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Sample records for tuscaloosa marine claystones

  1. 78 FR 24065 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... the Junior League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. This event is advertised as scheduled and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat...

  2. 77 FR 23125 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Race; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... associated with the Jr. League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. This event is advertised as scheduled and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat...

  3. Poroelasticity of the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmokhtar, Malik; Delage, Pierre; Ghabezloo, Siavash; Tang, Anh-Minh; Menaceur, Hamza; Conil, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    This work is devoted to an experimental investigation of the poroelastic behavior of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, a potential host rock for the deep underground repository of high-level radioactive waste in France. Drained, undrained, pore pressure loading and unjacketed tests were carried out in a specially designed isotropic compression cell to determine the poroelastic parameters of fully saturated specimens. Great care was devoted to the saturation procedure, and small loading rates were used to ensure full drainage conditions in drained and pore pressure tests (0.5 kPa/min) and in the unjacketed test (2 kPa/min). High-precision strain measurements were performed by ensuring direct contact between the LVDT stems and the specimen. An analysis in the framework of transverse isotropic poroelasticity provided the Biot effective stress coefficients b 1 (perpendicular to bedding) between 0.85 and 0.87 and b 2 (parallel to bedding) between 0.90 and 0.98 under different stress conditions (pore pressure 4 MPa, total isotropic stresses of 14 and 12 MPa, respectively). A set of equivalent isotropic poroelastic parameters was also determined and a very good compatibility between the results of different tests was found, giving confidence in the parameters determined. The unjacketed test provided a directly reliable measurement of the unjacketed modulus ( K s = 21.7 GPa) that was afterward confirmed by an indirect evaluation that showed the non-dependency of K s with respect to the stress level. These parameters were obtained for specimens cored and trimmed in the laboratory. A parametric study was then conducted so as to provide an estimation of the parameters in situ, i.e., not submitted to the damage supported by laboratory specimens. A minimal value b = 0.77 seems to be a reasonable lower bound for the equivalent isotropic Biot parameter.

  4. 77 FR 15597 - Special Local Regulation; USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing Competition; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Tuscaloosa Tourism and Sports Commission to conduct their events on April 21, 2012. After reviewing the... University of Alabama and the University of Iowa on the Black Warrior River. The Tuscaloosa Tourism and Sports Commission is sponsoring the USAT National Collegiate Championship Triathlon, and the swimming...

  5. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  6. Shocked quartz and more: Impact signatures in K-T boundary clays and claystones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohor, Bruce F.

    1988-01-01

    Quartz grains displaying multiple sets of planar features are described from numerous Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clays and claystones at both marine and nonmarine depositional sites around the world. All these sites also show anomalously high amounts of iridium and enrichments of other siderophile elements in cosmic ratios within these boundary units. This combination of mineralogical and geochemical features are used in support of an impact hypothesis for the end-Cretaceous event. Recently, it was suggested that some combination of explosive and nonexplosive volcanism associated with the formation of the Deccan traps in India could be responsible for the mineralogy and geochemistry seen in the K-T boundary units. Besides the obvious contradition of simultaneous explosive and nonexplosive volcanism from one locality during an instant of geologic time, there remains the difficulty of spreading both iridium (and trace elements in cosmic proportions) and quartz grains around the world by volcanic (atmospheric) transport. In addition, the ability of volcanism to produce the type of shock metamorphism seen in minerals at the K-T boundary was not demonstrated. Multiple sets of shock lamellae in quartz are considered characteristic of shock metamorphism in rocks at the sites of known impact craters and are the type of deformation seen in quartz from K-T boundary clays and claystones. Single sets of poorly defined lamellae described from rare quartz grains in certain volcanic deposits are characteristic of tectonic deformation and do not correspond to the shock lamellae in quartz from K-T sediments and impact structures. So-called shock mosaicism in quartz and feldspar grains described from volcanic deposits can result from many processes other than shock metamorphism, and therefore is not considered to be an effect characteristic solely of shock. The mineralogy of shock-metamorphosed grains at the K-T boundary also argues against a volcanic origin.

  7. Constraints from sulfur isotopes on the origin of gypsum at concrete/claystone interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Catherine; Claret, Francis; Tournassat, Christophe; Grangeon, Sylvain; Gaboreau, Stéphane; Boyer, Bernard; Borschnek, Daniel; Linard, Yannick

    Two in situ concrete/claystone interfaces were sampled at the laboratory level in the Andra Meuse/Haute Marne (France) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in order to study five years of interactions between Callovian-Oxfordian (COx) claystone and two cementitious materials (concrete bottom slab and shotcrete on the walls of the main gallery), with a specific focus on sulfur. Combined mineralogical, chemical and sulfur isotopic investigations were carried out to define the degree of the perturbation of the sulfur system in the claystone and in both the cementitious materials. At both interfaces, results show that the main perturbation on the claystone side is the formation of scarce μm-sized gypsum, the sulfur content of which is essentially derived from pyrite oxidation. The distribution of gypsum is highly correlated with the fissure network of the damaged zone due to excavation of the gallery. Its presence is also often associated with a loss of cohesion of the concrete/claystone interface. Due to the small amounts of gypsum and its μm-size, measurements were performed by ion microprobe. Adaptations were needed on account of the reactivity of gypsum and sulfates in general under the beam. The use of ion microprobe analysis provided evidence of high local isotopic heterogeneity that could be attributed to kinetic fractionation effects. Some analyses suggest a minor contribution of dissolved sulfates in pore water of claystone and possibly of concrete. The perturbation on the concrete side is marked by a significant increase in the bulk sulfur content within three millimeters of the interface with the claystone, showing a sulfur gradient from claystone to concrete. The main objective of this work was to define the extent of the chemical and mineralogical perturbations, taking into account in situ URL conditions, i.e. hydrodynamic conditions (shotcrete sprayed on the gallery walls and subjected to ventilation of the galleries), damaged zone of claystone induced

  8. Facebook and Twitter, communication and shelter, and the 2011 Tuscaloosa tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Courtney; Senkbeil, Jason C

    2017-01-01

    This paper represents one of the first attempts to analyse the many ways in which Facebook and Twitter were used during a tornado disaster. Comparisons between five randomly selected campus samples and a city of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, sample revealed that campus samples used Facebook and Twitter significantly more both before and after the tornado, but Facebook usage was not significantly different after the event. Furthermore, differences in social media usage and other forms of communication before the tornado were found for age, education, and years lived in Tuscaloosa. Generally, age and education were inversely proportionate to social media usage. Influences on shelter-seeking actions varied between social media users and three random samples of non-social media users; however, it appears that social media respondents were likely to be using a smartphone simultaneously to access warning polygon information, to receive text message alerts, and to listen or respond to environmental cues.

  9. Natural gas production and anomalous geothermal gradients of the deep Tuscaloosa Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    For the largest producing natural gas fields in the onshore Gulf of Mexico Basin, the relation between temperature versus depth was investigated. Prolific natural gas reservoirs with the highest temperatures were found in the Upper Cretaceous downdip Tuscaloosa trend in Louisiana. Temperature and production trends from the deepest field, Judge Digby field, in Pointe Coupe Parish, Louisiana, were investigated to characterize the environment of natural gas in the downdip Tuscaloosa trend. The average production depth in the Judge Digby field is approximately 22,000 ft. Temperatures as high as 400 degrees F are typically found at depth in Judge Digby field and are anomalously low when compared to temperature trends extrapolated to similar depths regionally. At 22,000 ft, the minimum and maximum temperatures for all reservoirs in Gulf Coast producing gas fields are 330 and 550 degrees F, respectively; the average temperature is 430 degrees F. The relatively depressed geothermal gradients in the Judge Digby field may be due to high rates of sediment preservation, which may have delayed the thermal equilibration of the sediment package with respect to the surrounding rock. Analyzing burial history and thermal maturation indicates that the deep Tuscaloosa trend in the Judge Digby field is currently in the gas generation window. Using temperature trends as an exploration tool may have important implications for undiscovered hydrocarbons at greater depths in currently producing reservoirs, and for settings that are geologically analogous to the Judge Digby fiel

  10. A microstructure insight into the water retention properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

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    Menaceur Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of changes in suction on the microstructure of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone along wetting and drying paths was investigated by using mercury intrusion porosimetry. Based on a simplified brick model, the changes of the average thickness of the platelets that constitute the clay matrix (50% are interpreted as the consequence of the successive adsorption of ordered layers of water molecules along the smectite surfaces, as demonstrated on pure smectites for a long time. This shows the predominant role played by the smectite phase in the overall response of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone when submitted to suction changes under no stress.

  11. Biomarker generation from Type II-S kerogens in claystone and limestone during hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.; Carson, F.C.; Lewan, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A claystone and a limestone containing immature Type II-S kerogen were thermally matured in the presence and absence of water, to study the influence of water and clay minerals on the generation of biomarkers. In contrast to hydrous pyrolysis, anhydrous pyrolysis of the claystone did not generate bi

  12. A laboratory investigation of thermally induced pore pressures in the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    CERN Document Server

    Mohajerani, Mehrdokht; Sulem, Jean; Monfared, Mohammad; Tang, Anh-Minh; Gatmiri, Behrouz

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of research into radioactive waste disposal, it was decided to investigate the thermally induce pore pressure occurring in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, a possible host rock in which the ANDRA underground laboratory of Bure (East of France) has been excavated. Thermal pore pressures appear in low permeability soils and rocks because the thermal expansion coefficient of water is significantly higher than that of the solid grains (Campanella and Mitchell; 1968 [1], Ghabezloo and Sulem; 2009 [2]). This phenomenon has clearly been observed in various in-situ heating tests conducted in Opalinus claystone in the Mont-Terri Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Switzerland (HE-D test) and in Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) claystone in the Bure URL in France (TER test, Wileveau and Su; 2007 [3]) The processes of coring, transportation, storage and specimen trimming induce some desaturation in the sample. Due to the very low permeability (10-20 m2) of the COx claystone, a long period of time is necessa...

  13. Clay mineralogy of the Boda Claystone Formation (Mecsek Mts., SW Hungary

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    Németh Tibor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Boda Claystone Formation (BCF is the host rock of the planned site for high level nuclear waste repository inHungary. Samples representing the dominant rock types of BCF were studied: albitic claystone, claystone with high illite content, and analcime bearing claystone. Clay minerals in these three rock types were characterized by Xray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermal analysis (DTA-TG, and the results were discussed from the point of view of the radionuclide sorption properties being studied in the future. Mineral compositions of bulk BCF samples vary in wide ranges. In the albitic sample, besides the dominant illite, few percent of chlorite represents the layer silicates in the clay fraction. Illite is the dominating phase in the illitic sample, with a few percent of chlorite. HRTEM study revealed that the thickness of illite particles rarely reaches 10 layers, usually are of 5-6 TOT layer thick. Illite crystals are generally thicker in the albitic sample than in the illitic one. The significant difference between the clay mineral characterisitics of the analcimous and the other two samples is that the former contains regularly interstratified chlorite/smectite beside the dominant illite.

  14. Thermal Volume Changes and Creep in the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmokhtar, Malik; Delage, Pierre; Ghabezloo, Siavash; Conil, Nathalie

    2017-09-01

    The Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) claystone is considered as a potential host rock for high-level radioactive waste disposal at great depth in France. Given the exothermic nature of radioactive wastes, a temperature elevation planned to be smaller than 100 °C will affect the host rock around the disposal cells. To gain better understanding of the thermal volumetric response of the COx claystone, a new thermal isotropic compression cell was developed with particular attention devoted to monitoring axial and radial strains. To do so, a high-precision LVDTs system ensuring direct contact between the LVDT stem and the claystone sample through the membrane was developed. A short drainage length (10 mm) was also ensured so as to allow full saturation of the sample under stress conditions close to in situ, and fully drained conditions during compression. High-precision strain monitoring allowed to observe a volumetric creep under stress conditions close to in situ. A drained heating test under constant stress carried out afterwards up to 80 °C exhibited a thermoelastic expansion up to a temperature of 48 °C, followed by thermoplastic contraction at higher temperature. Creep volume changes, that appeared to be enhanced by temperature, were modelled by using a simple Kelvin-Voigt model, so as to estimate the instantaneous response of the COx claystone and to determine its thermal expansion coefficient. The temperature at which the transition between thermal expansion and contraction appeared is close to the maximum burial temperature of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, estimated at 50 °C. This is in agreement with what has been already observed on the Opalinus Clay by Monfared et al. (2012) that was interpreted as a thermal hardening phenomenon, showing that the material kept the memory of the highest temperature supported during its geological history.

  15. Gas Breakthrough Pressure (GBP through Claystones: Correlation with FIB/SEM Imaging of the Pore Volume

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    Song Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution uses six claystone samples imaged by FIB/SEM (Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy, within micrometric volumes located in the clay matrix; their 3D connected pore network is identified down to 17-22 nm pore size. All samples are gently dried to minimize damage, and several are impregnated with Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate (PMMA resin to avoid further damage during FIB/SEM observations. Three pore volumes out of six are connected between two parallel end surfaces through crack-like pores; two are not connected between any two parallel end surfaces; only one sample has a connected pore network distinct from cracks. By assuming varied pathways for gas to migrate by capillarity through the connected pore volumes (either by taking the shortest path, or through the largest path, or through the most frequent pore size, or by simulating the ingress of a non wetting fluid, we determine the Gas Breakthrough Pressure (GBP through the initially fully liquid saturated claystone, from these micrometric volumes. The scale change (from the micrometric to the macroscopic scale is assumed possible without changing the GBP value, and clay/water interactions are not accounted for. By comparison with GBP values measured in the laboratory on centimetric-sized claystone samples, it is concluded that breakthrough occurs most probably by capillary digitation; micro-cracks are the most probable pathways for gas, so that gas does not progress in a homogeneous manner through the claystone, as standard macroscopic finite element models would represent it. For intact claystone, predictions based on the capillary ingress of a non wetting fluid provide a GBP value ranging between 7-14 MPa.

  16. The 2011 Tuscaloosa tornado: integration of pediatric disaster services into regional systems of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Robert K

    2012-09-01

    To empirically describe the integration of pediatric disaster services into regional systems of care after the April 27, 2011, tornado in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, a community with no pediatric emergency department or pediatric intensive care unit and few pediatric subspecialists. Data were obtained in interviews with key informants including professional staff and managers from public health and emergency management agencies, prehospital emergency medical services, fire departments, hospital nurses, physicians, and the trauma program coordinator. A single hospital in Tuscaloosa served 800 patients on the night of the tornado. More than 100 of these patients were children, including more than 20 with critical injuries. Many children were unaccompanied and unidentified on arrival. Resuscitation and stabilization were performed by nonpediatric prehospital and emergency department staff. More than 20 children were secondarily transported to the nearest children's hospital an hour's drive away under the care of nonpediatric local emergency medical services providers. No preventable adverse events were identified in the resuscitation and secondary transport phases of care. Stockpiled supplies and equipment were adequate to serve the needs of the disaster victims, including the children. Essential aspects of preparation include pediatric-specific clinical skills, supplies and equipment, operational disaster plans, and interagency practice embedded in everyday work. Opportunities for improvement identified include more timely response to warnings, improved practices for identifying unaccompanied children, and enhanced child safety in shelters. Successful responses depended on integration of pediatric services into regional systems of care. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clay mineralogy of the Boda Claystone Formation (Mecsek Mts., SW Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Tibor; Máthé, Zoltán; Pekker, Péter; Dódony, István; Kovács-Kis, Viktória; Sipos, Péter; Cora, Ildikó; Kovács, Ivett

    2016-04-01

    Boda Claystone Formation (BCF) is the host rock of the planned site for high level nuclear waste repository inHungary. Samples representing the dominant rock types of BCF were studied: albitic claystone, claystone with high illite content, and analcime bearing claystone. Clay minerals in these three rock types were characterized by Xray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG), and the results were discussed from the point of view of the radionuclide sorption properties being studied in the future. Mineral compositions of bulk BCF samples vary in wide ranges. In the albitic sample, besides the dominant illite, few percent of chlorite represents the layer silicates in the clay fraction. Illite is the dominating phase in the illitic sample, with a few percent of chlorite. HRTEM study revealed that the thickness of illite particles rarely reaches 10 layers, usually are of 5-6 TOT layer thick. Illite crystals are generally thicker in the albitic sample than in the illitic one. The significant difference between the clay mineral characterisitics of the analcimous and the other two samples is that the former contains regularly interstratified chlorite/smectite beside the dominant illite. Based on the structural and chemical data two illite type minerals are present in the BCF samples: 1M polytype containing octahedral Fe and Mg besides Al, 2M polytype illite generally is free of Fe andMg. Close association of very thin illite plates and nanosized hematite crystals is typical textural feature for BCF. The goal of this study is to provide solid mineralogical basis for further studies focusing on radionuclide sorption properties.

  18. Adsorption of polar organic molecules on sediments: Case-study on Callovian-Oxfordian claystone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamimanana, S; Lefèvre, G; Dagnelie, R V H

    2017-08-01

    The release and transport of anthropogenic organic matter through the geosphere is often an environmental criterion of safety. Sedimentary rocks are widely studied in this context as geological barriers for waste management. It is the case of Callovian-Oxfordian claystone (COx), for which several studies report adsorption of anthropogenic organic molecules. In this study, we evaluated and reviewed adsorption data of polar organic molecules on COx claystone. Experiments were performed on raw claystone, decarbonated and clay fractions. Adsorption isotherms were measured with adsorbates of various polarities: adipate, benzoate, ortho-phthalate, succinate, gluconate, oxalate, EDTA, citrate. A significant adsorption was observed for multidentate polycarboxylic acids as evidenced with phthalate, succinate, oxalate, gluconate, EDTA and citrate (Rd = 1.53, 3.52, 8.4, 8.8, 12.4, 54.7 L kg(-1) respectively). Multiple linear regression were performed as a statistical analysis to determine the predictors from these adsorption data. A linear correlation between adsorption data (Rd) and dipole moment (μ) of adsorbates was evidenced (R(2) = 0.91). Molecules with a high dipole moment, μ(D) > 2.5, displayed a significant adsorption, Rd≫1 L kg(-1). A qualitative correlation can be easily estimated using the water/octanol partition coefficient, Pow, of adsorbates (R(2) = 0.77). In this case, two opposite trends were distinguished for polar and apolar molecules. The use of organic carbon content in sediments is relevant for predicting adsorption of apolar compounds, log (Pow)>+1. The oxides/clays contents may be relevant regarding polar molecules, log ((apparent)Pow)<-1. The proposed scheme offers a general methodology for investigation of geo-barriers towards heterogeneous organic plumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microstructures and composition of brittle faults in claystones: Constraints on the barrier behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneuker, Tilo; Hammer, Jörg; Jahn, Steffen; Zulauf, Gernold

    2017-04-01

    Investigations of fault rocks are crucial to evaluate the barrier properties of clay rich formations used for the storage of hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide gas or for the storage of heat generating radioactive waste. Claystones are considered as a geological barrier. However, their barrier capability can be reduced if the claystones are cut by brittle faults. Our study is focusing on the microfabrics and element mobility of artificially and naturally fractured claystones using a multi-method approach. Particular attention was paid to small scale lithological heterogeneities occurring in the clayey sequence. The microfabrics were investigated using SEM and optical microscopy. Geochemical and phase analyses were carried out using XRD, XRF and ICP-MS. In addition, organic (TOC) and inorganic carbon (TIC), total sulphur (TS) as well as the cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined. Macroscopic observations of fault zones on outcrops and drill cores indicate closely spaced planar and undulating discontinuities, including slickenside striations. The investigated fault zones are often accompanied by calcite veins and calcite enriched zones. The fault core is formed by a mm to cm thick clayey, fine grained, cohesionless fault gouge including reworked calcite fragments. Duplex-like domains are separated by discrete microshears, along which the rocks disintegrate. Calcareous fossils, common in undeformed claystones, appear in these zones fragmented and rotated. In contrast to calcite, quartz is more resistant to solution-precipitation processes. Rarely intracrystalline fracturing was observed. The calcite mineralization in veins, and solution-precipitation processes of calcite, documented by stylolites, reflect enhanced palaeo-permeability and activity of Ca2+- and CO2-rich fluids inside some of the fault zones, mainly along fault parallel shear planes. Elevated Sr and Ba concentrations are bound to the tectonic, secondary calcite veins within and outside the investigated

  20. Composition and Genesis of Zeolitic Claystones from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We examined more than fifty indurated sediments recovered from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) during the course of collection for manganese nodules and crusts. The samples occur as slabs either over which ferromanganese oxides are present or over a substrate of altered oceanic basalt in conjunction with palagonite or within the nucleus of manganese nodules.Mineralogically and compositionally, the samples show a mixture of phillipsite, palagonite and montmorillonite. We suggest that the volcanogenic precursors occurring in the CIOB were subjected to varying degrees of alteration under the influence of low temperature conditions, resulting in the formation of zeolitic claystones. The CIOB samples have similarities to those reported from various sites in the world oceans.

  1. Modeling of excavation induced coupled hydraulic-mechanical processes in claystone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massmann, Jobst

    2009-07-01

    Concepts for the numerical modeling of excavation induced processes in claystone are investigated. The study has been motivated by the international discussion on the adequacy of claystone as a potential host rock for a final repository of radioactive waste. The processes, which could impact the safety of such a repository, are manifold and strongly interacting. Thus, a multiphysics approach is needed, regarding solid mechanics and fluid mechanics within a geological context. A coupled modeling concept is therefore indispensable. Based on observations and measurements at an argillaceous test site (the underground laboratory Tournemire, operated by the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, France) the modeling concept is developed. Two main processes constitute the basis of the applied model: deformation (linear elasticity considering damage) and fluid flow (unsaturated one-phase flow). Several coupling phenomena are considered: Terzaghi 's effective stress concept, mass conservation of the liquid in a deformable porous media, drying induced shrinkage, and a permeability which depends on deformation and damage. In addition, transversely isotropic material behavior is considered. The numerical simulations are done with the finite element code RockFlow, which is extended to include: an orthotropic non-linear shrinkage model, a continuum damage model, and an orthotropic permeability model. For these new methods the theory and a literature review are presented, followed by applications, which illustrate the capability to model excavation induced processes in principle. In a comprehensive case study, the modeling concept is used to simulate the response of the Tournemire argillite to excavation. The results are compared with observations and measurements of three different excavations (century old tunnel, two galleries excavated in 1996 and 2003). In summary, it can be concluded that the developed model concept provides a prediction of the excavation

  2. Inputs from in situ experiments to the understanding of the unsaturated behaviour of Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French national radioactive waste management agency (Andra research program is dedicated to preparing the construction and operation of a deep geological disposal facility for high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste (HL, IL-LLW in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone (COx. The characterization of the COx thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM behavior, at different scales of interest, must gradually give relevant data for design and safety calculations. The effects of saturation and desaturation of COx claystone are studied in laboratory conditions (sample scale and in situ (drift scale, in order to improve knowledge on ventilation effect at gallery wall as galleries will remains open during operational phase (more than 100 years for some specific galleries in the repository. The Saturation Damaged Zone (SDZ experiment is outlined and its results are discussed. This experimentation aims to change the relative humidity in an isolated portion of a gallery in order to follow the HM behavior of the surrounding rock mass. Drying and wetting cycles could induce in certain cases cracks and swelling and modify the hydromechanical behavior of the claystone around the gallery (Young modulus, strength, creep…. The long term behavior of the COx claystone at the vicinity of gallery is then studied by performing climatic, hydraulic, geological and geomechanical measurements. Results of the in situ experiment are discussed with respect to the identified process on samples. The discussion given on this paper intends to highlights the inputs from 7 years of an in situ experiment to better understand the unsaturated behavior of the COx claystone.

