WorldWideScience

Sample records for turtlegrass thalassia testudinum

  1. Benthic communities associated to Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae at three localities of Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bitter - Soto

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The benthic community associated with the turtlegrass Thalassia testudinum beds was analized at three localities of Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela. The localities were selected according to their exposure to the open sea : A (protected, B (intermediate and C (exposed. At each locality, a 20 x 20 m area was randomly chosen, delimited and divided into 400 1x1 m quadrats. Inside each, ten randomly selected quadrats/month were sampled during 13 consecutive months. At each site all macroinvertebrates and several physical variables were recorded, as well as leaf and rhizome biomass of T. testudinum. All parameters had a step- wise gradient from A through C: organic matter, carbon nitrogen, oxygen, salinity and temperature gradient was: ABC. Percentages of sand, silt and clay showed an inverse gradient; ASe analizó la comunidad bentónica asociada a Thalassia testudinum y su relación con algunos parámetros bióticos y abióticos, en tres localidades del Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Falcón-Venezuela; éstas fueron seleccionadas de acuerdo al grado de exposición al mar abierto: A(protegída, B (intermedia y C (expuesta. En cada localidad se demarcó un área de 20 x 20m, se muestrearon aleatoriamente 10cuadrantes/mes, (130 cuadrantes/localidad. Se efectuaron registros de oxígeno disuelto, salinidad, temperatura, porcentajes de materia orgánica, carbono y nitrógeno, textura del sedimento, biomasa foliar y de rizoma de T. testudinum. Todos los parámetros analizados presentaron un gradiente escalonado. Materia Orgánica, Carbono y Nitrógeno, Oxígeno disuelto, Salinidad y Temperatura presentaron el gradiente: ABC. Los porcentages de Arena, Limo y Arcilla presentaron un gradiente inverso. El patrón en la Diversidad, Equidad y Dominancia fue: BCA. La fauna colectada estuvo compuesta por los grupos: Coelenterata (Anthozoa, Polichaeta, Sipuncula, Molusca, Crustacea y Echinodermata. Se identificaron 15 especies de moluscos (gastrópodos y bivalvos, (3

  2. Changes in trace metals in Thalassia testudinum after hurricane impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, T; Van Tussenbroek, B I; Santos, M G Barba

    2011-12-01

    Major hurricanes Emily and Wilma hit the Mexican Caribbean in 2005. Changes in trace metals in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum prior to (May 2004, 2005) and following passage of these hurricanes (May, June 2006) were determined at four locations along a ≈ 130 km long stretch of coast. Before the hurricanes, essential metals were likely limiting and concentrations of potentially toxic Pb were high in a contaminated lagoon (27.5 μg g(-1)) and near submarine springs (6.10 μg g(-1)); the likely sources were inland sewage disposal or excessive boat traffic. After the hurricanes, Pb decreased to 2.0 μg g(-1) in the contaminated lagoon probably through flushing. At the northern sites, essential Fe increased >2-fold (from 26.8 to 68.3 μg g(-1) on average), possibly from remobilization of anoxic sediments or upwelling of deep seawater during Wilma. Thus, hurricanes can be beneficial to seagrass beds in flushing toxic metals and replenishing essential elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The structure and productivity of the Thalassia testudinum community in Bon Accord Lagoon,Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahanna A Juman

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Thalassia testudinum dominated seagrass community in the Buccoo Reef/Bon Accord Lagoon Marine Park,measures 0.5 km² and is part of a contiguous coral reef,seagrass bed and mangrove swamp system in southwest Tobago.T.testudinum coverage,productivity and percent turnover rates were measured from February 1998 to February 1999 at four sample locations,while total T.testudinum biomass was measured at two locations in the lagoon from 1992-2002.Productivity and turnover rates varied spatially and seasonally. They were higher in the back-reef area than in the mangrove-fringed lagoon,and were lowest at locations near to a sewage outfall.T.testudinum coverage ranged from 6.6%in the lagoon to 68.5%in the back-reef area while productivity ranged from 3.9 to 4.9 g dry wt m-2 d-1 .Productivity and percentage turnover rates were higher in the dry season (January -Junethan in the wet season (July -December.Productivity ranged from 3.0 in the wet season to 5.0 g dry wt m-2 d-1 in the dry season while percentage turnover rates ranged from 4.2%to 5.6%.Total Thalassia biomass and productivity in Bon Accord Lagoon were compared to six similar sites in the Caribbean that also participate in the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP.This seagrass community is being negatively impacted by nutrient-enriched conditions.La comunidad de pastos marinos de Buccoo Reef/ Parque Nacional Bon Accord Lagoon,dominado por Thalassia testudinum,mide 0.5 km² y es parte de un complejo de arrecifes,lechos de pastos marinos y manglares en el suroeste de Tobago.La cobertura,productividad y tasa de recambio de T.testudinum fueron medidas de febrero 1998 a febrero 1999 en cuatro localidades,mientras que la biomasa total de T.testudinum fue medida en dos localidades en la laguna,entre 1992-2002.La productividad y la tasa de recambio variaron espacialmente y estacionalmente.Fueron mayores en la parte trasera del arrecife que en el manglar y la laguna del arrecife

  4. Sulfide intrusion in the tropical seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Pedersen, Ole; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur and oxygen dynamics in the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme and their sediments were studied in the US Virgin Islands (USVI) in order to explore sulfide intrusion into tropical seagrasses. Four study sites were selected based on the iron concentration in sediments...

  5. [Hurricane impact on Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) beds in the Mexican Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Méndez, Leonardo U; Liceaga-Correa, María de los Angeles; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Hernández-Núñez, Héctor

    2011-03-01

    Hurricanes have increased in strength and frequency as a result of global climate change. This research was conducted to study the spatio-temporal distribution and changes of Thalassia testudinum, the dominant species in Bahia de la Ascension (Quintana Roo, Mexico), when affected by heavy weather conditions. To complete this objective, a 2001 Landsat ETM+ image and the information from 525 sampling stations on morpho-functional and coverage of T. testudinum were used, and the seeds generated for the classification of eight benthic habitats. To quantify the changes caused by two hurricanes, we used two images, one of 1988 (Gilberto) and another of 1995 (Roxanne); other three data sets (2003, 2005 and 2007) were also used to describe the study area without major weather effects. Six categorial maps were obtained and subjected to analysis by 8 Landscape Ecology indexes, that describe the spatial characteristics, structure, function, change of the elements (matrix-patch-corridor), effects on ecosystems, connectivity, edges, shape and patch habitat fragmentation. Models indicate that T. testudinum may be classified as a continuum (matrix), since the fragments were not observed intermittently, but as a progression from minimum to maximum areas in reference to their coverage (ecological corridors). The fragments do not have a regular shape, indicating that the impacts are recent and may be due to direct effects (high-intensity hurricanes) or indirect (sediment). Fragments of type "bare soils" have a discontinuous distribution, and are considered to be the sites that have remained stable over a long timescale. While more dense coverage areas ("beds", "medium prairie" and "prairie") have low fragmentation and high connection of fragments. Features have an irregular perimeter and radial growth of formal; suggesting that the impact of meteors has no effect on the resilience of T. testudinum in this ecosystem, indicating good environmental quality to grow in this bay.

