clustering of the Tamil Nadu non-tribal and Irula tribal population away from other unrelated population and proximity towards some Indo-European (IE) and Asian population. Data are available in the Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD) under accession number YA004055 for Tamil non-tribal and YA004056 for the Irula tribal group.

  13. The Debate over Literary Tamil versus Standard Spoken Tamil: What Do Teachers Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Vanithamani; Lakshmi, Seetha; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to determine the attitudes toward Standard Spoken Tamil (SST) and Literary Tamil (LT) of 46 Tamil teachers in Singapore. The teachers' attitudes were used as an indicator of the acceptance or nonacceptance of SST as a viable option in the teaching of Tamil in the classroom, in which the focus has been largely on LT. The…

  14. Reader for Advanced Spoken Tamil. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold

    This final report describes the development of a textbook for advanced, spoken Tamil. There is a marked dirrerence between literary Tamil and spoken Tamil, and training in the former is not sufficient for speaking the language in everyday situations with reasonably educated native speakers. There is difficulty in finding suitable material that…

  15. Translational Implications of Tamil "Hamlets."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraj, S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of translation when teaching English as a Second Language in a Tamil context. Singles out the fencing episode in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" to illustrate the difficulties of translating cultural aspects. Concludes that successful translations of Shakespeare into Indian languages should involve collaboration between…

  16. STUDENTS' MANUAL OF MODERN FORMAL TAMIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LISKER, LEIGH; VAIDYANATHAN, S.

    A BEGINNING TEXT IN TAMIL, ONE OF THE MOST WIDELY SPOKEN DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES IN INDIA, IS PRESENTED. THE FORMAL LANGUAGE STYLE USED IN THESE MATERIALS REPRESENTS THE STYLE USED IN LECTURES, RADIO BROADCASTS, AND CITATION FORMS, AND IS ESSENTIALLY THE SPOKEN VERSION OF THE MODERN STANDARD WRITTEN TAMIL. THIS MANUAL, WHILE SERVING AS INTRODUCTION TO…

  17. STUDENTS' MANUAL OF MODERN FORMAL TAMIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LISKER, LEIGH; VAIDYANATHAN, S.

    A BEGINNING TEXT IN TAMIL, ONE OF THE MOST WIDELY SPOKEN DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES IN INDIA, IS PRESENTED. THE FORMAL LANGUAGE STYLE USED IN THESE MATERIALS REPRESENTS THE STYLE USED IN LECTURES, RADIO BROADCASTS, AND CITATION FORMS, AND IS ESSENTIALLY THE SPOKEN VERSION OF THE MODERN STANDARD WRITTEN TAMIL. THIS MANUAL, WHILE SERVING AS INTRODUCTION TO…

  18. Intermediate Tamil: A Self-Instructional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold

    This self-instructional method for learning an intermediate level of Tamil is designed to follow an elementary level such as "Conversational Tamil." The material in this text concentrates on grammatical constructions not covered in that elementary text, particularly negatives of all kinds; in addition, this text uses the same transcription and the…

  19. Tackling female infanticide and sex selection in Tamil Nadu a failure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Srinivasan (Sharada); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis response to "Declining Child Sex Ratio and Sex Selection in India: A Demographic Epiphany"? (EPW, 18 August 2012) argues that contrary to the assertion in that article, state and non-governmental organisation interventions seem to have played an important role in reversing the

  20. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AND C VIRAL MARKERS AMONG THE TRIBAL POPULATION OF NILGIRIS, TAMIL NADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnasamy Narayanasamy, Senthilkumar Ramalingam, Sathishkumar Elumalai, Jaya Lakshmi, Ramachandar S, Rameshkumar Manickam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively infects the liver which results in a wide range of disease outcomes. Worldwide, over 7% (350 million and 3% (170 million people are chronically infected with HBV and HCV, respectively.[1] HBV is transmitted through exposure to infective blood, semen, and other body fluids or through infected mothers to infants at the time of birth. Transmission may also occur through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through transfusions of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. Sexual transmission is also possible.[2] Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and/or C virus infection remain infectious to others and are at risk of serious liver disease such as liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer (HCC. [3,4] Study reports revealed that HBV and/or HCV infections are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive population related to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.[5,6] Though studies on the prevalence of HBV (rarely on HCV among tribal population in India were available[7,8], there is no recent reports from southern part of India. Hence, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV among tribal population in Kotagiri, Nilgiris. After obtaining the informed consent, blood samples (5 ml each from a total of 196 participants (103 males and 93 females were collected and sera were separated on site. Samples which showed positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV by rapid test were confirmed by ELISA technique using commercial kits Reliable Pro-detect Biomedical Ltd, India and Erba Lisa, Germany, respectively. Of the 196 individuals screened, none of them was positive for the viral markers. Several studies from India reported varying range of HBsAg and anti-HCV positivity among general and tribal population [7,8], whereas in our study none of them was found positive for the viral markers. The possible reason for the absence of HBV and HCV infection in our study population may be due to the differences in their lifestyle, sociodemographic factors and cultural practices. Though we found HBsAg and anti-HCV negativity, continuous monitoring is necessary to prevent the spread of these hepatitis viruses among the tribal community.

  1. Relevance of water quality index for groundwater quality evaluation: Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaraja, C.

    2017-09-01

    The present hydrogeochemical study was confined to the Thoothukudi District in Tamilnadu, India. A total of 100 representative water samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon and analyzed for the major cations (sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium) and anions (chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, fluoride and nitrate) along with various physical and chemical parameters (pH, total dissolved salts and electrical conductivity). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify the overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to dilution of ions and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC corresponds to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. Sodium (Na %), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), residual sodium bicarbonate, permeability index (PI), magnesium hazards (MH), Kelly's ratio (KR), potential salinity (PS) and Puri's salt index (PSI) and domestic quality parameters such as total hardness (TH), temporary, permanent hardness and corrosivity ratio (CR) were calculated. The majority of the samples were not suitable for drinking, irrigation and domestic purposes in the study area. In this study, the analysis of salinization/freshening processes was carried out through binary diagrams such as of mole ratios of {SO}_{ 4}^{ 2- } /Cl- and Cl-/EC that clearly classify the sources of seawater intrusion and saltpan contamination. Spatial diagram BEX was used to find whether the aquifer was in the salinization region or in the freshening encroachment region.

  2. Marine archaeological explorations of Tranquebar-Poompuhar region on Tamil Nadu coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.R.

    The main objective of the Marine Archaeological Expedition was to locate the shipwreck suspected to be a hindrance to fishing. Secondly a bathymetry study was conducted to understand geological features and locate submerged structures if any. Side...

  3. Bare Branches and Drifting Kites: Tackling Female Infanticide and Foeticide in Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); S. Srinivasan (Sharada)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA well-known feature of demographic trends in several East and South Asian countries is the continuing decline in the proportion of females to males, which is evocatively captured in the phrase ‘missing’ women as coined by Sen (1990).1 In contrast to the female-male population ratio in E

  4. Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation in Coimbatore South Taluk, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, K; Kumar, R D Swasthik; Elangovan, R

    2014-07-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of ground water for irrigation purpose at twenty seven locations in Coimbatore South Taluk, Coimbatore District. The analytical result shows that Na and Cl are the dominant cation and anions respectively in the groundwater. The values of TDS and EC exceed the permissible limits at some locations due to increase in ionic concentrations. Based on SAR, RSC, US Salinity diagram and Wilcox diagram it is observed that the water ranges from excellent to good quality in most of the places and can be used for irrigation without any hazard. Gibbs variation diagram indicates that lithology is main controlling factor for water chemistry. However, the high SAR and RSC values at few locations restrict suitability for irrigation purpose.

  5. Factors guiding tsunami surge at the Nagapattinam–Cuddalore shelf, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, K.M.; Rani, P.S.; Anuradha, A.; Adilakshmi, B.; Devi, T.S.

    . , 1992, 29 , 209 ? 217. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. We thank Dr Satish R. Shetye, Dire c tor, NIO, Goa for encouragement. Thanks are also due to the r e viewer for his su g gestions. This is NIO contribution no. 4134. Received 2 December 2005...

  6. Source rock indication from the heavy mineral weight percentages, central Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Mahesh, R.

    From December 2003 to December 2005 beach sand samples have been collected at regular intervals. During this period the event of 26th December, 2004 tsunami enabled us to analyze the impact of the same in the beach sediments particularly heavy...

  7. Debt bondage, seasonal migration and alternatives issues : lessons from Tamil Nadu (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Marius-Gnanou, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    Debt bondage in India is often associated with seasonal migration and extreme poverty. If migration is considered as an integral part of the survival strategies of the poor, the impact of migration on relations of exploitation is still very much debated. Various studies undertaken during the 1990s showed that this debt bondage system, at least in its traditional form, gradually fell into disuse because capitalist farming, in actuality, necessitates the mobility of “free labour” that is not bo...

  8. Our threatened archaeological heritage: A case study from the Tamil Nadu Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Nair, R.R.

    Coast which have withstood the test of time but are nevertheless in danger of being destroyed during the present time. The reason for this is discussed and we are of the opinion that they are due to the combination of man made and natural causes....

  9. Alternative energy sources from plants of Western Ghats (Tamil Nadu, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M. [V.H.N.S.N College, Virudhunagar (India). Research Centre in Botany; Seiler, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in Dodonaea viscosa (17.1%), Carissa carandas (7.7%), Swietenia mahagoni (6.6%), and Jatropha glandulifera (6.2%). The highest oil content was observed in Aganosma cymosa (10.3%), Carissa carandas (5.8%), and Argemone mexicana (5.0%). Swietenia mahagoni yielded the highest protein content with 8.1%. The gross heat value of 4175.0 cal/g(17.5 MJ/kg) for Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), and 4112.0 cal/g for Dalbergia sissoo were the highest among the species analysed. NMR spectra of the hydrocarbon fractions of Alstonia scholaris, Carissa carandas, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Plumeria rubra, Thevetia neriifolia (white flowered var.), Vallaris solanacea, Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), Euphorbia hirta, E. splendens, Artocarpus integrifolia and Ficus religiosa revealed the presence of cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber), whereas Argemone mexicana showed the presence of trans-polyisoprene (gutta). Several new crop species were identified with potentially useful compounds. The potential exists for growing these alternate crops in areas of under-utilized lands, subsequently stimulating industrial and economic growth. (author)

  10. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  11. Etiogenic study on oral lichenoid reactions among Tamil Nadu population: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Nagaraj

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Methods: A total of 102 patients were included, of whom 51 (mean age 43.3 years, SD 14.59 formed the study group, who possessed a positive drug history to the intake of either potential allopathic or alternate drugs or had recent dental metallic fillings/restorations, and 51 were (mean age 47.86 years, SD14.67 in the control group possessing oral lichen planus (OLP. The patients were followed up at a monthly interval period for a period of 18 months. Results: Complete remission of signs and symptoms was noticed in 41 patients, partial remission in 6, no change in 2, newer lesions in 1, and flaredup lesions were observed in 1 participant in the study group. The mean onset time for lichenoid eruptions was found to be 2.5 months (SD 58.82 and the mean remission time after discontinuing the drug was 9.1 months (SD 4.7. Conclusion: OLR could be implicated to documented lichenoid agents like calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, atarvastatin, metformin, glibenclamide, dapsone, carbimazole, silver amalgam fillings, etc.in southSouth Indian population. Furthermore, the drugs like oflaxacin, arsenical album, and yellow orpimentumwere also found to have strong implication in the precipitation of OLR. Discontinuance of the suspected agents resulted in healing in the majority of cases.

  12. Incidence of egg drop syndrome – 1976 in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the magnitude of influence by Egg Drop Syndrome – 1976 (EDS –'76 virus infection in causing drop in egg production in and around Namakkal. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swabs and 15 pouch shell glands (uteri homogenates from 15 poultry farms in and around Namakkal area were used for virus isolation. Three numbers of 10 –day- old embryonated duck eggs were used for the inoculation of each suspected material for virus isolation. The isolate was identified by HA property, by specific inhibition of HA and by AGPT using hyperimmune serum raised against reference EDS –'76 virus strain 127. Results: Out of samples from 15 farms only one isolate (6.6% was obtained from poultry farm No.5. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that the EDS –'76 virus influence in causing drop in egg production in this area to be minimal. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 350-353

  13. Incidence of egg drop syndrome – 1976 in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, P; K. Shoba; J. Johnson Rajeswar

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To know the magnitude of influence by Egg Drop Syndrome – 1976 (EDS –'76) virus infection in causing drop in egg production in and around Namakkal. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swabs and 15 pouch shell glands (uteri) homogenates from 15 poultry farms in and around Namakkal area were used for virus isolation. Three numbers of 10 –day- old embryonated duck eggs were used for the inoculation of each suspected material for virus isolation. The isolate was iden...

  14. Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, and Phytotoxicity of Tannery Effluent Discharged into Palar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suki Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambur, a town located on the banks of Palar River, is considered one of the most polluted areas in India and occupied by hundreds of tanneries and leather product units. The present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of discharged tannery effluent (TE on model agricultural crops, ecofriendly microorganisms, and human blood cells. The phytotoxic effects of TE tested on Allium cepa and Lemna minor revealed inhibition of root growth and significant reduction in number of fronds, protein, and chlorophyll content. Moreover, TE induced chlorosis and tissue necrosis in Nostoc muscorum at low concentration (10%. TE has also negative impact on ecofriendly microorganisms, Bacillus thuringiensis, Rhizobium etli, and Aspergillus terreus which play an important role in the nutrition of plant growth. The genotoxicity of TE was investigated in human leukocytes which showed interference with normal mitotic division with subsequent cell lysis. It also intervened with the normal replication process and induced micronucleus formation in the healthy leukocyte. 5% concentration of TE has been revealed to be toxic to erythrocytes. From this study TE found in the Palar River of Ambur has adverse effects on all the three levels of organisms in ecosystem even at lower concentrations.

  15. Origin of cretaceous phosphorites from the onshore of Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Nagendra, R.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.

    contain abundant carbonate fluorapatite, followed by minor calcite, quartz and feldspar. The P sub(2) O sub(5) content of the phosphorites ranges from 18 to 26%. The CaO/P sub(2) O sub(5), Sr and F contents are higher than that of pure carbonate...

  16. Antibiogram of mastitis pathogens in the milk of crossbred cows in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jeykumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and drug sensitivity pattern of causative agents of mastitis in and around Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 milk samples were collected and bacterial isolates from 72 samples were obtained and subjected to in-vitro chemotherapeutic sensitivity test. Results: Out of 72 samples, 32 (44.44% were found positive for Staphylococci species, 4 (5.5% for Streptococci species, 30 (41.66% for E.coli and 6 (8.33% for Klebsiella species. The drug sensitivity test performed irrespective of isolates, revealed sensitivity of organisms to various antibiotics and none of the isolates were found to be sensitive to penicillin G. Conclusion: Enrofloxacin was found to be more effective antibiotic among all the tested antibiotics. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 354-356

  17. Local Knowledge and Conservation of Seagrasses in the Tamil Nadu State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newmaster AF

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Local knowledge systems are not considered in the conservation of fragile seagrass marine ecosystems. In fact, little is known about the utility of seagrasses in local coastal communities. This is intriguing given that some local communities rely on seagrasses to sustain their livelihoods and have relocated their villages to areas with a rich diversity and abundance of seagrasses. The purpose of this study is to assist in conservation efforts regarding seagrasses through identifying Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK from local knowledge systems of seagrasses from 40 coastal communities along the eastern coast of India. We explore the assemblage of scientific and local traditional knowledge concerning the 1. classification of seagrasses (comparing scientific and traditional classification systems, 2. utility of seagrasses, 3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK of seagrasses, and 4. current conservation efforts for seagrass ecosystems. Our results indicate that local knowledge systems consist of a complex classification of seagrass diversity that considers the role of seagrasses in the marine ecosystem. This fine-scaled ethno-classification gives rise to five times the number of taxa (10 species = 50 local ethnotaxa, each with a unique role in the ecosystem and utility within coastal communities, including the use of seagrasses for medicine (e.g., treatment of heart conditions, seasickness, etc., food (nutritious seeds, fertilizer (nutrient rich biomass and livestock feed (goats and sheep. Local communities are concerned about the loss of seagrass diversity and have considerable local knowledge that is valuable for conservation and restoration plans. This study serves as a case study example of the depth and breadth of local knowledge systems for a particular ecosystem that is in peril. Key words: local health and nutrition, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK, conservation and natural resources management, consensus, ethnomedicine, ethnotaxa, cultural heritage

  18. GPR studies over the tsunami affected Karaikal beach, Tamil Nadu, south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V J Loveson; A R Gujar; R Barnwal; Richa Khare; G V Rajamanickam

    2014-08-01

    In this study, results of GPR profiling related to mapping of subsurface sedimentary layers at tsunami affected Karaikal beach are presented. A 400 MHz antenna was used for profiling along 262 m stretch of transect from beach to backshore areas with penetration of about 2.0 m depth (50 ns two-way travel time). The velocity analysis was carried out to estimate the depth information along the GPR profile. Based on the significant changes in the reflection amplitude, three different zones are marked and the upper zone is noticed with less moisture compared to other two (saturated) zones. The water table is noticed to vary from 0.5 to 0.75 m depth (12–15 ns) as moving away from the coastline. Buried erosional surface is observed at 1.5 m depth (40–42 ns), which represents the limit up to which the extreme event acted upon. In other words, it is the depth to which the tsunami sediments have been piled up to about 1.5 m thickness. Three field test pits were made along the transect and sedimentary sequences were recorded. The sand layers, especially, heavy mineral layers, recorded in the test pits indicate a positive correlation with the amplitude and velocity changes in the GPR profile. Such interpretation seems to be difficult in the middle zone due to its water saturation condition. But it is fairly clear in the lower zone located just below the erosional surface where the strata is comparatively more compact. The inferences from the GPR profile thus provide a lucid insight to the subsurface sediment sequences of the tsunami sediments in the Karaikal beach.

  19. Preliminary Observations on Freshwater Prawn Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. John Samuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is more consumer preference because of its delicious nature and export potential. Monoculture and ployculture trials of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were attempted. Production under monoculture was 561 kg ha-1 and in polyculture it ranged from 361 to 381 kg ha-1. The present study inferred that low stocking density; proper feed management and use of aerators are essential for better survival and production.

  20. Musculoskeletal problems among workers in a garment industry, at Tirupur, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreesupria Purushothaman Ravichandran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every occupation has its own ill effects on health. Garment workers are denied of their basic rights and less importance is given to their health. Their health status also depends on their access to treatment and availability of healthcare facilities. Aims & Objectives: To estimate the prevalence, health seeking pattern and associated factors for musculoskeletal problems among garment workers and to assess the level of exposure of individual workers to upper limb musculoskeletal loads. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 380 workers in a garment industry, at Tirupur over a period of two months. Interview was conducted using a structured pretested questionnaire including Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Level of exposure to musculoskeletal load was assessed using RULA tool. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 19 version. Results: 77.6% of the workers had musculoskeletal problems. The most common sites affected were neck (32.1%, knee (28.7% and low back (26.6%. More than half of the workers experienced moderate pain in all body parts. 54.2% sought health care and 40% among them preferred government hospital. Only 8.7% workers had acceptable posture. Conclusion: Health problems among garment workers are one of the areas of public health concern in our country. Reducing the work strain and providing a supportive workplace environment will have a favorable impact on work productivity

  1. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in the Gadilam river basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Prasanna; S Chidambaram; A Shahul Hameed; K Srinivasamoorthy

    2011-02-01

    Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca+), Magnesium (Mg+), Bicarbonate (HCO$_{3}^{-}$), Sulphate (SO$_{4}^-$), Phosphate (PO$_{4}^{-}$) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes.

  2. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Tamma Rao; V V S Gurunadha Rao; K Ranganathan

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2+), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6+ and Fe2+, which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  3. The trade in human organs in Tamil Nadu: the anatomy of regulatory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, Vangal R; Jan, Stephen; Ram Prasad, S

    2006-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the trade in human organs in India. This paper examines both the extent to which regulatory controls through the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (1994) are effective in curbing commercialization and the nature of the constraints on the effective implementation of this Act. The study, a politico-economic analysis of health sector regulation, is based on a stakeholder analysis drawing on the views of key decision makers, service providers, organ donors and recipients. The findings indicate widespread acknowledgement of an organs trade and highlight four major constraints on the effective implementation of the Act: the commercial interests of middlemen and service providers, the ambiguities and loopholes in the Act; the low monitoring capacity of the regulatory authorities, and the pressures and responsibilities exerted upon the Authorizing Committees. A feature of the Act is that its implementation is subject to a major incentive compatibility constraint - it is seemingly not in the interests of any of the key players, including the regulatory authorities, to restrict the organ trade. To some extent, this institutional problem is created by the specific nature of the regulatory intervention, and, as a consequence, measures involving straightforward redrafting of the regulation might go some way to addressing this incentive problem. Another solution may entail a 'harm-reduction' strategy involving a controlled trade where procurement and organ matching is carried out by a government agency (this would require, however, the prior resolution of the broader ethical question concerning the legitimacy of such trade).

  4. Oral health status of cracker workers in Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mary Sherley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor oral health and untreated oral diseases have a significant impact on quality of life. Oral and general health of cracker workers is in association with their working environment. Aim: To assess the oral health status of cracker workers in Sivakasi. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 subjects were included in this study. The subjects were randomly selected from 10 companies in Sivakasi. Data were collected by using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form for Adults (2013. The proforma included questions on knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral hygiene. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social sciences version 16.0. Results: Among 350 subjects, 34.9% were males and 65.1% were females. The mean number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth was 2.52, 4.17, and 1.32, respectively. The mean of sextants with shallow pockets is 5.9 and its percentage is 54. The mean of sextants with deep pockets is 1.5 and its percentage is 14.6. Oral lesions were found to be present among 4.3% of study subjects. Conclusion: Workers of fireworks industries those with dental caries, periodontal problems, and other dental complaints should be examined repeatedly for their oral health status.