  3. Hydrologic characterization of the unconfined aquifer at the General Motors Harrison Division Plant, Tuscaloosa, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, S.H.; Newcomer, D.R.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1991-03-01

    General Motors (GM) is studying the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for air conditioning at their Harrison Division plant located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has assisted in this effort by conducting field tests to measure the hydraulic properties of the proposed ATES well field, which will be within the unconfined aquifer and adjacent to the GM plant. Results showed that in the vicinity of the test well, transmissivity was 2000 ft{sup 2}/d, effective aquifer thickness was 50 ft, effective porosity was 6.2%, hydraulic gradient was 0.005, and seepage velocity was 3.2 ft/d. A second test series at a newly constructed well was expanded to include measuring specific capacity and investigating the vertical distribution of flow within the aquifer. Specific objectives were to determine the injection capacity of the aquifer and to examine efficiency of the well design. Transmissivity was 2300 to 2600 ft{sup 2}/d, effective aquifer thickness was 58 ft, effective porosity was 6.0 to 8.0%, hydraulic gradient was 0.0047, and seepage velocity was 3.1 to 2.7 ft/d. Injection capacity, based on a step-injection test, was approximately 17 gpm/ft and was independent of flow rate within the experimental range 90 to 338 gpm. Maximum hydraulic conductivity occurred within the uppermost 20 ft of saturated sediments, which consisted of well-sorted sand. Below the sand, sorting was progressively poorer with depth, and hydraulic conductivity decreased smoothly. At the base of the aquifer, hydraulic conductivity was less than 10% of that of the uppermost 20 ft. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Aquifer characterization at the General Motors Harrison Division Plant, Tuscaloosa, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttrell, S.P.; Cronin, W.E.; Hall, S.H.

    1989-10-01

    The General Motors corporation is studying the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for cooling purposes at its Harrison Division plant Tuscaloosa, Alabama. To determine the characteristics of the aquifer underlying the plant, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) gathered information about the environment of the aquifer and conducted tests to determine the aquifer's transmissivity and flow. From these tests, calculated estimates of ground-water velocity and flow direction were made. Nine wells were drilled at the plant site. Apparently, a confining bed of clay locally divides the aquifer into two separate units, one confined and one unconfined. An initial attempt to determine the hydraulic gradient in the aquifer was complicated by the resulting discrepancies in water levels among wells as well as by offsite pumping of the same aquifer; however, an estimate of the direction and magnitude of the hydraulic gradient for the composite aquifer was made. Two other types of tests successfully provided data for ground-water flow velocity for ATES design. A constant-discharge and recovery test was conducted to determine transmissivity (hydraulic conductivity). A single-well tracer test was also conducted, and results of the two tests were used conjunctively to estimate ground-water flow velocity. Transmissivity was found to be approximately 2000 ft{sup 2}/day at two wells closet to the pumped well in the parking lot of the General Motors plant. The average hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be approximately 40 ft/day in the same vicinity. The calculated ground-water velocity is approximately 3.25 ft/day with an effective porosity of approximately 6%. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Characterization of groundwater flow and transport in the General Separations Area, Savannah River Plant: Effect of groundwater withdrawals on the Tuscaloosa-Congaree aquifer head reversal in H Area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, C.P.; Duffield, G.M.; Shaw, S.T. [GeoTrans, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) has maintained a number of sites used for land disposal of various waste materials. The General Separations Area at SRP, located between the Upper Three Runs and Four Mile Creeks, has served as an active area for waste storage for about thirty years. The Tuscaloosa aquifer, which lies beneath the General Separations Area, is a water source for SRP and the surrounding area. The isolation of the Tuscaloosa aquifer has been maintained by an upward hydraulic gradient from the Tuscaloosa aquifer to the overlying Congaree aquifer. This upward gradient is referred to as a hydraulic head reversal in the General Separations Area, i.e., hydraulic heads in the upper Tuscaloosa are higher than hydraulic heads in the Congaree. This head reversal has declined in recent years due to increased groundwater pumping in the upper and lower Tuscaloosa formations. The objective of this investigation is to assess the effects of pumping within the General Separations Area on the Congaree/upper Tuscaloosa head reversal. Methods of maintaining future Tuscaloosa aquifer isolation through the optimization of groundwater withdrawal location and rate were studied. Steady-state and transient groundwater flow models were used to characterize past and potential future groundwater conditions. Future groundwater conditions were simulated for a variety of pumping scenarios.

  6. Development prospects for Bazhenov formation bituminous claystones in the southeast of the West Siberian Plate (Tomsk Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerov, V. B.; Baranov, V. E.; Dmitriev, A. Y.

    2015-02-01

    The article considers the use of time-tested bituminous shale development technologies in the southeast of the West Siberian Plate (Tomsk Region). A research target is the bituminous claystones of the Bazhenov formation. The Bazhenov formation was divided into stratigraphic units, and the sequence of forming these units within the territory under study was restored on the basis of the peculiarities of the Bazhenov formation section structure with gamma-ray logging data. The joint analysis of logs (gamma-ray logging, resistivity logging, SP logging, neutron gamma-ray logging, induction logging) and core data revealed the wide development of carbonatization processes in the lower stratigraphic units of the Bazhenov formation, whereas the upper, most bituminous units do not have the signs of carbonatization. It is a favorable factor for using the existing technologies of producing hydrocarbons from analogous sedimentary deposits. Considering the degree of lithological disconnection of an oilbearing object from adjacent reservoir formations allows making a conclusion that the application of the existing technologies for developing bituminous claystones can be implemented only in the insignificant territory of the area under study where the Bazhenov formation overlies Georgiev formation claystones being over 8 meters thick. To develop the oil and gas potential of the Bazhenov formation in other territories, there will be a need for new technologies that allow forming a fracture-cavernous matrix in a carbonate rock.

  7. Potential ZnS fossilization of gastropods (Middle Jurassic claystones from Central Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Patrycja; Sawlowicz, Zbigniew

    2008-09-01

    The rich fossil fauna in the Middle Jurassic claystones that crop out in the Krakow-Czestochowa Upland is extensively replaced by sulfide minerals, mainly pyrite. Sphalerite (ZnS) is rare and restricted to the internal casts of gastropods, often together with framboidal and euhedral pyrite and calcite. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer study was undertaken to explain this curious association. The results show that although direct infilling of the carbonate shell, similar to processes occurring during pyritization, is probable, it does not explain all textures observed. We propose that the carbonate shells were initially infilled by calcite and iron sulfides and sphalerite subsequently replaced the calcite casts. Preferential occurrence of ZnS in gastropods could result from accumulation of higher concentration of zinc during the organisms' life. After death, this Zn was introduced into the carbonate making gastropods more prone to ZnS replacement. Formation of ZnS casts was probably a late diagenetic event as zinc content of the surrounding sediment does not appear to influence sphalerite formation.

  8. The Status of Water in Swelling Shales: An Insight from the Water Retention Properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaceur, Hamza; Delage, Pierre; Tang, Anh Minh; Talandier, Jean

    2016-12-01

    The Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) claystone is considered in France as a possible host rock for the disposal of high-level long-lived radioactive waste at great depth. During the operational phase, the walls of the galleries and of the disposal cells will be successively subjected to desaturation induced by ventilation followed by resaturation once the galleries are closed. To better understand this phenomenon, a sound understanding of the water retention properties of the COx claystone is necessary. Following a previous study by the same group, this paper presents an investigation of microstructure changes in COx claystone under suction changes. Microstructure was investigated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry tests on freeze-dried specimens previously submitted to various suctions. Along the drying path, the initial microstructure, characterised by a well-classified unimodal pore population around a mean diameter value of 32 nm, slightly changed with the same shape of the PSD curve and slightly moved towards smaller diameters (27-28 nm) at suctions of 150 and 331 MPa, respectively. The infra-porosity too small to be intruded by mercury (diameter smaller than 5.5 nm) reduced from 4.3 to 3.3 %. Oven drying reduced the mean diameter to 20 nm and the infra-porosity to 1 %. Wetting up to 9 MPa suction leads to saturation with no significant change in the PSD curve, whereas wetting at zero suction gave rise to the appearance of a large pore population resulting from the development of cracks with width of several micrometres, together with an enlargement of the initial pore population above the mean diameter. The concepts describing the step hydration of smectites (by the successive placement within the clay platelets along the smectite faces of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers of water molecules with respect to the suction applied) appeared relevant to better understand the changes in microstructure of the COx claystone under suction changes. This also allowed to better define

  9. Clay hydration and crystal growth in expansive anhydritic claystone. The Ascó Power Plant case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Eduardo; Ramon, Anna

    2015-04-01

    A large power plant directly founded on a hard claystone experienced, soon after the construction of the foundation slabs, a continuous heave developing at decreasing rate, which has been active for the last 35 years. When undisturbed (i.e., at some depth, in the range of several meters) Ascó claystone exhibits high unconfined compressive strengths (30-40 MPa). In high quality cores the rock has a massive aspect and discontinuities are difficult to observe. The rock has a Tertiary origin and horizontal layers at spacing of 1-4 m could be identified. Whitish seams of gypsum, bassanite or anhydrite are also observed within the reddish rock matrix. Minerals identified in deep cores are quartz (10%), calcite and dolomite (50-70%), clay minerals (10-20%) and gypsum and anhydrite (2-20%). Among the clay minerals, illite dominates (10%). Smectite or smectite-interbedded minerals do not amount in general to more than 5%. The undisturbed rock has a low porosity (6-11%) and low water content (2-5%). Because of the presence of hydrated sulphates, water content and degree of saturation (Sr=0.8-0.9 was found) are somewhat uncertain. However, high suctions were found in recovered cores. This rock changes into a weathered material at shallow depths. Mineralogy is not much affected but porosity increases to 22-29% and water content increases to 10-19%. Strength drops to small values (soil like) and a lower "in situ" suction has been measured (0.4-7.1 MPa). The added pore volume of the weathered material, if compared with the deep rock, is filled with water. The heave of the station was attributed to the hydration of undisturbed rock under the building slabs of the power plant. In fact, large excavations preceded the layout of foundations. As a result, atmospheric water had an easy access to the intact rock. The installation of a compacted soil fill around the buildings allowed the presence of a permanent water table which could infiltrate into the rock. Piezometric data provided

  10. Geological Control on Stability of Excavated Rock Slope at Jeruklegi Claystone Quarry, Cilacap Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Dok, Atitkagna; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Faisal Fathani, Teuku

    2010-05-01

    PT. Holcim Indonesia Tbk is a well-known company for cement production in Cilacap, Central Java, Indonesia. In cement manufacturing, certain raw materials such as limestone, claystone and other supplementary materials are required. In a mean time, the company is conducting claystone mining to support the cement industry. Currently, the exploitation has covered the area of approximately 103 ha. Due to the increment need of more claystone to achieve the expecting amount of cement production, the company plans to extend existing mining site up to 250 ha with maximum depth of +10m above the sea level. However, such development may eventually lead to major slope failures which essentially affect the sustainability and the safety of the mine. Understanding that various negative impacts may appear during the mining operation, which possibly result in personal injury, potential life loss, property damage and other socio-economic consequences, it is crucial to assess slope stability conditions of the mining pit to ensure safety of the mine. The study is mainly focused on analysis of the rock mass behaviours under specific geological control and earthquake trigger through the application of finite element method. Based on the assessment result, the zone where covered by discontinuous rock mass, absorbent lithology and steep slope geometry in combination with presence of groundwater, is estimated to be potential to slope movement in form of rock falls and/or rock slides which could be possibly predicted to occur as a consequence of heavy rainfall intensity, un-controlled slope excavation and ground vibration. And, the stable slope inclination is suggested not to be steeper than 60˚, with the maximum width of 3m and maximum height of 6m.

  11. The aquifer chill storage project at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa: Progress report for 1985 and 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaetzle, W.J.; Brett, C.E.

    1989-05-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is predicted to be the most cost-effective technology for seasonal storage of low-grade thermal energy. Approximately 60% of the US is underlain with aquifers potentially suitable for underground energy storage. Under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, has managed numerical modeling, laboratory studies, evaluation of environmental and institutional issues, and field testing of ATES at several sites. This report describes the monitoring and evaluation (under the auspices of PNL) of an ATES chill system constructed and operated by the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The system is the first such system to be monitored in a comprehensive manner. Results support both the promise and problems likely to be encountered in such systems. Chill ATES has the potential to substantially reduce energy consumption and, especially, summer peak cooling electrical demand. However, the geohydrologic environment that the system will use must be a major element in system design and operation. 9 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Effect of temperature on the containment properties of argillaceous rocks: The case study of Callovo-Oxfordian claystones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, S; Goutelard, F; Beaucaire, C; Charles, Y; Fayette, A; Herbette, M; Larabi, Y; Coelho, D

    2011-07-01

    Heat generated by high level radioactive wastes could alter the performance of a clay repository. It was intended to investigate the effect of such a thermal period on the diffusive properties of Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. Thus, through-diffusion experiments with HTO, Cl-36, Na-22 and Cs-137 were performed before, during and after stages of heating at 80°C that lasted for up to one year. A special attention was paid to limit the occurrence of any chemical disturbance. Therefore (i) the temperature was raised to 80°C, then progressively brought back to 21°C, thanks to three intermediate temperature stages, and (ii) specific synthetic solutions were used for each temperature, chemistry of which being close to the equilibrium state, especially with respect to the carbonate and sulphate minerals. It was found that experiments carried out at 80°C showed a clear increase of the effective diffusion coefficient values for the four tracers with respect to those obtained at 21°C (by a factor of 3 for HTO and Cl-36, 5 for Na-22 and 2 for Cs-137). On the other hand, the porosity and rock capacity values did not exhibit any significant discrepancy between 21°C and 80°C, indicating no observable damage of both the pore conducing network and the sorption properties of clay minerals. The Stokes-Einstein relationship, based on the temperature dependency of the viscosity of bulk water, could be used to describe the temperature dependence of the diffusion of HTO and Cl-36 but failed to describe the diffusive evolution of the two sorbing cations, Na-22 and Cs-137. Furthermore, experiments performed after the thermal period led to diffusive properties well matching those obtained before heating. All these results suggest that at the lab scale the heating of rock samples would not alter the claystone containment properties.

  13. Natural heterogeneity and evolving geochemistry of Lower Tuscaloosa Formation brine in response to continuing CO2 injection at Cranfield EOR site, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordsen, J. J.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Thomas, B.; Abedini, A. A.; Conaway, C. H.; Manning, M. A.; Lu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Geochemical monitoring of Lower Tuscaloosa Formation (LTF) brine continues at the Cranfield CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration site to investigate the potential for the geologic storage of large volumes of CO2 in saline aquifers and depleted reservoirs. Cranfield oil field is a domal depleted oil and gas reservoir in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, with production in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones of the LTF (depth ~3000 m). CO2 flood began in July 2008. Brine samples were collected from selected production wells in March and December 2009, April 2010, and November 2011. Intensive sampling also was conducted for the first 18 days of a CO2 injection experiment below the oil-water contact (December 2009) at the Detailed Area of Study (DAS) 3-well array. The sampling objectives are to define the geochemical composition of the pre-injection brine, and to understand the geochemical changes resulting from interactions between the injected CO2, brine, and reservoir minerals. Results show that Tuscaloosa brine is Na-Ca-Cl type with total salinity ranging from ~140 to 160 g/L TDS (50 samples). Relatively large variations are observed in major divalent cations (Ca ~7,500-14,000 mg/L, Mg ~800-1,250 mg/L, Sr ~475-750 mg/L). Significant positive correlations are noted amongst Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, and Br, whereas these solutes all trend negatively with Na and Cl. These results may be interpreted as possible binary mixing between two end-member waters: (1) high Na-Cl (51 and 97 g/L, respectively), low Ca, Mg, Sr, and Br (~7500, 800, 475, 280 mg/L, respectively); and (2) low Na-Cl (40 and 86 g/L), high Ca, Mg, Sr, and Br (~14,000, 1250, 750, 480 mg/L). This apparent binary mixing has no obvious correlation to CO2 injection, which suggests that observed variations are due to natural heterogeneities in LTF brine within the Cranfield dome. The variations may indicate vertical and/or lateral proximity to a halite source (i.e. salt dome), with the high Na-Cl, low Br

  14. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour and damage of clay-stones: application to the East argillite; Modelisation du comportement mecanique des argiles raides avec prise en compte de l'endommagement: application aux argilites de l'Est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aublive-Conil, N

    2003-03-15

    The storage in deep geological formation is one of the solutions retained by France for the management of highly long life radioactive waste. The retained host rock is a clay-stone named East argillite located in the departments of Meuse and Haute-Marne. A thermodynamic formulation is used to propose a rheological model, which reproduces the mechanical behavior of clay-stones. Initially, an anisotropic damage plastic model was formulated in order to describe material degradations. Then, the damage plastic model is reformulated in order to taken into account the damage influence on the hydraulic behavior of porous material. The numerical simulations correctly reproduce the mechanical behavior of East Argillites but also the anisotropy of the hydraulic behavior introduced by the damage effect. (author)

  15. Safety-relevant hydrogeological properties of the claystone barrier of a Swiss radioactive waste repository: An evaluation using multiple lines of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    In Switzerland, the Opalinus Clay - a Jurassic (Aalenian) claystone formation - has been proposed as the first-priority host rock for a deep geological repository for both low- and intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. An extensive site and host rock investigation programme has been carried out during the past 30 years in Northern Switzerland, comprising extensive 2D and 3D seismic surveys, a series of deep boreholes within and around potential geological siting regions, experiments in the international Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, compilations of data from Opalinus Clay in railway and motorway tunnels and comparisons with similar rocks. The hydrogeological properties of the Opalinus Clay that are relevant from the viewpoint of long-term safety are described and illustrated. The main conclusions are supported by multiple lines of evidence, demonstrating consistency of conclusions based on hydraulic properties, porewater chemistry, distribution of natural tracers across the Opalinus Clay as well as small- and large-scale diffusion models and the derived conceptual understanding of solute transport.

  16. HYDRAULICS, TUSCALOOSA COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. 塔城盆地高酸海棠发展现状及产业发展对策%Development Situation and Industry Development Countermeasure of High Acid Crabapple in Tuscaloosa Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田云峰; 史征

    2015-01-01

    塔城盆地是海棠果资源最丰富的地区,也是目前高酸海棠种植最早、面积最大的地区。为使海棠树种健康发展,对塔城盆地高酸海棠产业的生产现状及在种植、管理、果品加工方面存在的问题进行了调查分析。结果表明:高酸海棠产业必须实施“品种配套、技术配套、产业配套”和科学发展才能实现健康稳定发展,真正把海棠树变成农民致富的摇钱树,充分发挥其经济价值和观赏价值,体现塔城区特色林果的市场竞争力。%Tuscaloosa basin is one of the most abundant regions for crabapple fruit resources ,and is also the ear‐liest and largest area for high acid crabapple .For the healthy development of the crabapple tree species ,present situation in industrial production of high acid crabapple and existence problems in planting ,management ,fruit processing had been carried on the investigation and analysis .The results showed that industry of high acid crabapple should implement“matching varieties ,technology supporting and industrial supporting"and scientific development to achieve a healthy and stable development .The crabapple tree had been turn to cash cow for farmers to get rich ,and gave full play to its economic and ornamental value which could reflect the represents market competitiveness of special color fruit in Tuscaloosa .

  18. Reserch of Claystone in Longdong Area Gansu Province%甘肃省陇东地区粘土岩基本特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车申; 刘晓东; 刘平辉

    2011-01-01

    It is key point to choose the host rock of disposal high-level radioactive waste, each country which have nuclear operation a systematic reaserch about host rock. From the aboard development and internal prereaserch, in China, claystone is one of the important alternative host rock to disposal HLW. The article is about geological investigation in Longdong area, regional structure and regional geological features of this area are introduced. The characteristics of clay rock indicate that clay rock true density range from 2. 37 g/cm3 to 2.65 g/cm3, the density of nature block is from 2.30 to 2.60 g/cm3, natural water content is from 2% to 5% , Porosity rang from 3.60% to 4.80%. The clay rock permeability coefficient almost is 10 tollm/s, specific surface range from 12.6 to 21. 2 m2/g(avergae isl6. 7m /g). Referring to the requirements and standards of clay rock disposal repository site selection in foreign developed countries, and according to the requirements of high-level radioactive waste geological repository in our country, we infer that the clay rocks in Longdong region basically meet the requirements of high level radioactive waste geological repository, especially the Porosity and adsorption performance of the clay rocks more suitable for high-level radioactive waste geological repository than other candidate surrounding rock.%高放废物地质处置库围岩的选择至关重要,各有核国家都对处置库可能的围岩进行了系统研究.从国外经验和国内前期研究成果来看,我国粘土岩是高放废物地质处置库建设中重要的候选围岩之一.对陇东地区进行了地质调查,介绍了该地区的区域构造和区域地质特征,重点对该地区的粘土岩的基本性质进行研究.研究结果结果表明,该地区的粘土岩真密度在2.37~ 2.65 g/cm3之间,自然块体密度在2.30 ~ 2.60 g/cm3之间,天然含水率在2% ~5%,孔隙率在3.60% ~ 4.80%之间,粘土岩的渗透系数基本在10~11m

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. ..... Gössling S (2003) The political ecology of tourism in Zan-.

  20. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an ... are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues.

  1. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew D.; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...... evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics....

  2. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical (THM) Coupled Simulation of a Generic Site for Disposal of High Level Nuclear Waste in Claystone in Germany: Exemplary Proof of the Integrity of the Geological Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massmann, J.; Ziefle, G.; Jobmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    Claystone is investigated as a potential host rock for the disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). In Germany, DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, the BGR and the "Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS)" are developing an integrated methodology for safety assessment within the R&D project "ANSICHT". One part herein is the demonstration of integrity of the geological barrier to ensure safe containment of radionuclides over 1 million years. The mechanical excavation of an underground repository, the ex­po­si­tion of claystone to at­mos­pheric air, the insertion of backfill, buffer, sealing and supporting material as well as the deposition of heat producing waste constitute a sig­nif­i­cant disturbance of the underground system. A complex interacting scheme of thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (THM) processes can be expected. In this work, the finite element software OpenGeoSys, main­ly de­vel­oped at the "Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH (UFZ)", is used to simulate and evaluate several THM coupled effects in the repository surroundings up to the surface over a time span of 1 million years. The numerical setup is based on two generic geological models inspired by the representative geology of potentially suitable regions in North- and South Germany. The results give an insight into the evolution of temperature, pore pressure, stresses as well as deformation and enables statements concerning the extent of the significantly influenced area. One important effect among others is the temperature driven change in the densities of the solid and liquid phase and its influence on the stress field. In a further step, integrity criteria have been quantified, based on specifications of the German federal ministry of the environment. The exemplary numerical evaluation of these criteria demonstrates, how numerical simulations can be used to prove the integrity of the geological barrier and detect potential vulnerabilities. Fig.: Calculated zone of

  3. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  4. Marine cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed in the cosmetic industry regarding marine-derived cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous beneficial effects on human skin health. Bioactive substances derived from marine resources have diverse functional roles as natural skin care agents, and these properties can be applied to the development of novel cosmetics as well as nutricosmetics (from edible seaweeds and edible marine animals). This contribution focuses on marine-derived cosmeceutical active ingredients and presents an overview of their health beneficial effects on human skin.

  5. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  6. Clay under the magnifier. Scientists are investigating the properties of claystone in the international Mont Terri rock laboratory; Ton unter der Lupe. Wissenschaftler erforschen die Eigenschaften von Tongestein im internationalen Felslabor Mont Terri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    In the present report of the Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources whose activities and projects are presented. Among the issues: securing supplies of raw materials; Receive livelihoods; Develop and link Knowledge of Geosciences. Use deep underground, protected against geological hazards, assist developing countries, monitor Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban. Described are also studies of clay-mineral processes in barrier systems, studies of the long-term safety of the Morsleben repository, as well as international research of clay in the Swiss Mont Terri Rock Loboratory on the suitability of claystone as repository for secure high-level radioactive waste. [German] Im vorliegenden Report der Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe werden deren Aktivitaeten und Projekte dargestellt. Zu den Aspekten: Rohstoffversorgung sichern; Lebensgrundlagen erhalten; Geowissen entwickeln und vernetzen. Den tiefen Untergrund nutzen, vor Geogefahren schuetzen, Entwicklungslaender unterstuetzen, Kernwaffenteststopp ueberwachen. Beschrieben werden dabei auch Untersuchungen tonmineralischer Prozesse in Barrieresystemen, Untersuchungen zur Langzeitsicherheit des Endlagers Morsleben, sowie internationale Forschungen im Tongestein des Schweizer Felslabors Mont Terri zur Eignung von Tongestein als sicheres Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Abfallstoffe.

