Sample records for tuscany italy electronic

  1. Tuscany (Italy) 1990 regional energy balance

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    Gazzarrini, M.; Santoprete, G. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Economia Aziendale)

    This paper first discusses the overall problems involved in the preparation of functional and reliable regional energy balance sheets. It then presents and analyzes the 1990 energy balance sheet prepared for the Tuscany Region of Italy. The problems cited basically deal with the availability, compatibility and accuracy of regional energy data. Trends in Tuscany's energy consumption are compared with national figures in order to give some useful indications as to future energy strategies to be taken into consideration by the regional administration. In fact, this Region reflects the main national energy policy weakness - over-dependency on foreign supplied petroleum. It is thus recommended that locally available geothermal energy sources be further developed.

  2. Magmas and inclusions of Monte Amiata volcano, Tuscany, Italy

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    Bergen, M.J. van


    Mt. Amiata, a Pleistocene volcanic complex in south Tuscany consists mainly of silicic (62-67 wt.% Si02) lavas and domes, many of which contain abundant metamorphic and mafic igneous inclusions. The results of a detailed geochemical and petrological study indicate a bimodal magmatic system where mag

  3. Hydrometeorological and vegetation indices for the drought monitoring system in Tuscany Region, Italy

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    F. Caparrini


    Full Text Available We present here the first experiments for an integrated system that is under development for drought monitoring and water resources assessment in Tuscany Region in central Italy. The system is based on the cross-evaluation of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Vegetation Indices from remote sensing (from MODIS and SEVIRI-MSG, and outputs from the distributed hydrological model MOBIDIC, that is used in real-time for water balance evaluation and hydrological forecast in the major basins of Tuscany.

    Furthermore, a telemetric network of aquifer levels is near completion in the region, and data from nearly 50 stations are already available in real-time.

    Preliminary estimates of drought indices over Tuscany in the first eight months of 2007 are shown, and pathway for further studies on the correlation between patterns of crop water stress, precipitation deficit and groundwater conditions is discussed.

  4. Electrical features of deep structures of Southern Tuscany (Italy)

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    Fiordelist, A. [ENEL-VDTG, Pisa (Italy); Mackie, R. [Geosystem, S.Francisco, CA (United States); Manzella, A. [Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Istituto Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche; Watts, D. [Geosystem, Milan (Italy); Zaja, A. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica


    Over the last new years, magnetotelluric data were acquired at 86 sites covering much of Southern Tuscany. Twenty-four of these sites were acquired in single-site or local-reference mode, whereas 62 were acquired in very-remote-reference mode, with a remote site located on Capraia Island - 40 Km from the cost - where the cultural noise is very low. The data modelling showed that Southern Tuscany is characterized by a fairly uniform middle-lower crust that has a resistivity of a few thousand {Omega}centre dotm. The uniformity is interrupted only below the Larderello and Mt. Amiata geothermal fields where deep conductive bodies are believed to exist. A general anomalous condition can hence be depicted for this region, with low resistivity values typical of those in tectonically active areas as opposed to more resistive values typical in continental areas. These data and those from other geophysical techniques suggest that these conductive zones may be associated with hot material coming from deeper sources below the geothermal areas.

  5. Interaction between rivers and bridges in Tuscany (Italy) (United States)

    Tartaglia, V.; Caporali, E.


    The natural adjustment phenomena of the rivers next to the crossing infrastructures, often due to the interaction with the structures themselves, cause damage risk conditions for a high number of structures. About 30 railway bridge sites in Tuscany, interested in the last 30 years by river bed instability, have been monitored. A standardized Bridge Site Inspection Form have been defined and used for the inspections to ensure data reliability and a computer-aided system for data collection have been developed. The system is composed by two components: (1) a GIS that contain the hydrological and geomorphological data layers; (2) a DBMS on which the geomorphological characteristics of the sites and the geometrical and structural characteristics of the bridges are stored with a relational structure. The observed damage mechanisms suggest to schematise the bridge-river interaction as the sum of two instability processes: (a) the lateral instability, when long term evolution of the stream or localized collapse phenomena of the banks can undermine the lateral bridge structures not meant to be exposed to flow (piers whit shallow foundation in the floodplain, long abutments, etc.); (b) vertical instability processes, when the river bed level degradation given by the sum of geomorphological phenomena at the basin scale (general scour) and at the site scale (contraction scour and local scour) can undermine the bridge foundations. To express synthetically the damage risk of bridges, due to instability phenomena of their crossed rivers, the use of a Risk Index is here proposed. The RI is calculated with a semi-qualitative method derived from the geomorphological observations and from the calculated values of some hydraulic variables, obtained by the regional frequency analysis of flood in Tuscany. The RI allows, even in lack of foundation depth data, to individuate the critical sites and to rank them for protection planning. Besides a threshold value of the Risk Index has been

  6. Incidence rates of surgically treated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment among manual workers, non-manual workers and housewives in Tuscany, Italy


    Curti, Stefania; Coggon, David; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Cooke, Robin M. T.; Fresina, Michela; Campos, Emilio C; Semeraro, Francesco; Zanardi, Francesca; Farioli, Andrea; Violante, Francesco S.; Mattioli, Stefano


    Purpose Candidate risk factors for idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) include heavy manual handling (requiring Valsalva’s maneuver). We assessed incidence rates of surgically treated idiopathic RRD among manual workers, non-manual workers and housewives resident in Tuscany, Italy. Methods We retrieved all hospital discharge records bearing a principal diagnosis corresponding to RRD coupled with retinal surgery for any resident of Tuscany during 1997–2009. After elimination of ...

  7. Features Analysis of Dry Stone Walls of Tuscany (Italy

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    Mauro Agnoletti


    Full Text Available Terraced systems currently represent an indubitable added value for Tuscany, as well as for other Italian regions and for several Mediterranean countries. This value goes beyond their original function of hosting new areas for cultivation. The hydrological functions performed by these systems, including control of erosion, stabilisation of the slopes, prolongation of runoff times and the possible reduction of the volumes of surface runoff, are well-known. In addition, they also play a strategic role in the conservation of biodiversity and in maintaining local identity. At a national level, the terraced agricultural systems fall within the scope of actions scheduled in the National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007–2013, and the standards of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAECs envisages that they be maintained through the granting of economic aid as laid down in the Rural Development Plans 2007–2013 and 2014–2020. Eighteen sample areas, previously selected on the basis of the terracing intensity index (defined as the ratio between the lines representing the walls and the surface of 1 ha, were subjected for on-site surveys to determine the geo-typological features through the identification and measurement of the main technical-construction parameters of the dry stone walls. This analysis also enabled assessments of the overall state of conservation of the dry stone walls in order to suggest operations for safeguarding and protection.

  8. Occupational risk associated with Toscana virus infection in Tuscany, Italy. (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Venturi, Giulietta; Fiorentini, Cristiano; Barbati, Giulia; Di Renzi, Simona; Vonesch, Nicoletta; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Tomao, Paola


    Sandfly fever virus serotype Toscana is endemic in Mediterranean countries and is a widespread public health problem as it may be associated with acute neurological diseases such as aseptic meningitis. To assess whether Toscana virus infection is associated with occupational exposure. During the summer of 2001, a total of 678 blood samples were taken from healthy subjects residing in Tuscany (349 agricultural and forestry workers and 329 control subjects living in the same areas). Information on age, type of job and lifestyle was collected in a questionnaire, and sera were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Toscana virus-specific antibodies. Seropositivity to antibodies to Toscana virus was 30% in the control group and 23% in the agricultural and forestry workers (P<0.05). Questionnaire responses suggested that, although the agricultural and forestry workers had a potentially greater continuous exposure to sandfly fever virus (outdoor activities, rural residence and at-risk lifestyle), these risk factors did not add significant information about greater susceptibility to disease. Our findings indicate a need for better understanding of the best preventive measures to avoid the risk related to sandfly bites, especially for people who live or work in areas at risk.

  9. Ecological study of isolation and suicide in Tuscany (Italy). (United States)

    Martiello, Michele Arcangelo; Giacchi, Mariano Vincenzo


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between suicide and demographic and socio-economic measures in Tuscany. Data on standardized rates of suicide from 1997 to 2005 in addition to census-derived variables, income and abstention were derived from the Mortality register, the 2001 Census, the Tax Agency and the Regional Electoral Office databases. Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses (unweighted and weighted by population) were used to analyze the association between suicide rates and demographic and socio-economic measures for the 34 health districts for both males and females. The correlation analyses showed that suicide was significantly associated with many variables in men, but only with old age in women. The multiple regression analyses showed that the best predictors in men were education, single person households and isolated houses (only education and single person households in the weighted model). For women, the best predictors were the proportion of elderly people and income (this was also true for the weighted model, but in the opposite order). An ecological correlation between suicide and measures of economic deprivation and social fragmentation was found in both men and women. Among the best predictors, isolated houses may act as a marker for remoteness and isolation on a small scale.

  10. Mercury assessment and evaluation of its impact on fish in the Cecina river basin (Tuscany, Italy)

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    Scerbo, R. [CNR Istituto di Biofisica, Area della Ricerca Pisa-S. Cataldo, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Ristori, T. [CNR Istituto di Biofisica, Area della Ricerca Pisa-S. Cataldo, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Stefanini, B. [CNR Istituto di Biofisica, Area della Ricerca Pisa-S. Cataldo, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); De Ranieri, S. [Dipartimento Scienze Uomo e Ambiente, Universita di Pisa, Via Volta 6, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Barghigiani, C. [CNR Istituto di Biofisica, Area della Ricerca Pisa-S. Cataldo, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail:


    This paper reports the results of mercury contamination monitoring in the Cecina river basin (Tuscany, Italy). Mercury was measured in the waters, sediments and fish species of the river and its most important tributaries. In fish specimens the organic form was also determined. The results showed high mercury levels in most of the samples analysed. Particularly high concentrations were found in the sediments of the S. Marta canal flowing into the Cecina, where a chlor-alkali plant discharges its wastes, and high levels were still detectable 31 km downstream from the confluence. Near the S. Marta confluence many fish specimens were very contaminated and a study on Leuciscus cephalus cabeda growth suggested that at this site mercury accumulation occurs in these organisms since they are very young. - Mercury entering water from a chlor-alkali plant near Tuscany has led to contamination of river food webs.


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    Full Text Available Records of Metaxytherium medium (Mammalia: Sirenia from Tononian (Late Miocene sediments from che Arenaria di Ponsano Formation (Tuscany, Italy are described. They consist of fragmentary specimens, including several partial cranial elements representing at least three skulls, two humeri, fragments of venebrae and some incomplete ribs. The new Tuscan records confirm che wide diffusion of Metaxytherium in the Mediterranean during the Miocene. This sirenian's occurrence in the Arenaria di Ponsano sediments is in accordance with the shelf environment indicated by other fossils. The low sea bottom was at least partially covered by segrass meadows, the food source of this dugongid. 

  12. [Risk factors associated with road accidents among young people in Tuscany (Italy): a cross sectional study]. (United States)

    Innocenti, Francesco; Voller, Fabio; Berti, Alice; Silvestri, Caterina


    In most countries, national statistics institutes either do not measure or underestimate the impact of behavioral aspects as causes of road accidents. To bridge this gap, the Regional Health Agency of Tuscany (Italy) created the EDIT project, which evaluates driving behaviors and other lifestyle risk factors in a sample of secondary school students. Study results show that driving while under the influence of alcohol or drugs or while being distracted by cigarette smoking or the use of mobile phones are the risk factors most frequently associated with traffic accidents.

  13. Fishes and their parasites in the water district of Massaciuccoli (Tuscany, Central Italy). (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Chelucci, Luca; Torracca, Beatrice; Prati, Maria Cristina; Magi, Marta


    This study has been conducted in the district of Massaciuccoli (lake, marsh and reclaimed areas with drainage channels) in Tuscany region (Central Italy). The aim of the research was to detect the presence of parasites in fishes, in particular of Opisthorchis felineus, which causes an important zoonosis. Between 2010-2012, the health status of 381 fishes was monitored, morphometric characteristics were determined, and parasites were searched for and identified. Of the 381 examined fishes, 189 were free of parasites while 192 were infected, among them 91 presented multiple infections. Opisthorchis felineus was not found in any of the examined fishes.

  14. Carbon dioxide degassing from Tuscany and Northern Latium (Italy) (United States)

    Frondini, Francesco; Caliro, Stefano; Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Morgantini, Nicola; Parello, Franco


    The CO 2 degassing process from a large area on the Tyrrhenian side of central Italy, probably related to the input into the upper crust of mantle fluids, was investigated in detail through the geochemical study of gas emissions and groundwater. Mass-balance calculations and carbon isotopes show that over 50% of the inorganic carbon in regional groundwater is derived from a deep source highlighting gas-liquid separation processes at depth. The deep carbonate-evaporite regional aquifer acts as the main CO 2 reservoir and when total pressure of the reservoir fluid exceeds hydrostatic pressure, a free gas phase separates from the parent liquid and escapes toward the surface generating gas emissions which characterise the study area. The distribution of the CO 2 flux anomalies and the location of high PCO 2 springs and gas emissions suggest that the storage and the expulsion of the CO 2 toward the atmosphere are controlled by the geological and structural setting of the shallow crust. The average CO 2 flux and the total amount of CO 2 discharged by the study area were computed using surface heat flow, enthalpy and CO 2 molality of the liquid phase circulating in the deep carbonate-evaporite aquifer. The results show that the CO 2 flux varies from 1 × 10 4 mol y - 1 km - 2 to 5 × 10 7 mol y - 1 km - 2 , with an average value of 4.8 × 10 6 mol y - 1 km - 2 , about five times higher than the value of 1 × 10 6 mol y - 1 derived by Kerrick et al. [Kerrick, D.M., McKibben, M.A., Seward, T.M., Caldeira, K., 1995. Convective hydrothermal CO 2 emission from high heat flow regions. Chem. Geol. 121, 285-293] as baseline for terrestrial CO 2 emissions. The total CO 2 discharged from the study area is 0.9 × 10 11 mol y - 1 , confirming that Earth degassing from Tyrrhenian central Italy is a globally relevant carbon source.

  15. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad


    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pHlevels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste, heavy metals, phytoremediation, soil genesis, soil classification

  16. A GIS-based interactive web decision support system for planning wind farms in Tuscany (Italy)

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    Mari, Riccardo; Bottai, Lorenzo; Busillo, Caterina [Laboratory of Monitoring and Environmental Modelling for the sustainable development (LAMMA), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calastrini, Francesca; Gozzini, Bernardo; Gualtieri, Giovanni [Research National Council-Institute for biometeorology (CNR-IBIMET), Via Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy)


    In the framework of regional renewable energy policies, starting from 2008 the Tuscany Regional Authority promoted the ''WIND-GIS'' project aimed at assessing the large-scale wind potential of Tuscany region, Italy. This goal was achieved by developing an integrated Geographic Information System (GIS) based decision support system (DSS), compliant with Directive 2007/2/EC of European Commission (EC), which was designed to help public operators in the preliminary location of sites eligible for wind harness. To make the system an actually operative tool, it was conceived as a web-oriented interactive system that the public operators may freely access. The DSS was developed by using the MapServer open-source web-GIS application. Furthermore, the ''p.mapper'' front-end application developed in JavaScript and PHP/Mapscript was used, which enables a user-friendly interface to MapServer to be performed. System's wind resource data are estimated by the 2-km resolution application over Tuscany of a meteorological model chain through a 4-year period (January 2004-December 2007) with a 1-h time-step. Wind estimations at 75 m were taken into account in order to be addressed to large-scale wind turbines according to the Tuscany Energy Plan objectives of 300 MW installed power derived from wind within 2012. Furthermore, to overcome the problems posed by all groups involved with initially opposing positions in the location for new wind farms (e.g., investors vs. environmentalist groups), the DSS also encompasses a number of layers such as landscape, ecological and archaeological constrained areas. This paper presents the description of the DSS, as well as the application results in terms of maps of wind resource and energy yield once a 2-MW wind turbine has been set as a sample. The developed DSS is currently in use by the Tuscany Regional Authority for planning the regional wind energy strategy. (author)

  17. Seismic Investigations of the Murci Geothermal Field (Southern Tuscany, Italy): Preliminary Results (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Alexandrakis, C.; Buske, S.


    The Monte Amiata region in the Southern Tuscany, Central Italy, describes a volcanic complex with great significance in terms of the regional fresh water supply, mining and geothermal power generation. Mainly for the latter purpose, the volcanic area of Mt Amiata has been the subject of extensive geological and geophysical research (e.g. Dini et al., 2010 and references therein). The insights from these studies have led to successful geothermal production in the Mt Amiata region since the early 1960s (e.g. Batini et al., 2003). Today's most important reservoirs in this area are the Bagnore and the Piancastagnaio fields which are both operated by the company Enel Green Power. The work presented here deals with the Murci area, another potential reservoir located about 10 km southwest of the Mt Amiata volcanic complex. Therefore, in order to get a more detailed understanding of this area, five reflection seismic profiles were carried out. We have performed on three of them a preliminary depth-migrated images, through Kirchhoff prestack depth migration (KPSDM). The vital point of depth migration algorithms is the accuracy of the velocity model that is used for the backpropagation of the seismic data. Therefore, we derived a suitable 1D starting model from nearby well logs and VSP measurements. In order to remove the large topography effects along the profiles, we then utilized first-arrival tomography for each seismic line. For the following processing we incorporated these 2D tomographic results into our starting model which compensates for static effects and improves the resolution in the near-surface area. The velocity models were then used in the application of KPSDM to the seismic data for each profile, respectively. The resulting preliminary images show a zone of high seismic reflectivity, known as the 'K-horizon' (e.g. Brogi, 2008), and could improve its geological interpretation. These promising results encourage us to proceed with deeper migration velocity

  18. Managing induced riverbank filtration (IRF) at the Serchio River well field, Tuscany, Italy (Italy) (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Ansiati, Alberto; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Costabile, Gennarino; Dietrich, Peter; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Bonari, Enrico


    Along the Serchio River (Tuscany -Italy) a series of well fields is set for an overall amount of about 1 m3/s pumped groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany (mainly to the town of Lucca, Pisa and Livorno). Water is pumped enhancing riverbank filtration into a high yield (10-2 m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer by artificially rising river head and setting pumping well fields along the river reach. However, being it unmanaged aquifer recharge, concerns arise both for quality and quantity of the abstracted groundwater. It happens in dry climate extremes (i.e. 2002/2003 or 2011/2012) that Serchio River flow falls below minimum environmental flow (MEF). Long term contamination of river water had been causing contamination of groundwater, as in 2002/2006, when pesticide contaminated surface water was polluting the well fields causing several problems to water supply. Such problems were overcome by setting in place derogatory regulations and then through dissemination and stakeholder activities reducing pesticide presence in surface water (EU LIFE SERIAL WELLFIR project). Although widely adopted, IRF is also not well stated from a regulatory point of view, eventually leading to concerns by a legal point of view. Within the framework of the MARSOL FPVII-ENV-2013 project an experimental site at a well field will be set to demonstrate the feasibility (by a technical, social and market point of view) and the benefits of managing IRF versus the unmanaged option. The Serchio experimental site will involve merging existing and proved technologies to produce a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote data acquisition and transmission and GIS physically-based fully distributed numerical modeling to continuously monitor and manage well fields, reducing also human operated activities. The DSS along with the installed sensors, data transmission and storage tools will constitute a prototype whose potential market exploitation

  19. Natural occurrence of hexavalent chromium in serpentinite hosted spring waters from Western Tuscany (Italy) (United States)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Agostini, Samuele; Baneschi, Ilaria; Guidi, Massimo; Natali, Claudio; Tonarini, Sonia


    Although many heavy metals acts as micro-nutrients playing essential roles for all living organisms, most of them, when bioavailable in high concentrations, have to be considered potentially toxic. Some of them, such as Cr, and Ni are generally highly concentrated in all ultramafic rocks as well as in serpentines and their weathering products (soils and sediments), that largely outcrop in ophiolite belts, such as those of Central Italy. High Cr (VI) concentrations have been found in some spring waters associated with serpentinite outcrops and in Cecina Valley (Western Tuscany) soils, sediments and ground waters. Thus, we set up a multidisciplinary research program (RESPIRA) financed by Tuscany Region and by European Union, aimed to enhance the understanding of the weathering processes of serpentinite rocks in order to assess the mobility and hence the bioavailability of heavy and toxic metals such Ni and Cr in soils and namely to study the release and mobility of Cr with in the "critical zone" where rocks, soils, meteoric waters and atmospheric gasses interact. Sr-Pb isotopes of serpentinites suggest an interaction with recent, low-T, waters. Three isotopic end-members are identified in soils and sediments: serpentinites, marine limestones and tertiary siliciclastic rocks. Sr isotopic values of ground waters match with the higher values (87Sr/86Sr ≈ 0.7089 - 0.7092) of soils and sediments compositional range. Cr (VI) free and Cr (VI) bearing spring waters, spilling out from the serpentinite outcrops (Santa Luce, Querceto, Montecastelli), display Mg-HCO3 chemical composition 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7074 to 0.7084 (in the serpentinite range). Petrographic and minero-chemical analyses of both rocks and soil samples from the same sites, highlight the occurrence of secondary minerals containing significant Cr contents, such as chlorites (Cr2O3 from 2 to 8 wt%) that can easily release Cr(III). Nerveless the absence of Mn-oxides, considered the more common electron acceptors

  20. Modelling of hydrogen sulfide dispersion from the geothermal power plants of Tuscany (Italy). (United States)

    Somma, Renato; Granieri, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; Terranova, Carlo; De Natale, Giuseppe; Pedone, Maria


    We applied the Eulerian code DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) to investigate the dispersion of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from 32 geothermal power plants (out of 35 active) belonging to the geothermal districts of Larderello, Travale-Radicondoli and Monte Amiata, in Tuscany (Italy). An updated geographic database, for use in a GIS environment, was realized in order to process input data required by the code and to handle the outputs. The results suggest that H2S plumes emitted from geothermal power plants are mainly concentrated around the stacks of emission (H2S concentration up to 1100μg/m(3)) and rapidly dilute along the dominant local wind direction. Although estimated values of air H2S concentrations are orders of magnitude higher than in unpolluted areas, they do not indicate an immediate health risk for nearby communities, under the more frequent local atmospheric conditions. Starting from the estimated values, validated by measurements in the field, we make some considerations about the environmental impact of the H2S emission in all the geothermal areas of the Tuscany region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiological study on the Trichinellosis of the fox (Vulpes vulpes in Tuscany (Central Italy

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    Marta Magi


    Full Text Available Abstract During the years 2004-2005, 112 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 4 badgers (Meles meles were caught in different areas of Tuscany (Central Italy and examined for Trichinella infection, using the diagnostic technique of artificial digestion through Stomacher. No animal was positive for Trichinella larvae. According to our results, Tuscany can be considered a low-risk area for trichinellosis in the fox. In this region the presence of the parasite cannot be ruled out, two cases of infection being reported in 1993. Riassunto Epidemiologia della trichinellosi della volpe (Vulpes vulpes in Toscana (Italia centrale. Nel corso degli anni 2004-2005, 112 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 4 tassi (Meles meles sono stati catturati ed esaminati per la presenza di infestione da Trichinella in differenti aree della Toscana (Italia centrale. L'indagine di laboratorio è stata condotta mediante digestione artificiale tramite Stomacher. Nessun animale è risultato positivo. Da questi risultati si può ritenere la Toscana una regione a basso rischio di infezione. La presenza del parassita non può però essere esclusa totalmente. Infatti, nel 1993 sono stati riportati due casi di infestione.


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    Full Text Available The great similar tooth morphologies that characterized the sharks of the genus Carcharhinus have suggested that the Neogene Mediterranean Sea were inhabited by only one or two widespread carcharhinid taxa, Carcharhinus egertoni and C. priscus. The first Mediterranean Pliocene record of five new shark species included into Carcharhinus, C. aff. brachyurus, C. falciformis, C. leucas, C. perezi, and C. plumbeus, have been identified by the review of some shark teeth from Tuscany (Italy and housed in the Italian Museums of the Universities of Firenze, Bologna, and Pisa. Moreover, the Mediterranean records of the two Recent C. longimanus and C. obscurus has been confirmed too. Paleobiogeographic and palaeoecologic analysis have been produced on the presence of some species absent or doubtful for the extant Mediterranean shark community. 


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    Full Text Available The historic collection of fossil odontocetes (Cetacea from Monte Voltraio, near Volterra (Tuscany, Italy has been examined and lithostratigraphical and biostratigraphical investigations on the find locality have been carried out. The Monte Voltraio outcrop is referred to the Middle Pliocene, in particular to Globorotalia aemiliana and Discoaster tamalis zones. The odontocete remains are assigned to the families Kogiidae (Kogia pusilla and Delphinidae (Globicephala? etruriae and two indeterminate specimens which might belong to Hemisyntrachelus and Stenella giulii. The Middle Pliocene cetacean fauna from the Mediterranean basin (Monte Voltraio and Rio Stramonte associations includes extinct taxa or extant taxa no longer represented in this basin. The disappearance of these taxa may be linked with the Pliocene and/or Quaternary climatic deteriorations (e.g. the climatic crisis at about 2.6-2.4 MA. 

  4. Bacterial and viral pathogens detected in sea turtles stranded along the coast of Tuscany, Italy. (United States)

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Cersini, A; Mancusi, C; Guarducci, M; Di Guardo, G; Terracciano, G


    During 2014, six loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta and one green turtle, Chelonia mydas, found stranded on the Tuscany coast of Italy, were examined for the presence of specific bacterial and viral agents, along with their role as carriers of fish and human pathogens. Thirteen different species of bacteria, 10 Gram negative and 3 Gram positive, were identified. Among them, two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and one strain of Lactococcus garviae were recovered and confirmed by specific PCR protocols. No trh and tdh genes were detected in V. parahaemolyticus. The first isolation of L. garviae and the first detection of Betanodavirus in sea turtles indicate the possibility for sea turtles to act as carriers of fish pathogens. Furthermore, the isolation of two strains of V. parahaemolyticus highlights the possible role of these animals in human pathogens' diffusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metallogeny, exploitation and environmental impact of the Mt. Amiata mercury ore district (Southern Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Chiarantini, L.; Lattanzi, P.; Benvenuti, M.; Beutel, M.; Colica, A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Gabbani, G.; Gray, John E.; Pandeli, E.; Pattelli, G.; Paolieri, M.; Ruggieri, G.


    The Mt. Amiata mining district (Southern Tuscany, Italy) is a world class Hg district, with a cumulate production of more than 100,000 tonnes of Hg, mostly occurring between 1870 and 1980. The Hg mineralization at Mt. Amiata is younger than 0.3 Ma, and is directly related to shallow hydrothermal systems similar to present-day geothermal fields of the region. There is likely a continuum of Hg deposition to present day, because Hg emission from geothermal power plants is on-going. In this sense, the Mt. Amiata deposits present some analogies with “hot-spring type” deposits of western USA, although an ore deposit model for the district has not been established. Specifically, the source of Hg remains highly speculative. The mineralizing hydrothermal fluids are of low temperature, and of essentially meteoric origin.

  6. Mercury assessment and evaluation of its impact on fish in the Cecina river basin (Tuscany, Italy). (United States)

    Scerbo, R; Ristori, T; Stefanini, B; De Ranieri, S; Barghigiani, C


    This paper reports the results of mercury contamination monitoring in the Cecina river basin (Tuscany, Italy). Mercury was measured in the waters, sediments and fish species of the river and its most important tributaries. In fish specimens the organic form was also determined. The results showed high mercury levels in most of the samples analysed. Particularly high concentrations were found in the sediments of the S. Marta canal flowing into the Cecina, where a chlor-alkali plant discharges its wastes, and high levels were still detectable 31 km downstream from the confluence. Near the S. Marta confluence many fish specimens were very contaminated and a study on Leuciscus cephalus cabeda growth suggested that at this site mercury accumulation occurs in these organisms since they are very young.

  7. Relationship between work-related accidents and hot weather conditions in Tuscany (central Italy). (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Crisci, Alfonso; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Orlandini, Simone


    Nowadays, no studies have been published on the relationship between meteorological conditions and work-related mortality and morbidity in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hot weather conditions and hospital admissions due to work-related accidents in Tuscany (central Italy) over the period 1998-2003. Apparent temperature (AT) values were calculated to evaluate human weather discomfort due to hot conditions and then tested for work accident differences using non-parametric procedures. Present findings showed that hot weather conditions might represent a risk factor for work-related accidents in Italy during summer. In particular early warming days during June, characterized by heat discomfort, are less tolerated by workers than warming days of the following summer months. The peak of work-related accidents occurred on days characterized by high, but not extreme, thermal conditions. Workers maybe change their behaviour when heat stress increases, reducing risks by adopting preventive measures. Results suggested that days with an average daytime AT value ranged between 24.8 degrees C and 27.5 degrees C were at the highest risk of work-related accidents. In conclusion, present findings might represent the first step for the development of a watch/warning system for workers that might be used by employers for planning work activities.

  8. Modelling of hydrogen sulfide dispersion from the geothermal power plants of Tuscany (Italy) (United States)

    Renato, Somma; Domenico, Granieri; Claudia, Troise; Carlo, Terranova; Natale Giuseppe, De; Maria, Pedone


    The hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the main gaseous substances contained in deep fluids exploited by geo-thermoelectric plant. Therefore, it is a "waste" pollutant product by plants for energy production. Hydrogen sulfide is perceived by humans at very low concentrations in the air ( 0,008 ppm, World Health Organization, hereafter WHO, 2003) but it becomes odorless in higher concentrations (> 100 ppm, WHO, 2003) and, for values close to the ones lethal (> 500 ppm), produces an almost pleasant smell. The typical concentration in urban areas is plants (out of 35 active) belonging to the geothermal districts of Larderello, Travale-Radicondoli and Monte Amiata, in Tuscany (Italy). DISGAS code has simulated scenarios consistent with the prevailing wind conditions, estimating reasonable H2S concentrations for each area, and for each active power plant. The results suggest that H2S plumes emitted from geothermal power plants are mainly concentrated around the stacks of emission (H2S concentration up to 1100 ug/m3) and rapidly dilute along the dominant local wind direction. Although estimated values of air H2S concentrations are orders of magnitude higher than in unpolluted areas, they do not indicate an immediate health risk for nearby communities, under the more frequent local atmospheric conditions. Starting from the estimated values, validated by measurements in the field, we make some considerations about the environmental impact of the H2S emission in all the geothermal areas of the Tuscany region. Furthermore, this study indicates the potential of DISGAS as a tool for an improved understanding of the atmospheric and environmental impacts of the H2S continuous degassing from geothermal plants but also its potential for reliable prediction of H2S pollution in case of unexpected events, like the blowout of a geothermal well or the malfunctioning of a geothermal plant resulting in an anomalous and not-controlled emission of harmful gas in the atmosphere.

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in sheep in Grosseto district, Tuscany, Italy

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    Cenci-Goga Beniamino T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum samples from 630 milk sheep, in 33 dairy flocks representative of the southern area of the Tuscany region, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Questionnaires exploring the management system were completed by the veterinarian in charge of the flocks. Results At least one seropositive animal was found in 32 of the 33 flocks tested (97.0%; 95% CI: 84.2%, 99.9%. In the positive flocks, median seroprevalence was 29.4% (interquartile range: 15.9%-46.1%. Overall animal-level seroprevalence, adjusted for sampling weights and test sensitivity and specificity, was 33.3% (95% CI: 24.8%, 42.7%. In a multivariable negative binomial regression model the number of seropositive animals in a flock decreased with increasing flock size (for >400 vs. CR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.95; P = 0.028 and was greater on farms where stray cats had access to animals’ water (CR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.26; P = 0.027. Conclusions Small flock size and access of cats to water are potential risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in sheep in the Grosseto district in Tuscany, Italy. Sheep could be an important source of T. gondii infection in humans, since we estimate that between 25% and 43% of sheep in the district were seropositive. Toxoplasmosis is also likely to be an important cause of abortion in sheep in the district. Control and prophylactic measures must be adopted to improve the rearing system and the implementation of health promoting programmes in a joint effort between sheep farmers, farmers’ associations and veterinarians to inform about the means of transmission of the infection and for a better understanding of the disease.

  10. Ottensite, brizziite and mopungite from Pereta mine (Tuscany, Italy): new occurrences and crystal structure refinement of mopungite (United States)

    Bittarello, Erica; Cámara, Fernando; Ciriotti, Marco E.; Marengo, Alessandra


    Ottensite, Na3 (Sb2O3)(SbS3)·3H2O, brizziite, NaSbO3, and mopungite, NaSb(OH)6, have been found on several specimens from the antimony mine of Pereta (Grosseto, Tuscany, Italy). Ottensite from Pereta mine occurs as brilliant reddish-brown spheroidal aggregates, with a diameter up to 0.2 mm, formed by radially oriented individuals. These aggregates are associated with well-shaped tabular and pseudocubic colourless crystals of mopungite and platy aggregates of brizziite. This is the second world occurrence of ottensite and brizziite. The mineral species were characterized by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction study and microRaman spectroscopy. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data were collected on a twinned crystal of mopungite and the structure was for the first time refined on a natural sample in space group P42/ n [unit cell parameters a = 8.036(3) Å, c = 7.926(6) Å, V = 511.88(5) Å3, Z = 4] obtaining an R 1 -index of 5.17, wR 2 of 13.52 and GooF of 1.247.

  11. Effects of wild boar grazing on the yield of summer truffle (Tuscany, Italy

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    Elena Salerni


    Full Text Available The research presented here seeks to describe the impact of wild boar to a natural truffle ground of Tuber aestivum Vittad. on Monte Amiata (TuscanyItaly. Pedoclimatic analyses indicated that the selected area could be considered suitable for the truffle production. Then classification of the vegetation of a Quercus cerris forest was carried out exploring the possibility of the BACI (Before-After-Control-Impact sampling design. Finally 10 plots were selected, half of which have been fenced. For the first time the impact of wild boar was evaluated by estimating the surface area turned over by its activity. Moreover in each plot the number and weight of summer truffles was performed every 10 days during the fruiting period (June-November 2006-2008. The hypothesis that the presence of Sus scrofa has a strong negative influence on truffle harvesting has been amply confirmed by the data presented here, given the large increase of fruiting bodies of the summer truffle collected in the fenced plots. Consequently the destructive behaviour of the wild boar imply not only an ecological but also an economic damage in areas in which non-wood forest products are an important source of income.

  12. The Vie Cave Geomorphological Site in Southern Tuscany (Italy: Problems of Decay and Conservation

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    Elena Pecchioni


    Full Text Available The Vie Cave are a suggestive network of roads deeply entrenched in the rock, dating back to the Etruscan civilization; these ancient roads connect various settlements and necropolises existing mainly in the area of Sovana, Sorano and Pitigliano towns (Southern Tuscany, Italy. The Vie Cave are located in a peculiar geomorphological site, characterized by the presence of extensive pyroclastic deposits, which have been incised by a parallel network of deep gorges. In this paper, the geomorphological, geological and lithological setting of the Vie Cave area, where several Etruscan archaeological sites are found, are described. The precarious stability of the Vie Cave walls and the several archaeological structures carved into them, the high grade of decay shown by the constituent materials, together with the dense vegetation that has developed over the rocky scarps, are taken into account with the aim to provide a complete assessment of the conditions in which the site lies. Finally, we propose some targeted actions related to the preservation of this territory, showing so distinctive morphology, in order to protect the area from further decay to which it would be subjected if it remained abandoned.

  13. Design of Sustainable Agricultural Buildings. A Case Study of a Wine Cellar in Tuscany, Italy

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    Leonardo Conti


    Full Text Available This research concerns the design of an agricultural building with a high degree of sustainability, located in a farm in the south of the Tuscany region, Italy. The building, intended mainly as a wine cellar, offers innovative construction solutions of high deconstructability and has features of low environmental impact, economic competitiveness and constructive simplicity. In particular, the design of the basement cellar involves the use of gabions and stones for the realization of the foundations, the ground retaining walls and all other bearing walls. A different solution is adopted for the external wall which remains entirely above ground. It is also made by gabions, but it is externally covered with a coat of straw bales and is plastered with clay or lime. The roof-bearing structure is made of steel beams and galvanized steel sheets. A layer of fertile soil is arranged on the roof to form a green roof system. This research aims to spread the design criteria of deconstructable buildings, based on the use of natural materials with low environmental and economic impact. Where it is not possible to employ natural materials, reusable or recyclable materials are used.

  14. Resistivity and heterogeneity of Earth crust in an active tectonic region, Southern Tuscany (Italy

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    A. Manzella


    Full Text Available Southern Tuscany, belonging to the inner zone of the Northern Apennines, Italy, is an ideal laboratory for observing the physical features of the lithosphere and their evolution in tectonically active regions. Here the crust is very thin, with a thickness of less than 25 km, and heat flow is very high, hence only very shallow depths of exploration are needed to investigate many of the middle-deep crustal features that are common to many other parts of the world. The magnetotelluric (MT surveys performed in this region have provided information on the resistivity structure, which is related to the extent and distribution of free fluids and to the partial melts in the crust. The picture emerging from these MT surveys is that of a resistivity structure that is only partly related to the heat flow regime of the area. A very low resistivity was found below the vapour-dominated geothermal system of Larderello and below areas that have no clear connection to any geothermal system, whereas this reduction of resistivity is less conspicuous below the water-dominated geothermal system of Mt. Amiata.

  15. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling water and dissolved gas chemistry at the Accesa sinkhole (southern Tuscany, central Italy

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    Franco Tassi


    Full Text Available The 38.5 m deep Lake Accesa is a sinkhole located in southern Tuscany (Italy that shows a peculiar water composition, being characterized by relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS values (2 g L-1 and a Ca(Mg-SO4 geochemical facies. The presence of significant amounts of extra-atmospheric gases (CO2 and CH4, which increase their concentrations with depth, is also recognized. These chemical features, mimicking those commonly shown by volcanic lakes fed by hydrothermal-magmatic reservoirs, are consistent with those of mineral springs emerging in the study area whose chemistry is produced by the interaction of meteoric-derived waters with Mesozoic carbonates and Triassic evaporites. Although the lake has a pronounced thermocline, water chemistry does not show significant changes along the vertical profile. Lake water balance calculations demonstrate that Lake Accesa has >90% of its water supply from sublacustrine springs whose subterranean pathways are controlled by the local structural assessment that likely determined the sinking event, the resulting funnel-shape being then filled by the Accesa waters. Such a huge water inflow from the lake bottom (~9·106 m3 yr-1 feeds the lake effluent (Bruna River and promotes the formation of water currents, which are able to prevent the establishment of a vertical density gradient. Consequently, a continuous mixing along the whole vertical water column is established. Changes of the drainage system by the deep-originated waters in the nearby former mining district have strongly affected the outflow rates of the local mineral springs; thus, future intervention associated with the ongoing remediation activities should carefully be evaluated to preserve the peculiar chemical features of Lake Accesa.

  16. Biomonitoring of tropospheric ozone in the Pistoia district (Tuscany, Italy); Biomonitoraggio dell`ozono troposferico nell`area pistoiese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toncelli, Maria Letizia [Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento `S. Anna`, Pisa (Italy); Lorenzini, Giacomo [Pisa, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose. Sez. Patologia Vegetale; Corsini, Adelmo [ARPAT, Pisa (Italy). Unita` Operativa di Biotossicologia


    The distribution of surface ozone was monitored in the summer 1995 in the Pistoia district (Tuscany, Italy) using vascular plants as biological indicators. The leaf injury index of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 plants allowed to evaluate the distribution of ozone effects, in spite of the absence of any automatic analyser. Fairly homogeneous phytotoxic levels of ozone were found in all the monitoring sites, located in urban, suburban and remote areas, indicating the possibility of medium-long range transport of polluted air masses, No symptoms were detected on resistant tobacco Bel-B plants.

  17. Goji Berry: Quality Assessment and Crop Adaptation of Plants Cultivated in Tuscany (Italy) by Combination of Carotenoid and DNA Analyses. (United States)

    Capecchi, Giada; Goti, Emanuele; Nicolai, Elena; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Monnanni, Roberto; Bilia, Anna Rita


    In this study HPLC analysis for the evaluation of carotenoids and DNA barcoding are reported for three different samples of Lycium cultivated in Tuscany (Italy). These two analytical methods can represent integrative methods for quality control of goji, giving also crucial information on the plant adaptation to different environments. Hence, carotenoids represent the quality markers proposed by the monograph of the European Pharmacopoeia, while DNA barcoding can differentiate between species and populations and is useful for the detection of the homogeneity of the samples.

  18. Lichen (Xanthoria parietina) biomonitoring of trace element contamination and air quality assessment in Livorno Province (Tuscany, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scerbo, R.; Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T. [CNR Istituto di Biofisica, Via S. Lorenzo 26, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Possenti, L.; Barale, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Via Volta, Pisa (Italy); Lampugnani, L. [CNR Istituto di Chimica Analitica Strumentale, Via Risorgimento, Pisa (Italy)


    This paper deals with the biomonitoring of air in Livorno Province (Tuscany, Italy) using lichens for both quantitative monitoring of airborne metals and air quality assessment. On the basis of the possible sources of metal pollution in the study area, the following elements were analyzed: As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn and Hg. The small number of lichen species, the often stunted appearance of the specimens, and metal analysis revealed widespread atmospheric pollution in the study area. The results indicate extensive anthropic impact. The highest levels of contamination were recorded for Hg, Cd, Pb, and V concentrations. Good agreement was found between bioindication and metal concentrations in lichens. The impact of anthropic activities is particularly due to steelworks and chemical plants, combustion processes related to energy production and vehicle emissions. In addition to air pollution, some natural factors, such as climate, rocky shores or ozone, were assumed to affect lichen occurrence. Comparison with the Lake Orta area in northern Italy showed Livorno Province was more contaminated by trace elements. Similar contamination levels were found in another area of Tuscany, probably due to the geological characteristics of this region.

  19. Risk indicators for water supply systems for a drought Decision Support System in central Tuscany (Italy) (United States)

    Rossi, Giuseppe; Garrote, Luis; Caporali, Enrica


    of total water shortage. The methodology is applied to the urban area Firenze-Prato-Pistoia in central Tuscany, in central Italy. The catchment of the investigated area has a surface of 1231 km2 and, accordingly to the census ISTAT 2001, 945˙972 inhabitants.

  20. Hydrogeological and geochemical overview of the karst aquifers in the Apuan Alps (Northwestern Tuscany, Italy

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    Matia Menichini


    Full Text Available Apuan Alps, in north-western Tuscany (Italy, have a very complex geological structure. For this reason karst springs show very different behaviours according to the geological setting of aquifer systems. More than 80 springs are fed by carbonate aquifers; flow rates (Q range from 10 to 1600 L/s, in average, temperatures range from 8 to 15 °C. Deep and very slow groundwater flow feed some low-thermal springs (20-30 °C. Major karst springs (Q > 100 L/s are concentrated in two altimetry ranges, one from 200 to 300 m a.s.l. in the seaward side (SW-NW and a second one from 500 to 600 m a.s.l. on the inner (NE-SE side of the mountain range. Most of the springs are the final destination of large karst systems developed in meta-dolomite and marbles characterized by a very rapid flow. Some springs have a regular regime and are fed by bathyphreatic systems in metamorphic rocks or by carbonate aquifers with a major contribution of fissured drainage in non-metamorphic rocks. Large physical-chemical variations, both in space and time, are observed as a consequence of lithological heterogeneity, mixing processes and hydrodynamic conditions. Most waters are of the Ca-HCO3 type, but Ca-SO4 and Na-Cl facies are also present. A wide range of electrical conductivity is recorded, with values between 0.1 μS/cm and 10 μS/cm. Significant differences in the average isotopic signature (e.g. δ18O from -5.5 to -8.5‰ of the “base-flow” are registered due to the variability of hydrogeological basins dimension and their distribution in terms of altitude range and side. In some cases, springs with similar chemical features and located close to each other, point out very different isotopes signature, thus highlighting complicated flow path of groundwater. Furthermore, different seasonal evolutions of isotopic signatures are registered.

  1. Evidence for a soil microbial terroir in the Chianti Classico district in Tuscany (Italy) (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Valboa, Giuseppe; Fabiani, Arturo; Pellegrini, Sergio; Puccioni, Sergio; Zombardo, Alessandra; Storchi, Paolo; Costantini, Edoardo


    Originally developed for wine, the terroir concept is becoming popular throughout agri-environmental sciences in many parts of the world, linking the uniqueness and quality of agricultural products to the environment where they are produced. Even thought it is well known that geology, morphology and microclimate influence and diversify the wine characters within a wine district (macro-terroir), recent literature suggests that different soil features can drive wine characters also within the same macro-terroir, at both farm and vineyard scale. However, the drivers beyond these differences remain elusive, and the potential contribution of soil microbes has been ignored until recently. Therefore, in this multidisciplinary work we have tried to assess the possible role of soil microbial communities in vineyards on defining the quality of the wine produced. Soils from 4 different macro-terroir areas located within the Barone Ricasoli farm in Brolio (SI), Tuscany (Central Italy), characterized by different geology and cultivated with the grapevine cultivar Sangiovese, were collected: Fattoio (feldspathic sandstone), Leccio (marine sands), Agresto (limestone), and Ceni (fluvial deposits). Within each terroir, two areas homogeneous for soil features were delimited (Basic terroir unit, BTU) and monitored over 3 years for the soil physico-chemical and biological parameters as well as viticultural parameters. In this work we report the results of the analysis of microbial communities in the 8 BTUs, determined through molecular (PCR-DGGE), metabolic (BIOLOG) and biochemical (microbial respiration, biomass C) techniques. The results showed that each vineyard is characterized by a well defined bacterial community whose structure varies both as a function of different BTUs and terroir areas, depending on soil features. In fact, the vineyards Fattoio 1 and 2 exhibit a very similar bacterial composition between them and stable over time, even for the low total organic matter

  2. A unique HAV strain circulated in patients with acute HAV infection with different risk exposures in Tuscany, Italy. (United States)

    Taffon, Stefania; Bidini, Gabriella; Vichi, Francesca; Corti, Giampaolo; Genovese, Domenico; Kondili, Loreta A; Bindi, Rita; Armellini, Fulvio; Leoncini, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Mazzotta, Francesco; Rapicetta, Maria


    Acute Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) is reported to be an emergent problem in several developed countries. The aim of this study was to analyse the HAV strains circulating among individuals with acute HAV infection, apparently transmitted by different routes, in several districts of Tuscany in central Italy, during the year 2008. An outbreak of acute HAV infection occurred from May to August 2008 in Arezzo; 32 individuals were admitted to the hospital, in 25 of them at least a linkage with an infected food handler and/or household contacts was reported and in 3 homosexuality was a possible risk factor. In Florence, from January 2008 to August 2008, 41 individuals mainly homosexual men were admitted to two hospitals with the diagnosis of acute HAV. The phylogenetic analysis of VP1/2A region of HAV was used to characterize these HAV isolates. All viral sequences were assigned to genotype IA. All clustered in the same branch (bootstrap 82%) of phylogenetic tree, thus indicating the same circulating isolate. Apart of one isolate from France and one from Germany which were similar with the "Tuscany" strain reported here, high heterogeneity with the other European HAV strains reported in the GenBank in the last years, was observed. The detection of a unique HAV isolate circulating in different Tuscany districts, suggests sequential transmission of HAV infection in this geographical area through possible links among acute hepatitis cases. The application of safe food handling practices and vaccination of homosexual men may contribute to the prevention of HAV infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and mapping the high nature value farmland by the comparison of a combined and species approaches in Tuscany, Italy

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    Giulio Lazzerini


    Full Text Available Low-intensity farming systems play a crucial role in nature conservation by preserving 50% of habitats, flora and fauna occurring in Europe. For this reason the identification, classification and mapping of high nature value farmlands (HNVfs is becoming an overriding concern. In this study, two different approaches, namely combined approach and species-based approach, were used to spatially identify HNVfs (type 1, 2 and 3 across Tuscany region (Italy. The first approach calculated different indicators (extensive practices indicator, crop diversity indicator, landscape element indicator at 1×1 km grid cell spatial resolution using pre-existent spatial datasets integrated within a global information system environment. Whilst, the speciesbased approach relied on a pre-existent regional naturalistic inventory. All indicators and the resulting HNVfs derived from the two approaches were aggregated at municipality level. Despite some difference, the two adopted approaches intercepted spatially the same HNVfs areas, accounting for 35% of the total utilised agricultural area of the region. Just 16% of HNVfs resulted located inside protected areas, thus under current conservation and protection management actions. Finally, HNVfs of the Tuscany region were spatially aggregated in four relevant agro-ecosystems by taking into consideration the cropping systems and the landscape elements’ characteristics peculiar in the region.

  4. Hyperspectral Data Processing and Mapping of Soil Parameters: Preliminary Data from Tuscany (Italy) (United States)

    Garfagnoli, F.; Moretti, S.; Catani, F.; Innocenti, L.; Chiarantini, L.


    Hyperspectral imaging has become a very powerful remote sensing tool for its capability of performing chemical and physical analysis of the observed areas. The objective of this study is to retrieve and characterize clay mineral content of the cultivated layer of soils, from both airborne hyperspectral and field spectrometry surveys in the 400-2500 nm spectral range. Correlation analysis is used to examine the possibility to predict the selected property using high-resolution reflectance spectra and images. The study area is located in the Mugello basin, about 30 km north of Firenze (Tuscany, Italy). Agriculturally suitable terrains are assigned mainly to annual crops, marginally to olive groves, vineyards and orchards. Soils mostly belong to Regosols and Cambisols orders. About 80 topsoil samples scattered all over the area were collected simultaneously with the flight of SIM.GA hyperspectral camera from Selex Galileo. The quantitative determination of clay minerals content in soil samples was performed by means of XRD and Rietveld refinement. An ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer was used to obtain reflectance spectra from dried, crushed and sieved samples under controlled laboratory conditions. Different chemometric techniques (multiple linear regression, vertex component analysis, partial least squares regression and band depth analysis) were preliminarily tested to correlate mineralogical records with reflectance data. A one component partial least squares regression model yielded a preliminary R2 value of 0.65. A similar result was achieved by plotting the absorption peak depth at 2210 versus total clay mineral content (band-depth analysis). A complete hyperspectral geocoded reflectance dataset was collected using SIM.GA hyperspectral image sensor from Selex-Galileo, mounted on board of the University of Firenze ultra light aircraft. The approximate pixel resolution was 0.6 m (VNIR) and 1.2 m (SWIR). Airborne SIM.GA row data were firstly transformed into at

  5. Critical rainfall thresholds for triggering shallow landslides in the Serchio River Valley (Tuscany, Italy)


    Giannecchini, R.; Y. Galanti; G. D'Amato Avanzi


    The Serchio River Valley, in north-western Tuscany, is a well-known tourism area between the Apuan Alps and the Apennines. This area is frequently hit by heavy rainfall, which often triggers shallow landslides, debris flows and debris torrents, sometimes causing damage and death. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds for the initiation of shallow landslides is very important in order to improve forecasting and to arrange efficient alarm systems.

    With the aim of defini...

  6. [Mortality for accident in Tuscany Region (Central Italy) in immigrants from countries at high migration rates]. (United States)

    Indiani, Laura; Martini, Andrea; Chellini, Elisabetta


    to examine the characteristics and mortality trends for specific type of accident in immigrants resident in Tuscany and to compare them to those observed in Italians resident in the same region. descriptive study using the data of the Regional Mortality Registry of Tuscany. 1997-2008 deaths for accidents by citizenship ("Italians" and "Immigrants" from Countries with strong migratory pressure or PFPM) in residents in Tuscany. number of deaths, proportional mortality and standardized (standard: European population) mortality 15-64 truncated rates per 100,000 for each specific accidental cause of death, by gender and population (PFPM and Italians), in 1997-2008, and confidence intervals at 95% (95%CI); trends in mortality standardized truncated rates for specific accidental cause in immigrants and Italians in 2002-2008. in the period 1997-2008, 315 deaths for accidents have been registered in immigrants. The comparison between immigrants and Italians did not reveal any significant difference in mortality for road and at work accidents. Suicides are significantly higher in Italian males (rate in Italians 9.3; 95%CI 8.7-10.0 vs. rate in PFPM 4.3; 95%CI 2.4-6.2), while homicides are higher in male immigrants (rate in Italians 0.6; IC95% 0.4-0.8 vs. rate in PFPM 3.2 95%CI 1.7-4.7). Deaths from other injuries are more frequent in Italians in both genders. Trends in mortality rates indicate a reducing gap between immigrants and Italians. in Tuscany, mortality rates for some specific accidental causes are significantly different between immigrants and Italians, nevertheless trends of the last evaluated period seem to reveal a reducing gap suggesting a progressive integration of immigrants.

  7. Mycocoenology in Abies alba Miller woods of central-southern Tuscany (Italy)


    Angela Laganà; Elena Salerni; Carla Barluzzi; Claudia Perini; Vincenzo de Dominicis


    Numerous reports indicate that fir woods in central and northern Europe have recently been damaged by increasing pollution. It has been demonstrated that fungi can be good bioindicators of forest health status. In polluted areas the production of fruit bodies generally declines and the fungal biodiversity, especially of symbiotic species, is reduced. Here we report the results of a survey of the fungal and plant communities in woods of Abies alba Miller in central-southern Tuscany, already st...

  8. Thallium-rich rust scales in drinkable water distribution systems: A case study from northern Tuscany, Italy. (United States)

    Biagioni, Cristian; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lepore, Giovanni O; d'Acapito, Francesco; Vezzoni, Simone


    Following the detection of a severe thallium contamination of the drinkable water from the public distribution system of Valdicastello Carducci-Pietrasanta (northern Tuscany, Italy), and the identification of the source of contamination in the Molini di Sant'Anna spring (average Tl content≈15μgL(-1)), the replacement of the contaminated water with a virtually Tl-free one (Tl<0.10μgL(-1)) caused an increase in Tl concentration in the drinkable water. This suggested that the pipeline interior had become a secondary source of Tl contamination, promoting its mineralogical and geochemical study. Rust scales samples taken from several pipeline segments, as well as leaching products obtained from these samples, were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence chemical analyses, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Thallium-rich rust scales (up to 5.3wt% Tl) have been found only in pipeline samples taken downstream the water treatment plant, whereas the sample taken upstream contains much less Tl (~90μgg(-1)). The Tl-rich nature of such scales is related to the occurrence of nano- and micro-spherules of Tl2O3 and less abundant nanocrystalline μm-sized encrustations of TlCl. Leaching experiments on Tl-rich rust scales indicate that a fraction of the available Tl is easily dissolved in tap water; X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests that monovalent thallium occurs in water equilibrated with the rust scales, probably related to the dissolution of TlCl encrustations. Therefore, Tl dissolved as Tl(+) only in the water from the Molini di Sant'Anna spring was partially removed through oxidative precipitation of Tl2O3 and precipitation of TlCl. This highlights the critical role played by the addition of chlorine-based oxidants in water treatment plants that could favour the deposition of Tl-rich coatings within the pipelines, giving rise to unexpected secondary sources of

  9. Assessing shelf aggregate environmental compatibility and suitability for beach nourishment: a case study for Tuscany (Italy). (United States)

    Bigongiari, Nicola; Cipriani, Luigi E; Pranzini, Enzo; Renzi, Monia; Vitale, Giovanni


    Beach nourishment practices are a key aspect in coastal management plans for stakeholders and communities. Stemming from a concrete case-study (Tuscany), this research analyzes: (i) principal problems of current law regulating dredging, (ii) gaps in technical guidelines, (iii) advantages of integrated approaches to the decision-making process, (iv) possible applicable nourishment options and their costs and benefits. Our results show that sand compatibility is driven mainly by grain-size stability due to the occurrence of lower pollution levels in off-shore deposits than in threatened beaches, thus current laws and guidelines should be improved to fill the evident gap in the evaluation process and to include a more complete approach to data evaluation and an integrated approach to ecotoxicity evaluation, which is relevant in cases of geochemical anomalies. The cost-benefit analysis performed indicates that only dredging intended to manage more than 1 million m(3) of aggregates would represent a real advantage for local communities.