  5. Hydrogeochemical Modelling for Groundwater in Neyveli Aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India, Using PHREEQC: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P. [Annamalai University, Department of Earth Sciences (India); Prasanna, M. V., E-mail: geoprasanna@gmail.com [Curtin University, Department of Applied Geology, School of Engineering and Science (Malaysia); Ramanathan, AL. [Jawaharlal Nehru University, School of Environmental Sciences (India); Srinivasamoorthy, K. [Pondicherry University, Department of Earth Sciences, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences (India); Senthil Kumar, G. [HNB Garwhal University, Department of Geology (India)

    2012-09-15

    Sophisticated geochemical models have been used to describe and predict the chemical behaviour of complex natural waters and also to protect the groundwater resources from future contamination. One such model is used to study the hydrogeochemical complexity in a mine area. Extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifer has been in progress for decades to mine lignite in Neyveli. This extraction has developed a cone of depression around the mine site. This cone of depression is well established by the geochemical nature of groundwater in the region. 42 groundwater samples were collected in a definite pattern and they were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements. The saturation index (SI) of the groundwater for carbonate, sulphate and silica minerals was studied and it has been correlated with the recharge and the discharge regions. The SI of alumino silicates has been used to decipher the stage of weathering. The SI{sub Gibbsite} - SI{sub K-feldspar} has been spatially distributed and the regions of discharge and recharge were identified. Then two flow paths A1 and A2 were identified and inverse modelling using PHREEQC were carried out to delineate the geochemical process that has taken place from recharge to discharge. The initial and final solutions in both the flow paths were correlated with the thermodynamic silicate stability diagrams of groundwater and it was found that the state of thermodynamic stability of the end solutions along the flow path were approaching similar states of equilibrium at the discharge.

  6. Exploring the Planning Design Opportunities for Road Transportation Network of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Rawal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transportation system in Kanyakumari District has met the grim situation over the years due to numerous parameters like increasing population, increasing economic activity, increasing vehicular population, negligence from the administrative officials, unethical practices of the locals, etc.; led it to a pathetic condition, especially on National Highway-47. However, to simplify the situation, the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI, Government of India is taking up the effort for developing the new bypass road to the existing NH-47 by diverting form selected few junctions. Unfortunately, this partial solution for the existing NH-47 will give birth to numerous other physical, socio-economic, and ecological problems. The objectives of this study is to identify the possible causes of the inadequacies in prevailing transportation network of Kanyakumari District and put forward logical, scientific and economical conceptual level solutions for the betterment of road users and people of the district. In order to revamp the present dreadful condition, the authors have worked out some simple remedial measures as a solution by conducting exhaustive observation survey, analytical work, discussions with experts and the locals, etc. It includes assessing the prevailing conditions of transportation system in the district, proposing planning design options for rectifying the short comings of the transportation network of the district, conceptualization of the standard flyover design for the NH-47 and ring roads for selected towns of high importance. Further, the paper concludes with plausible and executable recommendations. It is recommended that, in the light of these findings of opportunities and possibilities, the administrative authorities and officials of Kanyakumari district might look into rejuvenating the road transportation scenario of the district.

  7. Assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in surface water - Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunantha, Ganesan; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2016-08-15

    As an emerging class of environmentally persistent organic pollutants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), particularly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); have been universally found in the environment. Wastewater and untreated effluents are likely the major causes for the accumulation of PFCs in surface water. There are very few reports on the contamination of PFCs in the developing countries, particularly in India. This study reports the quantitative analysis of PFOA and PFOS in Noyyal, Cauvery, and also lakes in and around Chennai, using Ultra-Fast liquid chromatograph. The concentration of PFOA and PFOS ranged from 4 to 93ng/L and 3 to 29ng/L, respectively. The concentration of PFOS was below detectable limit in Cauvery River. A reliable concentration of PFOA was recorded at all sites of River Cauvery (5ng/L). The present study could be useful for the assessment of future monitoring programs of PFOA and PFOS in the surface water.

  8. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater along the Manavalakurichi coast, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Y.; Aghil, T. B.; Hudson Oliver, D.; Nithya Nair, C.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to find the groundwater quality of coastal aquifer along Manavalakurichi coast. For this study, a total of 30 groundwater samples were collected randomly from open wells and borewells. The concentration of major ions and other geochemical parameters in the groundwater were analyzed in the laboratory by adopting standard procedures suggested by the American Public Health Association. The order of the dominant cations in the study area was found to be Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, whereas the sequence of dominant anions was {{Cl}}^{ - } > {{HCO}}3^{ - } > {{SO}}4^{2 - } . The hydrogeochemical facies of the groundwater samples were studied by constructing piper trilinear diagram which revealed the evidence of saltwater intrusion into the study area. The obtained geochemical parameters were compared with the standard permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Indian Standard Institution to determine the drinking water quality in the study area. The analysis suggests that the groundwater from the wells W25 and W26 is unsuitable for drinking. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was studied by calculating percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate values. The Wilcox and USSL plots were also prepared. It was found that the groundwater from the stations W1, W25 and W26 is unfit for irrigation. The Gibbs plots were also sketched to study the mechanisms controlling the geochemical composition of groundwater in the study area.

  9. GPR studies over the tsunami affected Karaikal beach, Tamil Nadu, south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveson, V. J.; Gujar, A. R.; Barnwal, R.; Khare, Richa; Rajamanickam, G. V.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, results of GPR profiling related to mapping of subsurface sedimentary layers at tsunami affected Karaikal beach are presented . A 400 MHz antenna was used for profiling along 262 m stretch of transect from beach to backshore areas with penetration of about 2.0 m depth (50 ns two-way travel time). The velocity analysis was carried out to estimate the depth information along the GPR profile. Based on the significant changes in the reflection amplitude, three different zones are marked and the upper zone is noticed with less moisture compared to other two (saturated) zones. The water table is noticed to vary from 0.5 to 0.75 m depth (12-15 ns) as moving away from the coastline. Buried erosional surface is observed at 1.5 m depth (40-42 ns), which represents the limit up to which the extreme event acted upon. In other words, it is the depth to which the tsunami sediments have been piled up to about 1.5 m thickness. Three field test pits were made along the transect and sedimentary sequences were recorded. The sand layers, especially, heavy mineral layers, recorded in the test pits indicate a positive correlation with the amplitude and velocity changes in the GPR profile. Such interpretation seems to be difficult in the middle zone due to its water saturation condition. But it is fairly clear in the lower zone located just below the erosional surface where the strata is comparatively more compact. The inferences from the GPR profile thus provide a lucid insight to the subsurface sediment sequences of the tsunami sediments in the Karaikal beach.

  10. Assessment of Groundwater quality in Krishnagiri and Vellore Districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundharam, A.; Kalpana, G.; Mahapatra, S. R.; Sudharson, E. R.; Jayaprakash, M.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation has been assessed in north and eastern part of Krishnagiri district, South-western part of Vellore district and contiguous with Andhra Pradesh states, India. A total of 31 groundwater samples were collected in the study area. The groundwater quality assessment has been carried out by evaluating the physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, HCO3^{ - } , Cl-, SO4^{2 - } , Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+. The dominant cations are in the order of Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ while the dominant anions have the trends of Cl- > HCO3^{ - } > SO4^{2 - } > CO3. The quality of the water is evaluated using Wilcox diagram and the results reveals that most of the samples are found to be suitable for irrigation. Based on these parameters, groundwater has been assessed in favor of its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose.

  11. From "Time Pass" to Transformative Force: School-Based Human Rights Education in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2012-01-01

    This article presents data collected at the level of practice to highlight one non-governmental organization's approach to human rights education and how household-, school-, and community-level factors mediated student impact. Findings suggest that a variety of factors at the three levels contribute to the program's successful implementation in…

  12. Origin and evolution of Gneiss-Charnockite rocks of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. Rameshwar; Narayana, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A low- to high-grade transition area in Dharmapuri district was investigated petrologically and geochemically. The investigation confirmed the presence of a continuous section through a former lower crust, with felsic charnockites predominating the lower part and felsic gneisses the upper part. The structure of original gneisses is preserved in charnockites and the latter show petrographic evidence for prograde metamorphism. The prograde metamorphism is of isochemical nature as revealed by the similarity of compositions of tonalitic gneisses and tonalitic charnockites. However, the depletion of LIL elements particularly Rb, caused variation in K/Rb ratios from low values (345) in the gneisses in upper part to higher values (1775) in the charnockites in the lower crust. This variation in K/Rb ratio in a north to south traverse is related to the progressive break-down of hydrous minerals under decreasing H2O and increasing CO2 fluid conditions. Metasomatism and partial melting has also taken place to a limited extent along shear planes and weak zones. During cooling the H2O circulation affected substantial auto-regression in the transition zone resulting in the formation of second generation biotite.

  13. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2016-03-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  14. Students Perceived Value towards Quality of Distance Education in Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, P.; Sugumar, D.; Thandavamoorthy, K.; Xavier, S. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The quality of education of any distance learning programme is maintained by various ways, such as: quality of study material, internal and external evaluation, and student support methods and so on. The above aspects should be available in aspects to the Post graduate degree students. In this research Ex Post Facto research with field survey is…

  15. Assessment of fluoride contaminations in groundwater of hard rock aquifers in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivya, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Rao, M. S.; Thilagavathi, R.; Prasanna, M. V.; Manikandan, S.

    2015-07-01

    The fluoride contamination in drinking water is already gone to the alarming level and it needs the immediate involvement and attention of all people to solve this problem. Fluoride problem is higher in hard rock terrains in worldwide and Madurai is such type of hard rock region. Totally 54 samples were collected from the Madurai district of Tamilnadu with respect to lithology. The samples collected were analysed for major cations and anions using standard procedures. The higher concentration of fluoride is noted in the Charnockite rock types of northern part of the study area. 20 % of samples are below 0.5 ppm and 6 % of samples are above 1.5 ppm exceeding the permissible limit. The affinity between the pH and fluoride ions in groundwater suggests that dissolution of fluoride bearing minerals in groundwater. The higher concentration of fluoride ions are observed in the lower EC concentration. The isotopic study suggests that fluoride is geogenic in nature. In factor scores, fluoride is noted in association with pH which indicates the dissolution process.

  16. Phytochemicals of selected plant species of the Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    A concern about the declining supply of petroleum products has led to a renewed interest in evaluating plant species as potential alternate sources of energy. Five species of the Apocynaceae and three species of the Asclepiadaceae from the Western Ghats were evaluated as alternative sources of energ...

  17. Landscape Heterogeneity mapping for Access to Tribal health care in Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, B.; Prashanthi Devi, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Nilgiris district in Tamilnadu has a rich biodiversity in terms of flora, fauna and ethnic population. The district is basically a mountainous region, situated at an elevation of 2000 to 2,600 meters above MSL and constituting of several hill and Steep Mountain valleys. This region houses six tribes who are mainly forest dwellers and live in close settlements depending on the forest resources for their livelihood. The Tribes of Nilgiris have been diagnosed and monitored for Sickle cell Anemia which is a disease of major concern among these ethnic populations. This genetic disorder developed due to the sickling of Red Blood Cells has increased during the past few decades. The Tribes, as they live in close encounter with the forest regions and have strict social cultural barriers, face difficulty in availing treatment or counseling from the Sickle Cell Research Center (SCRC) and other NGOs like NAWA and AHWINI in the region. It was observed that many factors such as landscape terrain, climatic conditions and improper roads tend to hinder the access to appropriate health care. The SCRC in Gudalur region is a facility established to monitor the disease cases inspite of these influencing factors. On analyzing the year bound age wise classification among male and female patients, certain dropouts in cases were observed which may be due to inaccessible condition or migration of the patient. In our study, Landscape heterogeneity mapping for different climatic seasons was done in ArcGIS 10.1. For this, contour and terrain maps, road networks and villages were prepared and factors that determine Terrain Difficulty were assessed. Vegetation mapping using IRS satellite images for the study region was attempted and associated with the landscape map. A risk analysis was proposed based on terrain difficulty and access to the nearest Health care Center. Based on this, the above factors alternate routes were suggested to access the difficult areas.

  18. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  19. Antibacterial potential of selected red seaweeds from Manapad coastal areas, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adaikalaraj G; Patric Raja D; Johnson M; Janakiraman N; Babu A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Gracilaria verrucosa (G. verrucosa) (Hudson),Hypnea musciformis falk, Gracilaria ferugosoni (G. ferugosoni), Gelidium species and G. verrucosa var. against the selected bacterial pathogens. Methods: The antibacterial activities of methanol and aqueous hot extracts were tested against various organisms by using disc diffusion method. Results:The highest antibacterial activity (13 mm) was shown by the aqueous extract of G. verrucosa var. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the lowest activity (6 mm) was observed in the methanol extract of E. prolifera against Escherichia coli (E. coli). However in most of the seaweeds, methanol extract was found to be more effective. The microbial strains Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Candida albicans(C. albicans) were resistant to the aqueous extracts of all seaweeds. Conclusion: Further (H. musciformis) (Wulf) Lamour, Enatiocladia prolifera (E. prolifera) (Grev.) work is needed to identify the principle compound which is responsible for antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria especially those causing the human diseases.

  20. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged from ≤2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238U and 40K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Raeq, the absorbed dose rate DR, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (Hex) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills.

  1. Seasonal dynamics of butterfly population in DAE Campus, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    K.J. Hussain; Ramesh, T; Satpathy, K.K.; Selvanayagam, M

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal population trends of butterflies inhabiting the campus of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) at Kalpakkam were recorded by setting a permanent line transect of 300m and recording all species of butterflies observed within a 5m distance. The survey yielded 2177 individuals of 56 butterfly species, belonging to the families Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae and Hesperiidae. Nymphalidae were found to be the dominant family during all seasons. Species richness and abundanc...

  2. Seasonal dynamics of butterfly population in DAE Campus, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal population trends of butterflies inhabiting the campus of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE at Kalpakkam were recorded by setting a permanent line transect of 300m and recording all species of butterflies observed within a 5m distance. The survey yielded 2177 individuals of 56 butterfly species, belonging to the families Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae and Hesperiidae. Nymphalidae were found to be the dominant family during all seasons. Species richness and abundance were highest during the northeast monsoon and winter periods, indicating that in the southern plains of India butterflies prefer cool seasons for breeding and emergence. The taxonomic structure of the butterflies sampled resembles that of the Western Ghats and other regions of India in two ways: (a dominance of nymphalids and (b peak abundance during wet seasons. A detailed study of ecologically important local butterfly fauna and their host plants is in progress, to construct a butterfly garden in Kalpakkam to attract and support butterflies.

  3. Assessment of fluoride contaminations in groundwater of hard rock aquifers in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivya, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Rao, M. S.; Thilagavathi, R.; Prasanna, M. V.; Manikandan, S.

    2017-05-01

    The fluoride contamination in drinking water is already gone to the alarming level and it needs the immediate involvement and attention of all people to solve this problem. Fluoride problem is higher in hard rock terrains in worldwide and Madurai is such type of hard rock region. Totally 54 samples were collected from the Madurai district of Tamilnadu with respect to lithology. The samples collected were analysed for major cations and anions using standard procedures. The higher concentration of fluoride is noted in the Charnockite rock types of northern part of the study area. 20 % of samples are below 0.5 ppm and 6 % of samples are above 1.5 ppm exceeding the permissible limit. The affinity between the pH and fluoride ions in groundwater suggests that dissolution of fluoride bearing minerals in groundwater. The higher concentration of fluoride ions are observed in the lower EC concentration. The isotopic study suggests that fluoride is geogenic in nature. In factor scores, fluoride is noted in association with pH which indicates the dissolution process.

  4. Spatial variance of POPs and heavy metals in transformer oil-contaminated soil around Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Karuvelan; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2017-09-05

    The persistent organic pollutants in the environment are one of the global issues to their unregulated disposal and informal recycling. This study investigates the contamination of soil with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and heavy metals via spillage of transformer oil (TO). Fresh TO (FTO), used TO (UTO) and soil samples were analysed using GC-MS to confirm the presence of 8 PCB congeners, 16 PAHs and 24 types of phenolic compounds and using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry to confirm the presence of 7 heavy metals. The chromatographic analysis revealed the levels of mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta- and octachlorobiphenyls in FTO to be 5.63, 25.24, 0.195, 0.185, 2.169, 1.023 and 5.28 mg/L and the level of mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls in UTO to be 0.27, 1.21, 1.31, 0.80, 1.77 and 3.90 mg/L. Analysis of soil from 10 different TO-contaminated sites showed the presence of PCBs, PAHs, phenolic compounds and heavy metals in the concentration range of 0.53-42.87 mg/kg, 3.19-246.6 μg/kg, 0.01-4086.45 μg/kg and 1.0-401.3 mg/kg, respectively. The variation in the concentration of these compounds and heavy metals among different sampling sites was determined using principal component analysis (PCA), metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and Bray-Curtis cluster analysis (Bu-CA). The toxicity equivalence factor and the mechanism involved in the disruption of endocrine system are discussed. Thus, this study exemplifies the need for complete ban of PCB-containing TOs in developing countries and urges the need for technology for the disposal of TO.

  5. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater along the Manavalakurichi coast, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Y.; Aghil, T. B.; Hudson Oliver, D.; Nithya Nair, C.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2017-06-01

    The present study was carried out to find the groundwater quality of coastal aquifer along Manavalakurichi coast. For this study, a total of 30 groundwater samples were collected randomly from open wells and borewells. The concentration of major ions and other geochemical parameters in the groundwater were analyzed in the laboratory by adopting standard procedures suggested by the American Public Health Association. The order of the dominant cations in the study area was found to be Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, whereas the sequence of dominant anions was {{Cl}}^{ - } > {{HCO}}3^{ - } > {{SO}}4^{2 - }. The hydrogeochemical facies of the groundwater samples were studied by constructing piper trilinear diagram which revealed the evidence of saltwater intrusion into the study area. The obtained geochemical parameters were compared with the standard permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Indian Standard Institution to determine the drinking water quality in the study area. The analysis suggests that the groundwater from the wells W25 and W26 is unsuitable for drinking. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was studied by calculating percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate values. The Wilcox and USSL plots were also prepared. It was found that the groundwater from the stations W1, W25 and W26 is unfit for irrigation. The Gibbs plots were also sketched to study the mechanisms controlling the geochemical composition of groundwater in the study area.

  6. Efficacy of antibacterial activity of garlic cloves from Tamil Nadu and Jowai region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anitha

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Thus our study reveals that garlic not only makes the food more spicy and edible with its flavour but can also be used as an effective antibacterial agents against MDR gram positive and gram negative bacteria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 434-438

  7. Shoreline changes along Tamil Nadu coast: A study based on archaeological and coastal dynamics perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; ManiMurali, R.; JayaKumar S.; Gaur, A.S.

    induced subduction, erosion from storms and palaeo-tsunamis events, are plausible reasons for the shoreline retreat It can be said that the coastal erosion due to invasion of sea has played a major role in submergence of these structures The present paper...

  8. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini M Bhattathiry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of certain fresh water microalgae from Thamirabarani River, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Justella Wilfred Prakash; Johnson MarimuthuAntonisamy; Solomon Jeeva

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of fresh water microalgae viz., Oscillatoria sancta (O. sancta) (Kuetz) Gomont., Lyngbya birgei (L. birgei) Smith G.M., Oedogonium echinospermum (O. echinospermum), Spirogyra decimina (S. decimina) (Muller) Kuetz., Spirogyra grantiana (S. grantiana) Transeau., Spirogyra crassa (S. crassa), Spirogyra biformis (S. biformis) Jao. and Spirogyra condensata (Vaucher) Kuetz against human bacterial pathogens. Methods:Antimicrobial study was carried out by disc diffusion method against the pathogens viz., Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC 35218), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC 6538), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) (MTCC 733), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and Streptococcus pyogenes. Results: The methanolic extract of O. sancta showed the antibacterial activity against three pathogens viz., P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and S. aureus with the inhibition zones of 10, 8 and 8 mm, respectively. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts of L. birgei exhibited the antibacterial activity against two pathogens i.e. P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris with the maximum zone of inhibition of 8 and 8 mm, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of O. echinospermum displayed the antibacterial activity against S. typhi and P. mirabilis with the maximum of zone of inhibition (7 mm). The methanolic extracts of S. decimina exhibited the antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. mirabilis with the maximum zone of inhibition of 12 and 9 mm, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of S. grantiana showed the anti-bacterial activity against three organisms i.e. E. coli, P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis with the zone of inhibition of 9, 10 and 9 mm, respectively. The methanolic extracts of S. crassa exhibited the antibacterial activity against P. mirabilis with the maximum zone of inhibition (9 mm). The methanolic extracts of S. biformis exhibited the antibacterial activity against P. vulgaris with the maximum zone of inhibition (8 mm). Conclusions: These results give an indication of the presence of promising antibacterial compounds in the plants under studied. Further phytochemical studies are needed to elucidate the components responsible for antibacterial activity of these extracts against bacteria.