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science features state-of-the-art review articles and short communications. ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine ...... planning under future sea level predictions, coastal sci-.

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high .... great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), and the giant ...... Smale MJ, Watson G, Hecht T (1995) Otolith atlas of.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an original .... to altering the balance between the coral host and its ... ber of agents, namely, bacteria, viruses, protozoa or .... Normally, WP starts at the base of the.

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. The journal .... 48% maize flour, 3% cassava flour, 3% vitamins (Premix for broilers) ..... resulting in inappropriate dietary energy utiliza-.

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... dissemination of knowledge generated through research activities at the ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a .... tion and damage.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. In addition ... impact on recreational activities, natural resources ..... area affects dispersion of nutrients in the waters off .... Bell P (1992) Eutrophication and coral reefs: some exam-.

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global .... scientific understanding for sustainable use and management of marine resources in a globally chang- .... (2005) Effects of geography, taxa, water flow, and.

  14. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shankar, R.

    Significant scientific contributions in Marine Geology in India during the Nineties have been highlighted in this paper. Sediment trap data collected in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have provided much understanding about annual sediment fluxes...

  15. BASEMAP, TUSCALOOSA COUNTY AND INCORPOATED AREAS, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  16. Floodplain Mapping for Tuscaloosa County, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. .... Overall, the forest was composed of small trees (mean height 2.6 m; mean DBH 7.45 cm); height and DBH varied sig- nificantly when ... nerable to degradation, because the population density is high .... areas in the estuary included Xefina Grande and Xefina.

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high .... tions at global (e.g. sea temperature, hurricanes) and ..... Jameson SC (1976) Early life history of the giant clams.

  20. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweden. Cover image: Relief model of the WIO surface that integrates land topography and ocean bathymetry. Amante and ... WIO Journal of Marine Science 14 (1 & 2) 2015 1-9 | L. J. Chauka et al. ... bar, from September 2008 to August 2010.

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... dissemination of knowledge generated through research activities at the ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate”. .... C – growth anomaly; D – brown band; E - skeletal eroding band affecting A.

  2. Marine envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  3. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, ... Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- .... in the region are some of the poorest in the world,.

  4. Early Pliocene Hiatus in Sand Output by the Colorado River: Evidence From Marine Deposits in the Salton Trough, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Early Pliocene deposits in the western Salton Trough preserve a high-fidelity record of sediment dispersal into the marine realm during initiation and early evolution of the Colorado River (CR). Grain-size fractionation, sediment routing, and transport dynamics of the early CR delta are recorded in sediments of the Fish Creek - Vallecito basin, which was located ~100 km south of Yuma along the transform plate boundary at 5 Ma. Early Pliocene delivery of CR sand to the basin took place in two distinct pulses: (1) deposition of sandy turbidites (Wind Caves Mbr of the Latrania Fm) in a restricted submarine canyon at Split Mt Gorge between ~5.3 and 5.1 Ma; and (2) progradation of a thick, widespread, coarsening-up deltaic sequence of marine mudstone, sandstone, and coquinas (Deguynos Fm) between ~4.8 and 4.2 Ma. Estimated flux of CR sediment during Wind Caves deposition was weak (~3-5 Mt/yr) compared to the long-term average (172±64 Mt/yr). The two pulses of CR sand input are separated by the Coyote Clay (CC, ~5.1-4.8 Ma), a regionally correlable, greenish-yellow-weathering marine claystone unit at the base of the Deguynos Fm. CC gradationally overlies Wind Caves turbidites in the area of the paleocanyon. In contrast, in the Coyote Mts 15-23 km to the south and SE, CC rests on coarse-grained locally-derived late Miocene sedimentary rocks, Alverson volcanics, and metamorphic basement rock along a regional unconformity. Identical claystone facies occur in the NW Indio Hills (restores to Yuma at the mouth of the CR at 5 Ma), and Sierra Cucapa in Mexico (~200 km south of Yuma at 5 Ma). Marine localities outside of the Wind Caves paleocanyon experienced slow to negligible sedimentation along a rugged rocky shoreline until abrupt arrival of CR-derived clay. CC accumulated in a sand-starved, pro-delta marine setting (Winker, 1987) over an inferred N-S distance of ~200 km. We therefore reject an alternate hypothesis that CC accumulated on the muddy slope of the prograding CR

  5. Volcanic Origin of Claystone near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Deep water Environment of the Lower Yangtze Region and Its Implications for LPME%下扬子 PTB 界线深水相区粘土岩的火山成因研究及其对 LPME 的指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖志伟; 胡文蠧; 王小林; 曹剑; 姚素平; 万野

    2016-01-01

    全球,尤其是特提斯域二叠—三叠纪之交(PTB)剖面中普遍发育火山成因的粘土岩,对理解晚二叠世末生物大灭绝(LPME)的触发机制及相关基础地质问题具有重要意义。本文报道了在华南下扬子区新发现两条深水 PTB 剖面(皖南牛山和蔡村)的粘土岩工作,包括岩石学、矿物学和全岩地球化学等,填补了区域研究空白。研究结果发现,粘土岩主要由伊利石等粘土矿物,以及石英、岩浆锆石、长石等斑晶矿物组成。在地球化学上具有高 K2 O、低 Na2 O、相对富集大离子亲石元素(LILE)、相对亏损高场强元素(HFSE)等特征。据此,认为这些粘土岩为火山成因的钾质斑脱岩,其原岩可能为中酸性流纹英安岩,具有弧岩浆作用的源区背景。对比华南其他地区已发现的 PTB 界线粘土岩,发现它们成因类似,可能来源于古特提斯洋周缘陆陆碰撞,抑或是泛大洋俯冲潘吉亚大陆东缘(包括华南板块)所导致的长英质火山岩浆喷发,且具有多期多源性特点。PTB 时期全球活跃的火山岩浆活动(包括镁铁质火山作用和华南地区火山灰所指征的长英质火山作用)可能是导致 LPME 的主要原因。%The volcanogenic claystone,deposited globally,especially around the Tethyan Realm in the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB ), plays a significant role in understanding the triggering mechanism and associated geological events for the Latest Permian Mass Extinction (LPME).Here,we present research of claystones around the PTB on mineralogy,petrology and geochemistry,which has filled the blank in this area.The results show that the components of the PTB claystone are composed mainly of volcanogenic clays (illite,etc.),and phenocryst minerals (such as quartz,calcite,pyrite and magmatic zircon).Their geochemical compositions are characterized with high K2 O and low Na2 O,relative enrichment in Large

  6. Marine Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A retired soldier and his timid girlfriend. Two teenagers who are underemployed and overaged. A man who knows what he wants but not how to get it and his ex who knows how to get what she wants but not exactly what that is.What do all of these people have in common? They live in Westfield, New York, a town with just as many traffic lights as panoramic views of nearby Lake Erie and with about as many bartenders as schoolteachers. Everyone wants to leave, but nobody knows where to go.Marine Biol...

  7. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Obligate marine fungi, those which grow and sporulate exclusively under marine conditions, have received all the attention from marine mycologists. Fungi originating from freshwater, or terrestrial environment and capable of growth and sporulation...

  8. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  9. Marine Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  10. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152177 Chen Hongjun(Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Ministry of Land and Resources,Guangzhou 510075,China);Pen Xuechao A Brief Review of 1∶1 000 000 Marine Geological Survey and Mapping Results of the Hainan Sheet in the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,

  11. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  12. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  13. Marine antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment.

  14. Carbon isotope composition of the Lower Triassic marine carbonates, Lower Yangtze Region, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO; Jingxun; TONG; Jinnan; QIU; Haiou; ZHAO; Laishi

    2006-01-01

    Studies on three Lower Triassic sections located on the shallow water platform, the deep water slope and in the deep water basin in the Lower Yangtze Region, South China, show the similar trend of carbon isotope evolution. Biostratigraphic correlations among the Lower Triassic sections on the basis of standard conodont zones indicate that three negative shifts occurred in the Griesbachian, the Smithian and the late Spathian stages respectively, and one distinctly positive shift occurred in the early Spathian stage. Trend of carbon isotope evolution of the Lower Triassic reflects some significant changes in the global carbon cycle. Moreover, δ13C background values are intensively controlled by palaeogeographic environment. In general, δ13C values from deep-water slope carbonates are lighter than those from carbonate platform and heavier than those from deep-water basin carbonates. The positive carbon isotope excursion may be induced by a significant amount of organic carbon burial in marine sediments and increase in primary productivity. The large negative carbon isotope excursions during the Early Triassic in Lower Yangtze Region are interpreted to relate to volcano eruptions based on tuffaceous claystone interlayers observed near the Permian-Triassic boundary, the Induan- Olenekian boundary and the Lower Triassic-Middle Triassic boundary.

  15. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  16. Mariner 10 Image Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mariner 10 Image Archive includes tools to view shaded relief maps of the surface of Mercury, a 3D globe, and all images acquired by NASA's Mariner 10 mission.

  17. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  18. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  19. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  20. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150652 Jiang Yuxuan(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Xing Lei Study on the Degradation of Marine Sedimentary Organic Matter and Model Development(Marine Geology&Quaternary; Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(4),

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  2. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  3. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  4. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology.

  5. Is Kissamos Bay in NW Crete, Greece worth to be exploited as a marine aggregates deposit? An integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasatou, Marianthi; Tsoutsia, Antonia; Petrakis, Stelios; Rousakis, Grigoris; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Hasiotis, Thomas; Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Poulos, Serafim; Stamatakis, Michael

    2017-04-01

    This study uses an integrated approach to investigate the offshore area of Kissamos Bay, NW Crete Island, Greece, as a prospective marine aggregate (MA) deposit. Non-fuel marine minerals and especially marine aggregates (sand and gravel) are reviewed from the perspective of resources during the last decades. The possible MA deposit of Kissamos Bay was explored during the implementation of the research project THALES-MARE, considering existing information of previous extraction activities in the wider area. Kissamos Bay is located at the inner continental shelf off NW Crete. The onshore basement rocks are composed of Mesozoic to Eocene limestones, shale and sandstone units, along with Neogene sediments such as marls, sandstones and claystones, which locally host Messinian gypsum layers. Sixteen sea-bottom sediment samples were collected with a Smith-McIntyretype grab along four transects, vertical to the shoreline, at water depths of 11 to 44m. A sub-bottom acoustic profiler survey was conducted in order to quantitatively determine the deposit (dimensions and structure). Mineralogical, geochemical, sedimentological and benthic analyses of the samples were carried out, in order to determine the quality of the reservoir and the environmental impact of a potential exploitation. Mineralogical results indicated that the bulk samples consist predominantly of quartz, while calcite occurs as a second significant phase. Chemical analysis of major and trace elements revealed that the average SiO2 content is around 55% with samples closer to the beach (depths quality (quartz sand) is required for cement applications. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the research program THALES-MARE (MIS: 375655), funded by the Operational Programme "Education and lifelong learning, 2007-2013" of the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, Culture and Sports.

  6. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  7. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Netz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed.

  8. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  9. Parasites and marine invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  10. Marine Ecological Regions 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile was screen digitized from 'Calecoregions1.jpg' a georectified digital image of the original map of California's ecoregions, including the marine...

  11. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  12. Origin of ferricretes in fluvial-marine deposits of the Lower Cenomanian Bahariya Formation, Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Lawrence H.; Khalifa, Mohamed A.

    2010-03-01

    The type section of the Lower Cenomanian Bahariya Formation at Gebel El-Dist (Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert), Egypt, comprises claystones, mudstones, siltstones and sandstones deposited in fluvial-deltaic coastal plain, lagoonal, estuarine and shallow marine environments. The formation is characterized by an abundance of ferruginous sandstones that locally weather to form prominent iron crusts. These centimeter to decimeter-scale ferruginous horizons display a continuum of features ranging from unaltered sandstone with a pervasive ferruginous matrix to distinct ironstone beds with massive, nodular, vesicular and pisolitic textures. Ferruginous sandstone typically occurs at the tops of sandstone beds, or bracketing the base and top of beds, in the fining-upward cycles of deltaic plain deposits in the lower part of the formation and on a low-energy fluvial floodplain in the middle of the formation. Indurated ironstone beds occur mainly as the caps of coarsening-upward cycles of prograding shoreface sediments through much of the formation. We interpret the ironstone crusts as ferricretes, formed by iron accumulation that resulted from the oxidation and precipitation of soluble iron or colloids transported in the sediment load or by groundwater. This accumulation possibly took place at the water table or possibly below the water table at the fresh water/saline water interface. However, base-level fall and subsequent subaerial exposure of the sediments resulted in reworking and pedogenic modification of some of the iron-impregnated horizons.

  13. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  14. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132178 Chen Hongjun(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,MLR,Guangzhou 510760,China);Cai Guanqiang Features of Canyon Morphology and Their Origin in the Shenhu Area,Northern Slope of the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.19-26

  15. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140582 Fang Xisheng(Key Lab.of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology,First Institute of Oceanography,State Oceanic Administration,Qingdao 266061,China);Shi Xuefa Mineralogy of Surface Sediment in the Eastern Area off the Ryukyu Islands and Its Geological Significance(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37

  16. Marine functional food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This book reviews the research on seafood and health, the use and quality aspects of marine lipids and seafood proteins as ingredients in functional foods and consumer acceptance of (marine) functional food. The first chapter covers novel merging areas where seafood may prevent disease and improve h

  17. Cultivation of marine sponges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Yi; ZHANG Wei; LI Hua; YU Xingju; JIN Meifang

    2005-01-01

    Sponges are the most primitive of multicellular animals, and are major pharmaceutical sources of marine secondary metabolites. A wide variety of new compounds have been isolated from sponges. In order to produce sufficient amounts of the compounds of the needed, it is necessary to obtain large amount of sponges.The production of sponge biomass has become a focus of marine biotechnology.

  18. Marine biomass research advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, E.

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports on research in California, New York and elsewhere into marine biomass. A manmade marine farm moored four miles off the coast of southern California pumps deep water up a 450 m pipe to fertilize giant kelp. After harvesting and chopping by existing commercial methods, the kelp would be converted, by either anaerobic bacteria or thermal processes, into methane and other products.

  19. Protection of Marine Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoll, M.; Ciaccia, E.; Dekeling, R.P.A.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Liddell, K.; Gunnarsson, S.L.; Ludwig, S.; Nissen, I.; Lorenzen, D.; Kreimeyer, R.; Pavan, G.; Meneghetti, N.; Nordlund, N.; Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Zon, A.T. van; Fraser, L.; Johansson, T.; Garmelius, M.

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for

  20. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  1. Marin Tsunami (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  2. Marine scaping: The structuring of marine practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toonen, H.M.; Tatenhove, van J.

    2013-01-01

    Oceans and seas are heavily exploited by different kinds of human activities. More and more information becomes a formative force in governing conflicting human activities and spatial claims at sea, as it is changing processes, institutions and practices of marine governance. This paper presents a c

  3. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  4. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  5. 76 FR 75524 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XO45 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The application and related documents are available for... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  6. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. ADDRESSES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  7. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  8. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  9. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... ] scientific research on marine mammal parts. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for..., and export marine mammal parts for scientific research studies. The requested permit has been issued...

  10. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  11. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141900Lan Xianhong(Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology,Ministry of Land and Resources,Qingdao 266071,China);Zhang Zhixun Geochemical Characteristics of Trace Elements of Sediments from Drillhole SFK-1

  12. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  13. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  14. Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; FANG Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives,textiles, pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria,including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  15. Marine medicinal glycomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  16. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  17. Marine Bacterial Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique

    microorganisms to be used as cell factories for production. Therefore exploitation of new microbial niches and use of different strategies is an opportunity to boost discoveries. Even though scientists have started to explore several habitats other than the terrestrial ones, the marine environment stands out...... as a hitherto under-explored niche. This thesis work uses high-throughput sequencing technologies on a collection of marine bacteria established during the Galathea 3 expedition, with the purpose of unraveling new biodiversity and new bioactivities. Several tools were used for genomic analysis in order...... to better understand the potential harbored in marine bacteria. The work presented makes use of whole genome sequencing of marine bacteria to prove that the genetic repertoire for secondary metabolite production harbored in these bacteria is far larger than anticipated; to identify and develop a new...

  18. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  19. Mismanagement of marine fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longhurst, A

    2010-01-01

    .... The relatively open structure and strong variability of marine ecosystems is discussed in relation to the reliability of resources used by the industrial-level fishing that became globalised during...

  20. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  1. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate suc

  2. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  3. Marine Reference Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various publications and other instructions for taking marine weather observations. includes Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1, Weather Bureau Circular M, and...

  4. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  5. Mariner Outreach Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  6. Marine Navigational Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  7. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    OpenAIRE

    Borthwick, Alistair G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine renewable energy has a major part to play in closing the world’s energy gap and lowering carbon emissions. Key global challenges relate to technology, grid infrastructure, cost and investment, environmental impact, and marine governance. Offshore wind turbines typically consist of three blades rotating about a hub. Although offshore wind technology is rapidly being implemented, there remain many fascinating engineering problems to overcome. These include: offshore foundations and float...

  8. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og...

  9. Marine winch drive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, M.; Smith, P.M.

    1983-12-01

    In the design of marine winch drive systems, efficiency, controllability, compactness and component layout flexibility are major considerations. This paper discusses design concepts aimed at achieving the above considerations in the design of variable speed, hydrostatic, marine winch drive systems. These concepts utilize a high pressure, load sensing pump, and a low-speed, high-torque (LSHT), radial-piston, hydraulic motor. These components are then shown applied in several open circuit hydrostatic power transmission systems.

  10. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, t...

  11. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  12. Marine Resiliency Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-06

    1S. SUBJECT TERMS Stress, Post Trawna t ic Stress Disorder , Biomarker , Suicide , Combat 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18. NUMBER...Project 2a ( Neuro -cognition Study) deploying Marines from 1/7 were assessed during the allotted 2012 timeframe. In total 570 Marines were available...Project 2 ( Neuro -cognition Study) remain current, as necessary for the data collection as noted above. Task 3: In coordination with HQMC, NIMH

  13. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  14. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Tuscaloosa COUNTY, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  15. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-14

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  16. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  17. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  18. Neuroprotective effects of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  19. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on one ship or two ships but does not address the issues in marine traffic flow.

  20. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  1. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    ) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need......This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  2. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  3. Marine biosurfaces research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  4. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  5. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    stream_size 12413 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Environ_Int_32_145.pdf.txt stream_source_info Environ_Int_32_145.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 editorial persistent... problem of marine pollution, it is indeed a prime need of the hour to assess the state of pollution of the marine environment. environmental data off Cundapoor and Kasargod along the coast of Karnataka that can be utilized for comprehensive interpretation...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  7. Empowering marine science through genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A M J; Barbier, M.; Canario, A; Olsen, J.L.; Wesnigk, J; Clark, M; Boyen, C

    Marine scientists in Europe summarize their successes with genome technologies in the marine sciences and make a plea for a concerted international effort to raise greater public education for support. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  9. Marine Thermoelectric Devices and Installations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    thermoelectric devices and units as marine sources of electric power, Prospects for the use of thermoelectric generators in main ship propulsion plants, Electric propulsion complexes for marine thermoelectric plants).

  10. Empowering marine science through genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A M J; Barbier, M.; Canario, A; Olsen, J.L.; Wesnigk, J; Clark, M; Boyen, C

    2008-01-01

    Marine scientists in Europe summarize their successes with genome technologies in the marine sciences and make a plea for a concerted international effort to raise greater public education for support. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Marine microbiology: Evolution on acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sinéad

    2012-05-01

    The prediction of marine microbial responses to ocean acidification is a key challenge for marine biologists. Experimental evolution offers a powerful tool for understanding the forces that will shape tomorrow's microbial communities under global change.

  12. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of...

  13. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    well as the techniques used to study the ecology of marine animals in situ. By bringing together many of the top researchers in marine bioacoustics...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future 5a...distribution is unlimited. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future Charles H. Greene Kohala Center P.O. Box 437462 Kamuela, HI 96743

  14. Harm caused by Marine Litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, S.; Budziak, A.; Franeker, van J.A.; Galgani, F.; Hanke, G.; Maes, T.; Matiddi, M.; Nilsson, P.; Oosterbaan, L.; Priestland, E.; Thompson, R.; Veiga, J.; Vlachogianni, T.

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global concern with a range of problems associated to it, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Marine litter can impact organisms at different levels of biological organization and habitats in a number of ways namely: through entanglement in, or

  15. Marine Science Sourcebook, First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual was prepared for a teacher workshop in marine science. It includes information on when, where, and how to collect marine mollusks, and how to prepare a shell collection; a partial key to the classes, subclasses, and orders of the mollusca; notes on the ecology and physiology of marine bivalves and snails, and recipes for solutions…

  16. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Mammal Laboratory, (Responsible Party: Dr. John Bengtson, Director), Seattle, WA, has applied for an amendment to Scientific Research Permit No. 15126-01 for studies of marine mammals in Alaska. DATES: Written...

  17. Cultivation of marine sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly

  18. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean where low concentration of a micronutrient (iron) appears to limit photosynthesis. In areas characterized by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration in surface waters, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON...

  19. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  20. OCEANOGRAPHY &MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160004 Chen Liangjin(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Zhu Maoxu Speciation of Organic Sulfur in Inner

  1. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and biodive

  2. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130639Cui Yingchun ( Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology , First Institute of Oceanography , State Oceanic Administration , Qingdao 266061 , China ); Shi Xuefa Records of Past 70 Ma Dust Activities in Ferromanganese Crusts from Pacific Ocean (Journal of Jilin University , ISSN1671-5888 , CN22-1343/P

  3. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  4. Marine sponges as pharmacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Marine sponges have been considered as a gold mine during the past 50 years, with respect to the diversity of their secondary metabolites. The biological effects of new metabolites from sponges have been reported in hundreds of scientific papers, and they are reviewed here. Sponges have the

  5. Hazardous marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, P S

    1984-08-01

    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  6. Marine Science Comes Alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    A new state-of-the-art marine science laboratory at Eckerd College (Florida) is a study in the power of research, teamwork, attention to detail, and cost control. A redundant piping system brings sea water directly to the students. Once a week the pipes that previously held sea water are flushed and refilled with fresh water. (MLF)

  7. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and

  8. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  9. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  10. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Late Miocene fossils from shallow marine sediments in Brunei Darussalam: systematics, palaeoenvironment and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslim, Amajida; Briguglio, Antonino; Kocsis, László; Ćorić, Stjepan; Razak, Hazirah

    2016-04-01

    The geology of Brunei Darussalam is fascinating but difficult to approach: rainforests and heavy precipitation tend to erode and smoothen the landscape limiting rocks exposure, whereas abundant constructions sites and active quarries allow the creation of short time available outcrop, which have to be immediately sampled. The stratigraphy of Brunei Darussalam comprises mainly Neogene sediments deposited in a wave to tide dominated shallow marine environment in a pure siliciclastic system. Thick and heavily bioturbated sandstone layers alternate to claystone beds which occasionally yield an extraordinary abundance and diversity of fossils. The sandstones, when not bioturbated, are commonly characterized by a large variety of sedimentary structures (e.g., ripple marks, planar laminations and cross beddings). In this study, we investigate the sediments and the fossil assemblages to record the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the shallow marine environment during the late Miocene, in terms of sea level change, chemostratigraphy and sedimentation rate. The study area is one of the best in terms of accessibility, extension, abundance and preservation of fossils; it is located in the region -'Bukit Ambug' (Ambug Hill), Tutong District. The fossils fauna collected encompasses mollusks, decapods, otoliths, shark and ray teeth, amber, foraminifera and coccolithophorids. In this investigation, sediment samples were taken along a section which measures 62.5 meters. A thick clay layer of 9 meters was sampled each 30 cm to investigate microfossils occurrences. Each sample was treated in peroxide and then sieved trough 63 μm, 150μm, 250μm, 450μm, 600μm, 1mm and 2mm sieves. Results point on the changes in biodiversity of foraminifera along the different horizons collected reflecting sea level changes and sediment production. The most abundant taxa identified are Pseoudorotalia schroeteriana, Ampistegina lessonii, Elphidium advenum, Quinqueloculina sp., Bolivina sp

  12. Anticoagulant effect of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Wijesekara, Isuru

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries to isolate natural anticoagulant compounds from marine resources. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of novel bioactive compounds with anticoagulant effect. Phlorotannins and sulfated polysaccharides such as fucoidans in brown algae, carrageenans in red algae, and ulvans in green algae have been recognized as potential anticoagulant agents. Therefore, marine algae-derived phlorotannins and SPs have great potential for developing as anticoagulant drugs in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. This chapter focuses on the potential anticoagulant agents in marine algae and presents an overview of their anticoagulant effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antitumor Peptides from Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides.