  10. Mycocoenology in Abies alba Miller woods of central-southern Tuscany (Italy

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    Angela Laganà


    Full Text Available Numerous reports indicate that fir woods in central and northern Europe have recently been damaged by increasing pollution. It has been demonstrated that fungi can be good bioindicators of forest health status. In polluted areas the production of fruit bodies generally declines and the fungal biodiversity, especially of symbiotic species, is reduced. Here we report the results of a survey of the fungal and plant communities in woods of Abies alba Miller in central-southern Tuscany, already studied in the past. Certain changes were observed in the study areas, but they seem more likely to be due to other factors than pollution, such as the weather conditions, the age and natural evolution of the forests towards their climax.

  11. BMI from nutritional surveillance of 8-9 years old children in Tuscany (Italy). (United States)

    Lazzeri, G; Pammolli, A; Simi, R; Pilato, V; Giacchi, M V


    The latest increase in childhood obesity focused attention on the important consequences that this phenomenon may have on public health in relationship to the increasing risk that an obese child may become an obese adult. To deal with this problem, there is necessary to assess systematically the distribution of childhood nutritional status at different levels: international, regional and local. In this paper are presented data on underweight, overweight and obesity prevalence in third grade primary school children, aged 8/9 years in Tuscany (2008) and its distribution in relationship to the demographic breadth of their place of residence. Data from statistic sample of 2109 (1.091 males, 1.018 females), 8/9 years school-children were collected; weight and height were measured using standardised personnel and instruments. Exact month age was calculated between the data of measurement and that of birth. Body Mass Index (BMI) classes were calculated using Cole et al.'s epidemiologic cut-off for children and adolescents. Residence areas were divided into four classes based on the number of inhabitants ( 50.000; > 50.000 metropolitan). The prevalence of underweight was 0.88% (0.76% in males and 1.01% in females), the prevalence of overweight was 23.43% (22.33% in males and 24.65% in females), the prevalence of obese was 7.95% (9.08% in males, 6.70% in females). The lowest prevalence of obese (6.46%) was found in towns with over 50.000 residents (metropolitan). The obesity prevalence in Tuscany children is still lower than that of the Italian National Survey, while the overweight prevalence it's the same. Obesity prevalence (10.71%) is higher in municipalities with low residents number (< 10.000).

  12. Operational flood forecasting: further lessons learned form a recent inundation in Tuscany, Italy (United States)

    Caparrini, F.; Castelli, F.; di Carlo, E.


    After a few years of experimental setup, model refinement and parameters calibration, a distributed flood forecasting system for the Tuscany region was promoted to operational use in early 2008. The hydrologic core of the system, MOBIDIC, is a fully distributed soil moisture accounting model, with sequential assimilation of hydrometric data. The model is forced by the real-time dense hydrometeorological network of the Regional Hydrologic Service as well from the QPF products of a number of different limited area meteorological models (LAMI, WRF+ECMWF, WRF+GFS). Given the relatively short response time of the Tuscany basins, the river flow forecasts based on ground measured precipitation are operationally used mainly as a monitoring tool, while the true usable predictions are necessarily based on the QPF input. The first severe flooding event the system had to face occurred in late December 2009, when a failure of the right levee of the Serchio river caused an extensive inundation (on December 25th). In the days following the levee breaking, intensive monitoring and forecast was needed (another flood peak occurred on the night between December 29th and January 1st 2010) as a support for decisions regarding the management of the increased vulnerability of the area and the planning of emergency reparation works at the river banks. The operational use of the system during such a complex event, when both the meteorological and the hydrological components may be said to have performed well form a strict modeling point of view, brought to attention a number of additional issues about the system as a whole. The main of these issues may be phrased in terms of additional system requirements, namely: the ranking of different QPF products in terms of some likelihood measure; the rapid redefinition of alarm thresholds due to sudden changes in the river flow capacity; the supervised prediction for evaluating the consequences of different management scenarios for reservoirs

  13. On-farm evaluation of seed yield and oil quality of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in inland areas of Tuscany, Central Italy

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    Luciana G. Angelini


    Full Text Available Traditional oilseed crops, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., may represent valuable alternative crops in cropping systems dominated by cereals, due to their adaptability to poor soils and to their high economic value related to the interesting quality of the oil, which is being increasingly appreciated by consumers and industry. The aim of this study was to test the adaptability of linseed to the inland marginal areas of Tuscany, and to explore the levels of crop yield and oil quality which can be achieved in hilly and lowland environments. For three years (2011-2014, experimental open fields (1- 5 ha each were established and monitored in six commercial farms located in the inland countryside of Pisa province, Tuscany, Central Italy. The effect of environment (hilly and plain areas was assessed in terms of yield and yield components as well as oil content and composition. Interestingly, seed yield and biomass production were very stable over years in the two areas of cultivation, irrespectively of yearly differences in weather conditions. As expected, higher yields were obtained in plain than in hilly areas. Regarding oil composition, oil extracted from linseed grown in plain environments was richer in linolenic acid, while, oppositely, both oleic and linoleic acids were more abundant in oil from hilly areas. Definitively, our results demonstrated that linseed might be a valuable alternative to cereal crops for marginal lands of Tuscany and, more in general, of Central Italy.

  14. Hydrogeological study of the intensely exploited aquifer of the Santa Croce leather-producing district, Tuscany (central Italy) (United States)

    Grassi, Sergio; Doveri, Marco; Cortecci, Gianni; Amadori, Michele


    A hydrogeological study was undertaken to define the groundwater circulation in the Santa Croce area (Tuscany, central Italy) where the existing multilayered aquifer has long been intensively exploited. Investigations carried out on about 150 wells revealed the existence of a deep piezometric depression (to 20 m below sea level) which drains groundwater from the entire surrounding area. Samples from about 70 water points, collected twice in 2007, were analysed for major elements and stable isotope composition. Three major groups of waters, which mix in the study area, have been distinguished: (1) waters of the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type mainly flowing along the Arno River Plain; (2) waters of the Na-K-Cl/Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4, type with SO4 content up to 275 mg/L, inflowing from the Pisane Hills; (3) relatively high-salinity waters mainly of the Na-HCO3 type which, with Cl concentrations up to 750 mg/L, likely arise from a normal fault located at the foot of the northern hills. The characteristics of the different components are greatly affected by significant modifying processes such as cation exchange and sulfate reduction. The achieved conceptual model suggests the southern hills as the main recharging area of the aquifer system from which water circulation, characterized by pathways of different length and depth, develops.

  15. A model-based assessment of adaptation options for Chianti wine production in Tuscany (Italy) under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Moriondo, M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Trombi, G.; Bindi, M.


    This paper covers a comprehensive economic analysis of climate change adaptation options for a specific wine producing region, namely Tuscany. As temperature increases under climate change, rainfall patterns will be different, and Chianti wine production in Tuscany therefore needs to adapt in the

  16. Forest ecosystem monitoring in Tuscany (Italy: past activities, present status and future perspectives

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    Claudio LEONZIO


    Full Text Available Since 1987 the Region of Tuscany has been actively monitoring crown status in its forests, in order to protect them from atmospheric pollution, biotic factors and environmental change. Over this period the Region has performed periodical inventories on crown condition in publicly-owned forests (Level I network and established a network of permanent plots (MON.I.TO., Level II – III to study long-term changes occurring in forest ecosystems. Some of these permanent plots were later included in the national programme CONECOFOR, managed by the Ministry for Policy in Agriculture and Forest. Currently a further development of MON.I.TO. is being implemented, called MONITO III – TOpModel, the aim of which is to broaden the information potential of the monitoring system to include carbon stocks and biodiversity evaluation. This paper provides an up-to-date report on the status of the various surveys and recommends a closer connection between MON.I.TO. and the other regional information systems, especially the Regional Forest Inventory, in order to produce information that may be useful in forest planning and in Sustainable Forest Management.

  17. Critical rainfall thresholds for triggering shallow landslides in the Serchio River Valley (Tuscany, Italy

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    R. Giannecchini


    Full Text Available The Serchio River Valley, in north-western Tuscany, is a well-known tourism area between the Apuan Alps and the Apennines. This area is frequently hit by heavy rainfall, which often triggers shallow landslides, debris flows and debris torrents, sometimes causing damage and death. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds for the initiation of shallow landslides is very important in order to improve forecasting and to arrange efficient alarm systems.

    With the aim of defining the critical rainfall thresholds for the Middle Serchio River Valley, a detailed analysis of the main rainstorm events was carried out. The hourly rainfall recorded by three rain gauges in the 1935–2010 interval was analysed and compared with the occurrence of shallow landslides. The rainfall thresholds were defined in terms of mean intensity I, rainfall duration D, and normalized using the mean annual precipitation. Some attempts were also carried out to analyze the role of rainfall prior to the damaging events. Finally, the rainfall threshold curves obtained for the study area were compared with the local, regional and global curves proposed by various authors. The results of this analysis suggest that in the study area landslide activity initiation requires a higher amount of rainfall and greater intensity than elsewhere.


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    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the Miocene depositional units of the southern side of the Volterra Basin (Tuscany, Italy utilizing outcrop and seismic data and to establish the major events that led to their formation. Four depositional units have been recognized: Unit 1 is characterized by marine sediments of late Serravallian-early Tortonian age; Unit 2 is characterized by fluvio-lacustrine and brackish deposits of late Tortonian-early Messinian age; Unit 3 is characterized by marine deposits of early Messinian age; Unit 4 is characterized by the lacustrine deposits ("Lago-mare" facies of late Messinian age. The deposition of these four units is associated with an extensional tectonic regime that has been active in Tuscany since the late Tortonian. This regime generated half graben type structures in which deposition occurred. The recognized unconformities between the units are mainly related to uplift as a consequence of the extensional tectonic regime.    

  19. Groundwater resource degradation in coastal plains: The example of the Cecina area (Tuscany - Central Italy)

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    Grassi, Sergio [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@igg.cnr.i; Cortecci, Gianni; Squarci, Paolo [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)


    The paper describes the degradation of the groundwater resources in the Cecina area, where seawater intrusion, B contamination and NO{sub 3} pollution are all affecting the heavily exploited Pleistocene aquifer. Over-pumping has brought water levels to about 0 m.a.s.l. as far as about 7 km from the shore line, thereby promoting the seawater intrusion. The intrusion, which is characterized by cation exchange phenomena and Ca-Cl type waters, enters the plain mostly through the shallower horizons. The saline front, which advanced from 0.5 to 1 km in 4 a, has by now reached the foot of the hills to the east of the town, where it is also affecting wells of the local aqueduct. Boron contamination, linked to past discharge of industrial waste transported downstream by the river, reached concentrations as high as 3.5 mg/L in the mid-1980s. Although a decreasing trend is now under way, B content is still close to 1 mg/L. The presence of high NO{sub 3}, which, together with the seawater intrusion, represents a major issue for groundwater management in the area, is linked to the widespread utilization of fertilizers. Nitrate concentration, which reaches a maximum of about 300 mg/L in the shallow aquifer horizons and then decreases rather regularly with depth, is strongly influenced by precipitation. However, irrigation also contributes significantly to transporting the NO{sub 3} contamination to depth, as clearly shown by {delta}{sup 18}O data. The severe decline in the quality of the groundwater resource in the Cecina area is further compounded by an overall decrease in water availability in the region of Tuscany, as evidenced by long-term monitoring of precipitation and fluvial discharge.

  20. The continuous automatic monitoring network installed in Tuscany (Italy) since late 2002, to study earthquake precursory phenomena (United States)

    Pierotti, Lisa; Cioni, Roberto


    Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network (CAMN) was designed, built and installed in Tuscany (Italy), in order to investigate and define the geochemical response of the aquifers to the local seismic activity. The purpose of the investigation was to identify eventual earthquake precursors. The CAMN is constituted by two groups of five measurement stations each. A first group has been installed in the Serchio and Magra graben (Garfagnana and Lunigiana Valleys, Northern Tuscany), while the second one, in the area of Mt. Amiata (Southern Tuscany), an extinct volcano. Garfagnana, Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata regions belong to the inner zone of the Northern Apennine fold-and-thrust belt. This zone has been involved in the post-collision extensional tectonics since the Upper Miocene-Pliocene. Such tectonic activity has produced horst and graben structures oriented from N-S to NW-SE that are transferred by NE-SW system. Both Garfagnana (Serchio graben) and Lunigiana (Magra graben) belong to the most inner sector of the belt where the seismic sources, responsible for the strongest earthquakes of the northern Apennine, are located (e.g. the M=6.5 earthquake of September 1920). The extensional processes in southern Tuscany have been accompanied by magmatic activity since the Upper Miocene, developing effusive and intrusive products traditionally attributed to the so-called Tuscan Magmatic Province. Mt. Amiata, whose magmatic activity ceased about 0.3 M.y. ago, belongs to the extensive Tyrrhenian sector that is characterized by high heat flow and crustal thinning. The whole zone is characterized by wide-spread but moderate seismicity (the maximum recorded magnitude has been 5.1 with epicentre in Piancastagnaio, 1919). The extensional regime in both the Garfagnana-Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata area is confirmed by the focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes. An essential phase of the monitoring activities has been the selection of suitable sites for the installation of

  1. Occurrence of different phytoplasma infections in wild herbaceous dicots growing in vineyards affected by bois noir in Tuscany (Italy

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    Guido MARCHI


    Full Text Available Wild herbaceous dicotyledonous plants (dicots showing symptoms ascribable to phytoplasma disorders were found to be widely distributed in organic vineyards in central Tuscany (Italy affected by bois noir, a grapevine yellows disease caused by “Candidatus Phytoplasma solani”. In 2010 symptomatic dicots were tentatively identified to species level and the incidence of symptoms estimated in two selected vineyards in the province of Florence. Incidence ranged from 2 to 77%, and was not related to the relative abundance of hosts since very common species as well as relatively rare ones were consistently found to be symptomatic. PCR indexing and 16S rRNA sequence analyses indicated that two phytoplasmas co-existed in the vineyards: “Ca. P. solani”, infecting the root systems of 17 taxa, and a phytoplasma closely related to “Ca. P. phoenicium”, infecting 11 taxa, and occasionally co-infecting the same plant. Regardless of the high frequency of both pathogens in the vineyards, only “Ca. P. solani” could be detected in the grapevines. Population screening by means of tuf sequence analyses revealed the presence of only the tuf-b “Ca. P. solani” type both in dicot hosts and grapevine. This supports current notions of bois noir epidemiology, indicating that some infected dicots act as sources of “Ca. P. solani” inoculum whereas others are dead-end hosts. When the same specimens were screened by sequence analysis of the vmp1 gene, evidence was found that different phytoplasma genotypes may be predominant in grapevines and dicots.

  2. Lyme borreliosis spirochetes and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from Pianosa island, Tuscany Archipelago, Italy. (United States)

    Tomassone, L; Grego, E; Auricchio, D; Iori, A; Giannini, F; Rambozzi, L


    A study on tick fauna and tick-borne pathogens was undertaken in Pianosa, an island in the Tuscany Archipelago that constitutes an important stopping and nesting point for migratory birds. Ticks were removed from feral cats and a few terrestrial birds, and host-seeking ticks were collected by dragging. A total of 89 ticks were found on animals: 57 Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado, 1936 and 32 Ixodes acuminatus Neumann, 1901. Host-seeking ticks were 354 Hyalomma spp. larvae and 18 Hyalomma spp. adults, identified as Hyalomma marginatum C.L. Koch, 1844 (n=11) and 7 Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919 (n=7). A sample of adult ticks was subjected to molecular analyses to look for Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Sequence analysis of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and OspA gene of B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive samples showed the presence of Borrelia spielmanii (n=3; 3.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-10.4) and Borrelia valaisiana (n=13; 13.6%, 95% CI 7.0-23.0) in Ixodes ticks from cats and terrestrial birds. Ixodes spp. were also infected by Rickettsia helvetica (n=19; 23.4%, 95% CI 14.7-34.2). Finally, we detected Rickettsia aeschlimannii in 3 out of 12 host-seeking Hyalomma spp. adults tested (25%, 95% CI 5.5-57.2). Our study shows the presence of several tick-borne pathogens in Pianosa. Hyalomma spp. and Ixodes ticks other than I. ricinus seem to be involved in their epidemiological cycle, and birds could contribute to the pathogen dispersal along their migration routes. This is the first finding of B. spielmanii in Italy. We hypothesize the involvement of peridomestic rodents or hedgehogs in its maintenance in Pianosa.

  3. Legionella contamination in hot water systems of hospitals, nursing homes, hotels, factories and spas in Tuscany-Italy

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    Antonella Lo Nostro


    Full Text Available

    Abstract Following the report of many cases of Legionnaires’ disease associated with accommodation facilities such as hotels, spas, workplaces, hospitals and nursing homes, we verified if Legionella pneumophila and Legionella spp. were present in some of those structures in Tuscany, in order to estimate the species and serogroups in circulation. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (30.9% was the most frequently isolated species along with serogroups 3 (16.1% and 6 (13.3%; these three serogroups are identified, in literature, as those most responsible for Legionnaires’ disease (LD. Studying all analyzed structures, we found some parts of the water system where Legionella concentration was higher than 103CFU/L, indicated, in Italy, as the maximum admitted concentration value above which a decontamination treatment is necessary when one or more cases of healthcare-acquired Legionnaires’ disease are observed. Moreover disinfection is recommended in any case when counts exceed 104CFU/L.
    Consequently, in order to prevent cases of Legionnaires’ disease, a continuous surveillance of the water
    systems of all accommodation facilities is necessary, with particular attention to hospitals and nursing
    homes where immunocompromised patients lodge, so as to promptly estimate the presence of the pathogen and consequently plan the most suitable intervention activities. We concluded that, in any structure, a continuous surveillance and disinfecting treatment of water systems is necessary. Moreover, after any disinfection treatment the temperature of the hot water flowing in the system must be necessarily maintained near 51°C in order to minimize the probability of recontamination from Legionella and limit the
    risk of LD in consumers.

  4. Erosion-vegetation dynamics in the Lucciolabella biancane badland cultural landscape (Southern Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Maccherini, Simona; Vergari, Francesca; Santi, Elisa; Marignani, Michela; Della Seta, Marta; Rossi, Mauro; Torri, Dino; Del Monte, Maurizio


    In this work we present the results of multidisciplinary and long-lasting investigations on the complex cause-effect relationship among water erosion processes and vegetation cover on the Lucciolabella Natural Reserve, located in Upper Orcia Valley (Southern Tuscany). The area is a Site of Community Importance, where the cultural landscape of biancane badlands - water erosion landforms generated on Plio-Pleistocene marine clay outcrops - is preserved. We explored the direction and rate of change in land use and natural habitats of the biancana badland landscapes over the last 50 years, evaluating the erosion-vegetation dynamics and examining the processes involved in the biancana badland area. Historical information, such as early cadastral documents and diachronically analyzed aerial photographs, has been used to construct a database of the natural trends of modifications relative to habitat and plant species distribution, with the analysis of the consequent variations on the frequency of instability events. Old and recent land use maps were compared by using the TWINSPAN classification. Soil erodibility evaluation on the eroded biancana surfaces, regosols and well-developed vertisols, was carried out together with a decadal erosion monitoring program and the investigation of the physico-chemical properties of parent material. We also considered the effects of a few roots on saturated soil shear strength to introduce direct links between plants and soil processes. Moreover we run the LANDPLANER model in order to deepen the effect of the fragmentation of the vegetation cover on water erosion processes affecting biancana badlands. Long-lasting geomorphological survey and field erosion monitoring highlighted that biancana stations experience a very strong surface lowering rate due to water erosion, attaining an average rate of 2.4 - 2.6 cm/a. Moreover, biancanas in a more juvenile development phase, such as the ones of Lucciolabella Natural Reserve, show the maximum

  5. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy) (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.


    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  6. Lead-Antimony Sulfosalts from Tuscany (Italy. XX. Members of the Jordanite–Geocronite Series from the Pollone Mine, Valdicastello Carducci: Occurrence and Crystal Structures

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    Cristian Biagioni


    Full Text Available A crystal-chemical study of historical specimens as well as new ones belonging to the jordanite–geocronite series from the Pollone baryte + pyrite ± (Pb-Zn-Ag ore deposit (Valdicastello Carducci, Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy has been performed. These crystals were collected in quartz extension veins embedded in three different occurrences: (i baryte + pyrite orebodies; (ii schist layers interbedded between baryte + pyrite orebodies; and (iii schists at the contact with pyrite-poor baryte orebodies. Electron-microprobe data indicated the occurrence of three distinct groups of compositions within the sample suite. These correspond to As-bearing geocronite, Sb-rich jordanite, and Sb-bearing jordanite, with mean compositions Pb14Sb3.8As2.2S23, Pb14Sb2.9As3.1S23, and Pb14Sb2.6As3.4S23, respectively. Crystals representative of these different compositions have been investigated through single-crystal X-Ray diffraction studies and their crystal structures have been solved to R1 = 0.078, 0.069, and 0.033, respectively. The unit-cell volume decreases passing through As-bearing geocronite (V = 2149.5(3 Å3 to Sb-bearing jordanite (V = 2132.3(3 Å3. The As-to-Sb substitution takes place preferentially at the Sb4 site; through the increasing of the Sb content, Sb can substitute As also at the As6 site. According to the structural study of the ore deposit, formation of jordanite–geocronite is subordinated to a late Alpine deformative D2 stage, which permitted in situ remobilization of preexisting sulfide ore in small quartz extension veins. Such a local recrystallization would explain the variability of the As/(As + Sb ratio of the members of the jordanite series, reflecting the heterogeneity of the orebody.

  7. Post-orogenetic magmatic activity and related geothermal resources in Southern Tuscany, Italy

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    Merla, A.


    A wide area of central Italy, located along the Tyrrhenian coast, is characterized by recent magmatic activity, regional uplifting and abundant thermal manifestations. The area, which includes southern Tuscan and parts of northern Latium, is bounded to the north by the Arno River valley, to the east by the Chiana valley and Lake Trasimeno, to the south by the Tiber valley and to the west by the important normal fault system controlling the Tyrrhenian coast. The area is also well-known for the frequent occurrences of young mineral deposits and the presence of abundant high enthalpy geothermal resources: the dry-seam fields of Larderello and Mt. Amiata, among the largest in the world, with a present electric installed capacity of 459 MW (1984). The understanding of the origin of these phenomena and of the processes which led to the formation of the natural resource characterizing the area (geothermal, mineral etc.), might represent a valuable exploration tool and lead to a further expansion of present exploitation.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural phase of wine production in the Maremma rural district in Tuscany, Italy

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    Simona Bosco


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest from retailers, industries and environmental associations in estimating the life cycle of greenhouse gases emitted in the atmosphere from everyday products and services, also known as carbon footprint (CF. Life cycle assessment (LCA is the most common methodology used to evaluate the environmental impact of a product. This approach was largely used in many industrial sectors and was also recently applied to quantify the environmental impact of the agri-food chain. Within agri-food products, wine is one of the most analysed, both for its importance in economic production and in the world distribution market. The present study is a part of the Carbon Label Project carried out in the wine production chain in the Maremma rural district (Tuscany, Italy. The project assesses the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wine production for labelling purposes. Here, we evaluated the environmental performances of four high quality wines for carbon labelling. The international standards ISO 14040 and ISO 14044, and the Product Category Rules (PCR Wine from Fresh Grapes (except sparkling wine and Grape Must for the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD certification, specifically for Climate Declaration, were used in order to carry out our analyses. The functional unit (FU used here was one 0.75 L bottle of wine. The system boundaries were set from the vineyard planting to the distribution and waste disposal. The global warming potential (GWP of four investigated wines was found to lie between 0.6 and 1.3 kg CO2-eq./bottle, showing a value comparable with literature. With all the four wines analysed, the agricultural phase covered, on average, 22% of the total GWP/bottle, while the main impact was in the production of the glass bottle. The results showed that the vineyard-planting phase has a significant impact on the wine CF, thus it has to be considered in the life cycle, while in literature it is

  9. The Upper Miocene magmatism of the Island of Elba (Central Italy): compositional characteristics, petrogenesis and implications for the origin of the Tuscany Magmatic Province (United States)

    Poli, Giampiero; Peccerillo, Angelo


    Late Miocene intrusive magmatism of the Island of Elba, Tuscany (central Italy), consists of stocks, laccoliths, sills, and dikes showing dominant monzogranite and granodiorite compositions, with minor leucogranitic dike-sill complexes, aplites and pegmatites. A few mafic rocks occur as dikes, and as microgranular enclaves hosted inside the main intrusions. The Elba magmatism belongs to the Tuscan Magmatic Province, an 8.5 to 0.3 Ma old association of mafic to felsic rocks, of mantle and crustal origin, cropping out in Tuscany and northern Latium. Major and trace element abundances of Elba rocks are extremely variable, testifying to complex origin and evolutionary history for magmas. 87Sr/86Sr (~ 0.708-0.723) and 143Nd/144Nd (~0.5121-0.5124) are close or within the field of upper continental crust, with mafic dikes showing the lowest Sr- and the highest Nd-isotope ratios. Petrological, geochemical and textural data of Elba igneous rocks are better explained by invoking a leading role for multiple mixing processes between crust-derived felsic magmas and mafic-intermediate melts of ultimate mantle origin, accompanied by fractional crystallisation. Proxies of crustal anatectic melts are represented by some highly radiogenic-Sr rocks from northern Monte Capanne pluton. Crustal magmas were formed by melting of sedimentary rocks, likely metagreywakes, at pressures exceeding 0.3 GPa. Mafic-intermediate magmas have calcalkaline to shoshonitic compositions and originated in an anomalous mantle, moderately contaminated by siliceous sediments. Selective enrichments in Sr, Ba and LREE are shown by some intermediate rocks (Orano dikes), revealing the occurrence of a distinct magma type at Elba. Similar compositions are also observed at Capraia island, San Vincenzo and Campiglia (southern Tuscany), suggesting a regional relevance for this magma type. Sr-Ba-LREE-rich rocks do not show obvious genetic relationships with other Tuscany magmas and may represent a distinct end

  10. Water management sustainability in reclaimed coastal areas. The case of the Massaciuccoli lake basin (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Guidi, Massimo; Pistocchi, Chiara; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico


    land sub-systems, the first one showing an average 4.2 mm net daily water loss during the summer season (about 0.975 m3/s) for the years 2000-2009. Lake inflow is constituted of two main terms: an anthropogenic one related to the drainage of the reclaimed land of about 1.1 m3/s (ranging 75-81% of the total inflow); a natural one defined by recharge through rainfall, the western coastal aquifer and the eastern reliefs, accounting for 0.25 m3/s (varying 19-25% of the total inflow). On the other hand, lake water loss is mainly due to evaporation from water surface and evapotranspiration from the palustrine vegetation for around 56-61% (1.31 m3/s on average), while 13 to 15% (0.325 m3/s) is due to inefficient irrigation schemes using lake water and, being the lake perched, recharge to the reclaimed land aquifer (26 to 29%) by means of water infiltrating along the embankments (0.64 m3/s on average). Since several springs on the eastern margin, which would flow to the lacustrine system for about 0.160 m3/s (Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Serchio, 2007), are tapped (for residential, tourism and industrial users), the anthropogenic impact on the water deficit constitutes about 50% of the total, being 34% due to irrigation and 16% to other users. This demonstrates the naturally induced water deficit, already known by historical sources, is heavily altered by anthropogenic pressure defining a not sustainable balance between the socio-economic system and the natural one. It is then clear, that in order to reduce the water stress, a new water management strategy in the whole basin must be devised by revising and enhancing the irrigation schemes and the residential, industrial and tourism water distribution. Reference Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Serchio, 2007. Piano di Bacino 'Bilancio idrico del bacino del lago di Massaciuccoli' Relazione di piano. Lucca, Italy.

  11. Microbial bio-mineralization processes in hydrothermal travertine: the case study of two active travertine systems (Tuscany, Italy). (United States)

    Barilaro, Federica; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Mc Kenzie, Judith A.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono


    Modern hydrothermal travertine deposits, occurring today at Bagni San Filippo (Radicofani Basin) and at Bagni di Saturnia (Albegna Valley) in Tuscany, Central Italy, have been investigated with the main purpose to improve the understanding of the processes that control calcium carbonate precipitation in hydrothermal-spring settings. Present-day thermal activity at Bagni di Saturnia is characterized by a 37.5°C thermal spring with a rate of about 800 l/s, with a pH of ca. 6.4. Thermal water discharges at Bagni San Filippo reach a rate of 20 litres per second at a maximum temperature of 50°C and a pH of ca. 7. The springs expel water enriched in H2S-CO2-SO42- and HCO3- and divalent cations (Ca and Mg). In the studied areas, travertine precipitation occurs in association with living microbial mats and biofilms, composed of a heterogeneous community of green algae, filamentous cyanobacteria and other types of prokaryotes, anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and heterotrophic heat-tolerant bacteria, with a variable amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Nine categories of fabric types, dominantly calcite and aragonite in composition, showing a wide range of macro- and micro-porosity, have been identified. High magnification analysis of dendritic and laminated boundstone, crystalline crust cementstone, raft boundstone, coated bubble boundstone, micrite mudstone and coated reed boundstone fabric types, suggests that precipitation occurs in association with organic matter. Diatoms, cyanobacteria filaments and other bacteria are then associated with the EPS and often appear totally or partially entombed (passively or actively) in it. Organic extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and often the external surface of cyanobacterial sheaths are the location where the calcite minerals nucleate and grow. Precipitation begins with organomineral nano-globules consisting of nanometre-size, from sub-spherical to globular-like, raised structures (5 to 80 nm diameter

  12. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.


    During the characterization of the Apuan Alps groundwater body ( "Corpo Idrico Sotterraneo Significativo", briefly CISS) (Regione Toscana, 2007) the intrinsic vulnerability has been evaluated for Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) by means of COP method, developed within COST 620 European Action (Zwalhlen, 2003). This system is both characterized by large data availability and it is considered an highly risky zone since groundwater protection problems (turbidity of the tapped spring waters and hydrocarbons contamination) and anthropic activity (marble quarries). The study area, 20 Km2large, has high relief energy, with elevations ranging from 5 to 1700 m amsl in almost 5 km. Runoff is scarce except during heavy rainfall; due to the presence of carbonate rocks infiltration is high: groundwater discharge at 155-255 m amsl. The area is located in the north-western part of Apuan Alps Metamorphic Complex, characterized by carbonate and non-carbonate rocks belonging to the non-metamorphic Tuscan Units (Carnic-Oligocene), Mesozoic Succession, Middle-Triassic Succession, and metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The main geological structure of the area is the Carrara Syncline, constituted prevalently by dolostones, marbles and cherty limestones. These carbonate formations define several moderately to highly productive hydrogeological units, characterized by fissured and karst flow. Hydrogeological system may be subdivided in two different subsets, because of both geo-structural set up and area conformation. However, these are hydrogeologically connected since anisotropy and fractures of karst groundwater. The southern boundary of Carrara hydrogeological system shows important dammed springs, defined by low productive units of Massa Unit (Cambriano?-Carnic). COP methodology for evaluating intrinsic vulnerability of karst groundwater is based on three main factors for the definition of vulnerability itself: COPIndex = C (flow Concentration) *O (Overlying layers

  13. Hydrogeochemistry of regional aquifer systems from Tuscany (central Italy): the state of the art before the definition of a geochemical baseline (United States)

    Nisi, Barbara; Battaglini, Raffaele; Raco, Brunella


    European Community Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its derivative regulations have recognized the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water bodies by individual pollutants that may significantly affect the quality of water itself. Italian regulation takes into account the EU Directives, and charges the regional authorities to create monitoring networks and produce assessment reports on the contamination of groundwater. The knowledge of "natural baseline" for various dissolved elements in groundwaters on a regional scale becomes of primary importance to distinguish natural sources and anthropogenic inputs. The studied area includes the whole Tuscan regional district (central Italy) and covers an area of about 23,000 km2. From a geolithological point of view, Tuscan territory consists of several complexes outcropping regionally, the most typical features being the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations, overlain by flysch sequences, as well as granite intrusions and volcanic rocks. Moreover, two geothermal areas (Larderello and Mt. Amiata), a large number of thermal springs and CO2-rich gas vents are mostly present in the central-southern part of Tuscany. Finally in southern Tuscany (e.g. Campiglia M.Ma, Mt. Amiata, Elba Island), mining districts, predominantly characterized by polimetallic sulphides ore deposits, were exploited since the Etruscan time. In this work statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards according to the National Legislative Decree 152/06. Descriptive statistics on solute concentrations are based on geochemical data from the main Tuscan aquifers and investigated by the CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, Italy) and Department of Earth Sciences (University of Florence, Italy). The data processing was carried out on 4,767 water samples collected from 1997 to 2009. According to

  14. Inversion tectonics in the Neogene basins of Tuscany (Northern Apennines, Italy): Insights from the Pisa-Viareggio basin. (United States)

    Argnani, A.; Rogledi, S.


    Several sedimentary basins are located in the internal portion of the Northern Apennines, bordering the eastern side of the Northern Tyrrhenian sea. These basins trend almost parallel to the Apennine range and are filled by Neogene sediments with thickness ranging between few 100's m to few km (Martini et al., 2001). Sediments belonging to these basins crop out extensively in western Tuscany, often appearing heavily deformed. Although classically interpreted as extensional basins (e.g., Martini and Sagri, 1993 and references therein), some papers call for an initial thrust-related origin (Finetti et al., 2001; Bonini and Sani, 2002), and the long-lasting debate about the origin of the Neogene basins of Tuscany is still ongoing (cfr. Brogi 2011 and Sani et al., 2004). This contribution aims at presenting the case of the Pisa-Viareggio basin, which is the northernmost one among the large basins of Tuscany (Pascucci et al., 2007). This basin straddles the coastline and has been investigated through the interpretation of a grid of industrial seismic profiles covering the Pisa plain and tied to exploration wells. In the Pisa-Viareggio basin seismic profiles show a west-dipping listric extensional fault that bounds the basin to the east, supporting an extensional origin. The basin is filled with up to 3 seconds of upper Messinian to Quaternary sediments, and extension mostly occurred during late Messinian-early Pliocene, although continuing with reduced intensity till the Quaternary. The southern part of this basin shows a superimposed contractional deformation (tectonic inversion), that progressively increases to the south, where the basin appears completely overturned and eroded in the Livorno Mountains. The basin-boundary fault trends roughly NNW-SSE and is buried in the Quaternary sediments of the Pisa plain, but it turns rather abruptly to N-S and NNE-SSW in the south, near Livorno. Inspection of detailed geological maps (Lazzarotto et al., 1990) suggests that the

  15. Tectonic and climatic controls on historical landscape modifications: The avulsion of the lower Cecina River (Tuscany, central Italy) (United States)

    Benvenuti, Marco; Bonini, Marco; Moratti, Giovanna; Ricci, Marianna; Tanini, Chiara


    Integration of geomorphology, stratigraphy, sedimentology and morphotectonics in the analysis of the lower Cecina River reach, coastal Tuscany, reveals an undocumented historical channel avulsion. Geomorphological evidence and radiocarbon dating support that, from the Last Glacial Maximum until the end of the 16th century, the Cecina River flowed north of the present course and formed a well-developed cuspate delta. Two concurrent factors, active tectonics as a preparing factor and discharge regime as an activation factor, are thus inferred to have favored the avulsion of Cecina River. Fragmentary archaeological and historical records indicate that the late Holocene Cecina River plain was virtually unpopulated until the latest 16th century. This seems the main reason why high-magnitude hydrological events and prominent river channel avulsions were not reported in historical chronicles. From this perspective, geomorphological data may provide important knowledge and understanding of recent dynamics of environmental change when historical record is lacking or missing.

  16. 30-day in-hospital mortality after acute myocardial infarction in Tuscany (Italy: An observational study using hospital discharge data

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    Seghieri Chiara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the world. One of the outcome indicators recently used to measure hospital performance is 30-day mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. This indicator has proven to be a valid and reproducible indicator of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the diagnostic and therapeutic process for AMI patients after hospital admission. The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of inter-hospital variability on 30-day in-hospital mortality after AMI in Tuscany. This indicator is a proxy of 30-day mortality that includes only deaths occurred during the index or subsequent hospitalizations. Methods The study population was identified from hospital discharge records (HDRs and included all patients with primary or secondary ICD-9-CM codes of AMI (ICD-9 codes 410.xx that were discharged between January 1, 2009 and November 30, 2009 from any hospital in Tuscany. The outcome of interest was 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality, defined as a death occurring for any reason in the hospital within 30 days of the admission date. Because of the hierarchical structure of the data, with patients clustered into hospitals, random-effects (multilevel logistic regression models were used. The models included patient risk factors and random intercepts for each hospital. Results The study included 5,832 patients, 61.90% male, with a mean age of 72.38 years. During the study period, 7.99% of patients died within 30 days of admission. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher among patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI compared with those with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI. The multilevel analysis which included only the hospital variance showed a significant inter-hospital variation in 30-day in-hospital mortality. When patient characteristics were added to the model, the hospital variance decreased. The

  17. 30-day in-hospital mortality after acute myocardial infarction in Tuscany (Italy): an observational study using hospital discharge data. (United States)

    Seghieri, Chiara; Mimmi, Stefano; Lenzi, Jacopo; Fantini, Maria Pia


    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the world. One of the outcome indicators recently used to measure hospital performance is 30-day mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This indicator has proven to be a valid and reproducible indicator of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the diagnostic and therapeutic process for AMI patients after hospital admission. The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of inter-hospital variability on 30-day in-hospital mortality after AMI in Tuscany. This indicator is a proxy of 30-day mortality that includes only deaths occurred during the index or subsequent hospitalizations. The study population was identified from hospital discharge records (HDRs) and included all patients with primary or secondary ICD-9-CM codes of AMI (ICD-9 codes 410.xx) that were discharged between January 1, 2009 and November 30, 2009 from any hospital in Tuscany. The outcome of interest was 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality, defined as a death occurring for any reason in the hospital within 30 days of the admission date. Because of the hierarchical structure of the data, with patients clustered into hospitals, random-effects (multilevel) logistic regression models were used. The models included patient risk factors and random intercepts for each hospital. The study included 5,832 patients, 61.90% male, with a mean age of 72.38 years. During the study period, 7.99% of patients died within 30 days of admission. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher among patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) compared with those with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The multilevel analysis which included only the hospital variance showed a significant inter-hospital variation in 30-day in-hospital mortality. When patient characteristics were added to the model, the hospital variance decreased. The multilevel analysis was then carried out

  18. [Spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for air quality in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) according to ARPAT e LaMMA. Critical observations]. (United States)

    Grechi, Daniele


    On March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and the Laboratory of monitoring and environmental modelling published a Report on spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for Tuscan air quality, where they supported the decommissioning of modelling stations located in the Florentine Plain. The stations of Signa, Scandicci, and Firenze-Bassi, located in a further South area, were considered representative Believing that air quality of the Plain could be evaluated by these stations is a stretch. In this text the author show the inconsistency of the conclusion of the Report through correlation graphs comparing daily means of PM10 detected in the disposed stations and in the active ones, showing relevant differences between the reported values and the days when the limits are exceeded. The discrepancy is due to the fact that uncertainty of theoretical estimates is greater than the differences recorded by the stations considered as a reference and the areas they may represent. The area of the Plain has a population of 150,000 individuals and it is subject to a heavy environmental pression, which will change for the urban works planned for the coming years. The population's legitimate request for the analytical monitoring of air pollution could be met through the organization of participated monitoring based on the use of low-cost innovative tools.

  19. Preliminary data on the social ecology of the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben 1777 in Tuscany (Central Italy

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    Piero Genovesi


    Full Text Available Abstract A research study on the spacing patterns and territoriality of the stone marten (Martes foina was carried out in Central Italy from 1990 to 1992. Twelve individuals were intensively radio-tracked in a wooded and rural area of Tuscany region. Our data seem to confirm a model of intrasexual territoriality for the species. In addition, social organization does not appear to change between different habitat conditions. Riassunto Dati preliminari sull'ecologia sociale della faina (Martes foina Erxleben 1777 in Toscana (Italia centrale - Dal 1990 a1 1992 è stata condotta una ricerca sull'uso dello spazio e la territorialità della faina (Martes foina in Italia centrale. 12 individui sono stati intensamente monitorati con tecniche radio-telemetriche in un'area forestale e rurale della Toscana. Dai nostri dati appare confermato per la specie il modello di territorialità intrasessuale. Inoltre, l'organizzazione sociale non sembra cambiare in differenti condizioni ambientali.

  20. Behaviour of boron and strontium isotopes in groundwater-aquifer interactions in the Cornia Plain (Tuscany, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennisi, Maddalena [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR, Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail:; Bianchini, Gianluca [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Ferrara (Italy); Muti, Antonio [Azienda Servizi Ambientali, Area Val di Cornia, Livorno (Italy); Kloppmann, Wolfram [Bureau des Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, Orleans (France); Gonfiantini, Roberto [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR, Pisa (Italy)


    The Cornia Plain alluvial aquifer, in Tuscany, is exploited intensely to meet the demand for domestic, irrigation and industrial water supplies. The B concentration of groundwater, however, is often above the European limit of 1 mg L{sup -1}, with the result that exploitation of these water resources requires careful management. Boron and Sr isotopes have been used as part of a study on the origin and distribution of B dissolved in groundwater, and indirectly as a contribution to the development of appropriate water management strategies. The geochemistry of the Cornia Plain groundwater changes from a HCO{sub 3} facies in the inland areas to a Cl facies along the coastal belt, where seawater intrusion takes place. The B concentration of groundwater increases towards the coastal areas, while the {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratio decreases. This indicates that there is an increasing interaction between dissolved B and the sediments forming the aquifer matrix, whose B content is in the order of 100 mg kg{sup -1}. Adsorption-desorption exchanges take place between water and the sediment fine fraction rich in clay minerals, with a net release of B from the matrix into the groundwater, and a consequent {delta} {sup 11}B shift from positive to negative values. The aquifer matrix sediments therefore seem to be the major source of B dissolved in the groundwater. The groundwater-matrix interactions triggered by the ionic strength increase caused by seawater intrusion can also be detected in the Ca-Na ion exchanges. Dissolved Sr follows a trend similar to that of Ca, while the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio is equal to that of the exchangeable Sr of the aquifer matrix and therefore does not change significantly. These results have helped to define a new strategy for groundwater exploitation, with the final objective of reducing B concentration in the water extracted from the aquifer.

  1. {sup 222}Rn and CO{sub 2} soil-gas geochemical characterization of thermally altered clays at Orciatico (Tuscany, Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltattorni, N., E-mail: [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Rome (Italy); Lombardi, S. [Earth Science Department, University ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Rizzo, S. [Via Tito, 1/A, 00061 Anguillara Sabazia, Rome (Italy)


    Research highlights: {yields} Soil-gas technique is applied to study gas permeability of Orciatico clay units. {yields} Clay permeability depends on thermal and mechanical alteration degree. {yields} Soil-gas distributions are due to shallow fracturing of clays. {yields} Rn and CO{sub 2} soil-gas anomalies highlight secondary permeability in clay sequence. {yields} Soil-gas results are supported by detailed geoelectrical surveys. - Abstract: The physical properties of clay allow argillaceous formations to be considered geological barriers to radionuclide migration in high-level radioactive-waste isolation systems. As laboratory simulations are short term and numerical models always involve assumptions and simplifications of the natural system, natural analogues are extremely attractive surrogates for the study of long-term isolation. The clays of the Orciatico area (Tuscany, Central Italy), which were thermally altered via the intrusion of an alkali-trachyte laccolith, represent an interesting natural model of a heat source which acted on argillaceous materials. The study of this natural analogue was performed through detailed geoelectrical and soil-gas surveys to define both the geometry of the intrusive body and the gas permeability of a clay unit characterized by different degrees of thermal alteration. The results of this study show that gas permeability is increased in the clay sequences subjected to greater heat input from the emplacement of the Orciatico intrusion, despite the lack of apparent mineral and geotechnical variations. These results, which take into consideration long time periods in a natural, large-scale geological system, may have important implications for the long-term safety of underground storage of nuclear waste in clay formations.


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    Full Text Available The stratigraphy of clayey and sandy beds outcropping in Val di Pugna locality near Siena (Tuscany, Italy celebrated for the past finds of fossil mammalian remains, is studied here. The research is aimed to date and define the depositional environment of the sediments that yielded fossil bones of known provenance.  Two sequences have been studied in detail; they are located near the hamlets of Ruffolo and Case il Poggio, where both marine and land mammal remains had been found. The integrated biostratigraphic analysis of the planktonic foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton indicates that the deposits straddle the transition from the Zone MPL3 to MPL4 of the planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphic scale, which is correlated with the Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus Zone (MNN14-15 Zone of the calcareous nannoplankton scale. The sedimentary characters and the faunal content are suggestive of a progressively deepening marine environment, with a transition from upper shoreface deposits to lower shoreface-offshore deposits. The vertebrates include a cetacean (Tusciziphis crispus and a sirenid (Metaxyterium gervaisi amongst the marine mammals, while the land mammals are represented by a rhino (Stephanorhinus jeanvireti and a bovid (Alephis lyrix. The sirenid remains are likely the only autochthonous elements because of their ecologic consistency with the depositional environment of the embedding sediments. The other fossil specimens are interpreted here as parts of decaying and floating carcasses that deposited their bones as they drifted away, inflated by decomposition gasses.The biostratigraphy of the sites permits to date the fossil bones. Noteworthy occurrences are those of Stephanorhinus jeanvireti and Alephis lyrix in levels correlated with Zone MN14, since they are usually reported in Zone MN16 and Zone MN15 assemblages, respectively.   

  3. Growth of a Pleistocene giant carbonate vein and nearby thermogene travertine deposits at Semproniano, southern Tuscany, Italy: Estimate of CO2 leakage (United States)

    Berardi, Gabriele; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Billi, Andrea; Rossetti, Federico; Soligo, Michele; Kele, Sándor; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Castorina, Francesca; Tecce, Francesca; Shen, Chuan-Chou


    A giant carbonate vein (≥ 50 m thick; fissure ridge travertines) and nearby travertine plateaus in the Semproniano area (Mt. Amiata geothermal field, southern Tuscany, Italy) are investigated through a multidisciplinary approach, including field and laboratory geochemical analyses (U/Th geochronology, C, Nd, O and Sr isotope systematics, REE abundances, and fluid inclusion microthermometry). The main aim of this work is to understand: (1) modes and rates for the growth of the giant vein and nearby travertine deposits within a Quaternary volcano-tectonic domain; (2) implications in terms of the CO2 leakage; and (3) possible relationships with Quaternary paleoclimate and hydrological oscillations. Results show that the giant vein was the inner portion of a large fissure ridge travertine and grew asymmetrically and ataxially through repeated shallow fluid injections between > 650 and 85 ka, with growth rates in the 10- 2-10- 3 mm/a order. The giant vein developed mainly during warm humid (interglacial) periods, partially overlapping with the growth of nearby travertine plateaus. Estimated values of CO2 leakage connected with the vein precipitation are between about 5 × 106 and 3 × 107 mol a- 1 km- 2, approximately representing one millionth of the present global CO2 leakage from volcanic areas. Temperature estimates obtained from O-isotopes and fluid inclusion microthermometry indicate epithermal conditions (90-50 °C) for the circulating fluid during the giant vein growth, with only slight evidence of cooling with time. Geochemical and isotope data document that the travertine deposits formed mainly during Pleistocene warm humid periods, within a tectonically-controlled convective fluid circuit fed by meteoric infiltration and maintained by the regional geothermal anomaly hosted by the carbonate reservoir of the Mt. Amiata field.

  4. The utilization of boron and strontium isotopes for the assessment of boron contamination of the Cecina River alluvial aquifer (central-western Tuscany, Italy)

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    Pennisi, Maddalena [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Area di Ricerca del CNR, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail:; Gonfiantini, Roberto [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Area di Ricerca del CNR, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Grassi, Sergio [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Area di Ricerca del CNR, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Squarci, Paolo [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Area di Ricerca del CNR, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)


    The groundwater B concentration in the alluvial aquifer of the upper Cecina River basin in Tuscany, Italy, often exceeds the limit of 1 mg L{sup -1} set by the European Union for drinking water. On the basis of hydrogeological and geochemical observations, the main source of the B contamination of groundwater has been attributed to past releases into streams of exhausted, B-rich geothermal waters and/or mud derived from boric acid manufacturing in Larderello. The releases were discontinued 25-30 years ago. This study confirms that the B dissolved in groundwater is anthropogenic. In fact, the {delta} {sup 11}B values of groundwater B match the range -12.2 per mille to -13.3 per mille of the Turkish B mineral (colemanite) processed in boric acid manufacturing, in the course of which no significant isotopic effects have been observed. This isotopic tracing of the Cecina alluvial aquifer occurs just below the confluence of the Possera Creek, which carries the B releases from Larderello. Strontium isotope ratios support this conclusion. At about 18 km from the Possera Creek confluence, the groundwater {delta} {sup 11}B drops to much more negative values (-22 per mille to -27 per mille ), which are believed to be produced by adsorption-desorption interactions between dissolved B and the aquifer matrix. The {delta} {sup 11}B of B fixed in well bottom sediments shows a similar variation. At present, desorption is prevailing over adsorption because the releases of B-rich water have ceased. A theoretical model is suggested to explain the isotopic trends observed. Thus, B isotopes appear to be a powerful tool for identifying the origin of B contamination in natural waters, although isotopic effects associated with adsorption-desorption processes may complicate the picture, to some extent.

  5. The island of Elba (Tuscany, Italy) at the crossroads of ancient trade routes: an archaeometric investigation of dolia defossa from the archaeological site of San Giovanni (United States)

    Manca, Rosarosa; Pagliantini, Laura; Pecchioni, Elena; Santo, Alba P.; Cambi, Franco; Chiarantini, Laura; Corretti, Alessandro; Costagliola, Pilario; Orlando, Andrea; Benvenuti, Marco


    Dolia are large pottery containers used in Roman times for the storage and fermentation of wine. They were produced in specialized pottery workshops ( figlinae) and were typically marked with specific epigraphical stamps, which represent a major tool to unravel their provenance and trade. In this work we present the preliminary results of a study of two dolia defossa, recently found at San Giovanni (Portoferraio, island of Elba, Italy) during 2012-2014 archaeological excavations in a Roman farm (late 2nd cent. BC-1st cent. AD), devoted to wine production and probably constituting the antecedent archaeological phase of the adjacent "Villa delle Grotte". Based on archaeological (epigraphic) evidence, five different production areas have been hypothesized: 1) Elba island, where the dolia have been found; 2) the municipal figlinae in the Pisa territory; 3) the middle catchment of the Tiber river (central Latium) where "urban" figlinae occurred; 4) the figlinae of Minturno (southern Latium), a locality known both for wine production and exportation and for the presence of ancient figlinae; 5) the municipal figlinae in the Volterra territory. Archaeometric analysis of tempering agents intentionally added to the clay for the manufacturing of the dolia, particularly magmatic lithic fragments and clinopyroxene crystals, allowed us to suggest that the watershed of the central Tiber Valley - including different volcanic centres belonging to both Tuscany Magmatic Province (Monti Cimini) and Roman Magmatic Province (Monti Vulsini and Vico volcano) - could have been the most likely sites of production of the dolia found at San Giovanni. Alternatively, the site of Minturno (southern Latium) could be proposed.

  6. Geothermal power plants at Mt. Amiata (Tuscany-Italy): mercury and hydrogen sulphide deposition revealed by vegetation. (United States)

    Bacci, E; Gaggi, C; Lanzillotti, E; Ferrozzi, S; Valli, L


    At Mt. Amiata (Italy) geothermal energy is used, since 1969, to generate electricity in five plants with a nominal capacity of 88 MW. Anomalous levels of mercury characterise geothermal fluids of Mt. Amiata, an area renowned for its vast cinnabar deposits and for the mercury production carried out in the past. Mercury emission rates range from 300 to 400 g/h, or 3-4 g/h per MW electrical installed capacity. These emissions are coupled with a release of 7-8 kg/(h MW) of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Mercury is discharged as Hg0 gaseous species and reaches the atmosphere with the non-condensable gas fraction. In this fraction, CO, is the major component (94-98%), H2S is around 1% and mercury concentration is as high as 1-10 mg/Nm3. Leaves of a spontaneous grass (Avena sterilis), at the end of the vegetative cycle, were used as mercury bioconcentrators to map deposition near geothermal power plants and to calculate the corresponding average levels of Hg0 in the air. Direct measurements of mercury and hydrogen sulphide vapours in the air reached by power plant emissions showed a ratio of about 1-2000. This ratio was applied to calculate average levels of hydrogen sulphide starting from mercury deposition mapping: typical concentrations of mercury and hydrogen sulphide were of the order of 10-20 ng/m3 and 20-40 microg/m3, respectively.

  7. Detecting background values of potentially toxic metals by integrated sedimentological and geochemical studies: an example from the Cecina River basin (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Amorosi, A.; Sammartino, I.; Sarti, G.; Zannetti, P.