  6. Direct contribution of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum to lime mud production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, Susana; Schubert, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass beds contribute to oceanic carbonate lime mud production by providing a habitat for a wide variety of calcifying organisms and acting as efficient sediment traps. Here we provide evidence for the direct implication of Thalassia testudinum in the precipitation of aragonite needles. The crystals are located internally in the cell walls, and as external deposits on the blade, and are similar in size and shape to the aragonite needles reported for modern tropical carbonate factories. Seagrass calcification is a biological, light-enhanced process controlled by the leaf, and estimates of seagrass annual carbonate production in a Caribbean reef lagoon are as significant as values reported for Halimeda incrassata. Thus, we conclude that seagrass calcification is another biological source for the aragonite lime mud deposits found in tropical banks, and that tropical seagrass habitats may play a more important role in the oceanic carbon cycle than previously considered. PMID:24848374

  7. Thiol peptides induction in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex Koenig) in response to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Legorreta, Teresa [Departamento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Merida, Apdo. Postal 73-Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan 97310 (Mexico); Mendoza-Cozatl, David; Moreno-Sanchez, Rafael [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Mexico D.F. 14080 (Mexico); Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo [Departamento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Merida, Apdo. Postal 73-Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan 97310 (Mexico)], E-mail: gold@mda.cinvestav.mx

    2008-01-20

    Trace metal accumulation and thiol compounds synthesis as induced by cadmium exposure was studied in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Shoots were exposed for 24, 48, 96 and 144 h to several CdCl{sub 2} concentrations (0, 30, 50 and 70 {mu}M). Levels of cadmium, cysteine, glutathione (GSH), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine ({gamma}-EC), and phytochelatin-like peptides were determined in green blades, live sheaths and root/rhizomes tissues. Metal accumulation was dependent on Cd concentration and type of tissue, with green blades showing the highest content followed by live sheaths and root/rhizomes. All tissues experienced an increase in thiol-containing compounds as a response to cadmium exposure. Live sheaths showed the highest levels of cysteine, GSH and {gamma}-EC. This is the first report of induction of thiol peptides, presumably phytochelatins, by a trace metal in a sea grass species.

  8. Impacto por huracanes en las praderas de Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae en el Caribe Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo U Arellano-Méndez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thalassia testudinum es la macrófita dominante en Bahía de la Ascensión (Quintana Roo, México, se estudió para conocer su distribución espacio- temporal y determinar si fue afectada por el paso de huracanes que se han visto incrementados en fuerza y frecuencia por el cambio climático. Partiendo de una imagen Landsat ETM+de 2001 y usando información de grandes grupos morfofuncionales y de cobertura de T. testudinum adquiridas en 525 estaciones de muestreo, se obtienen las semillas para la clasificación supervisada de los hábitats bénticos (8 clases. Con el fin de cuantificar los cambios ocasionados por dos huracanes, se usaron dos imágenes, una de 1988 (Gilberto y 1995 (Roxanne y tres más (2003, 2005 y 2007 para monitoreo sin efectos meteorológicos mayores; a estos 6 mapas categóricos se les aplicó un análisis de Ecología del Paisaje usando 8 índices que describen las características espaciales, de estructura, función, cambio de los elementos (matriz-mancha-corredor, efectos sobre el ecosistema, conectividad, bordes, forma del parche y fragmentación del hábitat. Los modelos indican que T. testudinum puede clasificarse como un continuo (matriz, pues los fragmentos no se observan de forma intermitente, sino como una progresión de zonas mínimas a máximas en referencia a su cobertura (corredores ecológicos. No poseen una forma regular, indicando que los impactos son recientes y pueden ser debidos a efectos directos (huracanes de alta intensidad e indirectos (aporte de sedimentos. Los fragmentos de tipo "suelos desnudos" presentan una distribución discontinua, considerándose sitios que han permanecido estables en una larga escala de tiempo; las zonas con coberturas más densas ("camas", "praderas medias" y "praderas" presentan baja fragmentación y alta conexión de sus fragmentos. Las características de poseer un perímetro irregular y crecimiento de formal radial, sugieren que el impacto de los meteoros no tiene efecto

  9. Impacto por huracanes en las praderas de Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae en el Caribe Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo U Arellano-Méndez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thalassia testudinum es la macrófita dominante en Bahía de la Ascensión (Quintana Roo, México, se estudió para conocer su distribución espacio- temporal y determinar si fue afectada por el paso de huracanes que se han visto incrementados en fuerza y frecuencia por el cambio climático. Partiendo de una imagen Landsat ETM+de 2001 y usando información de grandes grupos morfofuncionales y de cobertura de T. testudinum adquiridas en 525 estaciones de muestreo, se obtienen las semillas para la clasificación supervisada de los hábitats bénticos (8 clases. Con el fin de cuantificar los cambios ocasionados por dos huracanes, se usaron dos imágenes, una de 1988 (Gilberto y 1995 (Roxanne y tres más (2003, 2005 y 2007 para monitoreo sin efectos meteorológicos mayores; a estos 6 mapas categóricos se les aplicó un análisis de Ecología del Paisaje usando 8 índices que describen las características espaciales, de estructura, función, cambio de los elementos (matriz-mancha-corredor, efectos sobre el ecosistema, conectividad, bordes, forma del parche y fragmentación del hábitat. Los modelos indican que T. testudinum puede clasificarse como un continuo (matriz, pues los fragmentos no se observan de forma intermitente, sino como una progresión de zonas mínimas a máximas en referencia a su cobertura (corredores ecológicos. No poseen una forma regular, indicando que los impactos son recientes y pueden ser debidos a efectos directos (huracanes de alta intensidad e indirectos (aporte de sedimentos. Los fragmentos de tipo "suelos desnudos" presentan una distribución discontinua, considerándose sitios que han permanecido estables en una larga escala de tiempo; las zonas con coberturas más densas ("camas", "praderas medias" y "praderas" presentan baja fragmentación y alta conexión de sus fragmentos. Las características de poseer un perímetro irregular y crecimiento de formal radial, sugieren que el impacto de los meteoros no tiene efecto