  14. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Shams Ul; Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Tasneem, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others. These natural products have a potential to provide future drugs against crucial diseases like cancer, HIV, microbial and protozoal infections and severe inflammations. Therefore, marine actinobacteria portray as a pivotal resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to probe a novel and pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from marine actinobacteria. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity, chemistry and mechanism of action of marine actinobacteria-derived secondary metabolites from 2007 to 2016. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  16. New marine community

    Science.gov (United States)

    While exploring the West Florida Escarpment, a steep slope in the Gulf of Mexico several hundred kilometers off the Florida coast, the deep submergence research vessel Alvin chanced upon a well-developed community of marine life akin to that found 7 years ago in the eastern Pacific Ocean.According to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, which operates the submersible and its new tender, the Atlantis II (Eos, November 1, 1983, p. 619), the marine community contains large clams, mussels, crabs, fish, and tube worms like those found at hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific. While the east Pacific communities exist at spreading centers, the newly discovered group, which may stretch for almost 2 km at a depth of roughly 3200 km, lies in a passive continental margin. Also, whereas the water around the Pacific hydrothermal vents is much warmer than the surrounding seawater, the water around the new found community is apparently the same temperature as the ambient waters.

  17. Mariner 9 Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R.; Schlachman, B.; Rodgers, D.; Breihan, E.; Bywaters, R.; Chapman, F.; Rhodes, M.; Vanous, D.

    1972-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer on Mariner 9 measures the thermal emission spectrum of Mars between 200 and 2000 per cm (between 5 and 50 microns) with a spectral resolution of 2.4 per cm in the apodized mode. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 x 10 to the minus 7th W/sq cm/ster/cm is deduced from data recorded in orbit around Mars. The Mariner interferometer deviates in design from the Nimbus 3 and 4 interferometers in several areas, notably, by a cesium iodide beam splitter and certain aspects of the digital information processing. Special attention has been given to the problem of external vibration. The instrument performance is demonstrated by calibration data and samples of Mars spectra.

  18. Marine pollution: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  19. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070002 Cao Guangjie (School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China); Wang Jian Sedimentary Characteristics of the Yangtze River’s Paleovalley in Nanjing since the Last Glaciation Maximum (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 26(1), 2006, p.23-28, 1 illus., 1 table, 16 refs.,with English abstract) Key words: buried channels, Yangtze River, Jiangsu Province

  20. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  1. Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    Shanta Nair suggests, despite the immense clinical significance of antibiotics in health care, little is understood on the ecology of the organisms that produce them. Since marine environment harbors a wide range of microbes capable of exhibiting... numbered the chapters of Drs Ramamurthy and Balakrish Nair, Drs Lakshmanaperumalsamy, Thayumanavan and Subashkumar and, Dr. Iddya Karunasagar?s group from 11 to 14. These chapters deal with microbial pathogens of human health- concerns, cultured shrimps and...

  2. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  3. Streptomyces avermitilis from marine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Li-xia; LI Jian-zhong; WANG Hui-li

    2005-01-01

    The insecticidal strain 173 was isolated from marine source and its activity was explored by the bioassay of brine shrimp and Helicoverpa armigera. Based on morphological, physiological and molecular properties, the insecticidal strain 173 was identified as Streptonycetes avermitilis, which is the best insecticidal microorganism found in the terrestrial environment. The taxonomy of the strain173, insecticidal spectrum and properties of the corresponding insecticidal antibiotics are reported.

  4. Les granulats marins

    OpenAIRE

    Augris, Claude; Cressard, Alain

    1984-01-01

    Urbanization and the protection of sites and ground waters reduce the number of alluvial aggregate exploitation areas. The ocean provides different substitution possibilities. In France, marine aggregates represent a substantial potential in the supply of material from coastal regions. A large number of cruises on the French continental shelf, using different exploration (seismic, drilling, dredging) and identification techniques, enabled the C.N.E.X.O. to make an inventory of the resources a...

  5. Marine cloud brightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  6. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  7. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  8. Marine natural products sourced from marine-derived Penicillium fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Guang; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Hai-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been proven to be a major source of marine natural products (MNPs) in recent years, in which filamentous fungi are a vital source of bioactive natural products for their large metagenomes and more complex genetic backgrounds. This review highlights the 390 new MNPs from marine-derived Penicillium fungi during 1991 to 2014. These new MNPs are categorized based on the environment sources of the fungal hosts and their bioactivities are summarized.

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kwon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  10. Harm caused by Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, S.; Budziak, A.; Franeker, van, J.A.; Galgani, F.; Hanke, G.; Maes, T.; Matiddi, M.; Nilsson, P; Oosterbaan, L.; Priestland, E.; Thompson, R.; Veiga, J.; Vlachogianni, T. (Thomais)

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global concern with a range of problems associated to it, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Marine litter can impact organisms at different levels of biological organization and habitats in a number of ways namely: through entanglement in, or ingestion of, litter items by individuals, resulting in death and/or severe suffering; through chemical and microbial transfer; as a vector for transport of biota and by altering or modifying assemblages ...

  11. Guidance Value of Marine Functional Zoning System to Allocation of China’s Marine Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi; CAO; Guanshun; HE

    2015-01-01

    The issue of marine resources is receiving closer and closer attention of national marine management authorities. For this issue,it is necessary to seek basis from legal institutions of marine functional zoning system. This paper analyzed basic connotation,development process and basic characteristics of marine functional zoning system,discussed internal relation between marine functional zoning system and marine resource allocation,and studied guidance value of marine functional zoning system to allocation of marine resources.

  12. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal...

  13. Extremozymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriya, J; Bharathiraja, S; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Marine microorganisms that have the possibility to survive in diverse conditions such as extreme temperature, pH, pressure, and salinity are known as extremophiles. They produce biocatalysts so named as extremozymes that are active and stable at extreme conditions. These enzymes have numerous industrial applications due to its distinct properties. Till now, only a fraction of microorganisms on Earth have been exploited for screening of extremozymes. Novel techniques used for the cultivation and production of extremophiles, as well as cloning and overexpression of their genes in various expression systems, will pave the way to use these enzymes for chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and other industrial applications. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipides polaires marins

    OpenAIRE

    Fanni Jacques; Linder Michel; Parmentier Michel

    2004-01-01

    Les lipides polaires marins, notamment les phospholipides (PL), retiennent depuis quelques années l’attention des chercheurs et des industriels en raison de leur composition, particulièrement riche en acides gras polyinsaturés à longue chaîne (AGPI-LC). Ils combinent ainsi les propriétés reconnues des AGPI-LC à l’intérêt métabolique et structural des phospholipides. Les sources sont nombreuses et d’accès très diversifié. Le défi industriel provient de leurs caractéristiques amphiphiles et aro...

  15. Safety of Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1990-01-01

    of a "future safe" design code for exposed marine structures like breakwaters should be different from the ones usually applied in modern design standards for conventional structures within civil engineering. Moreover, results from ongoing development of a design code for rubble mound breakwaters are presented.......Based on the large number of recent failures of major rubble mound breakwaters the paper discusses the experience gained so far and points out the weak spots in our present knowledge. On this base the difficulties in developing design standards are discussed and it is argued that the principles...

  16. Marine’ Character of the United States Marine Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Production I Supply Admin ’--- ..........J _._----, l ExecutiveAssistantto Director Woodwind Clarinets String Combo ISection Section Section Section...Saxophones LJ Cellos iH Guitar i Y Bassoons H Harp y Vocalists 1 31 AppendixE Current U.S. Marine Band Fitness Report « z o t3 ill en U.S. Marine Band FITNESS

  17. A global census of marine microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amaral-Zettler, L.; Artigas, L.F.; Baross, J.; LokaBharathi, P.A; Boetius, A; Chandramohan, D.; Herndl, G.; Kogure, K.; Neal, P.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Ramette, A; Schouten, S.; Stal, L.; Thessen, A; De Leeuw, J.; Sogin, M.

    In this chapter we provide a brief history of what is known about marine microbial diversity, summarize our achievements in performing a global census of marine microbes, and reflect on the questions and priorities for the future of the marine...

  18. SANCOR: Summary report on marine research 1987

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available , Marine Linefish, Marine Pollution, Marine Sedimentology and the newly formed Ocean Engineering programme. This report includes brief statements on the activities of each of these programmes in 1987 and emphasizes important findings and conclusions...

  19. Stakeholders' perceptions about recreational events within Marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stakeholders' perceptions about recreational events within Marine Protected Areas ... be used as a tool to enhance tourism growth and local economic development. ... Keywords: Marine Protected Areas, recreational events, marine tourism, ...

  20. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  1. Marine biotechnology: Opportunities for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    the variety of bio-active compounds available in marine organisms, the pharmaceutical and other industries can expect more and more new compounds for useful applications in human society. A brief review of the work done in the field of marine biotechnology...

  2. Marine line fish research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...

  3. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  4. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  5. Biogenetic Pathways for Marine Terpenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑其煌; 苏镜娱; 黄起鹏; 王植材; 刘璇; 高碧; 曾陇梅; 郑德炫

    1994-01-01

    A reasonable theoretical elucidation of biogenetic pathways is given for marine ter-penoids——halogenated terpenoids,cernbranolides and tetracyclic tetraterpenoids in marine organisms ac-cording to biogenesis,and the possibility of studying biogenetic pathways by chemical synthesis and molecu-lar probe method is discussed.

  6. New insights into the structure and stratigraphy of the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea sedimentary Basin from vintage 2D marine seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher; Erlström, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    A large dataset originally acquired by the Swedish Oil Prospecting CO. (OPAB) between 1970 and 1990 including 2D marine seismic data, well log data, core data and seismic interpretations has recently been made available by the Swedish Geological Survey (SGU). In this study this dataset has been used to produce a set of regional geoseismic sections across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea. Regional depth structure maps detailing the deep structure of the basin produced from previous interpretations are also presented. The Baltic Sea Basin is an intra-cratonic basin located in northern Europe. The Swedish sector of the basin is characterised primarily by two structural elements, the Hanö Bay Basin and the Baltic Syneclise. The largest of these, the Baltic Syneclise, is a large synclinal depression formed during the Caledonian Orogeny. The Hanö Bay Basin was formed during the Mesozoic due to subsidence along the Christiansø Fault Zone. The Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea Basin is primarily characterised by a sequence of shallow marine Cambrian sediments overlain by a relatively thin succession of Ordovician marine limestone and marls; these are in turn overlain by a thick layer of marl, siltstone and claystone deposited during the Silurian. Mesozoic sediments are found in the Hanö Bay and outer Hanö Bay area. These were deposited in areas of local subsidence, associated with transtensional tectonics prevalent within and adjacent to the Tornquist Zone, during the Late Carboniferous/Early Permian. Block faulting occurring throughout the Mesozoic also affected sedimentation patterns in the area. In this study a sparse grid of marine seismic reflection profiles have been reprocessed across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea Basin. These have been interpreted based on the available well data and synthetic seismograms. Several regional seismic profiles were constructed which detail the major structural elements and basin stratigraphy across the Swedish sector. A

  7. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  8. Drug discovery from marine microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwick, William H; Fenner, Amanda M

    2013-05-01

    The marine environment has been a source of more than 20,000 inspirational natural products discovered over the past 50 years. From these efforts, 9 approved drugs and 12 current clinical trial agents have been discovered, either as natural products or as molecules inspired from the natural product structure. To a significant degree, these have come from collections of marine invertebrates largely obtained from shallow-water tropical ecosystems. However, there is a growing recognition that marine invertebrates are oftentimes populated with enormous quantities of "associated" or symbiotic microorganisms and that microorganisms are the true metabolic sources of these most valuable of marine natural products. Also, because of the inherently multidisciplinary nature of this field, a high degree of innovation is characteristic of marine natural product drug discovery efforts.

  9. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  10. Faunistics (marine animals)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    these? It is a difficult question and it could always be argued that additional species should be included, but I had to define the limit somewhere. I decided to include the species in the two books stated below, plus a few more. The files were made on a Macintosh computer (PowerBook G4......) with the programme PowerPoint X for Mac® Service Release 1.     Comments and suggestions are welcome from students and colleagues. HD&P = Køie, Kristiansen & Weitemeyer, Havets dyr og planter. DN = Danmarks Natur, vol. 3, Havet     Tomas Cedhagen, Department of Marine Ecology, University of Aarhus, Finlandsgade 14...

  11. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G.L. Borthwick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.

  12. On China's Marine Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianglin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The rising incidence of Somalian and Malaccan piracy has sounded an alarm bell for countries around the world.In order to ensure the safety of global shipping lanes,at least in the short term,it is necessary for countries to unite to combat these pirates.However,dealing with pirate activities is not easy.All countries know that competition for maritime rights and interests between various international powers lay behind the piracy.As a major developing country,China should understand the Somalian and Malaccan piracy from a national security perspective,while at the same time combating piracy and safeguarding world peace.In order to protect China's legitimate maritime rights,we should enact a long-term strategy for marine safety.By so doing,national security,as well as the uninterrupted use of the international sea lanes can be guaranteed.

  13. Lipides polaires marins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni Jacques

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les lipides polaires marins, notamment les phospholipides (PL, retiennent depuis quelques années l’attention des chercheurs et des industriels en raison de leur composition, particulièrement riche en acides gras polyinsaturés à longue chaîne (AGPI-LC. Ils combinent ainsi les propriétés reconnues des AGPI-LC à l’intérêt métabolique et structural des phospholipides. Les sources sont nombreuses et d’accès très diversifié. Le défi industriel provient de leurs caractéristiques amphiphiles et aromatiques particulièrement marquées qui rend leur extraction très difficile.

  14. Marine Synechococcus Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by aggregate formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the aggregation of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such aggregation by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and aggregate formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the aggregation and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of aggregates, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form aggregates and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of aggregates, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of aggregates. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the aggregation of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.

  15. Enzymatic Processes in Marine Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In previous review articles the attention of the biocatalytically oriented scientific community towards the marine environment as a source of biocatalysts focused on the habitat-related properties of marine enzymes. Updates have already appeared in the literature, including marine examples of oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases ready for food and pharmaceutical applications. Here a new approach for searching the literature and presenting a more refined analysis is adopted with respect to previous surveys, centering the attention on the enzymatic process rather than on a single novel activity. Fields of applications are easily individuated: (i) the biorefinery value-chain, where the provision of biomass is one of the most important aspects, with aquaculture as the prominent sector; (ii) the food industry, where the interest in the marine domain is similarly developed to deal with the enzymatic procedures adopted in food manipulation; (iii) the selective and easy extraction/modification of structurally complex marine molecules, where enzymatic treatments are a recognized tool to improve efficiency and selectivity; and (iv) marine biomarkers and derived applications (bioremediation) in pollution monitoring are also included in that these studies could be of high significance for the appreciation of marine bioprocesses. PMID:28346336

  16. Databases of the marine metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-10-28

    The metagenomic data obtained from marine environments is significantly useful for understanding marine microbial communities. In comparison with the conventional amplicon-based approach of metagenomics, the recent shotgun sequencing-based approach has become a powerful tool that provides an efficient way of grasping a diversity of the entire microbial community at a sampling point in the sea. However, this approach accelerates accumulation of the metagenome data as well as increase of data complexity. Moreover, when metagenomic approach is used for monitoring a time change of marine environments at multiple locations of the seawater, accumulation of metagenomics data will become tremendous with an enormous speed. Because this kind of situation has started becoming of reality at many marine research institutions and stations all over the world, it looks obvious that the data management and analysis will be confronted by the so-called Big Data issues such as how the database can be constructed in an efficient way and how useful knowledge should be extracted from a vast amount of the data. In this review, we summarize the outline of all the major databases of marine metagenome that are currently publically available, noting that database exclusively on marine metagenome is none but the number of metagenome databases including marine metagenome data are six, unexpectedly still small. We also extend our explanation to the databases, as reference database we call, that will be useful for constructing a marine metagenome database as well as complementing important information with the database. Then, we would point out a number of challenges to be conquered in constructing the marine metagenome database.

  17. Databases of the marine metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    The metagenomic data obtained from marine environments is significantly useful for understanding marine microbial communities. In comparison with the conventional amplicon-based approach of metagenomics, the recent shotgun sequencing-based approach has become a powerful tool that provides an efficient way of grasping a diversity of the entire microbial community at a sampling point in the sea. However, this approach accelerates accumulation of the metagenome data as well as increase of data complexity. Moreover, when metagenomic approach is used for monitoring a time change of marine environments at multiple locations of the seawater, accumulation of metagenomics data will become tremendous with an enormous speed. Because this kind of situation has started becoming of reality at many marine research institutions and stations all over the world, it looks obvious that the data management and analysis will be confronted by the so-called Big Data issues such as how the database can be constructed in an efficient way and how useful knowledge should be extracted from a vast amount of the data. In this review, we summarize the outline of all the major databases of marine metagenome that are currently publically available, noting that database exclusively on marine metagenome is none but the number of metagenome databases including marine metagenome data are six, unexpectedly still small. We also extend our explanation to the databases, as reference database we call, that will be useful for constructing a marine metagenome database as well as complementing important information with the database. Then, we would point out a number of challenges to be conquered in constructing the marine metagenome database.

  18. Marine ecology: gelatinous bells may ring change in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Steve

    2006-09-05

    Gelatinous plankton are critical components of marine ecosystems. Recent studies are providing evidence of increased population outbursts of such species. Jellyfish seem to respond when an ecosystem is over-fished, and their ecology is under-researched.

  19. The Zoogeography of Marine Tardigrada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Bartels, Paul J; Roszkowska, Milena; Nelson, Diane R

    2015-11-02

    This monograph describes the global records of marine water bears (Phylum Tardigrada). We provide a comprehensive list of marine tardigrades recorded from around the world, providing an up-to-date taxonomy and a complete bibliography accompanied by geographic co-ordinates, habitat, substrate and biogeographic comments. A link is provided to an on-line interactive map where all occurrences for each species are shown. In total we list 197 taxa and their 2240 records from 39 oceans and seas and 18 Major Fishing Areas (FAO). It is hoped this work will serve as a reference point and background for further zoogeographic and taxonomic studies on marine tardigrades.

  20. New pharmaceuticals from marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenical, W

    1997-09-01

    Definitions of 'marine biotechnology' often refer to the vast potential of the oceans to lead to new cures for human and animal disease; the exploitation of natural drugs has always been the most basic form of biotechnology. Although only initiated in the late 1970s, natural drug discovery from the world's oceans has been accelerated by the chemical uniqueness of marine organisms and by the need to develop drugs for contemporary, difficult to cure, diseases. Current research activities, while primarily within the academic laboratories, have generated convincing evidence that marine drug discovery has an exceedingly bright future.

  1. Climate change and marine life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change...... ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC......) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change...

  2. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  3. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply: (1...

  4. Discovery of novel metabolites from marine actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kin S

    2006-06-01

    Recent findings from culture-dependent and culture-independent methods have demonstrated that indigenous marine actinomycetes exist in the oceans and are widely distributed in different marine ecosystems. There is tremendous diversity and novelty among the marine actinomycetes present in marine environments. Progress has been made to isolate novel actinomycetes from samples collected at different marine environments and habitats. These marine actinomycetes produce different types of new secondary metabolites. Many of these metabolites possess biological activities and have the potential to be developed as therapeutic agents. Marine actinomycetes are a prolific but underexploited source for the discovery of novel secondary metabolites.

  5. Disease in marine aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  6. Marine archeology: The hidden history

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Chandore, Gopakapattana, and Ela, which were the port capitals at different times of the long history. Four stone anchors from Goa waters indicate an active maritime activity during the pre-Portuguese period. An important aspect of marine archaeology...

  7. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisonous bites or stings from any form of sea life, including jellyfish. There are about 2,000 species ... bites or stings from various types of marine life, including: jellyfish ... sea urchins, sea anemone, hydroid, coral, cone shell, sharks, ...

  8. Pre-1947 Marine Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board U.S. Navy and merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Merchant ships are of many nationalities, and mainly...

  9. Pre-1947 Marine Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Ships are of many nationalities, and mainly cover voyages in the North...

  10. The elements of marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah J.

    2014-12-01

    Today, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen and phosphorus in marine organic matter is relatively constant. But this ratio probably varied during the Earth's history as a consequence of changes in the phytoplankton community and ocean oxygen levels.

  11. NCEI Marine Geology Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Geologic data compilations and reports in the NCEI archive are from academic and government sources around the world. Over ten terabytes of analyses,...

  12. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    has undertaken the exploration and excavation of submerged ports and shipwrecks in Indian waters. The paper highlight the objectives, methodology, tools, findings and the progress made in India in the field of marine archaeology during the 50 years...

  13. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals...... such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  14. NGDC Marine Trackline Geophysics Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains bathymetry, magnetic, gravity and seismic shot point navigation data collected during marine cruises from 1939 to the present. Coverage is...

  15. The Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The�Marine Sciences Laboratory sits on 140 acres of tidelands and uplands located on Sequim Bay, Washington. Key capabilities include 6,000 sq ft of analytical and...

  16. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  17. Veteran Unemployment of Transitioning Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    military experience. C2 Marines have high AFQT scores and work with information systems; they may pursue, for example, computer science degrees in college...i.e., they made a rational decision based on lack of information). DOD actuarial officials use the low MGIB benefit use rate to maintain program...such as computer science , to make their military skills transferable, while others may not. Marines in services, repair/maintenance, operator, and

  18. Optimizing Marine Security Guard Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Bangkok , Thailand East Asia and Pacific 18 4 Fort Lauderdale, Florida Western Hemisphere - South 13 5 Frankfurt, Germany Western Europe and Scandinavia 15...2008). Each 7 stationing plan satisfies a myriad of unit requirements, such as building and land availability. Similarly, each assignment solution...optimize the assignment of enlisted Marines to billets. EAM-GLOBAL seeks to assign the best Marine-billet fit while balancing staffing shortages

  19. Cobalt and marine redox evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Robbins, Leslie J.; Bekker, Andrey; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Saito, Mak A.; Kappler, Andreas; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-03-01

    Cobalt (Co) is a bio-essential trace element and limiting nutrient in some regions of the modern oceans. It has been proposed that Co was more abundant in poorly ventilated Precambrian oceans based on the greater utilization of Co by anaerobic microbes relative to plants and animals. However, there are few empirical or theoretical constraints on the history of seawater Co concentrations. Herein, we present a survey of authigenic Co in marine sediments (iron formations, authigenic pyrite and bulk euxinic shales) with the goal of tracking changes in the marine Co reservoir throughout Earth's history. We further provide an overview of the modern marine Co cycle, which we use as a platform to evaluate how changes in the redox state of Earth's surface were likely to have affected marine Co concentrations. Based on sedimentary Co contents and our understanding of marine Co sources and sinks, we propose that from ca. 2.8 to 1.8 Ga the large volume of hydrothermal fluids circulating through abundant submarine ultramafic rocks along with a predominantly anoxic ocean with a low capacity for Co burial resulted in a large dissolved marine Co reservoir. We tentatively propose that there was a decrease in marine Co concentrations after ca. 1.8 Ga resulting from waning hydrothermal Co sources and the expansion of sulfide Co burial flux. Changes in the Co reservoir due to deep-water ventilation in the Neoproterozoic, if they occurred, are not resolvable with the current dataset. Rather, Co enrichments in Phanerozoic euxinic shales deposited during ocean anoxic events (OAE) indicate Co mobilization from expanded anoxic sediments and enhanced hydrothermal sources. A new record of marine Co concentrations provides a platform from which we can reevaluate the role that environmental Co concentrations played in shaping biological Co utilization throughout Earth's history.