    In order to assess unambiguously legislation limits and levels of concern for potentially toxic metals in sediments, natural concentrations (background values) should be established accurately. Through an example from the Cecina River basin, in central Tuscany (Italy), where natural Cr and Ni concentrations may locally exceed, up to 20 times, the threshold values designated for contaminated areas (150 mg/kg for Cr and 120 mg/kg for Ni), we show to what extent background metal concentrations can be accurately determined by means of integrated sedimentological and geochemical studies. XRF analyses of 76 samples collected at depths of 1 m from fluvial-channel, overbank, backswamp and beach-ridge deposits reveal distinctive sediment compositions that enable geochemical fingerprinting of individual depositional facies based upon diagnostic metal contents. Sediment provenance is the major factor controlling spatial heavy-metal distribution across the study area. Specifically, sediment supplied by Cecina River and its tributaries is characterized by remarkably high natural Cr and Ni concentrations, which reflect erosion of ultramafic complexes cropping out patchily in the drainage basin. In contrast, significantly lower contents are recorded where sediment is supplied by ophiolite-free source areas. At the basin scale, Cr and Ni may serve as valuable indicators of sediment pathways through distinct segments of the routing system. A stepwise increase in Cr concentration is recorded along the 75 km-long Cecina River, from source (100 mg/kg) to mouth (400 mg/kg). The major shifts in metal concentration are documented close to the tributaries-trunk junctions, reflecting increased supply of ultramaphic detritus conveyed by the tributaries into the main river. Where headwater streams flow through large ophiolitic outcrops, very high Cr (900-1600 mg/kg) and Ni (800-1100 mg/kg) concentrations are delivered to the upstream reaches of the tributaries. Conversely, a remarkable

  8. Use of gravity potential field methods for defining a shallow magmatic intrusion: the Mt. Amiata case history (Tuscany, Central Italy) (United States)

    Girolami, Chiara; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano; Pauselli, Cristina; Heyde, Ingo


    We analyzed the Bouguer gravity anomaly signal beneath the Mt. Amiata area in order to reconstruct the subsurface setting. The study area is characterized by a pronounced gravity minimum, possibly correlated with the observed anomalous heat flow and hydrothermal activity. Using different approaches, previous authors defined a low density body (generally interpreted as a magmatic intrusion) beneath this area, which could explain the observed gravity anomaly minimum. However the proposed geologic models show different geometries and densities for the batholith. The gravity data used in this study (kindly provided by eni) were acquired from different institutions (eni, OGS, USDMA and Servizio Geologico d'Italia) and collected in a unique dataset, consisting of about 50000 stations, randomly distributed, which cover Central Italy, with a spacing of less than 1 km. For each station the elevation and the Bouguer gravity anomaly data are given. From this dataset, we created two maps of the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the topography, using the Minimum Curvature gridding method considering a grid cell size of 500m x 500m. The Bouguer gravity anomaly has been computed using a density of 2.67 g/cm3. From these maps we extracted a window of about 240 km2 (12x20 km) for the study area, which includes the Mt. Amiata region and the adjacent Radicofani sedimentary basin. The first part of this study was focused on calculating the first order vertical derivative and the power spectra analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly to enhance the effect of shallow bodies and estimating the source depth respectively. The second part of this study was focused on constructing a 3D geological density model of the subsurface setting of the studied area, implementing a forward modelling approach. The stratigraphy of the study area's upper crust schematically consists of six litho-mechanical units, whose density was derived from velocity data collected by active seismic surveys. A preliminary

  9. The influence of lithology, land cover, road network and slope gradient in the landslides triggered during the period November 2008 - February 2009 in northern Tuscany (Italy) (United States)

    Segoni, Samuele; Mucci, Alessandra; Casagli, Nicola


    In the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia (Tuscany, Central Italy) 650 landslides (mainly shallow rapid slides and debris flows) were registered by Civil Protection during the period spanning from November 2008 to February 2009. During that period both provinces were struck by widespread precipitations: in November three distinct brief but very intense events brought the monthly precipitation well above the mean value, while the month of December was conversely characterized by heavy and prolonged precipitations whose cumulative amount doubled the monthly mean value. During January and February brief and intense precipitations struck again diffusively the whole studied area. As a consequence of such a prolonged period of abundant rainfall, hundreds of landslides occurred in the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia damaging private and public buildings, assets and infrastructures. The state of emergency was declared by the National Civil Protection from December to February. Rainfall has been without doubt the triggering factor of the landslides, but can some predisposing feature be identified? The answer is decisive for improving risk assessments and for developing effective emergency plans for civil protection purposes. For example, rainfall thresholds can be easily used to set up warning systems that can forecast the time of occurrence of landslides but such methods have a very coarse spatial resolution: the identification of predisposing elements could be helpful to identify the most risky locations in order to reduce the spatial uncertainty. From the Provincial and Regional Civil Protection archives many information about the occurred landslides were gathered and organized into a geographic database making use of a GIS system. Data include the exact location and day of occurrence of the landslides and their type. By means of a GIS analysis, the landslides database was superimposed to various thematic maps (geology, land cover, road network, slope gradient) in order to

  10. Depositional architecture of a mixed travertine-terrigenous system in a fault-controlled continental extensional basin (Messinian, Southern Tuscany, Central Italy) (United States)

    Croci, Andrea; Della Porta, Giovanna; Capezzuoli, Enrico


    The extensional Neogene Albegna Basin (Southern Tuscany, Italy) includes several thermogene travertine units dating from the Miocene to Holocene time. During the late Miocene (Messinian), a continental fault-controlled basin (of nearly 500-km2 width) was filled by precipitated travertine and detrital terrigenous strata, characterized by a wedge-shaped geometry that thinned northward, with a maximum thickness of nearly 70 m. This mixed travertine-terrigenous succession was investigated in terms of lithofacies types, depositional environment and architecture and the variety of precipitated travertine fabrics. Deposited as beds with thickness ranging from centimetres to a few decimetres, carbonates include nine travertine facies types: F1) clotted peloidal micrite and microsparite boundstone, F2) raft rudstone/floatstone, F3) sub-rounded radial coated grain grainstone, F4) coated gas bubble boundstone, F5) crystalline dendrite cementstone, F6) laminated boundstone, F7) coated reed boundstone and rudstone, F8) peloidal skeletal grainstone and F9) calci-mudstone and microsparstone. Beds of terrigenous deposits with thickness varying from a decimetre to > 10 m include five lithofacies: F10) breccia, F11) conglomerate, F12) massive sandstone, F13) laminated sandstone and F14) claystone. The succession recorded the following three phases of evolution of the depositional setting: 1) At the base, a northward-thinning thermogene travertine terraced slope (Phase I, travertine slope lithofacies association, F1-F6) developed close to the extensional fault system, placed southward with respect to the travertine deposition. 2) In Phase II, the accumulation of travertines was interrupted by the deposition of colluvial fan deposits with a thickness of several metres (colluvial fan lithofacies association, F10 and F12), which consisted of massive breccias, adjacent to the alluvial plain lithofacies association (F11-F14) including massive claystone and sandstone and channelized

  11. Toxic metal dispersion in mining areas: from point source to diffusion pollution. The case of the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district (Southern Tuscany - Italy): new results. (United States)

    Colica, Antonella; Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario; Rinaldi, Massimo


    Rivers draining mining areas may contribute to the diffusion of contaminants through their dispersion and accumulation into different morphological river units. The Paglia River's catchment (southern Tuscany) hosts the SE portion of the Mt. Amiata mercury district, the third most important worldwide (exploited from 1880 to 1980 with a total production of 100,000 tonnes Hg) before becoming a tributary of the Tiber River, which directly flows into Mediterranean Sea. The goals of this study are: 1) to recognize and distinguish different morphological units along the Paglia River watercourse, 2) to determine spatial/temporal distribution and concentration of Hg (and other toxic elements, particularly As) in different units. The analysis of morphological units was made by mapping their evolution from the beginning of mining activity (1883) to present day along 43 km of the Paglia watercourse defining eleven morphological sections across this river, and one across one of its tributaries, the Siele Creek, which drains various Hg mines located upstream. Four fundamental morphological/sedimentary unit types have been distinguished: stream sediments, bar, floodplain, and terraces. The latter occur in various orders and age: Pleistocenic, pre-mining (i.e., dating before 1880), and coeval to the mining activity. A total of 100 samples were taken from the various units in the selected transects, georeferenced and then analyzed for their Hg and As contents by ICP-OES. Arsenic contents generally never exceed 10 mg/kg. The observed ranges are: stream sediments 4.1÷8.2 mg/kg; bars 4.1÷6.6 mg/kg; floodplains 3.8÷6.6 mg/kg; terrace coeval with mining activity 3.2÷10.1 mg/kg. Hg contents in present-day stream sediments and bars are extremely variable (0.2÷27.5 and 1.4÷22.4 mg/kg respectively), and show a sharp increase at the confluence with Siele Creek. Floodplain sediments may reach up to 98 mg/kg. Terraces coeval with mining activity also show variable Hg contents (0.1÷66

  12. Identifying sources of B and As contamination in surface water and groundwater downstream of the Larderello geothermal - industrial area (Tuscany-Central Italy) (United States)

    Grassi, Sergio; Amadori, Michele; Pennisi, Maddalena; Cortecci, Gianni


    A study on the upper reaches of the Cecina River (Tuscany-Central Italy) and the associated unconfined aquifer was carried out from September 2007 to August 2008. The study aimed to identify the sources of B and As contamination in stream water and groundwater, and record contamination levels. The study area, which comprises a northern sector of the Larderello geothermal field, has in time been contaminated by both surface geothermal manifestations (now thought to have ceased) and anthropogenic activity. The latter refers to the disposal of spent geothermal fluids and borogypsum sludge, by-product of colemanite treatment with sulphuric acid, which until the late '70s were discharged in the Larderello area into the Possera Creek, a southern tributary of the Cecina River. A network of 22 stream sections and 9 observation wells was defined. Stream discharge (16 sites), well water levels and chemical concentrations (mainly B, As and anions) in water were measured monthly. Together, discharge and chemical concentrations were used to define the source of contamination by calculating the contaminant load in successive sections of the river network. Due to the stream's intermittent flow, only 50% of the performed monthly surveys could be used in comparing the contaminant load at different sections. Both contaminant loads (referring to median to high flow conditions) and chemical concentrations suggest that B mainly derives from the leakage of a concentrated Na-SO4 water rich in B, SO4, NO3 likely from a small aquitard located in the Larderello area. The B load from this area is about 2 kg/h and increases to approximately 2.7 kg/h in the final section of the study area, likely due to contribution of groundwater. As mainly derives from dissolution and adsorption-desorption processes involving water and As-rich stream bed sediments. Of the total 15 g/h As load measured at the end section, only about 3 g/h derive from the Larderello area. Further to stream bed, As

  13. Geothermal mineralized scales in the pipe system of the geothermal Piancastagnaio power plant (Mt. Amiata geothermal area): a key to understand the stibnite, cinnabarite and gold mineralization of Tuscany (central Italy) (United States)

    Morteani, Giulio; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Möller, Peter; Preinfalk, Christine


    The CO2-rich geothermal fluids produced in the Piancastagnaio geothermal field (Mt. Amiata geothermal area, Southern Tuscany, Italy) show temperatures up to 360°C and pressures of about 200 bar at depths of around 3,500 m (Giolito, Ph.D. thesis, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy, pp 1-147, 2005). CaCO3- and/or SiO2-dominated scales are deposited in the pipes leading to the pressure and atmospheric separators of the geothermal wells. High content of metastibnite and/or stibnite in both calcite and silica scales and Sb contents of up to 50 mg/L in the fluids indicate their mineralising potential. The red or black colours of the scales depend on the predominance of red metastibnite or black stibnite, respectively. In our condensation experiments, as well as during deposition of the scales, metastibnite is the first Sb2S3 mineral to form. In a second stage, metastibnite is transformed to stibnite. During depressurization the Hg content of geothermal fluids partitions preferentially into the gas phase, whereas Sb and As remain in the liquid phase. This separation explains the often observed areal separation of Hg and Sb mineralization. The multistage deposition of Sb in the mining district of Tuscany is due to a periodic restoration of the permeability of the ore-bearing faults by microseismic events and subsequent host rock brecciation. The still ongoing microseismic events are induced by the accumulation of high-pressure CO2-rich fluids along faults followed by mechanical failure of the faults.

  14. Fluid transfer and vein thickness distribution in high and low temperature hydrothermal systems at shallow crustal level in southern Tuscany (Italy

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    Francesco Mazzarini


    Full Text Available Geometric analysis of vein systems hosted in upper crustal rocks and developed in high and low temperature hydrothermal systems is presented. The high temperature hydrothermal system consists of tourmaline-rich veins hosted within the contact aureole of the upper Miocene Porto Azzurro pluton in the eastern Elba Island. The low temperature hydrothermal system consists of calcite-rich veins hosted within the Oligocene sandstones of the Tuscan Nappe, exposed along the coast in southern Tuscany. Vein thickness distribution is here used as proxy for inferring some hydraulic properties (transmissivity of the fluid circulation at the time of veins’ formation. We derive estimations of average thickness of veins by using the observed distributions. In the case of power law thickness distributions, the lower the scaling exponent of the distribution the higher the overall transmissivity. Indeed, power law distributions characterised by high scaling exponents have transmissivity three order of magnitude lower than negative exponential thickness distribution. Simple observations of vein thickness may thus provides some clues on the transmissivity in hydrothermal systems.

  15. Erosion processes in calanchi in the Upper Orcia Valley, Southern Tuscany, Italy based on multitemporal high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR and UAV surveys (United States)

    Neugirg, F.; Stark, M.; Kaiser, A.; Vlacilova, M.; Della Seta, M.; Vergari, F.; Schmidt, J.; Becht, M.; Haas, F.


    A 125,000 m2 calanchi badland in the Province of Siena (Tuscany) was monitored with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and terrestrial laser scanning over the period of one year. TLS (terrestrial laser scanning) was carried out on two sample slopes, whereas the image acquisition of the UAV covered the entire catchment. In combination with ground control points, the UAV images were used to create orthophotos and 3D point clouds using the Structure from Motion (SfM) software Photoscan. The TLS surface models indicate seasonal differences in erosion and deposition. The surface change measured with SfM showed nearly 6.700 m3 of net material loss, resulting from 8.700 m3 erosion and 2.000 m3 deposition. These values reveal a mean annual surface lowering of 5.3 cm for the catchment. Additionally, several geomorphological processes, such as rill erosion, slope wash and translational slides could be detected in the one-year monitoring period. A comparison of TLS and SfM results showed differences in the calculated volumes of mobilised material. These discrepancies resulted from shadowing effects and low point densities of the TLS point clouds.

  16. AESIS: a support tool for the evaluation of sustainability of agroecosystems. Example of applications to organic and integrated farming systems in Tuscany, Italy

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    Gaio Cesare Pacini


    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability on the farm level. Policy makers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This paper presents the outcomes of applications to organic and integrated farming of an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems (Agro-Environmental Sustainability Information System, AESIS. The AESIS was described together with a review of applications dating from 1991 in a previous paper. The objective of the present paper is to present the AESIS application to organic and integrated farming systems in Val d’Elsa (Tuscany and discuss how it is adapted for application to ordinary farms. The AESIS is organised into a number of environmental and production systems. For each system, environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. Possible solutions to sustainability issues, and critical points of relevance to the agricultural sector of the local economic and agro-ecological zone, are formulated by including an experimental layout, identifying indicator thresholds and by defining management systems with corresponding policy measures. Alternative solutions are evaluated by calculating and measuring the relevant indicators. The outcomes of the AESIS applications are discussed with specific relevance to the operational adoptability of AESIS to ordinary, agri-touristic farms managed with the organic and the integrated production method, respectively. The AESIS framework proved to be sufficiently flexible to meet the requirements for ordinary farm applications while keeping a

  17. The Larderello-Travale geothermal field (Tuscany, central Italy): seismic imaging as a tool for the analysis and assessment of the reservoir (United States)

    Anselmi, M.; Piccinini, D.; Casini, M.; Spinelli, E.; Ciuffi, S.; De Gori, P.; Saccorotti, G.; chiarabba, C.


    The Larderello-Travale is a geothermal field with steam-dominated reservoirs (1300 kg/s of steam and running capacity of 700 MWatt), which is exploited by Enel Green Power, the electric company involved in the renewable energy and resources. The area is located in the pre-Apennine belt of southern Tuscany and has been characterized by extensional tectonics and sporadic events of compression. The result of these tectonic phases is a block-faulting structure with NW-SE trending horsts and basins. Small post-orogenic granitic stocks were emplaced along the main axes of the uplifted structures, causing the anomalous heat flow that marks the area. Results from seismic reflection lines crossing the study area show the presence of the top of a discontinuous reflector in the 3-8 km depth range and with thickness up to ~1 km, referred to as the ';K-horizon'. In this framework we present the results obtained by the processing of a high-quality local earthquake dataset, recorded during the 1977-2005 time interval by the seismic network managed by Enel Green Power. The geothermal target volume was parameterized using a 3-D grid for both Vp (P-wave velocities) and Qp (quality factor of P-waves). Grid nodes are spaced by 5 and 2 km along the two horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. The tomographic Vp images show an overall velocity increase with depth down to the K-horizon. Conversely, some characteristic features are observed in the distribution of Qp anomalies, with high Qp values in the 300-600 range located just below the K-horizon. The relationship between K-horizon and the seismicity distribution doesn't show a clear and homogeneous coupling: the bulk of re-located earthquakes are placed either above or below the top of the K-horizon in the shallower 8 km depth, with an abrupt cut-off at depth greater than 10 km. We then present the preliminary result from the G.A.P.S.S. (Geothermal Area Passive Seismic Sources) experiment, a project that the Istituto

  18. [Definition and adoption of a building code based on biological and ecological sustainability in the Local Health Authority 11 of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy): strengths and areas for improvement]. (United States)

    Petronio, Maria Grazia; Battisti, Francesca


    Built environment is an important social determinant of health, but nowadays local health authorities (LHAs) have lost their competences in the issuing of building permits, especially since a new legislation introduced the possibility of personal declaration of conformity. They are also usually excluded from the urban planning process. At the same time, in recent years construction of buildings has been developed with insufficient regard to environmental health requirements, proper exposure to sunlight and winds, comfort, building materials, consumption of resources, and waste production. To deal with these issues, an interdepartmental working group was set up under the direction of the Department of Prevention of the LHA of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy), with members of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency, along with experts of the 15 Municipalities included in the LHA territory and members of other local institutions. The objective of the Working Group was to define and propose as mandatory a set of rules for local governments aimed at regulating construction activities according to criteria of environmental sustainability, eco-efficiency, comfort, and healthiness of living areas, at the same time encouraging the responsible use of natural resources, the reduction of energy consumption and the use of renewable energy sources in order to place environmental safety and health at the heart of all building activities. Experts of six Municipalities joined the working group and the regulation framework was adopted (and made legally binding) in 8 out of 15 Municipalities, with an almost complete overlap with participation in the working group. The active participation of experts, whose work consists in examining municipal building, permits, and declarations, has therefore marked the difference in the transition from theory to practice. The level of know-how attained by the participants and their motivation and enthusiasm have been so relevant in the

  19. A review on the Late Villafranchian medium-sized canid Canis arnensis based on the evidence from Poggio Rosso (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Bartolini Lucenti, Saverio; Rook, Lorenzo


    The fossil canid material recovered from the Early Pleistocene site of Poggio Rosso offers the opportunity to revise the taxonomical status of the Arno River dog, Canis arnensis. To date, the identification of this species is still a matter of debate due, on the one hand, to the poor state of preservation of the type specimens, and on the other hand to the lack of homogeneous descriptions and a clear diagnosis. The fossils recovered from Poggio Rosso show a good state of preservation with little (if any) plastic deformation, allowing re-evaluation of the dental and cranial characters typical of this species, as well as the proposal, for the first time, of a precise and specific diagnosis. The anatomical and morphometric features of C. arnensis exclude a close taxonomical relationship with the coeval Canis etruscus, suggesting instead a closer affinity to modern canids. The C. arnensis arrived in Italy around 1.9 Ma as the result of a dispersal event, and Poggio Rosso is the first Italian site recording the occurrence of this species. The dispersal of C. arnensis represents the arrival of the first modern canids in Europe and is therefore a significantly important biochronological event in European faunal assemblages.

  20. Two new marine flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Proseriata) of the genus Otoplana Du Plessis, 1889 from the upper Tuscany sandy shores (Italy). (United States)

    Meini, Gianluca


    Two new otoplanid species, from the interstitial habitats of the North-Western Mediterranenan sea coast, are described. The specimens show the typical morphological peculiarities of the subfamily Otoplaninae ("Turbellaria", Otoplanidae), but clearly differ from other species described in this group. Otoplana labronica sp. nov. is characterized by a body length of 1.2-1.5 mm, different features of the testes and vitellaries, the male sclerotic apparatus composed of a median aculeus (52-53 μm long) and 16 peculiar spines (19-44 μm long). This new species has the smallest number of spines (17) and the smaller body length, in comparison to all the species of the genus. Otoplana falcataspina sp. nov. is characterized by a body length of 2.3-2.4 mm, distinctive dimensions and arrangement of the vitellaries, the male sclerotic apparatus composed of a median aculeus (50-51 μm long) and 20-21 spines (22-44 μm long). This new species has a limited body length, and only the sexually mature specimens of the new species O. labronica exhibit a smaller size. They were collected below the low water mark on the sandy beaches at Calambrone and Marina di Vecchiano (Pisa, Ligurian Sea, Italy), respectively.

  1. Diffusion, analysis and discussion of electronic literature in Italy (DADELI

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    Gruppo Giada


    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a new project whose aim is to disseminate, analyse and discuss electronic literature in Italy. In the first section a general overview of the state of art of Italian electronic literature is given. We show that efforts both within academic research institutions and the publishing industry are hindered by a lack of interest and a misconception about what electronic literature is, particularly in Italy. The second section discusses two twin projects designed by Gruppo Giada, an independent research group founded in 2014: the first one is an Anthology of the History of Electronic Literature (1945-2015 (section 2.1, and the second one is an online platform (section 2.2. Finally, the conclusion underlines the goals of Gruppo Giada’s projects, given the current global landscape of the field of electronic literature.

  2. Leaf traits and tree rings suggest different water-use and carbon assimilation strategies by two co-occurring Quercus species in a Mediterranean mixed-forest stand in Tuscany, Italy. (United States)

    Tognetti, Roberto; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchi, Susanna; Raschi, Antonio


    We compared the water-use characteristics of co-occurring mature Quercus cerris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. trees growing in resource-limited (mainly water) hilly habitats in Tuscany, Italy. The species differed in their distribution along soil water gradients and in their access to, and use of, water, even though the study year was wetter than average, though with a summer drought. Compared with Q. cerris, Q. pubescens had greater access to soil water (less negative predawn water potentials) and a more conservative water-use strategy based on its relatively low stomatal conductance, high instantaneous water-use efficiency, less negative midday water potential and high soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance. Quercus cerris had less conservative water-use characteristics than Q. pubescens, exhibiting relatively high stomatal conductance, low instantaneous water-use efficiency, more negative midday water potentials and low soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance; however, Q. cerris had higher photosynthetic rates than Q. pubescens. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were positively correlated in both species. Although a strong correlation between ring widths and precipitation patterns was not found, some dry periods influenced ring-width growth. Quercus pubescens has always grown faster than Q. cerris, probably because of more efficient water use, although stand dynamics (driven by exogenous disturbance factors, including coppicing, browsing and competition) cannot be excluded. Ring-width variability, as well as tree-ring growth in dry years, which should be unaffected by stand dynamics, were higher in Q. pubescens than in Q. cerris. Moreover, Q. pubescens recovered completely after the drought in the seventies, even showing higher tree-ring growth than in the recent past, whereas Q. cerris showed a minor growth decline followed by a recovery to values comparable with those observed before the 1970s drought. Beginning in the early eighties, tree-ring growth decreased

  3. Can homogeneous harvest zones magnify the terroir effect of every vintage? The three year project VignaCRU in Chianti D.O.C.G. (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Priori, Simone; Bianconi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Mocali, Stefano; Pellegrini, Sergio; Leprini, Marco; Perria, Rita; Storchi, Paolo; Ciambotti, Aldo; Dell'Oro, Valentina; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.


    Grape composition, which affects the wine sensory qualities, depends on vine features (rootstock, scion, vine health) and vineyard management as much as environmental factors. Mapping soil at the vineyard scale, in particular, helps in optimizing the terroir expression of the wine. The terroir effect however varies year by year, depending on the interaction of several factors, such as climate and soil. Aim of this research work was to set up a methodology to delineate homogeneous harvest zones (HZ) in the vineyard and to evaluate the vintage effect in them. Four terroir macro-units suitable for premium Sangiovese wine, which is the main cultivar of Chianti D.O.C.G., were selected within a wide farm of Chianti Classico district (Siena, Central Italy). The selected macro-units are representative of the most common and suitable viticultural environments of the Chianti Classico D.O.C.G. and include: 1) hills of high altitude (450-500 m a.s.l.) on feldspathic sandstones, with shallow sandy soils; 2) hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on calcareous flysches, with stony, clayey and calcareous soils; 3) hills of moderate altitude (250-350 m a.s.l.) on Pliocene sandy marine deposits; 4) hills and fluvial terraces of moderate altitude (200-300 m a.s.l., 50-100 m above the present river valley) on ancient fluvial deposits. Each terroir macro-unit was surveyed by soil proximal sensing, to define two homogeneous zones (HZs) in terms of soil physics and hydrology. The proximal sensors used to map the HZs were: i) γ-ray spectrometer, to map the variability of soil surface in terms of parent material, texture and stoniness; ii) electromagnetic induction sensor (EMI) to determine the spatial variability of texture and soil moisture in the sub-surface horizons. Thus, the soil moisture of each HZ was monitored during spring shoot growth (beginning of April), berries veraison (end of July-beginning of August) and final ripening phase before harvest (September). Three

  4. Electronic journals and users : the CIBER experience in Italy


    Gargiulo, Paola


    CIBER is a library consortium established in 1999 to share electronic content licensing in the centre and in the south of Italy. EmerotecaVirtuale (EV) is the name of the digital platform used by CIBER to access over 3,300 licensed e-journals. After a brief description of CIBER member institutions, of their user population, and of the EV main features, the paper reports on the journal usage statistics of CIBER members during 2002 and the first six months of 2003.

  5. Monitoring of Foodborne Pathogens in Raw Cow Milk in Tuscany (United States)

    D’Alonzo, Alessia; Senese, Matteo; Fabbri, Ilaria; Cirri, Cristina; Milioni, Carla; Valenza, Valeria; Tolli, Rita; Campeis, Francesca; Fischetti, Roberto


    Raw milk consumption in Italy has increased over the last few years and although raw milk is characterised by cold chain, short shelf-life and the duty of boiling before domestic consumption, it is still considered a hazard. From 2010 to 2013 a monitoring survey of raw milk sold through vending machines was carried out to investigate the occurrence of several foodborne pathogens stipulated in the national legal requirements, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O:157 and coagulase-positive Staphylococci. A total of 127 raw milk samples were collected from 19 dairy herds in Tuscany Region, Italy. In addition, the milk samples were tested for the presence and count of Yersinia genus. Results shown that only one sample was positive for non verocytotoxin-producing E. coli O:157, whereas a total of 38 samples (29.9%) were postive for Yersinia genus; of the total 39 isolated bacteria, 23.6% were Y. enterocolitica, 2.4% Y. kristenseni and 4.7% Y. frederiksenii. None isolate was enteropathogenic; serotypes O:5 and O:8 were found in 16.6 and 13.3% of the isolates respectively, whereas none of the serotypes tested was detected in 70% of the isolates. The most probable number method revealed a count value between 0.03 and 24 MPN/mL. Based on these data a general assurance on health safety of raw milk produced and sold in Tuscany could be assessed. PMID:27800320

  6. 引发意大利托斯卡纳区滑坡的区域降水阈值体系的定义——统计与环境分析%Statistical and environmental analyses for the definition of a regional rainfall threshold system for landslide triggering in Tuscany (Italy)

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    ROSI Ascanio; SEGONI Samuele; CATANI Filippo; CASAGLI Nicola


    The aim of this work is the determination of regional-scale rainfall thresholds for the triggering of landslides in the Tuscany Region (Italy).The critical rainfall events related to the occurrence of 593 past landslides were characterized in terms of duration (D) and intensity (Ⅰ).I and D values were plotted in a log-log diagram and a lower boundary was clearly noticeable:it was interpreted as a threshold representing the rainfall conditions associated to landsliding.That was also confirmed by a comparison with many literature thresholds,but at the same time it was clear that a similar threshold would be affected by a too large approximation to be effectively used for a regional warning system.Therefore,further analyses were performed differentiating the events on the basis of seasonality,magnitude,location,land use and lithology.None of these criteria led to discriminate among all the events different groups to be characterized by a specific and more effective threshold.This outcome could be interpreted as the demonstration that at regional scale the best results are obtained by the simplest approach,in our case an empirical black box model which accounts only for two rainfall parameters (I and D).So a set of thresholds could be conveniently defined using a statistical approach:four thresholds corresponding to four severity levels were defined by means of the prediction interval technique and we developed a prototype warning system based on rainfall recordings or weather forecasts.%@@

  7. Preliminary analysis of relation between natural and anthropic elements in the calanco area of Podere Paiccia (Southern Tuscany - Italy): crowns of mudflow vs. erosion control practices (graticciate) during the period 1989-2015. (United States)

    Colica, Antonella; Martinelli, Lorenzo


    The study area Podere Paiccia, which is characterized by four calanchi, extends over a surface of 155,000 square meters, on N-NNW slopes, from 435 to 513m, with an average slope of 25° and it develops on Pliocene marine bedrocks. The calanchi represent an important morphology in southern Tuscany and also in Pliocene and Plio-Pleistocene bedrock in nearby areas of piedmont zones of Apennines. During the 1989 the "Consorzio di Bonifica della Val d'Orcia" introduced erosion control practices named graticciate (fences) along three of the four calanchi. They consisted of chestnut stakes (about 1 m long), fixed in the ground, connected by smaller transverse stakes and placed perpendicularly to the slopes, at 7-10 meters intervals, extending laterally for about 10 meters. These calanchi are formed by gullies, rills, crowns and mudflows. The crowns, one of the more dynamic erosional forms, are generally arch-shaped (40-50 cm in height, vary in width, gradient 54°÷90°). The four calanchi, named 1-2-3-4, were divided into three zones of equal size: high, medium and low. The analysis conducted by photo shoots and field measurements, during the years 1989-1992-1996-2002-2005-2015, aim to discover the relation between crowns and graticciate. In 1989, 1 did not present graticciate, 2 had graticciate in all 3 zones (28), 3 and 4 had graticciate (24 and 22 respectively) but only in the medium and high zones. The crowns (57 in 1, 58 in 2, 78 in 3 and 56 in 4) rise towards the ridges. In case during the ascend crowns meet the graticciate, these last are deformed and then destroyed (periods: 1989÷1992, 1992÷1996, 1996÷2002, 2002÷2005, 2005÷2015, graticciate destroyed along the 2, 3, 4,% mean values: 51, 87, 100 - 26, 46, 72, 90 costant value from 2005 - 57, 75 costant value 1992÷2002, 78,100). Until total destruction, graticciate limit the number of crowns in the high zones. Along 2, 3 and 4 the number of crowns is greater in the medium zones (mean values of the ratios

  8. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

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    Valentina Moschini


    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  9. A simplified method for the assessment of carbon balance in agriculture: an application in organic and conventional micro-agroecosystems in a long-term experiment in Tuscany, Italy

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    Giulio Lazzerini


    Full Text Available Many research works propose sophisticated methods to analyse the carbon balance, while only a few tools are available for the calculation of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration with simplified methods. This paper describes a carbon balance assessment conducted at farm level with a simplified methodology, which includes calculations of both CO2 emissions and carbon sequestration in crop rotations. This carbon balance was tested in the Montepaldi Long Term Experiment (MOLTE trial in central Italy, where two agroecosystems managed with two different farming practices (organic vs conventional are compared. Both in terms of CO2eq emissions and carbon sequestration, this simplified method applied in our experiment provided comparable results to those yielded by complex methodologies reported in the literature. With regard to the crop rotation scheme applied in the reference period (2003-2007, CO2 emissions from various farm inputs were found to be significantly lower (0.74 Mg ha-1 in the organically managed system than in the conventionally managed system (1.76 Mg ha-1. The same trend was observed in terms of CO2eq per unit of product (0.30 Mg kg-1 in the organic system and 0.78 Mg kg-1 in the conventional system. In the conventional system the sources that contributed most to total emissions were direct and indirect emissions associated with the use of fertilisers and diesel fuel. Also the stock of sequestered carbon was significantly higher in the organic system (27.9 Mg ha-1 of C than in the conventional system (24.5 Mg ha-1 of C. The carbon sequestration rate did not show any significant difference between the two systems. It will be necessary to test further this methodology also in commercial farms and to validate the indicators to monitor carbon fluxes at farm level.

  10. Electronic Health Record in Italy and Personal Data Protection. (United States)

    Bologna, Silvio; Bellavista, Alessandro; Corso, Pietro Paolo; Zangara, Gianluca


    The present article deals with the Italian Electronic Health Record (hereinafter EHR), recently introduced by Act 221/2012, with a specific focus on personal data protection. Privacy issues--e.g., informed consent, data processing, patients' rights and minors' will--are discussed within the framework of recent e-Health legislation, national Data Protection Code, the related Data Protection Authority pronouncements and EU law. The paper is aimed at discussing the problems arising from a complex, fragmentary and sometimes uncertain legal framework on e-Health.

  11. Gino Marinuzzi Jr: Electronics and Early Multimedia Mentality in Italy

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    Maurizio Corbella


    Full Text Available In this essay I reassess the complexity of the convergence between electronic music and media practices in Rome in the 1950s and 1960s, through the reconstruction of the experience of composer Gino Marinuzzi Jr (1920-96. His engagement with technology as a structuring device of compositional processes is fundamental and inescapable, and brings to the fore crucial issues of ‘applied’ music’s troublesome reputation in the Italian cultural discourse. In reviewing Marinuzzi’s biography over the period 1949-75, my goal is to exemplify the key phases of this transitional period in Italian music history, in which technology, through the spreading of media and their increasing importance in cultural representations, came to constitute a new value of musical activity and at the same time renewed old questions concerning music’s aesthetic autonomy.

  12. Environmental study for optimal sites selection for incineration plant of refuse derived fuel in Lucca Province, Tuscany (Italy); Metodologie e tecniche di analisi ambientale per l`ubicazione `sostenibile` di impianti di smaltimento rifiuti: l`esperienza della Provincia di Lucca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassoni, E; Cautilli, F.; Polizzano, C.; Andriola, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The present report describes the methodology and the main results of an environmental study aimed at the selection of the optimal sites for incineration plant of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and the associated waste disposal landfill, in a defined territory. The study was commissioned by a local administrative Authority (Province of Lucca, northern Tuscany, Italy), and was carried out according to the indications of the `EEC Political Program of Action in favour of the environment and of a sustainable development`. In essence, the methodology takes into account both the major and extant descriptive elements of the environment under scrutiny, and the project main elements of the proposed plant. Additionally, considerations were included regarding the location of all the segments of the entire disposal plant, particularly the disposal landfill which is usually responsible for the greatest environmental impact. Finally, the results were compared with the limits indicated by the present regulations. Similar methods, were previously applied to different territories, and are still in progress. In order to estimate the fate of the air bone discharges from the incinerator into the selected potential area, a meteorological and diffusive study was undertaken to calculate the average annual levels by depositions on ground through dry and wet mechanisms. By comparison with the regulatory limits imposed to the stack emissions by the EEC Directives, the calculated ground level depositions were considerably lower. By taking into account a number of environmental features (such as the subjection of water-bearing layers, low risk of modification of ecological processes, low impact on the agricultural activities), of logistic reasons (large average extension to allow the location of all plants), and socio-economic elements (presence of large industrial plants, lower density of housing distribution), 14 sub-areas were identified and selected, mainly concentrated in the central

  13. Agriculture and land management: the landscape monitoring system in Tuscany

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    Valentina Marinai


    Full Text Available With respect to the reduced weight in the Gross National Product (GDP and the continuous decrease in manpower which has been recorded in the last decades, an important role is recognized to the rural sector in the current developmetn model which justify the heavy financial committment of Europe and Italy to sustain european agriculture.Within this role, land preservation has an important role for the sector competitiveness, the rural space quality and the citizen’s life quality, and this role is nowadays recognized even by the politics for landscape defined for the Piano strategico nazionale 2007-20131. Both action definitions and planning and development of landscape resources firstly require to define landscape monitoring systems pointing out trends, and critical and strength points represented by the great historical and environmental differences of Italian landscapes. This study is a synthesis of the results from a 5 year project aimed to the definition of a landscape monitoring system in Tuscany, ranging from 1800 and 2000 and based on study areas covering around 1% of the regional territory, which will soon be implemented. The first recorded results show a strong decrease of landscape diversity (40-50% in the investigated time period. This study want to be an example for the implementation of the future monitoring system of this resource.

  14. Il fenomeno abachistico a supporto dei cambiamenti socio-economici: Arezzo tra il XIII ed il XVI secolo = The role of the abacus tradition for the economic and social development of the society: evidence from Tuscany (Italy between XIII and XVI century

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    Maria Pia Maraghini


    techniques to do arithmetic operations and practical rules to solve commercial and financial questions. The objective of this research is to further investigate the study of abacus schools and books, in order to recover and highlight the role held by the abacus phenomenon in the origins of the “accounting art” and, in general, the role of the “abacus tradition” for the economic and social development of the society during the medieval and renaissance period. To achieve this goal, the study relies upon some evidences from Tuscany (Italy between XIII and XVI century. By combining theoretical and empirical insights, the analysis points out the contribution the abacus tradition has given to the better development of public life in the city-republic during the medieval and renaissance period, that is to say to the best and most effective exercise of duty and civic right. This contribution has been the basis to the growing interest shown towards the abacus culture by the then city-republic authorities.La presente ricerca indaga sulle “origini” dell’arte contabile tendente a memorizzare i comportamenti economici. In particolare, essa esamina i primi “ambienti” specifici predisposti e organizzati per l’insegnamento delle conoscenze contabili e i “mezzi” di studio per il loro trasferimento: le scuole e i libri d’abaco. Diffusisi prevalentemente in Italia tra il XIII ed il XVI secolo, essi avevano il principale scopo di trasmettere quelle conoscenze generalmente definite di “matematica pratica”, quali le tecniche per eseguire le operazioni aritmetiche e le regole pratiche per la risoluzione di problemi commerciali e finanziari.L’obiettivo della ricerca è quello di approfondire lo studio delle scuole e dei libri d’abaco, evidenziandone il ruolo rivestito nella “genesi” della contabilità per le aziende e, quindi, nel più generale sviluppo socio-economico in epoca medioevale e nei primi secoli del Rinascimento.A tal fine, la ricerca si avvale

  15. The TARGET project in Tuscany: the first disease management model of a regional project for the prevention of hip re-fractures in the elderly. (United States)

    Piscitelli, Prisco; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Nuti, Ranuccio; Rizzuti, Carla; Giorni, Loredano; Giovannini, Valtere; Metozzi, Alessia; Merlotti, Daniela


    The official inquiry on osteoporosis in Italy, promoted by the Italian Senate in 2002 concluded that proper preventive strategies should be adopted at regional level in order to prevent osteoporotic fractures. Tuscany is the first Italian region who has promoted an official program (the TARGET project) aimed to reduce osteoporotic fractures by ensuring adequate treatment to all people aged ≥65 years old who experience a hip fragility fracture. this paper provides information concerning the implementation of TARGET project in Tuscany, assuming that it may represent an useful model for similar experiences to be promoted in other Italian Regions and across Europe. we have examined the model proposed for the regional program, and we have particularly analyzed the in-hospital and post-hospitalization path of hip fractured patients aged >65 years old in Tuscany after the adoption of TARGET project by Tuscany healthcare system and during its ongoing start-up phase. orthopaedic surgeons have been gradually involved in the project and are increasingly fulfilling all the clinical prescriptions and recommendations provided in the project protocol. Different forms of cooperation between orthopaedic surgeons and other clinical specialists have been adopted at each hospital for the treatment of hip fractured elderly patients. GPs involvement needs to be fostered both at regional and local level. The effort of Tuscany region to cope with hip fractures suffered from elderly people must be acknowledged as an interesting way of addressing this critical health problem. Specific preventive strategies modelled on the Tuscany TARGET project should be implemented in other Italian regions.


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    Marija RADMAN


    Full Text Available Tuscany, probably the most famous Italian region, is known because of many typical food specialities. One of them is the “fi orentina” - a thick, fi rst quality beef, called after the name of the city of Florence. However, recent trends in consumers’ behaviour and the BSE crisis have affected the attitude of consumers toward such products. In this study are presented the results of a mail survey about beef consumption and preferences that was conducted in Tuscany in May 2002. The survey showed that, despite recent food scares and new consumption behaviour, Tuscany consumers still like and prefer beef that has guarantees of quality. Therefore, there are good market opportunities for the Italian and foreign beef producers in Tuscany if they will provide consumers with not only good quality beef, but also more information about the meat.

  17. Revegetation assessment on different areas of a methane pipeline in Tuscany

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    Staglianò N


    Full Text Available Revegetation assessment on different areas of methane pipeline in Tuscany. Degraded areas due to extra-agricultural activity (such as quarries, dumps, ski runs, methane tracks, etc. or to natural events (such as landslides are present in a wide part of Italian territory and for this reason is extremely necessary an effective restoration in order to reduce erosion risks and to permit their better integration in the surrounding landscape. Revegetation is usually performed using commercial mixtures constituted by species with a forage aptitude. The aim of this work was to analyse the evolution of revegetation performed on different areas of methane pipeline in Tuscany (central Italy, both in Mediterranean environments and in mountain areas. Knowledge of mixture used during revegetation and time of intervention allowed, on one hand, to discriminate species introduced by revegetation from those coming out from native recolonisation of tracks, on the other hand, to know the age of canopies at time of botanical analysis. The following variables were assessed on the studied herbaceous resources: ground cover, floristic composition, biodiversity, level of recolonization by native species, similarity with natural areas. Data collection permitted the evaluation of efficiency of studied revegetation, the awareness of the role played by sown and native species, the estimation of the level of native species in order to integrate the restoration with the environment and the analysis of most important parameters that affect vegetal evolution in these peculiar settings.

  18. Fresnel Volume Migration applied to geothermal exploration in mid-southern Tuscany (United States)

    Jusri, Tomi; Bertani, Ruggero; Dini, Ivano; Buske, Stefan


    We implemented a Fresnel Volume Migration imaging technique to successfully image the target horizon within a geothermal field in mid-southern Tuscany, Italy. The challenge in imaging this lithology boundary were the presence of strong wavefield scattering and low signal-to-noise ratio in the input seismic data. The migration velocity was carefully modeled using the first-arrivals trav-eltime tomography technique, taking into account the velocity function from a vertical seismic profiling measurement in the area. Prior to the imaging, the data preconditioning was carried out deliberately in the time domain. The key in the data preconditioning stage was the implementation of static corrections using first-arrival traveltime tomography. Our seismic imaging result shows a clear image of the key reflections which correspond to the boundary of the target geothermal source rock. This finding provides the basis for a successful exploration of the geothermal reservoir in this field.

  19. Fostering Student Enrollment in Basic Sciences: the Case of Southern Tuscany

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    Montalbano, Vera


    In recent decades it has been detected in Italy a decrease in enrollment in basic sciences, i.e. Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. The increase in specific orientation is strategically crucial to achieve the goal of maintaining and increasing the number of motivated and capable students who enroll in these courses. With the purpose of increasing scientific vocations, workshops were organized in high schools and teachers involved in planning and implementation of laboratories, conferences for scientific outreach, thematic exhibitions, guided tours of research laboratories, summer's schools for students and courses for teachers were realized for developing a cultural enhancement in teaching basic sciences. Particularly significant is the case of activities organized by the Department of Physics of the University of Siena for students and teachers in Southern Tuscany. The methods used in cultural enhancement of teachers and activities designed to support schools with limited laboratory facilities, together wit...

  20. Direct sale as a means for promoting the sustainable use of plant genetic resources: the case of the Tuscany Region

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    Diego Naziri


    Full Text Available Similarly to other Northern countries, Italy has witnessed a growth in recent years of forms of direct sale of agri-food products. These so-called short supply chains often open new opportunities for the development and conservation of rural areas which are not merely economic in nature. The case study described here presents the results of a survey conducted in the Tuscany Region the purpose of which was to understand if and how direct sale has a part to play in promoting more diversified agricultural systems and in increasing or maintaining agrobiodiversity. The support that the institutions provide for direct sale in this context can be considered as a form of implementation of the FAO International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA that Italy has ratified and which obliges its contracting parties to promote a sustainable use of plant genetic resources.

  1. Assessing the potential of INFFER to improve management of agro-environmental assets in Tuscany

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    G. Cesare Pacini


    Full Text Available In the European Union, as in many parts of the world, there is increasing pressure to demonstrate that environmental projects achieve expected outcomes and are cost-effective. This paper reports on a trial application of an environmental investment framework, the Investment Framework for Environmental Resource (INFFER. The framework, based on benefit:cost analysis principles, was applied to agro-environmental assets in the Mugello and Valdisieve areas of northern Tuscany, Italy. Farmers, environmental and institutional representatives and technical experts took part in the process of identifying agro-environmental assets in the region. A total of 26 assets were identified, and of these, only 2 (the last remaining population of Cistus laurfolius within the natural protected area of local interest (Area Naturale Protetta di Interesse Locale, ANPIL of Santa Brigida, and the Sant’ Antonio forest were selected as having reasonable prospects of progressing to cost-effective projects (benefit:cost ratio>1. Detailed projects were developed for both assets and found to be cost-effective based on available information. While the mindset of being clear about identifying and valuing natural assets was a new concept to participants, overall the process worked well. The factors considered in calculating a benefit:cost ratio, including technical feasibility, adoption and compliance factors, socio-political risks, costs and the likelihood of obtaining long-term funding to maintain project benefits, were all relevant in Tuscany and required the knowledge of local experts. Overall, INFFER appears relevant and useful in an EU context, and, in particular, is highly compatible with the EU Natura 2000 nature and biodiversity policy.

  2. Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of hominid-bearing deposits in the Caverna delle Fate, Ligure, Italy (United States)

    Falgueres, Christophe; Yokoyama, Yuji; Bibron, Roland


    Stalagmitic floors interstratified with Mousterian deposits from the Caverna delle Fate (Italy) have been dated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. Three samples dated fall between 60,000 and 74,000 yr and indicate the age of the Mousterian deposits. They are in good agreement with ages determined by nondestructive γ-ray spectrometry of the human remains from 231Pa/ 235U and 230Th /234U ratios, which are, respectively, 75,000 -14,000+21,000 and 82,000 -25,000+36,000 yr. These dates are consistent with the morphological characteristics of the bones as Neanderthal remains.

  3. Enumeration and rapid identification of yeasts during extraction processes of extra virgin olive oil in Tuscany. (United States)

    Mari, Eleonora; Guerrini, Simona; Granchi, Lisa; Vincenzini, Massimo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeast populations during different olive oil extraction processes, carried out in three consecutive years in Tuscany (Italy), by analysing crushed pastes, kneaded pastes, oil from decanter and pomaces. The results showed yeast concentrations ranging between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g or per mL. Seventeen dominant yeast species were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA with primer M13 and their identification was confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and sequencing rRNA genes. The isolation frequencies of each species in the collected samples pointed out that the occurrence of the various yeast species in olive oil extraction process was dependent not only on the yeasts contaminating the olives but also on the yeasts colonizing the plant for oil extraction. In fact, eleven dominant yeast species were detected from the washed olives, but only three of them were also found in oil samples at significant isolation frequency. On the contrary, the most abundant species in oil samples, Yamadazyma terventina, did not occur in washed olive samples. These findings suggest a phenomenon of contamination of the plant for oil extraction that selects some yeast species that could affect the quality of olive oil.

  4. Management of critical limb ischemia: proposal for a multidisciplinary operating network in Tuscany

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    Giancarlo Landini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical limb ischemia (CLI is a clinical entity that is not well known to patients or the mass media, and it often receives inadequate attention by medical specialists as well. In most cases, patients with CLI already have advanced disease when they are first seen by physicians, and they frequently arrive on internal medicine wards without having received appropriate treatment. The numerous comorbidities that characterize these cases really require multidisciplinary management. Materials and methods: We sent multiple-choice questionnaires to 26 internal medicine units in hospitals located in the Tuscany region of Italy to learn more about the true incidence and impact of CLI. Results: As expected, in most wards, there is no specific, structured clinical protocols for effective management of CLI patients.Discussion: We analyze the current situation and propose a multidisciplinary network for structured, integrated management of CLI. The network would operate throughout the region and be composed of internist-angiologists and vascular surgeons with greater awareness of CLI and experience in its management. This initiative, if effectively implemented, will help increase awareness of this condition and the fact that CLI patients are suffering from what is unacceptably an ‘‘orphan’’ illness.

  5. Current status of geothermal energy in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carella, R.

    Italy has been one of the first countries to develop applications or its geothermal energy resources. As a resource it is both abundant and available in the high temperature range. A world premiere was the electricity production in Tuscany (Western Italy) output 56 which at present is 3200 GWh/y from 624 MW of operating capacity. In the low-enthalpy field Italy has enjoyed widespread development of spas, both for therapeutic and heating purposes. The latter's output has now attained presently 127,000 TOE/y. District and other residential heating amount to about 37,000 TOE/y and include two recent very significant projects in the Po Valley (Ferrara and Vicenza). Some large-size greenhouse complexes are heated by geothermal fluids (M. Amiata in Tuscany and Pantani in Latium) as well as fish farms on the Tyrrhenian coast. Agricultural applications account for 19,000 TOE/y. While the outlook is bright for electricity production which is due to increase substantially in the next decade, the short-term future is uncertain for low enthalpy resources, especially in view of low energy prices. Given the abundance of the resources and their environmental benefits, longer term prospects should be good, particularly if energy prices firm up. 1 fig.

  6. Performance assessment in the maternity pathway in Tuscany region. (United States)

    Nuti, Sabina; Bonini, Anna; Murante, Anna Maria; Vainieri, Milena


    The paper describes the performance measurement system of the maternity pathway used in Tuscany by health care professionals, general managers and regional policy-makers. This system uses 19 indicators grouped in six dimensions: population's state of health; compliance with regional guidelines; efficiency and financial performance; clinical and health assessment; patient satisfaction; and employees' satisfaction. The results are represented on a spider diagram that summarizes the results on the different dimensions. The Tuscan performance measurement system of the maternity pathway has been used to identify best practice within, and their adoption throughout, the Tuscan public health care system.

  7. Food and Wine Tourism as a Pull Factor for Tuscany

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    Enrica Lemmi


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to underline the importance of the experience based tourism with reference to food and wine tourism in Tuscany. Starting from a literature review that has been focusing on a wide range of topics for long time, we explain first the different forms of tourism of taste; secondly the wide diffusion of this kind of tourism in Tuscany thanks to its important assets, as key factors to the tourist success; finally how the lack of upgraded tourist products and a standard communication are restraining its further improvement. The experience based tourism with its peculiar customization of the supply and the communication especially built for the new technological devices could upgrade the Tuscan tourist features. Just to give some examples, the more current tools include gamification and geocatching as new and amusing outputs that can involve the active tourist in search of new experiences, as well as the Sentiment Analysis as a process able to transform the customer opinions into useful data for a market segmentation and implementation of branding reputation.

  8. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

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    Concetta Vazzana


    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  9. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

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    Cesare Pacini


    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  10. Quality of life in refugees and asylum seekers in Italy: a pilot study. (United States)

    Nante, Nicola; Gialluca, Lapo; De Corso, Michela; Troiano, Gianmarco; Verzuri, Agnese; Messina, Gabriele


    Interest in measuring the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of the immigrants increased in recent years in Italy as in other countries. Our purpose was to evaluate the HRQoL of refugees welcomed in Tuscany using the SF-36 questionnaire. We collected 114 questionnaires from 2011 to 2015. Our samples was constituted by 98 males and 16 females, coming from different regions of the world; the mean age was 27.4. Statistical analysis showed that gender, length of stay and educational qualification are not associated with a poorer HRQoL. Instead, elderly refugees showed lower scores; refugees from African region reported a better HRQoL than the others, and there are also differences between refugees welcomed in different cities of Tuscany. Our purpose is to continue this study enlarging the sample size and the geographical coverage, in order to have a more interesting description of the health perception of refugees welcomed in Italy.

  11. Terrestrial laser scanning for rockfall stability analysis in the cultural heritage site of Pitigliano (Italy).


    Fanti, R.; Gigli, G.; Lombardi, L; D. Tapete; Canuti, P.


    Traditional surveying methods are often not sufficient to achieve a complete geomechanical characterization of the rock mass, to analyze the instability mechanisms threatening the cultural heritage of hilltop historic towns. In Pitigliano (Tuscany, Central Italy), terrestrial laser scanning was employed complementarily to conventional geomechanical techniques. The overall 3D survey of the exposed surfaces was combined with scanlines of the inner walls of the subterranean cavities running unde...

  12. Antibiotic prescribing in paediatric populations: a comparison between Viareggio, Italy and Funen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusini, Gaia; Lapi, Francesco; Sara, Benocci


    High rates of antibiotic prescribing in paediatric populations represent a major issue because of the problem of antibiotic resistance. North European countries reported an appropriate use of antibiotics in general population; few studies on this issue have been conducted until now, especially in...... in Italy. Therefore a comparison concerning paediatric antibiotic prescribing rates between an Italian administrative area in Tuscany (Viareggio) and the county of Funen (Denmark) was conducted....

  13. Water quality and agricultural practices: the case study of southern Massaciuccoli reclaimed land (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Cannavò, Silvia; Guidi, Massimo; Risaliti, Rosalba; Rossetto, Rudy; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico


    Owing to increasing anthropogenic impacts, lagoons and wetlands are being exposed to environmental degradation. Therefore, the sustainable management of these environmental resources is a fundamental issue to maintain either the ecosystems and the human activity. The Massaciuccoli Lake is a coastal lake of fresh to brackish water surrounded by a marsh, which drains a total catchment of about 114 km2. Large part of the basin has been reclaimed since 1930 by means of pumping stations forcing water from the drained areas into the lake. The system is characterized by: high complexity of the hydrological setting; subsidence of the peaty soils in the reclaimed area (2 to 3 m in 70 years), that left the lake perched; reclaimed land currently devoted mainly to conventional agriculture (e.g.: maize monoculture) along with some industrial sites, two sewage treatment plants and some relevant urban settlements; social conflicts among different land users because of the impact on water quality and quantity. The interaction between such a fragile natural system and human activities leads to an altered ecological status mainly due to eutrophication and water salinisation. Hence, the present work aims at identifying and assessing the sources of nutrients (phosphorous in particular) into the lake, and characterising land use and some socio-economic aspects focusing on agricultural systems, in order to set up suitable mitigation measures. Water quantity and quality in the most intensively cultivated sub-catchment, placed 0.5 to 3 m under m.s.l. were monitored in order to underlain the interaction between water and its nutrient load. Questionnaires and interviews to farmers were conducted to obtain information about agricultural practices, farm management, risks and constraints for farming activities. The available information about the natural system and land use were collected and organised in a GIS system: a conceptual model of surface water hydrodinamics was build up and 14 sampling points were monitored monthly during 2008-2009. The main water physical and chemical parameters, including nutrients, as well as the principal soil types within the sub-catchment were analysed. First results point out: the reclaimed land presents a dense drainage network hydraulically interconnected with the shallow aquifer; surface waters present a high chemical heterogeneity: three main hydrochemical facies were identified and compared with nutrients contents and soil chemistry; artificially induced recharge to the reclaimed land aquifer occurs by means of lake water infiltration. This forces the pumping stations to remove an additional amount of water in order to allow land cultivation; the water salinity in the drainage network may increase during summer period. This could be related both to irrigation using lake water and a further contribution due to evapotranspiration processes; agricultural land use changed during the last 15 years, and shifted to less intensive farming practices. Fertilization levels dropped from 200 and 150 to 100 and 50 kg/ha N and P2O5 respectively, and the irrigated area decreased from 50% to 40% of the total utilised agricultural area; in the low land peaty area, the higher content of sulphate and phosphate in the drainage water supports the hypothesis that peat degradation could be a relevant source of nutrients. As a result, the impact of fertilizer use on the water quality is limited, while land management (e.g. water use and land reclamation) constitutes the key issue. Therefore, local stakeholders participation, farmers above all, should be supported in future management and planning actions in order to adapt socio-economic needs with the peculiar biophysical conditions.

  14. Impacts of the CAP 2014–2020 on the Agroenergy Sector in Tuscany, Italy

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    Fabio Bartolini


    Full Text Available The agricultural sectors’ contribution to the provision of energy is a central issue in Horizon 2020 strategies and has shaped the public and research debates on the future of the bioeconomy. The common agricultural policy (CAP has been one of the main drivers of farmers’ behavioural changes and represents the main agricultural policy instrument to address viability of rural areas and maintaining the profitability of the agricultural sector. To contribute to the ongoing policy debate towards CAP reform, this paper will provide an empirical model to simulate the impact of an alternative CAP mechanism on the provision of renewable energy. By applying a dynamic mathematical programming model, the paper tests the impact new policy measures will have on the provision of a second-generation of bio fuel crops that represent a relevant option for Tuscan farmers. Results show that CAP reform positively impacts the supply of energy crops mainly due to the introduction of greening payments, which allows an enlarging of crop diversification. Model results stress also the income stabilisation effects of energy production introduction at farm level, due to reduction of farm exposure to market prices fluctuations.

  15. The Battle is not to the Strong: Serpulid Reefs in the Lagoon of Orbetello (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Bianchi, C. N.; Morri, C.


    Two serpulid species build reefs in the Lagoon of Orbetello, a poly-hyperhaline coastal pond: Hydroides dianthus (Verrill) and Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel). The latter species reached higher densities and built the most conspicuous reefs, notwithstanding that the former species had tubes with better biomechanical properties (size, thickness, bulk density and porosity).