  10. Temporal variation of biomass and productivity of Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae in Venezuela, Southern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Pérez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual biomass and productivity of Thalassia testudinum were determined during a year at a seagrass bed located in the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. Leaf, rhizome and root biomass were determined monthly, together with short-shoot density, from February 1992 to January 1993, from nine replicated core samples. Productivity was measured using the methodology by Zieman (1974 with minor modifications, and leaf turnover rate was calculated. Leaf biomass values ranged between 101.73 dry g m-2 in February and 178.11 dry g m-2 in August. Productivity ranged from 1.69 dry g m-2 d-1 in April and October to 3.30 dry g m-2 d-1 in July, showing two annual peaks: one in July and one in March. The leaf turnover rate showed the highest value in June (2.41% d-1 and the lowest in May (1.23% d-1. Sampling time differences in leaf biomass, productivity and turnover rate were statistically significant. Short- shoot density values varied between 811.10 shoots m-2 in April and 1226.08 shoots m-2 in December, but the differences were not significant along the year. These results indicated seasonal trends for leaf biomass, productivity and turnover rate of T. testudinum in the Southern Caribbean (latitude 10N. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 329-339. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Durante un año se determinaron mensualmente la productividad foliar, la densidad de tallos cortos y la biomasa de hojas, tallos cortos, rizomas y raíces de Thalassia testudinum, en una "pradera" localizada en el Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. Los valores de biomasa foliar estuvieron entre 101.73 g/m² en febrero y 178.11 g/m² en agosto, los de productividad foliar se ubicaron entre 1.69 g/m²/d en abril y octubre y 3.30 g/m²/d en julio, mostrando dos picos anuales, uno en julio y otro en marzo. La tasa de recambio foliar mostró el mayor valor en junio (2.41%/d y el menor en mayo (1.23%/d. Tales diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas durante el año para todas estas variables. La

  11. Response of Thalassia Testudinum Morphometry and Distribution to Environmental Drivers in a Pristine Tropical Lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Medina-Gómez

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the relationships between the biomass, morphometry, and density of short shoots (SS of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum and the physical-environmental forcing in the region. Seasonal sampling surveys were undertaken four times in Bahia de la Ascension, a shallow estuary in the western Mexican Caribbean, to measure plant morphology and environmental variables. The estuary has a fresh water-influenced inner bay, a large central basin and a marine zone featuring a barrier reef at the seaward margin. Leaf size was positively correlated with increasing salinity, but total biomass was not, being similar across most of the sites. Aboveground biomass exhibited seasonal differences in dry and rainy seasons along the bay, most markedly in the brackish inner bay where an abrupt decline in biomass coincided with the rainy season. The relationship between nutrients and biomass indicates that the aboveground/belowground biomass ratio increases as nutrient availability increases. Areal cover was inversely correlated with SS density during both dry and rainy seasons. Maximum SS recruitment coincided with the rainy season. Peaks in SS density were recorded in the freshwater-influenced inner bay during an ENSO cold phase in 2007 ("La Niña" which is associated with a wetter dry season and following a strong storm (Hurricane Dean. The onset of the rainy season influences both shoot density and T. testudinum biomass by controlling the freshwater input to the bay and thus, the system's salinity gradient and external nutrients supply from the coastal wetland.

  12. Genotoxic potential of BM-21, an aqueous-ethanolic extract from Thalassia testudinum marine plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Ansoar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: BM-21 is a hydro-ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Thalassia testudinum marine plant, which is rich in polyphenols, and it has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Aims: To investigate the genotoxicity potential of BM-21. Methods: Salmonella typhimurium Hist. – strains were used in the pointmutation test and Escherichia coli cells were used in SOS response test. DNA primary damage was tested in hepatocytes of mice treated with oral dose of the extract (2000 mg/kg. Bone marrow micronucleus assay was used in mice to detect clastogenic damage while serum from the same animals was used to determine MDA levels in order to find out the influence of BM-21 on lipid peroxidation. Positive and negative controls were included in all experimental series. Results: BM-21 did not increase the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, and it did not induce primary damage in E. coli. Comet assay showed that 2 000 mg/kg of BM-21 induced single strand breaks or alkali-labile sites in the hepatocytes from the treated mice. However, no increase in the micronucleus frequency was observed in mice polychromatic erythrocytes and significantly reduced MDA levels were detected. Conclusions: BM-21 was neither mutagenic nor induces DNA damage to prokaryotic cells. Although, it increased DNA strand breaks in vivo, this one was not translated into clastogenic damage to the whole organism. Results suggested that BM-21 was not mutagenic or genotoxic under our experimental conditions.

  13. SPATIAL AND SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF THALASSIA TESTUDINUM IN NUEVITAS BAY, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-Daranas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on biomass, shoot density and leaf production variability in three Thalassia testudinum meadows under different environmental characteristics in Nuevitas Bay, Cuba, in different seasons. The first site has muddy-sandy sediments and it is affected by bottom trawl fishing; the second has sandy sediments and it is affected by waste-water discharges, and the third has sandy-muddy sediments and no human impacts are present. Leaf, rhizome, and root biomass, daily production of leaves, density of short shoots, and length and width of leaves were estimated five times in a year. Seasonal variations were observed, with higher values of leaf and rhizome biomass, short shoot density, and daily production of leaves occurring in spring and summer. Spatial differences seem to be related to the environmental characteristics of each site: Leaf daily production, leaf biomass and leaf length were lower, and root biomass was higher in the site where sediments are impacted by fishing with bottom trawls; short shoot density and rhizome biomass were higher in the nonaffected site. Lower values of root biomass appeared where waste-water discharges occurred. Se realizó un estudio de la variación de la biomasa, la densidad de vástagos y la producción de hojas en tres praderas de Thalassia testudinum con diferentes características ambientales en la bahía de Nuevitas, Cuba, en diferentes épocas del año. El primer sitio tiene sedimentos fango-arenosos y está afectado por pesquería de arrastre; en el segundo, el sedimento es arenoso y se vierten aguas residuales en su cercanía, y el tercero, con sedimentos arenoso-fangosos, no está afectado por impactos antropogénicos. La biomasa de hojas, rizomas y raíces, la producción diaria de hojas, la densidad de vástagos, y el largo y ancho de las hojas fueron estimadas cinco veces en un año. Se observaron variaciones estacionales, con los valores más altos de biomasa de hojas y de rizomas