  20. Seaweed Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Pereira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic marine algae, typically known as macroalgae or seaweeds, form an important living resource of the oceans, as primary producers. People have collected seaweeds for food, both for humans and animals for millennia. They also have been a source of nutrient rich fertilizers, as well as a source of gelling agents known as phycocolloids. More recently macroalgae are playing significant roles in medicine and biotechnology. Although Biotechnology and in particular marine biotechnology may ...

  1. Ecological Significance of Marine Microzooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Godhantaraman, N.

    ). Studies concerning microzooplankton in marine coastal, estuarine and brackish-water systems along tropical Indian waters are limited. Hence, in the following sections, I provide the results obtained by the research conducted in the tropical Vellar... estuarine systems, southeast coast of India. This was one of the first comprehensive studies on microzooplankton in India. There are also comparative accounts of microzooplankton researches from my studies in Japanese coastal marine waters. Microzooplankton...

  2. Arsenic Species in Marine Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Francesconi, Kevin A.; Edmonds, John S.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenic occurs in seawater, in predominantly inorganic forms, at concentrations of about 1-2 μg/L. These concentrations are higher than those of most other potentially toxic metals and semimetals. Marine organisms have coped by exploiting the rich organic chemistry of arsenic to transform inorganic arsenic into a range of essentially non-toxic organoarsenic compounds. The resulting diversity of arsenic species found in marine samples is reviewed together with an overview of analytical meth...

  3. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600-2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500-542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600-1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Mya).

  4. Why marine phytoplankton calcify

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fanny M.; Bach, Lennart T.; Brownlee, Colin; Bown, Paul; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Poulton, Alex J.; Tyrrell, Toby; Beaufort, Luc; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gibbs, Samantha; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Lee, Renee; Riebesell, Ulf; Young, Jeremy; Ridgwell, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying marine phytoplankton—coccolithophores— are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know “why” coccolithophores calcify. We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical assessment of the costs and benefits of calcification. We conclude that calcification has high energy demands and that coccolithophores might have calcified initially to reduce grazing pressure but that additional benefits such as protection from photodamage and viral/bacterial attack further explain their high diversity and broad spectrum ecology. The cost-benefit aspect of these traits is illustrated by novel ecosystem modeling, although conclusive observations remain limited. In the future ocean, the trade-off between changing ecological and physiological costs of calcification and their benefits will ultimately decide how this important group is affected by ocean acidification and global warming. PMID:27453937

  5. Antifouling marine concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as to their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete for OTEC plants. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6-1/2 years in seawater.

  6. Antifouling marine concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as the their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6 1/2 years in seawater.

  7. European Marine Infrastructures: perspectives for Marine and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Egerton, P.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Los, W.

    2009-04-01

    The European Commission (EC) is supporting a variety of Research Infrastructures in many different scientific fields: Social Sciences and Humanities, Environmental Sciences, Energy, Biological and Medical Sciences, Physical Sciences and Engineering and e-Infrastructures. All these infrastructures are included in the new report of the "European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures" published in late 2008 by ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/). In particular, some research infrastructures for the Environmental Sciences specifically addressed to the marine environment are presented: • EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory). The development of this underwater network is being supported by several other EC initiatives, ESONET-NoE (European Seas Network), coordinated by IFREMER (http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/). • ERICON AURORA BOREALIS (European Research Icebreaker Consortium, http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/). • EURO-ARGO (Global Ocean Observing Infrastructure, http://www.euro-argo.eu/). • LIFEWATCH (E-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity data and observatories, http://www.lifewatch.eu/). In particular through its scientific marine networks: EUR-OCEANS (European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis, http://www.eur-oceans.eu/); MARBEF-NoE (MARine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, http://www.marbef.org/ and Marine Genomics (http://www.marine-genomics-europe.org/). Possible profitable links with new research infrastructures recently included in the roadmap, such as EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and SIAEOS (Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System) are also pointed out. The marine EC infrastructures presented constitute the fundamental tools to support the Earth Sciences, both terrestrial and marine.

  8. Marine Corps Leadership: Empowering or Limiting the Strategic Corporal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    was the advent of the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program. This program is focused on continuing the development of Marines through challenging training...author by Mr. Daniel Weidensaul. 21 United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps Order 1500.54A: Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (Washington, D.C...United States Marine Corps. Marine Corps Order 1500.54A: Marine Corps Martial Arts Program. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 16

  9. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  10. Cultivation of Marine Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga; Tramper; Wijffels

    1999-11-01

    There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly influence culture success are evaluated. In situ sponge aquacultures, based on old methods for producing commercial bath sponges, are still the easiest and least expensive way to obtain sponge biomass in bulk. However, success of cultivation with this method strongly depends on the unpredictable and often suboptimal natural environment. Hence, a better-defined production system would be desirable. Some progress has been made with culturing sponges in semicontrolled systems, but these still use unfiltered natural seawater. Cultivation of sponges under completely controlled conditions has remained a problem. When designing an in vitro cultivation method, it is important to determine both qualitatively and quantitatively the nutritional demands of the species that is to be cultured. An adequate supply of food seems to be the key to successful sponge culture. Recently, some progress has been made with sponge cell cultures. The advantage of cell cultures is that they are completely controlled and can easily be manipulated for optimal production of the target metabolites. However, this technique is still in its infancy: a continuous cell line has yet to be established. Axenic cultures of sponge aggregates (primmorphs) may provide an alternative to cell culture. Some sponge metabolites are, in fact, produced by endosymbiotic bacteria or algae that live in the sponge tissue. Only a few of these endosymbionts have been cultivated so far. The biotechnology for the production of sponge metabolites needs further development. Research efforts should be continued to enable commercial exploitation of this valuable natural resource in the near future.

  11. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    . The main objective of this study was to explore the possibilities of using marine PL for food enrichment. In order to achieve the objective, the study was divided into 4 stages: i) evaluation of physico-chemical properties of marine PL emulsions, ii) evaluation of hydrolytic and oxidative stability...... of marine PL emulsions, iii) evaluation of non-enzymatic browning reactions in marine PL emulsions, iv) evaluation of sensory properties and oxidative stability of yoghurt enriched with marine PL. The obtained results showed that marine PL have good emulsifying properties and it was feasible to prepare...... marine PL emulsions with and without addition of fish oil. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition of marine PL used for emulsions preparation. For instance, emulsions with good oxidative stability could be obtained when using raw materials...

  12. Implementing Marine XML for Observed CTD Data in a Marine Data Exchange Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yongguo; FENG Yuan; CHE Zhaodong; ZHU Tieyi

    2008-01-01

    In order to archive,quality control and disseminate a large variety of marine data in a marine data exchange platform,a marine XML has been developed to encapsulate marine data,which provides an efficient means to store,transfer and display marine data.This paper first presents the details of the main marine XML elements and then gives an example showing how to transform CTD-observed data into Marine XML format,which illustrates the XML encapsulation process of marine observed data.

  13. Halogenated compounds from marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-08-09

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.

  14. Marine oils: Complex, confusing, confounded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Albert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine oils gained prominence following the report that Greenland Inuits who consumed a high-fat diet rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs also had low rates of cardiovascular disease. Marine n-3 PUFAs have since become a billion dollar industry, which will continue to grow based on current trends. However, recent systematic reviews question the health benefits of marine oil supplements, particularly in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Marine oils constitute an extremely complex dietary intervention for a number of reasons: i the many chemical compounds they contain; ii the many biological processes affected by n-3 PUFAs; iii their tendency to deteriorate and form potentially toxic primary and secondary oxidation products; and iv inaccuracy in the labelling of consumer products. These complexities may confound the clinical literature, limiting the ability to make substantive conclusions for some key health outcomes. Thus, there is a pressing need for clinical trials using marine oils whose composition has been independently verified and demonstrated to be minimally oxidised. Without such data, it is premature to conclude that n-3 PUFA rich supplements are ineffective.

  15. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Fleury

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs, synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs, obtained through the linkage of (unusual amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs.

  17. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  18. Recent Advances on Lipid Biomarkers in Marine Sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-lin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances of marine biomarker. Biomarkers of marine microorganisms are also included. It is important to the origin of marine biological and the monitor and evaluation of marine environment.

  19. European Research in Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, C.Guedes; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Incecik, A.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is presented of the results obtained in Europe by a network with a large number of research groups in the field of Marine Structures during a period of 6 years. The European Union has funded a project aimed at improving the collaboration among European research groups specialized...... in marine structures, which has led, among other results to a number of benchmark studies organized in 6 main topical areas, namely, Methods and Tools for Loads and Load Effects, Methods and Tools for Strength Assessment, Experimental Analysis of Structures, Materials and Fabrication of Structures, Methods...

  20. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  1. Marine Model Trout Farms: developments in marine RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    . This development and demonstration unit in commercial scale will during the next four years hopefully provide scientific and practical basis and support for further development in coming generations of Marine Model Trout Farms for large salmonids. The unit consist in the recirculation loop of one large fish tank...

  2. Emulsifying activity of hydrocarbonoclastic marine yeasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    Marine yeast growth on four petroleum hydrocarbons induced the production of extracellular emulsifying agents (biosurfactants). Out of the 17 marine yeast isolates tested, 7 isolates, i.e., Candida parapsilosis, C. cantarelli, C. membranae...

  3. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  4. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  5. Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...

  6. Internet vis-a-vis marine biology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.

    hosted on Internet by leading research organizations worldwide. Present paper reviews the marine biology related information available on Internet and Internet potentials for marine biologists from developing and underdeveloped nations is discussed....

  7. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  8. Marine Fungi: Their Ecology and Molecular Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas A.; Jones, Meredith D. M.; Leonard, Guy; Bass, David

    2012-01-01

    Fungi appear to be rare in marine environments. There are relatively few marine isolates in culture, and fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences are rarely recovered in marine clone library experiments (i.e., culture-independent sequence surveys of eukaryotic microbial diversity from environmental DNA samples). To explore the diversity of marine fungi, we took a broad selection of SSU rDNA data sets and calculated a summary phylogeny. Bringing these data together identified a diverse collection of marine fungi, including sequences branching close to chytrids (flagellated fungi), filamentous hypha-forming fungi, and multicellular fungi. However, the majority of the sequences branched with ascomycete and basidiomycete yeasts. We discuss evidence for 36 novel marine lineages, the majority and most divergent of which branch with the chytrids. We then investigate what these data mean for the evolutionary history of the Fungi and specifically marine-terrestrial transitions. Finally, we discuss the roles of fungi in marine ecosystems.

  9. Summary report on marine research 1988.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available , Estuaries/ Marine Linefish, Marine Pollution, Ocean Engineering and a South African contribution to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). This report includes brief statements on the activities of each of these programmes in 1988 and emphasizes...

  10. Marine fungi: their ecology and molecular diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas A; Jones, Meredith D M; Leonard, Guy; Bass, David

    2012-01-01

    Fungi appear to be rare in marine environments. There are relatively few marine isolates in culture, and fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences are rarely recovered in marine clone library experiments (i.e., culture-independent sequence surveys of eukaryotic microbial diversity from environmental DNA samples). To explore the diversity of marine fungi, we took a broad selection of SSU rDNA data sets and calculated a summary phylogeny. Bringing these data together identified a diverse collection of marine fungi, including sequences branching close to chytrids (flagellated fungi), filamentous hypha-forming fungi, and multicellular fungi. However, the majority of the sequences branched with ascomycete and basidiomycete yeasts. We discuss evidence for 36 novel marine lineages, the majority and most divergent of which branch with the chytrids. We then investigate what these data mean for the evolutionary history of the Fungi and specifically marine-terrestrial transitions. Finally, we discuss the roles of fungi in marine ecosystems.

  11. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Marine biodiversity is threatened in India because of several developmental pressures. Marine biologists of India are identifying the coastal and offshore areas of India for conservation. Some of these areas have been declared as Biosphere Reserves...

  12. Alaska Marine Mammal Strandings/Entanglements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database represents a summary of information on stranded marine mammals reported to NMFS throughout the State of Alaska in fulfillment of Title IV of the Marine...

  13. Fungi from marine habitats: Application in bioremediation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    This paper synthesizes the work done on decolourization of bleach plant effluent and synthetic dyes using fungi from marine habitats. Three fungi obtained from marine habitats removed up to 60-95% of Kraft paper mill bleach plant effluent colour...

  14. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  15. Whale Multi-Disciplinary Studies: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit deals with whales, whaling lore and history, and the interaction of the whale with the complex marine ecosystem. It seeks to teach adaptation of marine organisms. It portrays the concept that man is part of the marine ecosystem and man's activities can deplete and degrade marine ecosystems, endangering the survival of…

  16. 78 FR 51147 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... marine mammal habitat are associated with elevated sound levels produced by airguns and vessels and their... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC563 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska...

  17. 77 FR 23547 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River Crossing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Columbia River originates on the west slope of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and flows approximately 1,200... Part 217 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River... Administration 50 CFR Part 217 RIN 0648-BB16 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine...

  18. Biomedical Applications of Enzymes From Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, K; Sivaperumal, P

    Marine microbial enzyme technologies have progressed significantly in the last few decades for different applications. Among the various microorganisms, marine actinobacterial enzymes have significant active properties, which could allow them to be biocatalysts with tremendous bioactive metabolites. Moreover, marine actinobacteria have been considered as biofactories, since their enzymes fulfill biomedical and industrial needs. In this chapter, the marine actinobacteria and their enzymes' uses in biological activities and biomedical applications are described. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Marine Yeasts and Their Applications in Mariculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; LIU Zhiqiang; GAO Lingmei; GONG Fang; MA Chunling; WANG Xianghong; LI Haifeng

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial yeasts have been receiving great attention in science and industry for over one hundred years because they can produce many kinds of bioactive substances. However, little is known about the bioactive substances of marine yeasts. In recent years, it has been found that marine yeasts have wide applications in mariculture and other fields.Therefore, marine yeasts, the bioactive substances from them and the applications of marine yeasts themselves and the bioactive substances they produced are reviewed in this paper.

  20. Preface to: Special issue on Marine mycology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    , Bremerhaven, Germany (presently known as Alfred Wegner Institute for Marine and Polar Research). The contributions of the second symposium resulted in publication of 2 volumes in 1974 on Marine Mycology from Bremerhaven, Germany. The contributions from... the fourth symposium were published in The Biology of Marine Fungi by the late S.T.Moss from the Portsmouth Polytechnic in 1986. Interestingly, the books so far were exclusively devoted to true or obligate marine fungi but several papers describing...

  1. Les Biotechnologies Marines dans le Grand Ouest

    OpenAIRE

    Boyen, Catherine; Jaouen, Pascal; Blanchard, Gilbert; Compere, Chantal; Dufour, Alain; Durand, Patrick; Guerard, Fabienne; Hallouin, Florence; Jebbar, Mohamed; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Le Deit, Hervé; Le Seyec, Jocelyne; Monks, Brian; Portal-sellin, Rachel; Probert, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Marine (= blue) biotechnology, i.e. the utilization of marine bio-resources as a target or source of biotechnological applications, is a field with massive potential for innovation and economic growth. In a context of rapid climate change and increasing pressure on natural resources, renewed interest in marine biotechnology has been promoted by application of recent methodological and technological advances, notably in bioprocessing and in the various –omics domains, to the study of marine bi...

  2. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1981): Marine Mammal Specimens (F025) (NODC Accession 0014150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  3. Islamic Cultural Sensitivity in the Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-19

    Marine Corps. Others argue that the newly revised Counterinsurgency Field Manual and implementation of the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program...also argued that the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program highlights the fact that issues such as winning the hearts and minds and respect for

  4. Marine actinobacteria: perspectives, challenges, future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Alan T; Stach, James E M; Ward, Alan C; Goodfellow, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the current state of research on the biology and biotechnology of marine actinobacteria. The topics covered include the abundance, diversity, novelty and biogeographic distribution of marine actinobacteria, ecosystem function, bioprospecting, and a new approach to the exploration of actinobacterial taxonomic space. An agenda for future marine actinobacterial research is suggested based upon consideration of the above issues.

  5. NPS Ocean Acoustics Laboratory Marine Mammal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Ching-Sang; Collins, Curtis; Joseph, John; Margolina, Tetyana; Stimpert, Alison; Miller, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Marine Mammal Group within the Ocean Acoustics Laboratory at NPS is involved with a range of research studying marine mammal acoustics , both sound production and effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals. A sampling of our research is described below.

  6. Identification & Registration of Marine Animals (IRMA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Verboom, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about habitats and behaviour of marine animals has become more important following an increased concern that acoustic sources may have an influence on marine life. Databases containing the habitats and behaviour are being filled all over the world. However, at present marine mammal watcher

  7. Jobs in Marine Science. Job Family Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of marine science. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of oceanography and marine-related careers. A shore research station and the activities of a marine biologist are…

  8. Unlocking Marine Biotechnology in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cristiane C; Kruger, Ricardo H; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2017-09-07

    Fulfilling the promise of marine biotechnology as a source for environmental and biomedical applications remains challenging. New technologies will be necessary to harness marine biodiversity, and collaboration across government, academic, and private sectors will be crucial to create mechanisms of technology transfer and promote the development of new marine biotechnology companies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  10. Bioactive terpenes from marine-derived fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissawy, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S; Singab, AbdelNasser B; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-03

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years' reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  11. Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Violetta F.

    This is the second of two volumes comprising a resource unit designed to help students become more knowledgeable about the marine environment and its resources. Included in this volume are discussions of changes in the human and marine environment, human needs, marine resources, living marine resources, marine transportation, marine energy…

  12. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Siddiqui, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing mechanical ventilation.

  13. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America (BA) program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing.

  14. Marine Planning Benefits the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are management approaches that allow sustainable coastal and ocean planning. The basic unit of management under CMSP is a large region, with the United States coastlines and Great Lakes divided into ...

  15. Blood rheology in marine mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Castellini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals.

  16. Marine Mammals and Stress Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Columbia, Marine Mamal Energetics and Nutritional Laboratory. “Stress in Otariids What causes it? How do you measure it? What does it do?”. Black...become a stressor – artificially created allostatic load – ie distance to swim for food with shrinking ice pack VII. Conclusions.

  17. Perspectives in Marine Citizen Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bear

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science can be defined as the process by which any non-scientist collects data or uses the scientific method under the guidance or mentorship of a scientist. This article presents an overview of several marine citizen-science projects as practiced by three non-profit organizations.

  18. Kvalitetsvurderingssystem for habitatdirektivets marine naturtyper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, K.; Larsen, M. M.; Rasmussen, M. B.;

    26. marts 2004 er der udgivet en engelsk version (bl.a udvidet med en længere beskrivelse af overvågningsprogrammet) i NERI Technical Report no. 488: Tools to assess the conservation status of marine Annex 1 habitats in Special Areas of Conservation. Phase 1: Identification of potential indicators...

  19. Marine Natural Products Against Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Nora De Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products represent an outstanding source of compounds that play an important role in the treatment of human diseases. Due to the importance of nature as a source of new drug candidates, the aim of this review is to highlight the marine natural products, which exhibit antituberculosis activity, discovered between 2000 and 2005.

  20. Corrosion Failures in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krishnan

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of typical marine environments and the most common form of corrosion of materials used in this environment. Some typical case histories of failures pertaining to pitting, bimetallic corrosion, dealloying, cavitation and stress corrosion cracking are illustrated as typical examples of corrosion failures.

  1. Black carbon in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of black carbon were determined for a number of marine sediments. A comparison of black carbon based on thermal oxidation and hot concentrated nitric acid pretreatments revealed that the latter significantly overestimates combustion derived carbon phases. Black carbon accounts for

  2. Performance optimization of marine propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Sup Lee

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, a design method for increasing performance of the marine propellers including the WCT propeller is suggested. It is described to maximize the performance of the propeller by adjusting expanded areas of the propeller blade. Results show that efficiency can be increased up to over 2% through the suggested design method.

  3. Perspectives in Marine Citizen Science

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science can be defined as the process by which any non-scientist collects data or uses the scientific method under the guidance or mentorship of a scientist. This article presents an overview of several marine citizen-science projects as practiced by three non-profit organizations.

  4. Marine Corps Drug Prevention Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    67 APPENDIX A: SUPPLEMENTAL FOCUS GROUP TOPICS.................................................... 67 Poolees...little cost. One DDRC pointed out examples of Air Force bases having plenty of accessible and available gyms , as well as many basketball courts. She...conflicting roles put SACOs at a disadvantage in fulfilling their assignments. They must simultaneously teach, befriend, and monitor the Marines in

  5. Wind Retrieval using Marine Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    Interaction (HiRes) DRI the NATO Undersea Research Center ( NURC ) wants to develop and validate methodologies to retrieve wind field parameters from X-band...marine radar. The main parameters NURC will focus on are the mean surface wind vector as well as the wind gusts in vicinity of the measurement platform

  6. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  7. Marine Picoeukaryotes in Cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nikolaj

    Picoeukaryotes form an important part of marine ecosystems, both as primary producers, bacterial grazers and parasites. The Arctic is experiencing accelerated global warming and picoeukaryotes may thus be considered to be at the forefront of climate change. This PhD thesis sets out to investigate...

  8. Marine Picoeukaryotes in Cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nikolaj

    Picoeukaryotes form an important part of marine ecosystems, both as primary producers, bacterial grazers and parasites. The Arctic is experiencing accelerated global warming and picoeukaryotes may thus be considered to be at the forefront of climate change. This PhD thesis sets out to investigate...

  9. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact ...

  10. Marine benthic algae of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Rull Lluch

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The first comprehensive study of the marine algal flora of Namibia including descriptions and illustrations of most species is presented. The main objective of this work is to report a flora that, until now, has scarcely been studied. The work compiles all the available information on the marine benthic flora of Namibia and provides new data about it composition and biogeography, as well as detailed descriptions and remarks of most of its species. The samples on which this study is based were collected between 1986 and 1989 in the eulittoral and the upper sublittoral zones of the north half of the Namibian coast. According to the present data, the marine benthic flora of Namibia comprises 196 taxa (147 Rhodophyceae, 20 Phaeophyceae, 15 Ulvophyceae, 6 Cladophorophyceae and 8 Bryopsidophyceae, 21 of which has not been recorded from this coasts. This temperate flora is mainly characterized by a low number of species, a low proportion of Phaeophyceae and a high degree of endemism. Concerning the species number, the flora is quite poor due to both the scarce availability of colonizable substratum and the low diversity of habitats. On the other hand, the low proportion of Phaeophyceae is the reason for which the R/P and (R+C/P ratios take disproportionately high values and so they are not useful in this geographical area. As regards the degree of endemism, the marine benthic flora of Namibia includes quite a high number of taxa endemic to southern Africa (55 taxa; 28.1% of the flora; 25 of these 55 taxa (12.8% of the flora are endemic to the biogeographic Benguela Marine Province and only Acrosorium cincinnatum is endemic to the Namibian coasts.