  16. Recent trends and climatic perspectives of hailstorms frequency and intensity in Tuscany and Central Italy

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    F. Piani


    Full Text Available The damages from climatic extremes have dramatically increased in the last decades in Europe, as likely outcomes of climate change: floods, droughts, heat waves and hailstorms have brought local as well as widespread damages to farmers, industry, infrastructures and society, to insurance and reinsurance companies; in this work we deal with the hailstorm hazard. The NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis (2.5 by 2.5° lat-lon over the Italian area and the hailstorm reports at several sites are used to identify few forcings for hailstorms; statistical relationships linking forcings and hailstorm frequencies are derived. Such relationships are applied to the same forcings derived from the CGCM2-A2 climate scenario provided by the Canadian Centre for Climate modeling and analysis (CCCma; resolution approximately 3.75 by 3.75° lat-lon, to evaluate the expected changes of the frequency of hailstorms. The time series of the forcings from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and the CCCma climate scenario in the past decades are compared in order to assess the reliability and accuracy of the predictions of the future hailstorm hazard. It is shown that the climate scenario provides a fairly faithful representation of the past trends of the forcings relevant to the hailstorms frequency and that such quantity, hence the hailstorm hazard, is growing and will likely grow in the future over the limited area taken into consideration in this study.

  17. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy). (United States)

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L


    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE.

  18. How to set challenging goals and conduct fair evaluation in regional public health systems. Insights from Valencia and Tuscany Regions. (United States)

    Vainieri, Milena; Vola, Federico; Gomez Soriano, Gregorio; Nuti, Sabina


    The definition of "the right targets" and the way the evaluation of results is performed affect the willingness to commit to new challenges, which is a factor that influences the relationship between goal setting and performance results. Indeed, some authors claim that the choice of an inappropriate goal-setting procedure is a major cause of failure of management control systems. Goal setting theorists found that assigning a specific and challenging goal leads to higher performance than (a) an easy goal, (b) a general goal or (c) no goal setting. Despite this evidence, yet, few proposals concern the definition of what is "challenging". This paper focuses on two issues: (a) what is to be considered a challenging goal and (b) what is a "fair evaluation" in the health care sector. This work suggests that benchmarking is a valid support to solve the previous dilemmas. Relying on two Regional European advanced experiences - Valencia in Spain and Tuscany in Italy -, this paper aims to provide conceptual methods that can help managers define challenging goals and conduct fair evaluation about their achievement. Although these Regions adopted different governance models, both of them applied very similar techniques, which seem to be associated to an improvement of their performance and a reduction of unwarranted variation.

  19. [Donors' personal profile in Tuscany's network of milk banks]. (United States)

    Strambi, M; Anselmi, A; Coppi, S


    An investigation on human milk donors among the milk banks of Tuscany's network was carried out. Milk banks select, collect, check, process, store and deliver human milk, whose donors should have certain physical and psychological well-being features. The aim of the study was to describe a personal and social profile of milk donors. The study included a sample of 100 milk donors and a sample of 100 non-milk donor mothers; a questionnaire that collected data about mothers' general information, clinical history, pregnancy and delivery, weight variations, state of health, lifestyle, breastfeeding and knowledge about milk banks was administered to all of them. Then information about food history of mothers has also been collected. First the samples of donors were analysed for all variables considered. Subsequently the samples of donors were compared with the samples of non-donors: statistical analysis was carried out with χ2 test and documented significant differences between donors and non-donors for the majority of variables considered in the questionnaire and for food history. Milk donors have a good state of health, and the integration in milk donation initiative headed towards a healthier lifestyle. It is necessary to promote an advertising campaign to integrate social and sanitary politics, fitting to local socio-economical contest. Furthermore, the improvement of milk banks of public hospitals is necessary, as hospitals are places of major stream both of potential donors and newborns.

  20. Space–Time Characterization of Rainfall Field in Tuscany

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    Alessandro Mazza


    Full Text Available Precipitation during the period 2001–2016 over the northern and central part of Tuscany was studied in order to characterize the rainfall regime. The dataset consisted of hourly cumulative rainfall series recorded by a network of 801 rain gauges. The territory was divided into 30 × 30 km2 square areas where the annual and seasonal Average Cumulative Rainfall (ACR and its uncertainty were estimated using the Non-Parametric Ordinary Block Kriging (NPOBK technique. The choice of area size was a compromise that allows a satisfactory spatial resolution and an acceptable uncertainty of ACR estimates. The daily ACR was estimated using a less computationally expensive technique, averaging the cumulative rainfall measurements in the area. The trend analysis of annual and seasonal ACR time series was performed by means of the Mann–Kendall test. Four climatic zones were identified: the north-western was the rainiest, followed by the north-eastern, northcentral and south-central. An overall increase in precipitation was identified, more intense in the north-west, and determined mostly by the increase in winter precipitation. On the entire territory, the number of rainy days, mean precipitation intensity and sum of daily ACR in four intensity groups were evaluated at annual and seasonal scale. The main result was a magnitude of the ACR trend evaluated as 35 mm/year, due mainly to an increase in light and extreme precipitations. This result is in contrast with the decreasing rainfall detected in the past decades.

  1. Urban Development in Tuscany. Land Uptake and Landscapes Changes

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    Francesco Zullo


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of urban sprawl has been already recognized as one of the major anthropic threats to natural ecosystems and landscapes while the negative aspects of the phenomenon are still only marginally taken into consideration in the scientific and local government circles. The recent decision of the European Parliament points out that the degradation, fragmentation and non-sustainable use of land in the EU is jeopardizing several important ecosystem services, threatening biodiversity and increasing Europe’s vulnerability to climate change, natural disasters and desertification. The study regards the processing of data on urban land conversion over the past 50 years and the effects in the areas of high environmental vulnerability in one of the most important Italian region: Tuscany. The historical data were compared from a qualitative and quantitative viewpoint with the present-day geography of settlements, which showing changes found in today’s settlement-territorial structure. The conclusion reports focuses on collated environmental criticalities and the margins for recovery of the compromised territories that still today receive little attention from central institutions and local authorities, in addition to data on landscape effects to be construed as signs of specific trends underway today and scarcely taken into account by land management tools.

  2. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century. (United States)

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando


    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola".

  3. Italy: An Open Air Museum (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann


    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  4. Mercury speciation in the Mt. Amiata mining district (Italy): interplay between urban activities and mercury contamination (United States)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Gray, John E.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco


    A fundamental step to evaluate the biogeochemical and eco-toxicological significance of Hg dispersion in the environment is to determine speciation of Hg in solid matrices. In this study, several analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), sequential chemical extractions (SCEs), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) were used to identify Hg compounds and Hg speciation in samples collected from the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district, southern Tuscany, Italy. Different geological materials, such as mine waste calcine (retorted ore), soil, stream sediment, and stream water suspended particulate matter were analyzed. Results show that the samples were generally composed of highly insoluble Hg compounds such as sulphides (HgS, cinnabar and metacinnabar), and more soluble Hg halides such as those associated with the mosesite group. Other moderately soluble Hg compounds, HgCl2, HgO and Hg0, were also identified in stream sediments draining the mining area. The presence of these minerals suggests active and continuous runoff of soluble Hg compounds from calcines, where such Hg compounds form during retorting, or later in secondary processes. Specifically, we suggest that, due to the proximity of Hg mines to the urban center of Abbadia San Salvatore, the influence of other anthropogenic activities was a key factor for Hg speciation, resulting in the formation of unusual Hg-minerals such as mosesite.

  5. Molecular detection and characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Central Italy. (United States)

    Scarpulla, M; Barlozzari, G; Marcario, A; Salvato, L; Blanda, V; De Liberato, C; D'Agostini, C; Torina, A; Macrì, G


    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Central Italy. A total of 113 ticks hailed from Latium and Tuscany regions were identified and tested by PCR to detect gltA, ompA, ompB genes of Rickettsia. Positive amplicons were sequenced and identified at species level. Ticks were analyzed individually or in pools. The percentage of positivity for SFG rickettsiae was 12.4%, expressed as minimum infection rate (MIR) assuming that one tick was positive in each positive pool. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum, Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus and Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia conorii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. These findings confirm the circulation of pathogenic rickettsiae in Latium and Tuscany regions. To our knowledge this is the first report of R. massiliae in Latium region.

  6. Morphological characteristics of Amiata donkey reared in Tuscany

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    Alessandro Giorgetti


    Full Text Available In this work were studied morphological characteristics and biometric parameters of the Amiata donkey. The Amiata donkey is a local endangered breed and derives from the homonym mountain in Tuscany. This donkey, which was used, over the past, like pack animal in farms and in mines, is now involved in milk production, onotherapy and trekking. The averages and the standard deviations of the biometric parameters and the frequency of the morphological characters of foals, adult females and stallions were calculated. The measures of the adult females were estimated by ANOVA considering three different classes of age: 3-4, 5-6, over6yearsold. 3-4, 5-6, over 6 years old.. The average sizes were: height at withers of 129.8±4.7and125.8±5.6cm,thoraxcircumferenceof145.6±7.8and145.0±7.8cm, 129.8±4.7 and125.8±5.6cm,thoraxcircumferenceof145.6±7.8and145.0±7.8cm, and 125.8±5.6cm,thoraxcircumferenceof145.6±7.8and145.0±7.8cm, 125.8±5.6 cm,thoraxcircumferenceof145.6±7.8and145.0±7.8cm, , thorax circumference of 145.6±7.8and145.0±7.8cm, 145.6±7.8and145.0±7.8cm, and 145.0±7.8cm, 145.0±7.8 cm,, front shank circumference of 18.3±0.8and16.9±1.5cm,forstallionsandadultfemalesrespectively.All 18.3±0.8 and16.9±1.5cm,forstallionsandadultfemalesrespectively.All and 16.9±1.5cm,forstallionsandadultfemalesrespectively.All 16.9±1.5 cm,forstallionsandadultfemalesrespectively.All , for stallions and adult females respectively. All the observed donkeys presented dark grey coat with the shoulder stripe. The zoometric indices of the adult females did not differ between the classes and showed that the somatic adult proportions had al- ready reached in 3-4 years old donkeys. This breed showed the features of the ancestors: the shoulder stripe of the Equus asinus africanus and the legs stripes of the Equus asinus somaliensis.

  7. Analysis of infiltration, seepage processes and slope instability mechanisms during the November 2000 storm event in Tuscany

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    V. Tofani


    Full Text Available On the days 20-21 November 2000, a storm of exceptional intensity triggered over 50 landslides within the province of Pistoia in Tuscany (Italy. These failures are mostly of complex type, originating as rotational or translational landslides, and transforming into flows. Two of these landslides were investigated in this paper by modelling the ground water infiltration process, the pore water pressure variations, both positive and negative, and the effects of these variations on slope stability during the rainfall event. Morphometric and geotechnical analyses were carried out for both sites through a series of in-situ and laboratory tests, the results of which were used as input for the modelling process. In a first step the surface infiltration rate was simulated using a modified Chu (1978 approach for the Green and Ampt (1911 equations in case of unsteady rainfall together with a surficial water balance. A finite element seepage analysis for transient conditions was then employed to model the changes in pore water pressure during the event, using the computed infiltration rate as the ground surface boundary condition. Finally, once again using the data from the previous step as input, the limit equilibrium Morgenstern-Price (1965 slope stability method was applied to calculate the variations in the factor of safety during the event and thereby determine the most critical time of instability. In both sites this method produced a curve for the factor of safety that indicated that the most critical time for failure occurred a few hours after the peak of rainfall.

  8. The revolving door syndrome in internal medicine: a study on 11,846 subjects discharged from all Internal Medicine Departments of Tuscany with diagnosis of heart failure and pneumonia

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    Matteo Tellini


    Full Text Available Rehospitalization is the return of a patient to a surgical or medical department within 30 days from discharge. We have limited information on the frequency and patterns of rehospitalization in Italy. Our purpose is to describe this phenomenon in Tuscany. We analyzed regional hospital discharge abstract data in Tuscany 2012, to describe 30-day all cause readmissions. We studied patients aged 18 or more (11,846 discharged with diagnoses of heart failure and pneumonia from Internal Medicine Departments. Relationships between 30-day readmission rates, demographic and clinical characteristics have been analyzed. 18% and 15% of subjects respectively discharged with diagnosis of heart failure and pneumonia were readmitted within 30 days. Risk factors significantly related to readmissions were longer length of stay, increasing number of different medications taken during the year preceding hospitalization and greater number of hospitalizations during the semester preceding admission. From the analysis of risk factors we found that frailty and complexity of patients (identified by long hospitalization stays, high number of drugs and previous admissions are the most important factors for unplanned readmissions.


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    Roberto FRATINI


    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of a cattle race native in an area of the territory of Tuscany. The Maremmana breed is a valuable breed raised in the pastures that stretch between southern Tuscany and northern Lazio. A sample of 12 farms was analyzed through direct interview, carried out at the farm. The farms surveyed implement organic farming, according to precise rules. The aspect that mostly catches in the interviews is that the only livestock activity is not sufficient for economic development of this rural area; in fact most of the farms perform multi-functional, practicing agritourism activities. In terms of remuneration of the factors of production used in animal husbandry it seems that especially farms with few animals require the integration of agricultural income with other business activities.

  10. A feasibility study for the provision of electronic healthcare tools and services in areas of Greece, Cyprus and Italy

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    Konnis Georgios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through this paper, we present the initial steps for the creation of an integrated platform for the provision of a series of eHealth tools and services to both citizens and travelers in isolated areas of thesoutheast Mediterranean, and on board ships travelling across it. The platform was created through an INTERREG IIIB ARCHIMED project called INTERMED. Methods The support of primary healthcare, home care and the continuous education of physicians are the three major issues that the proposed platform is trying to facilitate. The proposed system is based on state-of-the-art telemedicine systems and is able to provide the following healthcare services: i Telecollaboration and teleconsultation services between remotely located healthcare providers, ii telemedicine services in emergencies, iii home telecare services for "at risk" citizens such as the elderly and patients with chronic diseases, and iv eLearning services for the continuous training through seminars of both healthcare personnel (physicians, nurses etc and persons supporting "at risk" citizens. These systems support data transmission over simple phone lines, internet connections, integrated services digital network/digital subscriber lines, satellite links, mobile networks (GPRS/3G, and wireless local area networks. The data corresponds, among others, to voice, vital biosignals, still medical images, video, and data used by eLearning applications. The proposed platform comprises several systems, each supporting different services. These were integrated using a common data storage and exchange scheme in order to achieve system interoperability in terms of software, language and national characteristics. Results The platform has been installed and evaluated in different rural and urban sites in Greece, Cyprus and Italy. The evaluation was mainly related to technical issues and user satisfaction. The selected sites are, among others, rural health centers, ambulances

  11. “Crossing steels”. Sword trade networks between Spain and Italy in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

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    Rafael M. Girón Pascual


    Full Text Available This paper analyses sword trade between Spain and Italy in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries through the study of two commercial routes used by European commercial networks from two unpublished sources: Archivio di Stato di Firenze and Archivo Historico de Protocolos de Granada. Firstly, we will examine sword importation through Leghorn, port of Florence and Tuscany, from the Spanish ports of Cadiz and Alicante, among others. Secondly, we will analyse Italian sword trade carried out by Genoese commercial companies placed in Granada. These merchants supplied swordsmiths from Granada —almost unknown by historiography— with Italian sword blades from Milan, Brescia, Serravalle and Genoa.

  12. Overview of the first HyMeX Special Observation Period over Italy: observations and model results

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    R. Ferretti


    Full Text Available During the first Hymex campaign (5 September–6 November 2012 referred to as Special Observation Period (SOP-1, dedicated to heavy precipitation events and flash floods in Western Mediterranean, three Italian hydro-meteorological monitoring sites were activated: Liguria-Tuscany, North-Eastern Italy and Central Italy. The extraordinary deployment of advanced instrumentation, including instrumented aircrafts, and the use of several different operational weather forecast models has allowed an unprecedented monitoring and analysis of high impact weather events around the Italian hydro-meteorological sites. This activity has seen the strict collaboration between the Italian scientific and operational communities. In this paper, an overview of the Italian organization during the SOP-1 is provided, and selected Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs are described. A significant event for each Italian target area is chosen for this analysis: IOP2 (12–13 September 2012 in North-Eastern Italy, IOP13 (15–16 October 2012 in Central Italy and IOP19 (3–5 November 2012 in Liguria and Tuscany. For each IOP the meteorological characteristics, together with special observations and weather forecasts, are analyzed with the aim of highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the forecast modeling systems. Moreover, using one of the three events, the usefulness of different operational chains is highlighted.

  13. Monitoring of irradiated food products marketed in Italy and evaluation of electron spin resonance signal sensitivity of experimentally irradiated fish scales

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    Raffaele Marrone


    Full Text Available Many countries, in order to authorise the use of food irradiation, claim the availability of methods to detect the occurred treatment in addition to the respect of safe use of this technology. Among physical methods, the electron spin resonance (ESR measuring the number of free radicals that are formed during irradiation can be applied only to those foods with cellulose, a crystalline or bone structure, in which free radicals have a shelf life greater than irradiated product. The aim of this study was to highlight an irradiation treatment in European and extra-European foods marketed in Southern Italy by the means of ESR technique. Furthermore, in order to optimise the preparation procedures the efficacy of the above mentioned method in fish scales experimentally irradiated has been evaluated. From February to September 2012, a total number of 83 samples of food products of animal and plant origin were taken at the border inspection post and at retail market and finally analysed. At the same time, the scales of grouper and barracuda have been experimentally irradiated at 0.5 kGy and were subsequently analysed using ESR. Results showed 5 frog legs out of 83 samples positive for treatment and confirm the applicability of ESR also for fish scales.

  14. Endoparasites of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in central Italy. (United States)

    Magi, M; Macchioni, F; Dell'omodarme, M; Prati, M C; Calderini, P; Gabrielli, S; Iori, A; Cancrini, G


    A parasitologic study on 129 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Tuscany (central Italy) was carried out in 2004-2006. Five intestinal species were found at necropsy: Dipylidium caninum (prevalence 57.3%), Mesocestoides lineatus (45.4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (39.1%), Toxocara canis (9.1%), and Toxascaris leonina (5.4%). Other parasites not associated with the intestine included Crenosoma vulpis (14.7%), Capillaria aerophila (7.0%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (7.0%), and filarial parasites (17.8%). Coprologic tests were less sensitive and less specific in identifying parasites than direct examinations at necropsy. Trichinella larvae were not found in muscles submitted to artificial digestion. By immunologic assay, antigens of Echinococcus spp. were detected in fecal samples of 20 foxes, but results could not be confirmed by fecal examination or molecular tests.

  15. Does feedback influence patient - professional communication? Empirical evidence from Italy. (United States)

    Murante, Anna Maria; Vainieri, Milena; Rojas, Diana; Nuti, Sabina


    Healthcare providers often look for feedback from patient surveys. Does health-professional awareness of patient survey results improve communication between patients and providers? To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the data of two surveys on organizational-climate and patient experience in Italy. The two surveys were conducted in 26 hospitals in the Tuscany region and involved 8942 employees and 5341 patients, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the patient experience index significantly improved by 0.35 points (scale: 0-100) when the professionals' knowledge of the patient survey results increased by 1%. These findings suggest that the control systems should focus more on the dissemination phase of patient survey results among health professionals in order to improve the quality of services.

  16. Indoor radon concentration in geothermal areas of central Italy. (United States)

    Ciolini, R; Mazed, D


    The indoor radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration was measured between January and June in the schools of two geothermal areas in Tuscany, central Italy. One of these areas (the Larderello area) is characterized by a large number of geothermal power plants, covering about 9% of the world's geothermal power production. In contrast, the other area, Monte Pisano, has not any such facilities. About 250 measurements were made using track etch detectors. Only a slight difference in the concentrations between the two major sampling areas (98 Bq m(-3) for Larderello area and 43 Bq m(-3) for Monte Pisano area) was found, and this was related to different geological characteristics of the ground and not the presence of the geothermal plants. The measured radon concentrations were always well below the intervention levels in both areas, and health risks for students and personnel in the examined schools were excluded. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coppices in Tuscany: considerations on the relationship between forest management and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giunti M


    Full Text Available I analyze the amount of wood samples resulting from coppicing and the recent years trend based on national and regional inventories data and on the “Report on the state of forests in Tuscany, 2008”. I highlight the difficulty in assessing a relationship between forest planning and protection of natural elements susceptible to deterioration of old forests. I also point out the difficulty of choosing appropriate indicators and investigation scale. Finally I analyze the regional laws in force, highlighting the rules can be critical for the habitat and/or the species of conservation concern.

  18. The disastrous storm of 4 November 1966 on Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De Zolt


    Full Text Available This is the first modeling reconstruction of the whole aspects (both meteorological and oceanographic of the storm which hit Italy on 4 November 1966, producing 118 victims and widespread damages in Tuscany, at the northern Adriatic coast and in the north-eastern Italian Alps. The storm was produced by a cyclone which formed in the western Mediterranean and moved eastward towards Italy, reaching the Thyrrenian Sea, and then northward. The most peculiar characteristic of the storm has been the strong zonal pressure gradient and the consequent intensity and long fetch of the south-easterly sirocco wind, which advected a large amount of warm moist air, and determined exceptional orographic precipitation over Tuscany and the north-eastern Alps. The funneling of the wind between the mountain chains surrounding the Adriatic basin further increased the wind speed and determined the highest ever recorded storm surge along the Venetian coast. This study shows that present models would be able to produce a reasonably accurate simulation of the meteorological event (surface pressure, wind and precipitation fields, and storm surge level. The exceptional intensity of the event is not suggested by single parameters such as the sea level pressure minimum, the wind speed or the total accumulated precipitation. In fact, the precipitation was extreme only in some locations and the pressure minimum was not particularly deep. Moreover, the prediction of the damages produced by the river run-off and landslides would have required other informations concerning soil condition, snow coverage, and storage of water reservoirs before the event. This indicates that an integrated approach is required for assessing the probability of such damages both on a weather forecast and on a climate change perspective.

  19. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy (United States)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.


    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  20. Beliefs and Opinions of Health Care Workers and Students Regarding Influenza and Influenza Vaccination in Tuscany, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Bonaccorsi


    Full Text Available Immunization of health care workers (HCWs against influenza has been associated with improvements in patient safety. The aim of this study is to assess the beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge of HCWs and health profession students regarding influenza. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to HCWs in three local Florentine healthcare units, at Careggi University Teaching Hospital, and to students in health profession degree programs. A total of 2576 questionnaires were fully completed. A total of 12.3% of subjects responded that they were “always vaccinated” in all three of the seasonal vaccination campaigns studied (2007–2008 to 2009–2010, 13.1% had been vaccinated once or twice, and 74.6% had not received vaccinations. Although the enrolled subjects tended to respond that they were “never vaccinated,” they considered influenza to be a serious illness and believed that the influenza vaccine is effective. The subjects who refused vaccination more frequently believed that the vaccine could cause influenza and that it could have serious side effects. More than 60% of the “always vaccinated” group completely agreed that HCWs should be vaccinated. Self-protection and protecting family members or other people close to the respondent from being infected and representing potential sources of influenza infection can be considered motivating factors for vaccination. The results highlight the importance of improving vaccination rates among all HCWs through multi-component interventions. Knowledge of influenza should be reinforced.

  1. Influence of Holocene stratigraphic architecture on ground surface settlements: A case study from the City of Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Rossi, Veronica; Amorosi, Alessandro


    The Holocene stratigraphic architecture of modern coastal and deltaic plains has peculiar characteristics that may influence ground surface settlements. In the Pisa urban area, the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of geotechnically weak layers, typically formed during the mid-late Holocene (highstand) coastal progradation, is inferred to be responsible for urban ground settlement and building damage, as evidenced by the tilt of several surface structures, among which the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa is the most prominent. On the basis of integrated stratigraphic, sedimentological and geotechnical data from a wide georeferenced database, three facies associations with high deformability potential (Units 1-3) are identified in the uppermost 30 m as opposed to depositional facies (Units 4-5) with higher geotechnical strength. Whereas Unit 1 represents a thick, laterally extensive lagoonal clay deposit, the overlying highly deformable units (Units 2-3) show more discontinuous spatial distribution controlled by the Holocene paleohydrographic evolution of the Arno coastal plain. Unit 2, dated between the Neolithic and the Etruscan age (ca. 5000-2000 yr BP), is composed of swamp clays and silty clays recording lagoon infilling due to Arno Delta progradation. Units 3 and 4, which consist of wet levee deposits and stiff floodplain clays, respectively, formed during the subsequent phases of alluvial plain construction started around the Roman age (from ca. 2000 yr BP). Whereas Units 3 and 4 are recorded within the uppermost 5 m, fluvial and distributary channel sands (Unit 5) cut the underlying deltaic-alluvial succession at various stratigraphic levels, down to Unit 1. The spatial distribution of these units gives rise to three, locally juxtaposed, stratigraphic motifs in Pisa underground, reflecting different potential risks for settlement under building loads. We show how lateral changes in stratigraphic architecture account for the irregular spatial distribution of geotechnically weak layers that are responsible for building damage and ground settlement.

  2. Volcano-tectonic structures, gravity and helium in geothermal areas of Tuscany and Latium (Vulsini volcanic district), Italy (United States)

    Di, Filippo M.; Lombardi, S.; Nappi, G.; Reimer, G.M.; Renzulli, A.; Toro, B.


    Since the early 1980s, geological and structural mapping, gravity, and helium soil-gas studies have been performed in the eastern sector of the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Magmatic Province) in an attempt to locate potential geothermal reservoirs. This area is characterised by an anomalous geothermal gradient of > 100??C/km, and by widespread hydrothermal mineralization, thermal springs, high gas fluxes, and fossil and current travertine deposits. The results of these surveys indicate the existence of a number of fault systems, with N-S and E-W structures that appear to be superimposed on older NW-SE and NE-SW features. Comparison of the results of the various studies also reveals differences in permeability and potential reservoir structures at depth.Since the early 1980s, geological and structural mapping, gravity, and helium soil-gas studies have been performed in the eastern sector of the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Magmatic Province) in an attempt to locate potential geothermal reservoirs. This area is characterised by an anomalous geothermal gradient of > 100??C/km, and by widespread hydrothermal mineralization, thermal springs, high gas fluxes, and fossil and current travertine deposits. The results of these surveys indicate the existence of a number of fault systems, with N-S and E-W structures that appear to be superimposed on older NW-SE and NE-SW features. Comparison of the results of the various studies also reveals differences in permeability and potential reservoir structures at depth.

  3. Volcano-tectonic structures, gravity and helium in geothermal areas of Tuscany and Latium (Vulsini volcanic district), Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Filippo, Michele; Lombardi, Salvatore; Toro, Beniamino [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Roma (Italy); Nappi, Giovanni; Renzulli, Alberto [Universita di Urbino, Ist. di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Urbino (Italy); Reimer, G. Michael [U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Denver, CO (United States)


    Since the early 1980s, geological and structural mapping, gravity, and helium soil-gas studies have been performed in the eastern sector of the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Magmatic Province) in an attempt to locate potential geothermal reservoirs. This area is characterised by an anomalous geothermal gradient of 100degC/km, and by widespread hydrothermal mineralisation, thermal springs, high gas fluxes, and fossil and current travertine deposits. The results of these surveys indicate the existence of a number of fault systems, with N-S and E-W structures that appear to be superimposed on older NW-SE and NE-SW features. Comparison of the results of the various studies also reveals differences in permeability and potential reservoir structures at depth. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The late Miocene continental successions of the Baccinello-Cinigiano basin (Grosseto, one of the longest and most continuous vertebrate-bearing continental successions in the Neogene Italian record, yielded at least four superimposed vertebrate assemblages bracketed in the time span 8.3 - 6.4 Ma. The Baccinello-Cinigiano basin is famous for recording endemic vertebrate assemblages that include the youngest European Miocene hominoid, Oreopithecus bambolii. The late Miocene endemic vertebrate fauna known as the Baccinello V0 assemblage is the oldest vertebrate fauna within the Baccinello-Cinigiano basin succession, being correlated to the European mammal Neogene unit MN11. Recent field surveys along the Trasubbie river allowed studying in detail the basal Baccinello-Cinigiano sedimentary succession, and sampling fossiliferous level bearing microvertebrates along the small creek Fosso della Fittaia. The sample “Fosso della Fittaia 2013” yielded about 170 fossil remains improving our documentation of the oldest vertebrate assemblages from the Baccinello-Cinigian basin. As far as rodents are concerned, in addition to the already recognized murid Huerzelerimys and glirid Anthracoglis, a few dental remains are assigned to a new genus and species of giant dormouse. It is further worth noting the occurrence in the sample of shrew remains (the first described from the Baccinello-Cinigiano basin identified as cf. Lartetium. The latter attests the presence of a crocidosoricine in the Fosso della Fittaia 2013 assemblage, postdating the youngest known occurrences of the subfamily by at least 1 my. The vertebrate assemblage is completed by a diverse herpetofauna and the first fish remains reported from the basin.

  5. Prostate cancer incidence rates have started to decrease in central Italy. (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Ciatto, Stefano; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco


    The widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has dramatically changed the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Growing incidence rates have been documented in almost all western countries following the increased usage of PSA screening. In the United States after a period of huge increase in incidence, rates have decreased to values lower than those of the pre-PSA era. Similar changes have been documented also in the area of the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, where prostate cancer incidence rates doubled from the early 1990s to 2003 and afterwards decreased. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a decline in prostate cancer incidence in Italy following the screening-related increase.


    CERN Multimedia


    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: - from your Divisional secretariat, - at the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage LISTE DES EXPOSANTS / LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Anda...


    CERN Multimedia

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Andalo' Gianni Srl15 Finsys...

  8. Venice, Italy (United States)


    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA

  9. Monitoring of a landslide stabilized with bioengineering techniques in 1997, northern Tuscany. Vegetation development analysis and state of preservation of wood (United States)

    Errico, Alessandro; Giambastiani, Yamuna; Guastini, Enrico; Dani, Andrea


    In 1996 a large landslide occurred in the chestnut grove nearby Pomezzana, a small town situated in the mountains of northern Tuscany, Italy. No damages were registered to population nor infrastructures, but the residual risks deriving from the effects of the event needed to be solved by means of a stabilization of the ground and reforestation. The choice has been found among bioengineering techniques, which perfectly fit in the ecosystem, landscape and the economic budgets of mountain engineering. A complex project has been implemented, using several different typologies of wooden structures, combined with rooted plants, wooden cuttings and grass seeding on the slopes. The most of the stabilization effect was assigned to the cribwalls, construct using local chestnut wood. Works ended in 1997. In 2013, 16 years later, a monitoring on the vegetation development and the state of preservation of the wood in cribwalls has been conducted. On vegetation, it has been surveyed the composition of species, diameter and height. Moreover, by means of a GPS device, the position of every plant has been registered and transcribed on GIS softwares for elaboration. The conservation of wood in cribwalls has been checked using a Resistograph, drilling each structure in three areas (at the two ends and roughly in the middle) and testing every order. The root systems of two plants have been excavated to calculate the RAR value for different depths, in order to quantify the contribution of roots in land stabilization. The soil has been also analyzed to determine structure, texture and geotechnical properties. Combining these data with the topographic survey conducted by the designers of the work, it has been possible to calculate the Safety Factor for landslide triggering using the model Slip4ex. The results show a good preservation rate of wooden structures, combined with a high contribution of roots in stabilization. The registered tree species (mainly Alnus glutinosa) were almost all

  10. A multidisciplinary approach for the management of the water resources hosted in the multi-layer coastal aquifers of Central-Southern Tuscany (United States)

    Lelli, M.; Doveri, M.; Cerrina Feroni, A.; Da Prato, S.; Ellero, A.; Marini, L.; Masetti, G.; Nisi, B.; Raco, B.


    The correct management of subterranean water resources should be based on the studies aimed to acquire informations about geological, hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of water and aquifer. Taking in mind this idea, the subterranean water resources hosted in the multi-layer aquifers below the coastal plains of the Cecina River, Cornia River, Follonica, Grosseto, and Albegna River were recently investigated through a multidisciplinary approach in the framework of the Significant Groundwater Bodies (SGB) Project, funded by the Tuscany Region (Italy). In the first step, the distinction of main aquifer, aquitard, and aquiclude levels has been done by means of the geometrical reconstruction of the geological sequences, using available stratigraphical data. For each hydrogeological complex, the total volumes and the percentages of the different grain sizes were also calculated. The second step was addressed to elaborate the piezometric surfaces during low-flow and high-flow conditions, aimed to individuate the main flow pattern and the most exploited zones of the multi-layer aquifers. Moreover, considering the saturated zone and applying an effective porosity (weighed in function of grain sizes percentages), the amounts of the total water volumes stored in the aquifer system were estimate. The third step comprised the hydrogeochemical characterization of the areas of interest, by means of both: a deterministic approach, including the elaboration and interpretation of classification diagrams, Eh-pH plots, calculation of water speciation and saturation state, activity diagrams, etc. a geo-statistical approach, aimed to the study of the spatial distribution of the most significant geochemical parameters, such as the concentrations of chloride, sulfate, nitrate and boron. If suitable database is available, this multidisciplinary approach can allow to identify the main recharge areas and flow path and the physical-chemical processes (naturals or antropics

  11. Mortality of populations residing in geothermal areas of Tuscany during the period 2003-2012. (United States)

    Bustaffa, Elisa; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Nuvolone, Daniela; Voller, Fabio; Cipriani, Francesco; Bianchi, Fabrizio


    The limited scientific knowledge on the relationship between exposure and health effects in relation to geothermal activity motivated an epidemiologic investigation of Tuscan geothermal area. This study aims at describing mortality of populations living in Tuscan municipalities in the period 2003-2012. Sixteen municipalities were included in the study area: eight in the northern and eight in the southern area. Mortality data come from the Regional Mortality Registry of Tuscany. Fifty-four causes of death, considered of interest for population health status or consistent with "Project SENTIERI" criteria, are analyzed. Results show a worse mortality profile in the southern area, especially in males, for whom excesses of all cancers and some causes of cancer emerge, while in the northern area an excess of cerebrovascular diseases among females merits attention. Further and more appropriate studies are needed to clarify the etiology of some diseases and to better assess a potential cause-effect relationship.

  12. A critical friend: monitoring and evaluation systems, development cooperation and local government. The case of Tuscany. (United States)

    Rossignoli, Serena; Coticchia, Fabrizio; Mezzasalma, Annarosa


    The role of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems in the field of development cooperation has globally increased in last decades. International and regional organizations, as well as states, local governments and NGOs have largely adopted the tools provided by M&E in order to enhance transparency, effectiveness and efficiency. The paper aims at verifying how and to what extent the implementation of M&E systems has affected the overall quality of international cooperation projects financed by a local government. After a literature review on M&E in development cooperation, the research analyzes the wide range of activities (evaluation ex-ante, mid-term, final, monitoring, consultancy) carried out by the Evaluation Team of the XY in the last eight years in behalf of an Italian local government: the Region of Tuscany. The paper reveals the strategic significance of adopting M&E systems in the medium-long term.

  13. Surfactant damages on coastal vegetation in southern Italy

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    Full Text Available Coastal vegetation decline caused by seaspray has been reported to affect a variety of species in several countries: Australia, South of France, along the Italian Tyrrhenian coast, Spain and Tunisia. The most serious injury is due to the interaction between sea salt and surfactants, even if surfactants may cause direct damage on cell membranes. The salt uptake is enhanced by the durfactant-induced erosion of the epicuticular wax, which reduces the water surface tension. The symptoms are non-specific and consist in leaf discoloration and necrosis. In needles, necrosis begins from the apex; in leaves, from the edges. Directionality of crown damage is the main symptom for diagnosing the involvement of polluted seaspray. If an obstacle is placed between trees and sea wind, the trees do not show appreciable damage. In Italy, the tree decline caused by seaspray and surfactants has been investigated with special reference to the pinewoods of the San Rossore (Tuscany, Central Italy, or on the Tyrrhenian coastlands of Central Italy, such as the area around Castelporziano in Lazio. This research is aimed at a preliminary assessment of the extent of surfactant damage to the coastal vegetation in four regions in Southern Italy by: i field surveys and mapping of damage caused by surfactants; ii detecting the presence of surfactants on the tree crowns. The damages have been observed in a lot of zones in Apulia, Basilicata, Campania and Calabria, within 500 m inland from the sea, for a maximum length of 5500 m coastline, near the mouth of a river or stream, near the outlet of sewage canals and in any other coastal areas where the surface currents carry a surfactant load.

  14. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel


    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology.   The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua. The exhibitors are listed below.   A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Keno...

  15. Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T. [Institute of Biophysics, Pisa (Italy)


    Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt. Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Characterisation of Agri-Landscape Systems at a Regional Level: A Case Study in Northern Tuscany

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    Mariassunta Galli


    Full Text Available Preserving our landscape in sustainable development processes is now widely considered as fundamental. It is a complex and evolving issue that can be tackled from several perspectives. Agronomy can contribute to analyzing the relationships between agricultural production systems (cropping, farming and agricultural systems at different levels (field, farm, and region and the agricultural landscape (in terms of patches, matrixes, dynamics, etc. This is of particular interest where the relationships between “what and how” are produced by agricultural activities and the landscape are changing. In this case their own reciprocity may represent an opportunity to analyze complex systems, such as the characterization of agri-landscapes at a regional level. We propose a case study developed as an up-scaling analytical process from a farm to a regional level. The result was the identification of six main agri-landscape systems highlighting the landscape drivers that are changing the traditional landscape of a rural region in Northern Tuscany (Lunigiana.

  17. Tectonic structure of the Tuscany-Latium Continental Shelf (Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartole, R.


    An old regional seismic multicoverage reflection survey (Zone E) provides useful information on the shallow structure of the southern Tuscany-northern Latium shelf located between Elba Island and Anzio. Three main seismic units have been recognized on the grid, directly tied to the Matilde-1 offshore drilling and correlated to onshore wells and outcrops. The upper unit, characterized by continuous and generally undisturbed reflectors, is constituted by the postorogenic sedimentary cover of late Neogene-Quaternary age. This sequence unconformably lies on an intermediate unit or, when absent, a basal one. These two units, characterized by good-to-poor seismic response, are constituted by the tectonized geologic units of the Northern and Central Apennines. The intermediate unit corresponds to the Ligurids and Sicilids allochthonous complexes, while the basal unit may be attributable to the Tuscan nappe and/or the Tuscan autochthon in the shelf sector north of the Tiber River mouth, and the Umbro-Sabina units south of the same mouth. The widespread distribution and consistent thickness of the allochthonous cover (up to 1,000 msec two-way traveltime) lying over a structured substratum might be of some interest in hydrocarbon prospecting.

  18. Food and Gastronomic Tourism for Developing Rural Areas Around the Via Francigena in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Corinto


    Full Text Available The paper reports results from an explorative research on the socio-economic opportunity that the presence of pilgrims and tourists along the Tuscan section of the Via Francigena can be for local communities. The aim is to deepen the actual and future opportunities that gastronomy represent for the development of tourism around the Via Francigena, with a special attention to destinations out of the beaten tracks. The research has been carried out merging different sources of information, including scientific literature, news, media, direct observation and personal experience, and performing a dozen of face-to-face interviews to key-informants, selected within socioeconomic actors involved in developing tourism around the course of the Via Francigena in Tuscany. The interviews have been carried out during the last six months, involving farmers, wine producers, restaurant owners, tourism and rural tourism entrepreneurs and local administrative offices. Local communities have already understood the strategic importance to sustain their socioeconomic activities with the development of pilgrimage and tourism along the Via Francigena. The rich variety of local gastronomy can satisfy both frugal needs of pilgrims and those of visitors more interested in gourmandizing. Food and gastronomy could be a strong leverage to increase tourist presences out of the beaten tracks.

  19. Provenance of marbles used for building the internal spiral staircase of the bell tower of St. Nicholas Church (Pisa, Italy) (United States)

    Lezzerini, Marco; Antonelli, Fabrizio; Gallello, Gianni; Ramacciotti, Mirco; Parodi, Luca; Alberti, Antonio; Pagnotta, Stefano; Legnaioli, Stefano; Palleschi, Vincenzo


    The aim of this study is to investigate the provenance of marbles used as architectural elements (bases, shafts and capitals of columns) for building the internal spiral staircase of the medieval bell tower of St. Nicholas Church at Pisa, Italy. Accordingly, the 45 collected marble samples have been analysed by optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mass spectroscopy for carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratio analysis; additionally, SEM-EDS analysis have been performed to complement data about accessory minerals. By comparison with literature data on the main sources of the white Mediterranean marbles used in ancient times, the results show that the analysed samples are mainly white crystalline marbles from Carrara (Italy) and, subordinately, from other Tuscan and Eastern Mediterranean quarrying areas. In fact, Mt. Pisano and Campiglia (Tuscany, Italy) and Marmara (Turkey), Paros, Mt. Penteli, Thasos (Greece) are minor sources. The other coloured stones identified on the strength of their macroscopic features are quartzites from Mt. Pisano area and granitoids from Sardinia and Island of Elba (Italy). Occasionally, a very limited number of architectonical elements made up of Acquabona limestone from Rosignano Marittimo (Livorno, Italy), red limestone with ammonites (the so-called "Rosso Ammonitico") and black limestone belonging to the Tuscan Nappe sequence, outcropping at northwest of Pisa in the nearby Monti d'Oltre Serchio area, are present.

  20. [State of health of populations residing in geothermal areas of Tuscany]. (United States)

    Minichilli, Fabrizio; Nuvolone, Daniela; Bustaffa, Elisa; Cipriani, Francesco; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Bianchi, Fabrizio


    The limited scientific knowledge on relationship between exposure and health effects in relation to geothermal activity motivated an epidemiologic investigation in Tuscan geothermal area. The study aims to describe the health status of populations living in Tuscany municipalities where concessions for exploitation of geothermal resources were granted. This is an ecological study, so it is not useful to produce evidence to sustain a judgment on the cause-effect link. The major limits of this type of study are the use of the residence at municipal level as a proxy of exposure to both environmental and socioeconomic factors and the use of aggregated data of health outcomes that can lead to the well-known ecological fallacy. Sixteen municipalities were included in the study area: eight are part of the so-called "traditional" geothermal area, defined as Northern Geothermal Area (NGA) and eight located in the Amiata Mountain defined as Southern Geothermal Area (SGA). In 2000-2006, the average resident population in the overall area was approximately 43,000 inhabitants. Thirty-one geothermal power plants were active, with a production capacity of 811 MW, 5 of them with 88 MW located in the SGA. Statistical analyses on the entire geothermal area, NGA and SGA subareas, and the sixteen municipalities were performed. Mortality data were obtained from Tuscany Regional Mortality Registry for the 1971-2006 period, analysing 60 causes of death, of interest for population health status or consistent with "Project SENTIERI" criteria. Hospital discharge records of residents in Tuscany Region in 2004-2006, anywhere admitted to hospital, were analyzed considering only the main diagnosis, excluding repeated admissions for the same cause. The causes taken into account are the same analysed for mortality were considered. Age-standardized mortality rates (TSDM) and the temporal trends of TSDM for four periods (1971-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2006) were computed. Age

  1. Investigation of geothermal structures by magnetotellurics (MT): an example from the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpi, G. [CNR - Inst. of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); ENEL Greenpower, Pisa (Italy); Manzella, A. [CNR - Inst. of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); Fiordelisi, A. [ENEL Greenpower, Pisa (Italy)


    During 1999 a magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out on the southern margin of the Mt. Amiata geothermal region (Tuscany, Italy), with the aim of defining the shallow and deep electric structures related to the local geothermal reservoirs and system heat recharge. Local and remote data were collected along a SW-NE profile and processed with two different robust algorithms. After a detailed study of the EM strike, the data were inverted and two-dimensional (2D) models of electrical resistivity and impedance phase were computed. The interpretation revealed a good correlation between the features of the geothermal field and resistivity distribution at depth. In particular, a shallow conductor (0.5-4 km) detected by the MT survey shows a good correlation with the areal extension of the geothermal reservoirs. (Author)

  2. DEWI partnership in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, F.; Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Winkler, W. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)


    DEWI already has offices in Germany, France, Spain and Brazil. In order to cooperate with a local partner on the fast growing market of Italy, DEWI has signed a partnership contract with Fichtner Italia. In DEWI's main office in Wilhelmshaven the Italian micro siting specialist Francesco Durante is the contact person for Italy. (orig.)

  3. Counseling in Italy (United States)

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul


    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  4. Predicting elusiveness: potential distribution model of the Southern smooth snake, Coronella girondica, in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bombi


    Full Text Available Predictive models of species distribution may be very useful for understanding actual distribution of elusive species, including several snakes. The southern smooth snake (Coronella girondica is likely the most elusive snake species of peninsular Italy, and is therefore well-suited for predicting potential distribution studies. In this paper we predict the potential distribution map of this species in Italy by using MAXENT algorithm, that finds the probability distribution of maximum entropy that is constrained by considered ecological parameters. Presence data for Coronella girondica were gotten from CKmap. The potential distribution model of Coronella girondica showed a very good overall performance (AUC = 0.959, and indicated that high suitability areas correspond mainly to Tyrrhenian north and central regions, including Liguria, western Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria, and northern Latium. Southern Italian regions were clearly unsuitable for this snake species. Overall, our study revealed that previous distribution maps indicating the occurrence of Coronella girondica in southern Italy and Sicily were poorly reliable. The conservation and management implications of our study are also addressed.

  5. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel


    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics.The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua.The exhibitors are listed below.A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Kenotec Srl O...


    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department


    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  7. Italy au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department


    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  8. Deep structures and carbon dioxide degassing in central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodini, G.; Frondini, F.; Ponziani, F. [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    In Tyrrhenian Central Italy large amounts of CO{sub 2} are produced at depth mainly by metamorphism of marine carbonate rocks. During their ascent, the gases are trapped in deep structures, made up of Mesozoic permeable limestones covered by impermeable terrains, which become sources of a high CO{sub 2} flux toward the surface. The anomalous CO{sub 2} concentrations are detectable in groundwaters. The general map of the groundwater PCO{sub 2} values shows a decrease in the CO{sub 2} production moving from the western geothermal areas of Tuscany and Latium to the eastern sector, which is characterized by a normal heat flow. The PCO{sub 2} distribution suggests that the NW-SE extensional faults, which bound Plio-Pleistocene grabens, provide the easiest routes for the gas ascent. The geological, geophysical and geothermal deep drilling data suggest that the CO{sub 2} anomalies found in the western sector correspond to deep permeable structures of possible geothermal interest. (author)

  9. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy. (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco


    We analyzed colorectal cancer incidence data from the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, for the period 1985-2005. We carried out a trend analysis through a Joinpoint regression analysis, and summarized trends as annual percent change (APC) of the standardized (European standard) rates. Colorectal incidence rates increased until 1996 (APC=+1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-1.9), then decreased significantly (APC=-1.1, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.4). The change was detected as statistically significant in the age group of 54+ years. Among younger individuals, we observed an increasing incidence until 2003. In the same geographical area, a colorectal screening programme has been active from 1982; it was initially based on guaiac faecal occult blood testing (GFOBT) and on immunological testing (IFOBT) since the mid 1990s. The decline in colorectal cancer incidence since 1996, in the whole population and especially among individuals older than 54 years, may suggest the effect of FOBT screening in terms of precancerous polyps removal.

  10. The social cost of chronic kidney disease in Italy. (United States)

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Bellelli, S; Amato, M; Bianchi, S; Conti, P; Cupisti, A; Panichi, V; Rosati, A; Pizzarelli, F


    This study aims to estimate the mean annual social cost per patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) by stages 4 and 5 pre-dialyses and cost components in Italy. The multicenter cross-sectional study included all adult outpatients in charge of the 14 main Nephrology Centers of Tuscany Region during 7 weeks from 2012 to 2013. Direct medical costs have been estimated using tariffs for laboratory tests, diagnostic exams, visits, hospitalization and prices for drugs. Non-medical costs included expenses of low-protein special foods, travel, and formal and informal care. Patients' and caregivers' losses of productivity have been estimated as indirect costs using the human capital approach. Costs have been expressed in Euros (2016). Totals of 279 patients in stage 4 and 205 patients in stage 5 have been enrolled. The estimated mean annual social cost of a patient with CKD were €7422 (±€6255) for stage 4 and €8971 (±€6503) for stage 5 (p < 0.05). Direct medical costs were higher in stage 5 as compared to stage 4; direct non-medical costs and indirect costs accounted, respectively, for 41 and 5 % of the total social cost of CKD stage 4 and for 33 and 9 % of CKD stage 5. In Italy, the overall annual social cost of CKD was €1,809,552,398 representing 0.11 % of the Gross Domestic Product. Direct non-medical costs and indirect costs were weighted on the social cost of CKD almost as much as the direct medical cost. Patients, their families and the productivity system sustain the burden of the disease almost as much as the healthcare system.

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfections in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Puglia

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Worldwide about 30% of HIV-infected patients are coinfected with HCV or HBV. The HIV/HCV coinfection is more common in individuals who have a history of drug addiction. The aims of this study were to assess the HCV and HBV prevalence in HIV-infected patients and analyze their characteristics. Methods We considered the new HIV diagnoses notified by the regional surveillance system of Tuscany from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the socio-demographic characteristics, routes of transmission, and reason to perform the test. In coinfected patients we assessed the risk for being late presenter (LP or the risk of having AIDS. Results In 5 years of surveillance a total of 1354 new HIV diagnoses were notified: 1188 (87.7% were HIV alone, 106 (7.8% HIV/HCV, 56 (4.1% HIV/HBV, and 4 (0.33% HIV/HCV/HBV. The main risk factor was injection drug use in 52.8% of HCV/HIV cases, while in HIV/HBV patients the main risk factor was sexual exposure. HIV/HBV coinfected patients showed worse clinical and immunological features than HIV and HIV/HCV patients: 78.6% had CD4 count less than 350 mm−3 (vs. 54.6% and 62.1%, respectively and 39.4% had AIDS (vs 20.7% and 7.6%. The risk for being LP triples for HIV/HBV (OR 2.98; 95% IC: 1.56–5.70 than patients with HIV alone. Conclusions We have observed less advanced disease in HIV and HCV-HIV patients compared with HBV–HIV coinfected patients. Moreover, our results show a higher prevalence of HIV/HCV among drug addicts and in the age-group 35–59, corresponding to those born in years considered most at risk for addiction. This study also confirms the finding of a less advanced HIV disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

  12. The stratigraphic distribution of large marine vertebrates and shell beds in the Pliocene of Tuscany (United States)

    Dominici, Stefano; Benvenuti, Marco; Danise, Silvia


    The record of 337 shark fossils, 142 cetaceans and 10 sea cows from the Pliocene of Tuscany, mostly from historical museum collections, is revised. The majority of these fossils are concentrated at a few geographic sites from separated hinterland basins, on the South-Western side of the Northern Apennines. To better understand the meaning of these concentrations, the sequence stratigraphic distribution of more recent findings of large marine vertebrates is reconstructed against a high-resolution framework based on sedimentary facies analysis. These remains are usually covered by, or included in mudstones deposited far from the coast (N=12), skeletons being usually articulated, slightly displaced, and often bioeroded. A minor part of better preserved articulated skeletons is associated with sandstones from deltaic paleonenvironments (N=2). Marine mammal and shark remains may be associated with laterally-continuous shell accumulations, a type of concentration occurring at maximum flooding surfaces, separating relatively coarse-grained facies from open marine mudstones. Shell beds were bulk-sampled at 66 locations from six basins, covering a wide range of sedimentary facies, and spanning a chronologic interval of about 2.5 million years. A dataset of 62,655 mollusc specimens belonging to 496 species formed the basis of a statistical study to reconstruct the structure of the benthic communities, and to estimate paleodepths from intertidal to upper bathyal settings. Mollusc associations closely mirror the distribution of sedimentary facies, allowing for a fine tuning of the sequence stratigraphic architecture. Merging paleogeographic, stratigraphic and paleoecologic data, we conclude that the more abundant and diverse accumulations of large vertebrates took place in settings under the influence of coastal upwelling. A modern analogue occurs today in the Ligurian Sea, on the Tuscan offshore, where abundant nutrients carried by deep-marine currents of Western origin

  13. Rupestrian culture in Italy


    Crescenzi, C


    Rupestrian culture in Italy. L'articolo descrive sinteticamente le aree di studio, di alcune regioni italiane interessate dal fenomeno dell’architettura rupestre, che sono state oggetto dei workshop realizzati nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca internazionale Cultural Rupestrian Heritage in the Circum-Mediterraneam Area-cinp. Programme Culture 2007-2013, Budget 2010, Strand 1.1 Multi-annual cooperation project, Strand 1.2.1- Cooperation measures. estrian culture in Italy

  14. Nuclear and Electron Relaxation. Chianti Workshop on Magnetic Resonance (3rd) Held in San Miniato, Pisa, Italy on May 28-June 2, 1989 (United States)


    laboratory. The measured T1 values span a wide range, from less than a ms to minutes (even days at liquid He temperature). Even at room temperature, T1...intervallo di temperatura compreso da 200 a 3509K, usando le potenzialitd delle nuove metodologie spettroscopiche di multipla irradiazione a risposta...long (5-15 ms ). This is possibly to be ascribed to a long electronic relaxation rate which is unexpected in metal clusters. Indeed, iron (II) is

  15. Coccidiosis of wild and captive European mouflons (Ovis aries) living in a natural reserve of central Italy. (United States)

    Ferraro, M; Fichi, G; Ambrogi, C; Ragagli, C; Stancampiano, L; Poglayen, G; Perrucci, S


    Between December 2005 and November 2006, a survey on coccidiosis of wild and captive mouflons living in the Orecchiella Natural Reserve (Tuscany, Italy) was performed on faecal samples collected approximately every two months. A total of 96 samples were collected, 55 of which from wild mouflons and 41 from captive mouflons. On these faecal samples qualitative and quantitative parasitological analyses were performed; moreover, faecal cultures were made in order to identify the involved Eimeria species. Significantly higher prevalence (%) and mean intensity (mean OPG +/- SD) of coccidian infection resulted for captive mouflons (73.17% and 814.6 +/- 1297.2 OPG) comparing to wild mouflons (36.73% and 112.7 +/- 268.7 OPG). Eimeria parva, E ovinoidalis, E. bakuensis, E. ahasata, E. intricata, E. crandallis, E. granulosa, E. faurei and an Eimeria species very similar to the descriptions previously reported for E. arloingi and E. yakimoffmatschoulsky, were isolated.

  16. Contaminated commercial dehydrated food as source of multiple Salmonella serotypes outbreak in a municipal kennel in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Selmi


    Full Text Available The authors describe a large outbreak of canine salmonellosis in a municipal kennel in Tuscany. During the outbreak, 174 samples of ‘diarrhetic’ and ‘normal’ faeces and two batches of commercial dehydrated dog food were cultured for pathogenic bacteria. The results of 25, out of a total of 41 dogs (60.9% revealed at least one faecal sample as being positive for Salmonella; incidence per sampling ranged from 12.5% to 34%. Nine of 10 samples of dehydrated food were positive. Ten totally different serotypes were isolated from dry food and faeces: the results of the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis referred to similarity between the Salmonella Montevideo, Muenster and Worthington isolates recovered from both the food and canine faecal samples.