  10. Local knowledge and conservation of seagrasses in the Tamil Nadu state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmaster, A F; Berg, K J; Ragupathy, S; Palanisamy, M; Sambandan, K; Newmaster, S G

    2011-11-23

    Local knowledge systems are not considered in the conservation of fragile seagrass marine ecosystems. In fact, little is known about the utility of seagrasses in local coastal communities. This is intriguing given that some local communities rely on seagrasses to sustain their livelihoods and have relocated their villages to areas with a rich diversity and abundance of seagrasses. The purpose of this study is to assist in conservation efforts regarding seagrasses through identifying Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) from local knowledge systems of seagrasses from 40 coastal communities along the eastern coast of India. We explore the assemblage of scientific and local traditional knowledge concerning the 1. classification of seagrasses (comparing scientific and traditional classification systems), 2. utility of seagrasses, 3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of seagrasses, and 4. current conservation efforts for seagrass ecosystems. Our results indicate that local knowledge systems consist of a complex classification of seagrass diversity that considers the role of seagrasses in the marine ecosystem. This fine-scaled ethno-classification gives rise to five times the number of taxa (10 species = 50 local ethnotaxa), each with a unique role in the ecosystem and utility within coastal communities, including the use of seagrasses for medicine (e.g., treatment of heart conditions, seasickness, etc.), food (nutritious seeds), fertilizer (nutrient rich biomass) and livestock feed (goats and sheep). Local communities are concerned about the loss of seagrass diversity and have considerable local knowledge that is valuable for conservation and restoration plans. This study serves as a case study example of the depth and breadth of local knowledge systems for a particular ecosystem that is in peril.

  11. A Learning styles of first year medical students studying physiology in Tamil Nadu.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Maria D’cruz, Navin Rajaratnam, Chandrasekhar M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the diversity of learning style preferences of first year medical students will help teachers of Physiology design teaching-learning activities that while catering to their preferences also challenge them to grow in categories that are against their preferences. Most research using the VARK (Visual, Aural, Read-write, Kinesthetic) questionnaire that assesses sensory modality preference alone showed that medical students studying Physiology were multimodal. Aim: The aim of this s...

  12. Contrasting petrogenesis of spatially related carbonatites from Samalpatti and Sevattur, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Lukáš; Magna, Tomáš; Rapprich, Vladislav; Upadhyay, Dewashish; Krátký, Ondřej; Čejková, Bohuslava; Erban, Vojtěch; Kochergina, Yulia V.; Hrstka, Tomáš

    2017-07-01

    Two Neoproterozoic carbonatite suites of spatially related carbonatites and associated silicate alkaline rocks from Sevattur and Samalpatti, south India, have been investigated in terms of petrography, chemistry and radiogenic-stable isotopic compositions in order to provide further constraints on their genesis. The cumulative evidence indicates that the Sevattur suite is derived from an enriched mantle source without significant post-emplacement modifications through crustal contamination and hydrothermal overprint. The stable (C, O) isotopic compositions confirm mantle origin of Sevattur carbonatites with only a modest difference to Paleoproterozoic Hogenakal carbonatite, emplaced in the same tectonic setting. On the contrary, multiple processes have shaped the petrography, chemistry and isotopic systematics of the Samalpatti suite. These include pre-emplacement interaction with the ambient crustal materials with more pronounced signatures of such a process in silicocarbonatites. Calc-silicate marbles present in the Samalpatti area could represent a possible evolved end member due to the inability of common silicate rocks (pyroxenites, granites, diorites) to comply with radiogenic isotopic constraints. In addition, Samalpatti carbonatites show a range of C-O isotopic compositions, and δ13CV-PDB values between + 1.8 and + 4.1‰ found for a sub-suite of Samalpatti carbonatites belong to the highest values ever reported for magmatic carbonates. These heavy C-O isotopic signatures in Samalpatti carbonatites could be indicative of massive hydrothermal interaction with carbonated fluids. Unusual high-Cr silicocarbonatites, discovered at Samalpatti, seek their origin in the reaction of pyroxenites with enriched mantle-derived alkali-CO2-rich melts, as also evidenced by mantle-like O isotopic compositions. Field and petrographic observations as well as isotopic constraints must, however, be combined with the complex chemistry of incompatible trace elements as indicated from their non-uniform systematics in carbonatites and their individual fractions. We emphasise that, beside common carriers of REE like apatite, other phases may be important for incompatible element budgets, such as mckelveyite-(Nd) and kosmochlor, found in these carbonatites. Future targeted studies, including in-situ techniques, could help further constrain temporal and petrologic conditions of formation of Sevattur and Samalpatti carbonatite bodies.

  13. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    I Nanda Balan; Shivakumar, M.; Madan Kumar, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and ...

  14. Assessment of Groundwater Quality along the Cooum River, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Elangovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality in Chennai city along the Cooum river, during the premonsoon (June–July and postmonsoon (Dec–Jan for three years, from 2009 to 2011, was analyzed. Groundwater samples were collected from 20 bore wells on either side of the river. The analysis focused on the determination of seven specific water quality parameters, namely, pH, EC, TDS, BOD, COD, Na and Pb, using standard procedures. The statistical analysis, like the mean and standard deviation, coefficient of variance, and correlation, and multilinear regression analysis of the obtained data were carried out. The analysis of the collected samples reveals that the stated water quality parameters have not complied with the WHO standards, and the water is not fit for drinking and domestic purposes. The correlation and multilinear regression analyses suggest that the conductivity has a significant correlation with the other six considered water quality parameters.

  15. Strategic Studies on Colostrum (Junnu) Collected fr om Katpadi , Southern Tamil Nadu for Pharmacological Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chacko Anu Betty; Lina Rose Varghese; Thomas, Jennifer T.; Suneetha V

    2013-01-01

    Colostrum milk is an all-round liquid food that contains biologically active compounds other than carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids like vitamins, immunoglobulin, enzymes, growth hormones, and mineralsthat form an essential component of our biological system. Colostrum milk is thefirst milk of the cow’s udder that seems to provide all these essential nutrients. The extraction techniqueslead to separation of major biological compounds such as fat soluble, water soluble nutritive constitu...

  16. Study of CNSL Processing Plants Located in Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2017-06-01

    Basic chemicals and their related products like petrochemicals, fertilisers, paints, varnishes, glass, perfumes, toiletries, pharmaceuticals, etc. form a very significant part of the Indian economy and account for about 3% of India's GDP. Among the most diversified industrial sectors, it covers an array of more than 70,000 commercial products. The chemicals sector accounts for about 14% in overall index of industrial production, 11% of total exports and about 7.2% of total imports. The total Foreign Direct Investment in Chemicals (excluding fertilizers) was US 7252 million from April 2011 to March 2012. For inclusive growth and sustainable development most of the Chemical manufacturers should adopt the Cluster Development Approach. The objective is to Study the Occupational Hazards in Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) Oil Processing Industries in Panruti Block of Cuddalore District. The methodology adopted is collection of primary processing data during November 2012 from 14 CNSL Processing Industries in Panruti Block of Cuddalore District. Majority of Industries has not processed the CNSL oil as per standards and there is much scope for occupational hazards. In two processes the CNSL oil is let out in the tank constructed equal to ground height where there is possibility of workers getting trapped inside the high temperature CNSL oil. The electric motor is also placed in the ground so that there is possibility of current passing in the ground which leads to occupational hazards for the workers. To conclude, Cashew Shell Oil Processing Industries in Panruti Block of Cuddalore District needs is re-engineering in design and operation starting from Cashew Shell storage, extraction of shell oil from expeller, processing and packaging of CNSL in barrels for better safety from occupational hazards and Cyclones. Moreover for sustainable development, they should adopt cluster development approach, so that infrastructure interrelationships, technology interrelationships, procurement interrelationships, production interrelationships and marketing interrelationships will take place among CNSL manufacturers to decrease cost, increase quality, productivity and efficiency to compete in the world market.

  17. Hydrogeological Studies At Jalakandapuram Sub – Basin Of Sarabanga Minor Basin, Salem District,Tamil Nadu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to investigate the hydrogeology of the Jalakandapuram sub – basin, groundwater potential and quality of groundwater for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. Jalakandapuram ( Latitudes 11° 35‟30‟‟N to 11°46‟25‟‟N and Longitudes 77°48‟30‟‟ E to 78°2‟E Sub- basin is one among the four sub- basins of the Sarabanga minor basins which comes under the Cauvery basin. It has an areal extent of about 325 Sq.Kms. The study area has been studied with aerial Photographs (Block and white prepared under UNDP Project (1971 and satellite Imageries (IRS IA – LISS II . The base map of the Jalakandapuram sub – basin has been prepared from the topo sheets (1: 50,000 scale 58 E/14, 58 E/13, 58 I/2 Published by the Geological Survey of India in the year 1972. The location of the study area, its accessibility, Physiography, climate, rainfall and vegetation are presented. to classify the groundwater of Jalakandapuram sub-basin. This was done using the 25 water samples that were collected by the author and analysed in the Soil Testing Laboratory, Salem – 1. Plots of water samples in the hydrogeochemical classification diagrams (Piper‟s, Handa‟s and USSL throw light on the quality of groundwater within the study area.

  18. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2017-09-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp ., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  19. Strategic Studies on Colostrum (Junnu) Collected fr om Katpadi , Southern Tamil Nadu for Pharmacological Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chacko Anu Betty; Lina Rose Varghese; Thomas, Jennifer T.; Suneetha V

    2013-01-01

    Colostrum milk is an all-round liquid food that contains biologically active compounds other than carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids like vitamins, immunoglobulin, enzymes, growth hormones, and mineralsthat form an essential component of our biological system. Colostrum milk is thefirst milk of the cow’s udder that seems to provide all these essential nutrients. The extraction techniqueslead to separation of major biological compounds such as fat soluble, water soluble nutritive constitu...

  20. Assessment of Cadmium Contamination of Soils in Sewage Disposal Areasof Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vinu Radha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a naturally occurring minor element, one of the metallic components in the earth’s crust and oceans and present everywhere. Agricultural soils may also be enriched by cadmium which causes it’s accumulation in plants and pose a potential threat to human health. Also high concentrations of cadmium in soil have detrimental effects on ecosystem as it enters the food chain. Soil samples were collected from different places near sewage disposal areas in Coimbatore where the source of cadmium is likely to be threatening the public. Twenty six samples were collected, their physiochemical properties and total cadmium content were determined. Five soil samples that showed high levels of more than 3 mg kg-1of cadmium were identified as hotspots and their Arbuscularmycorrhizal spore count were assessed.

  1. DUAL FACTOR THEORY OF JOB SATISFACTION: A REPLICATION IN LEATHER INDUSTRY IN TAMIL NADU

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A. Thirupathy

    2016-01-01

    As Frederick Herzberg noted in his 1968 article, “what has been unraveled [about the psychology of motivation] with any degree of assurance is small indeed.  Herzberg believed that organizations have only limited power to motivate employees.  Managers should make sure their incentive systems function reasonably well but should concentrate on enriching the work. There are down to earth managers who shout, “Kick the person!” And this type of manager is right. The surest and least difficult way ...

  2. THE HUMAN RESOURCES ROLE AND CHALLENGES IN THE HOTEL SECTOR IN KANYAKUMARI, TAMIL NADU

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Mohamed Saleem; Syed Khalid Perwez

    2012-01-01

      This research sought to assess the level of significance given to the Human Resources function in order to find meaningful solutions to employment practices and personnel problems experienced in the Sector...

  3. Food habits of dhole Cuon alpinus in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthamizh Selvan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of dhole Cuon alpinus studied in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve from January 2010 to July 2010 by analyzing 78 scats. Ten prey species were consumed by dholes in which Sambar was consumed highest percentage (30.77% followed by wild pig (23.08% and lowest was Jungle fowl (0.063%. In terms of biomass contribution sambar was highest (78.70% while jungle fowl was lowest contribution (3.85%. The total prey biomass consumed by dhole was 191.72 kg during our study period. This study will give basic information on food habits of dhole and also gives basic idea for better management strategies to protect this elegant carnivore.

  4. The lonely endemic Palni Hills Rudraksha Tree Elaeocarpus blascoi Weibel (Magnoliopsida: Malvales: Elaeocarpaceae, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanaraj Felix Irudhayaraj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study on exploration, phenology, floral morphology and seed biology of little known endemic species Elaeocarpus blascoi Weible were conducted in the forest areas of Palni hills. This study confirmed that only three individual existing in the wild; one mature individual available in the wild, whereas the other two individuals are under the conservation of NGO. The considerable percentage of tender shoots, flowers and fruits were infested by unidentified insects (aphids/ticks. The seed germination percentage in the natural habitat is very poor. The distribution and survival of species in the wild is questionable. The threat status of the species needs to be reassessed and updated as Endangered in the IUCN list and effective strategies to be developed to protect the species from further extinction.

  5. Saving water? : analysis of options for rice-based farms in Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senthilkumar, K.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Modified rice cultivation, Water-saving, Farm typology, Technology adoption, Policy interventions, Farmers livelihoods, Resource use efficiency and Linear programming. The looming water crisis and water-intensive nature of rice cultivation are driving the search for alternative management

  6. Modified rice cultivation in Tamil Nadu, India: Yield gains and farmers' (lack of) acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Bindraban, P.S.; Thiyagarajan, T.M.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The looming water crisis and water-intensive nature of rice cultivation are driving the search for alternative management methods to increase water productivity in rice cultivation. Experiments were conducted under on-station and on-farm conditions to compare rice production using modified methods

  7. Health Seeking Behavior on Child Care Among Fishermen Community of Kovalam Village, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annadurai K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While progress has been made to reduce under-five mortality in India from 52 to 39 per thousand live births by 2015 to meet Millennium Development Goal, it is unequally distributed between regions and remains insufficient to reach by 2015. Further, fishermen community possesses unique characteristics features, and remains homogeneous in socioeconomic and cultural matters. Objectives: 1 To assess the health seeking behaviour of parents for child care in children under five years of age among the fisherman community of Kovalam. 2 To assess the factors associated with health seeking behaviour among the above mentioned population. Material and methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among 260 parents of children under five years of age in fishermen community with six months recall period in Kovalam, India during May to October, 2014 using pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of common childhood illness in the previous six months was 93.46% for ARI, 77.69% for ADD, and 69.23% for fever. Majority of them took their sick children (90.82% immediately to health care facility especially. Conclusion: Health seeking behaviour among parents of children of this specific population was fairly adequate but the prevalence of childhood illnesses was quite high which needs further evaluation.

  8. A preliminary checklist of the fishes of Yercaud, Shevroy Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eric Ramanujam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of fishes were recorded in Yercaud Lake and the surrounding hill streams during five surveys conducted from May 2011 to August 2012.  Of the 21 species, 19 were recorded in Yercaud Lake, 10 in the stream leading to Kiliyur Falls and six and eight respectively in the Manjakuttai and Puthur hill streams.  One translocated species (Gibelion catla and two exotics (Poecilia reticulata and Oreochromis mossambicus were recorded.  Only one species Cirrhinus cirrhosus is listed as threatened in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

  9. Waves in Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay around Dhanushkodi, Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.; Dwarakish, G.S.; Mohan, S.S.; Singh, J.; AshokKumar, K.

    ., Wave characteris- tics off Visakhapatnam coast during a cyclone. Curr. Sci., 2004, 86, 1524–1529. 3. Nayak, B. U., Chandramohan, P. and Sakhardande, R. K., Sea- sonal distribution of wave heights off Yanam on the east coast of India. Indian J. Inst...

  10. Bacterial abundance, communities and heterotrophic activities in the coastal waters off Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Raghukumar, C.; Sheelu, G.; Chandramohan, D.

    abundance of CAHB and TDC was observed in most locations. Microbial heterotrophic uptake and respiration rates of labelled glucose were high (except off Madras) suggesting a highly active microflora at most of these locations. Many bacterial genera were seen...

  11. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Birds of lower Palni Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramesh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current altitudinal distribution and breeding observations on birds of lower Palni Hills, Western Ghats were documented by conducting road transects, opportunistic surveys including trail walks and mist netting. A total of 196 species belonging to 63 families were recorded during the study. The Accipitridae family was foremost in species richness, followed by Cuculidae and Muscicapidae, Picidae, Timaliidae and other families. Altitudinal distribution of birds was higher between 600 and 900 m. The general patterns of the decreasing species richness with increasing altitude were observed in mid and upper Palnis. This could be probably because the lower Palnis have more deciduous and scrub forest which can support high food availability. Resident and migrant species made up to 87.76% and 12.24% of the community, respectively. We recorded a species that was threatened, three nearly threatened, and five endemic to the Western Ghats. Most of the endemics were confined to the higher altitudes due to the presence of moist evergreen and high altitude montane forests and grasslands. In total, 51 breeding bird observations were recorded. Interestingly, the variation in the breeding season of some birds was noticed with respect to earlier studies. Overall, our study illustrated useful information on bird community in this region which serves as a baseline for future monitoring programs.

  12. GPR studies over the tsunami affected Karaikal beach, Tamil Nadu, south India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Barnwal, R.P.; Khare, R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    is approximately a quarter of the GPR wavelength, and ranges from 0.08 m for saturated sands with 200 MHz antennae to 0.4 m for dry sands with 100 MHz antenna. The application of GPR, especially, in coastal studies is well known and is being widely employed... in identifying and tracing various buried struc- tures and facies in the beaches (Neal and Roberts 2000), dunes, bars, spits (Jol et al. 2002; Shukla et al. 2008) as well as in sand barriers (Meyers et al. 1994; Jol et al. 1996; Costas et al. 2006). Also, the GPR...

  13. Pore water chemistry in the beach sands of central Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandrasekar, N.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Moscow, S.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Sudha, V.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.

    As the pore water chemistry- has been considered as one of the prominent base parameters to infer the impact of coastal mining in introducing environmental deterioration, a study in pore water chemistry is planned here along the beaches for a length...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of some actinomycetes from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathalam Ganesan

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: The present work revealed that, among 106 actinomycetes screened, Streptomyces rimosus (FMS-20 (Accession No-KT827106 showed promising antimicrobial activity against all the tested human microbial pathogens.

  15. Multidrug Resistant Salmonella typhi in Asymptomatic Typhoid Carriers among Food Handlers in Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to screen Salmonella typhi in asymptomatic typhoid carriers and to find out drug resistance and ability of the strains to transmit drug resistance to other bacteria. Methods: Cultural characters, biochemical tests, antibiotic sensitivity test (disc diffusion, agarose gel electrophoresis, and conjugation protocols were done. Thirty five stool samples were collected from the suspected food handlers for the study. Results: Among 35 samples, (17.14% yielded a positive result. Out of these 4 (20.0% were women and 2 (13.33% were men. The isolates were tested with a number of conventional antibiotics viz, amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, co-trimaxazole, rifampicin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin and tetracycline. Five isolates were having the multidrug resistant character. Four (66.66% multidrug resistant isolates were found to have plasmids, while one (16.66% multidrug resistant isolate had no plasmid and the chromosome encoded the resistance. Only one strain (16.66% showed single antibiotic resistance in the study and had no plasmid DNA. The molecular weights of the plasmids were determined and found to be 120 kb.The mechanism of spreading of drug resistance through conjugation process was analyzed. In the conjugation studies, the isolates having R+ factor showed the transfer of drug resistance through conjugation, which was determined by the development of antibiotic resistance in the recipients. Conclusion: This study shows that drug resistant strains are able to transfer genes encoding drug resistance.

  16. Surface microtextures of quartz grains from the central coast of Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Udayaganesan, P.; Angusamy, N.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    and depositional environments. Geosciences Jour., v.10, no.1. MALLIK, T.K. (1992) Micromorphology of quartz grains. In: Marine placer deposits from Indian coasts. Geol. Surv. India, Spec. Publ., no.29, pp.145-162. MANICKAM, S. and BARBAROUX (1987) Variations...

  17. Assessment of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Soil of Muthannan Kulam Wetland, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Manimegalai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil serves as a more reliable index for productivity than water qualities. The productivity of any pond depends largely on the quality of bottom soil that is “store house of nutrients.” The present paper deals with the study of physicochemical parameters like organic carbon, pH, Electrical conductivity, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium of soil from Muthannan Kulam,Coimbatore (March 2013- May 2013. Analysis for the above parameters indicated contamination of the soil quality due to some anthropogenic activities.

  18. Rhythmic Characteristics of Colloquial and Formal Tamil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Elinor

    2006-01-01

    Application of recently developed rhythmic measures to passages of read speech in colloquial and formal Tamil revealed some significant differences between the two varieties, which are in diglossic distribution. Both were also distinguished from a set of control data from British English speakers reading an equivalent passage. The findings have…

  19. A Progressive Grammar of the Tamil Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, A. H.; Clayton, A. C.

    The first chapter of this grammar of prose Tamil introduces the alphabet and orthography. Following chapters deal with parts of speech and verb constructions. A final chapter deals with colloquialisms and foreign words. Appended are lists of abbreviations, grammatical and temporal terms, and other information useful to the student, as well as a…

  20. External Ophthalmomyiasis which was Caused by Sheep Botfly (Oestrus ovis) Larva: A Report of 10 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Sucilathangam; A, Meenakshisundaram; S, Hariramasubramanian; D, Anandhi; N, Palaniappan; T, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of the tissues and organs of animals or man by fly larvae. Ophthalmic myiasis has been reported from various world regions. In this study, we are presenting the clinical manifestations of external ophthalmomyiasis which was caused by the larvae of the sheep nasal botfly, Oestrus ovis, in 10 patients in the Tirunelveli and the Tuticorin districts of Tamil Nadu state India. All the patients were farmers, who worked in close contact with sheep and goats. All the patients presented with severe conjunctivitis. The larvae were observed in the bulbar conjunctiva and following their removal, the symptom of eye inflammation improved in a few hours.