  14. Growth dynamics and state of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum in the Gandoca-Manzanillo National Wildlife Refuge, Caribbean, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia S Krupp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds are highly productive and valuable habitats, which fulfill a key role in coastal ecosystems. Spatial distribution, biomass, density, productivity and leaf dynamics of the dominant seagrass species Thalassia testudinum were studied at five locations in the Gandoca-Manzanillo National Wildlife Refuge, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, from November 2005 until March 2006. Seagrass beds within the study area cover approximately 16 ha. Spatial and temporal differences in ecological seagrass parameters were examined along gradients of riverine inputs and related to a range of environmental parameters (depth, grain size distribution, nutrient concentrations, salinity and temperature. Average canopy cover and above-ground biomass of T. testudinum inversely correlated with depth, but did not vary significantly between study sites when compared along depth ranges. Considerable spatio-temporal variations in shoot densities, areal productivity and leaf sizes seem to be related to riverine inputs and wave energy. It appeared that T. testudinum at exposed sites respond to increased environmental disturbance related to the offset of the rainy season with clonal recruitment, whereby shoot densities increase and average leaf sizes are reduced. Lower shoot densities and greater leaf sizes, in contrast, are characteristic for locations with rather consistent environmental conditions, where seagrasses are sheltered. T. testudinum in the refuge has higher shoot densities but shorter leaves and lower productivity compared to sites in 15 other Caribbean countries. The seagrass beds appear to be in a relatively healthy state, however, observations of temporal increased stocks of filamentous epiphytes and macroalgae indicate temporal environmental stress in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 187-201. Epub 2009 November 30.Las praderas de pastos marinos son sitios altamente productivos y hábitats valiosos en los ecosistemas costeros. Se estudió los

  15. Stable nitrogen isotopes in the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum from the Mexican Caribbean: Implications of anthropogenic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alberto; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma. Concepción; Talavera-Sáenz, Ana; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient inputs associated with population growth threaten the integrity of coastal ecosystems. To assess the rapid increase in tourism, we compared the δ15N from Thalassia testudinum collected at sites with different levels of tourism development to detect the N inputs of wastewater discharge (WD) along the coast of Quintana Roo. The contributions of nitrogen enriched in 15N are directly related to the increase of WD inputs in areas of tourism development (Nichupte Lagoon in Cancun) and decreased toward Bahia Akumal and Tulum. The δ15N from T. testudinum was significantly lower at Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. In areas of the lowest development and with tourist activity restricted, such as the Yum Balam Reserve and Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, the δ15N values were relatively enriched compared to Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. Therefore, Puerto Morelos and Mahahual may be used for baseline isotopic monitoring where tourist activities are growing and can lead to environmental pressure on the reef lagoon ecosystem. The anthropogenic N input has the potential to impact, both environmentally and economically, the seagrass meadows and the coral reefs along the coast of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean.

  16. Neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of Thalassia testudinum extract BM-21, against acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Menéndez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acrylamide (ACR neurotoxicity is associated with the enhancement of lipid peroxidation and the reduction of the antioxidative capacity distal axon and nerve terminal regions. The aqueous ethanolic extract of the marine plant Thalassia testudinum, named BM-21, have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Aims: To determine the neuroprotective and the antioxidant effects of BM-21, standardized to thalassiolin B content (5.8 ± 0.9%, on acrylamide (ACR-induced distal axonopathy in male OF-1 mice. Methods: Animals were administered with ACR (70 mg/kg, s.c., 4 weeks, and BM-21 was co-administered p.o at the doses of 4, 40 and 400 mg/kg. The effect of BM-21 on neurobehavioral indexes (rota-rod test, compound muscle action potential (CMAP of the sciatic nerve and oxidative stress parameters were investigated. Results: BM-21 significantly prevented the neurobehavioral sings of neurotoxicity and the alteration of CMAP amplitude and velocity. The lowest dose (4 mg/kg failed to ameliorate these parameters whereas the highest dose (400 mg/kg was the most active. BM-21 (400 mg/kg significantly restored total hydroperoxides (THP and glutathione (GSH in the sciatic nerve as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities. Additionally, the extract also modified THP, GSH and the activity of SOD in cerebellum and brain towards the standard values. Conclusions: BM-21 given at doses that prevented ACR-induced neurotoxicity also produced antioxidant effect in the sciatic nerve, cerebellum and brain. Thus, the neuroprotective activity of BM-21 in this model seems to be mediated at least partly by its antioxidative properties.

  17. Production and carbonate dynamics of Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lamouroux altered by Thalassia testudinum Banks and Soland ex König

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, S.; Frazer, T.; Jacoby, C.

    2013-05-01

    Ocean acidification poses a serious threat to a broad suite of calcifying organisms. Scleractinian corals and calcareous algae that occupy shallow, tropical waters are vulnerable to global changes in ocean chemistry because they already are subject to stressful and variable carbon dynamics at the local scale. For example, net heterotrophy increases carbon dioxide concentrations, and pH varies with diurnal fluctuations in photosynthesis and respiration. Few researchers, however, have investigated the possibility that carbon dioxide consumption during photosynthesis by non-calcifying photoautotrophs, such as seagrasses, can ameliorate deleterious effects of ocean acidification on sympatric calcareous algae. Naturally occurring variations in the density of seagrasses and associated calcareous algae provide an ecologically relevant test of the hypothesis that diel fluctuations in water chemistry driven by cycles of photosynthesis and respiration within seagrass beds create microenvironments that enhance macroalgal calcification. In Grape Tree Bay off Little Cayman Island BWI, we quantified net production and characterized calcification for thalli of the calcareous green alga Halimeda incrassata growing within beds of Thalassia testudinum with varying shoot densities. Results indicated that individual H. incrassata thalli were ~6% more calcified in dense seagrass beds. On an areal basis, however, far more calcium carbonate was produced by H. incrassata in areas where seagrasses were less dense due to higher rates of production. In addition, diel pH regimes in vegetated and unvegetated areas within the lagoon were not significantly different, suggesting water exchange and mixing throughout the lagoon. These results suggest that, especially in well-mixed lagoons, carbonate production by calcareous algae may be more related to biotic interactions between seagrasses and calcareous algae than to seagrass-mediated changes in local water chemistry.