  17. Energy and Water Use Related to the Cultivation of Energy Crops: a Case Study in the Tuscany Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dalla Marta


    Full Text Available The contribution of agrobiomasses, as a source of energy, to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was confirmed by several studies. Biomass from agriculture represents one of the larger and more diverse sources to exploit and in particular ethanol and diesel have the potential to be a sustainable replacement for fossil fuels, mainly for transport purposes. However, the cultivation of energy crops dedicated to the production of biofuels presents some potential problems, e.g., competitiveness with food crops, water needs, use of fertilizers, etc., and the economic, energy, and environmental convenience of such activity depends on accurate evaluations about the global efficiency of the production system. In this study, the processes related to the cultivation of energy crops were analyzed from an energy and water cost perspective. The crops studied, maize (Zea mais and sunflower (Helianthus annuus, were identified for their different water requirements and cultivation management, which in turns induces different energy costs. A 50-year climatic series of meteorological data from 19 weather stations scattered in the Tuscany region was used to feed the crop model CropSyst for the simulation of crop production, water requirement, and cultivation techniques. Obtained results were analyzed to define the real costs of energy crop cultivation, depending on energy and water balances. In the energy crop cultivation, the only positive energy balance was obtained with the more efficient system of irrigation whereas all the other cases provided negative balances. Concerning water, the results demonstrated that more than 1.000 liters of water are required for producing 1 liter of bioethanol. As a consequence, the cultivation of energy crops in the reserved areas of the region will almost double the actual water requirement of the agricultural sector in Tuscany.

  18. Educational level and 30-day outcomes after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction in Italy. (United States)

    Cafagna, Gianluca; Seghieri, Chiara


    There is a growing interest in the factors that influence short-term mortality and readmission after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) since such outcomes are commonly considered as hospital performance measures. Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the factors contributing to healthcare outcomes after hospitalization for AMI. However, no study has been published on education and 30-day readmission in Europe. The objective of this study is to examine the association between educational level and 30-day mortality and readmission among patients hospitalized for AMI in Tuscany (Italy). A retrospective cohort study using data from hospital discharge records was conducted. The analysis included all patients discharged with a principal diagnosis of AMI between January 1, 2011, and November 30, 2014, from all hospitals in Tuscany. Educational level was categorized as low (no middle school diploma), mid (middle school diploma) and high (high school diploma or more). Three multilevel models were developed, sequentially controlling for patient-level socio-demographic and clinical variables and hospital-level variables. Patients were stratified by age (≤75 and >75 years). Mortality analysis included 23,402 patients, readmission analysis included 22,181 patients. In both unadjusted and full-adjusted models, patients with a high education had lower odds of 30-day mortality compared to those patients with low education (OR age ≤ 75 years 0.67, 95% CI:0.47-0.94; OR age > 75 years 0.72, 95% CI:0.54-0.95). With regard to 30-day readmission, only patients aged over 75 years with a high education had lower odds of short-term readmission compared to those patients with low education (OR age > 75 0.73, 95% CI:0.58-0.93). Among patients hospitalized in Tuscany for AMI, low levels of education were associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality for both age groups and increased odds of 30-day readmission only for patients aged over 75

  19. Biogerontology in Italy. (United States)

    Odetti, Patrizio; Bergamini, Ettore


    In this paper experimental gerontology in Italy is reviewed on the basis of research developed in Academic and non Academic Centres. There are several groups across Italy working actively on basic science of aging producing high impact papers with a significant contribution to biogerontology. Some distinguished Italian scientist working abroad is also mentioned. Interesting issues on longevity and interventions on aging (including caloric restriction) and on aging brain are quoted. Relevant studies encompass the (glyco-)oxidative stress as direct damage mechanism and main process of theory of aging, other research lines include IGF-1, mitochondria DNA, obesity/sarcopenia and exercise and also an animal model for aging studies is reported. Notwithstanding financial restrictions and structure deficit the biogerontology research in Italy could be judged as good, but additional resources are necessary to keep this good rank.

  20. Progress in the elimination of measles and congenital rubella in Central Italy. (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bonanni, Paolo


    Despite the launch of a WHO European Region strategic plan 2005-2010 for eliminating measles and rubella and preventing congenital rubella (CR) infection, measles and rubella are still circulating in Europe. Increased transmission and outbreaks of measles in Europe were still observed in 2011. In Italy, the objectives of the National Plan (2003-2007) for measles elimination have not yet been achieved. The goal of measles elimination and incidence reduction of CR cases has been postponed to 2015 by the Italian Ministry of Health through the implementation of the new National Plan 2010-2015 which will require (1) the achievement of more than 95% coverage with 1 dose and two doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV), respectively, within 24 mo and within 12 y of age; (2) supplementary vaccination activities aimed at susceptible populations including adolescents, young adults and those at risk (health care and educational workers, military, groups "hard to reach" like nomads); and in addition, (3) reduction to less than 5% in the proportion of susceptible women of childbearing age (especially immigrant women). Experiences at regional level, like in Tuscany, have shown promising results in order to create an integrated surveillance system between regional and local health authorities, university and laboratory and in the future, to validate elimination. Moreover, the evaluation of all preventive activities performed in Tuscany during the last decade, immunization coverage data, sero-epidemiological population profile and incidence of measles and rubella cases has highlighted critical points which should be improved and good practices already implemented which should be maintained in the future in order to reach the new goals.

  1. Wine tourism in Italy


    Cinelli Colombini D


    Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars), Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 milli...

  2. CAS Introductory Course in Italy

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Accelerator School’s introductory course is a great success. This year the CERN Accelerator School held its "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" course in Frascati, Italy, from 2-14 November in collaboration with the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for the majority of participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. For this school the programme had been significantly revised in order to take into account the new trends currently being developed in the field, thus putting more emphasis on linacs, synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers. The school was a resounding success with 115 participants of more than 23 nationalities. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the excellent organizati...

  3. War and Comics (Italy)


    Bianchi, Roberto


    Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and soldiers with low literacy. At the same time, the war changed the history of comics and the magazine market for children and youth

  4. Italy. [CME Country Reports]. (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…

  5. Personal Identity in Italy (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona


    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  6. Italy 2000 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Onesti


    Full Text Available This section of the review includes Italian dance books from 2000 till now. Texts has been selected following the scientific approach of the review, in order to outline the contemporary panorama of dance studies in Italy. Titles has been organized in two ways by subject, as an indication, and year of publication.

  7. Collection for Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General, and Ghislain Roy, President of the Staff Association


    Following the earthquake of 24 August in central Italy, many of you have expressed your solidarity. The collection to support the victims raised a total of 10 000 CHF, which was transferred in its entirety to Italy’s civil protection through the Italian delegation to the CERN Council. The CERN Directorate and the CERN Staff Association sincerely thank you for your generosity.

  8. Personal Identity in Italy (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona


    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  9. Emergy evaluation of hierarchically nested systems: application to EU27, Italy and Tuscany and consequences for the meaning of emergy indicators (United States)

    What is the role of a system's size in an emergy evaluation, when we have to evaluate nested systems? To answer this question, we consider a simple nested system with three levels of organization and then examine the relationships among the emergy flows at each level and among th...

  10. Unravelling the complex interaction between mantle and crustal magmas encoded in the lavas of San Vincenzo (Tuscany, Italy). Part I: Petrography and Thermobarometry (United States)

    Ridolfi, Filippo; Braga, Roberto; Cesare, Bernardo; Renzulli, Alberto; Perugini, Diego; Del Moro, Stefano


    The San Vincenzo Volcanic Complex was emplaced ~ 4.4 Ma. ago and consists of cordierite-bearing lavas which are the result of a complex interaction between mantle-derived and crustal anatectic magmas. The lavas are mostly characterized by porphyritic, glassy peraluminous rhyolites hosting variable contents of magmatic enclaves (clinopyroxene-bearing latites and amphibole-bearing clinopyroxene crystal mushes), sialic and ultramafic cognates (syenogranites, anorthosites, cordierite-biotite and pyroxenite inclusions), and crustal rocks (sillimanite-cordierite xenoliths, cordierite and biotite xenocrysts) of centimetric-to-millimetric size. Mineral chemistry shows large variations as well. Plagioclase and sanidine are represented respectively by An21-79Or1-13 and An≤ 1Or57-77. Cordierite has a Mg# of 51-78%, while garnet shows almandine compositions with low CaO (≤ 2 wt.%) and variable MnO contents (1-5 wt.%). Clinopyroxene indicates large ranges of Mg# (68-92%) and Al2O3 (0.5-6.3 wt.%), and relatively high CaO contents (up to 24 wt.%); orthopyroxene shows both ferroan enstatite (Mg# = 60-78%) and magnesian ferrosilite (Mg# = 39-44%) compositions; whereas amphibole shows only Mg-rich calcic compositions. On the basis of textural characteristics, as well as Ti and XMg variations, we have identified six different types of biotite associated with oxide minerals such as ilmenite and spinels of both aluminium (Al > 1 in Y site) and iron (Fe > 1 in Y site) subgroups. Compositional/textural relationships indicate crystallization at both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions. Minerals with euhedral habits and homogeneous compositions usually occur in the same thin sections of partly-equilibrated crustal xenoliths (and xenocrysts) and zones of "active" mixing between mantle-derived and crustal magmas characterized by "needle-like" and skeletal microlites, and subhedral microphenocrysts of amphibole and biotite. These hybrid-mixed features, as well as the occurrence of calcic amphibole, garnet and magnetite, are exclusive to lavas cropping out in the northern sector of the volcanic complex (i.e. Acqua Calda Quarry). By contrast, the rhyolites in the southern area (i.e. Rozze Valley) mostly show mingled textures characterized by "coherent" globular blobs of mantle-derived magma (up to 15 cm in size) that did not efficiently homogenize with the rhyolite. To determine the crystallization depths and physico-chemical conditions of the San Vincenzo magmatic feeding system, we applied some thermobarometers to single phases (amphibole and melt inclusions) or petrographic domains (sillimanite-cordierite xenoliths, syenogranites and anorthosites, piroxenites) showing crystallization at equilibrium conditions. In the framework of the estimated conditions, we used H2O-CO2 solubility, viscometric and densimetric models to obtain additional constraints on sub-volcanic processes. The overall results suggest that the thermal interaction of a hot mantle-derived magma (~ 1100 °C) with the Tuscan crust (≤ 700 °C) occurred at the MOHO transition (~ 24 km). This interaction determined (i) partial melting of the lower-crust siliciclastic rocks, (ii) migration of the anatectic magma to shallower levels and (iii) formation of a deep storage region (16-24 km) filled with mantle-derived magma. In the deep reservoir, the mantle-derived magma evolved at conditions of 900-1010 °C, H2Omelt 5.2-8.6 wt.% and + 2 ≤ ΔNNO ≤ + 4 through assimilation of carbonate-evaporite metasediments and fractionation of clinopyroxene (± plagioclase ± ferroan enstatite ± biotite) to form ultramafic and mafic crystal mushes and cumulates. The overlying siliciclastic rocks underwent partial melting at 710-850 °C (H2Omelt ≤ 4 wt.%) leading to the genesis of a second reservoir filled with anatectic magma at depths of 8-17 km. Locally, the T-H2Omelt conditions in the shallower reservoir were as high as 920 °C and ~ 5 wt.%, when the mantle-derived magma was injected into the rhyolite magma to form the mingled lavas which were afterwards erupted in the Rozze Valley area. The hybridization of the rhyolites occurred at 870-910 °C (H2Omelt = 5-7 wt.%), suggesting that the Acqua Calda Quarry lavas were the last to be erupted.

  11. AESIS: a support tool for the evaluation of sustainability of agroecosystems. Example of applications to organic and integrated farming systems in Tuscany, Italy


    Gaio Cesare Pacini; Giulio Lazzerini; Concetta Vazzana


    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability on the farm level. Policy makers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This paper pres...

  12. Presence of plastic debris in loggerhead turtle stranded along the Tuscany coasts of the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals (Italy). (United States)

    Campani, Tommaso; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Cancelli, Fabrizio; Mancusi, Cecilia; Serena, Fabrizio; Marsili, Letizia; Casini, Silvia; Fossi, Maria Cristina


    This work evaluated the presence and the frequency of occurrence of marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of 31 Caretta caretta found stranded or accidentally bycaught in the North Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine debris were present in 71% of specimens and were subdivided in different categories according to Fulmar Protocol (OSPAR 2008). The main type of marine debris found was user plastic, with the main occurrence of sheetlike user plastic. The small juveniles showed a mean±SD of marine debris items of 19.00±23.84, while the adult specimens showed higher values of marine litter if compared with the juveniles (26.87±35.85). The occurrence of marine debris observed in this work confirms the high impact of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea in respect to other seas and oceans, and highlights the importance of Caretta caretta as good indicator for marine litter in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of European Union. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains isolated in Tuscany, Italy, based on large sequence deletions, SNPs in putative DNA repair genes and MIRU-VNTR polymorphisms. (United States)

    Garzelli, Carlo; Lari, Nicoletta; Rindi, Laura


    The Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is cause of global concern as it is rapidly spreading worldwide, is considered hypervirulent, and is most often associated to massive spread of MDR/XDR TB, although these epidemiological or pathological properties have not been confirmed for all strains and in all geographic settings. In this paper, to gain new insights into the biogeographical heterogeneity of the Beijing family, we investigated a global sample of Beijing strains (22% from Italian-born, 78% from foreign-born patients) by determining large sequence polymorphism of regions RD105, RD181, RD150 and RD142, single nucleotide polymorphism of putative DNA repair genes mutT4 and mutT2 and MIRU-VNTR profiles based on 11 discriminative loci. We found that, although our sample of Beijing strains showed a considerable genomic heterogeneity, yielding both ancient and recent phylogenetic strains, the prevalent successful Beijing subsets were characterized by deletions of RD105 and RD181 and by one nucleotide substitution in one or both mutT genes. MIRU-VNTR analysis revealed 47 unique patterns and 9 clusters including a total of 33 isolates (41% of total isolates); the relatively high proportion of Italian-born Beijing TB patients, often occurring in mixed clusters, supports the possibility of an ongoing cross-transmission of the Beijing genotype to autochthonous population. High rates of extra-pulmonary localization and drug-resistance, particularly MDR, frequently reported for Beijing strains in other settings, were not observed in our survey.

  14. Anomalous CO2 content in the Gallicano thermo-mineral spring (Serchio Valley, Italy) before the 21 June 2013, Alpi Apuane earthquake (M = 5.2) (United States)

    Pierotti, L.; Botti, F.; D'Intinosante, V.; Facca, G.; Gherardi, F.

    Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network is operating in Tuscany, Central Italy, to investigate the geochemical response of selected aquifers to local seismic activity. The monitoring is aimed at identifying possible earthquake geochemical precursors. The network is currently constituted by six stations, all equipped with sensors for the measurement of temperature, pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, CO2 and CH4 dissolved concentration, that have been installed in the areas of highest seismic risk of the region. By combining geochemical data gathered from the automatic station of Gallicano (Garfagnana, Northern Tuscany), and obtained via chemical analyses of spring water samples collected during periodic field surveys in the area surrounding this station, the most significant aspects of the deep fluid circulation paths feeding the Gallicano thermo-mineral system have been investigated, and the geochemical baseline of the Gallicano spring defined. The CO2 continuous signal recorded by the Gallicano automatic station has been then processed over the period 2003-2013 in the search for anomalies possibly related to local seismic activity. A substantial anomaly in CO2 content has been observed at Gallicano in conjunction with the Alpi Apuane earthquake (M = 5.2) of 21 June 2013.

  15. The history of derogations from chemical parametric values set by the European Drinking Water Directive (Council Directive 98/83/EC), in Italy and the Piedmont region. (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Marro, Silvia; Soardo, Vincenzo; Berruti, Renza; Maggi, Claudio; Cerrato, Elena; Ferrari, Romina; Gulino, Margherita


    Italian legislation (Article 13 of Legislative Decree 31/2001) provides for the possibility of establishing derogations from chemical parametric values for drinking water set by EU legislation (Council Directive 98/83/EC), if the supply of drinking water cannot be maintained by any other reasonable means. A derogation is possible only after obtaining a specific authorization and must be limited to the shortest time possible. This paper presents the history of derogations granted in Italy and the case of arsenic and nickel in Piedmont. From 2003 to 2009, 13 regions requested a derogation (Campania, Emilia Romagna, Latium, Lombardy, Marche, Piedmont, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany, Trentino Alto Adige, Umbria, Venetia) at different times and for a total of 13 parameters. In 2012, tap water provided to almost one million Italians in 112 municipalities of three regions (Latium, Tuscany and Campania), did not comply with the legal limits for the following parameters: arsenic, boron and fluorides. Currently, in the Piedmont region there are no derogations from the maximum permitted concentrations of contaminants in drinking water. In the past derogations have been applied for the nickel parameter (years 2006-2007) and from the arsenic parameter (years 2006-2008).

  16. Wild food plants used in traditional vegetable mixtures in Italy. (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V


    Mixtures of wild food plants, part of the Mediterranean diet, have potential benefits for their content in bioactive compounds, minerals and fibers. In Italy, wild plants are still consumed in various ways, for their taste, effects on health and nutritional value. In this paper, we provide a list of wild plants used in vegetable mixtures, indicating their phytochemical and nutritional profile, highlighting those not yet studied. We provide a first complete review of traditional uses of wild food plants used as vegetables and their preparations (e.g., salads, soups, rustic pies). We also highlight their phytochemical constituents. We carried out an extensive literature review of ethnobotanical publications from 1894 to date for finding plants used in traditional vegetable mixtures. We also performed an online search for scientific papers providing the phytochemical profile of plants that were cited at least twice in recipes found in the literature. We list a total of 276 wild taxa used in traditional vegetable mixtures, belonging to 40 families. Among these, the most represented are Asteraceae (88), Brassicaceae (33), Apiaceae (21), Amaranthaceae (12). Many plants are cited in many recipes across several Italian regions. Among the most cited plant we note: Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth, Sanguisorba minor Scop., Taraxacum campylodes G. E. Haglund, Urtica dioica L. Tuscany is the region with the highest number of food recipes that incorporate wild plants used as vegetables. We also list the phytochemical constituents and some pharmacological activities of the plants cited at least twice. Finally, we discuss topics such as the taste of plants used in the recipes. Nineteen edible wild plants, such as Asparagus albus L., Campanula trachelium L., Hypochaeris laevigata (L.) Benth. & Hook f., Phyteuma spicatum L., Scolymus grandiflorus Desf., are not yet studied as regards their phytochemical and nutritional profile. Some plants should be avoided due to the presence of

  17. Conscientious objection in Italy. (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca


    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  18. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy (United States)


    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Mount Vesuvius, Italy (United States)


    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  20. Mount Vesuvius, Italy (United States)


    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  1. Migration discourses in Italy


    Benelli, Elena


    In the last thirty years, Italy has undergone an anthropological revolution: from a country of emigration that exported millions of emigrants around the world, it has reversed its vocation and has become a country of immigration. The presence of the newcomers on the Italian territory has not always been welcomed and integration has been problematical on diverse levels. In this article I explore how the rhetoric of the State, its laws and the media have portrayed the newcomers under the negati...

  2. Group Psychotherapy in Italy. (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria


    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  3. Managed Aquifer Recharge in Italy: present and prospects. (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy


    On October the 3rd 2014, a one-day Workshop on Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) experiences in Italy took place at the GEOFLUID fair in Piacenza. It was organized within the framework of the EIP AG 128 - MAR Solutions - Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies and Actions and the EU FPVII MARSOL. The event aimed at showcasing present experiences on MAR in Italy while at the same time starting a network among all the Institutions involved. In this contribution, we discuss the state of MAR application in Italy and summarize the outcomes of that event. In Italy aquifer recharge is traditionally applied unintentionally, by increasing riverbank filtration or because of excess irrigation. A certain interest for artificial recharge of aquifers arose at the end of the '70s and the beginning of the '80s and tests have been carried out in Tuscany, Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia. During the last years some projects on aquifer recharge were co-financed by the European Commission mainly through the LIFE program. Nearly all of them use the terminology of artificial recharge instead of MAR. They are: - TRUST (Tool for regional - scale assessment of groundwater storage improvement in adaptation to climate change, LIFE07 ENV/IT/000475; Marsala 2014); - AQUOR (Implementation of a water saving and artificial recharging participated strategy for the quantitative groundwater layer rebalance of the upper Vicenza's plain - LIFE 2010 ENV/IT/380; Mezzalira et al. 2014); - WARBO (Water re-born - artificial recharge: innovative technologies for the sustainable management of water resources, LIFE10 ENV/IT/000394; 2014). While the TRUST project dealt in general with aquifer recharge, AQUOR and WARBO focused essentially on small scale demonstration plants. Within the EU FPVII-ENV-2013 MARSOL project (Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought; 2014), a dedicated monitoring and decision support system is under development to manage recharge at a large scale

  4. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco


    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  5. Chemical Composition, Toxicity and Vasodilatation Effect of the Flowers Extract of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. "G. Duke of Tuscany". (United States)

    Kunhachan, Phanukit; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat; Khayungarnnawee, Amonrat; Leelamanit, Wichet


    Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic Jasmine flower extract of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. "G. Duke of Tuscany" revealed the mixtures of coumarins, cardiac glycosides, essential oils, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, and steroids. However, alkaloids, anthraquinones, and tannins were not detected. By intravenous injection at a single dose of 0.5 mL/mouse (15 mg) of the flower extract, no systemic biological toxicity demonstrated in ICR mice was observed. In Wistar rats, the LD(50) of the extract was higher than 5,000 mg/kg BW by oral administration. Vasodilatation effect of the 95% ethanolic extract on isolated aortic rats was also investigated. Compared with the control group, the Jasmine flowers extract in 0.05% DMSO clearly reduced tonus of isolated endothelium thoracic aortic rings preconstricted with phenylephrine (10(-6) M), as a dose-dependent manner. Nevertheless, this pharmacological effect disappeared after the preincubation of the rings with atropine (10(-6) M) or with N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (10(-4) M). These are possibly due to the actions of the active components on the vessel muscarinic receptors or by causing the release of nitric oxide.

  6. Long-term trajectory of some elasmobranch species off the Tuscany coasts (NW Mediterranean from 50 years of catch data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ligas


    Full Text Available The time series of elasmobranch catch rates off the Tuscany coasts (NW Mediterranean were investigated by means of min/max auto-correlation factor analysis in order to estimate variations in population abundance and evaluate the influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors. The analyses highlighted a general decreasing trend in the catch rates of sharks and skates from 1961 to the mid-1990s, mainly influenced by the increase in fishing effort. Since the 1990s, the EU Common Fishery Policy for the Mediterranean has promoted the reduction of fishing fleets through incentives to vessel demolition. The Porto S. Stefano trawl fleet has decreased by about 50%, leading to a decrease in fishing effort which seemed to be the most relevant factor affecting the increasing trend shown by the catch rates of Galeus melastomus, Scyliorhinus canicula and skates from 1991 to 2009. The elasmobranch assemblage did not undergo major shifts but the weighted frequency of occurrence shows that elasmobranchs were more frequent in the past. Particular caution should be paid in interpreting the recent rebound of some species as an early sign of recovery: trawl survey data and landing data show that over the last 50 years elasmobranch fauna have undergone a drastic decline and that recent rebounds are still far from a recovery to historical levels.

  7. Crustal deformation and gravity changes during the first ten years of exploitation of the new Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geri, G.; Marson, I.; Rossi, A.; Toro, B.


    The results of precise levelling measurements on a specially constructed network of benchmarks in the Travale geothermal area (Tuscany, Italy) revealed that the central part of this area is subsiding and that the average rate of subsidence in the period 1973-1983 was 20-25 mm/year. Three series of horizontal distance measurements were carried out (1980, 1981, 1982) to monitor variations in the coordinates of the bases of a horizontal control net. The variations noted in this time interval range between 13 and 36 mm, slightly exceeding the semi-axis values of their error ellipses. A series of gravity measurements was carried out annually between 1979 and 1982 on a network of gravity benchmarks coinciding with part of the topographic benchmarks. The g variations observed reached a maximum of 40 Gal. A tentative correlation of these data with field exploitation data indicates a possible means of interpreting the variations observed during these surveys.

  8. [Social cooperatives in Italy]. (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F


    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  9. Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and badgers (Meles meles from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi


    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 6 badgers (Meles meles were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto Angiostrongylus vasorum nella volpe (Vulpes vulpes e nel tasso (Meles meles in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 6 tassi (Meles meles provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di Angiostrongylus vasorum. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.


  10. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    From 23 to 26 June, Italian industry went on display at CERN for the ninth time. Twenty-four Italian firms working closely with CERN showed off the latest high-energy physics technology developed by them. Guido Possa, Vice-Minister for Education, Universities and Research, inaugurated the exhibition on 24 June. He took the opportunity afforded by his visit to tour Building SM18, where LHC magnets are tested and assembled, before inspecting the assembly hall for ATLAS detector components. Guido Possa, Italian Vice-Minister for Education, Universities and Research, is seen visiting one of the "Italy at CERN" exhibition stands.

  11. The Bologna Process in Italy (United States)

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris


    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  12. Structure and management of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocentini S


    Full Text Available Beech forests characterise the landscape of many mountain areas in Italy, from the Alps to the southern regions. This paper analyses the relationship between stand structure and the management history of beech in Italy. The aim is to outline possible strategies for the sustainable management of these forest formations. The present structure of beech forests in Italy is the result of many interacting factors. According to the National Forest Inventory, more than half the total area covered by beech has a long history of coppicing. High forests cover 34% of the total beech area and 13% have complex structures which have not been classified in regular types. Coppices are very widespread mainly because of the past, but also present importance of firewood and charcoal for mountain populations. A particular type of beech coppice, the selection coppice (or uneven aged coppice, was traditional in Tuscany and in some alpine areas. Starting from the fifties, following the widespread use of other low cost energy sources and the depopulation of mountain areas, many beech coppices have been progressively abandoned. Forest policies have been increasingly directed to favouring beech coppice conversion to high forests, which are considered more productive and ecologically more functional. Beech high forests have a very interesting management history which is a very good example of the separation between classical forest management, i.e., forest management systems defined by “scientific forestry”, described in text books and usually prescribed in forest regulation plans, and real life forest management, i.e., how forests have been, and mostly still are, actually managed. The analysis of the management history of beech high forests in Italy shows that management systems which favour simplified stand structure and composition according to rigid, predetermined models have been rarely applied. However, the traditional silviculture of beech stands in Southern

  13. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec


    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  14. Crisis? What Crisis? Political articulation and government in the March of Tuscany through placita and diplomas from Guy of Spoleto to Berengar II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Santos Salazar


    Full Text Available In the last decades, much work have been done to deconstruct the mechanisms of government in Early Medieval Europe. In that task, the interpretation of the settlement of disputes and royal/imperial diplomas as the basis of the central government strategies in local spheres has been underlined by recent historiography. Following this methodology, the aim of this article is, thus, to analyze the mechanisms of governance in the March of Tuscany in a time characterized by political fluidity, focusing in the role played by the kings and lay and ecclesiastical aristocracies in the construction of complex political systems.

  15. Geological features of Larderello-Travale and Mt.Amiata geothermal areas (southern Tuscany, Italy)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FaustoBatini; AndreaBrogi; AntonioLazzarotto; DomenicoLiotta; EnricoPandeli


    This paper summarises the geological features of the Larderello-Travale and Monte Amiata areas, where the world's most ancient exploited geothermal fields are located. In both geothermal areas, three regional tectonostratigraphic elements are distinguished, from the top: (a) Late Miocene-Pliocene and Quaternary,continental to marine sediments; (b) the Ligurian and Sub-Ligurian complexes, which include remnants of the Jurassic oceanic realm and of the transitional area to the Adriatic margin, respectively; (c) the Tuscan Unit(Tuscan Nappe), composed of sedimentary rocks rang-ing in age from Late Triassic to Early Miocene. The sub-stratum of the Larderello and Monte Amiata areas isreferred to as the Tuscan Metamorphic Complex. This ismainly known through drilling of geothermal wells. This complex is composed of two metamorohic units: the upper Monticiano-Roccastrada Unit and the lower Gneiss Complex. The Monticiano-Roccastrada Unit consists of(from top to bottom): the Verrucano Group,the Phyllite-Quartzite Group and the Micaschist Group.The Gneiss Complex consists only of pre-Alpine poly-metamorphic gneiss. The Tuscan Metamorphic Complexis affected by contact metamorphism by Plio-Quater-nary granitoids and their dy ke swarms. Hydrothermal phenomena still occur in both geothermal fields. The Larderello-Travale and Mt. Amiata geothermal fields are located in the inner Northern Apennines, in an area that has been subject to extension since the ?Early-Mid-dle Miocene. Two main extensional events are well expressed in the structures of the geothermal areas. The first extensional event (?Early-Middle Miocene) deter-mined the tectonic delamination of the Ligurian Units and Tuscan Nappe. The second extensional event (LateMiocene-Present) is characterized by high-angle nor-mal faults bounding the Neogene tectonic depressions of southern Tuscany.

  16. Seasonal differences in climate in the Chianti region of Tuscany and the relationship to vintage wine quality (United States)

    Salinger, Michael James; Baldi, Marina; Grifoni, Daniele; Jones, Greg; Bartolini, Giorgio; Cecchi, Stefano; Messeri, Gianni; Dalla Marta, Anna; Orlandini, Simone; Dalu, Giovanni A.; Maracchi, Gianpiero


    Climatic factors and weather type frequencies affecting Tuscany are examined to discriminate between vintages ranked into the upper- and lower-quartile years as a consensus from six rating sources of Chianti wine during the period 1980 to 2011. These rankings represent a considerable improvement on any individual publisher ranking, displaying an overall good consensus for the best and worst vintage years. Climate variables are calculated and weather type frequencies are matched between the eight highest and the eight lowest ranked vintages in the main phenological phases of Sangiovese grapevine. Results show that higher heat units; mean, maximum and minimum temperature; and more days with temperature above 35 °C were the most important discriminators between good- and poor-quality vintages in the spring and summer growth phases, with heat units important during ripening. Precipitation influences on vintage quality are significant only during veraison where low precipitation amounts and precipitation days are important for better quality vintages. In agreement with these findings, weather type analysis shows good vintages are favoured by weather type 4 (more anticyclones over central Mediterranean Europe (CME)), giving warm dry growing season conditions. Poor vintages all relate to higher frequencies of either weather type 3, which, by producing perturbation crossing CME, favours cooler and wetter conditions, and/or weather type 7 which favours cold dry continental air masses from the east and north east over CME. This approach shows there are important weather type frequency differences between good- and poor-quality vintages. Trend analysis shows that changes in weather type frequencies are more important than any due to global warming.

  17. Sexual dimorphism in tuberculosis incidence: children cases compared to adult cases in Tuscany from 1997 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Stival

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most countries, men seem to be more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB than women, but only few studies have investigated the reasons of this gender incidence difference. The effect of sexual hormones on immunity is possible. METHODS: Data from children and adults, living in Tuscany, hospitalized for TB in all the thirty-one regional hospitals from January 1st 1997 to December 31st 2011, were analyzed using the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. RESULTS: During the study period, 10,744 patients were hospitalized with TB diagnosis, precisely 279 (2.6% children [0-14 years], 205 (1.9% adolescents [15-18 years] and 10,260 (95.5% adults [≥ 18 years]. The male population ranged from 249 patients (51.4% in children and adolescents, to 6,253 (60.9% in adults. Pulmonary TB was the most common form both in children and adults. Men were more likely than women to have pulmonary TB after puberty, while no significant differences were found between males and females in the hospitalized children. The male gender also resulted the most affected for the extra-pulmonary disease sites, excluding the lymphatic system, during the reproductive age. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a possible role of sexual hormones in the development of TB. No significant male-female difference was found in TB incidence among children, while a sex ratio significantly different from 1:1 emerged among reproductive age classes. An increased incidence difference also persisted in older men, suggesting that male-biased risk factors could influence TB progression. Some limitations of the study are the sample size, the method of discharge diagnosis which could be deficient in accuracy in some cases, the increasing number of immigrants and the lack of possible individual risk factors (smoke and alcohol. Further studies are needed to investigate the possible hormone-driven immune mechanisms determining the sexual dimorphism in TB.

  18. Seasonal differences in climate in the Chianti region of Tuscany and the relationship to vintage wine quality. (United States)

    Salinger, Michael James; Baldi, Marina; Grifoni, Daniele; Jones, Greg; Bartolini, Giorgio; Cecchi, Stefano; Messeri, Gianni; Dalla Marta, Anna; Orlandini, Simone; Dalu, Giovanni A; Maracchi, Gianpiero


    Climatic factors and weather type frequencies affecting Tuscany are examined to discriminate between vintages ranked into the upper- and lower-quartile years as a consensus from six rating sources of Chianti wine during the period 1980 to 2011. These rankings represent a considerable improvement on any individual publisher ranking, displaying an overall good consensus for the best and worst vintage years. Climate variables are calculated and weather type frequencies are matched between the eight highest and the eight lowest ranked vintages in the main phenological phases of Sangiovese grapevine. Results show that higher heat units; mean, maximum and minimum temperature; and more days with temperature above 35 °C were the most important discriminators between good- and poor-quality vintages in the spring and summer growth phases, with heat units important during ripening. Precipitation influences on vintage quality are significant only during veraison where low precipitation amounts and precipitation days are important for better quality vintages. In agreement with these findings, weather type analysis shows good vintages are favoured by weather type 4 (more anticyclones over central Mediterranean Europe (CME)), giving warm dry growing season conditions. Poor vintages all relate to higher frequencies of either weather type 3, which, by producing perturbation crossing CME, favours cooler and wetter conditions, and/or weather type 7 which favours cold dry continental air masses from the east and north east over CME. This approach shows there are important weather type frequency differences between good- and poor-quality vintages. Trend analysis shows that changes in weather type frequencies are more important than any due to global warming.

  19. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI


    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  20. The Forest Energy Chain in Tuscany: Economic Feasibility and Environmental Effects of Two Types of Biomass District Heating Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fagarazzi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine two biomass district heating plants operating in Tuscany, with a specific focus on the ex-post evaluation of their economic and financial feasibility and of their environmental benefits. The former biomass district heating plant supplies only public users (Comunità Montana della Lunigiana, CML: administrative body that coordinates the municipalities located in mountain areas, the latter supplies both public and private users (Municipality of San Romano in Garfagnana. Ex-post investment analysis was performed to check both the consistency of results with the forecasts made in the stage of the project design and on the factors, which may have reduced or jeopardized the estimated economic performance of the investment (ex-ante assessment. The results of the study point out appreciable results only in the case of biomass district heating plants involving private users and fuelled by biomasses sourced from third parties. In this case, the factors that most influence ex-post results include the conditions of the woody biomass local market (market prices, the policies of energy selling prices to private users and the temporal dynamics of private users’ connection. To ensure the consistency of ex-post economic outcome with the expected results it is thus important to: (i have good knowledge of the woody local market; (ii define energy selling prices that should be cheap for private users but consistent with energy production costs and (iii constrain private users beforehand to prevent errors in the plant design and in the preliminary estimate of return on investment. Moreover, the results obtained during the monitoring activities could help in providing information on the effectiveness of the supporting measures adopted and also to orient future choices of policy makers and particularly designers, to identify the most efficient configuration of district heating organization for improving energy and

  1. Towards measles elimination in Italy: monitoring herd immunity by Bayesian mixture modelling of serological data. (United States)

    Del Fava, Emanuele; Shkedy, Ziv; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Manfredi, Piero


    The analysis of post-vaccination serological data poses nontrivial issues to the epidemiologists and policy makers who want to assess the effects of immunisation programmes. This is especially true for infections on the path to elimination as is the case for measles. We address these problems by using Bayesian Normal mixture models fitted to antibody counts data. This methodology allows us to estimate the seroprevalence of measles by age and, in contrast to conventional methods based on fixed cut-off points, to also distinguish between groups of individuals with different degrees of immunisation. We applied our methodology to two serological samples collected in Tuscany (Italy) in 2003 and in 2005-2006 respectively, i.e., before and after a large vaccination campaign targeted to school-age children. Besides showing the impact of the campaign, we were able to accurately identify a large pocket of susceptible individuals aged about 13-14 in 2005-2006, and a larger group of weakly immune individuals aged about 20 in 2005-2006. These cohorts therefore represent possible targets for further interventions towards measles elimination.

  2. Microgravity vertical gradient measurement in the site of VIRGO interferometric antenna (Pisa plain, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fidecaro


    Full Text Available The site of the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO located in the countryside near Pisa (Tuscany, Italy was investigated by a microgravity vertical gradient (MVG survey. The EGO site houses the VIRGO interferometric antenna for gravitational waves detection. The microgravity survey aims to highlight the gravity anomalies of high-frequency related to more superficial geological sources in order to obtain a detailed model of the lithologic setting of the VIRGO site, that will allow an estimate of the noise induced by seismic waves and by Newtonian interference. This paper presents the results of the gradiometric survey of 2006 in the area of the interferometric antenna. MVG measurements allow us to enhance the high frequency signal strongly associated with the shallow structures. The gradient gravity map shows a main negative pattern that seems related to the trending of the high density layer of gravel that was evidenced in geotechnical drillings executed along the orthogonal arms during the construction of the VIRGO complex. Calibrating the relationship between the vertical gradient and the depth of the gravel interface we have computed a model of gravity gradient for the whole VIRGO site, defining the 3D distribution of the top surface of this layer. This latter shows a NE-SW negative pattern that may represent a palaeo-bed alluvial of the Serchio from the Bientina River system.

  3. Plants as indicators of urban air pollution (ozone and trace elements) in Pisa, Italy. (United States)

    Nali, Cristina; Crocicchi, Lara; Lorenzini, Giacomo


    A biennial integrated survey, based on the use of vascular plants for the bioindication of the effects of tropospheric ozone, was performed in the area of Pisa (Tuscany, Central Italy). It also investigated the distribution of selected trace elements in plants and the data were compared with those obtained from the use of passive samplers, automatic analysers of ozone and lichen biodiversity. Photochemically produced ozone proved to be present during the warm season, with maximum hourly means surpassing 100 ppb: the use of supersensitive tobacco Bel-W3 confirmed the value of detailed, cost-effective, monitoring surveys. Trials with clover clones demonstrate that sensitive plants undergo severe biomass reduction in the current ozone regime. The mean NC-S (clover clone sensitive to ozone):NC-R (resistant) biomass ratio ranged from 0.7 (in 1999) to 0.5 (in 2000). The economic impact of these reductions deserves attention. The data obtained using passive ozone samplers exceeded those obtained using an automatic analyser. The mapping of epiphytic lichen biodiversity was not related to the geographical ozone distribution as can be seen from the tobacco's response. Lettuce plants grown under standardized conditions were used positively as bioaccumulators of trace elements: Pb was abundantly recovered, but a large portion of this element was removed by washing.

  4. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy. (United States)

    Pieroni, A


    An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed.

  5. Brucella ceti from two striped dolphins stranded on the Apulia coastline, Italy. (United States)

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Zilli, Katiuscia; Troiano, Pasquale; Petrella, Antonio; Marotta, Francesca; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Ancora, Massimo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta


    Since 1994, when Brucella ceti was first isolated from an aborted dolphin fetus, several cases have been reported worldwide. The first case of B. ceti in the Mediterranean (and in Italy), however, was recorded only in 2012, off the coast of Tuscany. Extensive studies, using serological and microbiological methods, have documented this bacterium in dolphins and demonstrated its zoonotic potential. We describe the typing of two B. ceti strains isolated from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the southern Apulia coastline. B. ceti isolates were conventionally typed, and then genotyped by both the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the multilocus variable number of tandem repeats typing (MLVA) methodologies to infer phylogeny and potential epidemiological links between the two cases. The two isolates were identified through MLST analysis as belonging to the common sequence type 26 (ST26), while MLVA analysis, having established that the two isolates have identical profiles, assigned them to a novel genotype within cluster A - a unique representative of a new Mediterranean subcluster. The results thus revealed a link between the two cases studied, demonstrating the usefulness of MLST and MLVA for the epidemiological investigation of brucellae among marine mammals.

  6. Thermal Modeling of an Area N-W of the Larderello Geothermal Field, Italy. (United States)

    Bellani, S.; Gherardi, F.


    A wide area enclosed between the ancient Etruscan town of Volterra and the northern rim of the Larderello high enthalpy geothermal field (Tuscany, Italy) shows thermal features which suggest further investigations aimed at mid-low enthalpy geothermal energy exploitation. Thermal gradients are in the range 75 - 100 C°/km, while surface heat flow spans between 100 - 150 mW/m2. Numerical simulations were performed to predict the spatial distribution of temperature and fluid circulation paths, constrained by field data. Temperature control based on real data is allowed by a few deep exploratory geothermal wells along with several shallower gradient wells, down to a maximum of about 3 km. The model domain extends over an area 20 by 10 km; thickness is 6 km. Local geology is simplified in four different terrains, according to the generalized stratigraphy of the area. Several sets of simulations were carried out running SHEMAT and TOUGH2 numerical codes, considering various boundary conditions, inner geometries and hydraulic permeabilities. The model was realized by means of unsteady forward simulations, under the assumptions of impervious and isothermal top and bottom boundaries, lateral adiabatic faces and variable internal physical properties. The results indicate that the present temperature and pressure distribution of hot fluids with depth in the northern border area of the Larderello field allows to hypothesize a fruitful exploitation of the medium- enthalpy geothermal resources, possibly with low-boiling point fluids binary plants for electricity generation.

  7. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industries will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The full event programme is available here.   Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will be in contact with relevant users and technicians, but anyone wishing to speak with a particular firm is welcome to visit the exhibition or to get in touch with organiser Karin Robert. Italian Industries will also be sponsoring a free concert in the Main Auditorium on Tuesday 11 October at 8:00 pm. The "Trio Poem" concert will feature music by Beethoven and A. Dvořák, with Alberto Torin on the piano, Enrico Carraro on the violin, and Davide Bernardi on the cello.

  8. Gestalt psychology in Italy. (United States)

    Verstegen, I


    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi.

  9. Study and utilization of water-dominated and low-temperature geothermal fields in Italy; Itaria ni okeru nessui takuetsugata oyobi teion chinetsu shigen no kenkyu to riyo jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper reports the state of research and development of hot-water dominated and low-temperature geothermal resources in Italy. Geothermal explorations and studies are conducted by the Italian electric power company ENEL and the International Geothermal Research Institute, of which the development of geothermal power generation is carried out by ENEL. Hot water dominated geothermal fields in the central Italy include the Tuscany area having Larderello south of Firenze and the Monte Amiata area, the Latium area around Rome, and the Campania area around Napoli. Low-temperature geothermal fields in the northern Italy include Ferrara, Vicenza, Euganei Hills, and Aqui Terme. A large number of wells have been drilled to as deep as 3000 m in high-temperature geothermal areas for power generation. The present drilling is targeted exclusively at deep reservoirs. In the hot water dominated areas in the central Italy, power plants of 20-MW class are built even in areas with not too high productivity, where waste hot water is utilized in binary cycle. In the northern low-temperature geothermal area, warm water is utilized directly. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  10. The Acheulian and Early Middle Paleolithic in Latium (Italy): Stability and Innovation. (United States)

    Villa, Paola; Soriano, Sylvain; Grün, Rainer; Marra, Fabrizio; Nomade, Sebastien; Pereira, Alison; Boschian, Giovanni; Pollarolo, Luca; Fang, Fang; Bahain, Jean-Jacques


    We present here the results of a technological and typological analysis of the Acheulian and early Middle Paleolithic assemblages from Torre in Pietra (Latium, Italy) together with comparisons with the Acheulian small tools of Castel di Guido. The assemblages were never chronometrically dated before. We have now 40Ar/39Ar dates and ESR-U-series dates, within a geomorphological framework, which support correlations to marine isotope stages. The Acheulian (previously correlated to MIS 9) is now dated to MIS 10 while the Middle Paleolithic is dated to MIS 7. Lithic analyses are preceded by taphonomic evaluations. The Levallois method of the Middle Paleolithic assemblage is an innovation characterized by the production of thin flake blanks without cortex. In contrast, the small tool blanks of the Acheulian were either pebbles or thick flakes with some cortex. They provided a relatively easy manual prehension. The choice of Levallois thin flake blanks in the Middle Paleolithic assemblage suggest that the new technology is most likely related to the emergence of hafting. Accordingly, the oldest direct evidence of hafting technology is from the site of Campitello Quarry in Tuscany (Central Italy) where birch-bark tar, found on the proximal part of two flint flakes, is dated to the end of MIS 7. Nevertheless, a peculiar feature of the Middle Paleolithic at Torre in Pietra is the continuous presence of small tool blanks on pebbles and cores and on thick flake albeit at a much lower frequency than in the older Acheulian industries. The adoption of the new technology is thus characterized by innovation combined with a degree of stability. The persistence of these habits in spite of the introduction of an innovative technique underlies the importance of cultural transmission and conformity in the behavior of Neandertals.

  11. Potential distribution of Xylella fastidiosa in Italy: a maximum entropy model

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    Luciano BOSSO


    Full Text Available Species distribution models may provide realistic scenarios to explain the influence of bioclimatic variables in the context of emerging plant pathogens. Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited Gram-negative bacterium causing severe diseases in many plant species. We developed a maximum entropy model for X. fastidiosa in Italy. Our objectives were to carry out a preliminary analysis of the species’ potential geographical distribution and determine which eco-geographical variables may favour its presence in other Italian regions besides Apulia. The analysis of single variable contribution showed that precipitation of the driest (40.3% and wettest (30.4% months were the main factors influencing model performance. Altitude, precipitation of warmest quarter, mean temperature of coldest quarter, and land cover provided a total contribution of 19.5%. Based on the model predictions, X. fastidiosa has a high probability (> 0.8 of colonizing areas characterized by: i low altitude (0–150 m a.s.l.; ii precipitations in the driest month < 10 mm, in the wettest month ranging between 80–110 mm and during the warmest quarter < 60 mm; iii mean temperature of coldest quarter ≥ 8°C; iv agricultural areas comprising intensive agriculture, complex cultivation patterns, olive groves, annual crops associated with permanent crops, orchards and vineyards; forest (essentially oak woodland; and Mediterranean shrubland. Species distribution models showed a high probability of X. fastidiosa occurrence in the regions of Apulia, Calabria, Basilicata, Sicily, Sardinia and coastal areas of Campania, Lazio and south Tuscany. Maxent models achieved excellent levels of predictive performance according to area under curve (AUC, true skill statistic (TSS and minimum difference between training and testing AUC data (AUCdiff. Our study indicated that X. fastidiosa has the potential to overcome the current boundaries of distribution and affect areas of Italy outside Apulia.

  12. Mortality among workers in the geothermal power plants at Larderello, Italy. (United States)

    Pira, E; Turbiglio, M; Maroni, M; Carrer, P; La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Iachetta, R


    Since the early 1990s various European electricity companies have set up a research program, named EURELEX, devoted to the development of a comprehensive and validated title-occupation--job-exposure matrix (i.e., an instrument to assess exposures from occupations and jobs), in order to estimate and quantify past exposure to a number of potentially carcinogenic agents plus a few selected other toxic substances. The EURELEX program was first applied in Italy to a cohort of geothermal workers in Larderello, Tuscany. The cohort mortality study comprised 4,237 men who had worked at the geothermal power plant between 1950 and 1990. Vital status and death certificates were obtained from registration offices in the municipality of birth or death. Particular attention was paid to neoplastic effects of exposure to asbestos, largely used in the past for pipeline insulating purposes. The matrix allowed the workers to be subdivided into several categories according to estimated absestos exposure. Smoking information was not available. No excess mortality was found for all causes and total cancer mortality. A small excess of pleural cancer (2 obs. vs. 1.4 exp.) was not statistically significant. The effect of other agents included in the matrix was also examined: the small excess of leukemia among those exposed to solvents prior to 1963 (year of benzene ban in Italy) did not reach the level of statistical significance. No cases of leukemia were found among the workers presumed to have been exposed to important ELF electromagnetic fields. The study provides reassuring information on a large cohort of a unique geothermal power plant since no significant excess mortality for asbestos related cancers was observed. Furthermore, it represents a useful application and validation of a comprehensive job-exposure matrix for the electric industry in Europe.

  13. The impact of different rehabilitation strategies after major events in the elderly: the case of stroke and hip fracture in the Tuscany region

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    Di Iorio Tania


    Full Text Available Abstract Background On a regional level, our aims were to describe rehabilitation patterns for elderly patients with stroke and hip fracture and to investigate mortality risk during the 6-month post acute period. Methods Data sources included administrative data relative to patients aged 65+ resident in Tuscany admitted in hospital for stroke or hip fracture between 2001 and 2003, traced up to 3 years before and 6 months following index admission. The study design involves computerized linkage of administrative data, and an exploratory analysis of the association between rehabilitation patterns and 6-month mortality, adjusting for clinical, demographic, and acute-related care characteristics using multivariate Cox regression. Results Rehabilitation patterns vary greatly across Tuscany with considerable cost implications. Six month mortality risk for stroke patients is significantly lower among residents of Local Health Authorities where patients are more frequently rehabilitated, specifically in extra-hospital settings. Conclusion Our study, targeting two crucial conditions for elderly patients, found a high variability of rehabilitation patterns across a region, albeit coherent between the two pathologies, associated with remarkable differences in average expenditure. Differences in hazard rates for 6-month mortality after stroke at population level were also found. These results need to be confirmed and further investigated through a more robust information framework.

  14. Italy INAF Data Center Report (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.


    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  15. TUSCANY中基于角色的组件访问控制的设计与实现%Design and Realization of Role-based Component Access Control in Tuscany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金锁; 边耐政; 王硕


    本文在Tuscany SCA Java基于角色的访问控制框架只有接口没有实现的情况下,给出了接口的具体实现,并且设计和实现了一个角色管理服务,辅助其应用于实际项目的访问控制。通过测试案例验证了在Tuscany SCA Java框架下的基于角色的访问控制实现方案的可操作性。%In this paper, We not only implemented the interface of role-based access control framework of Tuscany SCA Java, which gives definition of its interface without implementation, but also designed and implemented a role management service. It can be integrated in practice. It is verified by test cases in the Tuscany SCA Java Framework that role-based access control is operational.

  16. Italy of censuses. (United States)

    Rey, G M


    To supplement census data on Italy's economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen Italy's industrial base

  17. Seismic sequences, swarms, and large earthquakes in Italy (United States)

    Amato, Alessandro; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Selvaggi, Giulio; Mele, Franco


    In recent years, particularly after the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake and the 2012 Emilia sequence, the issue of earthquake predictability has been at the center of the discussion in Italy, not only within the scientific community but also in the courtrooms and in the media. Among the noxious effects of the L'Aquila trial there was an increase of scaremongering and false alerts during earthquake sequences and swarms, culminated in a groundless one-night evacuation in northern Tuscany in 2013. We have analyzed the Italian seismicity of the last decades in order to determine the rate of seismic sequences and investigate some of their characters, including frequencies, min/max durations, maximum magnitudes, main shock timing, etc. Selecting only sequences with an equivalent magnitude of 3.5 or above, we find an average of 30 sequences/year. Although there is an extreme variability in the examined parameters, we could set some boundaries, useful to obtain some quantitative estimates of the ongoing activity. In addition, the historical catalogue is rich of complex sequences in which one main shock is followed, seconds, days or months later, by another event with similar or higher magnitude We also analysed the Italian CPT11 catalogue (Rovida et al., 2011) between 1950 and 2006 to highlight the foreshock-mainshock event couples that were suggested in previous studies to exist (e.g. six couples, Marzocchi and Zhuang, 2011). Moreover, to investigate the probability of having random foreshock-mainshock couples over the investigated period, we produced 1000 synthetic catalogues, randomly distributing in time the events occured in such period. Preliminary results indicate that: (1) all but one of the the so-called foreshock-mainshock pairs found in Marzocchi and Zhuang (2011) fall inside previously well-known and studied seismic sequences (Belice, Friuli and Umbria-Marche), meaning that suggested foreshocks are also aftershocks; and (2) due to the high-rate of the italian

  18. Fatto in Italia: Refashioning Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrero-Regis


    Full Text Available This article discusses how the Made in Italy brand helped Italy to recover from economic recession in the 1980s, but also how it redefined the country's identity after the traumatic years of terrorism and especially after the murder of the Christian Democratic Party Secretary, Aldo Moro, at the hands of the Red Brigades. In this period cinema as a form of artistic achievement declined, while fashion and industrial design moved at the centre stage of economic and creative success. The rampant consumerism of the 1980s, fuelled by tax reforms that favoured a wider urban middle class, the retreat of unionism, the abandonment of collective bargaining in many industrial sectors, industrial restructuring with the consequent growth of black market economy in the provincial areas of the so-called Third Italy first and the South later, were all factors that contributed to a social and economic shift within Italy itself. Commercial consumption, propagated by the proliferation of local commercial television networks, hedonism and a re-articulation of identity through appearance replaced the 1970s' political activism and ideological opposition to fashion. Ultimately, 'Made in Italy' was a multidimensional phenomenon that presented itself as a new cultural model for the country’s political tribes of the 1970s.

  19. A retrospective analysis of hospital discharge records for S. pneumoniae diseases in the elderly population of Florence, Italy, 2010–2012 (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Taddei, Cristina; Barchielli, Alessandro; Levi, Miriam; Tiscione, Emilia; Santini, Maria Grazia; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Azzari, Chiara; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara


    Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP) represent two of the major causes of out-patient visits, hospital admissions and deaths in the elderly. In Tuscany (Italy), in the Local Health Unit of Florence, a project aimed at implementing an active surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in the hospitalized elderly population started in 2013. The aim of this study is to show the results of the retrospective analysis (2010–2012) on hospital discharge records (HDRs) related to diseases potentially due to S. pneumoniae, using a selection of ICD9-CM codes. All ordinary hospitalizations (primary and secondary diagnoses) of the elderly population were included (11 245 HDRs). Among a population of about 200 000 inhabitants ≥65 y, the hospitalization rate (HR) increased with increasing age and was higher in males in all age groups. Almost all hospitalizations (95%) were due to CAP, only 5% were invasive diseases. Only few cases of CAP were specified as related to S. pneumoniae, the percentage was higher in case of meningitis (100%) or septicemia (22%). In-hospital deaths over the three-year period were 1703 (case fatality rate: 15%). The risk of dying, being hospitalized for a disease potentially attributable to pneumococcus (as primary diagnosis) increased significantly with age (P < 0.001), the odds ratio (OR) per increasing age year was 1.06 (95% CI 1.05–1.07) and was higher in patients with co-existing medical conditions with respect to patients without comorbidities. Currently, an active surveillance system on S. pneumoniae diseases with the inclusion of bio-molecular tests (RT-PCR), is a key step to assess the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) in the elderly population after implementation of vaccination policies. The results of this study will provide the comparator baseline data for the evaluation of a possible immunization programme involving one or more cohorts of the elderly in

  20. A retrospective analysis of hospital discharge records for S. pneumoniae diseases in the elderly population of Florence, Italy, 2010-2012: Implications for immunization policies. (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Taddei, Cristina; Barchielli, Alessandro; Levi, Miriam; Tiscione, Emilia; Santini, Maria Grazia; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Azzari, Chiara; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara


    Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP) represent two of the major causes of out-patient visits, hospital admissions and deaths in the elderly. In Tuscany (Italy), in the Local Health Unit of Florence, a project aimed at implementing an active surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in the hospitalized elderly population started in 2013. The aim of this study is to show the results of the retrospective analysis (2010-2012) on hospital discharge records (HDRs) related to diseases potentially due to S. pneumoniae, using a selection of ICD9-CM codes. All ordinary hospitalizations (primary and secondary diagnoses) of the elderly population were included (11 245 HDRs). Among a population of about 200 000 inhabitants ≥65 y, the hospitalization rate (HR) increased with increasing age and was higher in males in all age groups. Almost all hospitalizations (95%) were due to CAP, only 5% were invasive diseases. Only few cases of CAP were specified as related to S. pneumoniae, the percentage was higher in case of meningitis (100%) or septicemia (22%). In-hospital deaths over the three-year period were 1703 (case fatality rate: 15%). The risk of dying, being hospitalized for a disease potentially attributable to pneumococcus (as primary diagnosis) increased significantly with age (P<0.001), the odds ratio (OR) per increasing age year was 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07) and was higher in patients with a co-existing medical conditions with respect to patients without comorbidities. Currently, an active surveillance system on S. pneumoniae diseases with the inclusion of bio-molecular tests, (RT-PCR), is a key step to assess, the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) in the elderly population after implementation of vaccination policies. The results of this study will provide the comparator baseline data for the evaluation of a possible immunization programme involving one or more cohorts of the elderly in

  1. A retrospective analysis of hospital discharge records for S. pneumoniae diseases in the elderly population of Florence, Italy, 2010-2012. (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Taddei, Cristina; Barchielli, Alessandro; Levi, Miriam; Tiscione, Emilia; Santini, Maria Grazia; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Azzari, Chiara; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara


    Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP) represent two of the major causes of out-patient visits, hospital admissions and deaths in the elderly. In Tuscany (Italy), in the Local Health Unit of Florence, a project aimed at implementing an active surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in the hospitalized elderly population started in 2013. The aim of this study is to show the results of the retrospective analysis (2010-2012) on hospital discharge records (HDRs) related to diseases potentially due to S. pneumoniae, using a selection of ICD9-CM codes. All ordinary hospitalizations (primary and secondary diagnoses) of the elderly population were included (11 245 HDRs). Among a population of about 200 000 inhabitants ≥65 y, the hospitalization rate (HR) increased with increasing age and was higher in males in all age groups. Almost all hospitalizations (95%) were due to CAP, only 5% were invasive diseases. Only few cases of CAP were specified as related to S. pneumoniae, the percentage was higher in case of meningitis (100%) or septicemia (22%). In-hospital deaths over the three-year period were 1703 (case fatality rate: 15%). The risk of dying, being hospitalized for a disease potentially attributable to pneumococcus (as primary diagnosis) increased significantly with age (P < 0.001), the odds ratio (OR) per increasing age year was 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07) and was higher in patients with co-existing medical conditions with respect to patients without comorbidities. Currently, an active surveillance system on S. pneumoniae diseases with the inclusion of bio-molecular tests (RT-PCR), is a key step to assess the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) in the elderly population after implementation of vaccination policies. The results of this study will provide the comparator baseline data for the evaluation of a possible immunization programme involving one or more cohorts of the elderly in

  2. Two new Otoplanid species (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Proseriata) of the genera Orthoplana Steinböck, 1932 and Postbursoplana Ax, 1956 from the Tuscan coast (Italy). (United States)

    Meini, Gianluca


    Two new species of marine flatworms, collected on the sandy shores of Tuscany, are described. These species exhibit the morphological characteristics of the subfamilies Otoplaninae and Parotoplaninae ("Turbellaria", Otoplanidae), but clearly differ from other described species. Orthoplana lunae sp. nov., is characterized by a body length of 1.4-1.6 mm, distinctive features of the testes and vitellaries, the male sclerotic apparatus composed of a median stylet (48-49 μm long), and 19 spines (17-44 μm long). Postbursoplana donoraticensis sp. nov., is characterized by a body length of 1.6-1.8 mm, the distribution of testes and vitellaries, the male sclerotic apparatus composed of 10 spines (46-70 μm). This new species has a greater body length relative to other species in this genus. They were collected along the sandy shores at low water mark at Partaccia (Marina di Massa, Ligurian Sea, Italy) and Marina di Donoratico (Livorno, Ligurian Sea, Italy), respectively.