  11. 15 CFR 922.73 - Additional prohibited or otherwise regulated activities-marine reserves and marine conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... regulated activities-marine reserves and marine conservation area. 922.73 Section 922.73 Commerce and... otherwise regulated activities—marine reserves and marine conservation area. (a) Marine reserves. Unless... thus unlawful for any person to conduct or cause to be conducted within a marine reserve described...

  12. Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Velcheva, Maya; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Marinova, Veselka

    2017-04-01

    MARLEN - Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools is a project under the Programme BG02.03: Increased capacity for assessing and predicting environmental status in marine and inland waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Burgas municipality and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. Initial assessment of ecological state of Bulgarian marine waters showed lack of data for some descriptors of MSFD. The main goal of MARLEN is to build up tools for assessment of marine environment by implementing new technologies and best practices for addressing three main areas of interest with lack of marine data in particular: a) Marine litter detection and classification in coastal areas; b) Regular near real time surface water eutrophication monitoring on large aquatory; c) Underwater noise monitoring. Developed tools are an important source of real time, near real time and delay mode marine data for Bulgarian Black Sea waters. The partnership within the project increased capacity for environmental assessments and training of personnel and enhances collaboration between scientific institutes, regional and local authorities. Project results supported implementation of MSFD in Bulgarian marine waters for the benefit of coastal population, marine industry, tourism, marine research and marine spatial planning.

  13. Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Paula; DʼAuria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications.

  14. China Lags behind in Marine Resources Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢布; 杨瑞珍; 陈印军; 吴凯; 张燕卿

    2007-01-01

    With the growing need for resources brought about by economic development, countries throughout the world have attached greater importance to the development and exploitation of marine resources.However,the scope and sphere of marine resources development are limited by the development level of marine resources technology.This paper introduces the achievements and problems of China’s marine resources development and exploitation,as well as the achievements,advantages and disadvantages in the scientific and technological development of our marine resources.It also discusses the general aims,key fields,preferred options and advanced techniques in the development of marine resources technology during the 11th Five-Year Plan,and offers policy suggestions for enhancing the creative abilities of marine resources technology.

  15. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J. [ESR:Environmental, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  16. An assessment of natural product discovery from marine (sensu strictu) and marine-derived fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David P.; Bayman, Paul; Kerr, Russell G.; Bills, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The natural products community has been investigating secondary metabolites from marine fungi for several decades, but when one attempts to search for validated reports of new natural products from marine fungi, one encounters a literature saturated with reports from ‘marine-derived’ fungi. Of the 1000+ metabolites that have been characterized to date, only approximately 80 of these have been isolated from species from exclusively marine lineages. These metabolites are summarized here along with the lifestyle and habitats of their producing organisms. Furthermore, we address some of the reasons for the apparent disconnect between the stated objectives of discovering new chemistry from marine organisms and the apparent neglect of the truly exceptional obligate marine fungi. We also offer suggestions on how to reinvigorate enthusiasm for marine natural products discovery from fungi from exclusive marine lineages and highlight the need for critically assessing the role of apparently terrestrial fungi in the marine environment. PMID:25379338

  17. New marine science organization formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Warren S.

    A new international organization, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) will be established to promote and coordinate marine scientific research in the northern North Pacific Ocean and the Berlin Sea. This was decided in Ottawa on December 12, 1990, when a draft convention was approved by representatives of Canada, China, Japan, the United States, and the Soviet Union. PICES will focus on research on the ocean environment and its interactions with land and atmosphere, its role and response to global weather and climate change, its flora, fauna and ecosystems, its uses and resources, and impacts upon it from human activities. Such studies relate not only to the effects of fishing and environmental change on fish stocks but also to such issues as the impacts of oil spills and other forms of pollution and the eventual consequences of climate change for uses of the ocean and its resources.

  18. Biological importance of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  19. Microplastics in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L

    2011-08-01

    This review discusses the mechanisms of generation and potential impacts of microplastics in the ocean environment. Weathering degradation of plastics on the beaches results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that are carried into water by wind or wave action. Unlike inorganic fines present in sea water, microplastics concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by partition. The relevant distribution coefficients for common POPs are several orders of magnitude in favour of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of POPs can be ingested by marine biota. Bioavailability and the efficiency of transfer of the ingested POPs across trophic levels are not known and the potential damage posed by these to the marine ecosystem has yet to be quantified and modelled. Given the increasing levels of plastic pollution of the oceans it is important to better understand the impact of microplastics in the ocean food web.

  20. Parasites in marine food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  1. Study of marine magnetic field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.

    (COB) is again both a basic scientific requirement as well at some places is a requirement under the UNCLOS related Legal Continental Shelf demarcation purpose. In the oceanic areas, the marine magnetic studies are one of the essential tools... oceans increased, more and more deviations from this simplified model, such as propagating ridges and overlapping spreading centers were discovered. These observations enabled the study of new aspects of seafloor spreading process beyond the initial...

  2. Bioactive alkaloids from marine sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Majik, M.S.

    to their special environmental and oceanographic condition. Combination of knowledge of multidisciplinary sciences such as natural product chemistry, ecology, biology and medicinal chemistry has inspired researchers for the development of many of the most... successful medicines in particular from marine resources. In ocean, water pressure, temperature, light salt contents etc. play an important role in ad- aptation of flora and fauna. As a result, species inhabiting these depths adapt their biochemical ma...

  3. Collocations in Marine Engineering English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Borucinsky

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Collocations are very frequent in the English language (Hill, 2000, and they are probably the most common and most representative of English multi-word expressions (Lewis, 2000. Furthermore, as a subset of formulaic sequences, collocations are considered to be a central aspect of communicative competence (Nation, 2001. Hence, the importance of teaching collocations in General English (GE as well as in English for Specific Purposes (ESP is undeniable. Understanding and determining the relevant collocations and their mastery are of “utmost importance to a ME instructor” (Cole et al., 2007, p. 137, and collocations are one of the most productive ways of enriching vocabulary and terminology in modern ME. Vişan & Georgescu (2011 have undertaken a relevant study on  collocations and “collocational competence” on board ships, including mostly nautical terminology. However, no substantial work on collocations in Marine Engineering English as a sub-register of ME has been carried out. Hence, this paper tries to determine the most important collocations in Marine Engineering English, based on a small corpus of collected e-mails. After determining the most relevant collocations, we suggest how to implement these in the language classroom and how to improve the collocational competence of marine engineering students.

  4. Genomics and marine microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Genomics has brought about a revolution in all fields of biology. Before the development of microbial ecology in the 1970s, microbes were not even considered in marine ecological studies. Today we know that half of the total primary production of the planet must be credited to microorganisms. This and other discoveries have changed dramatically the perspective and the focus of marine microbial ecology. The application of genomics-based approaches has provided new challenges and has allowed the discovery of novel functions, an appreciation of the great diversity of microorganisms, and the introduction of controversial ideas regarding the concepts of species, genome, and niche. Nevertheless, thorough knowledge of the traditional disciplines of biology is necessary to explore the possibilities arising from these new insights. This work reviews the different genomic techniques that can be applied to marine microbial ecology, including both sequencing of the complete genomes of microorganisms and metagenomics, which, in turn, can be complemented with the study of mRNAs (transcriptomics) and proteins (proteomics). The example of proteorhodopsin illustrates the type of information that can be gained from these approaches. A genomics perspective constitutes a map that will allow microbiologists to focus their research on potentially more productive aspects.

  5. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  6. Theory and Practice of Marine Regional Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangjie; JI; Qunzhen; QU

    2014-01-01

    With the development of marine economy in coastal provinces and cities,there comes a series of environmental problems. Marine regional management,as a completely new marine management mode,transforms traditional management mode and can protect marine ecosystem. Thus,the marine regional management is feasible and applicable in China. This paper firstly discussed connotation and development of the marine regional management in China and pointed that the marine regional management is integrated management of a certain marine region. Next,it summarized characteristics of the marine regional management at current stage,for example,land-based pollution of trans-geographic system and marine management under regional government cooperative mechanism. Finally,it came up with recommendations including combining theory and practice of the marine regional management,and establishing marine regional management system as soon as possible,to realize benign interaction and sustainable development of marine economy and ecological environment.

  7. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  8. Diversity and biogeography of marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan C; Bora, Nagamani

    2006-06-01

    The actinomycetes, although not all the Actinobacteria, are easy to isolate from the marine environment. However, their ecological role in the marine ecosystem is largely neglected and various assumptions meant there was little incentive to isolate strains for search and discovery of new drugs. However, the marine environment has become a prime resource in search and discovery for novel natural products and biological diversity, and marine actinomycetes turn out to be important contributors. Similarly, striking advances have been made in marine microbial ecology using molecular techniques and metagenomics, and actinobacteria emerge as an often significant, sometimes even dominant, environmental clade. Both approaches - cultivation methods and molecular techniques - are leading to new insights into marine actinobacterial biodiversity and biogeography. Very different views of actinobacterial diversity emerge from these, however, and the true extent and biogeography of this are still not clear. These are important for developing natural product search and discovery strategies, and biogeography is a hot topic for microbial ecologists.

  9. [Biologically active metabolites of the marine actinobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskaia, M P; Kuznetsova, T A

    2010-01-01

    This review systematically data on the chemical structure and biological activity of metabolites of obligate and facultative marine actinobacteria, published from 2000 to 2007. We discuss some structural features of the five groups of metabolites related to macrolides and compounds containing lactone, quinone and diketopiperazine residues, cyclic peptides, alkaloids, and compounds of mixed biosynthesis. Survey shows a large chemical diversity of metabolites actinobacteria isolated from marine environment. It is shown that, along with metabolites, identical to previously isolated from terrestrial actinobacteria, marine actinobacteria synthesize unknown compounds not found in other natural sources, including micro organisms. Perhaps the biosynthesis of new chemotypes bioactive compounds in marine actinobacteria is one manifestation of chemical adaptation of microorganisms to environmental conditions at sea. Review stresses the importance of the chemical study of metabolites of marine actinobacteria. These studies are aimed at obtaining new data on marine microorganisms producers of biologically active compounds and chemical structure and biological activity of new low-molecular bioregulators of natural origin.

  10. Marine reserves: size and age do matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning.

  11. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE ECONOMY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao-guang; DONG Li-jing; YANG Jun; WANG Sheng-yun; SONG Xin-ru

    2004-01-01

    China is a large marine country. Developing marine economy is an effective way to solve a series of problems with which man is faced, such as the want of natural resources, space limitation, the environmental deterioration, etc. This article analyzes the rich resources of marine biology, harbor, offshore oil and natural gas and coastal tourism resources in China and describes the developing features and regional differences of marine economy. To realize the sustainable development of marine economy in China, what we need to do are as follows: 1) to list exploiting ocean into national development strategy; 2) to realize integrated economy of sea and land; 3) to develop ocean by science and technology; 4) to perfect legal institution of marine environment; 5) to establish new idea of sea defending.

  12. Bali: Between Cultural and Marine Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Darma Putra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper discusses the potential of marine tourism in Bali and its contribution toward the development of sustainable tourism. While marine and cultural tourism form two distinct categories, in Bali there are many cultural activities that take place on beaches, or coastal areas that become unique tourist attractions. Therefore, in this paper, I willalso introduce an expanded view of marine tourism that would include, for instance, the observation of processions and rituals on beaches. Exploring the interconnections between marine and cultural tourism may help us come upwith new strategies for the sustainability of tourism in Bali as a whole. In addition to aiming at sharing the experiences of Bali in managing and promoting its marine tourism potential, this paper also seeks feedback on better waysto manage marine tourism in order to achieve tourism sustainability for the island.

  13. Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-01-01

    Marine biosphere offers wealthy flora and fauna, which represents a vast natural resource of imperative functional commercial grade products. Among the various bioactive compounds, biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifiers (BE) are attracting major interest and attention due to their structural and functional diversity. The versatile properties of surface active molecules find numerous applications in various industries. Marine microorganisms such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Myroides, Corynebacteria, Bacillus, Alteromonas sp. have been studied for production of BS/BE and exopolysaccharides (EPS). Due to the enormity of marine biosphere, most of the marine microbial world remains unexplored. The discovery of potent BS/BE producing marine microorganism would enhance the use of environmental biodegradable surface active molecule and hopefully reduce total dependence or number of new application oriented towards the chemical synthetic surfactant industry. Our present review gives comprehensive information on BS/BE which has been reported to be produced by marine microorganisms and their possible potential future applications.

  14. Distribution and diversity of marine natural products from Indonesian marine organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MasteriaYunovilsa Putra; Tutik Murniasih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution and diversity of species and isolated molecules, according to their structure classes, from Indonesian marine organisms. Methods: This study was performed by using the SciFinder® database, MarinLit and references from relevant articles from 1980 to 2014 which collected all the scientific publications dealing with the isolation of chemical compounds from Indonesian marine macroorganisms and microorganisms. Results: The discovery of novel compounds from Indonesian marine organisms gave us a result of a total of 78 papers. Alkaloids, terpenoids and peptides (84, 67 and 15 new compounds, respectively) represented the three main chemical classes of compounds discovered from Indonesian marine organisms, and together with the other chemical classes showed a range of biological activities. Conclusions: The new marine compounds are mainly from sponges and soft corals. Alkaloids, terpenoids and peptides are the most prolific compounds isolated from Indonesian marine organisms. Most marine natural products from Indonesian organisms have been screened for anticancer or cytotoxicity activities.

  15. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  16. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  17. Marine Biotechnology: A New Vision and Strategy for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querellou, J.; Børresen, T.; Boyen, C.; Dobson, A.; Höfle, M.; Ianora, A.; Jaspars, M.; Kijjoa, A.; Olafsen, J.; Rigos, G.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Marine Board-ESF The Marine Board provides a pan-European platform for its member organisations to develop common priorities, to advance marine research, and to bridge the gap between science and policy in order to meet future marine science challenges and opportunities. The Marine Board was establi

  18. 77 FR 25145 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ....D., Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua... conduct acoustic studies on captive marine mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through May... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA37 Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857...

  19. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by take or...

  20. Marine Biotechnology: A New Vision and Strategy for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querellou, J.; Børresen, T.; Boyen, C.; Dobson, A.; Höfle, M.; Ianora, A.; Jaspars, M.; Kijjoa, A.; Olafsen, J.; Rigos, G.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Marine Board-ESF The Marine Board provides a pan-European platform for its member organisations to develop common priorities, to advance marine research, and to bridge the gap between science and policy in order to meet future marine science challenges and opportunities. The Marine Board was

  1. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Marine Geology , 209, 147-172, (2004). Jiang, Y. and N.R. Chapman. The Impact of Ocean Sound Speed Variability on the Uncertainty of Geoacoustic...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments N. Ross...our understanding of the interaction of sound with the ocean bottom is the frequency dependence of sound speed and attenuation in marine sediments

  2. Marine Habitat Mapping for the Norwegian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Noji, Thomas; Thorsnes, Terje; Fosså, Jan Helge

    2000-01-01

    An initiative is currently being taken by several Norwegian organizations to obtain funds to intensify ongoing investigations on marine sea-floor mapping off Norway. Led by the Geological Survey of Norway and Institute of Marine Research, planning during the last two years has led to the inception of a large-scale mapping project entitled “MAREANO - Marine Areal Database for the Norwegian Sea”. The investigation area covers 270 000 km2 of the shelf and deep sea off the central ...

  3. Microbial ecology of marinated meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Björkroth, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    www.elsevier.com/locate/meatsci Marinated meat products are consumed increasingly because they are convenient in meal preparing. In addition to sensory effects, marinating has been considered to increase product safety and shelf life quality. There are variations in meat marinating technologies around the world. In Finland, marinades are complex sauces which have a great effect on product appearance and taste. They are water-oil emulsions typically containing salt, sugar and acids (acetic,...

  4. Marine Corps expeditionary rifle platoon energy burden

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2009, the Commandant of the Marine Corps declared energy a top priority and created the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office to develop an energy strategy to reduce and optimize energy usage throughout the Marine Corps. This thesis examines the operational tasks and capabilities that drive the current USMC rifle platoon’s energy burdens using an Expeditionary Warrior 2012 war-game scenario. The primary conclusion of ...

  5. A review of marine biodiversity information resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kwangtsao Shao; Han Lee; Yungchang Lin; Kunchi Lai

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiversity of marine remains high, it increasingly suffers from human interference and destruction. The world’s largest open, online, georeferenced database is the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS); it has information on a total of 120,000 species with 37 million records. The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) has collected taxonomic information on 220,000 global marine species. Besides these two large databases, three single-taxa databases were established for ma...

  6. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications. This study investigates the influence of biodiesel blend on the characteristics of residual and distillate marine fuels. Adequate correlation equations are applied to calculate the fuel properties of the blended marine fuels with biodiesel. Residual marine fuel RMA has inferior fuel ch...

  7. Evaluation of impairment of DNA in marine gastropod, Morula granulata as a biomarker of marine pollution.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Bhagat, J.; Sarker, S.

    et al., 1994). In order to assess the health of the ‘marine environment’ the quality and the status of marine life especially in coastal areas, it is of urgent necessity for reliable tools to express the effects of anthropogenic impact on biological... systems. The condition of environmental health of a marine ecosystem cannot always be diagnosed by only chemical analysis of the water, as it does not provide any information about the physiological status of the organisms exposed to marine pollutants...

  8. Intertemporal Choice of Marine Ecosystem Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    The term ``Fishing Down Marine Food Webs'' describes the gradual transition in landing from marine ecosystems towards organisms lower in the food web. To address this issue and the need to manage the marine ecosystem in a broader perspective, Ecosystem Management is recommended. Ecosystem...... the ability of an ecosystem to sustain total volume of harvest. Given the two aspects of intertemporal choice revealed by the model, the conclusion must be that the Fishing Down Marine Food Webs is probably driven by the current management's inability to conduct adequate intertemporal balancing; therefore...

  9. Therapeutically Active Biomolecules from Marine Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Jayaprakashvel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the past few centuries, the biological sources of terrestrial origin have been explored and exploited for bioactive metabolites. This has resulted in the stagnancy of discovering either novel compounds or compounds with novel bioactivities. Thus, researchers across the globe have started exploring our big Oceans, for the search of bioactive metabolites. During the past few decades, the research on bioactive metabolites from marine biological resources has geared up and among the sources marine actinomycetes are proved to be best. Marine actinomycetes, the filamentous bacteria from marine environment have been intensively studied for bioactive metabolites. The biological diversity of marine actinomycetes was found to be enormous, thanks to culture dependent and culture independent biodiversity approaches. This great diversity of marine actinomycetes has offered greater chemical diversity. The diverse chemical compounds of marine actinomycetes have been found to have various biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-malarial, anti-algal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory etc. These various bioactive metabolites of marine actinomycetes are having scope for developing as potent therapeutic agents. The potential of marine actinomycetes is rightly realized though the current biological wealth of these organisms isrelatively unexplored.

  10. Les Biotechnologies Marines dans le Grand Ouest

    OpenAIRE

    Boyen, Catherine; Jaouen, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Travaux d'un groupe de réflexion au sein de l'Europole Mer sur le thème des biotechnologies marines.; Marine (= blue) biotechnology, i.e. the utilization of marine bio-resources as a target or source of biotechnologicalapplications, is a field with massive potential for innovation and economic growth. In a context of rapid climate change and increasing pressure on natural resources, renewed interest in marine biotechnology has been promoted by application of recent methodological and technolo...

  11. 76 FR 41486 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    .... Potential acoustic effects on marine mammals relate to sound produced by thrusters during maneuvering of the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals... Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended, and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that...

  12. 77 FR 46733 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Navy stated that it will explore the value of adding field measurements during monitoring of a future... of killing marine life. Response: NMFS appreciates the commenter's concern for the marine mammals... awareness on the presence of marine mammals and sea turtles within the buffer zone to the best...

  13. 75 FR 952 - Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge... of biodegradable effluent incidental to vessel use and generated by marine sanitation devices, and to require marine sanitation devices be locked to prevent discharges into the sanctuary. DATES:...

  14. Marine habitat mapping at Labuan Marine Park, Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustajap, Fazliana; Saleh, Ejria; Madin, John; Hamid, Shahimah Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Marine habitat mapping has recently become essential in coastal marine science research. It is one of the efforts to understand marine ecosystems, and thus to protect them. Habitat mapping is integral to marine-related industries such as fisheries, aquaculture, forestry and tourism. An assessment of marine habitat mapping was conducted at Labuan Marine Park (LMP), a marine protected area in the Federal Territory of Labuan. It is surrounded by shallow water within its islands (Kuraman, Rusukan Kecil and Rusukan Besar) with an area of 39.7 km2. The objectives of the study are to identify the substrate and types of marine habitat present within the park. Side scan sonar (SSS) (Aquascan TM) was used to determine the substrates and habitat while ground truthings were done through field observation and SCUBA diving survey. Seabed classification and marine habitat was based on NOAA's biogeography program. Three substrate types (sand, rock, silt) were identified in this area. The major marine habitats identified are corals, macro algae and small patches of sea grass. The study area is an important refuge for spawning and juvenile fish and supports the livelihood of the coastal communities on Labuan Island. Therefore, proper management is crucial in order to better maintain the marine protected area. The findings are significant and provide detailed baseline information on marine habitat for conservation, protection and future management in LMP.

  15. Marine reserves with ecological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, R Quentin; Kompas, Tom; Lindenmayer, David

    2005-09-01

    To help manage the fluctuations inherent in fish populations scientists have argued for both an ecosystem approach to management and the greater use of marine reserves. Support for reserves includes empirical evidence that they can raise the spawning biomass and mean size of exploited populations, increase the abundance of species and, relative to reference sites, raise population density, biomass, fish size and diversity. By contrast, fishers often oppose the establishment and expansion of marine reserves and claim that reserves provide few, if any, economic payoffs. Using a stochastic optimal control model with two forms of ecological uncertainty we demonstrate that reserves create a resilience effect that allows for the population to recover faster, and can also raise the harvest immediately following a negative shock. The tradeoff of a larger reserve is a reduced harvest in the absence of a negative shock such that a reserve will never encompass the entire population if the goal is to maximize the economic returns from harvesting, and fishing is profitable. Under a wide range of parameter values with ecological uncertainty, and in the 'worst case' scenario for a reserve, we show that a marine reserve can increase the economic payoff to fishers even when the harvested population is not initially overexploited, harvesting is economically optimal and the population is persistent. Moreover, we show that the benefits of a reserve cannot be achieved by existing effort or output controls. Our results demonstrate that, in many cases, there is no tradeoff between the economic payoff of fishers and ecological benefits when a reserve is established at equal to, or less than, its optimum size.

  16. Marine oil spill contingency planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the practice researching and formulating "The Oil Spill Contingency Plan of South Chinese Sea", this paper analyses and discusses the structure, functions and main contents of marine oil spill contingency planning, programs the organizing and commanding system and emergency response system, and advances the planning and researching method to coordinate comprehensively and to design practically the detailed emergency response steps until to formulate the ease operating programs for the plan implementation (PPI) and the PPI to apply high-techniques supporting emergency administrations and response.

  17. Chemical ecology of marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Emily R; Poulin, Remington X; Mojib, Nazia; Kubanek, Julia

    2016-07-28

    Covering: January 2013 to online publication December 2014This review summarizes recent research in the chemical ecology of marine pelagic ecosystems, and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the field in the time period covered. In order to highlight the role of chemical cues and toxins in plankton ecology this review has been organized by ecological interaction types starting with intraspecific interactions, then interspecific interactions (including facilitation and mutualism, host-parasite, allelopathy, and predator-prey), and finally community and ecosystem-wide interactions.