  18. Estructura y producción primaria de Thalassia testudinum en la Guajira, Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rosa Albis Salas

    2006-07-01

    Mediante cuadrantes de 50 x 50 cm se determinó la cobertura de T. testudinum; en subcuadrantes de 20 x 20 cm se determinó la densidad de vástagos y en subcuadrantes de 20 x 10 cm se tomaron muestras para biomasa foliar, peso de epífitos, pastoreo y área foliar, las cuales fueron tratadas en el laboratorio siguiendo la metodología de CARICOMP (2001. Entre marzo y abril de 2006 se realizaron mediciones de producción y crecimiento foliar en Puerto Warreo (bahía Portete y Cabo de la Vela. Se encontró que la profundidad afectó el comportamiento de las praderas (p < 0,05, con un mayor desarrollo en las praderas someras en la Alta Guajira. Este desarrollo se reflejó en la densidad foliar, densidad de vástagos, biomasa foliar, biomasa total, ancho, longitud, área e índice de área foliar, mientras que en las demás praderas, más profundas, estas variables tienen poca dimensión y el peso de epítos es alto. Los factores ambientales que mejor explican este comportamiento además de la profundidad, son intensidad de luz, sedimentos, ubicación geográfica y surgencia: las praderas con protección de bahía o ensenada, con mayor influencia de la surgencia, con alto contenido de materia orgánica y con mayor proporción de sedimentos finos son más exuberantes. La producción primaria y el crecimiento foliar se fueron medio-altos (2,40 gps m-2 día-1, y 1,24 mm día-1 comparando con otros estudios realizados en el Caribe.

  19. Estructura de las praderas de thalassia testudinum (bank ex konig, 1805 en Bahía de Sapzurro, Golfo de Urabá, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Ochoa Andrés Felipe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Entre febrero y mayo de 2006, se realizaron tres muestreos para establecer la estructura de las praderas de Thalassia testudinum en la Bahía de Sapzurro. Se midieron algunas variables físico­ químicas y se instalaron 18 sitios de muestreo, nueve en la franja interna y nueve en la externa; en cada sitio se ubicó un cuadrante de 20 x 50 cm para determinar la cobertura y se colectaron las hojas de T. testudinum. La salinidad superficial varió entre 31.65 y 9.73 UPS; fue el único factor que limitó el desarrollo óptimo de las praderas. Los parches de T. testudinum se distribuyeron entre 0.8 y 2.7 m de profundidad. La biomasa en peso seco presentó valores bajos en comparación con otras áreas del Caribe Colombiano, debido posiblemente a la variación de la salinidad en la Bahía. Los análisis estadísticos mostraron diferencias significativas entre la longitud de las hojas en las franjas (P = 0.0223899 y entre franjas en el muestreo de baja salinidad (P = 0.0379739.

  20. Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.E.; Flemer, D.A.; Bundick, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in offshore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period

  1. Pollutant tracking for 3 Western North Atlantic sea grasses by remote sensing: Preliminary diminishing white light responses of Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Berlyn, Graeme P.; Poulos, Helen M.; Goodale, Uromi M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sea grass accessory pigments are more important than Chl at medium to low light intensity. • Partial absorption changes in Thalassia and also in Halodule at low intensity visible light ranges. • NDVI and chlNDI do not detect these changes or low light responses of sea grasses. • Intertidal sea grasses are less stressed than the subtidal species at low and high light. • Chl b is an important photosynthetic pigment in tropical/subtropical species. - Abstract: Sea grasses are foundation species for estuarine ecosystems. The available light for sea grasses diminishes rapidly during pollutant spills, effluent releases, disturbances such as intense riverine input, and tidal changes. We studied how sea grasses’ remote-sensing signatures and light-capturing ability respond to short term light alterations. In vivo responses were measured over the entire visible-light spectra to diminishing white-light on whole-living-plants’ spectral reflectance, including 6 h of full oceanic-light fluences from 10% to 100%. We analyzed differences by various reflectance indices. We compared the sea grasses species responses of tropical vs. temperate and intertidals (Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina) vs. subtidal (Thalassia testudinum). Reflectance diminished with decreasing light intensity that coincided with greater accessory pigment stimulation (anthocyanin, carotenoids, xanthins). Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b differed significantly among species (Thalassia vs. Halodule). Photosynthetic efficiency diminished at high light intensities. The NDVI index was inadequate to perceive these differences. Our results demonstrate the leaf-level utility of data to remote sensing for mapping sea grass and sea grass stress

  2. Environmental Impact Research Program. Transplanting of the Seagrasses Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, and Thalassia testudinum for Sediment Stabilization and Habitat Development in the Southeast Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    light energy transmission becomes insufficient so as to halt photosynthesis by the seagrasses , widespread mortality of the shoots often occurs. When the...TRANSPLANTING OF THE SEAGRASSES HALODULE WRIGHT/I, SYRINGODIUM FILIFORME, AND THALASSIA TESTUDINUM * - -FOR SEDIMENT STABILIZATION AND HABITAT DEVELOPMENT IN...ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO1EIRP 31632 ’-" 11 TITLE (Include Security Classfication) Transplanting of the Seagrasses Ha lodue wrightii, Syngodi 31

  3. ESTRUCTURA DE LAS PRADERAS DE THALASSIA TESTUDINUM EN LA ISLA DE PROVIDENCIA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO, DESPUÉS DEL PASO DEL HURACÁN BETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra O

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El 29 de octubre de 2005 el huracán Beta, de categoría 1 pasó a 15 km norte de la isla de Providencia, Caribe colombiano. Con el propósito de determinar eventuales cambios estructurales de las praderas de fanerógamas marinas, se monitorearon cuatro praderas de Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König alrededor de la isla, uno y dos años después del paso del huracán. Se seleccionaron dos sitios no afectados y dos afectados por el paso del huracán. Se observó que las praderas de pastos marinos en la isla de Providencia parecen sanas y sin signos de alteraciones significativas ocasionadas por el huracán Beta. La única posible alteración de tipo estructural, fue devolver a un estado sucesional más temprano a este ecosistema en las zonas afectadas, alteración que actualmente parece haberse superado.

  4. Estructura y distribución de una pradera de thalassia testudinum en la Bahía Triganá, Golfo de Urabá, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ospina Hoyos John Bairon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En la pradera de T. testudinum de la bahía Triganá, se determinaron la salinidad, la temperatura y la transparencia del agua y las variables estructurales de la pradera como la cobertura, biomasa, largo y ancho de las hojas, en la franja externa (1 a 3 m de profundidad y en la franja interna (3 a 4.6 m de la pradera. El análisis estadístico mostró diferencias significativas en la cobertura, la biomasa y el ancho de las hojas entre franjas, con valores mayores en la franja externa. En general, los valores de biomasa, ancho y largo de las hojas de T. testudinum en la bahía son menores con respecto a otros lugares del Caribe Colombiano, debido a las bajas salinidades en la bahía Triganá.

  5. APPARENT LACK OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) IN SEAGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA L. AND THALASSIA TESTUDIUM BANKS EX KONIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined two populations of Zostera marina L. and one of Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig for presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM). None of these plants showed any VAM colonization. In addition, we were unable to find any literature references on the presence o...