  3. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Atmospheric CO2 uptake throughout bio-enhanced brucite-water reaction at Montecastelli serpentinites (Italy) (United States)

    Bedini, Federica; Boschi, Chiara; Ménez, Benedicte; Perchiazzi, Natale; Zanchetta, Giovanni


    In the last several years, interactions between microorganisms and minerals have intrigued and catched the interest of the scientific community. Montecastelli serpentinites (Tuscany, Italy) are characterized by CO2-mineral carbonation, an important process which leads to spontaneous formation of carbonate phases uptaking atmospheric CO2. In the studied areas carbonate precipitates, mainly hydrated Mg-carbonates, are present in form of crusts, coating and spherules on exposed rock surfaces, and filling rock fractures. Petrographic and mineralogical observations revealed that Tuscan brucite-rich serpentinites hosts preserve their original chemical compositions with typical mesh-textured serpentine (± brucite) after olivine, magnetite-rich mesh rims and relicts of primary spinel. Representative hydrated carbonate samples have been collected in three different areas and analyzed to investigate the role of biological activity and its influence in the serpentine-hydrated Mg-carbonates reaction. The different types of whitish precipitates have been selected under binocular microscope for XRD analyses performed at the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra (University of Pisa, Italy): their mineralogical composition consists of mainly hydromagnesite and variable amount of other metastable carbonate phases (i.e. nesquehonite, manasseite, pyroaurite, brugnatellite and aragonite). Moreover, the crystallinity analysis of whitish crust and spherules have been carried out by detailed and quantitative XRD analyses to testify a possible biologically controlled growth, inasmuch as the crystal structure of biominerals could be affected by many lattice defects (i.e. dislocations, twinning, etc.) and this observation cause low crystallinity of the mineral. The presence of microbial cells and relicts of organic matter has already been detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) combined with Raman spectromicroscopy in a previous study (Bedini et al., 2013). The presence of

  5. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.


    Sixteen specimens of female crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), during the breeding season, were investigated for post‐mortem and full diagnostic examination during a mortality outbreak in a tributary stream of the Arno River in Tuscany in 2011. Necropsy highlighted the presence of a swollen...... anus and widespread haemorrhages in the body, fins, gills and eyes. Haemorrhages in internal organs and spleen granulomas were also observed. Bacteria isolated from the brain, kidney and spleen of affected fish were identified as A. sobria. Microscopic lesions observed in gills were characterized...... by necrosis of the secondary lamellae, congestion and multifocal lamellar fusion. The kidney showed necrosis, oedema, fibrin exudation and areas of haemorrhages, while in the spleen the main lesions were by multifocal necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. In the gills, transmission electron microscopy revealed...

  6. Fatal Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis, Italy (United States)

    Scaglia, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S.


    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results. PMID:15504272

  7. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy. (United States)

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  8. Coexisting contraction-extension consistent with buoyancy of the crust and upper mantle in North-Central Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Aoudia, A; Ismail-Zadeh, A T; Panza, G F; Pontevivo, A


    The juxtaposed contraction and extension observed in the crust of the Italian Apennines and elsewhere has, for a long time, attracted the attention of geoscientists and is a long-standing enigmatic feature. Several models, invoking mainly external forces, have been put forward to explain the close association of these two end-member deformation mechanisms clearly observed by geophysical and geological investigations. These models appeal to interactions along plate margins or at the base of the lithosphere such as back-arc extension or shear tractions from mantle flow or to subduction processes such as slab roll back, retreat or pull and detachment. We present here a revisited crust and upper mantle model that supports delamination processes beneath North-Central Italy and provides a new background for the genesis and age of the recent magmatism in Tuscany. Although external forces must have been important in the building up of the Apennines, we show that internal buoyancy forces solely can explain the coexist...

  9. Inorganic raw materials economy and provenance of chipped industry in some stone age sites of northern and central Italy. (United States)

    Bietti, Amilcare; Boschian, Giovanni; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; Danese, Ermanno; De Francesco, Anna Maria; Dini, Mario; Fontana, Federica; Giampietri, Alessandra; Grifoni, Renata; Guerreschi, Antonio; Liagre, Jérémie; Negrino, Fabio; Radi, Giovanna; Tozzi, Carlo; Tykot, Robert


    An opportunistic and local choice of raw materials is typically attested in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic industries throughout Italy. The quality of the raw material usually affected the flaking technology and quality of the products. In the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic, raw material procurement strategies were more complex. Flint was exploited both locally, in areas where abundant outcrops of raw materials were available (such as the Lessini mountains), and in distant localities, after which it was transported or exchanged over medium/long distances. Different routes of exchange were thus followed in the various periods; good reconstruction of these routes have been provided by a study of the Garfagnana sites in Northern Tuscany, and the Mesolithic deposit of Mondeval de Sora (Dolomites). An interesting example of a Late Upper Paleolithic flint quarry and workshop were found in Abruzzo, in the San Bartolomeo shelter. The extended trade of obsidian from Lipari, Palmarola and Sardinia to the Italian Peninsula is attested in the Neolithic, with some differences concerning the age and different areas.

  10. Structural study of the tectonics of the basement phyllites - quartzites (Verrucano) in Tuscany south of the Arno river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini, E. (Instituto di Geologia e Paleontologia, Sienna, IT); Lazzarotto, A.; Stefani, G.


    Problems of Tuscan geology in the area of the southern Arno river are discussed. Particular attention is given to the tectonics of the autochtonous Tuscan series and its relationship with the Ligurian allochtonous and Umbrian autochtonous series. This area is difficult to study as there are few outcrops present and the surface structure does not reflect the subsurface structure. The results of new studies of the area, including detailed investigations and analyses of drill cores from wells excavated by the Larderello Co. and ENEL are reported. The structure of the area has been accurately mapped and the historical geology, particularly with respect to tectonics, has been reconstructed. This data will be of assistance in the interpretation of thermal phenomena in southern Italy.

  11. Post-release habitats’ selection of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa, 1925 in a protected area in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.

  12. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions. (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L


    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Republic of Italy (country profile). (United States)

    Hakkert, R


    This discussion of Italy focuses on the following: cities and regions; population growth; households and families; housing and construction; ethnicity and religion; education; economy and labor force; consumption; and transport and communications. Italy, with its total area of 116,374 square miles, is about the size of Florida and Georgia combined. Its 56.6 million people form the 2nd largest population in Western Europe, after West Germany, but slightly larger than Great Britain and France. The main administrative divisions are 20 regions, subdivided into 95 provinces. The provinces in turn are divided into 8090 "comuni" or municipalities. The 6 cities with more than 500,000 people are Roma, Milano, Napoli, Torino, Genova, and Palermo. They account for 14% of the population. The 43 cities with between 100,000-500,000 account for another 13%. There are 373 middle-sized communities with between 20,000 and 100,000 people, accounting for 26% of population. Italy has a regional problem. The line separating the regions of Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, and Lazio from the regions to the south and east is important. The regions north of it hold 62% of the population but are responsible for 73% of the gross national product (GNP) and 78% of the industrial product. The regions to the south are economically much weaker. At the time of the last Italian census on October 25, 1981, the country counted 56.6 million inhabitants. Compared to 33.5 million at the turn of the century, this implies an average annual growth rate of .61%. Between 1900-70, nearly 20 million Italians left their country. Most settled in the US, Argentina, and Brazil. Beginning in the 1960s, a new sort of migration was added as young Italians temporarily left to work in the more prosperous countries of northern Europe. The birthrate, which had declined slowly to 18/1000 during the 1960s, fell more rapidly during the 1970s, to 10.9/1000 in 1981 and 10.3 in 1984. The death rate in Italy has changed little

  14. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Stefania Pandolfi


    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  15. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy (United States)

    Blanco, A.; Dee Tomasi, F.; Filippo, E.; Manno, D.; Perrone, M. R.; Serra, A.; Tafuro, A. M.; Tepore, A.


    Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E) during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  16. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blanco


    Full Text Available Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  17. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy


    Bianchi Claudio; Bianchi Tommaso


    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interv...

  18. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.


    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  19. Validation of high-resolution WRF-ARW model runs against airborne measurements over complex terrain in central Italy (United States)

    Carotenuto, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Toscano, Piero; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Miglietta, Franco; Wohlfahrt, Georg


    An intensive aerial campaign was flown in the context of the CARBIUS project (Maselli et al., 2010) between July 2004 and December 2005. The flights covered, over more than 240 Km, a target area in central Italy (between the regions of Lazio and Tuscany) characterized by various land uses and topography, ranging from coastal zones to mountainous landscapes (Colline Metallifere, Tuscany). The aerial vector (Sky Arrow 650 ERA) was equipped for high frequency (50 Hz) measurements of the three components of mean wind and turbulence, as well as air temperature, CO2 and H2O concentrations. While the aim of the CARBIUS campaign was focused on GHG fluxes, the dataset is used in the present work as a benchmark to assess the capability of mesoscale models to correctly simulate transport fields. A first assessment has been done by comparing the dataset to a coupled WRF-NMM-CALMET system (Gioli et al., 2014), but the aim of the present work is to expand on those foundations by comparing the data to higher resolution WRF-ARW simulations. WRF-ARW outputs are, in fact, frequently used as inputs to multiple dispersion models and any misrepresentation of the "real" situation is therefore propagated through the modelling chain. Our aim is to assess these potential errors keeping into account different topographic situations and seasons thanks to the existent aerial dataset. Moreover the sensitivity of the WRF-ARW model to different initial and boundary conditions (ECMWF vs. CFSR) is explored, since also the initial forcing may influence the representation of the transport field. Results show that the model is generally capable of reproducing the main features of the mean wind field independently from the choice of the initial forcing. Terrain features still show an impact on the model outputs (especially on wind directions), moreover the performance of the model is also influenced by seasonal effects. Gioli B., Gualtieri G., Busillo C., Calastrini F., Gozzini B., Miglietta F. (2014


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    C. BLASI


    Full Text Available

    The author recalls goals and deadlines of the Europena Community Habitats Directive 94/43/EEC and of the Natura 2000 Network. After saying that Italy has up to now only marginally took part in the definition of habitats and species to be included in the Annexes I, II, II e IV of the Habitat Directive, he underlines that only the collaboration between the Italian Botanical Society and the Italian Ministry of Environment – Nature Conservation Services, has allowed Italy to fill the gap with other countries. Furthermore, he relates the ongoing progress of Natura 2000 in Italy (Bioitaly: about 2700 sites collected, a useful collaboration between botanists, zoologists and ecologists, the constitution of a list of new habitats and species to be included into the Annexes of the Directive. Finally, he wishes a closer working relationship among phytosociologists, botanists and ecologists, in order to avoid the risk of replacing in the CORINE project the phytosociological approach with a less satisfactory physiognomic classification.

  1. Seismic risk perception in Italy (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura


    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  2. Pharmacovigilance in Italy: An overview

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    Carmela Mazzitello


    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs is the basis of pharmacovigilance. In fact, ADRs are associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. However, underreporting by all healthcare professionals remains the major problem in Italy and in the rest of the world. The dissemination of pharmacovigilance knowledge among Italian healthcare professionals, and the new pharmacovigilance regulations may promote the early detection and reporting of ADRs. This review examines the legislative framework concerning the pharmacovigilance in Italy. Materials and Methods: The information was collected from scientific articles and the websites of the Italian Ministry of Health and the Italian Medicines Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA. Results: The pharmacovigilance system, both in Italy and Europe, has undergone profound changes. European legislation on pharmacovigilance has been changed in 2010 according to the EU Regulation 1235/2010 and Directive 2010/84/EU. Basically, the changes tend to increase the efficiency, speed and transparency of pharmacovigilance activities. The new Regulation (1235/2010 and the Directive (2010/84/EU aim to strengthen the system of pharmacovigilance, establish more precisely who is obliged to do what, and allow faster and easier circulation and retrieval of information about ADRs. Conclusion: A greater knowledge on what is the Italian pharmacovigilance legislation will be useful to improve the status of ADRs reporting and spread the culture of spontaneous reporting.

  3. Sexual behavior, use of contraceptive methods and risk factors for HPV infections of students living in central Italy: implications for vaccination strategies. (United States)

    Boccalini, S; Tiscione, E; Bechini, A; Levi, M; Mencacci, M; Petrucci, F; Bani Assad, G; Santini, M G; Bonanni, P


    The most frequent risk factors related to the infection/persistence of HPV in the population are an early start of sexual activity, the number of sexual partners, smoking, and the utilization of some contraceptive methods. In Italy, HPV vaccine is offered free of charge to all 12-year-old female adolescents, with a possible extension to other age groups according to Regional policies. In order to value the suitability of the current HPV vaccination strategies in Italy, an epidemiological study on sexual habits in adolescents and young adults was organized. An anonymous questionnaire on sexual behavior and risk factors for HPV infection was administered to 2300 students aged 13-24 years attending secondary schools and universities in Tuscany during 2008-09. About 12% of the sample declared to be foreign citizen. The results highlight the early start of sexual activity among young students. Particularly, more than half of the interviewed students declared to be already sexually active. The mean and the median age of the first sexual intercourse was 15.4 +/- 1.4 years and 15 years (25th and 75th percentiles = 14-16), respectively. More than 77% of students at age 16 years declared they already had the first sexual intercourse, compared with 0.3% of those sexually active, had sexual contacts with a single partner. Most students declared to know common contraceptive methods (male condom and contraceptive pill). However, only half of them declared a regular use of male condom. These data confirm the importance of vaccination against HPV for young females before their sexual debut. In addition, the current multi-cohort strategy of HPV vaccination in Tuscany (free of charge in the age range 12-16 years) allows also to catch up those girls that have not yet had their first sexual experiences before 16 years (21.5% according to our study) but also to those girls already sexually active, who very rarely are already infected by all vaccine types at 16 years. Our results also

  4. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy) (United States)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica


    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  5. Visible and near-infrared absorption spectroscopy by an integrating sphere and optical fibers for quantifying and discriminating the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil from Tuscany. (United States)

    Mignani, Anna Grazia; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo; Conte, Lanfranco; Marega, Milena; Cichelli, Angelo; Attilio, Cristina; Cimato, Antonio


    Because of its high price, extra virgin olive oil is frequently targeted for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying and discriminating the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lower-grade olive oils. An original set-up for diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy in the wide 400-1,700 nm spectral range was experimented. It made use of an integrating sphere containing the oil sample and of optical fibers for illumination and detection; it provided intrinsically scattering-free absorption spectroscopy measurements. This set-up was used to collect spectroscopic fingerprints of authentic extra virgin olive oils from the Italian Tuscany region, adulterated by different concentrations of olive-pomace oil, refined olive oil, deodorized olive oil, and refined olive-pomace oil. Then, a straightforward multivariate processing of spectroscopic data based on principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis was applied which was successfully capable of predicting the fraction of adulterant in the mixture, and of discriminating its type. The results achieved by means of optical spectroscopy were compared with the analysis of fatty acids, which was carried out by standard gas chromatography.

  6. Selected Abstracts of the 8th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 24-27, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors


    distant metastases at birth: a case report • P. Bianco et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 27. Chloramphenicol (ChlA toxicity in the newborn infant: historical perspectives • L. Cataldi et al.; Rome, Cagliari (Italy ABS 28. Bronchiolitis in newborns • M. Furno et al.; Bologna, Cagliari (Italy ABS 29. Postpartum depression in a high-risk woman after stillbirth • T. Fanos; Mantua (Italy ABS 30. Neonatal brain hypothermia: the Cagliari experience • G. Secci et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 31. Dino Gaburro: a master of Pediatrics • L. Cataldi; Rome (Italy ABS 32. The sterile vesicoureteral reflux as a cause of congenital renal hypodysplasia • G. Ottonello et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 33. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in gbs-positive mothers: effects on newborn microbiota • L. Corvaglia et al.; Bologna (Italy ABS 34. Mother’s emotional experience after giving birth to a preterm infant • P. Paladini et al.; Lecce, Rome (Italy ABS 35. Effects of bolus feeding vs. continuous feeding on splanchnic tissue oxygenation, cerebral tissue oxygenation and apnoeic episodes in preterm infants • L. Corvaglia et al.; Bologna (Italy ABS 36. Natal and neonatal teeth: some new experiences • F. Tromba et al.; Campobasso, Rome (Italy ABS 37. Integration between medical and nursing charts as a tool for quality improvement and risk management in NICU • A. Portanova et al.; Rome (Italy ABS 38. CD44 Immunoreactivity in diabetic nephropathy and the developing human kidney: a marker of renal progenitor stem cells • G. Locci et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 39. PAS and Weigert methods: two old stains for a new interpretation of the newborn kidney • A.R. Cannas et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 40. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the developing human kidney • T. Congiu et al.; Athens (Greece, Cagliari (Italy ABS 41. Interindividual variability in maturation of the human thyroid gland during gestation • E. Tamponi et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 42. The child with wool steel hair • F. Sau et

  7. Legionnaires’ disease Surveillance in Italy

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    Maria Luisa Ricci


    Full Text Available

    In the report presented, data on legionellosis diagnosed in the year 2003 in Italy and notified to the National Surveillance System are analysed. Overall, 617 cases were notified, of which 517 were confirmed and 46 were presumptive.

    The characteristics of the patients are very similar to those reported in the previous years in terms of male/female ratio, age–specific distribution, occupation, etc. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was responsible for approximately 90% of the cases.

  8. Rembrandt in Italie. Receptie en verzamelgeschiedenis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, J.


    This dissertation sets out to investigate if and to what extent Rembrandt's work was appreciated in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries. From approximately 1650 onwards paintings, drawings and prints by Rembrandt could be found in Italy, he is mentioned in several written sources and a few Italian

  9. Amaranthus cruentus L. is suitable for cultivation in Central Italy: field evaluation and response to plant densities

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    Paolo Casini


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of amaranth cultivation in Central Italy and to determine the optimum plant density. Field trials were carried out in 2011 and 2012 under non-irrigated conditions in Tuscany (43° 18’ N, 11° 47’ E. Twelve accessions of two amaranth species (Amaranthus cruentus L. and A. hypochondriacus L. were utilised. Genotypes were evaluated over a two-year period using a RCB design with three replicates. The effects of plant density were investigated in 2012. A with a split-plot design was used, where the A. cruentus accessions (AMES 5148, PI 511719 and PI 643045 constituted the main plots. Plant densities (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 plants m–2 constituted the subplots. Plants were transplanted at the 3-4 true leaf stage. Morphological traits were determined using 5 plants selected from the two central rows of the sampling area. Plots were hand-harvested and cleaned with a mechanical grid with appropriate sieve diameters. A. cruentus was shown to be more suitable to the Central Italy agro-ecological conditions than A. hypochondriacus. The accessions derived from Mexico (PI 477913, PI 576481, PI 643045, PI 643053, and PI 6495079, Guatemala (PI 511719 and Puerto Rico (AMES 5148, had both higher grain yields and a greater stability over the two-year period, with a mean grain production ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 t ha–1. The severe climatic stress in 2012 (high temperatures and aridity, resulted in a 43-60% reduction in seed production compared to that of the previous year. Under these conditions, PI 511719, AMES 26015, AMES 5386, AMES 5148, PI 477913 yielded on average 1.9 t ha–1. Yields of A. hypochondriacus were negligible in both years, probably attributable to greater photoperiod sensitivity, resulting in reduced flowering and delayed maturity. By increasing density up to 60 and 30 plants m–2 for PI 511719 and AMES 5148, respectively, grain production was increased by 55%. As the plant population

  10. EHR and data protection issues in Italy. (United States)

    Virone, Maria Gabriella


    Technological progresses and the changed way to collect, access and use data are at the bottom of the European Commission proposal for a "General Data Protection Regulation" (25 January 2012). Implications of safeguarding privacy and harmonization of existing rules are extremely important also for national Health Systems. Mobility of patients and health professionals as well as cross-border healthcare connected with the increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare Services are modifying traditional medical approaches and applications. New tools, as Electronic Health Records, provide significant benefits as empowering health consumers and minimizing health costs. Anyway, EHRs have limits: for example, they should cause risks for individuals, professionals and institutions in terms of personal injuries and liabilities. In this scenario, it's evident that technical aspects (as health standards and interoperability) are as important as legal and regulatory privacy issues. Presently, mandatory acts on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of health e-Data still missing at all levels. Italy is adopting binding and non-binding legal documents to tackle the problem. Are they enough?

  11. Data integration and conceptual modelling of the Larderello geothermal area, Italy (United States)

    Manzella, Adele; Gola, Gianluca; Bertini, Giovanni; Bonini, Marco; Botteghi, Serena; Brogi, Andrea; De Franco, Roberto; Dini, Andrea; Donato, Assunta; Gianelli, Giovanni; Liotta, Domenico; Montanari, Domenico; Montegrossi, Giordano; Petracchini, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Santilano, Alessandro; Scrocca, Davide; Trumpy, Eugenio


    The Larderello geothermal field, located in southern Tuscany (Italy), is one of the most important long-living hydrothermal system in the world. The inner zone of the Northern Apennines is characterized by high heat flow, well constrained by several hundred measurements deriving from both shallow boreholes and deep exploration wells. It is widely accepted that the interplay among extensional tectonics, thinning of the previously overthickened crust and lithosphere, and magmatism related to crustal melting and hybridism, controlled the NW-SE trending geothermal anomaly occurring in southern Tuscany. At Larderello, the geothermal exploitation started at the beginning of the last century from the shallow evaporite-carbonate reservoir (about 700 - 1000 m b.g.l. on average) hosting a super-heated steam with temperature ranging from 150°C to 260°C. A deep exploration program was carried out in the early 1980s. Deep boreholes found a super-heated steam-dominated system hosted in the metamorphic basement (about 2500 - 4000 m b.g.l), characterized by temperatures ranging from 300°C to 350°C. In the SW part of the Larderello area (Lago locality), a temperature exceeding 400°C was measured down to 3000 m b.s.l. The 2D and 3D seismic exploration activities provided evidences of a seismic marker, locally showing bright spot features, defining the top of a deeper reflective crustal interval, named as "K-horizon". The K-horizon has not yet been drilled, but some boreholes approached it. This seismic reflector exhibits interesting positive correlation with the maximum peak of the hypocentre distribution of low-magnitude earthquakes and, at the same time, its shape coincides with the thermal anomaly distribution, in plain view. The review and updating of the velocity and resistivity models suggest the existence of over-pressurized fluids, likely of magmatic and/or thermo-metamorphic origin, which originate the seismic velocity anomalies. The upward migration and storage of the

  12. Recolonization patterns of ants in a rehabilitated lignite mine in central Italy: Potential for the use of Mediterranean ants as indicators of restoration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottonetti, L.; Tucci, L.; Santini, G. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy)


    Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages were sampled with pitfall traps in three different habitats associated with a rehabilitated mine district and in undisturbed forests in Tuscany, Italy. The four habitats were (1) open fields (3-4 years old); (2) a middle-age mixed plantation (10 years); (3) an old-age mixed plantation (20 years); and (4) an oak woodland (40 years) not directly affected by mining activities. The aim of the study was to analyze ant recolonization patterns in order to provide insights on the use of Mediterranean ant fauna as indicators of restoration processes. Species richness and diversity were not significantly different among the four habitats. However, multivariate analyses showed that the assemblages in the different habitats were clearly differentiated, with similarity relationships reflecting a successional gradient among rehabilitated sites. The observed patterns of functional group changes along the gradient broadly accord with those of previous studies in other biogeographic regions. These were (1) a decrease of dominant Dolichoderinae and opportunists; (2) an increase in the proportion of cold-climate specialists; and (3) the appearance of the Cryptic species in the oldest plantations, with a maximum of abundance in the woodland. In conclusion, the results of our study supported the use of Mediterranean ants as a suitable tool for biomonitoring of restoration processes, and in particular, the functional group approach proved a valuable framework to better interpret local trends in terms of global ecological patterns. Further research is, however, needed in order to obtain a reliable classification of Mediterranean ant functional groups.

  13. Depositional and erosional coastal processes during the late postglacial sea-level rise: An example from the central Tyrrhenian continental shelf (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortora, P. [Univ. degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza (Italy). Dept. di Scienze della Terra


    A transgressive systems tract (TST) deposit on the inner continental shelf of the south Tuscany region (central Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) formed during the last postglacial sea-level rise. Its small-scale stratigraphy has been detailed using high-resolution seismic profiles, gravity cores, and grab samples. The TST deposit overlies a lowstand unconformity, shows a tabular geometry, and comprises three internal architectures of beach facies. Because the lateral distribution of these vertical successions is not random, but parallel to the coast, each architecture represents an individual sedimentary stage during sea-level rise. However, all architectures were formed via shoreface retreat in response to the landward migration of a beach complex over the unconformity. During this migration the beach system was characterized by a source diastem located in the surf zone and by two sediment dispersal systems. One moved the eroded sand over the flat back-barrier palustrine area by storm washover, while the other transported part of this sand to the lower shoreface, forming a reworked sand sheet above the older and inactive source diastem (ravinement surface). The TST architectures originated from a transgressive succession of beach facies, differentiated according to the intensity of shoreface retreat. Architecture A represents a low preservation potential of the original beach complex, Architecture B relatively high preservation, and Architecture C no preservation. The intensity of erosion and the consequent preservation potential were totally controlled by antecedent topography.

  14. First notification in Italy of cardiopulmonary filariosis (heartworm disease) in a wolf (Canis lupus). (United States)

    Pascucci, Ilaria; Fico, Rosario; D'Angelo, Anna Rita; Serini, Sabrina; Cammà, Cesare


    The authors report on the first notification of filariosis (heartworm disease) caused by Dirofilaria immitis in a wolf (Canis lupus) in Italy. On account of this exceptional finding, the parasite was typed not only using traditional methods, such as stereomicroscopic examination, but also using highly innovative diagnostic methods, such as scanning electron microscope and molecular identification with the application of various recently developed methods (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing). Certain aspects regarding the epidemiology of the disease are discussed in the light of this first case in Italy that occurred in an area in which cardiopulmonary filiariasis had not previously been reported in wild or domestic carnivores.

  15. Rites of passage in Italy. (United States)

    Field, Carol


    Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change?

  16. Italy: old problems, new books. (United States)

    Agazzi, Evandro


    Agazzi's bibliographic essay of recent titles in Italian on biomedical issues also discusses the Catholic versus the secular approaches to bioethics in Italy. Among the publications mentioned are several of a philosophical or theological nature: M. Mori's volume on artificial insemination, and second editions of well-established textbooks on biomedical ethics by S. Leone, E. Sgreccia, S. Spinsanti, and D. Tettamanzi. Legal issues in reproductive technologies are addressed in the Santosuosso Commission's report on regulating artificial procreation, and in a book discussing the report. Secular writings on ethical issues have appeared in issues cited here of the journals Prospettive Settanta and Biblioteca della Libertà. Also mentioned in Agazzi's essay are a critique of the Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's Instruction on Respect for Human Life, and a booklet of articles related to the 20th anniversary of the encyclical Humanae Vitae.

  17. Preliminary report on arsenic and heavy metals contents in soils and stream bed sediments of Cornia, Bruna and Alma coastal plains (Southern Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dughetti F.


    Full Text Available The Department of Earth Sciences of University of Florence has conducted over the past ten years, numerous studies about the distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in mineralized areas of Tuscany, particularly in the Pecora basin. The area hosts several polymetallic ore bodies and a pyrite ore deposit. The studies have identified several geochemical anomalies (As, Cu, Pb, Zn… both in the areas which host the ore bodies and in the coastal plain (Scarlino Plain. To increase the knowledge concerning the distribution of As and heavy metals in other Tuscan coastal plains, research is under way in the alluvial plains of the Bruna, Cornia and Alma rivers. The preliminary analysis have focused on soils and stream sediments, to better understand the correlations between the downstream transport of rivers and the soils. We have made physic-chemical analysis, particle size analysis, mineralogical analysis for X-ray powder diffraction, chemical analysis for the determination of major element (X-ray Fluorescence and for the determination of 35 minor elements and traces (AAS and ICP.Preliminary data show high concentrations of several elements (As, Zn, Co…. The concentrations of these elements in soils and stream bed sediments are not always consistent; in particular we have found higher concentrations in soils than in stream bed sediments in Cornia Plain, while the opposite happens in the Bruna basin. Therefore the natural processes of rocks weathering does not seem to have affected uniformly. The distribution of As and heavy metals in soils and stream bed sediments of the all three basins of interest are still under investigation.

  18. Crustal stress regime in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cesaro


    Full Text Available In order to obtain a reliable map of the present-day stress field in Italy, needed to better understand the active tectonic processes and to contribute to the assessment of seismic hazard, in 1992 we started to collect and analyze new data from borehole breakouts in deep oil and geothermal wells and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (2.5 < M <5 occurred in Italy between 1988 and 1995. From about 200 deep wells and 300 focal mechanisms analyzed to date, we infer that: the internal (SW sector of the Northern Apenninic arc is extending with minimum compressional stress (Shmin oriented ? ENE, while the external front is thrusting over the Adriatic foreland (Shmin ? NW-SE. The entire Southern Apennine is extending in NE direction (from the Tyrrhenian margin to the Apulian foreland and compression (in the foredeep is no longer active at the outer (NE thrust front. Between these two arcs, an abrupt change in the tectonic regime is detected with directions of horizontal stress changing by as much as 90º in the external front, around latitude 430N. Along the Ionian side of the Calabrian arc the stress directions inferred from breakouts and focal mechanisms are scattered with a hint of rotation from N-S Shmin close to the Southern Apennines, to ~ E-W directions in the Messina Strait. In Sicily, a NW-SE direction of SHmax is evident in the Hyblean foreland, parallel to the direction of plate motion between Africa and Europe. A more complex pattern of stress directions is observed in the thrust belt zone, with rotations from the regional trend (NW í directed SHmax to NE oriented SHmax. A predominant NW direction of SHmax is also detected in mainland Sicily from earthquake focal mechanisms, but no well data are available in this region. In the northern part of Sicily (Aeolian Islands a ~N-S direction of SHmax is observed.

  19. Psychosurgery in Italy, 1936-39. (United States)

    Kotowicz, Zbigniew


    In 1936 Egas Moniz introduced a new method for treating mental illness--psychosurgery. This new procedure was taken up immediately in a number of countries, including Italy. In most countries its introduction was slow and the numbers of operations were in single figures, but in Italy the introduction was rapid and around a dozen neuropsychiatrists reported much higher numbers of operations performed. Also in Italy the first innovations to the technique, notably the transorbital variation, were introduced. Moreover, all these activities took place without any sign of the protest seen elsewhere. Conditions that allowed the acceptance of this risky procedure seemed to be a consequence of the way in which the professions of neurology and psychiatry had been merged in Italy.

  20. Gate to Italy; Das Tor zu Italien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, Ina


    Increasingly, German businesses are setting up workshops in Southern Tyrol. This region of Northern Italy offers ideal conditions, as well as German-speaking partners. However, to be successful they will also need Italian partners. (orig.)

  1. Seasonal egg output of gastro-intestinal parasites in wild ungulates in a mediterranean area (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi


    Full Text Available Abstract Seasonal egg (or oocyst output of gastro-intestinal parasites of wild ungulates was studied in a Mediterranean protected area, the Monti Livornesi Park (Livorno, Tuscany region, Central Italy. Samples of faeces of wild boars (Sus scrofa and mouflons (Ovis ammon were collected monthly for one year. The observed trends of egg output were analysed taking into account seasonal variations of temperature and rainfall, life-cycle and survival strategy of parasites, and health condition of hosts. In our Mediterranean study area, the peaks of egg output appear in different months according to different biology and survival strategies of parasites. Riassunto Emissione stagionale di uova di parassiti gastrointestinali in cinghiali (Sus scrofa e in mufloni (Ovis ammon di un’area mediterranea (Italia centrale. E' stata studiata l'emissione stagionale di uova (o oocisti di parassiti nelle feci di ungulati selvatici in una zona mediterranea protetta, il Parco dei Monti Livornesi (Livorno, Toscana, Italia Centrale. Per un anno sono stati raccolti mensilmente campioni di feci di Cinghiale (Sus scrofa e di Muflone (Ovis ammon. Gli andamenti osservati di emissione di uova sono stati analizzati tenendo conto delle variazioni di temperatura e piovosità stagionali, del ciclo biologico e della strategia di sopravvivenza dei parassiti, e delle condizioni sanitarie dell'ospite. E’ risultato che in una zona mediterranea come quella considerata i picchi di emissione di uova appaiono in mesi differenti in relazione alla biologia e alle strategie di sopravvivenza dei diversi parassiti.

  2. Sericitic alteration at the La Crocetta deposit (Elba Island, Italy): interplay between magmatism, tectonics and hydrothermal activity (United States)

    Maineri, Cinzia; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilar; Dini, Andrea; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Villa, Igor M.


    The La Crocetta mine near Porto Azzurro (Elba Island, Tuscany, Italy) is an important producer of raw material for the ceramic industry. Exploitation focuses on a pervasively sericitized porphyritic aplite of the Tuscan Magmatic Province, locally known as "eurite", which underwent significant potassium enrichment during sericitic alteration. Eurites are located along the hanging wall of the Elba Centrale Fault, a low-angle extensional lineament of regional significance. A later carbonatization stage, apparently associated with high-angle extensional tectonics, locally overprinted the sericitized facies. It is expressed by carbonate ± pyrite ± quartz veins, with adverse effects on ore quality. Sericitization was accompanied by addition of potassium, and loss of Na (± Ca, Fe). Rubidium was not enriched along with potassium during sericitization, contrary to what would be expected for interaction with late-magmatic fluids. New 40Ar-39Ar data from eurites provide an isochron age of about 6.7 Ma for the sericitization, whereas the age of the unaltered protolith is ca. 8.8 Ma. Field evidence indicates the Elba Centrale Fault to be the main channel for the hydrothermal fluids. On the other hand, the involvement of heat and/or fluids contributed by the Porto Azzurro pluton, which crops out in the La Crocetta area, is ruled out by field, geochemical and geochronological data (40Ar-39Ar age of Porto Azzurro =5.9 Ma, i.e. significantly younger than the sericitization event). Fluid inclusion studies suggest that sericitization was associated with a low-temperature (Springer LINK server located at

  3. Serologic, molecular, and pathologic survey of pseudorabies virus infection in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Italy. (United States)

    Verin, Ranieri; Varuzza, Paolo; Mazzei, Maurizio; Poli, Alessandro


    To investigate pseudorabies-virus (PrV) -antibody and viral-DNA prevalence, we collected blood, nasal and genital swabs, and tonsillar and lymph-node tissue samples from 139 wild boars (Sus scrofa; 39 piglets, 30 juveniles, and 70 adults), during the hunting season of 2010-2011 in Tuscany, Central Italy. We performed immunohistochemistry with anti-PrV monoclonal antibodies on selected tissue samples. Forty-three of 139 (30.9%) boars were PrV-antibody positive and a 1,954-base-pair PrV-specific product was amplified from nine nasal (6.5%) and 26 genital (18.7%) swabs. Sequence analysis of PrV-positive PCR products revealed identity scores of 99-100% with Suid herpesvirus 1 strain Becker (JF797219) and confirmed the identification of PrV DNA in tested swabs. There was significantly higher antibody prevalence in adults than in juveniles and in piglets than in juveniles. The prevalence of viral DNA was significantly higher in genital swabs than in nasal specimens. The percentage of positive nasal swabs did not differ among age classes. Piglets had a higher percentage of PCR-positive genital swabs than juvenile and adult subjects (30.8% vs. 13.3% and 14.3%, respectively). Results confirmed that PrV infection is widespread in the wild boar population in the study area. The presence of anti-PrV antibodies and of the PrV virus in piglets could be related to vertical transmission of the virus. This hypothesis was also supported by a higher presence of viral genome in genital swabs than in nasal swabs. This field study supports the importance of vertical transmission of PrV, and the high prevalence of virus in genital swabs supports venereal transmission in adult feral boars.

  4. Impact of immigration on tuberculosis in a low-incidence area of Italy: a molecular epidemiological approach. (United States)

    Garzelli, C; Lari, N; Cuccu, B; Tortoli, E; Rindi, L


    The effects that immigration might have on the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in a low-incidence area of Italy was investigated by determining, in autochthonous and immigrant TB patients, the molecular characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, which may provide information on their phylogeographical origin. A total of 1080 MTBC strains, collected during a 4- year period in Tuscany from 614 Italian-born and 466 foreign-born patients, were genotyped by spoligotyping and assigned to the different phylogeographical lineages that constitute the MTBC. The autochthonous Euro-American phylogeographical lineage, which includes the spoligotype families T, Haarlem, Latin American–Mediterranean (LAM), S and X, was highly prevalent among Italian-born patients, with a total of 477 cases (77.7%), and foreign-born TB patients, with a total of 270 cases (57.9%); 24 Italian-born (3.9%) and 141 foreign- born (30.3%) TB cases were due to MTBC genotypic families associated with distant geographical areas, i.e. East African–Indian (EAI), Beijing, Central Asian (CAS), and Mycobacterium africanum. Strains of Mycobacterium bovis and strains of undefined genotype, which are all considered together, as it is not possible to assign a specific geographical origin, accounted for 113 (18.4%) Italian cases and 55 (11.8%) foreign-born cases. A total of 79 Italian TB cases (12.9%) have been attributed to transmission from immigrants to the local population. No significant contribution to drug resistance appeared to be associated with imported MTBC strains. It is concluded that, at present, the overall impact of imported TB on public health in the low-incidence study area is relatively modest and of the same order as in other western countries.

  5. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy activities in Italy during IGY, 1957/58

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    Lucilla Alfonsi


    Full Text Available In 2007 several events were organized to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year
    (IGY, 1957-1958. The celebrations will last until 2009 and are taking place within different contexts: the International
    Polar Year (IPY, the International Heliophysical Year (IHY, the electronic Geophysical Year (eGY
    and the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE.
    IGY offered a very appropriate and timely occasion to undertake a series of coordinated observations of various
    geophysical phenomena all over the globe. Italy took part in the broad international effort stimulated by IGY. In
    fact, Italy participated in observations and studies in many of the proposed scientific areas, in particular Geomagnetism
    and Aeronomy. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING started the installation of observatories,
    and updated and ensured continuous recording of geophysical observations. Geomagnetism, ionospheric
    physics, seismology, and other geophysical disciplines, were advanced. Although much of the work was undertaken
    in Italy, some attention was also devoted to other areas of the world, in particular Antarctica, where Italy
    participated in seismological observations. This paper gives a summary of the Geomagnetism and Ionospheric
    Physics activities within IGY. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of this historical event and its outcomes
    for the improvement of geophysical observations and the post-IGY growth of scientific investigations in Italy.

  6. How America Saved Italy and the World (United States)


    normalcy, specifically the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.145 This meant that America would...How America Saved Italy and the World A Monograph by MAJ Kwame O. Boateng United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2014 – May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE How America Saved Italy and the World 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011). (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito


    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  8. Macroeconomic determinants of migration from Romania to Italy

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    Mihaela Simionescu


    Full Text Available Taken into account various economic theories trying to explain the reasons that stay behind the decision to migrate to another country, this study uses empirical data to identify some macroeconomic motives for migrating from Romania to Italy. According to the estimations based on fast ridge regression, the stock of Romanian immigrants from Italy in the period 2002-2016 was influenced by: the real GDP per capita in Romania, real GDP per capita in Italy and life expectancy at birth in Italy. The number of Romanian migrants attracted each year in Italy in a period marked also by the global financial crisis (2007-2016 was related to factors like: real GDP per capita in Italy life expectancy at birth in Italy, unemployment rate and taxes on income, profits and capital gains in Italy. The overall results indicated that the better standard of life in Italy was a good incentive for Romanian migrants

  9. Health workforce governance in Italy. (United States)

    Vicarelli, Giovanna; Pavolini, Emmanuele


    More precise health workforce governance has become a prominent issue in healthcare systems. This issue is particularly important in Italy, given its strongly doctor-centered healthcare system and the dramatic aging of its physicians' labor force. Using different sources of information (statistical data, official planning documents and interviews with key informants), the article attempts to answer two questions. Why has the Italian healthcare systems found itself in the situation of a potential drastic reduction in the amount of doctors in the medium term without a rebalancing through a different mix of skills and professionals? How good is the capacity of the Italian healthcare system to plan healthcare workforce needs? The widespread presence of 'older' physicians is the result of the strong entry of doctors into the Italian healthcare system in the 1970s and 1980s. Institutional fragmentation, difficulties in drafting broad healthcare reforms, political instability and austerity measures explain why Italian health workforce forecasting and planning are still unsatisfactory, although recent developments indicate that changes are under way. In order to tackle these problems it is necessary to foster closer cooperation among a wide range of stakeholders, to move from uni-professional to multi-professional health workforce planning, and to partially re-centralise decision making.

  10. Position of fuel cells in Italy; Situation des piles a combustible en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot-Giorgetti, M.; Mottini, N.


    The main researches concerning the fuel cells in Italy are the PEFC (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell) and the MCFC (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell). This reports takes stock of these two techniques in Italy, explaining the running of these two types of cells and relating the Italian situation (development and research program, development programs of fuel cells vehicles). (O.M.)

  11. The shallow seismic structure of the Larderello geothermal field (Italy) as seen from Receiver Function analysis (United States)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Licciardi, Andrea; Piccinini, Davide; Mazzarini, Francesco; Musumeci, Giovanni; Saccorotti, Gilberto


    The Larderello field (Tuscany, Italy) is the oldest example in the world of geothermal energy exploitation for industrial purposes. Despite its century long history of exploration and exploitation, the deep structure (4-8km depth) of the Larderello field is still poorly known, due to (a) the lack of resolution of the applied exploration techniques and (b) the lack of interest in the investigation of deep geothermal reservoirs, given the abundant amount of energy extracted from the shallow reservoirs. Recently, the increasing demand of green-energy promoted a renewed interest in the geothermal industrial sector, which translated into new exploration efforts, especially to obtain a detailed characterization of deep geothermal sources. We investigate the seismic structure of the Larderello geothermal field using Receiver Function (RF) analysis. Crustal seismic structures are routinely investigated using the RF methodology, where teleseismic P-wave are analysed to extract P-to-S converted phases that can be related to the propagation of the P-wave across a seismic discontinuity. We compute RF from 26 seismic stations, belonging to both temporary and permanent networks: the GAPSS and RETREAT experiments and the Italian Seismic Network. The RF data-set is migrated at depth and decomposed into azimuthal harmonics. Computing the first, k=0, and the second, k=1, harmonics allows to separate the "isotropic" contribution, due to the change of the isotropic properties of the sampled materials (recorded on the k=0 harmonics), from the "anisotropic" contribution, where the energy is related to the propagation of the P-wave through anisotropic materials (recorded on the k=1 harmonics). Preliminary results allow us: (1) to infer the position of the main S-wave velocity discontinuities in the study area, mainly a shallow Tyrrhenian Moho and a very-low S-wave velocity body in the center of the Larderello dome, at about 5-15km depth; and (2) to map the presence of anisotropic

  12. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

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    Zecca Marco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP, which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608 were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538 were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%, whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network.

  13. Nutritional surveillance in Tuscany: eating habits at breakfast, mid-morning and afternoon snacks among 8-9 y-old children. (United States)

    Lazzeri, G; Giallombardo, D; Guidoni, C; Zani, A; Casorelli, A; Grasso, A; Pozzi, T; Rossi, S; Giacchi, M


    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is rapidly increasing in many countries. For that it has been interesting to investigate the eating habits of 8-9 y-old Tuscany children by paying attention to their meals frequency per day and their food choices in total and in relation to children's Body Mass Index (BMI) classes. In addition we considered some environment factors that could affect the children eating behaviours, such as mother's BMI and their education level. A statistical sample of 3076 (1583 males, 1493 females), 8-9 year-old school-children was collected; weight and height were measured using standardized personnel and instruments. BMI classes were calculated using Cole et al.'s cutoff for children and adolescents. In order to evaluate the consumption frequency of individual meals and various foods, a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used, which was completed by the children themselves at school. A self-administered questionnaire revealed the weight and height of parents and their educational levels. Three educational levels were established: high, medium and low. The results showed that 92.3% of children ate breakfast from 4-7 times a week, the vast majority at home, while only 3% declared consuming breakfast never or almost never The most preferred breakfast consisted of milk and biscuits for all children's BMI classes. 95.9% of children reported having midmorning snack at school; fruit juice and tea are the most frequently consumed liquid foods, and pizza, salami sandwiches and pre-packaged snacks are the most frequently consumed solid foods in all BMI classes. 93.6% ate afternoon snack for the most part at home, even if 12% of children reported consuming it elsewhere; fruit juice and tea with pizza, sandwiches and pre-packaged snacks are still the most highly consumed foods by all children's BMI classes. The consumption frequency of breakfast (P children decrease with increase the children's BMI classes. The same tendency may be

  14. Serological detection of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies in dogs from central and northern Italy. (United States)

    Guardone, L; Schnyder, M; Macchioni, F; Deplazes, P; Magi, M


    The most frequently employed method for the diagnosis of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs is the detection of first stage larvae (L1) in faeces. The sensitivity of coproscopy, however, is limited in case of low parasite load, intermittent larval excretion, and during pre-patency. An epidemiological survey on dogs was conducted applying serological methods in two Italian regions where angiostrongylosis is endemic in foxes. 265 dog serum samples from Tuscany (central Italy - site A) and 447 from Liguria (north-western Italy - site B) were tested with a sandwich-ELISA for detection of circulating antigen, and with an ELISA using A. vasorum adult somatic antigen purified by monoclonal antibodies for specific antibody detection. During previous examinations dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum (n=149), Dirofilaria immitis (n=40), Dirofilaria repens (n=30), Acanthocheilonema reconditum (n=27), Crenosoma vulpis (n=1), A. vasorum (n=2), Capillaria aerophila (n=35), Capillaria boehmi (n=3), Toxocara canis (n=68), Toxascaris leonina (n=5), hookworms (n=37) and Trichuris vulpis (n=39) were detected. Sera of these dogs were used to evaluate cross reactions. In site A, 2 dogs (0.8%) were seropositive for antibody and antigen detection and 4 (1.5%) for antibody detection only. From site B, 4 dogs (0.9%) were seropositive for both tests, while other 4 dogs (0.9%) for antigen detection only and 9 dogs (2%) for antibody detection only. Considering a subgroup of 347 dogs from site B which had also been tested with the Baermann technique, 2 (0.6%) were positive for both tests, 4 (1.2%) for antigen detection only and 9 (2.6%) for antibody detection only. The two dogs which were positive for both serological tests were also positive for A. vasorum L1 in the faeces. No significant difference in seropositivities was observed in the group of dogs with other proven parasitic infections. A. vasorum serology presents significant advantages (diagnosis before patency, single serum

  15. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy. (United States)

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso


    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  16. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

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    Bianchi Claudio


    Full Text Available This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years. Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases, maritime trades (56 cases, and port activities (39 cases. The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2. Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%. Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  17. Pollen-related allergy in Italy. (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Dal Bo, S; Bonini, S


    Pollen-related allergies are very common in Italy and pollinosis is the commonest allergic disease. The type of allergenic plants and the prevalence of hay fever varies among regions. In the Mediterranean area there are characteristic climatic conditions (mildness of winter, summer dryness) that facilitate the growth of a typical vegetation with its associated various types of allergenic pollen grains, some of them very different from those of central and northern Europe. Italy has a central position in the Mediterranean basin, but because of its geographic characteristics, there are different climatic aspects with different vegetation between northern, central, and southern areas. Gramineae are the most common allergenic plants in northern and central Italy, where more than 60% of patients with pollinosis are grass-pollen sensitive. Parietaria is the most important pollinating plant in southern Italy and Liguria. Olea europaea, the olive tree with cultivation widespread in the whole Mediterranean basin, is responsible for frequently severe pollinosis, particularly in some regions of the southern Italy.

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial consumption in Campania Region, Italy

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    Simona Cammarota


    Full Text Available Introduction: the antibiotic usage in Italy is above the European average. From several years the Campania was the first Italian region in terms of antimicrobial consumption. Aim: to evaluate antibiotic utilisation in primary health care in Campania, a region of approximately 5.7 million inhabitants in the south of Italy. Method: we collected, from an electronic database, all prescription drugs reimbursed in 2005. The cohort was defined as the population of subjects receiving at least one prescription of any antimicrobial agent for systemic use, classified according to their therapeutic role using Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification. Drugs cost and consumption were quantified using National Health Service (NHS prospective and Defined Daily Dose system (DDD respectively. All costs were expressed in Euro 2005. Results: antiinfectives agents (ATC J was the second class of drugs in terms of cost, representing 16.1% of the regional drug expenditure. Their consumption were 33 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day. Stratifying by age antibiotic use was highest in children and elderly subjects. Penicillins, macrolides and cephalosporins were the most prescribed antibiotic classes in all age groups. Discussion: despite guidelines introduced to limit the prescription of parenteral antibiotics to the patients who are most likely to benefit from it, they were mostly prescribed. This represented a serious problem for the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

  19. Neospora caninum infection in a Bernese cattle dog from Italy. (United States)

    Poli, A; Mancianti, F; Carli, M A; Stroscio, M C; Kramer, L


    A cutaneous nodule associated with Neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in a 5-year-old male Bernese cattle dog from Italy. The ulcerative lesion was 2-3 cm wide located in the skin of the tarsal region. Haematological values were normal and the dog did not show any neurological abnormalities. The dermal lesion consisted of a diffuse necrotic dermatitis with a dense infiltrate of mostly neutrophils and macrophages, surrounded by a fibrous wall. Histological sections revealed numerous tachyzoites of N. caninum scattered throughout the tissue. Diagnosis was confirmed both by immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopic examination. The dog had a 1:640 IFAT titre to N. caninum. Four weeks after surgical excision new subcutaneous nodules reappeared. The cutaneous lesions resolved following 21 days of therapy with clindamycin hydrochloride. These observations demonstrate the presence of N. caninum in Italy and confirm that neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pyogranulomatous dermatitis in dogs. Clindamycin may be an effective treatment for cutaneous neosporosis.

  20. Medical humanities in healthcare education in Italy: a literature review

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    Laura Fieschi


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. The introduction of medical humanities (MH in undergraduate medical education in Italy has been an issue of debate since the 90's and few years later it was extended to other healthcare degrees. The aims of this Italian literature review, after considering the international scene, are: to evaluate the extent to which the interest in this subject has gradually developed throughout the country; which professional groups have contributed to the debate; to identify which theoretical constructs led to the introduction of MH in undergraduate medical education; to identify whether a clear and shared definition of MH exists in Italian literature; to verify what kinds of MH experiences have been accomplished in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, including electronic databases, bibliographies, manual sorting of articles in paper format, congress proceedings. RESULTS. The analysis of the chosen articles underlines that, however limited, Italian literature does not present a very different picture from the international scene. It emerges that teaching MH is believed to be an important feature in undergraduate education of healthcare professionals who intend to propose a bio-psychological-social approach to care, in spite of the difficulty to measure its short and long term effectiveness. The lack of a multidisciplinary, multi-professional approach is also evident. CONCLUSION. Further research aiming to implement the quantity and quality of MH studies in the curricula of undergraduate healthcare education is desirable.

  1. A Behavioural Model of E-Banking Usage in Italy

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    Guendalina Capece


    Full Text Available E‐banking is defined as the automated delivery of new and traditional banking products and services directly to customers through electronic, interactive communication channels. “Pure online” banks are characterized by the absence of physical windows and front‐office personnel. Traditional banks are still integrating traditional distribution channels with online ones; the scenario is therefore still evolving over time. Despite the intrinsic potentialities, Italy is far from being a leader in the usage of innovative online instruments in the banking system and will struggle with new innovation waves. In this paper, we measure the potential effective ebanking usage. Furthermore, we investigate the behaviour of users and adopters, identifying the major causes influencing satisfaction and usage and the impact of these different causes on the intensity of utilization. The analysis is based on a panel of 495 real users, thus allowing the profiling of the Italian adopter to discover the causes of usage and outline strategies for the growth of e‐banking services in Italy.

  2. The dialect in Italy after the union

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    Anna Grochowska


    Full Text Available Italian dialects occupy an important position in the history of Italian linguistics and are still present and relevant in the linguistic panorama of modern Italy. The purpose of this article is to outline the linguistic image of Italy by drawing attention to its dialects. Through analysis of the situation after unification in Italy in 1861, the author attempts to mark off functions and roles which dialects used to serve. In the second part of the article she concentrates on the phenomena of nuova dialettalità, or the new perspective and collocation of dialect in the Italian linguistic panorama of the 21st century. This article is a part of a research project dedicated to functions and uses of dialects in the Italian cinematography.

  3. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy. (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola


    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  4. Why Italy's saving rate became (so) low?