  1. Spoken Word Recognition Strategy for Tamil Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An. Sigappi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a strategy for recognizing a preferred vocabulary of words spoken in Tamil language. The basic philosophy is to extract the features using mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC from the spoken words that are used as representative features of the speech to create models that aid in recognition. The models chosen for the task are hidden Markov models (HMM and autoassociative neural networks (AANN. The HMM is used to model the temporal nature of speech and the AANNs to capture the distribution of feature vectors in the feature space. The created models provide a way to investigate an unexplored speech recognition arena for the Tamil language. The performance of the strategy is evaluated for a number of test utterances through HMM and AANN and the results project the reliability of HMM for emerging applications in regional languages.

  2. Language Shift in the Tamil Communities of Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold F.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the position of Tamil as the language of an ethnic minority in Malaysia and Singapore, placing the issue of Tamil and language maintenance within the larger sociolinguistic milieu in the two countries and drawing conclusions about the role of language policy and planning in the determination of linguistic outcomes. (SM)

  3. Tongue-Tied in Singapore: A Language Policy for Tamil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold F.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the Tamil language situation in Singapore, which lends itself ideally to the study of minority-language maintenance. Examines attempts to maintain Tamil, a highly diglossic language in emigration and concludes that the well-meaning bilingual education system actually produces a situation of subtractive bilingualism. (Author/VWL)

  4. Reader for Advanced Spoken Tamil, Parts 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold F.

    Part 1 of this reader consists of transcriptions of five Tamil radio plays, with exercises, notes, and discussion. Part 2 is a synopsis grammar and a glossary. Both are intended for advanced students of Tamil who have had at least two years of instruction in the spoken language at the college level. The materials have been tested in classroom use…

  5. Tracing the linguistic crossroads between Malay and Tamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Hoogervorst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Speakers of Malay and Tamil have been in intermittent contact for roughly two millennia, yet extant academic work on the resultant processes of contact, lexical borrowing, and language mixing at the interface of these two speech communities has only exposed the tip of the proverbial iceberg. This paper presents an historical overview of language contact between Malay and Tamil through time and across the Bay of Bengal. It concludes with a call for future studies on the lexicology, dialectology, and use of colloquial language of both Malay and Tamil varieties.

  6. On a record of two alien fish species (Teleostei: Osphronemidae from the natural waters of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Marcus Knight

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquarium trade has been the source of many alien species being introduced into the natural waters of Chennai.  Trichopsis vittata and Macropodus opercularis are being reported for the first from Chennai. However,  contrary to the propagule pressure theory both these species are not common in the aquarium trade, raising speculations of inter-basin water transfer playing a role in introducing non-native species into an ecosystem.  

  7. Time-zoning for the safe-guarding of capture fisheries: a closed season in Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.; de Klerk, L.; van Dijk, D.; Rothuizen, J.V.; Blok, A.N.; Bokhorst, J.R.; van Haastrecht, E.K.; van de Loo, T.J.C.; Quaedvlieg, J.G.J.; Scholtens, J.

    2008-01-01

    A closed fishing season is arguably the most important fisheries regulation measure implemented by the government of India in the new millennium. Applied mainly to the inshore trawl fishing fleet, the planners’ intention was a safe-guarding of capture fisheries. This article, which is based on

  8. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of mothers towards emergency management of dental trauma in Salem district, Tamil Nadu: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruthika Murali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental trauma is one of the main oral health problems in childhood, and can cause pain and distress. It is important to provide emergency care to combat the aftermaths of trauma. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers regarding dental trauma and its management. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 33 closed-ended questions were used to interview 150 mothers who participated in the study. The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards their child′s dental visit, dental trauma, and its management. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Results: Mother′s previous experience of dental trauma when associated with the preservation of avulsed tooth of the child, those mothers who had the experience of dental trauma reported that they would discard the tooth which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05 when compared to the mothers with no experience of trauma. The education status of the study population when associated with the knowledge variables of avulsion, it was found that most of the variables had statistically significant association with P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study reveals that there is a lack of awareness among the mothers regarding the emergency management of dental trauma. This warrants the need of an effective communication between dental professionals and mothers for better handling of dental emergencies.

  9. Safe, accessible medical abortion in a rural Tamil Nadu clinic, India, but what about sexual and reproductive rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri, Subha B; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2015-02-01

    Women's control over their own bodies and reproduction is a fundamental prerequisite to the achievement of sexual and reproductive health and rights. A woman's ability to terminate an unwanted pregnancy has been seen as the exercise of her reproductive rights. This study reports on interviews with 15 women in rural South India who had a medical abortion. It examines the circumstances under which they chose to have an abortion and their perspectives on medical abortion. Women in this study decided to have an abortion when multiple factors like lack of spousal support for child care or contraception, hostile in-laws, economic hardship, poor health of the woman herself, spousal violence, lack of access to suitable contraceptive methods, and societal norms regarding reproduction and sexuality converged to oppress them. The availability of an easy and affordable method like medical abortion pills helped the women get out of a difficult situation, albeit temporarily. Medical abortion also fulfilled their special needs by ensuring confidentiality, causing least disruption of their domestic schedule, and dispensing with the need for rest or a caregiver. The study concludes that medical abortion can help women in oppressive situations. However, this will not deliver gender equality or women's empowerment; social conditions need to change for that. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A study on the impact of phosphate fertilizers on the radioactivity profile of cultivated soils in Srirangam (Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shahul Hameed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate fertilizers are enriched with 238U during its production from phosphate rocks. Since, application of phosphate fertilizers in modern agriculture is ever on the increase, the present study investigated the impact of phosphate fertilizers on the radioactivity profile of cultivated (fertilized soils as against virgin soils. Thirty soil samples each from cultivated fields and virgin fields were collected from Srirangam taluk and analyzed for the activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K employing gamma ray spectrometry. Similar analysis was also undertaken in commonly used phosphate fertilizers. Among the phosphate fertilizers analyzed single super phosphate (396.3 Bq/kg and triple super phosphate (284.2 Bq/kg registered higher level of 238U. The mean activity level of 238U in cultivated soil (8.4 Bq/kg was 25% higher than that of virgin soil (6.8 Bq/kg, while the mean 232Th and 40K activities in cultivated soil (98.4 Bq/kg & 436 Bq/kg were elevated by 12.4% and 4% respectively as compared to virgin soil (87.5 Bq/kg & 419 Bq/kg. The mean radium equivalent (Raeq value for virgin and cultivated soil samples was found to be 164.5 Bq/kg and 181.7 Bq/kg respectively. It is evident that the application of phosphate fertilizers elevated 238U level of the soil. However, the mean Raeq value for soil samples is well below the permissible limit of 370 Bq/kg and hence cultivated soils do not pose any radiological risk.

  11. Heavy mineral distribution and geochemical studies of coastal sediments between Besant Nagar and Marakkanam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suresh Gandhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the present study are to understand the heavy mineral distribution, trace elemental distribution and to study the variation, if any, between the grain size and trace elemental distribution within the beach. Totally 20 stations have been collected and weight percentage of heavy minerals are identified. In the present study area most of the sands are fine and medium grained, indicates beach environment and most of the grains are positively skewed. The study area contained a high percentage of orthopyroxene (hypersthene and garnet, rounded and broken zircons inferred to have been derived from charnockites and granulite gneiss of the study area. Overall from the geochemistry studies, it is observed that the Ni and Cr are more dominant and higher concentration in Panayar (station no. 2, Mahabalipuram (station no. 6, Kalpakkam (Station no. 7 and Perunthuravu (station no. 8. The present study has clearly indicated the multiple roles of tectonically controlled coastal blocks and their geomorphological influence in redistributing the sediments with favourable NE–SW configuration and wave energy conditions must have contributed to the formation of heavy minerals in a particular zone.

  12. Bioindicator role of tintinnid (Protozoa: Ciliophora) for water quality monitoring in Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, south east coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Dibyendu; Sahu, Gouri; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Satpathy, Kamala Kanta; Jonathan, M P; Murugan, K; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar

    2017-01-15

    The feasibility of a potential bioindicator based on functional groups of microzooplankton tintinnids for bioassessments of water quality status was studied during southwest monsoon (June to September) along the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, India during 2012-2015. The work highlights the following features (1) tintinnid community composed of 28 species belonging to 11 genera and 9 families, revealed significant differences among the four study sites (2) maximum numerical abundance (2224±90ind. l(-1)) and species diversity (H'=2.66) of tintinnid were recorded towards Bay of Bengal whereas minimum abundance (720±35ind. l(-1)) and diversity (H'=1.74) were encountered in the backwater sites, (3) multivariate analyses [RELATE, Biota-environment (BIOENV) and canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP)] reveal that chl a, nitrate and phosphate were the potential causative factors for tintinnid distribution. Based on the results, we suggest that tintinnids may be used as a potential bioindicator of water quality status in marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extreme events, intrinsic landforms and humankind: Post-tsunami scenario along Nagore–Velankanni coast, Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    complexes act as physical barriers and protect the hinterland from the forces of the ocean, including wave run - up due to extreme events. Wide beaches and high dunes act as efficient dissipators of wave energy. Sand dunes serve as a store that waves... are demolished. c , Pr u dent restoration of a damaged coast: sand dunes are recreated, forests are extended, ro ads are redesigned, buildings are r e- located inland, port is shifted upstream, sea walls are avoided, adequate buffer zones are designated. a...

  14. Morbidity profile of elderly outpatients attending selected sub-district Siddha health facilities in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvi Selvaraj

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Elderly constitute more than one fourth of outpatients load from siddha health facilities. Degenerative diseases like arthritis and non-communicable diseases were the common morbidities in this age group. Geriatric clinics and mobile clinics under siddha system may help in improving health care services.

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca, Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results: The maximum activity (7 mm was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions: Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  16. Protective role of coastal ecosystems in the context of the tsunami in Tamil Nadu coast, India: Implications for hazard preparedness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Jayakumar, S.

    natural hazards and reduction of disasters. With this objective, this paper highlights the natural buffer capacity of littoral sand dunes and coastal forests, as proved during the December 2004 tsunami. Some coastal management imperatives are explained...

  17. Lead ingots from a shipwreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India: Evidence for overseas trade and their significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Parthiban, G.; Vora, K.H.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    major role in the history of trade. Metal ingots made of gold, silver, cop- per, zinc and lead are the only surviving evi- dence of raw metal trade with the exception of iron ore and can provide clues for dating shipwrecks. Ingots with a stamp or seal... ingots (A. J. Farrington, pers. comm). The different type of ingots having other manufacturing inscriptions in addition to W: Blackett provides the support for this speculation. Tranquebar (about 12 km south of Poompuhar) was ruled by the Danes between...

  18. Comparison of dyslipidemia among the normal-BMI and high-BMI group of people of rural Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharaman Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity are considered major epidemic health problems in both developed and underdeveloped countries, as many studies showed a remarkable rise. One of the causes of dyslipidemia is obesity. Body mass index (BMI correlates reasonably well with laboratory-based measures of adiposity for population studies, and is extremely practical in most clinical settings. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the lipid profile of patients with normal BMI and high BMI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 400 subjects attended the medical outpatient department (OPD of a private medical college hospital at Salem from March 2010 to August 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups (200 in each group: (1 high BMI (BMI 25 and above and (2 normal BMI (BMI less than 25. The laboratory parameters; cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride (TG were determined directly by using an automated chemistry analyzer. Statistical Analysis: The Student′s t-test was used for comparison between categorical variables, i.e. lipid profile, high-BMI and normal-BMI subjects at P ≤0.05. Results: The total cholesterol, LDL and very LDL cholesterol and the TGs are found to be relatively high among the subjects with high BMI when compared with normal BMI persons, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: By analyzing the results of the study conducted, it was concluded that there was an increased risk of dyslipidemia among the high-BMI group compared with the normal-BMI people. Hence, a community-based education in this regard is of utmost importance.

  19. Comparison of dyslipidemia among the normal-BMI and high-BMI group of people of rural Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Seetharaman Ranganathan; Tuman US Krishnan; Shankar Radhakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are considered major epidemic health problems in both developed and underdeveloped countries, as many studies showed a remarkable rise. One of the causes of dyslipidemia is obesity. Body mass index (BMI) correlates reasonably well with laboratory-based measures of adiposity for population studies, and is extremely practical in most clinical settings. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the lipid profile of patients with normal BMI and high BMI. Material...

  20. MEDDB: A medicinal plant database developed with the information gathered from tribal people in and around Madurai, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, John Asnet; Priyadharshini, Karuppiah Chandran; Amal, Gurusamy Prabakaran Rubia; Ramya, Gunasekaran; Nithya, Radhakrishnan; Ambika, Morkondam Balasubramanian; Shenbagarathai, Rajaiah

    2012-01-01

    Tribal peoples are endowed with enriched traditional wisdom to use available nature resources around them. They are well versed in the usage of plant for treating various diseases. They have used powder or extract or paste form of the plant parts such as root, shoot, whole plant, fruits and leaves etc. The recipe known by the tribal people was passed on only to their family members and community through mouth to mouth practice. Hence, the knowledge is confined to particular people alone. It is always expedient to store information in the database, so that it will be accessible by everyone from everywhere. To achieve this, MEDDB has been developed, which stores the details of 110 plant species that are commonly used by tribes for fever, asthma, cold, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, eye infections, stomach ache, wounds and snake bite. The details of each plant were collected from the literature and through web search to give comprehensive and exhaustive information. Each plant entry is compiled under the subheadings viz., common name, classification, physical characteristics, medicinal uses, active constituents, and references. PMID:22570521

  1. Significance of saturation index of certain clay minerals in shallow coastal groundwater, in and around Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chidambaram; U Karmegam; P Sasidhar; M V Prasanna; R Manivannan; S Arunachalam; S Manikandan; P Anandhan

    2011-10-01

    The saturation index of clay minerals like Gibbsite, Kaolinite, Illite, Montmorillonite and Chlorite in groundwater were studied in detail by collecting 29 groundwater samples from the shallow coastal aquifers in and around Kalpakkam. The samples collected were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements by using standard procedures. The study reveals that pH has a significant role in the saturation index (SI) of minerals. It also shows that the relationship of electrical conductivity to the SI of these minerals is not significant than that of the ionic strength, log pCO2 values, and alumina silica ratio have significant relation to the SI of these clay minerals. The SI of these clay minerals was spatially distributed to identify the areas of higher SI. Silica has good correlation to SI of Kaolinite, Gibbsite and Montmorillonite and Al has good correlation to SI of all the minerals except to that of Chlorite.

  2. PREVALENCE OF PULMONARY FUNCTION DEFECTS IN PSORIASIS PATIENTS RECEIVING METHOTREXATE IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allwyn Vijay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate is an anti - metabolite widely used in malignancy, rheumatoid arthritis and refractory cases of psoriasis . 1 The value of low dose methotrexate is well established . 2 - 4 There are evidences of pulmonary function defects in patients on long term low dose methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Because methotrexate is frequently used in patients suffering from conditions such as RA, dermatomyositis or sarcoidosis, which can be associated wi th interstitial lung disease, determining the exact role of methotrexate in the development of pulmonary complications in these patients seems to be difficult. Therefore, we conducted a cross - sectional study to analyse the findings found on chest x - rays, h igh resolution computed tomography (HRCT and pulmonary function tests (PFT in a cohort of patients without previous recognized interstitial lung disease who were taking methotrexate as a treatment for psoriatic arthritis, a condition not associated with pleuro pulmonary disease. RESULTS: In this study 154 patients from the outpatient department of psoriasis clinic of dermatology department of government general hospital, Chennai who were receiving methotrexate for psoriasis were screened. Out of which 30 patients who were eligible as per inclusion criteria were included in the study. In this study 9 patients showed normal radiology and pulmonary function test. 21 patients had pulmonary function abnormalities. In this study there were 13(43% patients with restrictive pulmonary function defect. Belzenegui . 14 et al reported 2 cases with mild restriction among 27 patients in a similar study. There were 10(33% patients with diffusion defect in this study. Belzenegui et al reported 2 cases among 27 patients in a similar study. There were 5(16% patients with small airway disease as suggested by decrease in mean mid expiratory flow. Belzenegui et al reported 5 cases among 27 patients in a similar study. There were 3(3% patients with radiological lesions, 1 had b ronchiectasis and 2 had interstitial fibrosis. Patients with Co - morbidities like bronchial asthma (n=3, rheumatic heart diseases (n=1, hypertension (n=1, diabetes mellitus (n=1 and habits like smoking (n=7 did not have radiological features of methotr exate induced pulmonary fibrosis. There was no case of acute pneumonitis during the study period. Average duration of respiratory symptoms in suspected patients was more than 1 month. The study is comparable with the previous studies with prevalence rate f or methotrexate induced pulmonary fibrosis nearing 2% of 154 patients receiving methotrexate from dermatology outpatient department. Diffusion capacity was an useful aid in all 3 patients with methotrexate induced pulmonary toxicity. CONCLUSION: There were 3(10% patients with radiological evidence of methotrexate induced pulmonary fibrosis. There were 10(33% patients with restrictive pulmonary function defect without radiological evidence of methotrexate induced pulmonary fibrosis. There were 7(23% patie nts with diffusion defect in this study without radiological evidence of methotrexate induced pulmonary fibrosis. Of these 7 patients, 5 patients had spirometric defect in the form of restriction. There were 14(47% patients with symptoms, no radiological abnormality and no spirometric abnormalities. Of the above 14 patients, 2 patients (6.6% had diffusion defect. Prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities in this study matches similar studies elsewhere. DLco could be an early predictor of pulmonary fu nction impairment in psoriasis patients on long term methotrexate. Regular follow up of patients who are taking methotrexate on along term basis with spirometry and dlco may be an effective tool in early identification and treatment of pulmonary complicati ons in these patients.

  3. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam; Ramesh Uthandakalai; Raubbin rajsmaill

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca), Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus)] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform) against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results:The maximum activity (7 mm) was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm) was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm) was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions:Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  4. Knowledge, Stigma, and Behavioral Outcomes among Antiretroviral Therapy Patients Exposed to Nalamdana's Radio and Theater Program in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki; Ramakrishnan, Vimala; Kumar, Paresh; Varma, Rajeev; Balaji, Nithya; Rajendran, Jeeva; Jhona, Loretta; Chandrasekar, Chokkalingam; Gere, David

    2011-01-01

    Arts-based programs have improved HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in general and at-risk populations. With HIV transformed into a chronic condition, this study compares patients at consecutive stages of receiving antiretroviral treatment, coinciding with exposure to a radio-and-theater-based educational program (unexposed [N = 120],…

  5. Distribution of Foraminifera in the Core Samples of Kollidam and Marakanam Mangrove Locations, Tamil Nadu, Southeast Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowshath, M.

    2013-05-01

    In order to study the distribution of Foraminifera in the subsurface sediments of mangrove environment, two core samples have been collected i) near boating house, Pitchavaram, from Kollidam estuary (C2) and ii) backwaters of Marakanam (C2)with the help of PVC corer. The length of the core varies from a total of 25 samples from both cores were obtained and they were subjected to standard micropaleontological and sedimentological analyses for the evaluation of different sediment characteristics. The core sample No.C1 (Pitchavaram) yielded only foraminifera whereas the other one core no.C2 (Marakanam) has yielded discussed only the down core distribution of foraminifera. The widely utilized classification proposed by Loeblich and Tappan (1987) has been followed in the present study for Foraminiferal taxonomy and accordingly 23 foraminiferal species belonging to 18 genera, 10 families, 8 superfamilies and 4 suborders have been reported and illustrated. The foraminiferal species recorded are characteristic of shallow innershelf to marginal marine and tropical in nature. Sedimentological parameters such as CaCO3, Organic matter and sand-silt-clay ratio was estimated and their down core distribution is discussed. An attempt has been made to evaluate the favourable substrate for the Foraminifera population abundance in the present area of study. From the overall distribution of foraminifera in different samples of Kollidam estuary (Pitchavaram area), and Marakanam estuary it is observed that siltysand and sandysilt are more accommodative substrate for the population of foraminifera, respectively. The distribution of foraminifera in the core samples indicate that the sediments were deposited under normal oxygenated environment conditions.;

  6. The Actions of Headmasters and Headmistresses in Fostering Parent & Family Involvement in Low-Income Schools in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Anupama

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research has examined the contribution of parent involvement to children's educational outcomes. Research has also attempted to identify meaningful involvement practices, taking place at home or in school and, as a result, measuring its effects on school, school staff and parents themselves. Despite the extensive research base, very…

  7. Why hasn't a seawater intrusion yet happened in the Kaluvelli-Pondicherry basin, Tamil Nadu, India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Aude; Violette, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, coastal aquifers are threatened by seawater intrusion. The threat is even bigger when those aquifers are overexploited, for example for irrigation, or when their recharge is low due to a semi-arid or arid climate. The sedimentary basin studied here presents both this characteristics, and water level records in the main aquifer can be as low as 30m below MSL. Though, no seawater intrusion has been monitored yet. To understand why, and because a good knowledge of a system hydrodynamic is a necessary step to an efficient water management strategy, hydrogeological numerical modelling of this multi-layered system has been conducted. Existing and acquired geological and hydrodynamic data have been implemented into a quasi-3D hydrogeological model performed with NEWSAM code. Recharge had been previously quantified through the intercomparison of hydrological models, based on surface flow field measurements. During the hydrogeological modelling, sensitivity tests on parameters, and on the nature of the boundary condition with the sea, led to the hypothesis of an offshore freshwater stock. Extension of this fresh groundwater stock has been calculated thanks to Groen approximation.