  18. Marine Structural Analysis and Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    王迎光编上海交通大学出版社出版定价:$68.00内容简介:The material in this book has been continuously developed since the author started to teach Modern Ship Structural Design in the Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering of Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2004.The subject of marine structural analysis and design is so broad that it is not possible to incorporate every aspect of this sub-

  19. Ancient advice for modern mariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David A.

    Some unusual preparations may be advised for persons anticipating voyages in sailing research vessels. For example, cooking facilities on sailing ships tend to be of modest means, and a scientist embarking on such a vessel may wonder whether he should bring his own essential provisions. Casting about for ideas, I happened on some relevant advice from Benjamin Franklin, who was seldom reluctant to sermonize on matters at hand. In spite of his numerous Atlantic crossings, Franklin was humble about offering advice to mariners, who he realized were generally suspicious of landlubbers.

  20. Marine Disaster Reduction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    State Ocean Administration

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Coastal economic-social development and marine disaster The ocean covers 71% of the earth's surface. It is the cradle of life on earth, the treasure of resources and an important adjuster of the environment. Now we have come to realize that exploration of the ocean is an important solution to global issues including resource shortage,population explosion and environmental degradation. Man must rely more and more on the ocean in order to achieve sustainable development. The 21st Century will be a century of the ocean.

  1. A new marine propulsion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei-shi; LIU Tao

    2003-01-01

    A new marine propulsion system is proposed . A small liquid sodium cooled reactor acts as prime mover; alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cells are employed to convert the heat energy to electricity; superconducting magneto-hydrodynamic thruster combined with spray-water thruster works as propulsion. The configuration and characteristics of this system are described. Such a nuclear-powered propulsion system is not only free of noise, but also has high reliability and efficiency. It would be a preferable propulsion system for ships in the future.

  2. Marine and other aquatic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandhyala Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  3. Health risks for marine mammal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tania D; Ziccardi, Michael H; Gulland, Frances M D; Yochem, Pamela K; Hird, David W; Rowles, Teresa; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2008-08-19

    Marine mammals can be infected with zoonotic pathogens and show clinical signs of disease, or be asymptomatic carriers of such disease agents. While isolated cases of human disease from contact with marine mammals have been reported, no evaluation of the risks associated with marine mammal work has been attempted. Therefore, we designed a survey to estimate the risk of work-related injuries and illnesses in marine mammal workers and volunteers. The 17-question survey asked respondents to describe their contact with marine mammals, injuries sustained, and/or illnesses acquired during their period of marine mammal exposure. Most respondents, 88% (423/483), were researchers and rehabilitators. Of all respondents, 50% (243/483) reported suffering an injury caused by a marine mammal, and 23% (110/483) reported having a skin rash or reaction. Marine mammal work-related illnesses commonly reported included: 'seal finger' (Mycoplasma spp. or Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae), conjunctivitis, viral dermatitis, bacterial dermatitis, and non-specific contact dermatitis. Although specific diagnoses could not be confirmed by a physician through this study, severe illnesses were reported and included tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis, and serious sequelae to seal finger. Risk factors associated with increased odds of injury and illness included prolonged and frequent exposure to marine mammals; direct contact with live marine mammals; and contact with tissue, blood, and excretions. Diagnosis of zoonotic disease was often aided by veterinarians; therefore, workers at risk should be encouraged to consult with a marine mammal veterinarian as well as a physician, especially if obtaining a definitive diagnosis for an illness becomes problematic.

  4. 75 FR 14425 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... research on marine mammal population ecology, diet and nutrition, reproductive physiology, toxicology, and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT56 Marine Mammals; File No. 14486 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  5. Alexandru A. Marin (1945 - 2005)

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Ahlen; G. Mikenberg; F. Taylor; B. Zhou

    It is with great sorrow that we report that ATLAS Physicist Alexandru (Alex) A. Marin passed away November 14, 2005 in Geneva. He died after a courageous two-week struggle against necrotizing fasciitis, a very rare and rapidly progressing destructive infection. Employed by Boston University and working at Harvard University, Alex was a productive and popular member of the ATLAS muon detector group. He had been playing a leading role in the installation of end-cap muon chambers in Building 180 at CERN and was a long-term member of the ATLAS Muon Collaboration. After the Boston Muon Consortium (BMC) MDT chambers were constructed and commissioned, Marin relocated to CERN in May 2005 to take on installation and commissioning responsibilities of the US MDT endcap chambers. He had spent the previous seven years employed by Boston University as a physicist with the BMC, and had worked with Steve Ahlen, Peter Hurst, Rick Haggerty and many others to assemble and integrate end-cap muon chambers. His work was of th...

  6. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  7. Wingtip Devices for Marine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Barrett, Timothy; Wojtowicz, Aleksandra; Wosnik, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Wingtip devices are widely used in aeronautics, and have been gaining popularity in wind and marine turbine applications. Although the principles of operation of the devices in air and water are similar, one major difference in the marine environment is the presence of cavitation. In an integrated numerical and experimental study, three wingtip devices were attached to an elliptical foil and compared to a reference case (no wingtip). Lift, drag, and cavitation characteristics were obtained both numerically (in OpenFOAM) and experimentally (in the University of New Hampshire High-Speed Cavitation Tunnel). As expected, with the addition of wingtip devices, the maximum lift/drag ratio increases and tip vortex cavitation is suppressed. The next step in the study is to develop a theoretical relationship between tip-vortex cavitation inception and flow parameters for foils with non-elliptical load distribution, such as foils with wingtips. The authors would like to acknowledge Ian Gagnon, Benjamin Mitchell, and Alexander Larson for their help in conducting experiments.

  8. Submersible Generator for Marine Hydrokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinq-Mars, Robert S; Burke, Timothy; Irish, James; Gustafson, Brian; Kirtley, James; Alawa, Aiman

    2011-09-01

    A submersible generator was designed as a distinct and critical subassembly of marine hydrokinetics systems, specifically tidal and stream energy conversion. The generator is designed to work with both vertical and horizontal axis turbines. The final product is a high-pole-count, radial-flux, permanent magnet, rim mounted generator, initially rated at twenty kilowatts in a two-meter-per-second flow, and designed to leverage established and simple manufacturing processes. The generator was designed to work with a 3 meter by 7 meter Gorlov Helical Turbine or a marine hydrokinetic version of the FloDesign wind turbine. The team consisted of experienced motor/generator design engineers with cooperation from major US component suppliers (magnetics, coil winding and electrical steel laminations). Support for this effort was provided by Lucid Energy Technologies and FloDesign, Inc. The following tasks were completed: Identified the conditions and requirements for MHK generators. Defined a methodology for sizing and rating MHK systems. Selected an MHK generator topology and form factor. Completed electromechanical design of submersible generator capable of coupling to multiple turbine styles. Investigated MHK generator manufacturing requirements. Reviewed cost implications and financial viability. Completed final reporting and deliverables

  9. Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.C. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Richmond, R.H. [Univ. of Guam, Mangilao (Guam). Marine Lab.; Power, E.A. [EVS Environment Consultants, Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of ecosystem management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three ecosystems, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine ecosystems in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.

  10. DNA Barcoding of Marine Metazoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Ann; Steinke, Dirk; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio

    2011-01-01

    More than 230,000 known species representing 31 metazoan phyla populate the world's oceans. Perhaps another 1,000,000 or more species remain to be discovered. There is reason for concern that species extinctions may outpace discovery, especially in diverse and endangered marine habitats such as coral reefs. DNA barcodes (i.e., short DNA sequences for species recognition and discrimination) are useful tools to accelerate species-level analysis of marine biodiversity and to facilitate conservation efforts. This review focuses on the usual barcode region for metazoans: a ˜648 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Barcodes have also been used for population genetic and phylogeographic analysis, identification of prey in gut contents, detection of invasive species, forensics, and seafood safety. More controversially, barcodes have been used to delimit species boundaries, reveal cryptic species, and discover new species. Emerging frontiers are the use of barcodes for rapid and increasingly automated biodiversity assessment by high-throughput sequencing, including environmental barcoding and the use of barcodes to detect species for which formal identification or scientific naming may never be possible.

  11. Photoadaptation in Marine Phytoplankton 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neori, Amir; Holm-Hansen, Osmund; Mitchell, B. Greg; Kiefer, Dale A.

    1984-01-01

    The optical properties of marine phytoplankton were examined by measuring the absorption spectra and fluorescence excitation spectra of chlorophyll a for natural marine particles collected on glass fiber filters. Samples were collected at different depths from stations in temperate waters of the Southern California Bight and in polar waters of the Scotia and Ross Seas. At all stations, phytoplankton fluorescence excitation and absorption spectra changed systematically with depth and vertical stability of the water columns. In samples from deeper waters, both absorption and chlorophyll a fluorescence excitation spectra showed enhancement in the blue-to-green portion of the spectrum (470-560 nm) relative to that at 440 nm. Since similar changes in absorption and excitation were induced by incubating sea water samples at different light intensities, the changes in optical properties can be attributed to photoadaptation of the phytoplankton. The data indicate that in the natural populations studied, shade adaptation caused increases in the concentration of photosynthetic accessory pigments relative to chlorophyll a. These changes in cellular pigment composition were detectable within less than 1 day. Comparisons of absorption spectra with fluorescence excitation spectra indicate an apparent increase in the efficiency of sensitization of chlorophyll a fluorescence in the blue and green spectral regions for low light populations. PMID:16663873

  12. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  13. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

  14. Marine Science Activities for Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Dennis; And Others

    These marine education materials are based on the approach that students learn best when given a multisensory experience. The activities are intended to develop such experiences for the visually impaired child. Activities are intended to supplement an upper-elementary science curriculum or be the basis of a unit on marine biology. The guide is…

  15. Biomarkers of marine pollution and bioremediation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    species of marine organisms and their bio-magnification across the food chain leading to serious threat to human health. In recent years, levels of contaminants in the marine environment have increased to a large extent as a consequence of vari- ous...

  16. Optimized Experiment Design for Marine Systems Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Knudsen, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of maneuvring and design of motion controls for marine systems require non-linear mathematical models, which often have more than one-hundred parameters. Model identification is hence an extremely difficult task. This paper discusses experiment design for marine systems identification...

  17. Marine Corps Expeditionary Rifle Platoon Energy Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    18  Figure 2.  Typical Platoon Flashlight and NVGs .............................................................33  x THIS...Terrain and Troops MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit MRP Marine Rifle Platoon NVG Night Vision Goggles SAW Squad automatic weapon SPOD Seaport...conditions may be such that pickup from a central point is impossible, and supplies are therefore delivered by helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft (HQ USMC

  18. A Marine Fisheries Program for the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    This government publication describing the national plan for marine fisheries is divided into two parts. The first part contains a statement by the Secretary of Commerce, Elliot L. Richardson; the goals for the national marine fisheries plan; a description of the six parts of the plan; and a cost estimate for the program. The goals for the plan…

  19. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  20. Consumer Preferences Toward Marine Tourism Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvy Fauziah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine zone tourism is growing attracting more tourists. Pramuka Island is marine conservation area enriched with marine biodiversity in coral reefs and other natural resources. To develop this potential tourist destination, a customer-based marketing program is required to attract domestic and foreign tourists. The main vision is to understand tourist preferences for marine tourism activities and facilities. A research was conducted on Pramuka Island as a well-known marine tourism zone. The objective was to determine the key tourist preferences for marine tourism destination. Research methods utilized Cochran Q test and Conjoint analysis where the primary data were obtained from tourist respondents. The result showed that there was a tourist preference based on the five attributes considered most important, namely tourism activities, tourist attractions, types of accommodation, food and souvenirs types. This study provided marine tourism destination management with useful guidance for broader implications of the implementation of marketing programs and tourism attraction. Moreover, the results of this study consolidated the learning of a variety of academic and industrial research papers in particular for the measurement of customer preferences towards marine tourism destination.

  1. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  2. Marine natural products as prototype agrochemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A; Dunbar, D Charles; Perry, Tony L; Wilkins, Scott P; Hamann, Mark T; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A

    2003-04-09

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents.

  3. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; Khalid A. El Sayed; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents.

  4. Science Ⅲ marine research ship delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ On August 18, China's most advanced marine research ship Science Ⅲ was commissioned into operation at Qingdao and became an official member of China's marine research fleet. Designed and built by CSIC, the ship was delivered at Shanghai to the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. A trait database for marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Payne, Mark; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The trait-based approach is gaining increasing popularity in marine plankton ecology but the field urgently needs more and easier accessible trait data to advance.We compiled trait information on marine pelagic copepods, a major group of zooplankton, from the published literature and from experts...

  6. Mariner 9 science experiments - Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, R. H.; Kliore, A.; Lorell, J.; Hipsher, H.; Barth, C. A.; Masursky, H.; Muench, G.; Pearl, J.; Smith, B.

    1972-01-01

    On the basis of data provided by the IR interferometer spectrometer on the Mariner 9 spacecraft, it is suggested that the composition of the Martian dust corresponds approximately to that of rocks of intermediate silicon dioxide content. The large dynamical pole flattening obtained from satellite observations has been confirmed by the Mariner 9 data.

  7. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, EEM; Akkerman, [No Value; Koulman, A; Kamermans, P; Reith, H; Barbosa, MJ; Sipkema, D; Wijffels, RH

    2003-01-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals, nu

  8. Moral Fitness: Ethical Education for Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    Kohlberg grouped his stages of moral development into three levels: the pre-conventional, the conventional level, and the post conventional...According to Kohlberg , most adults stop developing in the conventional level. This puts the challenge on the Marine Corps to develop junior Marines to

  9. Climate change and marine top predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate change affects all components of marine ecosystems. For endothermic top predators, i.e. seabirds and marine mammals, these impacts are often complex and mediated through trophic relationships. In this Research Topic, leading researchers attempt to identify patterns of change among seabirds...

  10. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  11. MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES: PATHOGENS AND PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise overview of the pathogens and processes that alter the health of marine mammals. Viral disease is the most common etiology of significant mortality events in marine mammals. Discussion of viral disease focuses on effects in the ...

  12. Coastal and marine biodiversity of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkataraman, K.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    of spatial coverage, probably only two-thirds of the total marine habitat has been covered till today and the remote islands and other minor estuaries still virtually remain untouched. It is, therefore, likely that true inventory of coastal and marine...

  13. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications. This study investigates the influence of biodiesel blend on the characteristics of residual and distillate marine fuels. Adequate correlation equations are applied to calculate the fuel properties of the blended marine fuels with biodiesel. Residual marine fuel RMA has inferior fuel characteristics compared with distillate marine fuel DMA and biodiesel. The flash point of marine fuel RMA could be increased by 20% if blended with 20 vol% biodiesel. The sulfur content of residual marine fuel could meet the requirement of the 2008 MARPOL Annex VI Amendment by blending it with 23.0 vol% biodiesel. In addition, the kinematic viscosity of residual marine fuel could be reduced by 12.9% and the carbon residue by 23.6% if 20 vol% and 25 vol% biodiesel are used, respectively. Residual marine fuel blended with 20 vol% biodiesel decreases its lower heating value by 1.9%. Moreover, the fuel properties of residual marine fuel are found to improve more significantly with biodiesel blending than those of distillate marine fuel.

  14. [Bioactive compounds from marine sponges and cell culture of marine sponges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhao, Quan-Yu; Xue, Song; Zhang, Wei

    2002-01-01

    Presented a survey of bioactive compounds discovered from marine sponges in the recent five years, including the classes, distribution and their potential pharmaceutical uses. In particular, the compounds with antitumor, antivirus and antibacteria activity were discussed with their originating marine sponge species. Whereas the "Supply Problems" were identified to hinder the clinical tests and commercial applications of most of the sponge bioactive compounds. In vitro cell culture of marine sponges is one of the most promising approaches to solve this problem. The state-of-the art of marine sponge cell culture and the challenging areas were discussed. A brief summary of the R&D status was also given on the bioactive compounds from marine sponges in Chinese oceans. It is crucial to invest more efforts on studying marine sponges and their bioactive compounds in our country in order to develop new marine drugs of independent intellectual property.

  15. European Marine Biodiversity Monitoring Networks: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrício, Joana; Little, Sally; Mazik, Krysia; Papadopoulou, Konstantia-Nadia; Smith, Christopher J; Teixeira, Heliana; Hoffmann, Helene; Uyarra, Maria C; Solaun, Oihana; Zenetos, Argyro; Kaboglu, Gokhan; Kryvenko, Olga; Churilova, Tanya; Moncheva, Snejana; Bučas, Martynas; Borja, Angel; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Elliott, Michael

    2016-01-01

    By 2020, European Union Member States should achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) for eleven environmental quality descriptors for their marine waters to fulfill the Marine Strategy Framework Directive...

  16. Production of Enzymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Xu, X N; Chen, L Y

    Marine actinobacteria are well recognized for their capabilities to produce valuable natural products, which have great potential for applications in medical, agricultural, and fine chemical industries. In addition to producing unique enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of natural products, many marine actinobacteria also produce hydrolytic enzymes which are able to degrade various biopolymers, such as cellulose, xylan, and chitin. These enzymes are important to produce biofuels and biochemicals of interest from renewable biomass. In this chapter, the recent reports of novel enzymes produced by marine actinobacteria are reviewed, and advanced technologies that can be applied to search for novel marine enzymes as well as for improved enzyme production by marine actinobacteria are summarized, which include ribosome engineering, genome mining, as well as synthetic biology studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (PL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They seem to have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids than fish oil, which essentially contains triglycerides...... marine PL emulsions with and without addition of fish oil. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition of marine PL used for emulsions preparation. For instance, emulsions with good oxidative stability could be obtained when using raw materials...... with high purity, low fish oil content and high PL, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content. In addition, non-enzymatic browning reactions may also affect the oxidative stability of the marine PL emulsion. These reactions included Strecker degradation and pyrrolization, and their occurrence were due...

  18. Intertemporal Choice of Marine Ecosystem Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    The term ``Fishing Down Marine Food Webs'' describes the gradual transition in landing from marine ecosystems towards organisms lower in the food web. To address this issue and the need to manage the marine ecosystem in a broader perspective, Ecosystem Management is recommended. Ecosystem...... the ability of an ecosystem to sustain total volume of harvest. Given the two aspects of intertemporal choice revealed by the model, the conclusion must be that the Fishing Down Marine Food Webs is probably driven by the current management's inability to conduct adequate intertemporal balancing; therefore......, it is probably detrimental from an economic point of view. The marine ecosystem therefore requires an ecosystem management for economic reasons; in this context, models like the one presented here can serve as useful planning tools....

  19. Installing met towers in marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanberg, Jackie [DNV Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Onshore measurements are taken to supplement offshore wind resource measurement campaigns. To maximize the quality of the measured data, the conditions presented by marine environments must be well understood and mitigated. This paper discusses the several factors that need attention prior to installation of the met towers. The towers experience high corrosion from their exposure to moist, salt-laden, marine air. Careful instrumentation and material selection can prevent or decrease corrosion. Stainless or galvanized hardware and coating sensor terminals with petroleum jelly are both helpful. Soil in the marine environment has variable moisture levels and is extremely wet, which makes grounding systems and backfill enhancers necessary. Weather conditions in these environments also tend to be unpredictable; hence, towers should be strong enough to handle typical marine weather. In conclusion, successful marine wind resource assessment campaigns require environmental research, careful planning, and awareness of the specific issues.

  20. The coastal marine Tardigrada of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Perry, Emma S

    2016-06-20

    The Western Hemisphere or the New World, also known as the Americas (North, Central and South America, associated islands and included seas) have historically been divided into two Realms, the Nearctic and Neotropical based on terrestrial biogeography. The coasts of these two terrestrial realms are bordered by six marine realms, 14 marine provinces and 67 marine ecoregions. From current literature, a comprehensive list of the marine tardigrade fauna from the Americas is presented. Data on marine tardigrades were obtained from 385 published Records of the Occurrence (RoO) of a species, their location, tidal zone, and the substrates from which they were reported. Authors' identifications were accepted at face value unless subsequently amended. Thirty genera and 82 species or subspecies are reported from the Americas; 49 species are documented from margins of the terrestrial Nearctic realm (North America) and 48 from terrestrial Neotropical realm (South America) with only 17 species occurring in both. We define cosmopolitan distribution for marine tardigrades as occurring in or on the margins of five of the seven oceans, only two species of marine tardigrade meets this standard. From the Americas 39 species have been described as new to science, 32 species appear restricted to the hemisphere. Taxa were assigned to marine ecoregions based on adjacent geopolitical units (country, states, provinces, etc.) described in published records. Although tardigrades have been reported from all six marine realms, they are only known from 21 of the 67 ecoregions. Most marine tardigrade sampling in the Americas has focused on near shore substrate (sand, mud, barnacles); for some species no substrates have been reported. The west coasts of both continents have little or no data about tardigrade presence.

  1. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  2. Analysis on the Development of Low-Carbon Marine Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of low-carbon economy,the paper analyzes the factors that influencing the development of low carbon economy.It is showed that the damage of marine ecological environment results in the low ability of oceans in absorbing green gas;environmental pollution leads to lowering capacity of ocean to deal with the wastes;development of related marine industries brings deterioration of marine environment;changes of climate threat the healthy development of marine economy.The paper points out the development routines of marine low carbon economy:accelerating the innovation of energy techniques,exploring marine renewable green energies;planning scientifically and strengthening the protection and repairmen of marine environment;developing marine recycle economy,upgrading resources using efficiency;adjusting marine industrial structures and exploring greatly the marine low carbon industries;guiding industries to chase chances and accelerating the development of low-carbon marine economy.

  3. Climatic Effects of Marine Organic Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Y.; Gantt, B.; Ghan, S. J.; Nenes, A.; Liu, X.; Easter, R. C.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that the emissions of primary organic matter (POM) of marine biogenic origin and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from phytoplankton-produced volatile organic compounds can lead to changes of chemical composition and size distribution of marine aerosol, thus modifying the cloud droplet activation potential and affecting climate. In this study, the effects of marine organic aerosol emissions and the dissolved marine organic aerosol components as surfactant are explored using the National Center of Atmospheric Research’s Community Atmosphere Model, coupled with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Modal Aerosol Model (CAM-MAM). Primary marine organic aerosol emissions are separated into sub- and super-micron modes, and calculated based on wind speed-dependent sea-spray mass flux and remotely-sensed surface chlorophyll-a concentration. Two distinct sea spray emission functions used in this study yield different amounts and spatial distributions of sub-micron marine POM mass flux. The super-micron sea-spray flux is determined based on simulated sea-spray number flux. Both sub and super-micron marine POM are assumed to be mostly water-insoluble and added in the accumulation mode and coarse sea-salt mode, respectively. A prescribed soluble mass fraction of 50% is assumed for marine SOA, formed from phytoplankton-emitted isoprene and allowed to be condensed on existing aerosols in different modes. Surfactant effects from the soluble part of sub-micron marine POM are included in the cloud droplet activation parameterization by some modifications based on the mass fraction of dissolved marine POM. 10 year model simulations are conducted to examine the effects of marine organic aerosols on cloud microphysical and optical properties. Analyses of model results show that different marine aerosol emissions and cloud droplet activation mechanisms can yield 9% to 16% increase in global maritime mean cloud droplet number concentration. Changes

  4. Industrial applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Prasad N; Aisverya, S; Nithya, R; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials have been used increasingly in various fields, such as drug delivery, imaging, and tissue engineering. The main reason justifying the widespread use of biomaterials relies on its valuable and low-cost source of new drugs. Current research goals are focused on identifying more potent and specific compounds with antitumor, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic, anticoagulant, and antiviral activities. The increasing knowledge of structural analysis and chemical modifications enables the use of these marine carbohydrates in a newer way for the human welfare. This chapter focuses on the recent developments related to industrial and biomedical applications using chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan derivatives and reports the main advances published over the last 10-15 years.

  5. Antitumor Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Salas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal peptides and others, and they exert antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase I or II inhibition, mitochondria permeabilization, inhibition of key enzymes involved in signal transduction like proteases, or cellular metabolism and in some cases by inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last years for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological lead compounds.