    Campiglio, Luigi


    The aim of this paper is to explain why a low and declining saving rate should be a problem in a world of free capital flows and increasing wealth. In Italy consumer households’ saving have been the main driver of economic stability and growth, funding investments and public debt, and despite international turbulences Italy was acknowledged as a high saving country until the early 1990’s. Ever since, however, households saving rate plunged, in spite of an increasing financial wealth, and our ...

  5. Predation on dormice in Italy

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    Dino Scaravelli


    Full Text Available Abstract The authors analyse available data on the impact of predators on Dormouse populations in Italy. Dormice are found in the diet of 2 snakes (Vipera berus and V. aspis, 2 diurnal birds of prey (Buteo buteo and Aquila chrysaetos, 6 owls (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo and Glaucidium passerinum and 9 mammals (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M. foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris and Sus scrofa in a variable percentage of the prey taken. Only Dryomys nitedula was never encountered as a prey item. The most common prey is Muscardinus avellanarius. There are significative regional differences in predation between bioclimatic areas of the Italian peninsula. The contribution of studies on predation to knowledge of Myoxid distribution is discussed. Riassunto Predazione di Mioxidi in Italia - Sono analizzati i dati pubblicati sull'impatto dei predatori sulle popolazioni di Myoxidae in Italia. Myoxidae sono stati riscontrati nelle diete di 2 serpenti (Vipera berus e V. aspis, 2 rapaci diurni (Buteo buteo e Aquila chrysaetos, 6 notturni (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo e Glaucidium passerinum e 9 mammiferi (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris e Sus scrofa in percentuale variabile nella comunità di prede. Solo Dryomys nitedula non è mai stato incontrato come preda. La specie piu comunemente predata risulta Muscardinus avellanarius. Sono discusse le

  6. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  7. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy). (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  9. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy. DATES... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1,...

  10. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini


    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  11. [Inequalities in health in Italy]. (United States)

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo


    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  12. Detection of Caliciviruses in young pheasants (Phasianus colchicus with enteritis in Italy

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    Ilaria Capua


    Full Text Available During June 2004 a severe enteritis was reported in a farm of 21-28 day old pheasants reared in intensive conditions in North-Eastern Italy. Mortality in the flock had reached 25%. Virological investigations on cell culture of the gut content yielded reoviruses while electron microscopy examination revealed viral particles morphologically related to calicivirus in association with parvovirus-like and rod shaped virus-like particles.

  13. Stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musolino, Dario Antonino


    The objective of the thesis is to study and analyse the stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy: that is, their mental maps, their characteristics (pattern, shape, etc.), and their explanatory factors. The research was undertaken following the conceptual, theoretical and methodologic

  14. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy. (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella


    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  15. Return migration to Italy and labour migration. (United States)

    Calvaruso, C


    The problems caused by large-scale return migration to Italy in recent years are considered. The importance of the additional skills and capital acquired by these migrants while abroad is stressed. Extensive data on the volume of return migration in the 1970s are included.

  16. Neutrinos make a splash in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Nosengo, Nicola


    "A long-awaited beam of neutrinos has finally made it from Switzerland to a laboratory 730kilometers away in central Italy. The scientists involved hope the project, first sketched out 25 years ago, will address one of the big unsolved problems in particle physics." (2 pages)

  17. Education for Older People in Italy (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni


    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  18. Kleine bijenkastkever aangetroffen in Italië

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Pelgrim, W.


    Voor de tweede keer in 10 jaar heeft de kleine bijenkastkever (Aethina tumida) voet aan de grond gekregen in Europa. Een eerste uitbraak in Portugal in 2004 werd snel ingedamd, maar een nieuwe uitbraak in het zuiden van Italië lijkt van permanente aard.

  19. Big Data Research in Italy: A Perspective

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    Sonia Bergamaschi


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthetically describe the research projects that a selection of Italian universities is undertaking in the context of big data. Far from being exhaustive, this article has the objective of offering a sample of distinct applications that address the issue of managing huge amounts of data in Italy, collected in relation to diverse domains.

  20. CLIL in Italy: A General Overview (United States)

    Cinganotto, Letizia


    CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) was introduced in the Italian school system in 2003 through a Reform Law, which made it mandatory for upper secondary schools. This paper is aimed at describing the most important steps of this innovation, with the relevant implications for policymakers, teachers and students. Italy's CLIL mandate is…

  1. Education for Older People in Italy (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni


    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  2. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy. (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella


    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  3. The Study of Behavioural Development in Italy. (United States)

    Battacchi, Marco W.


    Examines professional education and current research trends in developmental psychology in Italy. Current trends have been investigated by a multi-dimensional content analysis of the studies published or accepted for publication in qualified journals between 1978-May 1983. (Author/AS)

  4. Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy. (United States)

    Criscuolo, Domenico


    Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs): important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant. Indeed, it largely exceeds the percentage of Italian inhabitants versus the ones living in the remaining EU countries, as Italy has about 12% of EU population, but has a 17% share of the EU CTRs. Education in Pharmaceutical Medicine is now a must for all professionals interested to work either in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places Italy on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research.

  5. Potential of cofiring with biomass in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Tommasi, I.; Galatola, M. [University of Bari (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry


    Biomass is considered a potential fuel and a renewable source for the future. In Italy, the utilization of biomass nowadays is addressed, above all, towards thermal energy production. In the near future, however, it is predictable a higher differentiation in order to use biomass with the more suitable technology. In this paper we review the utilization of residual biomasses. (Author)

  6. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Salvati


    Full Text Available We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event – measured by the total number of casualties in the event – follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950–2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide

  7. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy (United States)

    Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.


    We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino

  8. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy. (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E


    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  9. Selected Abstracts of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 26-31, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors


    . Newborn with multiple bone fractures • A.L. Costa, A.R. Moreira, P. Soares, A.Vilan, N. Alegrete, C. Martins, S. Gama Sousa, M. Rodrigues, H. Guimarães • Porto and Vila Nova de Famalicão (Portugal ABS 9. Birthweight and maternal lifestyle in overweight/obese women: a case-control study • R. Bruno, G. Pedrielli, P. Elisabetta, V. Bertarini, I. Neri, F. Facchinetti • Modena (Italy ABS 10. Special fixation for transmission electron microscopy unmasks unexpected structural details within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche • L. Denk, W.W. Minuth • Regensburg (Germany ABS 11. Drug use among newborns admitted to NICUs: a multicentre study • L. Cuzzolin, R. Agostino • Rome and Verona (Italy ABS 12. Assessment of renal function in neonatology • J.R. Delanghe • Gent (Belgium ABS 13. The parental competence in neonatology • C.M. Cacciatore, M.R. Morales, G. Perricone, C. Polizzi, G. Sulliotti, A. Rizzo, D. Albino • Palermo (Italy ABS 14. Epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological aspects in newborns with neonatal infection (sepsis and unspecified neonatal infection treated at the Department of Neonatology of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences during 2007-2013 • R. Dzikienė, R. Tamelienė, D. Stonienė, R. Vidmantė, J. Garčinskienė • Kaunas (Lithuania ABS 15. Metabolomics in obstetrics: future perspectives • R. Mereu, A. Meloni, L. Barberini, S.F. Deiana, A. Noto, G.B. Melis • Cagliari (Italy ABS 16. Single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of a novel human milk fortifier derived from donkey milk for the nutrition of newborns with birthweight < 1,500 g or gestational age < 32 weeks • C. Rossi, C. Peila, M. Raia, S. De Antoni, A. Noto, F. Cesare Marincola, S. Corbu, V. Fanos, E. Bertino, A. Coscia • Cagliari and Turin (Italy ABS 17. The stem cell niche in the developing cerebral cortex • L. Vinci, A.G. Naccarato, S. Nati, G. Senes, R. Murru, C. Gerosa, E. Obinu, V. Pibiri, M

  10. General practitioners' knowledge and practice of complementary/alternative medicine and its relationship with life-styles: a population-based survey in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Frè Monica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing popularity of CAM among the public is coupled with an ongoing debate on its effectiveness, safety, and its implications on the reimbursement system. This issue is critically important for GPs, who have a "gatekeeping" role with respect to health care expenditure. GPs must be aware of medications' uses, limitations and possible adverse effects. Our objective was to explore GPs' knowledge of CAM and patterns of recommendation and practice, as well as the relationship between such patterns and GPs' life-styles. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tuscany, a region of central Italy. One hundred percent female GPs (498 and a 60% random sample of male GPs (1310 practising in the region were contacted through a self-administered postal questionnaire followed by a postal reminder and telephone interview. Results Overall response rate was 82.1%. Most respondents (58% recommended CAM but a far smaller fraction (13% practised it; yet 36% of CAM practitioners had no certificated training. Being female, younger age, practising in larger communities, having had some training in CAM as well as following a vegetarian or macrobiotic diet and doing physical activity were independent predictors of CAM recommendation and practice. However, 42% of GPs did not recommend CAM to patients mostly because of the insufficient evidence of its effectiveness. Conclusion CAM knowledge among GPs is not as widespread as the public demand seems to require, and the scarce evidence of CAM effectiveness hinders its professional use among a considerable number of GPs. Sound research on CAM effectiveness is needed to guide physicians' behaviour, to safeguard patients' safety, and to assist policy-makers in planning regulations for CAM usage.

  11. The role of instrumental versus macroseismic locations for earthquakes of the last century: a discussion based on the seismicity of the North-Western Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Solarino


    Full Text Available Many seismological observatories began to record and store seismic events in the early years of the twentieth century, contributing to the compilation of very valued databases of both phase pickings and waveforms. However, despite the availability of the instrumental data for some of the events of the last century, an instrumental location for these earthquakes is not always computed; moreover, when available, the macroseismic location is strongly preferred even if the number of points that have been used for it is low or the spatial distribution of the observations is not optimal or homogeneous. In this work I show how I computed an instrumental location for 19 events which occurred in the Garfagnana-Lunigiana region (Northern Tuscany, Italy beginning from 1902. The location routine is based on a Joint Hypocentral Determination in which, starting from a group of master events, the systematic errors that may affect the data are summed up in the corrective factors complementing the velocity propagation model. All non-systematic errors are carefully checked and possibly discarded by going back to the original data, if necessary. The location is then performed using the classic approach of the inverse problem and solved iteratively. The obtained locations are then compared to those already available from other macroseismic studies with the aim to check the role to be attributed to the instrumental locations. The study shows that in most cases the locations match, in particular when considering the different significance of the location parameters, especially for the strongest events: the instrumental location provides the point where the rupture begins, while the macroseismic one is an estimate of the area where the earthquake possibly took place. This paper is not meant to discuss the importance and the necessity of macroseismic data; instead, the aim is to show that instrumental data can be used to obtain locations even for older

  12. Combining Multifunctionality and Ecosystem Services into a Win-Win Solution. The Case Study of the Serchio River Basin (Tuscany—Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rovai


    Full Text Available Post-war development—characterized by intensive processes of urbanization, concentration of agriculture on the most fertile lands, and abandonment of mountainous and marginal areas—brought about negative environmental and socio-economic consequences. They have been particularly severe in terms of increase of hydrogeological risk, which is high in most Italian regions. Over time, there has been an increasing awareness of the multiple functions played by agriculture in terms of provision of Ecosystem Services (ES, which contribute fundamentally to human well-being. In particular, some ES provided by farmers may help to reduce the hydrogeological risk of territories prone to landslides and floods. In this framework, the paper presents as a case study the project “Farmers as Custodians of a Territory.” This project was implemented in the Serchio River basin, Tuscany (Italy, and combines a multifunctional farm strategy of diversification with the provision of Ecosystem Services related to the hydraulic and hydrogeological protection of the river-basin territory. Although this case study should be read within the framework of the theories of agricultural multifunctionality and ES provision, it nevertheless took a very pragmatic and innovative approach, which differentiates it from most of the case studies given in the literature. Results of our analysis show that, by involving farmers as custodians of the territory, it is possible to reach a “win-win” solution characterized, on the one hand, by better services for the community at a lower cost for the Land Reclamation Consortia involved with hydrogeological risk prevention, thus improving the effectiveness and efficiency of ES provision; and on the other hand, by improving the economic situation and survival chances of local farms.

  13. CERN Neutrinos search for sunshine in Italy!

    CERN Multimedia

    Wednesday, 18th June 2008. The CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) beam has re-started, shooting muon neutrinos towards Italy. The neutrino beam should run this year until mid November.The aim of CNGS is to understand the oscillation of neutrinos, for example their transformation from muon into tau neutrinos over long distances.Edda Gschwendtner, the liaison physicist of the CNGS beam, describes the progress of the project, “We did a lot of modifications this year to CNGS, which was a huge amount of work, with many groups and services involved. In parallel the OPERA detector in Italy made an enormous progress in completing their detector and we are looking forward to seeing tau neutrinos soon.”

  14. Is marriage loosing its centrality in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Unlike the countries of north-western Europe, marriage in Italy has maintained a crucial role in the process of family formation. This raise doubts about the possibility that the theory of "second demographic transition" could adequately account for the behaviour of the European population living south of the Alps. The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide some empirical evidence that cohabitation is now spreading in Italy; and to propose an explanation of the delay of its diffusion until the 1990s. The hypothesis proposed here explains the delay, not so much in terms of limited interest of the Italian youth towards this type of union, but with the convenience of the children in the Mediterranean area to avoid choices which are openly clashing with the values of parents.

  15. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Italy and Portugal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Italian Union of Provinces (Unione delle Province d’Italia—UPI) and the League of Portugal-China Lasting Friendship (LPCLF),the Chinese People’s Friendship Delegation led by Chen Haosu,president of the CPAFFC,and Shi Zuofeng,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Gansu Provincial People’s Congress,paid friendly visits to Italy and Portugal from June 15 to 24.

  16. Update on Fish Disease Situation in Italy


    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.


    In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011.Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely farmed species, nevertheless some “new” candidates are employed often.The first two species represents more than 95% of the total production while the remaining is obtained by different promising candid...

  17. Developments in integrated pest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela CIAMPITTI


    Full Text Available In order to implement Directive 2009/128/EC and to reduce the risks arising from the use of plant protection products, a National Action Plan has been developed in Italy. The plan calls for several actions, including low pesticide-input pest management. Each producer will have to consider the many aspects that contribute to the production process, such as appropriate cultivation techniques, use of certified propagating material and balanced fertilization. Producers will also need tools to protect beneficial organisms, prevent the spread of harmful organisms, implement monitoring and alert systems, define thresholds and establish anti-resistance strategies. Advanced knowledge about plant protection products will also be required of professional users, with the introduction of specific certified training programmes; only authorized users will be allowed to purchase plant protection products classified for professional use. The spraying equipment will have to pass functional tests. Italy has articulated Integrated Pest Management (IPM on two levels: one mandatory and one voluntary. The latter will be supported by specific funding, in line with what has already been implemented as part of the Common Agricultural Policy. With regard to the voluntary level, the enforcement of national IPM guidelines (concerning defence and weeding technical standards that have so far characterized the application of IPM in Italy will serve as the medium-term reference tool. This paper demonstrates how IPM has evolved in Italy over the last 20 years, and why Italian producers have already been applying the requirements of Directive 2009/128/EC for some time.

  18. Catalogues of historical earthquakes in Italy


    R. Camassi


    A complete survey of historical earthquake investigation in Italy cannot be compressed into a few pages, since it would entail making a summary of widely different phases of research (performed by past scholars and by contemporary scientists and historians) and taking into account the widely different historical contexts, methodological assumptions and critical awareness of each of them. This short note only purposes to chart the main stages of the progress made by Italian historical seismolo...

  19. Malaria in illegal Chinese immigrants, Italy. (United States)

    Matteelli, A; Volonterio, A; Gulletta, M; Galimberti, L; Maroccolo, S; Gaiera, G; Giani, G; Rossi, M; Dorigoni, N; Bellina, L; Orlando, G; Bisoffi, Z; Castelli, F


    A cluster of 22 imported malaria cases, 21 caused by Plasmodium falciparum, was observed among illegal Chinese immigrants in northern Italy in the summer of 2000. The rate of severe disease was high because the patients were not immune and they sought health-care services late in their illness because of their clandestine status. Recognition of the outbreak was delayed because no regional alert system among infectious diseases hospitals was in place.

  20. [A note on induced abortion in Italy]. (United States)

    Cagiano De Azevedo, R


    The adoption of a recent law on abortion (1978) makes available in Italy new statistics at both the national and regional levels. Following the official source of ISTAT, the abortion rate/100 livebirths in 1979 was about 28%, about 40% in the northern part of Italy, and only 16% in Mezzogiorno. This abortion rate, as an average data at the national level, corresponds to a normal position among similar rates in western countries; closer to EEC member states. But the regional variability seems a very interesting new aspect of the Italian tryptic (north, center, south) largely presented in many demographic indicators. 3 factors are presented as a possible explication of this variability: a real different attitude of women and couples towards abortion from cultural, religious, and political points of view; the coexistence of legal and illegal abortion despite the adoption of a new liberal law; and the very important disequilibrium in the distribution of structures and medical services available to assure abortions in different parts of the country. Some other demographic points related to abortion are also presented here, particularly in connection with age structure of women and their marital status. Future trends in abortion with subsequent effects on fertility are also discussed at the end of this article. The arguments follow 2 alternatives presented in Italy by the National Committee on Population and the Committee of Demographic Studies. (author's modified)

  1. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy. (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo


    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  2. [Consistency and dynamics of immigration in Italy]. (United States)

    Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L


    According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration.

  3. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy. (United States)

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O


    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic.

  4. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy. (United States)

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio


    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.

  5. The nuclear in Italy - state of the art; Le nucleaire en Italie - etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schifano, F.; Ziller, T


    This report aims to evaluate the italian situation in matter of the nuclear, following the referendum of 1987 which decided to stop the nuclear power plants in the country. The first part is devoted to the historical aspects of the nuclear sector in Italy. The second chapter presents the institutional and legislative framework. The third chapter discusses the today situation and the italian actors of the nuclear, from the radioactive wastes management and the dismantling of nuclear installations to the engineering service realized in other countries. It discusses also the research and development programs. The last chapter proposes perspectives of the debate around a possible restart of the nuclear activity in Italy.

  6. eParticipation that Works. Evidence from the Old Europe


    Francesco Molinari


    This paper collects some evidence from a now completed EU-funded project, aimed at the localisation and institutionalisation of two eParticipatory tools, DEMOS-Plan and the Electronic Town Meeting, within real public administration processes. The independent or combined usage of the two tools, supported by the Living Labs approach has been tested in 18 local pilots across several regions of Europe, from Ulster (UK) to Sicily and Tuscany (Italy), from Turku Archipelago (Finland) to Voroklini (...

  7. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H


    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  8. Healthcare usage and economic impact of non-treated obesity in Italy: findings from a retrospective administrative and clinical database analysis (United States)

    Colao, Annamaria; Lucchese, Marcello; D'Adamo, Monica; Savastano, Silvia; Facchiano, Enrico; Veronesi, Chiara; Blini, Valerio; Degli Esposti, Luca


    Objectives Investigate the prevalence of obesity in Italy and examine its resource consumption and economic impact on the Italian national healthcare system (NHS). Design Retrospective, observational and real-life study. Setting Data from three health units from Northern (Bergamo, Lombardy), Central (Grosseto, Tuscany) and Southern (Naples, Campania) Italy. Participants All patients aged ≥18 years with at least one recorded body mass index (BMI) measurement between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012 were included. Interventions Information retrieved from the databases included primary care data, medical prescriptions, specialist consultations and hospital discharge records from 2009–2013. Costs associated with these data were also calculated. Data are presented for two time periods (1 year after BMI measurement and study end). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—to estimate health resources consumption and the associated economic impact on the Italian NHS. Secondary—the prevalence and characteristics of subjects by BMI category. Results 20 159 adult subjects with at least one documented BMI measurement. Subjects with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were defined as obese. The prevalence of obesity was 22.2% (N=4471) and increased with age. At the 1-year observation period, obese subjects who did not receive treatment for their obesity experienced longer durations of hospitalisation (median length: 5 days vs 3 days), used more prescription drugs (75.0% vs 57.7%), required more specialised outpatient healthcare (mean number: 5.3 vs 4.4) and were associated with greater costs, primarily owing to prescription drugs and hospital admissions (mean annual cost per year per patient: €460.6 vs €288.0 for drug prescriptions, €422.7 vs € 279.2 for hospitalisations and €283.2 vs €251.7 for outpatient care), compared with normal weight subjects. Similar findings were observed for the period up to data cut-off (mean follow-up of 2.7

  9. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo


    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  10. Anthrax phylogenetic structure in Northern Italy

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    Corrò Michela


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthrax has almost disappeared from mainland Europe, except for the Mediterranean region where cases are still reported. In Central and South Italy, anthrax is enzootic, but in the North there are currently no high risk areas, with only sporadic cases having been registered in the last few decades. Regional genetic and molecular characterizations of anthrax in these regions are still lacking. To investigate the potential molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Northern Italy, canonical Single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP and Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA genotyping was performed against all isolates from animal outbreaks registered in the last twenty years in the region. Findings Six B. anthracis strains were analyzed. The canSNP analysis indicates the presence of three sublineages/subgroups each of which belong to one of the 12 worldwide CanSNP genotypes: B.Br.CNEVA (3 isolates, A.Br.005/006 (1 isolates and A.008/009 (2 isolate. The latter is the dominant canSNP genotype in Italy. The 15-loci MLVA analysis revealed five different genotypes among the isolates. Conclusions The major B branch and the A.Br.005/006 were recovered in the Northeast region. The genetic structure of anthrax discovered in this area differs from the rest of the country, suggesting the presence of a separate and independent B. anthracis molecular evolution niche. Although the isolates analyzed in this study are limited in quantity and representation, these results indicate that B. anthracis genetic diversity changes around the Alps.

  11. Education in Fascist Italy (1922-1945

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    José Silvério Baia Horta


    Full Text Available This article analyzes education in Italy in the period of 1922-1945, identifying the mechanisms put into practice, by the fascist regime, so that schools would serve its interests. Beginning with the Gentile Reform, it examines the process of schools’ fascist indoctrination in its different levels. This process begins with the Teachers’ Associations in 1935, and increases with the schools’ militarization. In 1938, racist laws were introduced in the teaching system. It reaches its climax with the School Letter in 1939. All this structure began to collapse in 1943 with Mussolini’s fall.

  12. Biophysical science in Italy: SIBPA turns 40. (United States)

    Giacomazza, Daniela; Musio, Carlo


    This Special Issue of Biophysical Chemistry includes a selection of the papers presented at the XXI Congress of the Italian Society of Pure and Applied Biophysics (i.e., SIBPA, Società Italiana di Biofisica Pura ed Applicata) held on September 2012 at the University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Topics cover all biophysical disciplines, from molecular to cellular, to integrative biophysics giving an almost comprehensive view of the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches, proper of the modern biophysics. SIBPA, which celebrates its 40th anniversary in 2013, has steadily grown and appeals to both specialists and a wider general audience.

  13. Area Handbook Series: Italy, A Country Study, (United States)


    in his "*An- tiche danza e arie per liut&o" (Ancient Dances and Airs for Lute) and wrote lyrical descriptive music such as the sNmphonic poems called...Introduction IN LATE 1985 ITALY’S unusually long period of political calm was broken by a coalition crisis of the kind that had become familiar to the...which have a long tradition of strong local autonomy. Feelings of loyalty to a commune or regional pride tend to take precedence over a broader

  14. Meat Production and Market in Italy

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    Giulio Cozzi


    Full Text Available Aim of this review was to describe the Italian meat production and market.The weight of Italian meat production in terms of the national agriculture gross domestic product (GDP is around the 25%. The present review will analyze the market and the productive systems of the main types of meat sold in the Italian market focusing the attention on their strength and weakness points as well as the possible future developments. The final part of the article will evaluate the recent trends of consumptions for the different meat in Italy as well as the expectations of the Italian consumer when buying meat products.

  15. Financial innovation and monetary control in Italy

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    Full Text Available Increasingly the pressures of deregulation and competition have promoted innovation in the development of financial instruments. In the case of Italy the pressure for innovation has arisen from the need to finance the public sector borrowing requirement and the effects of inflation. As a result, funding instruments have been switched from longer-term bonds to the shorter-term treasury bill. However, this can lead to excessive supply of liquid assets with consequent problems for monetary controls. Such factors will make it more difficult to use monetary aggregates as a guide to monetary policy in the future

  16. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

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    A. Mariacher


    Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.

  17. The cross-border project between France and Italy MARS+. Sub-project - Innovative technologies for the mechanization of the areas hard to reach

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    G. Tirrò


    Full Text Available The care and protection of the mountain areas and their traditional crops were some of the reasons that led regional governments of Liguria and Tuscany to participate in the strategic project “Sea, Countryside and Land: potentiate the strategic unitarily” (MARS +. This project has also involved the participation of the four cross-border regions: Tuscany (leader, Sardinia, Liguria and Corsica. The aim was to promote the development of the innovations and entrepreneurship in the rural areas in order to increase competitiveness. In particular, the subproject SC has provided the transfer of innovations to facilitate the processes of mechanization in vineyards and olive orchards in contexts defined as “heroic”, areas of high landscape and environmental value in which the typical cultures has been always carried out, generally, on terraces or slopes. These conditions require a great effort by the farmers and result in high production costs. The transfer of the innovations has provided the organization of demonstration days in which the technological solutions for the management of the farming operations in vineyards and olive orchards were proposed and tested. During these events, the participative process was fundamentally reconfirmed, not only as a means to expand the knowledge of innovative products, but also as an opportunity for farmers, retailers, manufacturers, researchers, and local administrators to interact and facilitate the development of other technologies. The parameters that led to the innovative solutions included: the small size, user-friendliness, agility, and the ability of operating on systems not easily accessible. These products must also ensure the ergonomics and safety of workers performing all the growing operations. A thorough research of the available technologies and prototypes, still under development, affirms the presence of many innovations. These innovations not only allow the execution of all the field

  18. Detection of a new insect flavivirus and isolation of Aedes flavivirus in Northern Italy

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    Roiz David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During recent years, numerous novel ‘insect flaviviruses’ have been discovered in natural mosquito populations. In a previous study we described the presence of flavivirus DNA sequences integrated in Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito populations from Northern Italy in 2007. Methods During 2008 we collected and tested Aedes females for flavivirus presence and developed phylogenetic analysis, virus isolation, electron microscopy studies and RNAse treatments. Results We detected a high prevalence of flavivirus in Ae. albopictus (77.5%. The phylogenetic analysis identified the insect flavivirus sequences as Aedes flavivirus (AEFV recently described in Japan, and that may have been introduced in Italy travelling with the tiger mosquito. Some of these pools grew in C6/36 cells, producing cytopathic effects, and the RNase treatment results showed the presence of the detected sequences in RNA forms. Furthermore, we detected a new insect flavivirus in one pool of Aedes cinereus/geminus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus shows that it forms a distinct cluster within the clade of insect flavivirus. Conclusions This is the first study to report a high prevalence, to describe the seasonal activity and an isolation of the insect flavivirus Aedes flavivirus in Europe. Moreover we describe the detection of a new insect flavivirus detected from Ae. cinereus mosquitoes from Italy. These flavivirus may be common, ubiquitous and diverse in nature and we discuss the implications of the insect flavivirus group in virus evolution and transmission.

  19. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews...

  20. Reflections of a Lifelong Learner Teaching in Italy (United States)

    Kroth, Michael


    This article describes and summarizes the author's experience of teaching in Italy for three months and the impact it had on him and his learning. The author, at the age of 61, lived in Italy for three months and here he reflects on what he learned and how it relates to adult learning theory concepts.

  1. The US Mission in Italy's "Partnership for Growth" (United States)

    Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick


    This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and Italy in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern Italy, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…

  2. Young People and Alcohol in Italy: An Evolving Relationship (United States)

    Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco


    In Italy, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary Italy, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…

  3. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015. (United States)

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni


    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever.

  4. First record of Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus in Italy (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

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    Gianluca Nardi


    Full Text Available Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus, a species native of the Eastern Palaearctic, is reported for the first time from Italy on the basis of a female specimen collected in a beech forest (Veneto Region, Treviso Province, Foresta del Cansiglio. The possible establishment of this alien species in Italy is briefly discussed.

  5. Werner Sombart and his reception in Italy

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    Simona Pisanelli


    Full Text Available This article intends to focus on the difficulty encountered by Werner Sombart’s works in gaining a hearing in various Italian intellectual circuits. As is well known, Sombart belonged to the German Historical School of economics, sharing with other scholars of that school the same problems in getting his work known in Italy. Our aim is to explain the reason for this hostile reception. First of all, we will analyze the factors which generally hindered the spread of the German Historical School in Italy, recognizing in economists like Francesco Ferrara, Idealists like Benedetto Croce and Marxists like Antonio Labriola some of its strongest opponents. We will dwell on the cases of Gustav Schmoller and Max Weber, in order to give two representative examples of the slow and complicated Italian reception of methodological approaches and analytical perspectives which characterized the scientific experience of the German Historical School. Secondly, we will try to show why Sombart was even less appreciated than other German social scientists, giving the reasons that attracted severe criticism from economists, economic historians and sociologists towards his interdisciplinary approach in the analysis of modern capitalism. Finally, we will show the reasons of the contemporary rediscovery of Sombart and of his works.

  6. Medical malpractice: the experience in Italy. (United States)

    Traina, Francesco


    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over 10 billion euros (approximately US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians' approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation.

  7. Italy and the history of preventive conservation

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    Simon Lambert


    Full Text Available Italy is a point of reference for the conservation community worldwide, but it has yet to make a definitive leap towards preventive conservation. This paper examines some of the reasons to explain this, in the hope that this may be useful for other countries. After a brief look at the history of preventive conservation from Antiquity to the Second World War, two seldom-discussed Italian initiatives are presented: The Franceschini Commission (1964 and the Pilot plan for the programmed conservation of cultural heritage in Umbria (1976.L’Italie est une reference mondiale dans le domaine de la conservation-restauration, cependant, elle n’a toujours pas adopté la conservation préventive de façon définitive. Cet essai tente d’examiner quelques raisons pouvant expliquer ce fait, dans l’espoir que ces informations pourront être utiles pour d’autres pays. Après un survol de l’histoire de la conservation préventive de l’Antiquité à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, deux initiatives peu connues sont présentées, à savoir: la Commission Franceschini (1964 et le Plan pilote pour la conservation programmée des biens culturels en Ombrie (1976.

  8. Workplace drug testing in Italy - critical considerations. (United States)

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Collo, Giancarlo; Groppi, Angelo


    Workplace drug testing (WDT) was established in Italy on 30 October 2007. Two tiers of survey are required: the first tier concerns drug testing on urine samples, the second involves both urine and hair analysis. Between July 2008 and December 2011, 10 598 workers' urine samples and 72 hair samples for opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methylenedioxyamphetamines, methadone, and buprenorphine were tested in our laboratory. Urine analyses were performed by immunological screening (EMIT); hair analysis and confirmation tests in urine were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Employees tested positive in urine for drugs of abuse numbered 2.8% in 2008, 2.03% in 2009, 1.62% in 2010, and 1.43% in 2011. As regards the second level of analysis, we observed that only one-third of the workers who had been tested positive for drugs of abuse were referred to an Addiction Treatment Unit in order to verify drug addiction. Our experience shows that, four years after approval of the law on WDT, the percentage of workers positive for drugs of abuse in urine has reduced in comparison to the first year. Moreover, our data show that most of the times employees who tested positive are tardily referred or not referred at all to a Public Addiction Treatment Unit to verify drug addiction. This makes us believe that the legal provisions are widely disregarded not paying the right tribute to the fact that Italy is one of few European countries with legislation on WDT.

  9. Medical Malpractice: The Experience in Italy (United States)


    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over €10 billion (~US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians’ approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation. PMID:18985423

  10. A project of environmental improvement for Red deer on the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, Central Italy

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    Nicoloso S


    Full Text Available The Red deer (Cervus elaphus L. population living on the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines had in 2006 an estimated minimum size of approximately 2275 individuals, which occur in two Regions (Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna and four Provinces (Pistoia, Prato, Florence and Bologna. Since 2000 the population has been target of selective hunting, also in order to respond to the increasing request for concrete solutions against species impact on human activities. In this note we describe a pilot experience of projecting environmental improvement actions - such as restoration and preservation of open areas - purposely intended for Red deer. Surveys concentrated on the mountainous area of Pistoia and Sambuca Pistoiese Communes and in the territories belonging to Tuscany Regional Public Property within the competence of the Pistoiese Apennines Mountain Community or within general public competence. Here, the once pastured zones are affected by the invasion and progressive colonization of arbustive and herbaceous vegetation. Areas which are currently covered by shrubs and/or other pioneer vegetation forms have been located by means of GPS technology. For each area a descriptive paper has been realized, whose aim is including the main information recollected during field surveys jointly with data inferred from the Plan for the Forest Resource Assessment in force. 16 areas we considered fitting this project’s goals have been located, for a total extent of 21 ha: on this surface extensive vegetation cutting by mowing and mulching using mechanical machinery will be carried out in the summer 2007. Where soil position allows, superficial tillage activities with subsequent sowing of autochthonous herbaceous species are planned. In the end we evaluated intervention and correct application terms of Tuscany Forest Law no. 39/00 and Tuscany Forest Regulations (D.P.G.R. no. 48/R/03.

  11. Concentration, distribution, and translocation of mercury and methylmercury in mine-waste, sediment, soil, water, and fish collected near the Abbadia San Salvatore mercury mine, Monte Amiata district, Italy. (United States)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Gray, John E; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco


    The distribution and translocation of mercury (Hg) was studied in the Paglia River ecosystem, located downstream from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore mine (ASSM). The ASSM is part of the Monte Amiata Hg district, Southern Tuscany, Italy, which was one of the world's largest Hg districts. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg were determined in mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), sediment, water, soil, and freshwater fish collected from the ASSM and the downstream Paglia River. Concentrations of Hg in calcine samples ranged from 25 to 1500 μg/g, all of which exceeded the industrial soil contamination level for Hg of 5 μg/g used in Italy. Stream and lake sediment samples collected downstream from the ASSM ranged in Hg concentration from 0.26 to 15 μg/g, of which more than 50% exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 μg/g, the concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Stream and lake sediment methyl-Hg concentrations showed a significant correlation with TOC indicating considerable methylation and potential bioavailability of Hg. Stream water contained Hg as high as 1400 ng/L, but only one water sample exceeded the 1000 ng/L drinking water Hg standard used in Italy. Concentrations of Hg were elevated in freshwater fish muscle samples and ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 μg/g (wet weight), averaged 0.84 μg/g, and 96% of these exceeded the 0.3 μg/g (methyl-Hg, wet weight) USEPA fish muscle standard recommended to protect human health. Analysis of fish muscle for methyl-Hg confirmed that >90% of the Hg in these fish is methyl-Hg. Such highly elevated Hg concentrations in fish indicated active methylation, significant bioavailability, and uptake of Hg by fish in the Paglia River ecosystem. Methyl-Hg is highly toxic and the high Hg concentrations in these fish represent a potential pathway of Hg to the human food chain.

  12. Concentration, distribution, and translocation of mercury and methylmercury in mine-waste, sediment, soil, water, and fish collected near the Abbadia San Salvatore mercury mine, Monte Amiata district, Italy (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Gray, J.E.; Costagliola, P.; Vaselli, O.; Lattanzi, P.


    The distribution and translocation of mercury (Hg) was studied in the Paglia River ecosystem, located downstream from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore mine (ASSM). The ASSM is part of the Monte Amiata Hg district, Southern Tuscany, Italy, which was one of the world’s largest Hg districts. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg were determined in mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), sediment, water, soil, and freshwater fish collected from the ASSM and the downstream Paglia River. Concentrations of Hg in calcine samples ranged from 25 to 1500 μg/g, all of which exceeded the industrial soil contamination level for Hg of 5 μg/g used in Italy. Stream and lake sediment samples collected downstream from the ASSM ranged in Hg concentration from 0.26 to 15 μg/g, of which more than 50% exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 μg/g, the concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Stream and lake sediment methyl-Hg concentrations showed a significant correlation with TOC indicating considerable methylation and potential bioavailability of Hg. Stream water contained Hg as high as 1400 ng/L, but only one water sample exceeded the 1000 ng/L drinking water Hg standard used in Italy. Concentrations of Hg were elevated in freshwater fish muscle samples and ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 μg/g (wet weight), averaged 0.84 μg/g, and 96% of these exceeded the 0.3 μg/g (methyl-Hg, wet weight) USEPA fish muscle standard recommended to protect human health. Analysis of fish muscle for methyl-Hg confirmed that > 90% of the Hg in these fish is methyl-Hg. Such highly elevated Hg concentrations in fish indicated active methylation, significant bioavailability, and uptake of Hg by fish in the Paglia River ecosystem. Methyl-Hg is highly toxic and the high Hg concentrations in these fish represent a potential pathway of Hg to the human food chain.

  13. A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas. (United States)

    Gardini, Giulio


    A taxonomic revision and a key to the species of the subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) Beier, 1930 from Italy, Corsica and the Swiss Canton of Ticino are provided. The species are arranged in two species-groups (tetrachelatus group and fuscimanus group) on the basis of the shape of pedipalpal hand and of the type of dentition of the fixed and movable chelal fingers. The following new species are described: i) in the tetrachelatus group: Chthonius (E.) altamurae n. sp. (♀, loc. typ.: Apulia, Bari Prov., Altamura, Grotta Lamalunga 1295 Pu/BA), C. (E.) elymus n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Sicily, Trapani Prov., Custonaci, Abisso del Purgatorio 8064 Si/TP), Chthonius (E.) messapicus n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Apulia, Brindisi Prov., San Pietro Vernotico, Cerano); ii) in the fuscimanus group: C. (E.) aeneae n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Genoa Prov., Sestri Levante, Punta Manara), C. (E.) etruscus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Tuscany, Grosseto Prov., Semproniano, Grotta di Montecchio 254 To/GR), C. (E.) gallii n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Savona Prov., Bergeggi), C. (E.) intemelius n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Imperia Prov., Apricale, Mt Cianela), C. (E.) latellai n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Latium, Latina Prov., Bassiano, Grotta di Fiume Coperto 1361 La/LT), C. (E.) ligur n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Imperia Prov., near Baiardo), C. (E.) magrinii n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Latium, Frosinone Prov., San Giovanni Incarico, Grotta sulla strada per il Santuario della Madonna della Guardia n. c. La/FR), C. (E.) monguzzii n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Lombardia, Brescia Prov., Sulzano, Oricina de la Pofa del Giardì 438 Lo/BS), C. (E.) sulphureus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Marche, Ancona Prov., Genga, Grotta di Frasassi 1 Ma/AN), C. (E.) tyrrhenicus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Genoa Prov., Genoa, Quinto al Mare, Mt Moro). The following new synonymies are proposed: Chthonius (E.) bauneensis Callaini, 1983 is a junior subjective synonym of C. (E

  14. Electric-powered vehicles in Italy; Les vehicules electriques en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordel, St.; Carles, R.


    The aim of this study is to make a synthesis about the development of electric-powered vehicles, in particular in Italy. After a brief historical review of this type of propulsion system, a state-of-the-art review is made which allows to show up the different existing architectures and their characteristic specificities. This review allows to identify the key scientific and technical domains in the existing research programs in progress in order to make these 'alternative' transportation systems economically viable. The second part of the study explains the situation of Italy with respect to these propulsion systems. The political commitments are analyzed first and then some of the university and industry centers of competences for these key domains are presented. Finally, some trans-national collaborations in progress are shown. (J.S.)

  15. Imams and other Religious Authorities in Italy

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    Francesco Alicino


      SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. The Relationship State-Confessions and Religious Ministers – 2.1. The “Common” Legislation of intese and the 1929 Act – 2.2. State’s Law and Religious Ministers – 3. Imam in Italy. Is that a Religious Minister? – 3.1. The Connection State-Islamic Organizations – 3.2. Islamic Groups as Religious Denominations – 3.3. The Bilateral Legislation – 3.4. A Possible Collaboration – 4. Conclusion.   Abstract: In Italy imams are more than 800 members. As imams, they are almost all self-taught people. As citizens, most of the times they have a precarious job. During the week, they normally take care of things other than religion. They perform religious functions in their spare time. Moreover, to see them working as imams, you have to go down in some underground parking or in apartments converted into mosques, where sometimes you see minaret and other Islamic symbols, but only in either the picture or in the paintings hanging on the wall. In the end of the day, we know little or almost nothing about imams. Besides, the Italian law normally do not recognise them as religious authorities. Nevertheless, as imams they play a very important role in local Muslim communities that, under the pressing process of immigration, hold nowadays more than two millions persons. The paper will analyse the status of Islamic imams in Italy, comparing them with the status of other religious authorities (priests, rabbis, pastors ecc.. In particular, this comparative perspective will be focused on both angles: on the one hand, the research will compare the role of imams with those of religious authorities within their respective community; on the other, we will compare imams with considered the different way through which Italian law treats both imams and other religious authority. This perspective will give us a possibility to underline how both the social context and the Italian legal framework (regulating the State

  16. The Financialization of Companies in Italy

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    Angelo Salento


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical and theoretical analysis of the financialization of companies and the diffusion of shareholder value maximization in Italy. Unlike the anglo-saxon contexts, financial accumulation and short-termism in Italy are not a consequence of institutional investors’ activism: Italian capitalism is still a holigarchic family capitalism, and few blockholders are in control of Italian large firms. Financialization of companies and the orientation to maximize shareholder value in Italy are rather the outcome of isomorphic processes, supported by institutional and legal transformations occurred since 1980s: reforms of finance, company and labour law, the privatization of state firms, the diffusion of finance-oriented accounting rules. The statutory reforms enabled the dominant coalitions within Italian capitalism to operate in a regulatory framework harmonized with a transnational context, largely assimilated to Anglo-Saxon norms, promoting a finance-oriented conception of control and managerial practices.En este trabajo se presenta un análisis empírico y teórico de la financiarización de las empresas y la difusión de la maximización del valor para los accionistas en Italia. A diferencia de los contextos anglosajones, la acumulación financiera y el cortoplacismo en Italia no son una consecuencia del activismo de los inversores institucionales: el capitalismo italiano es todavía un capitalismo familiar holigarchic, y pocos son blockholders en el control de las grandes empresas italianas. La financiarización de las empresas y la orientación para maximizar el valor para los accionistas en Italia son más bien el resultado de los procesos isomórficos, con el apoyo de las transformaciones institucionales y legales ocurrieron desde 1980: las reformas de las finanzas, empresa y derecho laboral, la privatización de empresas estatales, la difusión de finanzas- normas de contabilidad orientados. Las reformas estatutarias

  17. How many otters are there in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni


    Full Text Available Abstract
    Mapping available data about otter (Lutra lutra distribution according to the 10x10 km grid of the IGMI (Italian Geographical Military Institute national maps on the scale of 1:25000, we evaluated a current otter range of 9900 km2, disjoined in two areas: Molise region in central Italy, and Basilicata, Campania, Calabria and Apulia in southern Italy. Considering the results of an otter genetic census performed in the Pollino National Park and surroundings (southern Italy in 2004, we extrapolated the values of otter density found (0.18-0.20 otters/km of watercourse to the overall Italian otter range and to the linear development of the watercourses hosting otters (3313 km. The correspondent estimates of the Italian population size amounted to, respectively, 481-523 and 596-663 otters. Considering a correction factor based on the mean sprainting intensity reported, since 2000, for each catchment hosting otters, the estimated population size was reduced to 229-257 otters. We argue that a new extensive otter survey is urgently needed and that monitoring by non-invasive genetic sampling is recommended in order to define the population status and trend.
    Quante lontre ci sono in Italia? I dati disponibili relativamente alla distribuzione della Lontra (Lutra lutra in Italia, sono stati mappati secondo il reticolo 10 x 10 km IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano in scala 1:25000, ottenendo un areale complessivo di 9900 km2, suddiviso tra il Molise (Italia centrale e Puglia, Campania, Basilicata e Calabria (Italia meridionale. I valori di densità della specie (0,18 – 0,20 lontre/km di fiume ottenuti nel 2004 in un’ampia area, perlopiù compresa nel Parco Nazionale del Pollino, sono quindi stati estrapolati alla superficie complessiva dell’areale italiano e alla lunghezza totale dei corsi d’acqua attualmente frequentati dalla Lontra (3313 km. La consistenza della

  18. Education and science museums. Reflections in Italy and on Italy (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari


    Full Text Available The educational function of science museums was born with the first naturalistic collections ever, flourished in 16th-century Italy. The pedagogic thought and the educational experimentations carried out in approximately five century of history have allowed the educational mission of museums to acquire many different facets, drawing a task having an increasingly higher and complex social value. Recent publications explore these new meanings of an old role.

  19. Biological monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Italy

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    Renato BAUDO


    Full Text Available In Italy, Ecotoxicology has found a place with the Legislative Decree n. 152 (May 11, 1999, emanated in fulfilment of the Directives 91/271/CEE "urban waste-water treatment" and 91/676/CEE "protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources". This decree in reality goes beyond (actually anticipating the content of the Framework Directive on Water, still under way of elaboration, and charges the Regions with the duty to identify, for all and each water body, the class of quality on the basis of a chemical and biological monitoring and their classification according to the environmental quality objectives. To this aim, for all water bodies (lakes, rivers, groundwater, coastal waters the ecological, chemical, and environmental status must be assessed by measuring specific parameters. This paper briefly summarises the role of biological monitoring in the classification of waters in five different categories, ranking from High to Foul Environmental status.

  20. GPR Activities in Italy: a Review (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria


    Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in Italy due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in Italy. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in Italy, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as

  1. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review. (United States)

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna


    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  2. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles]. (United States)

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo


    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock.

  3. Marostica passive solar dwelling, Marostica, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scudo, G. [DPPPE, Milano (Italy)


    This project consists of four separate buildings; three terraces comprising 24 dwellings in all, and one four-storey housing block containing 16 flats. The principal objective was to build low-cost housing in which innovative passive solar components could be incorporated at costs acceptable for public housing schemes (maximum 10% of the overall cost). An 'open-loop passive system', developed in Italy about 20 years ago by Barra-Costantini, was chosen. Warm air produced in the solar air panel circulates freely in the storage ceiling, into the rooms and back to the bottom of the air panel by gravity. The system supplies 30% of the net space-heating load. (author)

  4. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy (United States)

    Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.


    Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  5. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armani F. B.


    Full Text Available Italy is the first European and world’s fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  6. L’anthropologie criminelle en Italie

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    Jean-Christophe Coffin


    Full Text Available L’Italie est le territoire de l’anthropologie criminelle dans la mesure où l’un de ses plus illustres représentants, si ce n’est le plus connu d’entre eux, le médecin Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909 y a fait toute sa carrière, essentiellement à partir de l’université de Turin. Et c’est de là qu’il a essaimé ses idées à travers une multitude d’articles, de très nombreux livres et à travers l’organisation de conférences et de congrès internationaux. Si l’anthropologie criminelle constitue de fait u...

  7. Adaptively Smoothed Seismicity Earthquake Forecasts for Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M J; Jackson, D D; Kagan, Y Y; Wiemer, S


    We present a model for estimating the probabilities of future earthquakes of magnitudes m > 4.95 in Italy. The model, a slightly modified version of the one proposed for California by Helmstetter et al. (2007) and Werner et al. (2010), approximates seismicity by a spatially heterogeneous, temporally homogeneous Poisson point process. The temporal, spatial and magnitude dimensions are entirely decoupled. Magnitudes are independently and identically distributed according to a tapered Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We estimated the spatial distribution of future seismicity by smoothing the locations of past earthquakes listed in two Italian catalogs: a short instrumental catalog and a longer instrumental and historical catalog. The bandwidth of the adaptive spatial kernel is estimated by optimizing the predictive power of the kernel estimate of the spatial earthquake density in retrospective forecasts. When available and trustworthy, we used small earthquakes m>2.95 to illuminate active fault structur...

  8. The historiography of psychology in Italy. (United States)

    Cimino, Guido; Dazzi, Nino


    The article outlines the studies conducted in Italy on the history of psychology since the 1970s, with particular attention to those elaborated in the 1990s. Reference is made to the institutions, authors, congresses, and other initiatives that in the course of 3 decades have promoted the growth of the history of psychology, and a review is presented of the principal research themes undertaken by scholars. An attempt has been made to identify the principal historiographic tendencies and to illustrate the passage from a sort of "positivistic" historiography to an orientation that could be considered multifactorial or one of complexity, attentive to both the internal and the external components of the scientific enterprise, although with a propensity for the history of ideas.

  9. Patients dropping out of treatment in Italy. (United States)

    Morlino, M; Martucci, G; Musella, V; Bolzan, M; de Girolamo, G


    The aim of this study was to explore the extent and the specific features of drop-out for patients having a first contact with an university psychiatric outpatient clinic in Italy over the course of 1 year and to determine which variables were associated with early termination of treatment. Of the 158 patients selected for this study, there was an overall 3-month drop-out rate following the first visit of 63%. Of the 59 patients who had returned once after the initial contact, 28 interrupted subsequently the treatment, although the therapist's plan included further visits. The overall drop-out rate at 3 months was thus 82%. The only 2 variables associated with drop-out rates were the patients' perception of the severity of their disorder and the psychiatric history: continuing patients were more frequently in agreement with the clinician's judgment as compared with those who dropped out and were more likely to have already been in psychiatric treatment.

  10. CAS Accelerator Physics held in Erice, Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School


    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Superconductivity for Accelerators, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 24 April-4 May, 2013.   Photo courtesy of Alessandro Noto, Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture. Following a handful of summary lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of superconductivity, the course covered a wide range of topics related to superconductivity and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful with 94 participants representing 23 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Belorussia, Canada, China, India, Japan and the United States (for the first time a young Ethiopian lady, studying in Germany, attended this course). The programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars and 7 hours of case study. The case studies were p...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Catanese


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at identifying the procedures for current methods of religious slaughter. It consisted of spot visits in abattoirs carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Italy. The species covered were cattle, sheep and poultry. During this period, five abattoirs in three different Italian regions were assessed. All the animals were slaughtered without stunning. A reliable protocol was developed to record each animal during slaughter, to get 329 minutes and 28 seconds of video. 313 animals were observed by video image analysis for both halal slaughter and shechita. Observed parameters are discussed in the light of animal welfare. Remarks on restraining methods as well as post-cut clinical indicators of consciousness are considered.

  12. An agreement for applied research in Italy

    CERN Multimedia


    On 26 February, two of CERN's Directors-General had a very official handshake. Luciano Maiani, CERN's current Director-General, and Carlo Rubbia, one of his predecessors and current "commissario straordinario" of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiante, Institute for new technologies, energy and the environment) signed a collaboration agreement between their two organisations. ENEA carries out applied research in various fields such as renewable energies, new materials and medical applications. The organisation, which employs 3400 people in 10 laboratories in Italy, has a clear interest, therefore, in the technologies developed at CERN, which, in turn, seeks to promote them. Their collaboration will shortly lead to common research projects. CERN now has two Italian partners : INFN, its historical partner for particle physics research and ENEA for technological applications.

  13. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy. (United States)

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia


    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New records of Coenagrion ornatum in Italy (Odonata: Coenagrionidae

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    Fabio Mastropasqua


    Full Text Available Coenagrion ornatum (Sélys, 1850 is a damselfly ranging from northwestern Europe to southwestern Asia. It is highly local, and northwestern populations are experiencing a steep decline. In Europe, Coenagrion ornatum is a species of conservation interest and is listed as Near Threatened due to habitat loss; it is nearly extinct in Italy. We report the finding of 4 male C. ornatum on 3 June 2005 in Apulia, southeastern Italy. This is the only recent record for Italy, and highlights the need for further research on this species in the country.

  15. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics. (United States)

    Knights, M


    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome."

  16. Food Activism in Italy as an Anthropology of Direct Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasseni, Cristina

    This article presents qualitative and quantitative findings on provisioning activism in Italy, focusing on Solidarity Purchase Groups (Gruppi di Acquisto Solidale, GAS). By using quantitative data about GAS growth, numerical consistence and economic impact and through ethnographic insights based on

  17. 75 FR 8114 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2010. FOR...

  18. The CRACK programme: a scientific alliance for bridging healthcare research and public health policies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corrao


    Full Text Available Healthcare utilisation databases, and other secondary data sources, have been used with growing frequency to assess health outcomes and healthcare interventions worldwide. Their increased popularity as a research tool is due to their timely availability, the large patient populations covered, low cost, and applicability for studying real-world clinical practice. Despite the need to measure Italian National Health Service performance both at regional and national levels, the wealth of good quality electronic data and the high standards of scientific research in this field, healthcare research and public health policies seem to progress along orthogonal dimensions in Italy. The main barriers to the development of evidence-based public health include the lack of understanding of evidence-based methodologies by policy makers, and of involvement of researchers in the policy process. The CRACK programme was launched by some academics from the Lombardy Region. By extensively using electronically stored data, epidemiologists, biostatisticians, pharmacologists and clinicians applied methods and evidence to several issues of healthcare research. The CRACK programme was based on their intention to remove barriers that thwart the process of bridging methods and findings from scientific journals to public health practice. This paper briefly describes aim, articulation and management of the CRACK programme, and discusses why it might find articulated application in Italy.

  19. Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco


    Stream sediment, stream water, and fish were collected from a broad region to evaluate downstream transport and dispersion of mercury (Hg) from inactive mines in the Monte Amiata Hg District (MAMD), Tuscany, Italy. Stream sediment samples ranged in Hg concentration from 20 to 1,900 ng/g, and only 5 of the 17 collected samples exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1,060 ng/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in Tiber River sediment varied from 0.12 to 0.52 ng/g, and although there is no established guideline for sediment methyl-Hg, these concentrations exceeded methyl-Hg in a regional baseline site (Sb (Sb) and for protection against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife (150 μg/L for As and 5.6 μg/L for Sb). Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish muscle ranged from 0.052–0.56 μg/g (wet weight), mean of 0.17 μg/g, but only 17 % (9 of 54) exceeded the 0.30 μg/g (wet weight) USEPA fish muscle guideline recommended to protect human health. Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish in this region generally decreased with increasing distance from the MAMD, where fish with the highest Hg concentrations were collected more proximal to the MAMD, whereas all fish collected most distal from Hg mines contained Hg below the 0.30 μg/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

  20. CERN collect for Earthquakein Italy August 24, 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien


    Ghislain Roy, President of CERN's Staff Association, Maurizio Serra, Ambassador, permanent Mission of Italy to teh United NAtions Office in Geneva, FAbiola Gianotti, CERN director General and Umberto Dosselli, scientific ataché Italian Permanent Mission in Geneva, show the letter co-signed by CERN's director general and CERN' s Staff Association President indicating the amounbt collected in favour of the vicitims of the August 24 2016 earthquake in central Italy.

  1. 1st International Conference of IFToMM Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Gasparetto, Alessandro


    This volume contains the Proceedings of the First International Conference of IFToMM Italy (IFIT2016), held at the University of Padova, Vicenza, Italy, on December 1-2, 2016. The book contains contributions on the latest advances on Mechanism and Machine Science. The fifty-nine papers deal with such topics as biomechanical engineering, history of mechanism and machine science, linkages and mechanical controls, multi-body dynamics, reliability, robotics and mechatronics, transportation machinery, tribology, and vibrations.