  8. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  9. Geospatial tool-based morphometric analysis using SRTM data in Sarabanga Watershed, Cauvery River, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulbalaji, P.; Gurugnanam, B.

    2017-02-01

    A morphometric analysis of Sarabanga watershed in Salem district has been chosen for the present study. Geospatial tools, such as remote sensing and GIS, are utilized for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM-30 m resolution) data have been used for morphometric analysis and evaluating various morphometric parameters. The morphometric parameters of Sarabanga watershed have been analyzed and evaluated by pioneer methods, such as Horton and Strahler. The dendritic type of drainage pattern is draining the Sarabanga watershed, which indicates that lithology and gentle slope category is controlling the study area. The Sarabanga watershed is covered an area of 1208 km2. The slope of the watershed is various from 10 to 40% and which is controlled by lithology of the watershed. The bifurcation ratio ranges from 3 to 4.66 indicating the influence of geological structure and suffered more structural disturbances. The form factor indicates elongated shape of the study area. The total stream length and area of watershed indicate that mean annual rainfall runoff is relatively moderate. The basin relief expressed that watershed has relatively high denudation rates. The drainage density of the watershed is low indicating that infiltration is more dominant. The ruggedness number shows the peak discharges that are likely to be relatively higher. The present study is very useful to plan the watershed management.

  10. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  11. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2014-12-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  12. GIS based 3D visualization of subsurface and surface lineaments / faults and their geological significance, northern tamil nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanavel, J.; Ramasamy, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    The study area falls in the southern part of the Indian Peninsular comprising hard crystalline rocks of Archaeozoic and Proterozoic Era. In the present study, the GIS based 3D visualizations of gravity, magnetic, resistivity and topographic datasets were made and therefrom the basement lineaments, shallow subsurface lineaments and surface lineaments/faults were interpreted. These lineaments were classified as category-1 i.e. exclusively surface lineaments, category-2 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and category-3 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and basement lineaments. These three classified lineaments were analyzed in conjunction with known mineral occurrences and historical seismicity of the study area in GIS environment. The study revealed that the category-3 NNE-SSW to NE-SW lineaments have greater control over the mineral occurrences and the N-S, NNE-SSW and NE-SW, faults/lineaments control the seismicities in the study area.

  13. Macrobenthic communities of the Vellar Estuary in the Bay of Bengal in Tamil-Nadu in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoprud, M. V.; Chertoprud, E. S.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Mazei, Yu. A.

    2013-03-01

    The macrobenthic fauna and communities of the Vellar Estuary located at the southeast cost of India (11°30' N, 79°45' E) and the adjacent marine and river habitats are described on the basis of original data (70 samples over 10 transects). The fauna consists of 115 macrobenthic species and 79 species in estuarine habitats. We described 14 types of macrobenthic communities with different compositions of the dominant species. The leading ecological factors of the distribution of the communities are the salinity, depth, and bottom type. The Vellar estuary consists of two longitudinal zones of macrobenthos. The polyhalinic area is populated by the marine species, but it is related not to a salinity decrease but to the protection from waves and silt on the bottom in this area. The polyhalinic communities are most abundant in terms of the biomass and species richness. The mesohalinic area is inhabited by brackish water species and communities with low abundance. The sublittoral estuarine area is dominated by filter-feeders—the bivalves Crassostrea madrasensis, Meretrix casta, Modiolus metcalfei, and Scapharca inaequivalves—and the littoral zone is dominated by the gastropods Cerithidea cingulata, some crabs, and polychaetes. The ecosystem function of the Vellar estuary can be defined as a filter for the fine organic particles transported by the river.

  14. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity and radiation hazards in beach sand samples from Kanyakumari District, TamilNadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajithra, A. K.; Shanthi, G.

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides of terrestrial origin have very long half - lives or driven from very long - lived parent radionuclides, which have been created in stellar processes before the earth formation. The study of natural radioactivity in marine and coastal environments is of significant importance for better understanding of oceanographic and sedimentological processes. The sampling sites are selected to cover randomly to cover the southern part. The soil samples have been collected in beach sides. In situ gamma measurements were conducted using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector (coaxial cylinder of 50.1 mm in diameter and 44 mm in length) with a relative efficiency of 50% and an energy resolution (FWHM) of 1.8 keV at the 1.33 MeV reference transition of 60Co. The measurements shows that the values of the absorbed dose rates in air in the investigated area are lower than the recommended limit by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation.

  15. Diversity of Marine Cyanobacteria from Three Mangrove Environment in Tamil Nadu Coast, South East Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Silambarasan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine cyanobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples, of the three mangroves viz Parangipettai, Ariyankuppam and Mudasal odai mangroves south east coast of India. As many as 39 Cyanobacteria, belonging to 12 families were identified in which Oscillatoriaceae alone contributed (11. The species such as Oscillatoria cortiana, Oscillatoria salina, Oscillatoria tenuis, Oscillatoria formosa, Lyngbya major, Lyngbya confervoides, Lyngbya majuscule, Lyngbya mesotricha, Phormidium stagnina, Plectonema terebrans and Plectonema putuale and minimum in Synechococcaceae recorded only one species the species such as Synechococcus elongatus. Among the species Synechocystis salina, Oscillatoria salina, Phormidium ambiguum, Phormidium tenue, Spirulina major distributed all the mangroves.

  16. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of wind energy. A case study of Kayathar wind mills in Tamil Nadu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, D.B. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ., Madurai (India). Dept. of Environmental Economics

    1995-12-31

    In recent years we have been encountering what is termed as Energy Crisis. Energy crisis is not only a threat to any economy but also posses a challenge in correcting the deficiency. India which is going in for massive industrialization is a population giant and has to reckon with the very relevant issue of energy crisis. In this regard the Indian Government has laid a great deal of emphasis on the development and harnessing of alternative sources of energy. Among the various types of renewable energy sources wind energy is present by the only proven alternative in the energy structure. Along with the evolution of man form primitive stage to the present civilisation, the wind energy has also moved with time from its ancient period to the present stage of sophistication which can be adopted to various needs like water pumping and power generation. (author)

  18. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of mothers towards emergency management of dental trauma in Salem district, Tamil Nadu: A questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Kruthika Murali; Ramesh Krishnan; Suresh Kumar, V.; Shankar Shanmugam; Prakash Rajasundharam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental trauma is one of the main oral health problems in childhood, and can cause pain and distress. It is important to provide emergency care to combat the aftermaths of trauma. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers regarding dental trauma and its management. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 33 closed-ended questions were used to interview 150 mothers who participated in the study. The questions assessed the knowledge and...

  19. Knowledge, Stigma, and Behavioral Outcomes among Antiretroviral Therapy Patients Exposed to Nalamdana's Radio and Theater Program in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki; Ramakrishnan, Vimala; Kumar, Paresh; Varma, Rajeev; Balaji, Nithya; Rajendran, Jeeva; Jhona, Loretta; Chandrasekar, Chokkalingam; Gere, David

    2011-01-01

    Arts-based programs have improved HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in general and at-risk populations. With HIV transformed into a chronic condition, this study compares patients at consecutive stages of receiving antiretroviral treatment, coinciding with exposure to a radio-and-theater-based educational program (unexposed [N = 120],…

  20. Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae to temephos from three districts of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Muthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The high activity of esterase, mixed-function oxidase (MFO and ace-1 mutation frequency were closely associated with temephos resistance. Early detection of resistance alleles in natural vector population could be useful for the successful implementation of insecticide resistance management strategies. The results of this study provide baseline data on temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti populations.

  1. Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) to temephos from three districts of Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    MUTHUSAMY, R; M S Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dengue is the most rapidly expanding arboviral disease in India. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue fever. Chemical insecticides have long been used in the vector control programmes along with other control measures. However, continuous use of insecticides targeting Ae. aegypti may lead to development of insecticide resistance. Though resistance in Ae. aegypti has been reported, the mutation in ace-1 gene associated with temephos resistance is not reported ...

  2. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married women in Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejoice Puthuchira Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are now recognized as a serious global threat to the health of population. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married scheduled castes women in Thiruvarur district of Tamilnadu state in India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Data analysis was by use of SPSS version-17, with statistical significance set at p-value of 0.05. Results: Around 8.8% of women experienced sexually transmitted infections among the study population. The proportion of women who experienced STIs was seven times higher among illiterates (46.9% than women who completed secondary education (6%. The women in households in the high standard of living index (SLI were less likely to experience STIs (1.7% than women in low SLI (15.6%. The agricultural laborers were 1.145 times more likely to experience STIs than non-agricultural workers (OR=0.251. Conclusions: The main causes for sexual health problems were found to be the less education and lowest SLI among women. It is recommended that policy makers should be introduce community intervention programs to increase the awareness regarding sexual health issues among rural population. 

  3. Psychological morbidity status among the rural geriatric population of Tamil Nadu, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bayapa Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems like depression, cognitive impairment, anxiety, sleep disorders, and so on, arising out of senility, neurosis, and living conditions are common in the geriatric population. Aims: To study the psychiatric morbidity among the rural elderly. Settings and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 800 rural elderly subjects, aged 60 years and more, living in ten randomly selected villages, served by the Rural Health Training Center (RHTC, Valadi, in Tamilnadu state, India. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE, and the depression by the Geriatric Depression Scale - Shorter version. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed with SPSS 16 version statistical software using proportions, and the chi-square. Results: A majority of the subjects were widows / widowers, illiterates, living with family, and showing economic dependency. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 43.25%, with a mean MMSE score of 23.32±4.4, and the depression was 47.0% and 6.16±3.4. Cognitive impairment, depression, and a disturbed sleep pattern were associated with female sex, age, illiteracy, poverty, loneliness, and the low socioeconomic status of the family. Conclusions: The study showed a definite association between the sociodemographic factors and psychiatric morbidity. Encouraging the Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs working for the elderly, running of separate geriatric clinics, and effective implementation of schemes like old age pension are some of the measures to be taken.

  4. DEM ASSESSMENT DERIVED FROM CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY: A CASE STUDY FROM KADAVUR AREA, KARUR DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Anbarasan, S.; R. Sakthivel

    2012-01-01

    Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accur...

  5. Identification of saline water intrusion in part of Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, Southern India: using GIS and VES methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Vasudevan, S.

    2016-06-01

    We use electrical resistivity data arrayed in a 2715 km2 region with 30 locations to identify the saline water intrusion zone in part of Cauvery deltaic region, offshore Eastern India. From this dataset we are able to derive information on groundwater quality, thickness of aquifer zone, structural and stratigraphic conditions relevant to groundwater conditions, and permeability of aquifer systems. A total of 30 vertical electrode soundings (VES) were carried out by Schlumberger electrode arrangement to indicate complete lithology of this region using curve matching techniques. The electrical soundings exhibited that H and HK type curves were suitable for 16 shallow locations, and QH, KQ, K, KH, QQ, and HA curves were fit for other location. Low resistivity values suggested that saline water intrusion occurred in this region. According to final GIS map, most of the region was severely affected by seawater intrusion due to the use of over-exploitation of groundwater.The deteriorated groundwater resources in this coastal region should raise environmental and health concerns.

  6. Marine archaeological investigations along the Tamil Nadu coast and their implications for understanding cultural expansion to southeast Asian countrie

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    The marine archaeological exploration off Poompuhar and Mahabalipuram brought to light several underwater remains and the traditions mentioning the submergence of these towns have been partially confirmed....

  7. Young Tamil Hindus in Denmark and Their Relationship to Tradition and Collective Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with young, well-educated Tamil Hindus in Denmark, and how they balance between being part of a shared Tamil cultural heritage or cultural memory and at the same time being part of Danish society. It will try to illuminate the situations and contexts in which cultural heritage...... is a resource or hindrance in this negotiation. It will also try to clarify how young Tamil Hindus’ relation to cultural memory seems to differ in comparison with their parents’. One of the main differences is young Tamil Hindus’ very open-minded differentiation between being a Hindu (religious identity), being...... a Tamil (cultural identity) and being a Dane with a Tamil background (social identity). This article builds on empirical research on Sri Lankan Tamil Hindus in Denmark, including around 50 interviews with young Tamil Hindus, complemented by the theory of collective memory....

  8. Invitation to Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language for Early Computer-Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Annamalai, Muthiah

    2013-01-01

    Ezhil is a Tamil programming language with support for imperative programming, with mixed use of Tamil and English identifiers and function-names. Ezhil programing system is targeted toward the K-12 (junior high-school) level Tamil speaking students, as an early introduction to thinking like a computer-scientist. We believe this 'numeracy' knowledge is easily transferred over from a native language (Tamil) to the pervasive English language programming systems, in Java, dot-Net, Ruby or Python...

  9. Strategic Role of Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora in Promoting Separatism in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Tamil Eelam and the Tamil genocide in Sri Lanka. This campaign tries to achieve its objectives through the boycott of Sri Lankan tourism and products...Lanka campaign.157 The boycott Sri Lanka campaign is not limited to tourism or products. The Tamil Youth Organization (TYO) is conducting a “Boycott...Sri Lankan sports are not accepted in international fora as they 155Tamils Against Genocide

  10. When Interculturality faces a Diaspora. The Transnational Tamil Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Burgio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sri Lankan Tamils of the diaspora are a model of a transnational identity.From the theoretical point of view, Tamil identity challenges our mental habits and intercultural theory. If the Tamil diaspora tend to be distinguished both from the motherland and from Western, multicultural societies, then interculturality ceases to indicate a relationship between two poles, but becomes a three-pole connection, which includes the country of origin, the country of destination, and the diasporic community. The consciousness of these diasporic dynamics forces us to re-think our theoretical framework about interculturality, going beyond our actual approach based on nationally-defined concepts of society and culture. Overall, diasporas can be an excellent observation field of all transnational dynamics and through diasporas we can learn not concentrating on the migrants / residents dichotomy but focusing on people, their movements crossing national boundaries, and their specific needs.

  11. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses by Tamil Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Usha

    2000-01-01

    Reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses by 27 Tamil-speaking children who ranged in age from 2 years and 11 months to 6 years and 6 months. A picture-cued production task was used to elicit relative clauses from the child subjects. (Author/VWL)

  12. The Influence of Tamil Diaspora on Stability in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    16  7.  SWOT Analysis ............................................................................18  8.  The Demands of the Tamil...4  Figure 2.  Conflict Cycle ............................................................................................17  Figure 3.  SWOT Analysis...Cross IDPs Internally Displaced Persons LKR Sri Lankan Rupees LLRC Lesson Learnt and Reconciliation Commission LTTE Liberation Tigers

  13. Linguistic Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Tamil Version ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with oral health, need for dental treatment and esthetic satisfaction. ... Item scale correlation ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 (P < 0.001). Concurrent and discriminant validity was ... of oral health on quality of life among the Tamil speaking population.

  14. Tamil hip-hop in Malaysia : the history, politics, and sounds of diasporic identity

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, Pravina

    2017-01-01

    This study examines past and contemporary configurations of Tamil identity as expressed through the different religious folk and musical experiences of the minority diasporic community in Malaysia. It seeks to show how deeply felt experiences of the colonial past still influence contemporary expressions of identity by Tamil hip-hop musicians in the context of the popular music industry in post-colonial Malaysia. In doing so, what is revealed is how narratives of identity within the Tamil dias...

  15. Database on Antidiabetic indigenous plants of Tamil Nadhu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Uma Makheswari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An Ethnobotanical and Literature survey was conducted to collect information about medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetics and associated complications by tribals people of Tamil Nadhu. Analysis of remedies obtained from different plant parts was performed. The indigenous knowledge of plants used for the treatment of diabetics was collected through questionnaire and personal interviews. A total of 46 plants used to treat diabetes have been documented. The investigation revealed that, leaf materials (37% followed by seeds (16% and fruits (14% were mostly used for the treatment of Diabetes. Anti-diabetic medicinal plants used by Tamil People have been listed along with plant parts used and its active chemical constituents.

  16. Methods in Historical linguistics: Evidences from Tamil epigraphic texts

    OpenAIRE

    Murugaiyan, Appasamy

    2013-01-01

    Historical linguistics, among other things, aims at understanding the principles and factors that cause changes in languages. The Dravidian comparative linguistics in the last few decades has arrived at excellent results at different levels of language change: phonology, morphology and etymology. However, the field of historical syntax remains to be explored in detail. The linguistic analysis of Tamil inscriptions and classical and ancient literary texts will shed light on the historical ling...

  17. English to Tamil machine translation system using universal networking language

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJESWARI SRIDHAR; PAVITHRA SETHURAMAN; KASHYAP KRISHNAKUMAR

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes English to Tamil machine translation system, using the universal networking language (UNL) as the intermediate representation. The UNL approach is a hybrid approach of the rule and knowledge-based approaches to machine translation. UNL is a declarative formal language, specifically designed to represent semantic data extracted from a natural language text. The input English sentence is converted to UNL (enconversion), which is then converted to a Tamil sentence (deconversion) by ensuring thatthe meaning of the input sentence is preserved. The representation of UNL was modified to suit the translation process. A new sentence formation algorithm was also proposed to rearrange the translated Tamil words to sentences. The translation system was evaluated using bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) score. A BLEU score of 0.581 was achieved, which is an indication that most of the information in the input sentence is retained in the translated sentence. The scores obtained using the UNL based approach were compared with existingapproaches to translation, and it can be concluded that the UNL is a more suited approach to machine translation.

  18. Status of Tamil Language in Singapore: An Analysis of Family Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakara, Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the phenomenon of Language Maintenance and Language Shift through a qualitative study of Tamil language in the family domain in Singapore. The influence of Singapore's bilingual policy and the institutional support offered for maintenance of Tamil language provide the context in which the central research problem of the status…

  19. Styling One's Own in the Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora: Implications for Language and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagarajah, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the ways youth in the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora in Canada, Britain, and the United States construct their ethnic identity when proficiency in their heritage language is limited. Though these youth claim only rudimentary proficiency in Tamil and identify English as their dominant language, they are nonetheless able to claim…

  20. Homosexuality - leaves from antiquity: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender population: A Tamil perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Tejus Murthy, A G

    2016-01-01

    Homosexuality has been present in human civilization from ancient times, and the condition as it existed in the Tamil land is described along with a reference to the terminology, concepts, and description. Some instances appear in the old Tamil classics and poems. The present legal status of this sexual orientation is also mentioned.

  1. Pemilihan Bahasa Oleh Masyarakat India Tamil Di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The research of “Language Choice by the Ethnic Group of Tamil India in Medan” was a sociolinguistic research using qualitative descriptive method. The method used in getting and analyzing data was to describe the situation or something happened. This research also meant to describe from one variable to the other variable. This research did not try to find out or to explain the relation, and it did not examine either. Therefore, in getting and analyzing the data the method used was qualitative...

  2. Ethnobotanics used in folk medicine of Tamil culture in Sri Lanka: a scientific review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesuthasan, Anternite Shanthi; Uluwaduge, Deepthi Inoka

    2017-01-01

    Tamil culture has recognized the potential use of plant herbs for prevention and treatment of different diseases. These folk remedies have been practiced by Sri Lankan Tamils even after modernization. This review focuses on frequently used medicinal plants among Sri Lankan Tamil communities, such as Cuminum cyminum, Azadirechta indica, Coriandrum sativum, Sesamum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Plectranthus amboinicus, Allium sativum and Curcuma longa, for their documented medicinal properties, which include antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic and diuretic effects.

  3. Indirect organogenesis from various explants of Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. – A threatened tree species from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Lavanya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hildegardia species are an important resource for fiber industry. This investigation was conducted to develop a plant regeneration protocol for Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. via indirect organogenesis Callus was obtained from leaf, internode and petiole explants, among these explants internode explant gave best result on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The highest percentage (100% of regeneration was obtained with benzyladenine (BA (2.0 mg/l + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA (0.1 mg/l + glutamine (25 mg/l + thidiazuron (TDZ (0.5 mg/l from internode explants. Shootlets were highly rooted on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. In vitro rooted seedlings were successfully acclimatized. This in vitro regeneration system will facilitate further development of reliable procedures for this genus.

  4. Road kills of the endemic snake Perrotet’s Shieldtail Plectrurus perrotetii, Dumeril, 1851 (Reptilia: Squamata: Uropeltidae in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Santhoshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven road killed specimens of Plectrurus perrotetii were recorded in Emerald and its surrounding areas in the Nilgiris. Among the road kills, fourteen of them were females, seven were males and six are juveniles. Among the road kill female specimens of this species, it was observed that seven were gravid with fully developed young. Three to six developing young ones were observed

  5. Studies on the Vertical Distribution of Ticks of Domestic Animals and Their Public Health Importance in Nilgiri Hills and Adjoining Areas of Tamil Nadu State (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nilgiri hills and adjoining downhill areas provide favourable ecological conditions for the propagation of haematophagous arthropods owing to richness in vegetation and animal activities. A study has been undertaken during 2008–2010 on the distribution and abundance of ticks of domestic animals in seven different biotopes. A total of 3,008 domestic animals were examined in areas ranging from an altitude of 300 to 2200 meters above mean sea level (MSL of which 1,335 (44.5% animals were having tick infestation. A total of 6,012 adult and immature ticks belonging to 12 species (11 ixodid and one argasid were collected. Eleven tick species were collected from Kallar area situated downhill eastern slopes of the Nilgiris followed by Burliar area (7 species located at higher altitudes. From Masinagudi area near to dense forests and scrub jungles, five species were recorded. However, at higher elevations on the hills, Udhagamandalam area, only one species was recorded. Among various tick species recorded in the study, Boophilus microplus was distributed in almost all areas surveyed followed by Haemaphysalis spinigera and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The factors governing their distribution and epidemiological significance in the transmission of various tick-borne diseases of public health importance are discussed.