  6. Development of Multiplex Microsatellite PCR Panels for the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Hydrocharitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kor-jent van Dijk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: New microsatellites were developed for the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Hydrocharitaceae, a long-lived seagrass species that is found throughout the shallow waters of tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific. Three multiplex PCR panels were designed utilizing new and previously developed markers, resulting in a toolkit for generating a 16-locus genotype. Methods and Results: Through the use of microsatellite enrichment and next-generation sequencing, 16 new, validated, polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated. Diversity was between two and four alleles per locus totaling 36 alleles. These markers, plus previously developed microsatellite markers for T. hemprichii and T. testudinum, were tested for suitability in multiplex PCR panels. Conclusions: The generation of an easily replicated suite of multiplex panels of codominant molecular markers will allow for high-resolution and detailed genetic structure analysis and clonality assessment with minimal genotyping costs. We suggest the establishment of a T. hemprichii primer convention for the unification of future data sets.

  7. Predicting the Effects of Water Quality on the Growth of Thalassia testudinum in Tampa Bay with a Dynamic Simile-Based Model Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a seagrass growth (SGG) model that is coupled to a water quality (WQ) model that includes the effects of phytoplankton (chlorophyll), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and suspended solids (TSS) on water clarity. Phytoplankton growth was adjusted daily for PAR (...

  8. SURVEY OF BENTHIC DINOFLAGELLATES ASSOCIATED TO BEDS OF Thalassia testudinum IN SAN ANDRÉS ISLAND, SEAFLOWER BIOSPHERE RESERVE, CARIBBEAN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gavio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the occurrence of epiphytic toxic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of San Andrés Island, Caribbean Colombia, we analyzed the seagrass beds on the northern and eastern sides of the island. We found seven species of toxicogenic dinoflagellates, belonging to the genera Prorocentrum and Ostreopsis. The cell densities were generally low if compared with previous studies in other Caribbean sites, ranging from 0 to 836 cells/dry weight. The species encountered are known to produce toxins causing the Diarrehic Shellfish Poisoning and Ciguatera, poisonings which have been documented in the island.

  9. Benthic macro and meiofauna of seagrass (Thalassia hemprichii) bed at Minicoy, Lakshadweep

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.

    Macrofauna, comprising 9 groups, was dominated by polychaete worms, while meiofauna, comprising 10 groups, was dominated by nematodes Densities of both macro and meiofauna were higher near the shore where biomass of Thalassia hemprichii was maximum...

  10. Thalassiolin D: a new flavone O-glucoside Sulphate from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawas, Usama W; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T

    2017-10-01

    Thalassiolin D, a new flavone O-glucoside sulphate along with three flavonoids, two steroids, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and nitrogen compound, octopamine were isolated from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii, collected from the Saudi Red Sea coast. By extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as diosmetin 7-O-β-glucosyl-2″-sulphate. The new compound displayed moderately in vitro antiviral HCV protease activity with IC 50 value 16 μM.

  11. Sexual production in SE Asian seagrasses: the absence of a seed bank in Thalassia hemprichii (Bolinao, NW Philippines)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollon, R.N.; Nacorda, H.M.E.; Vermaat, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    We report the absence of a persistent seed bank in Thalassia hemprichii in NW Philippine seagrass beds. The survival of buried seeds was assessed experimentally since such a capacity is a prerequisite for the formation of seed bank. We found a rapid germination of non-dormant seeds and development

  12. Kajian Hubungan Fosfat Air Dan Fosfat Sedimen Terhadap Pertumbuhan Lamun Thalassia Hemprichii Di Perairan Teluk Awur Dan Pulau Panjang Jepara

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Dedi; Riniatsih, Ita; Yudiati, Ervia

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass growth is limited by the supply of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate particulates that serve as energy for photosynthesis. The magnitude of the role of phosphate in the metabolism and growth of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii important to serve as a study to determine the relationship of nutrients to the growing rate of seagrass in Teluk Awur and Pulau Panjang Jepara. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of phosphate in the water and sediment in the water...

  13. Mercury concentration on Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii at Seribu Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratno; Irawan, Andri

    2018-02-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal element that can damage embryo development. Although this element is highly toxic, some human activities such as mining and industries are still using it. The uncontrolled usage of this element leads to pollution problem in the environment, which includes the seagrass ecosystem in the coastal area of Seribu Islands. For that, to gather more information about mercury pollution in the seagrass beds of these islands, the concentration of mercury (Hg) was measured in sediment, rhizomes, roots and leaves of two species of seagrass (Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii) from Lancang Island, Pari Island and Panggang Island at Seribu Islands, Indonesia in April-May 2017. The highest concentration of mercury was found in sediment on Lancang Island. The concentration of mercury was significantly higher on leaves compare to on roots or rhizomes in E. acoroides on Lancang Island and Panggang Island. T. hemprichii accumulate mercury higher than E. acoroides on Lancang Island. Overall, mercury accumulation on both species ranges at 7.12 - 87.41 ug/kg dw and this shows that they have the potential as bio-indicator of mercury bio accumulation.

  14. Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, K M

    1984-11-01

    Photosynthetic carbon uptake of the tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers was studied by several methods. Photosynthesis in buffered seawater in media in the range of pH 6 to pH 9 showed an exponentially increasing rate with decreasing pH, thus indicating that free CO(2) was a photosynthetic substrate. However, these experiments were unable to determine whether photosynthesis at alkaline pH also contained some component due to HCO(3) (-) uptake. This aspect was further investigated by studying photosynthetic rates in a number of media of varying pH (7.8-8.61) and total inorganic carbon (0.75-13.17 millimolar). In these media, photosynthetic rate was correlated with free CO(2) concentration and was independent of the HCO(3) (-) concentration in the medium. Short time-course experiments were conducted during equilibration of free CO(2) and HCO(3) (-) after injection of (14)C labeled solution at acid or alkaline pH. High initial photosynthetic rates were observed when acidic solutions (largely free CO(2)) were used but not with alkaline solutions. The concentration of free CO(2) was found to be a limiting factor for photosynthesis in this plant.