  2. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy [Italian Version, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more sustainable energy future. The Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous review. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Italy recognises the need to diversify its energy supply portfolio to reduce its heavy dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports, and to decrease its growing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the government announced its intention to recommence the countrys nuclear power program and start building a new nuclear power plant by 2013. To do so, Italy must first develop an efficient process for identifying critical energy infrastructure, including nuclear power, and subjecting it to an effective, streamlined siting and permitting process. Italy will face another major challenge in complying with Europe’s new climate and energy package, particularly in relation to renewable energy and emissions targets. Italy must step up efforts to comply with its new responsibilities, specifically by developing and putting in place a comprehensive climate change strategy for the years until 2020. In mid-2009, the legislature enacted a comprehensive new law that will facilitate the emergence of a robust long-term energy policy. The government must respond to this opportunity and elaborate, with industry, a comprehensive long-term strategy for the development of the energy sector. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more

  3. Research on VHDL in France, Italy and Switzerland


    Borrione, D.


    International audience; Research on VHDL in France, Italy and Switzerland This presentation is an overview of the research on and around VHDL in France, Italy and French speaking Switzerland. The teams covered by this survey are well known in Europe, for their participation in the VHDL User's Groups, and for their publications. The period covered is 1991-1995, although some groups have started their VHDL activities several years before.

  4. Household waste recycling: National survey evidence from Italy


    Fiorillo, Damiano


    The paper analyses the determinants of household recycling in Italy with particular emphasis on social behaviour. The econometric analysis is based on two waves - 1998 and 2000 - of the Multipurpose Household Survey conducted annually by the Italian Central Statistics Office. In Italy household recycling was substantially voluntary in the years from 1998 to 2000 with no monetary incentives or pecuniary sanctions. Five different materials are investigated: paper, glass, plastic, aluminium and ...

  5. Contemporary Italian Novels on Chinese Immigration to Italy


    Zhang, Gaoheng


    In this essay, I survey for the first time some of the most meaningful novels concerned with Chinese immigration to Italy. My primary focus is to examine the ways in which authors of various socio-cultural backgrounds address the interconnections of narrativity, social concerns, and cultural identities. I show that these novels reinforce or contest the meanings of specific issues as well as the rhetorical strategies in media and cinematic representations of Chinese immigrants in Italy followi...

  6. Ethics committees in Italy--a time for change? (United States)

    Wray, E


    The Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) in Italy has recently produced an unprecedented discussion document on the state of ethics committees in Italy, with an invitation to interested parties to comment on proposed changes to their fundamental structure. After this consultation, and taking note of relevant official publications and the most recent national and international literature on the subject, the CNB proposes to produce a final, definitive document that will consider options for the future development of such committees.

  7. Italy makes a return to the nuclear fold (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin


    Some 21 years after its people voted in a referendum to end nuclear energy production, Italy looks set to return to the power of the atom. The newly installed right-wing government of Silvio Berlusconi has vowed to start building a new set of nuclear reactors within five years as part of a plan to reduce Italy's enormous energy costs. Experts, however, believe that this timescale is unrealistic.

  8. Estimated prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy in 2015. (United States)

    Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bezzini, Daiana


    Italy is a high risk area for multiple sclerosis (MS) as confirmed by the numerous prevalence and incidence studies conducted in several regions/districts of the country. Nevertheless, there are no recent published epidemiological data, nor studies about the total prevalence of MS in Italy. Our aim was to update as of 2015 the prevalence rates of MS in different geographical areas using already published epidemiological studies, and to estimate the overall prevalence of the disease in Italy. We made a search in MEDLINE database of all published studies on epidemiology of MS in Italy. Then, we applied, to the already published prevalence data, the last published incidence and mortality rates to recalculate, as of 2015, the prevalence of MS. So, we calculated the mean prevalence rate from our extrapolations, and we applied it to the population in 2015 to estimate the number of MS patients in Italy. Our prevalence extrapolations ranged from 122 to 232 cases/100,000 in the mainland and Sicily, with an average of 176/100,000, and from 280 to 317 cases/100,000 in Sardinia with an average of 299/100,000. Applying these media to the Italian population in 2015, we obtained an estimate of more than 109,000 MS patients in Italy. Our estimates were higher than the latest published rates but consistent with the annual increase of prevalence due to incidence that exceeds mortality, with the increase of survival and, maybe, with the probable increase of incidence.

  9. Organizational network in trauma management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Chiara


    Full Text Available In Italy, as in other western countries, trauma is a leading cause of death during the first four decades of life, with almost 18.000 of deaths per year. Since 80s organized systems for trauma care, including a pre-hospital emergency medical system and a network of hospitals designated as Trauma Centres, have been developed in north American countries. Effectiveness of trauma systems has been investigated comparing the post-system to the pre-system trauma care with the method of panel evaluation of preventable death rates and comparison of observed survival with expected probability of survival. In Italy, a pre-hospital emergency medical system has been implemented on a national scale, while a trauma network has not been developed. Nowadays, trauma patients are often admitted to the closest hospital, independently from local resources. The Superior Council of Ministry of Health has presented in 2004 a new trauma system model (SIAT based on the recognition in the field of patients with more serious injuries and the transportation to general hospitals with resources and multidisciplinary teams specialized in trauma care (trauma team. The designation of few trauma team hospitals, one highly specialized Centre (CTS and two area Centres (CTZ every two millions of inhabitants allows each Centre to treat at least 250 severe trauma patients per year to increase experience. Less severe injured patients may be treated in non-trauma team acute care facilities, according to the inclusive system model. The development of trauma team services in some Italian hospitals has demonstrated an increase in survival and a decrease in preventable death rate from 42% to 7,6%. Economic studies of Ministry of Health have established that the implementation of a trauma system model on a national scale with a 25% decrease of preventable trauma deaths and disabilities would save 7500 million of euros of public money. Therefore, in our country the concentration of severely

  10. The 2016 Central Italy Earthquake: an Overview (United States)

    Amato, A.


    The M6 central Italy earthquake occurred on the seismic backbone of the Italy, just in the middle of the highest hazard belt. The shock hit suddenly during the night of August 24, when people were asleep; no foreshocks occurred before the main event. The earthquake ruptured from 10 km to the surface, and produced a more than 17,000 aftershocks (Oct. 19) spread on a 40x20 km2 area elongated NW-SE. It is geologically very similar to previous recent events of the Apennines. Both the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake to the south and the 1997 Colfiorito to the north, were characterized by the activation of adjacent fault segments. Despite its magnitude and the well known seismic hazard of the region, the earthquake produced extensive damage and 297 fatalities. The town of Amatrice, that paid the highest toll, was classified in zone 1 (the highest) since 1915, but the buildings in this and other villages revealed highly vulnerable. In contrast, in the town of Norcia, that also experienced strong ground shaking, no collapses occurred, most likely due to the retrofitting carried out after an earthquake in 1979. Soon after the quake, the INGV Crisis Unit convened at night in the Rome headquarters, in order to coordinate the activities. The first field teams reached the epicentral area at 7 am with the portable seismic stations installed to monitor the aftershocks; other teams followed to map surface faults, damage, to measure GPS sites, to install instruments for site response studies, and so on. The INGV Crisis Unit includes the Press office and the INGVterremoti team, in order to manage and coordinate the communication towards the Civil Protection Dept. (DPC), the media and the web. Several tens of reports and updates have been delivered in the first month of the sequence to DPC. Also due to the controversial situation arisen from the L'Aquila earthquake and trials, particular attention was given to the communication: continuous and timely information has been released to

  11. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Leporatti


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  12. Geoelectric monitoring of the Bagnaschino landslide (Italy) (United States)

    Jochum, Birgit; Supper, Robert; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lovisolo, Mario


    Landslides are one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. Permanent geoelectrical monitoring using the GEOMON4D instrumentation in combination with high resolution displacement monitoring by means of the DMS system was performed at an active landslide area in Italy (Bagnaschino). These sites are part of a geoelectrical monitoring network of the Geological Survey of Austria, which currently comprises six permanently monitored landslides in Europe. The Bagnaschino site represents a landslide/earthflow reactivated within an old landslide mass. The old landslide is situated on the slopes of the Val Casotto about 4 km SE of Torre Mondovì (NW Italy). Evident indications of deep-seated gravitational deformation suggest that the current slopes are in a condition of limit-equilibrium and are predisposed to slow instability, triggered most probably by rain and/or snow melting and river erosion at the foot. The recent landslide was activated during 1994 rainfall event. It covers an estimated area of 150,000 m² and comprises a displaced material of 1.2 million m³. It endangers a regional road and potential formation of a dam. For the purpose of early warning a DMS monitoring column with 60 m length was installed in October 2008. Total displacement recorded by DMS during the events between 2008 and 2010 was 600 mm. Subsequently, the GEOMON4D geoelectric monitoring system was installed there in 2010. Resistivity measurements are performed along a 224 m long profile, which is oriented parallel to the main movement direction. Its midpoint is next to the DMS station. One set of data comprising around 4000 gradient-type measurements is taken every 4 hours. For power supply a combination of a fuel cell and a solar panel is used. Within the observation interval one distinct displacement event was monitored. This event was accompanied by a decrease of electric resistivity. In addition to our standard analysis of resistivity data (e.g. time

  13. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy. (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana


    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  14. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Rainfall thresholds for the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Brunetti


    Full Text Available In Italy, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides that frequently cause fatalities and large economic damage. Using a variety of information sources, we have compiled a catalogue listing 753 rainfall events that have resulted in landslides in Italy. For each event in the catalogue, the exact or approximate location of the landslide and the time or period of initiation of the slope failure is known, together with information on the rainfall duration D, and the rainfall mean intensity I, that have resulted in the slope failure. The catalogue represents the single largest collection of information on rainfall-induced landslides in Italy, and was exploited to determine the minimum rainfall conditions necessary for landslide occurrence in Italy, and in the Abruzzo Region, central Italy. For the purpose, new national rainfall thresholds for Italy and new regional rainfall thresholds for the Abruzzo Region were established, using two independent statistical methods, including a Bayesian inference method and a new Frequentist approach. The two methods proved complementary, with the Bayesian method more suited to analyze small data sets, and the Frequentist method performing better when applied to large data sets. The new regional thresholds for the Abruzzo Region are lower than the new national thresholds for Italy, and lower than the regional thresholds proposed in the literature for the Piedmont and Lombardy Regions in northern Italy, and for the Campania Region in southern Italy. This is important, because it shows that landslides in Italy can be triggered by less severe rainfall conditions than previously recognized. The Frequentist method experimented in this work allows for the definition of multiple minimum rainfall thresholds, each based on a different exceedance probability level. This makes the thresholds suited for the design of probabilistic schemes for the prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. A scheme based on four

  16. Native and alien squirrels in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino


    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy there are four species of squirrels: the native red squirrel and other three species recently introduced. The red squirrel is present in the Italian peninsula with three subspecies, and is missing only in Salento, and Italian islands. This species is common on Alps and Apennines, while in the plains it is declining because of the habitat loss. Competition with the grey squirrel and habitat fragmentation are considered the major threats to the survival of the red squirrel. The grey squirrel is present in Piedmont and Liguria. A study on the Piedmontese colony showed that the red squirrel is disappearing from the area colonised by the grey squirrel and the damage due to bark-stripping and feeding is considerable. Free-ranging populations of the Siberian chipmunk live in Belluno, Verona, and Rome, but records of single animals were reported for other areas. The Finlayson's squirrel is present with a small nucleus in an urban area of Piedmont. Here, the impact of this species on the vegetation appears dramatic. The eradication of the grey squirrel is a priority for the conservation of the red squirrel, but control plans for the other introduced species are also needed.

  17. A tectonomagnetic effect detected in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio


    Full Text Available Significant variations in the absolute value of the geomagnetic field intensity related to tectonic events, as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, have been observed in several cases. To detect such a tectonomagnetic effect related to seismic activity, a seismomagnetic network was installed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING in the Abruzzi region (CentraI Italy, in July 1989. This area is being uplifting since the Pliocene. A logistic compromise between geophysical requirements and the electrified railway system tracks distribution led to the installation of five total magnetic field intensity data acquisition sites. From July 1989 to September 1992 geomagnetic intensity data were simultaneously recorded at all stations and compared to that recorded at the L'Aquila Observatory, located in the same area. A variation of about 10 nT in the absolute level of the geomagnetic field was measured at two stations located on the eastern side of the network. We suggest that the detected magnetic anomaly could resuIt from aseismic-changes in crustal stress during this time.

  18. Italy at CERN – Industrial exibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department


    From 10 to 13 October 2011 Industrial Exhibition Bldg 500 & 61 Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of department or to get in touch with Karine ROBERT. You will find below the list of exhibitors.   LISTE DES EXPOSANTS : Agilent Technologies - via Varian 54 - 10040 Leinì (TO) Pioneer in vacuum technology since the 50’s. CAEN S.p.A. - via Vetraia, 11 – 55049 Viareggio (LU) Data-Acquisi...

  19. Aseismic strain episodes at Campi Flegrei, Italy (United States)

    Scarpa, Roberto; Amoruso, Antonella; Bilham, Roger; Di Lieto, Bellina; Errico, Antonio; Linde, Alan; Sacks, Selwyn


    Since spring 2004 a research project has been developed in Italy to install borehole Sacks-Evertson strainmeters (dilatometers) aimed to improve monitoring systems of the Italian volcanoes. 6 borehole dilatometers have been installed around Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius during 2004-2005 (Scarpa et al., 2007). This small network has been implemented by two arrays of long-baseline water tube tiltmeters installed in underground tunnels since 2008. Relevant strainmeter and tiltmeter data have been collected and analyzed at the instruments installed at Campi Flegrei during the recent unrest episodes. Renewed activity started since 2004-2005, characterized by a quite low rate of vertical vertical displacement, amounting initially to a few cm/year. A long term strain episode occurred during summer 2006, in correspondence to an increase of CO2 emission and displacements measured also by tiltmeters and GPS transducers. This strain episode preceded the seismic activity by few months, as also observed during the 1982 most significant unrest. Other aseismic slip episodes have been recorded in 2009, in correspondence of the renewal of gas emission activity at Solfatara, in 2010, one day before a seismic swarm, and in September 2012, few days before the most significant seismic swarm occurred after the 1982-1984 uplift. The time scale of these phenomena is ranging from some hours to several days, putting further constraints on the origin of ground uplifts at Campi Flegrei. Their location is compatible with the source inferred from long term deformation signals, at about 4 km depth beneath Pozzuoli.

  20. Tephrochronology offshore Ischia Island, Tyrrhenian sea, Italy (United States)

    Insinga, Donatella; Sulpizio, Roberto; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Morabito, Simona; Morra, Vincenzo; Sprovieri, Mario; di Benedetto, Claudia; Lubritto, Carmine; Zanchetta, Giovanni


    the coring site. The definition of the source area of these two major events is still a matter of debate. However, the Somma-Vesuvius complex reasonably sourced the Schiava deposits while a Campi Flegrei provenance for the Codola deposits cannot be ruled out (Di Vito et al., 2008). These latters, known as C10 tephra in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic sea (Paterne et al., 1988; Giaccio et al., 2008), in particular, represent reliable regional markers for the whole central Mediterranean area. References De Vivo, B., Rolandi, G., Gans, P.B., Calvert, A., Bohrson,W.A., Spera, F.J., Belkin, H.E., 2001. New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy). Mineralogy and Petrology 73, 47-65. Di Vito,M.A., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., D'Orazio, M., 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: newinsights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.177, 19-48. Giaccio, B., Isaia, R., Fedele, F.G., Di Canzio, E., Hoffecker, J., Ronchitelli, A., Sinitsyn, A., Anikovich, M., Lisitsyn, S.N., 2008. The Campanian Ignimbrite and Codola tephra layers: two temporal/stratigraphic markers for the Early Upper Palaeloithic in southern Italy and eastern Europe. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 177, 210-228. Paterne M., Guichard F. & Labeyrie J., 1988. Explosive activity of the south Italian volcanoes during the past 80.000 years as determined by marine tephrochronology. J. Volcanol. Geother. Res. 34, 153-172. Paterne, M., Guichard, F., 1993. Triggering of volcanic pluses in the Campanian area, south Italy, by periodic deep magma in.ux. Journal of Geophysical Research 98 (B2), 1861-1873. Rio, D., Raffi, I., Villa, G., 1990. Pliocene-Pleistocene calcareous nannofossil distribution patterns in the western Mediterranean. In: Kastens, K.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, vol. 107. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, pp. 513-533. Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G

  1. How we make cell therapy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montemurro T


    Full Text Available Tiziana Montemurro, Mariele Viganò, Silvia Budelli, Elisa Montelatici, Cristiana Lavazza, Luigi Marino, Valentina Parazzi, Lorenza Lazzari, Rosaria GiordanoCell Factory, Unit of Cell Therapy and Cryobiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, ItalyAbstract: In the 21st century scenario, new therapeutic tools are needed to take up the social and medical challenge posed by the more and more frequent degenerative disorders and by the aging of population. The recent category of advanced therapy medicinal products has been created to comprise cellular, gene therapy, and tissue engineered products, as a new class of drugs. Their manufacture requires the same pharmaceutical framework as for conventional drugs and this means that industrial, large-scale manufacturing process has to be adapted to the peculiar characteristics of cell-containing products. Our hospital took up the challenge of this new path in the early 2000s; and herein we describe the approach we followed to set up a pharmaceutical-grade facility in a public hospital context, with the aim to share the solutions we found to make cell therapy compliant with the requirements for the production and the quality control of a high-standard medicinal product.Keywords: advanced therapy medicinal product, good manufacturing practices, stem cells


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Four Pleistocene bathyal molluscan assemblages from southern Italy (Calabria and Messina area were studied. One hundred and thirty-six species were recorded. Twenty-four were classified and described in detail and thirty-five were illustrated. The following new combinations are pro posed: Solariella marginulata (Philippi, 1844, Iphitus tenuisculptus (Seguenza, 1876, Benthomangelia tenuicostata (Seguenza, 1879, Chrysallida microscalaria (Seguenza, 1876, Ennucula corbuloides (Seguenza, 1877, Ennucula rotundata (Seguenza, 1877, Thestyleda cuspidata (Philippi, 1844, Katadesmia confusa (Seguenza, 1877, Austrotindaria pusio (Philippi, 1844, Austrotindaria salicensis (Seguenza, 1877. Comments concerning the taxonomy of Fissurisepta Seguenza, 1862, Solariella Wood, 1842, Ennucula Iredale, 1931, Thestyleda Iredale, 1929, Ledella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Yoldiella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Bathyspinula Filatova, 1958, Katadesmia Dall, 1908, Austrotindaria Fleming, 1948 and Cadulus Philippi, 1844 are included. The assemblages are dominated by nuculoids and fit the general compositional pattern of the deep-sea molluscan communities. A paleodepth of 500-600 m is inferred for two assemblages, whereas a greater depth, pro bably not exceeding 1,000 m, is suggested for the other two. Taxonomic affinities with northeast Atlantic and more generally with World Ocean deep-sea molluscan faunas are remarkable. The Plio-Quaternary evolution of the deep Mediterranean benthos is discussed.    

  3. Behavior in the General Population in Italy

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    Luisa Maria Roberta Tedesco


    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs.

  4. Observations of surface radon in Central Italy (United States)

    Carlo, Piero Di; Pitari, Giovanni; de Luca, Natalia; Battisti, Domenico


    Two years of in situ radon concentration measurements in the atmospheric surface layer have been collected in a central Italy town (L’Aquila), located in the Aterno river valley. These data have been analyzed in order to study the controlling mechanisms of surface radon abundance; observations of coincident meteorological parameters confirmed the role of dynamics on the local removal rate of this tracer. The relatively high negative correlation of hourly data of surface wind speed and radon activity concentration ( R = -0.54, on annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon is one of the most important controlling processes of the tracer accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. An attempt is made to quantify the precipitation impact on radon soil fluxes. No anticorrelation of radon and precipitation comes out from the data ( R = -0.15), as in previous studies. However, since the main physical parameter affecting the ground radon release is expected to be the soil accumulation of water, snow or ice, the emission flux has also been correlated with soil moisture; in this way a much clearer anticorrelation is found ( R = -0.54).

  5. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

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    L. Perrone


    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  6. The first book museums in Italy

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    Andrea De Pasquale


    Full Text Available Just before the advent of Fascism, in Turin, in the nearby town of Carmagnola and in Florence were born the first Italian examples of book museums. It was early and exceptional experiments of valorizing of book history and of the ancient techniques of manufacturing manuals in a time of great innovation. The first, called the National Museum of the book, was opened in 1913 as a result of the exhibition of the history of printing held during the Universal Exhibition of 1911; the second, created in 1921, was the result of collecting a notable family that took up the typographic tradition of Carmagnola old more than 4 centuries; the third, said Museum of books and illumination, was the result of the exploitation of the extraordinary collections of the Medici library and of the policy pursued by the Director Guido Biagi. Of such museums, outlining the events that led to their creation, only the museum in Carmagnola has come to this day, while the others for various reasons, were closed and never reconstituted. The contribution also provides an opportunity to reflect on the creation of a new museum of the book in Italy at a time when libraries lack visibility into the organization of the Ministry of cultural heritage, which could be distributed and polycentric in the offices of the State libraries in Rome, with its hub at the National Central Library.

  7. Crayfish distribution updating in central Italy

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    M. Scalici


    Full Text Available Introductions of non-indigenous crayfish have received great attention from biologists and policy makers during the last decade. Purposes of this study are to update the knowledge about the crayfish distribution in Latium (central Italy, and to show how interactions between indigenous and non-indigenous species can affect their distribution. The main findings of this study were (1 the great decrease of the Austropotamobius pallipes populations and (2 the alarming spread of the four non-indigenous species red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (the main widespread crayfish, spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, and yabby Cherax destructor. We never observed indigenous and non-indigenous crayfish living in syntopy, although we noted that white-clawed crayfish had become extinct at sites where non-indigenous crayfish species exist now. Other type of problems (i.e. illegal harvesting and over-abstraction of water for human use can also reduce the distribution and abundance of the indigenous crayfish stocks. The distribution of Italian crayfish populations has not been studied sufficiently and more studies are required nationwide to assess the conservation status of A. pallipes and the occurrence of non-indigenous species. A national database of crayfish records ought to be constructed and regularly updated.

  8. Dormice distribution in Romagna region (Italy

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    Dino Scaravelli


    Full Text Available Abstract The geographic distribution of dormice living in Romagna is summarised. Data were collected by direct observation of living animals, finding of dead specimens and analysis of owl pellets, in addition to recent literature. Eliomys quercinus, Myoxus glis and Muscardinus avellanarius are present in this area between north continental and central Mediterranean Italy. The distribution is presented according to 1Ox10 km squares of the UTM grid. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mioxidi nella regione Romagna (Italia - Vengono riassunti i dati disponibili sulla distribuzione geografica dei Mioxidi viventi in Romagna. Si sono utilizzati dati provenienti da osservazioni dirette, letteratura, esemplari ritrovati morti e dell'analisi di borre di rapaci notturni. Eliomys quercinus, Myoxus glis e Muscardinus avellanarius sono presenti in quest'area che si pone a confine tra il bioclima continentale nord-italiano e quello più mediterraneo del centro. La distribuzione delle specie è mostrata su reticolo UTM 10x10 km.

  9. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  10. Mass Media and Political Power in Italy

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    Zolotykh A. D.


    Full Text Available The process of merging the political, economic and media power in Italy and the role of the Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi are discussed. “La Repubblica” and “L’Unita” publications are investigated (2009–2010 and compared via the famous European media as “The Financial Times”, “The Times”, “The Independent”, ”Le Monde”, “La Liberation”, “Le Nouvel Obstrvateur”, “El Pais” and “Der Spigel”. In particular the author pays the attention to polemics devoted to the information freedom protection. The existence of media empires in modern mass media hinders one of the main functions of the press, namely the spreading of objective and full information on all sides of the society life directed by plurality in informational and analytical material. At the same moment in time the mass media influence on the fates of the leading political figures, Silvio Berlusconi in particular. A topical problem of complex relations of modern press and different political, social and power structures is analyzed on the Italian example.

  11. Electronic Cigarettes (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  12. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George


    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  13. The refinement of geomorphical and geochemical statistical techniques in the study of clay-basin tectonics: the Era basin (central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, S. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Serafini, S.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Environment; Ciotoli, G.


    A comparative approach to neotectonic studies is presented, which encompasses the integration of geochemical, morphological and structural analyses. Nine-hundred-nineteen soil gas samples were collected in the Era basin (Tuscany, Central Italy) and their helium contents were measured. Helium distribution has been compared with location and orientation of known brittle deformations (faults and fractures) and morphological features obtained by air-photo interpretation and drainage network analyses. Obtained data were statistically compared by means of rose diagram plots concerning the investigated parameters and locally studied by associating the observed helium anomaly ridges with the known morphological and structural elements. The statistical approach showed a good convergence between the applied methodologies. Data from geo morphological , meso structural, and geochemical surveys are consistent with the NE-SW and NW-SE orientations, i.e. Apennine and anti-Apennine trend of the known structural pattern. Moreover the apparent N-S and E-W trending helium anomalies are thought to be due to the Middle Pleistocene deformation phase along these directions. The relationship between helium distribution and the strain field is strengthen by the good correspondence, at local scale, among geochemical data and results of the structural and geo morphological features (Orciatico-Montecatini val di Cecina and Peccioli areas). However helium soil gas technique showed to be a sensible tool for neotectonic studies in clay basin, as soil gas defines the leakage of deep seated gas along tectonic discontinuities even if they have no surface evidence and where the clay deposit is hundreds of meters thick. [Italiano] In questo lavoro viene presentata una nuova metodologia di infagine volta agli studi di neotettonica nei bacini argillosi e basata sull`integrazione di dati geochimici, morfologici e strutturali. I dati geochimici si riferiscono alle analisi delle concentrazioni di elio in

  14. Effect of plat diversity on a set of soil characteristics relevant to soil erosion processes: an example from a biancana badland site (Siena Province, Central Italy) (United States)

    Bacaro, Giovanni; Santi, Elisa; Vergari, Francesca; Maccherini, Simona; Rossi, Mauro; Del Monte, Maurizio; Torri, Dino


    A study on the influence of vegetation (grassland) on the evolution of a set of soil characteristics was carried out in a protected area (Site of Community Importance, Natura 2000 Network) where there are some residual areas of biancana badlands. This site, named "Crete di Camposodo e Leonina" is located in the Province of Siena, Tuscany, central Italy. Following geomorphological zonation in the badlands, the areas where firstly classified in a series of different classes where erosion is or was active and where sedimentation is or was active. Secondly, for each "erosion class" as determined before, another classification criterion based on the type of vegetation cover was given. Random plots were than sampled on the basis of these classifications until 22 plots where chosen for analyses. In each plot, vegetation was described in a squared sampling unit (40*40cm), and, after description, it was cut, dried and weighted. A functional matrix, based on plant functional traits, was created and Functional Diversity indices, as well as other classic biodiversity metrics (such as Shannon, Simpson, etc) were obtained. On the same sampling area, 4 randomly selected soil carrots (each with a depth of 20cm) were extracted and used for laboratory analysis while undrained soil shear strength at saturation (U4S) was measured using a pocket torvane. Electrical conductivity, pH, and U4S where then compared with several of the vegetation features, including epi- and ipo-gean biomass, vegetation cover and biodiversity indices. Our results clearly identify the relationships which attribute to vegetation (as representative of the ecosystem they shelter) the main role in modifying the soil from bare rock to a well developed surface horizon: while vegetation changes soil attributes, the changed soil attributes make the niche suitable to other plants, with a modification of the composition of the grassland. Finally, we also demonstrated that plant functional dissimilarity represents one

  15. New multi-scale approach to improve explanation of patterns of contemporary morphodynamics in the badland landscapes of Central Italy: the important Quaternary context (United States)

    Vergari, Francesca; Troiani, Francesco; Della Seta, Marta; Faulkner, Hazel; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Ciccacci, Sirio; Del Monte, Maurizio; Fredi, Paola


    Spatial patterns and magnitudes of short-term erosional processes are often the result of longer-term landscape-wide morphodynamics. Their combined analysis, however, is challenged by different spatial scales, data availability and resolution. Integrating both analyses has thus rarely been done though urgently needed to better understand and manage present day erosional dynamics and land degradation. In this study we aim at overcoming these shortcomings by exploring a multi-scale approach, based on a nested experimental design that integrates the traditional monitoring of erosion processes at local and short time scale, with the longer-term (over the last 103-105 yr) and basin-to-morphostructure scale analysis of landscape morphodynamics. We investigated the geomorphological behaviour of a Mediterranean active badland site located in the Upper Orcia Valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). This choice is justified by the availability of decadal erosion monitoring datasets at a range of scales, and the rapidity of development of erosion processes. Based on the analysis of drainage network and its longitudinal and planform pattern, we tested the hypothesis that this rejuvenating, actively erosional landscape presents hotspots of denudation processes on hillslope and in channel network that are largely associated with (a) knickpoints on stream longitudinal profiles, (b) sites of strong connectivity, and (c) sites of strong divide competition with adjacent, aggressive and non-aggressive systems. To illustrate and explore this nested approach, we extracted the channel network and analysed stream longitudinal profiles using the MATLAB-based TopoToolbox program, starting from the 27x27 m Aster GDEM. The stream network morphometric analyses involved computing and mapping χ-values, a transformation that normalizes the longitudinal distance by upslope area and which serves as a proxy of the dynamic state of river basins based on the current geometry of the river network. Finally

  16. Burden of the 1999-2008 seasonal influenza epidemics in Italy: comparison with the H1N1v (A/California/07/09) pandemic. (United States)

    Lai, Piero Luigi; Panatto, Donatella; Ansaldi, Filippo; Canepa, Paola; Amicizia, Daniela; Patria, Antonio Giuseppe; Gasparini, Roberto


    Despite preventive efforts, seasonal influenza epidemics are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality every year worldwide, including developed countries. The A/H1N1v pandemic imposed a considerable healthcare and economic burden. In order to obtain an accurate estimate of the economic burden of influenza, and hence to guide policymakers effectively, systematic studies are necessary. To this end, data from epidemiological surveillance are essential. To estimate the impact of the 1999-2008 seasonal influenza epidemics and the H1N1v pandemic, we analyzed data from the Italian Influenza Surveillance System (CIRI NET). In the period 1999-2008, the Italian surveillance network consisted of sentinel general practitioners and pediatricians, who reported cases of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI ) observed during their clinical practice from mid-October to late April each year; reports were sent to the Center for Research on Influenza and other Viral Infections (CIRI -IV). CIRI -IV receives data from 9 of the 20 Italian regions: Liguria, Abruzzo, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardy, Puglia, Sicily, Tuscany and Umbria. Previous estimates of influenza case costs were used in economic evaluations. Clinical-epidemiological and virological surveillance of the seasonal epidemics from 1999-2008 showed that the highest epidemic period was 2004-2005, when a new variant of the H3N2 influenza virus subtype emerged (A/California/07/04). Indeed, the highest peak of morbidity in the decade occurred in February 2005 (12.6 per 1,000 inhabitants). In 1999-2008, H1N1 subtype strains circulated and co-circulated with strains belonging to the H3N2 subtype and B type. Regarding B viruses in 2001-02, viruses belonged to the B/Victoria/02/07 lineage re-emerged, and in subsequent years co-circulated with viruses belonging to the B/Yamagata/lineage. The estimated costs of seasonal epidemics from 1999-2008 in Italy ranged from €15 to €20

  17. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Second-hand smoke in Italy. (United States)

    Gallus, S


    Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [IARC, 2004]. Of the 5.7 million deaths attributable each year to tobacco smoking, more than 600,000 (i.e., around 1% of all deaths worldwide) refer to subjects who never smoked and that prematurely die due to their lifetime exposure to SHS [WHO, 2012]. Italy has been one of the pioneering countries - and the first large country worldwide - to enact a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in 2005. The law, introduced in order to reduce SHS exposure, banned smoking in indoor public places, including restaurants and bars, and in all workplaces [Gallus et al., 2006]. This legislation has had an undisputed success from a public health perspective: it was widely supported and strongly observed, restaurant and bar owners did not experience any dreaded decline in their business, and tobacco smoking (and its detrimental health effects) substantially decreased [Gallus et al., 2006; Gorini et al., 2007]. More importantly, the regulation has been effective in dramatically reducing SHS exposure [Gorini et al., 2007; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. Most high- income countries followed Italy in the adoption of similar comprehensive smoking ban legislations over the last decade [IARC, 2009]. These regulations and the information campaigns conducted for their enforcement had also the effect to increase the social unacceptability of SHS and consequently the adoption of voluntary home smoking bans [Ferketich et al., 2014; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2014]. This notwithstanding, in 2010 specific Italian subpopulations were still frequently exposed to SHS, both in public and private places. In particular, 54% of the young (i.e., age 15-24 years) were still exposed to SHS in any settings, 27% in private houses, and 33% in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. The relatively high SHS exposure in private cars is of

  19. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko


    The high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity makes Italy vulnerable to forest fires both in the summer and in winter. In particular, northern regions are predominantly characterized by a winter fire regime, mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north, while southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. The agricultural and rural areas, in the last century, have been gradually abandoned, especially in areas with complex topography. Many of these areas were subject to reforestation, leading to the spread of pioneer species mainly represented by Mediterranean conifer, which are highly vulnerable to fire. Because of the frequent spread of fire, these areas are limited to the early successional stages, consisting mainly of shrub vegetation; its survival in the competition with the climax species being ensured by the spread of fire itself. Due to the frequency of fire ignition — almost entirely man caused — the time between fires on the same area is at least an order of magnitude less than the time that would allow the establishment of forest climax species far less vulnerable to fire. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions, which is expected to make a significant contribution to the problem in a few years' time. The goal of such detailed planning is to dramatically reduce the costs associated with water bombers fleet management and fire

  20. Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas (United States)

    Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela


    Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The Campi Flegrei are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, Italy, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two Campi Flegrei eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where

  1. Adaptively smoothed seismicity earthquake forecasts for Italy

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    Yan Y. Kagan


    Full Text Available We present a model for estimation of the probabilities of future earthquakes of magnitudes m ≥ 4.95 in Italy. This model is a modified version of that proposed for California, USA, by Helmstetter et al. [2007] and Werner et al. [2010a], and it approximates seismicity using a spatially heterogeneous, temporally homogeneous Poisson point process. The temporal, spatial and magnitude dimensions are entirely decoupled. Magnitudes are independently and identically distributed according to a tapered Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We have estimated the spatial distribution of future seismicity by smoothing the locations of past earthquakes listed in two Italian catalogs: a short instrumental catalog, and a longer instrumental and historic catalog. The bandwidth of the adaptive spatial kernel is estimated by optimizing the predictive power of the kernel estimate of the spatial earthquake density in retrospective forecasts. When available and reliable, we used small earthquakes of m ≥ 2.95 to reveal active fault structures and 29 probable future epicenters. By calibrating the model with these two catalogs of different durations to create two forecasts, we intend to quantify the loss (or gain of predictability incurred when only a short, but recent, data record is available. Both forecasts were scaled to five and ten years, and have been submitted to the Italian prospective forecasting experiment of the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP. An earlier forecast from the model was submitted by Helmstetter et al. [2007] to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Model (RELM experiment in California, and with more than half of the five-year experimental period over, the forecast has performed better than the others.

  2. The revised aeromagnetic anomaly map of Italy

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    O. Faggioni


    Full Text Available This paper presents the revised aeromagnetic anomaly map of Italy and its surrounding seas, projected at reference altitude of 2500 m and geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The magnetic data set used for the map compilation is composed of the total intensity field data acquired partly during the aeromagnetic surveys performed by the Italian National Oil Company (Agip - Direzione Esplorazione Idrocarburi between 1971 and 1980, and during the new surveys committed by the Geophysical Corporate Services of Eni Spa - Exploration & Production Division in the years 2001-2002. In both campaigns the recorded data were very dense and uniformly distributed over the examined area. A detailed re-processing of this data set and a re-organization into a new digital database were carried out. The re-processing was done using modern adequate techniques, obtaining a remarkable exploitation of the data information content. The result is a colour shaded relief map that shows on a large scale many of the structural lineaments of the Italian area. The inclusion of a larger number of data and the subtraction of an appropriate magnetic reference field are the main reasons of an enhancement in the anomaly definition. This new map replaces the previous Agip version, and aims to become the reference aeromagnetic cartography of the Italian area. We think this work will be useful both for researchers interested in large scale tectonic studies, and for anyone interested in the investigation of smaller scale structures, such as volcanic complexes or infra-sedimentary magnetic bodies, as well as for mining research.

  3. Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy (United States)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella


    We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

  4. The Ml Magnitude Scale In Italy (United States)

    Gasperini, P.; Lolli, B.; Filippucci, M.; de Simoni, B.

    To improve the reliability of Ml magnitude estimates in Italy, we have updated the database of real Wood-Anderson (WA) and of simulated Wood Anderson (SWA) am- plitudes recently revised by Gasperini (2002). This was done by the re-reading of orig- inal WA seismograms, made available by the SISMOS Project of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (INGV), as well as by the analysis of further Very Broad Band (VBB) recordings of the MEDNET network of INGV for the period from 1996 to 1998. The full operability, in the last five years, of a VBB station located exactly at the same site (TRI) of a former WA instrument allowed us to reliably infer a new attenuation function from the joined WA and SWA dataset. We found a significant deviation of the attenuation law from the standard Richter table at distances larger than 400 km where the latter overestimates the magnitude up to about 0.3 units. We also computed regionalized attenuation functions accounting for the differences in the propagation properties of seismic waves between the Adriatic (less attenuating) and Tyrrhenian (more attenuating) sides of the Italian peninsula. Using this improved Ml magnitude database we were also able to further improve the computation of duration (Md) and amplitude (Ma) magnitudes computed from short period vertical seismometers of the INGV as well as to analyze the time variation of the station calibrations. We found that the absolute amplification of INGV stations is underestimated almost exactly by a factor 2 starting from the entering upon in operation of the digital acquisition system at INGV in middle 1984.

  5. Climatic indicators of desertification in Basilicata, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Climate changes such as the increase, in intensity and frequency, of extreme phenomena - hurricanes, thunder storms, flooding, drought -, of temperature and of biodiversity loss can influence land morphogenetic processes and prime a severe decreasing of natural resources such as the desertification. Desertification, that is the progressive loss of large areas of globe removed from human activities, is one of the most urgent problems in the last decades and is a phenomenon occurring on the most part of Mediterranean countries, such as Italy and in particular its Southern area. The most interested areas and regions are: Sicily, Sardinia, Pelage island, Pantelleria, Egadi island, Ustica, Calabria and Basilicata. The National Action Plane against Desertification (in Italian PAN calls for synergy between resources and expertises of Basilicata Regional Office, APAT, ARPAB and research organizations for monitoring the Desertification Status Indicators. ARPAB monitoring Section developed a project to monitor indices and indicators. In this project, we focused on climatology, that is the study of climate and its variability; in particular we characterized rainfalls regimes, homogeneous rainfall areas and extreme rainfall events. Until now, this study produced historical trends of temperature and rainfall, and maps of indicators of desertification, in particular annual maps of aridity, and monthly and quarterly maps of drought. The analysis of the thematic maps of precipitation, drought and aridity gave us the possibility of evaluating the Region Basilicata tendency to the desertification phenomenon and, in particular, by considering the climatic and morphological variability. Concerning the observation periods (80 years of precipitations, 10 years of aridity, last 3 years of drought data the region susceptibility to drought and aridity is higher in the NW and SE areas as compared to the Apennine areas on the NE-SW direction.

  6. Update on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Italy. (United States)

    Conversano, Michele


    As in many countries in Western Europe, in Italy tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease. In the last decade its incidence has remained constant at under 10 cases/100,000 inhabitants, the threshold considered to define a country as low prevalence. The epidemiological picture, however, is very different in the countries of Eastern Europe and in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the incidence of TB continues to increase and in some cases is accompanied by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant TB. The present review describes the epidemiology of TB in Italy. In 2008, the incidence rate was 3.8 cases per 100,000 for people born in Italy, and 50-60 cases per 100,000 for those born abroad. There was an increase in cases from Eastern Europe. The crude mortality rate for TB in 2006 was 0.7 deaths per 100,000 residents. Although TB is a low-prevalence disease in Italy, its epidemiology is changing. Since 1955, more than 160,000 people in Italy have died from this potentially preventable and curable disease.

  7. The Strategic Plan for Tourism Development in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ANGELONI


    Full Text Available Conceptual works on tourism destination competitiveness affirm the central importance of planning the process of value creation within destination. Italy is an emblematic case of why and how a leading tourism destination may lose competitiveness along the years. Up to the 1980s Italy was in fact the top international tourism destination, but then such ranking gradually decreased, because of more complexity of sector and, over all, because of marginality of tourism in the government agenda and more in general of the country. After years of strategic myopia, Italy finally has a tool that formalizes its vision and indicates the key factors that can be leveraged in order to regain ground. In 2013, Italy adopted a National Strategic Plan. Therefore, this paper aims to describe an important turning point in tourism policies for the economic and cultural development of Italy. The research highlights the problematic areas of Italy’s tourism industry and explains how a new approach should make the Italian destination able to successfully compete on the international tourism market.

  8. Management of immigration and pregnancy screening in northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Tamaro


    Full Text Available Giorgio Tamaro, Sergio ParcoDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital, Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyAbstract: This study assesses the impact of immigration in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region of northeastern Italy, on the epidemiological features of hemoglobin patterns and on prothrombotic and trisomy risk in pregnancy for patients of non-Italian origin. This study follows a series of studies on the incidence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies with reduced globin chain synthesis, that were performed during the postwar (1939–45 period in Friuli Venezia Giulia following immigration into the region from Istria and Sardinia (regions of northern and central Italy. Current data show that today’s constantly growing immigration into the region differs from previous decades, in terms of origin and quantity of migrants, who mainly come from third world countries. This has a significant impact on health care issues, and more specifically on prospective health screening for foreigners. The authors conclude that scholastic education and hospital services, either public or private, and voluntary associations, may contribute to solving the problem, but only in terms of training and organization, for non-European Union citizens arriving in northern Italy and neighboring areas, especially those from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe.Keywords: immigration, hemoglobinopathy, pregnancy, trisomy, thalassemia trait, Italy

  9. A survey of recent mammal collections in italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria De Marinis


    Full Text Available Abstract A survey was designed to assess the status of the collections of recent mammals in Italy through 79 questionnaires mailed to the main University institutions, municipal, provincial or regional museums and other institutions (including some private collections. We received 58 questionnaires (return rate of 73%. The minimum number of specimens in recent mammal collections in Italy is 161,268 (70% are in Italian collections and 30% in exotic ones. Most of these specimens are concentrated in a quarter of the collections. Taxidermy is the main preservation technique, above all in exotic collections (84%. 82% of the exotic collections date back to the 19th century, while specimens collected after 1950 form 91% of the Italian ones. During the 20th century the Italian collections progressively increased in number and spread through the peninsula and in Sicily. Insectivora, Rodentia, Carnivora, Lagomorpha, Artiodactyla and Primates are represented in more than 80% of the collections. Research results the primary goal both in Italian (70% and exotic (57% collections.

    This paper contains an appendix, available in electronic format only.
    Click here to download supplementary files.
    Riassunto Le collezioni di mammiferi attuali in Italia. Per delineare lo status delle collezioni museali di mammiferi attuali in Italia è stata condotta un’indagine mediante 79 questionari inviati a istituzioni universitarie, musei civici, provinciali e regionali ed altre istituzioni (comprese alcune collezioni private. Abbiamo ricevuto 58 questionari (73%. In Italia il numero minimo di esemplari di mammiferi attuali presenti nelle collezioni è risultato 161.268 (il 70% in collezioni italiane, il rimanente 30% in collezioni esotiche. La maggior parte degli

  10. 78 FR 11627 - Certain Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Rescission of... on certain granular polytetrafluoroethylene (``PTFE'') resin from Italy. The period of review...

  11. Regional Differentiation of The Demographic Potential in Italy and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszka Sławomir


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the demographic potential of given Italian and Polish regions. The analysis shows that the demographic situation in Poland, unlike in Italy, is not directly related to the level of development of some regions and their geographical location. In Italy, the unfavorable demographic situation is typical of most of the less-developed southern regions, whereas in Poland it occurs in voivodships with different economic potential, situated in different parts of the country. This is probably the result of the current polycentric development of Poland, characteristic of a centralized economy, and the polar development in Italy. Certain demographic similarities, but of different levels, related to the dynamics of the population, the level of fertility, and net migration are observable in the macro-regions of Mezzogiorno and Eastern Poland.

  12. Transport Scheduling for Sustainable Urban Development in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Lazaroiu


    Full Text Available The aim of study is to analyze the existing railway infrastructure and to develop the trains scheduling in the north-west of Italy for an efficient and sustainable urban development. The Genoa rail corridor, in north-west of Italy, has a very complex track configuration and complex junction intersections, with a constrained capacity network shared by a large number passenger and freight trains. In the present study a new methodology to create a modular, periodical and symmetrical train scheduling for Genoa, Italy rail corridor is proposed. The objective is to answer the necessities for a modern and irregular mobility, typical for large metropolitan areas. The understanding of preferred methods of transportation, amounts of commodities shipped and types of commodities shipped can provide vision into the resiliency of the transportation system and project future sustainable infrastructure improvements necessary to create more reliable and efficient methods of transportation.

  13. Assessing soil-structure interaction during the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence (Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrigo Caserta


    Full Text Available We used the moderate-magnitude aftershocks succeeding to the 2016 August 24th, Mw = 6.0, Amatrice (Italy mainshok to asses, specially during an ongoing seismic sequence, the soil-structure interaction where cultural Heritage is involved. We have chosen as case study the San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039  in Acquasanta Terme town, about 20 Km northeast of Amatrice. First of all we studied the soil shaking features in order to characterize the input to the monument. Then, using the recordings in the church, we tried to figure out  how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

  14. Adolescent health care in Italy: a mini-review. (United States)

    De Sanctis, V; Filati, G; Fiscina, B; Marsciani, A; Piacentini, G; Timoncini, G; Reggiani, L; Zucchini, A


    The purpose of this mini-review is to present the National Health System and services available for adolescents in Italy, and to review the most relevant data on morbidity and mortality in Italian teens. Adolescent medicine in Italy is not a separate speciality, but there are some distinct services for adolescents in paediatric departments or gynaecologic wards, mostly in large cities where university hospitals or hospital of national relevance are located. Primary health care in Italy is provided mainly by general practitioners (GPs) and pediatricians, and on-call physicians (Guardia Medica) for after-hours medical care and services. The number of centres providing care for adolescents in Italy is 4097 (50% of these are in the North of Italy, 20% in the Central regions and 20% in the South and Islands). The population of Italy on January 1st 2011 was approximately 60,477,881 and the number of adolescents, aged 10 to 19 years, was 6,214,000. The most frequent causes of death in adolescents are motor vehicle accidents - more than half of which are related to drug or alcohol use - followed by cancer and suicide. In primary care, adolescents present with a large number of issues, particularly upper respiratory infections, musculoskeletal problems, pain syndromes, obesity, eating disorders, dermatological issues, mood and somatoform disorders, school and mental health problems, and chronic fatigue, many of which require a coordinated, multidisciplinary management approach. The estimated population with a chronic illness is 8%. There are no specific protocols for the transition to adult medicine physicians for patients with chronic diseases or special health needs. In order to improve the quality and quantity of education in adolescent health for paediatricians and GPs, the Study Group of Emilia and Romagna Region for Adolescent Health Care (SGA-ER) is going to organize, beginning in 2012, a two year educational intervention course in adolescent health.

  15. Lady Morgan in Italy: A Traveller with an Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Abbate Badin


    Full Text Available Lady Morgan (née Sydney Owenson was a professional Irish travellerand travel-writer, who spent over a year on the peninsula. The travelogueItaly (1821 she was commissioned to write on the basis of the reputationshe had acquired as a novelist (e.g. The Wild Irish Girl, 1806 anda socio-political writer (France, 1817, left a mark on Italy and on theunderstanding of Italy in Great Britain. Her writings, in fact, helpeddisseminate the ideal of a unified Italy and influence British and Irishpublic opinion in favour of Italy’s aspirations to cast off foreign or domesticautocratic rule. Moreover, she used her travelogue to serve thecause of Ireland disguising a patriotic message about her home countryunder her many sallies about nationalism and the right to self-determinationconcerning Italy. The political impact of her book, unusualfor a travel account written by a woman, was enhanced by Morgan’sradical ideology, the gender bias of her observations and her originalmethods. The present article purposes to examine Morgan’s double,feminine and masculine, approach of mixing solid documentation withapparently frivolous notes originating in the feminine domain of societynews, commentary on the domestic scene and emotional reporting onsocial and historical events. Distrusting male-authored official history,Morgan gave a central place in her work to the informal sources fromwhich she gathered her insights about Italy. Analysing how she came toobtain the contemporary input for elaborating her ideas will be the aimof this chapter which will dwell on the more worldly aspects of Morgan’ssojourn in the peninsula focussing on the company she kept, theactivities she partook of, the events of a domestic nature she witnessed.

  16. The relationship between happiness and health: evidence from Italy. (United States)

    Sabatini, Fabio


    We test the relationship between happiness and self-rated health in Italy. The analysis relies on a unique dataset collected through the administration of a questionnaire to a representative sample (n = 817) of the population of the Italian Province of Trento in March 2011. Based on probit regressions and instrumental variables estimates, we find that happiness is strongly correlated with perceived good health, after controlling for a number of relevant socio-economic phenomena. Health inequalities based on income, work status and education are relatively contained with respect to the rest of Italy. As expected, this scales down the role of social relationships.

  17. [The history of migration and national identity in Italy]. (United States)

    Lonni, A


    The author explores trends in migration from and within Italy and their impact on nationalism, politics, and social change. "In the last two centuries, Italy has witnessed significant population displacements. Firstly the seasonal emigration of the modern era: secondly, between 1880 and the immediate post-war (1950) [period], the European and transoceanic 'great emigration'. During the fifties and sixties, displacements took place within the peninsula from South to North. Finally, from the second half of the seventies, immigration from the...'Third world' began." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND ITA)

  18. The possible role of nuclear energy in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposto, Stefano [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Via Eudossiana 9, 00187 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:


    Italy, after the vote of the referendum in 1987, stopped producing electricity from nuclear fuel for the energy demand. This paper analyses the current Italian energy outlook and clarifies how the choice to abandon the nuclear option damaged our economy. Nowadays, the possible reintroduction of civil nuclear option is hindered by groups claiming that nuclear energy is not convenient and is incredibly dangerous. In this paper it is clarified with international references how this is not correct and why Italy should start thinking seriously and without prejudices at future energy options.

  19. Ambient Electronics (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao


    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  20. Educational Geophysics at INGV, Rome (Italy) (United States)

    Dida Working Group Ingv,.


    Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their

  1. 75 FR 8925 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Preliminary Results of... pressure sensitive plastic tape from Italy pursuant to section 751(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended... review request. See Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping...

  2. 77 FR 33159 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Preliminary Results of... (United States)


    ... rates based entirely on facts available. See Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Preliminary... France, Germany, and Italy for the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011. We have preliminarily...

  3. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders (United States)


    ... of Five-Year Sunset Review, 77 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012); Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey; and... from Italy and Turkey, 77 FR 53909 (September 4, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey... Order, 78 FR 693 (January 4, 2013); and Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited...

  4. 76 FR 28455 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  5. 76 FR 27663 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  6. 76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy would... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy, pursuant to section 751(c)(2)...

  7. 76 FR 12939 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy. The Department has conducted an... antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930,...

  8. 76 FR 15209 - 150th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy, 2011 (United States)


    ... the Unification of Italy, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On March 17, Italy celebrates the 150th anniversary of its unification as a single state. On this day, we... own Union, Giuseppe Garibaldi's campaign for the unification of Italy inspired many around the...

  9. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY... steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission... sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead...

  10. 76 FR 46323 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... from Germany, Italy, and Mexico \\2\\ would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... with respect to stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, and Mexico, and Commissioner...

  11. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313,...

  12. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico,...

  13. Electron cooling (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.


    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  14. Identification of dangerous fibers: some examples in Northern Italy (United States)

    Zanetti, Giovanna; Marini, Paola; Giorgis, Ilaria


    The presence of asbestiform minerals has to be foreseen in the planning of infrastructural activities: Asbestos can be a component of sedimentary rocks or of mafic and ultra mafic metamorphic rocks. Surveys and core drilling, in addition to providing important information on the quality of the rock and its geotechnical characteristics, allow for a prediction of the presence of asbestiform minerals in the areas affected by mining or infrastructural activities. During the excavation, workers can be exposed to the asbestos risk, therefore, the control of the air quality and of the excavated materials are fundamental for the safety of involved people. In this work some problems we met in the analysis of airborne filters and bulk samples from sites in northern Italy are presented. The asbestos fibers present in rocks as accessory minerals, are often different in habit and dimension from the well-known asbestos fibers used as industrial minerals and moreover can be erroneously identified as minerals morphologically and chemically similar present in the same rock or environment. In the case of tunnel muck it could be contaminated by substances used for the excavation that could modify colours and optical properties of asbestos minerals. In the PCOM (Phase Contrast Optical Microscope) analysis chrysotile, sepiolite and antigorite, due to their different refraction index, when the fibers have dimension > 0,5 micron and aren't contaminated by lubricant can be easely identified even if the morphology of chrysotile is very similar to that of sepiolite. In Electron Scanning Microscope (SEM) the discrimination between chrysotile and antigorite on the airborne filters is not always possible because the fibers of thin dimensions show similar habit and spectrum. In the case of the tremolite amphibole, morphology changes from prismatic to fibrous depending on its origin ( Monastero, Val Grana, Verrayes, Brachiello). Both prismatic and asbestiform tremolite (Gamble and Gibbs

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of asbestos observed in soils developed within San Severino Lucano village (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Bloise, Andrea; Punturo, Rosalda; Ricchiuti, Claudia; Apollaro, Carmine


    Concerns of potential health effects from disturbed natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) have resulted in environmental investigations worldwide, including Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Indeed, in this region, an increased number of lung disease were related to the environmental exposure to asbestos tremolite soils sources. On the basis of the effects of asbestos on biological systems, several authors ascribe the asbestos-fibres toxicity to the synergetic effect of fibre size, crystal habit, surface reactivity, ability to generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), biopersistence and chemical composition. The human health risks are based on the potential fibres inhalation, when they become airborne through rocks (e.g. serpentinite) weathering or human activities producing dust. In this frame, this paper reports the results of a detailed study on soils that developed on serpentinite bedrocks cropping out within the San Severino Lucano village (Basilicata region, Italy) in order to assess the presence of NOA potentially hazardous to human health (Bloise et al., 2016a). Twelve soil samples have been collected within the village and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy (SEM/EDS and TEM/AEM) and thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DSC, DDSC). Results pointed out as the collected soil samples contain asbestos minerals, clay minerals, diopside, quartz, and Fe-Cr oxides in various amounts. High amounts of chrysotile and asbestos tremolite were found in soils, suggesting that human activities can disturb and provoke the release of inhalable asbestos in the atmosphere, triggering thus mechanisms of hazardous exposition for population. Results also showed a high content of Fe and Cr in chrysotile in some samples, while high amount of Ni was predominantly found in asbestos

  16. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy) (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico


    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  17. The (Adverse) Effects of Expanding Higher Education: Evidence from Italy (United States)

    Oppedisano, Veruska


    Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…

  18. The Gender Wage Gap by Education in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mussida, C.; Picchio, M.


    Abstract: This paper studies the gender wage gap by educational attainment in Italy using the 1994–2001 ECHP data. We estimate wage distributions in the presence of covariates and sample selection separately for highly and low educated men and women. Then, we decompose the gender wage gap across all


    Scientists from Europe, North America and South America convened in Capri, Italy, April 24-28, 2006 for the Ninth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was Eutrophication: The toxic effects of ammonia, nitrite and th...

  20. The reconstruction of historical national accounts: the case of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Fenoaltea


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evolution of Italy’s historical national accounts. Their ongoing revision highlights methodological issues of general interest for scholars that use historical time series, and most particularly for scholars engaged in their reconstruction.