  6. Self-perceived risk and barriers to cervical cancer screening among patients seeking care at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokeshwari Jayaraman

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: self-perception of not being at risk is documented to be associated with low uptake of screening. Concerned health education programs need to bring clearly to the end user the difference between precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer and the treatment options available. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 766-769

  7. Lithological and hydrochemical controls on distribution and speciation of uranium in groundwaters of hard-rock granitic aquifers of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivya, C; Chidambaram, S; Keesari, Tirumalesh; Prasanna, M V; Thilagavathi, R; Adithya, V S; Singaraja, C

    2016-04-01

    Uranium is a radioactive element normally present in hexavalent form as U(VI) in solution and elevated levels in drinking water cause health hazards. Representative groundwater samples were collected from different litho-units in this region and were analyzed for total U and major and minor ions. Results indicate that the highest U concentration (113 µg l(-1)) was found in granitic terrains of this region and about 10 % of the samples exceed the permissible limit for drinking water. Among different species of U in aqueous media, carbonate complexes [UO2(CO3)(2)(2-)] are found to be dominant. Groundwater with higher U has higher pCO2 values, indicating weathering by bicarbonate ions resulting in preferential mobilization of U in groundwater. The major minerals uraninite and coffinite were found to be supersaturated and are likely to control the distribution of U in the study area. Nature of U in groundwater, the effects of lithology on hydrochemistry and factors controlling its distribution in hard rock aquifers of Madurai district are highlighted in this paper.

  8. Heavy metal contamination in bore water due to industrial pollution and polluted and non polluted sea water intrusion in Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli of South Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyasekar, C; Neelakantan, M A; Poongothai, S

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the pollution vulnerability of bore water in the coastal region of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi in the state of Tamilnadu, India. There are no industries in the Tirunelveli Coastal area whereas there are many industries in SIPCOT (State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamilnadu) Thoothukudi, and coastal area of Thoothukudi. Bore water from the SIPCOT, coastal area of Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli were collected periodically from July 2006 to May 2008 for this study. These samples were tested and analyzed to find the concentrations of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, calcium, copper, cadmium, mercury and lead. The toxic cadmium concentration was found in the range of 0.00-0.22 mg Kg⁻¹ at SIPCOT 2 in November 2007, mercury 0.00-0.024 mg Kg⁻¹ and lead 0.00-0.02 mg Kg⁻¹ in SIPCOT 2 in January 2008. The level of contamination is higher than the WHO limits of drinking water standards; but copper and aluminium content are within the limit. On the other hand, the samples taken from bores in Tirunelveli coastal area are non-polluted, and the analysis shows that all the metals are within the limits of WHO standard.

  9. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rockterrain – A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Srinivasamoorthy; S Chidambaram; M V Prasanna; John Peter; P Anandhan

    2008-02-01

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To identify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 groundwater samples for two different seasons, viz., pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. The groundwater chemistry is dominated by silicate weathering and (Na + Mg) and (Cl + SO4) accounts of about 90% of cations and anions. The contribution of (Ca +Mg) and (Na + K) to total cations and HCO3 indicates the domination of silicate weathering as major sources for cations. The plot for Na to Cl indicates higher Cl in both seasons, derived from Anthropogenic (human) sources from fertilizer, road salt, human and animal waste, and industrial applications, minor representations of Na also indicates source from weathering of silicate-bearing minerals. The plot for Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering process which is also supported by higher HCO3 values in both the seasons. Ion exchange process is also activated in the study area which is indicated by shifting to right in plot for Ca +Mg to SO4 + HCO3. The plot of Na − Cl to Ca +Mg − HCO3 − SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chlorite minerals. Saturation index of silicate and carbonate minerals indicate oversaturation during pre-monsoon and undersaturation during post-monsoon, conforming dissolution and dilution process. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions from anthropogenic impact.

  10. Response of coastal vegetation and the need for green belts along the Tamil Nadu coast, India: The December 2004 tsunami experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    protection as natural shelter belt against any eventual extreme event. Future plantation strategies will have to consider natural bio-zonalion rather than haphazard patterns that are observed at present. Green belts are beneficial for several reasons: control...

  11. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian–Maastrichtian sediments of Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin, Tamil Nadu, India: An appraisal to Paleocurrent directions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Papanna; M Venkateshwarlu; V Periasamy; R Nagendra

    2014-03-01

    Oriented samples of sediments from Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin, south India, were studied for low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements to unravel the magnetic fabrics and paleocurrent directions. The results of AMS parameters of the sediments indicate primary depositional fabrics for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu sandstone formations and secondary fabric for Kallankurichchi limestone formation. The obtained low degree of anisotropy (), oblate shape AMS ellipsoid and distribution of maximum (1) and minimum (3) susceptibility axes on equal area projection confirm the primary sedimentary fabric for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations. In the case of ferruginous, lower arenaceous, Gryphaea limestone and upper arenaceous limestone beds of Kallankurichchi Formation have recorded more than one fabric. The observed AMS parameters like shape factor () (prolate to oblate), value and random distribution of minimum (3) and maximum (1) susceptibility axes are supported for secondary fabrics in Kallankurichchi Formation as a result of post-depositional processes. Based on petrographic studies, it can be established that 1 AMS axis of biotite mineral could represent the flow direction. The established paleocurrent direction for Sillakkudi is NW–SE direction while Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations recorded NE–SW direction. Overall the paleoflow directions observed for Ariyalur Group is NE–SW to NW–SE.

  12. An environmental perspective of the post-tsunami scenario along the coast of Tamil Nadu, India: Role of sand dunes and forests

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Jayakumar, S.

    to the rescue of habitations and humankind and discusses problems that ail coastal management by depicting a field situation of the recovery process. A need for a coastal hazards instrument is felt. 2. Background: prevailing coastal policy Haphazard... likely to be inundated due to rise in sea level consequent upon global warming and such other areas as may be declared by the Central Government or the concerned authorities at the State level from time to time; and (b) area between the LTL and HTL. o...

  13. Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25 µg and 75 to 100 µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity.

  14. Work related musculoskeletal disorders among adolescent girls and young women employees of textile industries in Tamil Nadu, India - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeline, Gnanaselvam Nancy; Bobby, Joseph

    2017-05-24

    Musculoskeletal disorders are common in those employed in the textile industry. The aim of the study is to assess musculoskeletal disorders among adolescent girls who are current employees of textile industries in comparison with the adolescent girls and young women who are past employees of textile industries and adolescent girls who have never been employed in the textile industry. Methodology This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 321 subjects, 107 in each study group were sampled. Standardized nordic questionnaires (SNQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Results More than half of the current employees (67.28%) and past employees (67.28%) reported musculoskeletal pain. Among the never been employed, 18.69% reported musculoskeletal pain. Neck and shoulder were the most common sites of musculoskeletal pain among the current employees (49.5% and 50.5%, respectively) and the past employees (45.8% and 49.5%, respectively). In the regression model, having ever been diagnosed for anemia (AOR 6.57, 95% CI 1.4 to 30.76), working for more than 48 h in a week (AOR 3.37, 95% CI 1.53 to 7.41) and the presence of depression (AOR 6.6, 95% CI 1.48 to 29.36) were significantly associated with the presence of musculoskeletal pain in the study participants. Conclusion Musculoskeletal disorders are a major occupational health problem among the adolescent and young women employees of textile industries. Working hours should be fixed at 48 h per week and anemia and depression should be treated to avert the work related musculoskeletal disorders in the study population.

  15. Impact of Education Campaign on Community-Based Vector Control in Hastening the Process of Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Tamil Nadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandha, B.; Krishnamoorthy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Globally mosquito-borne lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by 2020. Towards this goal, the scope of community-based vector control as a supplementary strategy to mass drug administration (MDA) was assessed through an intensive education campaign and evaluated using pre- and post-educational surveys in an intervention and…

  16. Assessment of heavy metal and bacterial pollution in coastal aquifers from SIPCOT industrial zones, Gulf of Mannar, South Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, S.; Antony Ravindran, A.; Venkatramanan, S.; Singaraja, C.

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metals and microbiological contamination were investigated in groundwater in the industrial and coastal city of Thoothukudi. The main sources of drinking water in this area are water bores which are dug up to the depth of 10-50 m in almost every house. A number of chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been established since past three decades. Effluents from these industries are reportedly being directly discharged onto surrounding land, irrigation fields and surface water bodies forming point and non-point sources of contamination for groundwater in the study area. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals and microbiological quality of drinking water. Heavy metals were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and compared with the (WHO in Guidelines for drinking water quality, 2004) standards. The organic contamination was detected in terms of most probable number (MPN) test in order to find out faecal coliforms that were identified through biochemical tests. A comparison of the results of groundwater samples with WHO guidelines reveals that most of the groundwater samples are heavily contaminated with heavy metals like arsenic, selenium, lead, boron, aluminium, iron and vanadium. The selenium level was higher than 0.01 mg/l in 82 % of the study area and the arsenic concentration exceeded 0.01 mg/l in 42 % of the area. The results reveal that heavy metal contamination in the area is mainly due to the discharge of effluents from copper industries, alkali chemical industry, fertiliser industry, thermal power plant and sea food industries. The results showed that there are pollutions for the groundwater, and the total Coliform means values ranged from 0.6-145 MPN ml-1, faecal Coliform ranged from 2.2-143 MPN ml-1, Escherichia coli ranged from 0.9 to 40 MPN ml-1 and faecal streptococci ranged from 10-9.20 × 102 CFU ml-1. The coastal regions are highly contaminated with total coliform bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and E. coli. This might be due to the mixing of sewage from Thoothukudi town through the Buckle channel and fishing activity.

  17. Combined effect of seaweed (Sargassum wightii) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on the coastal mosquito,Anopheles sundaicus, in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were made of the extract of Sargassum wightii combined with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) for control of the malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus. Treatment of mosquito larvae with 0.001% S. wightii extract indicated median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 88, 73, 134, 156, and...

  18. Isolation and identification of bacteria from marine market fish Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga Rani, M; Chelladurai, G; Jayanthi, G

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the hygienic quality and freshness of fish Indo-pacific King Mackerel "Scomberomorus guttatus" through the investigation of the occurrence of bacteria which is an indicator for fish quality. Fishes were collected every fortnight from Madurai fish market on monthly twice of January 2014 to March 2014. Skin surface of the fish was examined. Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by Biochemical tests (IMViC Tests). Among the six bacterial species E. coli and K. pneumonia were found in all the collected samples where as other bacterial species were not found. The result of this study revealed that raw fish sold in Madurai fish market has high contamination so the presence of the bacterial species has strongly suggested the urgent need to improve the quality control systems in Madurai fish market.

  19. Assessment of groundwater potential based on aquifer properties of hard rock terrain in the Chittar-Uppodai watershed, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T. Jeyavel Raja; Balasubramanian, A.; Kumar, R. S.; Dushiyanthan, C.; Thiruneelakandan, B.; Suresh, R.; Karthikeyan, K.; Davidraju, D.

    2016-06-01

    Aquifer performance was tested in 24 locations to assess the groundwater potential of the hard rock terrain in the Chittar-Uppodai watershed of the Tambaraparani River basin. Geologically, the area consists of biotite gneiss, charnockite, and quartzite. The aquifer characteristics, such as transmissivity ( T), the storage coefficient, specific capacity, optimum yield, and the recovery rate were calculated. The drawdown transmissivity was determined using Jacob's straight-line method, while the recovery transmissivity was determined by the Theis method. The drawdown transmissivity was low in the western areas, particularly at Kadayanallur, and was higher in the other areas. The recovery transmissivity was high in the western area, and, with the exception of Gangaikondan, was low at other locations. The assessment indicates that there is groundwater potential in the western part of the study area because of favorable results for recovery drawdown, aquifer thickness, and specific capacity.

  20. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments of Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin, Tamil Nadu, India: An appraisal to Paleocurrent directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanna, G.; Venkateshwarlu, M.; Periasamy, V.; Nagendra, R.

    2014-03-01

    Oriented samples of sediments from Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin, south India, were studied for low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements to unravel the magnetic fabrics and paleocurrent directions. The results of AMS parameters of the sediments indicate primary depositional fabrics for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu sandstone formations and secondary fabric for Kallankurichchi limestone formation. The obtained low degree of anisotropy ( P j ), oblate shape AMS ellipsoid and distribution of maximum ( K 1) and minimum ( K 3) susceptibility axes on equal area projection confirm the primary sedimentary fabric for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations. In the case of ferruginous, lower arenaceous, Gryphaea limestone and upper arenaceous limestone beds of Kallankurichchi Formation have recorded more than one fabric. The observed AMS parameters like shape factor ( T) (prolate to oblate), q value and random distribution of minimum ( K 3) and maximum ( K 1) susceptibility axes are supported for secondary fabrics in Kallankurichchi Formation as a result of post-depositional processes. Based on petrographic studies, it can be established that K 1 AMS axis of biotite mineral could represent the flow direction. The established paleocurrent direction for Sillakkudi is NW-SE direction while Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations recorded NE-SW direction. Overall the paleoflow directions observed for Ariyalur Group is NE-SW to NW-SE.

  1. Studies on the Vertical Distribution of Ticks of Domestic Animals and Their Public Health Importance in Nilgiri Hills and Adjoining Areas of Tamil Nadu State (India)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Kaushal; Balakrishnan, N; Sharma, Abhay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    ... immemorial. However, the studies on tick-borne diseases gained momentum in the world after the outbreak of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in the United States during the second half of the nineteenth...

  2. Knowledge and practices regarding child rearing and its association with literacy among married women in a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: India contributes a large proportion to global under-five child mortality. One of the determinants of child morbidity and mortality is the "child rearing practices." Socio-economic environment, child rearing practices and nutritional status play a synergistic role. Materials and Methods: Information was collected by exit interviews from married women attending out-patient departments of three primary health centers. Data was collected during December, 2009 using pretested questionnaire Married women in reproductive age group with youngest child in the age group of 1-5 years were eligible for inclusion. To assess the child rearing knowledge and practices (CRKP, a composite score was calculated based on 10 variables and categorized into satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Results: A total of 100 eligible married women were included in the study. About half of the women were in the age group of 25-35 years, 80% belonged to social class V and VI majority (63% were literate and 70% had ≥2 children. With the increase in literacy status, there was the increase in proportion of women who had satisfactory CRKP and decrease in proportion of women who had given pre-lacteal feed. Among women who had three children, 15 out of 39 (38% had fully immunized their first child as compared with 25 out of 39 (64% for the second child and 38 out of 39 (97% for the third child. Immunization coverage increased as the birth order increased. Conclusion: Mothers' education has a significant role in determining her child rearing practices, which in turn would lead better child survival.

  3. KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE STUDY OF HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY VIRUS AND AQUIRED IMMUNO DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (HIV/AIDS AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF TAMIL NADU (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the knowledge, attitude and practice towards HIV/AIDS in a general population? Objectives: (1 To assess the knowledge about mode of transmission, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. (2 To study the socio demographic pattern, myths and misconceptions. Study design: Community based cross sectional study. Setting: Chunampett Village, Tamilnadu. Duration: March to May 2007. Participants: 845 both males and females above the age of 18 years interviewed at home. Results: Population surveyed was 845, comprising of 482 (57.04% males and 363 (42.96% females. Most of them were Hindus (96.10%. Main occupation was agriculture (39.41% among males and house wives (33.73% among females. 40.35% respondents belonged to low socioeconomic status. Illiteracy rate was high especially among females (43%.Source of information about HIV/AIDS was mass media in about 85% of the population. Majority of individuals (58.5% were not aware that the disease was contagious. An overwhelming majority (98.59% were aware about the mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS through sexual route. However about 20% had myths regarding transmission of disease. 65% knew that HIV/AIDS is preventable, yet only 4% used condoms. A vast majority (60-65% were not aware that treatment and PEP were available free of cost in government hospitals. A majority of about 54.22% were of the opinion that the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS should not be kept confidential. Conclusion: The awareness about HIV / AIDS is high among the study population but the implementation of preventive measures is low. The knowledge about availability of prophylactic and therapeutic measures against HIV / AIDS in Govt. hospitals is also low.

  4. Evaluation of the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in road trafifc accidents in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava; Jegadeesh Ramasamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in a road traffic accidents in a rural area of Kancheepuram district. Methods: A cross-sectional study of two months duration (June and July 2014) was conducted in the tertiary care hospital of a medical college, and its affiliated urban/rural health centers. Universal sampling was used and all road accident victims were enrolled as study participants. The required information was obtained with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Ethical clearance was obtained before the start of the study.SPSS version 18 was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all the variables. Results:A total of 80 (77.7%) study subjects were from the productive age group (15–45 years). Most of the accidents were reported at night time [43 (41.7%)], on weekends [59 (56.5%)], and involved two-wheelers [81 (78.6%)]. In addition, 69 cases (67%) of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services, while only 6 (5.8%) of the victims were brought to the hospital in an emergency ambulance. Conclusions: The study findings clearly suggest that the quality of the pre-hospital trauma care for road traffic accidentvictims in a rural area of Kancheepuram district lacks on multiple dimensions and there is an immense need to improve and strengthen the range of services to save the lives of the victims.

  5. Origin of peraluminous minerals (corundum, spinel, and sapphirine) in a highly calcic anorthosite from the Sittampundi Layered Complex, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Shreya; Mukherjee, Subham; Sanyal, Sanjoy; Sengupta, Pulak

    2017-08-01

    The highly calcic anorthosite (An>95) from the Sittampundi Layered Complex (SLC) develops corundum, spinel and sapphirine that are hitherto not reported from any anorthositic rocks in the world. Petrological observations indicate the following sequence of mineral growth: plagioclasematrix → corundum; clinopyroxene → amphibole; corundum + amphibole → plagioclasecorona + spinel; and spinel + corundum → coronitic sapphirine. Phase relations in the CaO-Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (CNASH) system suggest that corundum was presumably developed through vapour present incongruent melting of the highly calcic plagioclase during ultra-high temperature (UHT) metamorphism ( T ≥ 1000 °C, P ≥ 9 kbar). Topological constraints in parts of the Na2O-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCMASH) system suggest that subsequent to the UHT metamorphism, aqueous fluid(s) permeated the rock and the assemblage corundum + amphibole + anorthite + clinozoisite was stabilized during high-pressure (HP) metamorphism (11 ± 2 kbar, 750 ± 50 °C). Constraints of the NCMASH topology and thermodynamic and textural modeling study suggest that coronitic plagioclase and spinel formed at the expense of corundum + amphibole during a steeply decompressive retrograde P- T path (7-8 kbar and 700-800 °C) in an open system. Textural modeling studies combined with chemical potential diagrams (μSiO2-μMgO) in the MASH system support the view that sapphirine also formed from due to silica and Mg metasomatism of the precursor spinel ± corundum, on the steeply decompressive retrograde P- T path, prior to onset of significant cooling of the SLC. Extremely channelized fluid flow and large positive solid volume change of the stoichiometrically balanced sapphirine forming reaction explains the localized growth of sapphirine.

  6. Presidential Oration: The 18 th Annual Conference of the Indian Academy of Neurology, Trichi, Tamil Nadu, September 24-26, 2010, Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Kurupath

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 80% of the 50 million people with epilepsy worldwide reside in developing countries that are least equipped to tackle the enormous medical, social and economic challenges posed by epilepsy. These include widespread poverty, illiteracy, inefficient and unevenly distributed health care systems, and social stigma and misconceptions associated with epilepsy. Several studies have reported that a large proportion of patients with epilepsy in developing countries never receive appropriate treatment for their condition, and many, though diagnosed and initiated on treatment, soon discontinue treatment. Unaffordable cost of treatment, unavailability of antiepileptic drugs, and superstitious and cultural beliefs contribute to high epilepsy treatment gap in resource-poor countries. A significant proportion of the current burden of epilepsy in developing countries can be minimized by educating the public about the positive aspects of life with epilepsy and the primary and secondary physicians about current trends in the management of epilepsies, scaling up routine availability of low-cost antiepileptic drugs, and developing cost-effective epilepsy surgery programs.

  7. Impact of house-hold food insecurity on nutritional status of HIV-infected children attending an ART centre in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, E; Srinivasan, R; Valan, A S; Klinton, Joel S; Padmapriyadarsini, C

    2015-03-08

    We studied the level of food insecurity among households with HIV-infected children and its relationship with childhood nutritional indicators. Among the 147 children assessed, food insecurity was present in 59% of households. Majority of children with stunting belonged to-food insecure families. Stunting and Underweight were more prevalent among children >5 years of age.

  8. Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge regarding Risk factors and Prevention of Suicidal Behaviour among Adolescents in a selected College, Salem, Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Loganathan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behavior, to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour among Adolescents, and to associate the pre-test knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour among adolescents with their selected demographic variables.Materials & Methods: A quantitative eval...