  15. Carbon budget of leaves of the tropical intertidal seagrass Thalassia hemprichii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shih-Han; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2013-07-01

    The question of whether seagrass beds are effective carbon sinks has recently attracted much attention. Leaf production and consumption, and detrital export and decomposition were determined to quantify the carbon budget of leaf production in a southern Taiwan seagrass bed composed of the tropical intertidal seagrass Thalassia hemprichii, which is widely distributed in intertidal zones of the western Pacific. The influence of elevation in the intertidal zone on these processes was also investigated. Leaf production and consumption, and export of leaf detritus showed seasonal variations, with higher rates in the wet season (summer and autumn) and lower rates in the dry season (winter and spring). At the high-elevation site, leaf consumption by fish was significantly higher than that by sea urchins. At the low-elevation site, however, the proportion of leaves consumed by sea urchins was equivalent to that by fish. Leaf detritus decomposed rapidly within the first 9 days, then gradually slowed down, and stabilised after 212 days, at which only 8.7% of dry weight remained in the litterbags. The carbon budget of seagrass leaves demonstrated that 20% of leaf production was grazed by fish and sea urchins and 80% flowed to detritus. This suggests that seagrass leaves are important food sources for inhabiting herbivores. Most of the detritus decomposed (44% of leaf production) or was exported (32% of leaf production), and only 4% of leaf production or 22 g C m-2 yr-1 was stored in this tropical intertidal seagrass bed. Mass balance calculations support this tropical seagrass bed acting as a carbon sink and an outwelling system which exports organic detritus to neighboring coral reefs.

  16. Illumina-based analysis the microbial diversity associated with Thalassia hemprichii in Xincun Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Ling, Juan; Dong, Jun-De; Chen, Biao; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou; Wang, You-Shao

    2015-10-01

    In order to increase our understanding of the microbial diversity associated with seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in Xincun Bay, South China Sea, 16S rRNA gene was identified by highthrough sequencing method. Bacteria associated with seagrass T. hemprichii belonged to 37 phyla, 99 classes. The diversity of bacteria associated with seagrass was similar among the geographically linked coastal locations of Xincun Bay. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacteria and the α-proteobacteria had adapted to the seagrass ecological niche. As well, α-proteobacteria and Pseudomonadales were associated microflora in seagrass meadows, but the interaction between the bacteria and plant is needed to further research. Burkholderiales and Verrucomicrobiae indicated the influence of the bay from anthropogenic activities. Further, Cyanobacteria could imply the difference of the nutrient conditions in the sites. γ-proteobacteria, Desulfobacterales and Pirellulales played a role in the cycle of sulfur, organic mineralization and meadow ecosystem, respectively. In addition, the less abundance bacteria species have key functions in the seagrass meadows, but there is lack knowledge of the interaction of the seagrass and less abundance bacteria species. Microbial communities can response to surroundings and play key functions in the biochemical cycle.

  17. Effects of CO(2) enrichment on photosynthesis, growth, and biochemical composition of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Jian; Huang, Xiao-Pin; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2010-10-01

    The effects of CO₂ enrichment on various ecophysiological parameters of tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers were tested. T. hemprichii, collected from a seagrass bed in Xincun Bay, Hainan island of Southern China, was cultured at 4 CO₂ (aq) concentrations in flow-through seawater aquaria bubbled with CO₂ . CO₂ enrichment considerably enhanced the relative maximum electron transport rate (RETR(max) ) and minimum saturating irradiance (E(k) ) of T. hemprichii. Leaf growth rate of CO₂ -enriched plants was significantly higher than that in unenriched treatment. Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) of T. hemprichii, especially in belowground tissues, increased strongly with elevated CO₂ (aq), suggesting a translocation of photosynthate from aboveground to belowground tissues. Carbon content in belowground tissues showed a similar response with NSC, while in aboveground tissues, carbon content was not affected by CO₂ treatments. In contrast, with increasing CO₂ (aq), nitrogen content in aboveground tissues markedly decreased, but nitrogen content in belowground was nearly constant. Carbon: nitrogen ratio in both tissues were obviously enhanced by increasing CO₂ (aq). Thus, these results indicate that T. hemprichii may respond positively to CO₂ -induced acidification of the coastal ocean. Moreover, the CO₂ -stimulated improvement of photosynthesis and NSC content may partially offset negative effects of severe environmental disturbance such as underwater light reduction. © 2010 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Recreating the shading effects of ship wake induced turbidity to test acclimation responses in the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Nicola K.; Yaakub, Siti Maryam; Tay, Jason K. L.; Todd, Peter A.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated sediment delivery and resuspension in coastal waters from human activities such as shipping can have detrimental effects on seagrass health by limiting light penetration. Managing seagrasses requires knowledge of their light acclamatory abilities so guidelines for coastal activities (e.g. ship movements) that influence sediment dynamics can be created. Guidelines typically focus on ensuring that seagrasses are able to meet their minimal light requirements (MLR). MLRs can be achieved by different light regimes, but it remains unknown whether a chronically low yet stable light regime is less or more detrimental than a highly variable regime with periods of extreme low to no light. To test this, we compared the physiological and morphological responses of Thalassia hemprichii among three light regimes: an open control (30-40% ambient light), a shaded control with (11-15% ambient light), and a fluctuating shade (4-30% ambient light). The MLR for the T. hemprichii we studied was lower (4-10% ambient light) than previous reports (mean = 18%) illustrating enhanced light acclimation in Singapore's chronically turbid waters. Seagrass shoots in the shaded control, however, exhibited significantly more morphological stress symptoms, with reduced shoot growth and lower below ground biomass. These data suggest that for seagrass exposed to periods of acute light stress, energetic costs associated with photo-acclimation to more variable light regimes can be offset if the plant can meet its daily light requirements during periods of high light. Management of seagrass beds should incorporate regular light monitoring and move towards an adaptive feedback-based approach to ensure the long-term viability of these vulnerable ecosystems.

  19. Community Composition and Transcriptional Activity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes of Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in Coral Reef Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ling

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrasses in coral reef ecosystems play important ecological roles by enhancing coral reef resilience under ocean acidification. However, seagrass primary productivity is typically constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Ammonia oxidation is an important process conducted by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB, yet little information is available concerning the community structure and potential activity of seagrass AOA and AOB. Therefore, this study investigated the variations in the abundance, diversity and transcriptional activity of AOA and AOB at the DNA and transcript level from four sample types: the leaf, root, rhizosphere sediment and bulk sediment of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in three coral reef ecosystems. DNA and complementary DNA (cDNA were used to prepare clone libraries and DNA and cDNA quantitative PCR (qPCR assays, targeting the ammonia monooxygenase-subunit (amoA genes as biomarkers. Our results indicated that the closest relatives of the obtained archaeal and bacterial amoA gene sequences recovered from DNA and cDNA libraries mainly originated from the marine environment. Moreover, all the obtained AOB sequences belong to the Nitrosomonadales cluster. Nearly all the AOA communities exhibited higher diversity than the AOB communities at the DNA level, but the qPCR data demonstrated that the abundances of AOB communities were higher than that of AOA communities based on both DNA and RNA transcripts. Collectively, most of the samples shared greater community composition similarity with samples from the same location rather than sample type. Furthermore, the abundance of archaeal amoA gene in rhizosphere sediments showed significant relationships with the ammonium concentration of sediments and the nitrogen content of plant tissue (leaf and root at the DNA level (P < 0.05. Conversely, no such relationships were found for the AOB communities. This work provides new insight into the nitrogen cycle