  6. Environmental Impacts—Marine Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith; Ottersen, Geir; Bakker, J.P.;

    2016-01-01

    the physiology, reproduction, growth, survival, behaviour and transport of individuals; the distribution, dynamics and evolution of populations; and the trophic structure and coupling of ecosystems. These complex responses can be detected because there are detailed long-term biological and environmental records...... for the North Sea; written records go back 500 years and archaeological records many thousands of years. The information presented here shows that the composition and productivity of the North Sea marine ecosystem is clearly affected by climate change and that this will have consequences for sustainable levels...... of harvesting and other ecosystem services in the future. Multi-variate ocean climate indicators that can be used to monitor and warn of changes in composition and productivity are now being developed for the North Sea...

  7. Nitrogen fixation by marine cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Jonathan P

    2011-04-01

    Discrepancies between estimates of oceanic N(2) fixation and nitrogen (N) losses through denitrification have focused research on identifying N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria and quantifying cyanobacterial N(2) fixation. Previously unrecognized cultivated and uncultivated unicellular cyanobacteria have been discovered that are widely distributed, and some have very unusual properties. Uncultivated unicellular N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria (UCYN-A) lack major metabolic pathways including the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxygen-evolving photosystem II. Genomes of the oceanic N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria are highly conserved at the DNA level, and genetic diversity is maintained by genome rearrangements. The major cyanobacterial groups have different physiological and ecological constraints that result in highly variable geographic distributions, with implications for the marine N-cycle budget.

  8. Cavitation simulation on marine propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo

    is reproduced in the simulation. The overall results suggest the possibility of the cavitation model in the RANS solver to be used for practical applications in propeller design process as a complementary tool to the cavitation tunnel test and the other numerical methods. The outstanding issue for cloudy...... developed in the last decade. They show the potential for the simulation of propeller cavitation with robustness, but they are still to be more proved for practical applications. In the present work, hydrodynamic and numerical characteristics of several cavitation models developed for a viscous flow solver...... are investigated, and one of the cavitation models is verified for the cavitation simulation on marine propellers. Three cavitation models with a vapor transport equation and a cavitation model with a barotropic state law are implemented in the in-house RANS solver, EllipSys. The numerical results for cavitating...

  9. Mixotrophy in the Marine Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Diane K.; Hansen, Per Juel; Caron, David A.; Mitra, Aditee

    2017-01-01

    Mixotrophs are important components of the bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and (sometimes) zooplankton in coastal and oceanic waters. Bacterivory among the phytoplankton may be important for alleviating inorganic nutrient stress and may increase primary production in oligotrophic waters. Mixotrophic phytoflagellates and dinoflagellates are often dominant components of the plankton during seasonal stratification. Many of the microzooplankton grazers, including ciliates and Rhizaria, are mixotrophic owing to their retention of functional algal organelles or maintenance of algal endosymbionts. Phototrophy among the microzooplankton may increase gross growth efficiency and carbon transfer through the microzooplankton to higher trophic levels. Characteristic assemblages of mixotrophs are associated with warm, temperate, and cold seas and with stratification, fronts, and upwelling zones. Modeling has indicated that mixotrophy has a profound impact on marine planktonic ecosystems and may enhance primary production, biomass transfer to higher trophic levels, and the functioning of the biological carbon pump.

  10. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact...... of climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction......, development, and resting phases and addresses the role of the different storage lipids during growth and dormancy. The third relates to trophic marker lipids, which are an important tool to follow lipid and energy transfer through the food web. The central question is how can fatty acids be used to identify...

  11. Hidden Worlds of Marine Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Every drop of seawater contains fantastically diverse groups of microbes that control key biogeochemical processes in the ocean and determine the habitability of our planet. The challenge is to scale from this world of individual cells to ecosystem function and ultimately to ocean basin processes. Our work begins with microscopic marine diatoms because they are responsible for about twenty percent of the photosynthesis that occurs on Earth each year, they form the base of highly productive marine food webs, and they help regulate past and current fluxes of CO2 into the ocean. Diatoms evolved in a dilute environment where they are never free from the influences of other microbes. We explore the specifics of these interactions via model diatom/bacteria systems that can be manipulated in the laboratory - one includes an antagonistic bacterium that inhibits the growth of diatoms and a second includes a synergistic bacterium that enhances the growth of diatoms. We scale up from the cellular level to population-level interactions through use of our continuous flow cytometer, SeaFlow, which taps into a ship's seawater intake system to provide a continuous read-out of abundance, size and type of the smallest phytoplankton. We use this data to estimate division rates and mortality rates of these phytoplankton across thousands of kilometers of ocean basins. We tie these scales together with genomic approaches in both laboratory experiments and in open ocean field studies to document how interactions with the environment and between microbes drive specific adaptations. Our ultimate goal is to understand how microbial communities will respond to and will help shape future ocean conditions.

  12. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mather

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

  13. Perceptions of ecological risk associated with introduced marine species in marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Trenouth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The perception of ecological risks (impact and acceptability associated with introduced marine species (IMS, what demographic variablesinfluence those perceptions, respondent’s knowledge of IMS, and people’s support for controlling introduced marine species impacts on themarine environment was explored at three locations in Western Australia: Ningaloo Reef Marine Park, Rottnest Island Marine Reserve, andHamelin Bay. Recognition that introduced marine species are an issue at state, national and international levels exists; yet often marineprotected area management plans do not reflect this recognition. Therefore, we hypothesise that there is a lack of translation of concernregarding introduced marine species as a risk into tactical objectives within marine protected area management plans. This may be due to lowstakeholder perceptions of the risk posed by introduced marine species. Survey respondents had a high level (89% of self-rated awareness ofintroduced marine species and they also indicated (93% a willingness to support management interventions to prevent, or control the spreadof introduced marine species in Western Australia.Our results also indicate that gender (males and age (18–45 age group influenced respondents’ perception of risk (impact of IMS, yet noexamined demographic variables influenced respondents acceptability of risk. Furthermore, knowledge of introduced marine species,education level, and income variables did not influence respondents’ perception of risk (impact or acceptability. Understandingdemographic characteristics that influence participants perceptions related to introduced marine species can be useful for targeted,educational initiatives to reduce the likelihood of IMS incursions. This begins to smooth the way for management to proactively develop andimplement policies that are necessary to more fully protect the Western Australian marine environment.

  14. Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, Alice L.; Silver, Mary W.

    Macroscopic aggregates of detritus, living organisms and inorganic matter known as marine snow, have significance in the ocean both as unique, partially isolated microenvironments and as transport agents: much of surface-derived matter in the ocean fluxes to the ocean interior and the sea floor as marine snow. As microhabitats, marine snow aggregates contain enriched microbial communities and chemical gradients within which processes of photosynthesis, decomposition, and nutrient regeneration occur at highly elevated levels. Microbial communities associated with marine snow undergo complex successional changes on time scales of hours to days which significantly alter the chemical and biological properties of the particles. Marine snow can be produced either de novo by living plants and animals especially as mucus feeding webs of zooplankton, or by the biologically-enhanced physical aggregation of smaller particles. By the latter pathway, microaggregates, phytoplankton, fecal pellets, organic debris and clay-mineral particles collide by differential settlement or physical shear and adhere by the action of various, biologically-generated, organic compounds. Diatom flocculation is a poorly understood source of marine snow of potential global significance. Rates of snow production and breakdown are not known but are critical to predicting flux and to understanding biological community structure and transformations of matter and energy in the water column. The greatest challenge to the study of marine snow at present is the development of appropriate technology to measure abundances and characteristics of aggregates in situ.

  15. Marine Ecological Footprint of Italian Mediterranean Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica de Leo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of marine and coastal ecosystems to sustain seafood production and consumption is seldom accounted for and is not included in the signals that guide economic development. In this article, we review estimates of marine and coastal areas aimed at sustaining catches for seafood consumption. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the interactions between the environment, intended as a set of ecological subsystems in natural equilibrium, including the marine ecosystem, and the process of fisheries systems. In particular we analyze fisheries in Italy, which is the third biggest economy and the greatest consumer of seafood in the Eurozone, conducting an in-depth analysis of the Marine Ecological Footprint (MEF that evaluates the marine ecosystem area exploited by human populations to supply seafood and other marine products and services. The positioning of Italian fisheries shows a level of sustainability next to the threshold value. The analysis in the present study highlights the importance of absolute indicators in providing rough estimates about human dependence on ecological systems and recognizes the importance of those indicators, such as the Marine Footprint (expressed in % of Primary Production Required/Primary Production, in ensuring a high level of precision and accuracy in quantifying human activity impact on the environment.

  16. Marine Biocatalysts: Enzymatic Features and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Trincone

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity. In addition, their novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics increase the interest of biocatalysis practitioners both in academia and research industry. In this review, starting from the analysis of these featuring habitat-related properties, important examples of marine enzymes in biocatalysis will be reported. Completion of this report is devoted to the analysis of novel chemical and stereochemical biodiversity offered by marine biocatalysts with particular emphasis on current or potential applications of these enzymes in chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment. The potential of this habitat should be thoroughly explored and possibly the way to access useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected.

  17. Neurotoxic Syndromes in Marine Poisonings a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Mohebbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine neurotoxins as of Marine biotoxins are natural toxins that produced mainly by dinoflagellates, diatoms and several species of invertebrates and fish. Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals contain these toxins and causes considerable adverse effects. Materials and methods: This review provides some facts about the structures of marine neurotoxins, their molecular target and pharmacology, analytical methods for their detection and quantitation, diagnosis and laboratory testing, clinical manifestations, as well as prevention and treatment, if were obtainable. Furthermore, we focus on marine poisoning and various associated neurological syndromes like ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, after ingestion of the common marine toxins. Results: A number of neurotoxins that prescribed according to their potency (LD50 are: Maitotoxin, Ciguatoxins and Palytoxin, Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin, Brevetoxins, Azaspiracid, Yessotoxin, Cooliatoxin, Domoic acid and Conotoxins, Respectively. The primary target of most marine neurotoxins is voltage gated sodium channels and the resulting block of ion conductance through these channels. Moreover, these compounds interact with voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels and modulate the flux of stated ions into many cell types. As well, the target recognized for palytoxin is the Na+- K+ /ATPase. Conclusion: Results of reviewed studies revealed that, the Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning, but is rarely lethal. Puffer fish poisoning results from the ingestion of fish containing tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common, but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Despite their high toxicity, no much research has been done on some of the toxins, like maitotoxin. In addition, there have remained unknown the pharmacological effects, mechanism of action and molecular target of some toxins such as

  18. Polycyclic Guanidine Alkaloids from Poecilosclerida Marine Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfecci, Estelle; Lacour, Thierry; Amade, Philippe; Mehiri, Mohamed

    2016-04-09

    Sessile marine sponges provide an abundance of unique and diversified scaffolds. In particular, marine guanidine alkaloids display a very wide range of biological applications. A large number of cyclic guanidine alkaloids, including crambines, crambescins, crambescidins, batzelladines or netamins have been isolated from Poecilosclerida marine sponges. In this review, we will explore the chemodiversity of tri- and pentacyclic guanidine alkaloids. NMR and MS data tools will also be provided, and an overview of the wide range of bioactivities of crambescidins and batzelladines derivatives will be given.

  19. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  20. Molecular ecology studies of marine Synechococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying; JIAO Nianzhi

    2004-01-01

    Cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus is a dominant component of microbial community in the world's oceans, and is a major contributor to marine primary productivity and thus plays an important role in carbon cycling in the oceans. Besides the ecological importance, the cultivability also made Synechococcus a very special group of marine microorganisms, which has attracted great attention from oceanographers and biologists. Great progress in the physiology, biochemistry and phylogeny of Synechococcus has been made since its discovery. We here review the current status of molecular ecology of marine Synechococcus and give a perspective into the future based on our understanding of the literature and our own work.

  1. Ecological Research Division, Marine Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This report presents program summaries of the various projects sponsored during 1979 by the Marine Research Program of the Ecological Research Division. Program areas include the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the marine environment; a study of the baseline ecology of a proposed OTEC site near Puerto Rico; the environmental impact of offshore geothermal energy development; the movement of radionuclides through the marine environment; the environmental aspects of power plant cooling systems; and studies of the physical and biological oceangraphy of the continental shelves bordering the United States.

  2. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  3. Policy analysis for tropical marine reserves: challenges and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.; Folmer, H.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are considered to be a central tool for marine ecosystem-based management in tropical inshore fisheries. The arguments supporting marine reserves are often based on both the nonmarket values of ecological amenities marine reserves provide and the pragmatic cost-saving advantages rela

  4. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  5. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1... Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details relative to... 40 feet in length will be found in subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  6. 46 CFR 90.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 90.20-1 Section 90.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 90.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details such as piping, valves, fittings, boilers, pressure vessels, etc., and their appurtenances...

  7. [Advance in marine actinobacterial research--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Si; Li, Wenjun

    2011-02-01

    The research on marine actinobacteria has worldwide interest because of their potential to produce special and new metabolites. Based on the research history of marine actinobacteria, we reviewed the research progress, conception, bio-resources and diversity,secondary metabolites, ecological function, genomics of marine actinobacteria and finally introduced the status of marine actinobacterial research in China.

  8. Policy analysis for tropical marine reserves: challenges and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.; Folmer, H.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are considered to be a central tool for marine ecosystem-based management in tropical inshore fisheries. The arguments supporting marine reserves are often based on both the nonmarket values of ecological amenities marine reserves provide and the pragmatic cost-saving advantages rela

  9. 77 FR 25963 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ...-XC010 Marine Mammals; File No. 14325 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  10. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14329

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; File No. 14329 AGENCY: National Marine... has been issued to the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium (NPUMMRC... applicant. The requested permit amendment has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal...

  11. 77 FR 45592 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17157

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Administration RIN 0648-XC033 Marine Mammals; File No. 17157 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... University, 101 Bagby Ave, Waco, TX 76706 to receive, import and export marine mammal parts for scientific... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  12. 78 FR 33811 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17941

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Marine Mammals; File No. 17941 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 17941 authorizes two...

  13. 77 FR 19004 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...-XA915 Marine Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The permit...

  14. 75 FR 49465 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14682

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY09 Marine Mammals; File No. 14682 AGENCY... Whitlow Au, Ph.D., University of Hawaii, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Marine Mammal Research Program, PO Box 1106, Kailua, HI 96734, to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permits and...

  15. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  16. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in 1976...

  17. 76 FR 7824 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...D, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, Hawaii... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA197 Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  18. 77 FR 13295 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... E. Nachtigall, Ph.D., Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA384 Marine Mammals; File No. 16053 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  19. A review of marine zones in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    This report reviews marine zoning in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). The 72 zoned areas in the MBNMS are of 13 different zone types. Each marine zone type has associated regulations that restrict or promote specific activities. For example, recreational activities such as boating, fishing, tidepooling, snorkeling, and SCUBA diving are limited in some zones. Scientific research is allowed at all sites, with appropriate permits, and is specifically promoted in a few sites...

  20. Marine conservation in the republic of South Africa with special reference to marine parks and reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Robinson

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation in the Republic of South Africa (RSA is dominated by big game and terrestrial reserves. Protecting these, have been in existence for many years. Recently Man has turned his attention more and more to the sea and due to adverse effects of pollution, overexploitation and habitat destruction the marine environment is threatened. However, conservationists have learnt lessons about both terrestrial and marine ecosystem-destruction and are now demanding with increasing persistence the establishment of marine parks and reserves.

  1. U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Special Operations Command and the Selected Marine Corps Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Peters , Brian Shannon, and Matthew E. Boyer, National Guard Special Forces: Enhancing the Contributions of Reserve Component Army Special Operations...www.marsoc.marines.mil/Units/MarineSpecialOperationsSchool.aspx 28 Duke and Landis, 56-60. 29 Robeson, 85-88. 30 Michelle Dolfini-Reed with Kirby ...World War II to the Present. New York: Berkley, 2004. Dolfini-Reed, Michelle, and Kirby Bowling. An Analysis of Marine Corps Reserve Recruiting and

  2. Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-08

    and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC) Congressional Research Service Summary On January 6, 2011, after spending approximately $3 billion in...execute the nation’s military strategy. On January 6, 2011, after spending approximately $3 billion in developmental funding, the Marine Corps—with...thinkers to question if the Marines would ever again be called upon to conduct large- scale amphibious assault operations. 9 In a May 2010 speech , then

  3. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project - Marine Mammal Tagging and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Marine Mammal Tagging and Tracking Francis Wiese Stantec Consulting Ltd 2515 A Street Anchorage, AK 99503-2709 phone: (907) 343-5276 email...inter-relationships of biophysical and chemical parameters on living resources, including marine mammals that use this ecosystem. This larger picture...decrease in sea ice. The marine mammal component of MARES is providing habitat use information through animal mounted sensors that transmit

  4. Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Oliver Lock and Dam Project Area, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-16

    settlements in the river channel constitute a well developed riverine- horticultural settlement pattern. Unlike the river channel levees, few systematic...a kind of therapy (Henry Rice, personal communica- t ion) . The now demolished remains of the hospital overseer’s house are identified in the state...elevated locations throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. During the development of intensive horticulture in the Southeast, populations

  5. 77 FR 32986 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Alabama Museums, Tuscaloosa, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... projectile point, 6 pottery sherds, 1 bone awl, and 1 turtle shell. Some objects that appear in the inventory... than 2,032 glass beads, 1 lot of more than 17 shell beads, 1 unidentified bead, 1 gun lock, 1 gun butt... lot of charred nut shells, and 1 lot of unmodified quartz pebbles could not be located in the...

  6. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, TUSCALOOSA COUNTY, ALABAMA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  7. Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013.

  8. Bibliography of marine biology in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography was sponsored by the Marine Biology Section of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). It has been attempted to include all publications which appeared before the end of 1977, either in South...

  9. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Love, Milton S.

    2016-08-08

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  10. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  11. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  12. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Department of Transportation receive funding to execute the research component of the program in order to... Marine Highway under this program. In crafting this definition, the Department of Transportation was...

  13. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  14. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  15. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  16. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  17. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  18. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the source of microbial pollution to a tidal pool was investigated. Both adjacent seawater which could contribute to possible faecal pollution and potential direct bather pollution were studied. The microbial quality of the marine...

  19. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  20. Atmosphere of Mars - Mariner IV models compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, V. R.; Fjeldbo, G.; Fjeldbo, W. C.

    1966-01-01

    Mariner IV models of three Mars atmospheric layers analogous to terrestrial E, F-1 and F-2 layers, considering relative mass densities, temperatures, carbon dioxide photodissociation and ionization profile

  1. Isolation of Cellulolytic Actinomycetes from Marine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Manuel; Esparis, Azucena; Fabregas, Jaime

    1983-01-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity.

  2. Grays Reef National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and othermanaged areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  3. Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  4. Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and othermanaged areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries...

  5. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  6. Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  7. Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  8. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  9. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  10. MARINE ACCIDENTS RESEARCHED THROUGH HUMAN FACTOR PRISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav M Ćorović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We are aware of a large number of marine accidents that result in numerous casualties and even deaths and substantial negative environmental effects. The objective of this paper is to indicate factors that contribute to human errors which is identified as the most frequent cause to marine accidents. Despite rapid technological development and safety legislation, this paper identifies the human factor as the waekest link in maritime safety system. This analysis could lead to decrease of vessel accidents. In addition, starting from the European Maritime Safety Agency data and by linear regression model application, we have obtained the trend of number of ships involved in marine accidents as well as the trend of lives lost in marine accidents  in and around European Union waters.

  11. Advances in genetic engineering of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Algae are a component of bait sources for animal aquaculture, and they produce abundant valuable compounds for the chemical industry and human health. With today's fast growing demand for algae biofuels and the profitable market for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals made from algal natural products, the genetic engineering of marine algae has been attracting increasing attention as a crucial systemic technology to address the challenge of the biomass feedstock supply for sustainable industrial applications and to modify the metabolic pathway for the more efficient production of high-value products. Nevertheless, to date, only a few marine algae species can be genetically manipulated. In this article, an updated account of the research progress in marine algal genomics is presented along with methods for transformation. In addition, vector construction and gene selection strategies are reviewed. Meanwhile, a review on the progress of bioreactor technologies for marine algae culture is also revisited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  13. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest...

  14. Role of marine algae in organic farming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    As the efforts to unearth new sources for organic farming accelerate, one needs to evaluate the options available. Marine algae popularly known as seaweeds, have served mankind from times immemorial. form. Seaweed-based fertilizer is rich in growth...

  15. Understanding marine microbes - Trends and future diections

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    environments but also in exhibiting invaluable commercial potential. Many marine bacteria have shown a requirement for sodium, potassium and magnesium ions. Some of them also require chloride ions and ferric ion. Nearly 80% of the organic matter produced...

  16. Marine pollution - What are we heading for?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    that have emerged concerning the health of marine areas with particular reference to the coastal zone of India. Mangrove and coral ecosystems have been degraded and continue to be under stress of the man induced changes. Tourism related ecological...

  17. NCEP Real-time Marine Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly surface marine data gathered by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The basic observational data are edited, using a "trimming" procedure...

  18. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  19. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  20. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  1. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  2. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  3. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  4. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  5. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  6. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  7. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  8. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  9. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  10. Marine Organisms with Anti-Diabetes Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritano, Chiara; Ianora, Adrianna

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes is a chronic degenerative metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality rates caused by its complications. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in looking for new bioactive compounds to treat this disease, including metabolites of marine origin. Several aquatic organisms have been screened to evaluate their possible anti-diabetes activities, such as bacteria, microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, sponges, corals, sea anemones, fish, salmon skin, a shark fusion protein as well as fish and shellfish wastes. Both in vitro and in vivo screenings have been used to test anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of marine organisms. This review summarizes recent discoveries in anti-diabetes properties of several marine organisms as well as marine wastes, existing patents and possible future research directions in this field.

  11. Marine Organisms with Anti-Diabetes Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Lauritano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic degenerative metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality rates caused by its complications. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in looking for new bioactive compounds to treat this disease, including metabolites of marine origin. Several aquatic organisms have been screened to evaluate their possible anti-diabetes activities, such as bacteria, microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, sponges, corals, sea anemones, fish, salmon skin, a shark fusion protein as well as fish and shellfish wastes. Both in vitro and in vivo screenings have been used to test anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of marine organisms. This review summarizes recent discoveries in anti-diabetes properties of several marine organisms as well as marine wastes, existing patents and possible future research directions in this field.

  12. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  13. Geotechnical properties of Karwar marine clay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.T.; Nayak, B.U.; Naik, R.L.

    Karwar marine clay possesses high plasticity characteristics with natural water content higher than the liquid limit. Liquidity index was as high as 1.7. Predominant clay mineral was kaolinite. Undrained shear strength showed an increasing trend...

  14. Marine environmental intimidation to Sundarbans embankments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    in the delta region, marine environments also cause devastation to the inhabitants of Sundarbans. National calamity like cyclones, earthquakes, tsunami, etc. generated in the Bay of Bengal and approaching to Sundarbans is a great threat to inhabitants, loss...

  15. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  16. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of these sanctuaries are...

  17. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  18. Marine bird and mammal data integration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuary Program (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the...

  19. National Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime across the United States that generates significant economic impacts to both local economies and to the nation. In...

  20. Construction and screening of marine metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Nancy; Löscher, Carolin; Metzger, Rebekka; Schmitz, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Marine microbial communities are highly diverse and have evolved during extended evolutionary processes of physiological adaptations under the influence of a variety of ecological conditions and selection pressures. They harbor an enormous diversity of microbes with still unknown and probably new physiological characteristics. Besides, the surfaces of marine multicellular organisms are typically covered by a consortium of epibiotic bacteria and act as barriers, where diverse interactions between microorganisms and hosts take place. Thus, microbial diversity in the water column of the oceans and the microbial consortia on marine tissues of multicellular organisms are rich sources for isolating novel bioactive compounds and genes. Here we describe the sampling, construction of large-insert metagenomic libraries from marine habitats and exemplarily one function based screen of metagenomic clones.