  9. Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge regarding Risk factors and Prevention of Suicidal Behaviour among Adolescents in a selected College, Salem, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Loganathan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behavior, to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour among Adolescents, and to associate the pre-test knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour among adolescents with their selected demographic variables.Materials & Methods: A quantitative evaluative approach with a pre-experimental (one group pre test- post test design was adopted; the setting of the study was Sri Vidya Mandir College, Salem, Tamilnadu. A Structured Self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge of the adolescents. The systematic random sampling technique was used and 60 adolescents involved on Structured Teaching Programme regarding Risk factors and prevention of Suicidal Behaviour by using a Power-point slide presentation followed with pre-test. On 7th day, the post test was conducted. The data collection period of the study was 09.12.2014 to 15.12.2014.Results: The study findings revealed that during Pre-test, the knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour among adolescents, 45(75% had inadequate knowledge, 15(25% had moderately adequate knowledge and none of them had adequate knowledge. During post test, 23 adolescents (38.33% had adequate knowledge, 37(61.67% had moderately adequate knowledge and none of them had inadequate knowledge. The mean score during pre-test was 9.9±3.88 and the mean score during post test was 17.03±4.12. The paired ‘t’ value was 16.84 which were significant at p<0.05 level. Thus it shows that the structured teaching programme was effective in improving knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour among adolescents. There was no significant association found between the pre-test scores on knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour and the selected demographic variables at p<0.05 level. involved.Conclusion: The study concluded that the structured teaching programme was effective among adolescents to improve the knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:25-29.

  10. Evaluation of the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in road traffic accidents in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in a road traffic accidents in a rural area of Kancheepuram district. Methods: A cross-sectional study of two months duration (June and July 2014 was conducted in the tertiary care hospital of a medical college, and its affiliated urban/rural health centers. Universal sampling was used and all road accident victims were enrolled as study participants. The required information was obtained with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Ethical clearance was obtained before the start of the study. SPSS version 18 was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all the variables. Results: A total of 80 (77.7% study subjects were from the productive age group (15–45 years. Most of the accidents were reported at night time [43 (41.7%], on weekends [59 (56.5%], and involved two-wheelers [81 (78.6%]. In addition, 69 cases (67% of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services, while only 6 (5.8% of the victims were brought to the hospital in an emergency ambulance. Conclusions: The study findings clearly suggest that the quality of the pre-hospital trauma care for road traffic accident victims in a rural area of Kancheepuram district lacks on multiple dimensions and there is an immense need to improve and strengthen the range of services to save the lives of the victims.

  11. Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna kumar, S.; Logeshkumaran, A.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the geochemical characteristics of groundwater and drinking water quality has been studied. 24 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and total hardness. The results were evaluated and compared with WHO and BIS water quality standards. The studied results reveal that the groundwater is fresh to brackish and moderately high to hard in nature. Na and Cl are dominant ions among cations and anions. Chloride, calcium and magnesium ions are within the allowable limit except few samples. According to Gibbs diagram, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance field. The piper trilinear diagram shows that groundwater samples are Na-Cl and mixed CaMgCl type. Based on the WQI results majority of the samples are falling under excellent to good category and suitable for drinking water purposes.

  12. Assessment of heavy metal and bacterial pollution in coastal aquifers from SIPCOT industrial zones, Gulf of Mannar, South Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, S.; Antony Ravindran, A.; Venkatramanan, S.; Singaraja, C.

    2017-05-01

    Heavy metals and microbiological contamination were investigated in groundwater in the industrial and coastal city of Thoothukudi. The main sources of drinking water in this area are water bores which are dug up to the depth of 10-50 m in almost every house. A number of chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been established since past three decades. Effluents from these industries are reportedly being directly discharged onto surrounding land, irrigation fields and surface water bodies forming point and non-point sources of contamination for groundwater in the study area. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals and microbiological quality of drinking water. Heavy metals were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and compared with the (WHO in Guidelines for drinking water quality, 2004) standards. The organic contamination was detected in terms of most probable number (MPN) test in order to find out faecal coliforms that were identified through biochemical tests. A comparison of the results of groundwater samples with WHO guidelines reveals that most of the groundwater samples are heavily contaminated with heavy metals like arsenic, selenium, lead, boron, aluminium, iron and vanadium. The selenium level was higher than 0.01 mg/l in 82 % of the study area and the arsenic concentration exceeded 0.01 mg/l in 42 % of the area. The results reveal that heavy metal contamination in the area is mainly due to the discharge of effluents from copper industries, alkali chemical industry, fertiliser industry, thermal power plant and sea food industries. The results showed that there are pollutions for the groundwater, and the total Coliform means values ranged from 0.6-145 MPN ml-1, faecal Coliform ranged from 2.2-143 MPN ml-1, Escherichia coli ranged from 0.9 to 40 MPN ml-1 and faecal streptococci ranged from 10-9.20 × 102 CFU ml-1. The coastal regions are highly contaminated with total coliform bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and E. coli. This might be due to the mixing of sewage from Thoothukudi town through the Buckle channel and fishing activity.

  13. Inundation, run-up heights, cross-section profiles and littoral environment along the Tamil Nadu coast after 26 th December 2004 Tsunami

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ilangovan, D.; Jayakumar, S.; Gowthaman, R.; Tirodkar, G.; Ganesan, P.; Naik, G.N.; ManiMurali, R.; Michael, G.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Naik, K.A.

    environmental observations in the surf zone. More than 25 locations were surveyed to assess the inundation limits as well as runup heights. Cross-sectional profiles from the shoreline till the inundation limit were measured using automatic leveling equipment...

  14. Ideological commitment and posttraumatic stress in former Tamil child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Raundalen, Magne; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on the impact of present ideological commitment on posttraumatic stress symptoms in former child soldiers living in exile. Eighteen men and two women (aged 25-37), who had joined different Tamil armed groups in Sri Lanka between the ages of 13 and 17 years, participated. The Impact of Event Scale was used to measure posttraumatic symptoms. Qualitative methods were used to investigate the participants' ideological commitment. Participants reported being exposed to many potentially traumatizing events, and had high scores on the Impact of Event Scale. Twenty-five percent of the sample showed strong ideological commitment to the "cause". Ideological commitment at the present seemed to predict better mental health when exposure was less intense and overwhelming. Time had a negative impact on ideological commitment.

  15. Optical Character Recognition for printed Tamil text using Unicode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEETHALAKSHMI R.; SREERANJANI T.R.; BALACHANDAR T.; Abnikant Singh; Markandey Singh; Ritwaj Ratan; Sarvesh Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) refers to the process of converting printed Tamil text documents into software translated Unicode Tamil Text. The printed documents available in the form of books, papers, magazines, etc. are scanned using standard scanners which produce an image of the scanned document. As part of the preprocessing phase the image file is checked for skewing. Ifthe image is skewed, it is corrected by a simple rotation technique in the appropriate direction. Then the image is passed through a noise elimination phase and is binarized. The preprocessed image is segmented using an algorithm which decomposes the scanned text into paragraphs using special space detection technique and then the paragraphs into lines using vertical histograms, and lines into words using horizontal histograms, and words into character image glyphs using horizontal histograms.Each image glyph is comprised of 32x32 pixels. Thus a database of character image glyphs is created out of the segmentation phase. Then all the image glyphs are considered for recognition using Unicode mapping. Each image glyph is passed through various routines which extract the features of the glyph. The various features that are considered for classification are the character height, character width, the number of horizontal lines (long and short), the number of vertical lines (long and short), the horizontally oriented curves, the vertically oriented curves, the number of circles, number of slope lines, image centroid and special dots. The glyphs are now set ready for classification based on these features. The extracted features are passed to a Support Vector Machine (SVM) where the characters are classified by Supervised Learning Algorithm. These classes are mapped onto Unicode for recognition. Then the text is reconstructed using Unicode fonts.

  16. English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

  17. English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

  18. Voice disorder outcome profile (V-DOP)-translation and validation in Tamil language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Shenbagavalli; Boominathan, Prakash; Subramaniyan, Balasubramaniyan

    2014-11-01

    This study sought to translate and validate the voice disorder outcome profile (V-DOP) for Tamil-speaking populations. It was implemented in two phases: the English language V-DOP developed for an Indian population was first translated into Tamil, a south Indian Dravidian language. Five Tamil language experts verified the translated version for exactness of meaning and usage. The expert's comments and suggestions were used to select the questions for the final V-DOP, thus establishing content validity. Then the translated V-DOP was administered to 95 subjects (75 in clinical and 20 in nonclinical group) for reliability (item-total correlation) and validity (construct) measures. The overall Cronbach coefficient α for V-DOP was 0.89 whereas the mean total V-DOP score was zero for the nonclinical group and 104.28 for the clinical group (standard deviation = 64.71). The emotional and functional domains indicated a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.91 and r = 0.90 respectively), followed by the physical domain (r = 0.82) with the total scores. A significant, but moderate correlation was obtained across V-DOP domains (r = 0.50 to 0.60; P Tamil is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating the impact of voice disorders in Tamil-speaking population.

  19. A Novel FPGA Based Low Cost Solution for Tamil-text to Speech Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayasankar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a prior work of developing a single chip solution for Text-to-Speech synthesizer for Tamil (Tamil-TTS language. Though there are enormous works presented in the recent days to address TTS for their native languages, the motivation of this study is to develop a low-cost FPGA based solution for Tamil TTS synthesizer. This study uses the unique feature of Tamil language to eliminate the complexity involved in accessing a database of stored audio signals. It uses only the audio signals of consonants and vowels in the stored memory locations. The compound characters from the segmented input text are generated using a Direct Digital Synthesizer by operating at three different frequencies of phonetic interval units of Tamil. The proposed system is implemented in Cyclone IVE EP4CE115F29C7 FPGA device and the implementation results show that the proposed system outperforms the other similar methods in terms of memory utilization, text-to-speech time, area utilization and power dissipation. The accuracy of the system is examined with 25 native speakers and acceptable accuracy scale has been reached.

  20. Automatic Tamil lyric generation based on ontological interpretation for semantics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeswari Sridhar; D Jalin Gladis; Kameswaran Ganga; G Dhivya Prabha

    2014-02-01

    This system proposes an -gram based approach to automatic Tamil lyric generation, by the ontological semantic interpretation of the input scene. The approach is based on identifying the semantics conveyed in the scenario, thereby making the system understand the situation and generate lyrics accordingly. The heart of the system includes the ontological interpretation of the scenario, and the selection of the appropriate tri-grams for generating the lyrics. To fulfill this, we have designed a new ontology with weighted edges, where the edges correspond to a set of sentences, which indicate a relationship, and are represented as a tri-gram. Once the appropriate tri-grams are selected, the root words from these tri-grams are sent to the morphological generator, to form words in their packed form. These words are then assembled to form the final lyrics. Parameters of poetry like rhyme, alliteration, simile, vocative words, etc., are also taken care of by the system. Using this approach, we achieved an average accuracy of 77.3% with respect to the exact semantic details being conveyed in the generated lyrics.

  1. MODIFIED VIEW BASED APPROACHES FOR HANDWRITTEN TAMIL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobhana Mari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Finding simple and efficient features for offline hand written character recognition is still an active area of research. In this work, we propose modified view based feature extraction approaches for the recognition of handwritten Tamil characters. In the first approach, the five views of a normalized and binarized character image viz, top, bottom, left, right and front are extracted. Each view is then divided into 16 equal zones and the total numbers of background pixel in each zone are counted. The 80 values so obtained form a feature vector. In the second approach, the normalized and binaraized character images are divided into 16 equal zones. Five views are extracted from each zone and the total number of background pixel in each view is counted, resulting in 80 feature values. Further the above two approaches are modified by employing thinned images instead of the whole image. The extracted features are classified using SVM, MLP and ELM classifier. The discriminative powers of the proposed approaches are compared with that of four popular feature extraction approaches in character recognition. The feature extraction time and classification performances are also compared. The proposed modified approaches results in high classification performance (95.26% with comparatively less feature extraction time.

  2. BiLingual Information Retrieval System for English and Tamil

    CERN Document Server

    Saraswathi, S; K, Kalaimagal; M, Kalaiyarasi

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the design and implementation of BiLingual Information Retrieval system on the domain, Festivals. A generic platform is built for BiLingual Information retrieval which can be extended to any foreign or Indian language working with the same efficiency. Search for the solution of the query is not done in a specific predefined set of standard languages but is chosen dynamically on processing the user's query. This paper deals with Indian language Tamil apart from English. The task is to retrieve the solution for the user given query in the same language as that of the query. In this process, a Ontological tree is built for the domain in such a way that there are entries in the above listed two languages in every node of the tree. A Part-Of-Speech (POS) Tagger is used to determine the keywords from the given query. Based on the context, the keywords are translated to appropriate languages using the Ontological tree. A search is performed and documents are retrieved based on the keywords. With...

  3. When We Eat What We Eat: Classifying Crispy Foods in Malaysian Tamil Cuisine

    OpenAIRE

    Devasahayam, Theresa W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the gastronomic rules that determine when and why “crispy foods” are eaten within the Tamil community of Malaysia. Based on ethnographic fieldwork of twenty-five Tamil Hindu families living in the Klang Valley of Peninsular Malaysia, everyday and festive culinary life reveal foods that are classified into categories of ‘crispy” and “soft/wet”. Situation and context determine the kind of “crispy” foods consumed. While savoury crispy foods are reserved for meals, a mixture o...

  4. When a Language Becomes a Mother / Goddess: An Image Essay on Tamil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaswamy, Sumathi

    2008-01-01

    This essay has an unusual protagonist: a language that comes to be transformed into an object of love and devotion, producing in the process an unusual visual presence for a spoken tongue. I write of Tamil, a language that currently counts more than 70 million speakers in India and Sri Lanka, and in Singapore, Malaysia, and other parts of the global South Asian diaspora. With a deep and complex history on the subcontinent rivaled only by Sanskrit, Tamil inspired the praise and adoration of ma...

  5. The Influence of Gujarati and Tamil L1s on Indian English: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Caroline R.; Harnsberger, James D.

    2006-01-01

    English as spoken as a second language in India has developed distinct sound patterns in terms of both segmental and prosodic characteristics. We investigate the differences between two groups varying in native language (Gujarati, Tamil) to evaluate to what extent Indian English (IE) accents are based on a single target phonological-phonetic…

  6. Development of Forms and Functions of Interrogatives in Children: A Longitudinal Study in Tamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, R.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of the development of the forms and functions of interrogatives in Tamil-speaking parent-child interactions during early stages of language acquisition revealed that children first acquired and used intonation questions, followed by questions using "where,""what," and "who." Yes/no questions using the…

  7. The Middle Passage: Migration and Displacement of Sri Lankan Tamil Women of the Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamohan Sumathy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to grapple with different facets of marginalisation produced by a specific type of Diasporic activity - as women, as Sri Lankan Tamils, and as participants that must negotiate a process that is at once transnational and postcolonial. Through the examination of different cultural modes of expression, novels, stories, and pamphlets, it attempts to answer as to how the Sri Lankan Tamil woman, away-from-home, makes sense of her world and how she sees it vis-a-vis her 'homeland'. Though displacement itself contains the liberatory potential, is this 'truth' of a better world often distorted by indirect and direct controls imposed by hegemonic West? Through the metaphor of the woman's body the author attempts to map the contours of identity-politics that are at play on trans-border women. By marking the different phases in the process of Tamil migration, she notes the change that has come about in the constitution of 'nationalist' identities, the role of transnational locations, and in the final phase, the reformulation of identity with changes in class. Of particular interest here is the continuation of the Tamil nation, and the role it plays in the re-production of the marginalisation of women. What way out is there then? For the author, there is a 'middle passage', one that re-negotiates the contours of her own body, and thus her nation, through her own modes of expression, not radically or transgressively, but less violently. 

  8. Towards Homogeneity in Home Languages: Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil Families in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Su-Hie; Mahadhir, Mahanita

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examines the languages used by parents with their children in Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil families to find out how the similarity or dissimilarity in parents' ethnic language influenced the choice of language transmitted to children and how far standard languages have permeated the family domain in Kuching City…

  9. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  10. Reliability and validity of the Tamil version of Modified Dental Anxiety Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, Devapriya; Datchnamurthy, Mythireyi; Deborah, Sherley P; Hirudayaraj, Gladius J; Tadepalli, Anupama; Victor, Dhayanand J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Tamil version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). One hundred and forty-six patients attending the Outpatient Department of SRM Dental College, Chennai, India consented to participate in the study. The assessment tools consisted of a history form, Tamil version of the MDAS questionnaire and a form for Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Tamil version of MDAS had a good internal consistency of 0.839. The mean total score decreased with age. Females were more anxious than males (10.16 and 9.43, respectively). Uneducated, unemployed and low income subjects were more anxious than their counterparts who were educated, employed and from a higher income group. Persons who perceived their oral health as poor were more anxious. Independent t-test showed a highly significant difference in the mean total score of the respondents who had postponed their dental visit due to anxiety (t-test 6.494, P Tamil version of MDAS showed acceptable psychometric properties.

  11. RECOGNITION OF TAMIL SYLLABLES USING VOWEL ONSET POINTS WITH PRODUCTION, PERCEPTION BASED FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karpagavalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamil Language is one of the ancient Dravidian languages spoken in south India. Most of the Indian languages are syllabic in nature and syllables are in the form of Consonant-Vowel (CV units. In Tamil language, CV pattern occurs in the beginning, middle and end of a word. In this work, CV Units formed with Stop Consonant – Short Vowel (SCSV were considered for classification task. The work carried out in three stages, Vowel Onset Point (VOP detection, CV segmentation and classification. VOP is an event at which the consonant part ends and vowel part begins. VOPs are identified using linear prediction residuals which provide significant characteristics of the excitation source. To segment the CV units, fixed length spectral frames before and after VOPs are considered. In this work, production based features, Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC and perception based features, Perceptual Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (PLP and Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC are extracted which are used to build the SCSV classifier using multilayer perceptron and support vector machine. A speech corpus of 200 Tamil words uttered by 15 native speakers was used, which covers all SCSV units formed with Tamil stop consonants (/k/, /ch/, /d/, /t/, /p/ and short vowels (/a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/. The classifiers are trained and tested for its performance using predictive accuracy measure. The results indicate that perception based features, MFCC and PLP provides better results than production based features, LPCC and the model built using support vector machine outperforms.

  12. Facets of morbid jealousy: With an anecdote from a historical Tamil romance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, O

    2010-07-01

    Morbid jealousy is a symptom which occurs in many psychiatric conditions. The complex emotional aspects of jealousy have been discussed by earlier authors. The clinical, cultural, social, and forensic aspects, are touched upon. Morbid jealousy is a favourite topic among novelists and dramatists. "Othello" is a classic example. This topic is covered in one of the famous historical romances of the Tamil author, Kalki.

  13. Metabolic syndrome among Jaffna Tamil community, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivarathy Amarasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The prevalence and associated risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS among adults over 18 years old in Jaffna district. Materials and Methods: It was community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was employed. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain the relevant information. Waist circumference (WC and blood pressure (BP measurements were recorded. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and triacylglycerols were analyzed by the enzymatic colorimetric assay using semi-automated analyzer (Teco Diagnostics TC-3300. International Diabetic Federation guideline for Asians was used to identify MS. Results: Sample response rate was 95.3% and of them, 43.8% (n = 224 was male. The prevalence of central obesity (WC for male ≥90 cm, female ≥80 cm was 23.9%. Raised FPG (≥100 mg/dL, or previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus, hypertriacylglycerolemia (≥150 mg/dl, low level of HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dL in males, <50 mg/dL in females, and raised BP (systolic BP ≥130 or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg or previously diagnosed hypertension were found in 23.9%, 25%, 79.3%, and 36.6% of the participants. The prevalence of MS was 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.8-19.3 and it was 17.4% in males and 14.6% in females. Participants living in the urban area had a higher prevalence of MS when compared with participants in a rural area (P = 0.015. Older age (P < 0.001 was a risk factor for development of MS. Smoking (P = 0.005 was a risk factor for the development of MS. Participants having sedentary, moderately active, and highly active lifestyle had the prevalence of MS 20.6% (95% CI: 13.2-29.7, 14.7% (95% CI: 10.6-19.5, and 14.7% (95% CI: 9.3-21.6, respectively (P = 0.247. Conclusion: Older age, urban living, and smoking carry a higher risk for development of MS among Jaffna Tamil community.

  14. Analisa Konveksitas Jaringan Lunak Wajah Menurut Subtelny Pada Mahasiswa India Tamil Malaysia FKG USU

    OpenAIRE

    Fatwa, Dinauli

    2015-01-01

    Kebutuhan dan permintaan perawatan ortodonti saat ini semakin meningkat dan telah menjangkau masyarakat yang lebih luas, membuat tujuan akhir dari perawatan ortodonti tidak hanya memperbaiki susunan gigi dan relasi rahang saja tetapi juga mencapai penampilan estetik wajah yang dipengaruhi jaringan lunak individu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui rerata konveksitas jaringan lunak wajah mahasiswa India Tamil FKG USU dan melihat adakah perbedaan rerata konveksitas jaringan lunak pada la...

  15. The Role of Input Frequency and Semantic Transparency in the Acquisition of Verb Meaning: Evidence from Placement Verbs in Tamil and Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how Tamil- and Dutch-speaking adults and four- to five-year-old children use caused posture verbs ("lay/stand a bottle on a table") to label placement events in which objects are oriented vertically or horizontally. Tamil caused posture verbs consist of morphemes that individually label the causal and result subevents ("nikka…

  16. Development of Forms and Functions of Negation in the Early Stages of Language Acquisition: A Study in Tamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of forms and functions of negation in parent-child interactions in the early stages of language acquisition is discussed with illustrative examples from field data relating to two Tamil-speaking children and their parents. An attempt is made to provide a scheme for analyzing the negatives in children's speech. (18 references) (JL)

  17. Maritime Interdiction in Counterinsurgency: The Role of the Sri Lankan Navy in the Defeat of the Tamil Tigers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    hills and wetlands in search of security.39 Tamils, both settlers and members of the invading Indian armies, took advantage of this opportunity by...in March 1991 as he was driving to work in his armor- plated Mercedes.164 Next, the former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi, was killed by a

  18. When We Eat What We Eat: Classifying Crispy Foods in Malaysian Tamil Cuisine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa W. Devasahayam

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the gastronomic rules that determine when and why “crispy foods” are eaten within the Tamil community of Malaysia. Based on ethnographic fieldwork of twenty-five Tamil Hindu families living in the Klang Valley of Peninsular Malaysia, everyday and festive culinary life reveal foods that are classified into categories of ‘crispy” and “soft/wet”. Situation and context determine the kind of “crispy” foods consumed. While savoury crispy foods are reserved for meals, a mixture of the savoury and sweet are eaten as snacks. I draw upon the observations of Claude Levi-Strauss, Mary Douglas and Michael Nicod to examine the processes of defining the inclusion and exclusion of particular “crispy” foods at meals and as snacks. My conclusion focuses on the textural composition of these foods, which highlights the “playful” dimension of eating and, hence, what is termed as “crispy” foods are not treated as “real” food.

  19. Exploring posttraumatic growth in Tamil children affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exenberger, Silvia; Ramalingam, Panch; Höfer, Stefan

    2016-10-13

    Few studies explore posttraumatic growth (PTG) in children from Eastern cultures. To help address this gap, the present study examined PTG among 177 South Indian children aged 8-17 years who were affected by the 2004 Tsunami. The study identifies the underlying factor structure of the Tamil version of the Revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children (PTGI-C-R), and aims to explore the prevalence of PTG, the relationship between distress and growth, and gender and age differences in PTG. The results of the principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure with an interpersonal and a person-centred dimension of growth. The total scores of the Tamil PTGI-C-R were positively associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and age. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between age and the person-centred growth subscale. Non-parametric tests found no gender differences in perceived growth. The role of socio-cultural factors on the nature of PTG is discussed.

  20. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored.

  1. Spatiotemporal analysis of projected impacts of climate change on the major C3 and C4 crop yield under representative concentration pathway 4.5: Insight from the coasts of Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Ramachandran; Praveen, Dhanya; R, Jaganathan; D, RajaLakshmi; K, Palanivelu

    2017-01-01

    India's dependence on a climate sensitive sector like agriculture makes it highly vulnerable to its impacts. However, agriculture is highly heterogeneous across the country owing to regional disparities in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. It is essential to know and quantify the possible impacts of changes in climate on crop yield for successful agricultural management and planning at a local scale. The Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2-Earth System (HadGEM-ES) was employed to generate regional climate projections for the study area using the Regional Climate Model (RCM) RegCM4.4. The dynamics in potential impacts at the sub-district level were evaluated using the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCPs). The aim of this study was to simulate the crop yield under a plausible change in climate for the coastal areas of South India through the end of this century. The crop simulation model, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) 4.5, was used to understand the plausible impacts on the major crop yields of rice, groundnuts, and sugarcane under the RCP 4.5 trajectory. The findings reveal that under the RCP 4.5 scenario there will be decreases in the major C3 and C4 crop yields in the study area. This would affect not only the local food security, but the livelihood security as well. This necessitates timely planning to achieve sustainable crop productivity and livelihood security. On the other hand, this situation warrants appropriate adaptations and policy intervention at the sub-district level for achieving sustainable crop productivity in the future.

  2. Study of Spiritual Intelligence and Adjustment Among Arts and Science College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, R Kalpana; Rajesh, Nakulan V; Devi, M Anisha

    2017-06-01

    A study to evaluate the relationship between the spiritual intelligence and adjustment among the college students was conducted on a sample of 250 students in six various colleges of Tuticorin district, Tamil Nadu, India. Gender, religion, community, major subject, educational qualification of father and mother, student locality, college type, father and mother's occupation and monthly family income (n = 11 variables) were chosen for the study. Test of significance for spiritual intelligence and adjustment was studied and found them nonsignificant except student locality, found to be significant. Two valid and reliable instruments were used to assess student's spiritual intelligence and adjustment. Correlation and Chi-square analysis using structural equation model were used to analyze these data. Correlation analysis showed significant relationship between the variables among the college students (n = 250). Chi-square analysis of association between adjustments of college students showed that most variables are nonsignificant unlike father's educational qualification and mother's occupation. The results disclosed the significant positive relationship with spiritual intelligence and adjustment among adolescents.

  3. A robust behavior of Feed Forward Back propagation algorithm of Artificial Neural Networks in the application of vertical electrical sounding data inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Srinivas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The applications of intelligent techniques have increased exponentially in recent days to study most of the non-linear parameters. In particular, the behavior of earth resembles the non-linearity applications. An efficient tool is needed for the interpretation of geophysical parameters to study the subsurface of the earth. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN perform certain tasks if the structure of the network is modified accordingly for the purpose it has been used. The three most robust networks were taken and comparatively analyzed for their performance to choose the appropriate network. The single-layer feed-forward neural network with the back propagation algorithm is chosen as one of the well-suited networks after comparing the results. Initially, certain synthetic data sets of all three-layer curves have been taken for training the network, and the network is validated by the field datasets collected from Tuticorin Coastal Region (78°7′30"E and 8°48′45"N, Tamil Nadu, India. The interpretation has been done successfully using the corresponding learning algorithm in the present study. With proper training of back propagation networks, it tends to give the resistivity and thickness of the subsurface layer model of the field resistivity data concerning the synthetic data trained earlier in the appropriate network. The network is trained with more Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES data, and this trained network is demonstrated by the field data. Groundwater table depth also has been modeled.

  4. Food and foraging preferences of three pteropodid bats in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Sudhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the food, foraging and flight height in three species of pteropodid bats, namely Cynopterus sphinx, Rousettus leschenaultii and Pteropus giganteus was conducted in Tirunelveli and Tuticorin districts of southern Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 37 species of plants were identified as potential food plants of the pteropodid bats. The preference for fruits by pteropodids varied according to the developmental stages of fruits namely, immature, unripe and ripe. There is a relationship between the foraging activities of bats and the moon phase. Bats exhibit a varied foraging pattern and flight height. A variation in the foraging flight height was observed in C. sphinx and R. leschenaultii. R. leschenaultii was observed to have a higher foraging echelon than that of the C. sphinx. In our study we found that the C. sphinx forages normally at canopy level (up to 3.5m, R. leschenaultii forages at upper canopy levels (up to 9m and P. giganteus at a height above the canopy area (>9m.

  5. Adaptive Echo Noise Elimination for Speech Enhancement of Tamil letter ‘Zha’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Srinivasan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic echo depends on time delay between initial and reflected sound wave, strength of reflected sound. In the speech processing of letter ‘zha’ [11], echo of the recorded voice gives the spurious results. Such complexity can be avoided by suitable pyramidalmethod like adaptive filtering technique. Adaptive filtering tries to adjust these parameters with the aim of meeting some well-defined target, which depends upon the state of the system and surroundings. In speech recognition, the acoustic echo gives the faulty results.Objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of various adaptive filtering algorithms for acoustic echo cancellation in recorded speech enhancement of the letter ‘Zha’ in Tamil language. These algorithms are simulated in MATLAB and compared with theperformance of those algorithms based on parameters such us computational complexity, convergence rate and amount of echo attenuation.

  6. Stature estimation from footprint measurements in Indian Tamils by regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nataraja Moorthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stature estimation is of particular interest to forensic scientists for its importance in human identification. Footprint is one piece of valuable physical evidence encountered at crime scenes and its identification can facilitate narrowing down the suspects and establishing the identity of the criminals. Analysis of footprints helps in estimation of an individual’s stature because of the existence of the strong correlation between footprint and height. Foot impressions are still found at crime scenes, since offenders often tend to remove their footwear either to avoid noise or to gain a better grip in climbing walls, etc., while entering or exiting. In Asian countries like India, there are people who still have the habit of walking barefoot. The present study aims to estimate the stature in a sample of 2,040 bilateral footprints collected from 1,020 healthy adult male Indian Tamils, an ethnic group in Tamilnadu State, India, who consented to participate in the study and who range in age from 19 to 42 years old; this study will help to generate population-specific equations using a simple linear regression statistical method. All footprint lengths exhibit a statistically positive significant correlation with stature (p-value < 0.01 and the correlation coefficient (r ranges from 0.546 to 0.578. The accuracy of the regression equations was verified by comparing the estimated stature with the actual stature. Regression equations derived in this research can be used to estimate stature from the complete or even partial footprints among Indian Tamils.

  7. Peace, justice and disabled women's advocacy: Tamil women with disabilities in rural post-conflict Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Niro; Soldatic, Karen; Samararatne, Dinesha

    2016-10-13

    This article draws on grounded qualitative research with rural Tamil women who acquired a disability during the civil war in Sri Lanka and conceptualizes an intersectionality-peace framework. Three main themes were developed from the interviews: narratives of conflict, survival outcomes of social assistance and mobilization of cross-ethnic relationships. With the support of a local women's disability advocacy organization, Tamil women with disabilities were enabled to overcome social stigma and claim a positive identity as women with disabilities. The organization's focus on realizing disability rights created new opportunities for these highly marginalized rural women. The women were also supported to form cross-ethnic relationships with women who similarly faced multiple oppressions. These relationships transformed the women into 'agents of peace', using their newfound disability identity to foster cross-ethnic dialogue and create safe spaces in the post-conflict context.

  8. Prevalence of Catalase (-21 A/T Gene Variant in South Indian (Tamil Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lourdhu Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase, an endogenous antioxidant enzyme, is responsible for regulating reactive species levels. Several epidemiologic studies have suggested that single nucleotide polymorphism in catalase gene may be associated with many diseases. The genotype of CAT (-21 A/T point mutation in promoter region of catalase gene was determined by polymerase chain based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in the DNA of 100 healthy volunteers. The frequency of CAT (-21 A/T gene polymorphism AA, AT, and TT genotypes was found to be 7, 23, and 70 percent, respectively. The mutant “T” allele frequency was found to be 0.82 among the south Indian (Tamil population. Chi square analysis showed that the study population lies within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The wild type genotype (AA was found to be very low (7% and the mutant genotype (AT/TT was found to be more prevalent (93% among the south Indian population. This suggests that the high prevalence of mutant genotype may increase the susceptibility to oxidative stress associated diseases.

  9. ISOLATED SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR TAMIL LANGUAGE USING STATISTICAL PATTERN MATCHING AND MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIMALA C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, speech technology has become a vital part of our daily lives. Various techniques have been proposed for developing Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system and have achieved great success in many applications. Among them, Template Matching techniques like Dynamic Time Warping (DTW, Statistical Pattern Matching techniques such as Hidden Markov Model (HMM and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM, Machine Learning techniques such as Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Decision Trees (DT are most popular. The main objective of this paper is to design and develop a speaker-independent isolated speech recognition system for Tamil language using the above speech recognition techniques. The background of ASR system, the steps involved in ASR, merits and demerits of the conventional and machine learning algorithms and the observations made based on the experiments are presented in this paper. For the above developed system, highest word recognition accuracy is achieved with HMM technique. It offered 100% accuracy during training process and 97.92% for testing process.

  10. Predictors of violence against children in Tamil families in northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Vathsalan; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Children living in post-conflict settings are not only at high risk of developing war-related psychopathology but also of experiencing maltreatment within their families. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the relationship between war and family violence. In order to investigate the variables associated with the experience and perpetration of child maltreatment, we conducted a two-generational study with Tamil families in the North of Sri Lanka, a region affected by war and Tsunami. We interviewed children and the corresponding family dyads and triads with 359 children, 122 mothers, and 88 fathers on the basis of standardized questionnaires to assess their exposure to adverse life experiences and mental health symptoms. Using multivariate regression analyses, we found that the strongest predictors for children's report of victimization were children's exposure to mass trauma and child psychopathology. Mothers' experiences of mass trauma, family violence and partner violence were each significantly related to mother-reported maternal perpetration as well as child-reported victimization. Likewise, all types of traumatic events reported by fathers were significantly related to child-reported victimization and father-reported perpetration. Fathers' alcohol use was the strongest predictor of father-reported paternal perpetration. These findings provide further support for the transmission of mass trauma into family violence, and emphasize the role of child psychopathology as well as alcohol consumption in this relationship.

  11. Association of C-Reactive Protein (rs1205) Gene Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Psoriasis in South Indian Tamils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhesan, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Ananthanarayanan, Palghat Hariharan; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Satheesh, Santhosh; Chandrasekaran, Adithan; Devaraju, Panneer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a multi-factorial heritable T-helper Th-1/Th-17 mediated inflammatory disease, affecting the skin. It is associated with co-morbidities such as Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a good inflammatory marker. CRP rs1205 polymorphism is associated with circulating plasma CRP levels. Although there is association between the rs1205 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and CVD, there are no prior reports regarding the association of CRP rs1205 SNP with psoriasis susceptibility. Aim To study the association of the genetic variant rs1205 in the CRP gene with susceptibility to the disease and protein levels in South Indian Tamils with psoriasis. Materials and Methods In this case-control genetic study, 300 cases of psoriasis and 300 age and gender matched controls were genotyped for CRP SNP rs1205 using Taq Man 5’allele discrimination assay at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India from February 2014 to January 2016. Plasma high sensitivity (hs)-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA. Disease severity was assessed by Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Results CRP genetic variation rs1205 was not associated with psoriasis risk in our South Indian Tamil population. However, the circulating levels of hs-CRP was significantly higher in patients with psoriasis, as compared with controls (p < 0.0001) and the protein levels were significantly associated with disease severity, as assessed by PASI scoring. No genotype was found significantly associated with PASI or CRP levels. Conclusion Our results suggest that plasma CRP levels are higher in patients with psoriasis and correlate with disease severity, whilst CRP rs1205 is not associated with susceptibility to psoriasis in South Indian Tamils. PMID:27891353

  12. The HLA-C*06 allele as a possible genetic predisposing factor to psoriasis in South Indian Tamils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indhumathi, S; Rajappa, Medha; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Thappa, D M; Negi, V S

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a multi-factorial heritable prototypical immune-mediated inflammatory disease, characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in the affected skin. There are no studies till date, to the best of our knowledge, about the association of HLA-C*06, the risk variant in the PSORS 1 susceptibility locus that confers the greatest risk for early onset of psoriasis, with the disease in South Indian Tamil patients with psoriasis. The present study was performed to determine the association of HLA-C*06 with psoriasis in the South Indian Tamil ethnic population. Three hundred and fifty-five cases of psoriasis and 360 healthy controls were included in this case-control study. Severity grading according to psoriasis area severity index (PASI) scoring was done in patients with psoriasis. PCR assays with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) were used for specific detection of HLA-C*06. PCR with analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to distinguish between patients homozygous and heterozygous for HLA-C*06. We observed that those with the HLA-C*06-positive allele had a 3.5 times higher odds of having psoriasis compared to those without, [p psoriasis, it was noted that there was a significant association of HLA-C*06 positivity with female psoriatics [p = 0.006; OR 2.49 (1.28-4.87)] and early age of onset of psoriasis [p = 0.002; OR 2.04 (1.29-3.20)]. Our results suggest that the HLA-C*06 allele is positively associated with susceptibility to psoriasis, female gender and early onset of psoriasis in South Indian Tamils.

  13. Effect of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) gene polymorphisms with methotrexate treatment outcome in south Indian Tamil patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Niveditha; Misra, Durga P; Jain, Vikramraj K; Negi, Vir Singh

    2017-03-27

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease causing joint damage and significant functional impairment. Methotrexate (MTX) remains the mainstay for the treatment of RA. MTX inhibits several enzymes of the folate and nucleotide pathways. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is an important enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine pathway responsible for DNA replication. The two common gene polymorphisms analyzed in TYMS are 28-bp tandem repeat polymorphism and a 6-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism. The present study was carried out to find the role of these TYMS gene polymorphisms with clinical phenotype, treatment response, and MTX adverse events in 254 patients with RA of south Indian Tamil ethnicity. TYMS gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR. The allele frequencies of TYMS gene polymorphisms did not differ between good and non-responders. However, the TYMS 28-bp tandem repeat 3R allele was higher in non-responders than in patients undergoing remission [64 vs 51.11%, p = 0.06, OR 0.58, 95% CI (0.34-1.00)]. The TYMS 6-bp deletion allele was higher in non-responders than good responders [78.20 vs 64.92%, p = 0.06, OR 0.51 95% CI (0.27-0.98)]. TYMS 3R allele and TYMS 6-bp deletion allele may favor non-response to MTX in south Indian Tamils. TYMS gene polymorphisms did not influence MTX adverse events.

  14. Dialogue with Immigrant Mothers from Chinese and Tamil Communities to Explore Homogenization, Normalization, and Objectification of their Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ferrari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of urbanization, modernization and acculturation processes as causes for the development of body image concerns and eating disorders are documented in the literature. Women exposed to a Western idea of "beauty" as skinny and thin may be more vulnerable to body dissatisfaction. The elements of Western society that contribute to women's body dissatisfaction are captured and described in BORDO's empire of images (2003 and FREDRICKSON and ROBERTS' objectification theories (1997. Both theories rest on the assumptions that women's bodies are seen as passive elements in Western society, and that as a result women often engage in activities that measure, modify, and control their bodies to meet Western standards of beauty and attractiveness. Homogenization, normalization, and objectification have not been studied among immigrant women, nor have similarities and differences been explored across ethno-cultural communities. Participatory methodology informed the data collection process and analysis. A series of three separate parent focus groups were held with each of the Tamil and Mainland Chinese mothers of elementary school children respectively, for a total of six focus groups and 13 participants. Through dialogue, newcomer immigrant mothers were invited to define their cultural idea of beauty and to confront it with the Canadian one. For both Chinese and Tamil mothers, the homogenization, normalization, and objectification of their bodies appeared to occur in similar ways. Immigrant women and their daughters tend to internalize the Western ideals of women's thinness; this makes them self-conscious about their own bodies. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130126

  15. A content analysis of advertisements related to oral health in children's Tamil television channels--a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Aparna; Diwakar, Madankumar P; Shastry, Shivakumar M

    2012-05-01

    This study was conducted to examine the nature, content, and duration of advertisements broadcasted during children's Tamil television channels and to determine the extent to which television advertising changes during school holiday and non-holiday periods and between prime time and non-prime time broadcast. Television broadcasts on two main children's Tamil television channels were video-recorded over 16 days between 17.00-19.00 hours (non-prime time) and 19.00-21.00 hours (prime time). For each commercial, the type of product advertised, as well as the duration (in seconds), was recorded. Advertisements were categorized as 'food' and 'non-food'. The former category was further subdivided into 'sugar-rich foods' and 'other foods'. The sugar-rich foods were further categorized as liquid, solid and sticky, and slowly dissolving sugars. Commercials related to the promotion of oral health products and non-food products were also recorded. Among the total of 128 h of television programmes recorded, advertising accounted for 10.15% (13.01 hours). The advertisement of sugar-rich food products, non-food and oral hygiene products occupied 50.36%, 38.41% and 1.90%, respectively, of the total advertising time. Solid and sticky products made up 100% of advertisements in this category on Chithiram television channel, compared with 62.5% of advertisements on Chutti television channel. It was concluded that the advertising of sugar-rich foods, particularly solid and sticky food products, was broadcasted more in Chithiram television channel, during school holidays and during prime time. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Tamil Speaking Adults Attending a Dental Institution in Chennai, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, Deva Priya; Tadepalli, Anupama; Victor, Dhayanand John; Dharuman, Smriti

    2016-10-01

    Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) indicates an individual's perception of how their well-being and quality of life is influenced by oral health. It facilitates treatment planning, assessing patient centred treatment outcomes and satisfaction. The study aimed to identify the factors influencing OHRQoL among Tamil speaking South Indian adult population. Non-probability sampling was done and 199 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited for this observational study. The subjects were requested to fill a survey form along with the validated Tamil General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml) questionnaire in the waiting area following which clinical examination was done by a single experienced Periodontist. The mean score with standard deviation for physical dimension was 4.34±0.96, psychological dimension was 4.03±1.13 and pain was 4.05±1.09 on GOHAI. Greater impacts were seen for psychosocial dimensions like pleased with the appearance of teeth/denture Q7 (3.7±1.2), worried about the problems with teeth/denture Q9 (3.7±1) and pain or discomfort in teeth Q12 (3.8±1). Functions like swallowing Q3 (4.5±0.8) and speaking Q4 (4.6±0.7) were minimally affected. As age increased subjects perceived more negative impacts as indicated by lower ADD-GOHAI and higher SC-GOHAI scores (pproblems, reported poor OHRQoL (pproblems, more number of missing teeth, decayed teeth, cervical abrasion, gingival recession and mobility were associated with poor OHRQoL.

  17. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. Results The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. Conclusions The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin.

  18. Factorial Validity and Reliability of the Tamil Version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Among a Group of Participants in University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Chong Guan; Abdul Rasyid Sulaiman; Loh Huai Seng; Anne Yee Hway Ann; Suzaily Wahab; Subash Kumar Pillai

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study was done to validate the Tamil version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS-TV) among a group of Indian participants in University Malaya. Materials and Methods: Ninety-four people who took part in this study were given MSPSS-TV, Medical Outcome Study (MOS) social support survey, Malay version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Malay version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and English version of MSPSS. After a week, these p...

  19. Synthesis of meso-crystalline Al2O3 nano-platelet coatings using combustion chemical vapor deposition (C-CVD)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dhonge, BP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available , National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, South Africa b Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract Meso...

  20. Megaliths off the coast of Tranquebar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    During marine archaeological explorations cairn circles were noticed around Tranquebar region off Tamil Nadu.The diving operation yielded that small boulders have arranged in circular fashion and these are covered with shells and other marine...