  20. Waves in Seagrass Systems: Review and Technical Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, 123 pp. Koch, E. W. 1994. Hydrodynamics, diffusion boundary layers and photosynthesis of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum...ER D C TR -0 6- 15 System-Wide Water Resources Program Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration Research Program Waves in Seagrass ...Water Resources Research Program and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration Research Program ERDC TR-06-15 November 2006 Waves in Seagrass Systems

  1. SEAGRASS AND CDOM IN THE FLORIDA KEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses play a variety of important ecological roles in coastal ecosystems. Here we present evidence that seagrass detritus from the widespread species, Thalassia testudinum, is an important source of ocean color and UV-protective substances in a low latitude coastal shelf reg...

  2. Investigation into the Distribution of Ballast Water Tracers in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    photosynthesis within the water column. Natural CDOM concentrations from lakes to the deep ocean arise from input via the breakdown and dissolution of...3629. Stabenau, E.R., Zepp, R.G., Bartels, E. and Zika, R.G., 2004. Role of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum as a source of chromophoric dissolved

  3. [Biomass and density of 2 seagrass species in southern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, M A; de la Fuente-Betancourt, M G; Cervantes-Martínez, A

    2000-01-01

    The biomass and productivity of a seagrass community are useful for determining the ecological status of the coast. Leaf biomass and shoot density in beds of Thalassia testudinum Banks & Sol. ex K. D. Koenig, were compared for two environments in the Mexican Caribbean coast (N = 6 quadrants/site) in November 1998. Shoot and leaf biomass values were lower in the mangrove-associated meadow than in the reef lagoon meadow. This could be related to the higher percentage of epiphytes on the leaves. In addition, T. testudinum had more biomass than Syringodium filiforme Kütz in the reef lagoon.

  4. Sinopsis sobre las Hydrocharitaceae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Mumm Udo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic family Hydrocharitaceae is actually represented in Colombia by seven genera and seven species (Egeria densa, Apalanthe granatensis, Halophila decipiens, Hydrilla verticillata, Limnobium laevigatum, Thalassia testudinum, Vallisneria americana. A first record of Hydrilla verticillata growing spontaneously in outside conditions is made for this geographical area. A key to genera is presented, with each species briefly commented and illustrated.En Colombia la familia de plantas acuáticas Hydrocharitaceae se encuentra representada por siete géneros y siete especies (Egeria densa, Apalanthe granatensis, Halophila decipiens, Hydrilla verticillata, Limnabium laevigatum, Thalassia testudinum, Vallisneria americana. Para el país se registra por primera vez a Hydrilla verticillata. Adicionalmente se presenta una clave para los géneros, con las especies brevemente comentadas e ilustradas.

  5. Seagrass community dynamics in a subtropical estuarine lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A.; Roessler, M.A.

    1977-11-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of major plant and animal species were investigated for 4 years in south Biscayne Bay including Card Sound, Florida, a subtropical estuarine lagoon. This was part of a larger study including chemical, physical and geological investigations. The major species of plants were Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig, turtle grass, Laurencia poitei (Lamour.) Howe, a red macroalga and the green algae Penicillus capitatus Lamarck and Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lamour. Standing crop and production of plant material taken bi-weekly is given in detail for 16 stations in Card Sound for the 4-year period and for eight stations in Biscayne Bay for a 1-year period. The major animal species were not equally distributed; in the near-shore Thalassia community, species of Pagurus, Neopanope, Hippolyte, Cerithium, Bulla, Prunum and Modulus were dominant. In mid-bay, where patchy Thalassia plus green algae occurred, Thor and Chondrilla were the dominant animals. Near the fringing islands, where tidal flow caused more oceanic conditions, the community was dominated by sponges, urchins and corals. This highlights the structural differences in what is now termed the ''Thalassia community.'' Comparisons with other known Thalassia communities are made.

  6. Seagrass distribution and abundance in Eastern Gulf of Mexico coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard L.; Bittaker, Henry F.

    1986-05-01

    The marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii form two of the largest reported seagrass beds along the northwest and southern coasts of Florida where they cover about 3000 square km in the Big Bend area and about 5500 square km in Florida Bay, respectively. Most of the leaf biomass in the Big Bend area and outer Florida Bay was composed of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme which were distributed throughout the beds but which were more abundant in shallow depths. A short-leaved form of Halodule wrightii grew in monotypic stands in shallow water near the inner edges of the beds, while Halophila decipiens and a longer-leaved variety of H. wrightii grew scattered throughout the beds, in monotypic stands near the outer edges of the beds, and in deeper water outside the beds. Halophila engelmanni was observed scattered at various depths throughout the seagrass beds and in monospecific patches in deep water outside the northern bed. Ruppia maritima grew primarily in brackish water around river mouths. The cross-shelf limits of the two major seagrass beds are controlled nearshore by increased water turbidity and lower salinity around river mouths and off-shore by light penetration to depths which receive 10% or more of sea surface photosynthetically active radiation. Seagrasses form large beds only along low energy reaches of the coast. The Florida Bay seagrass bed contained about twice the short-shoot density of both Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme, for data averaged over all depths, and about four times the average short-shoot density of both species in shallow water compared with the Big Bend seagrass bed. The differences in average seagrass abundance between Florida Bay and the Big Bend area may be a consequence of the effects of greater seasonal solar radiation and water temperature fluctuations experienced by plants in the northern bed, which lies at the northern distribution limit for American

  7. Photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways in Zostera marina and three Florida seagrasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, S.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    The photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways of four seagrass species, Zostera marina L. from Alaska and Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig, Syringodium filiforme Kutz. and Halodule wrightii Aschers. from the Gulf of Mexico, were investigated with a /sup 14/C pulse-chase technique. All species were found to be principally of the C/sub 3/ type. However, Thalassia and Halodule had higher initial incorporation rates into organic acids than is typical for terrestrial C/sub 3/ plants. Of 11 seagrass species investigated thus far for C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ metabolism using this technique, 10 were found to be principally of the C/sub 3/ type while only one exhibited C/sub 4/ metabolism.

  8. Ecological study of the effects of power plants on benthic macroplant microcosms in subtropical and tropical estuaries. Progress report, 1976--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1977-08-01

    The effect of two fossil fuel and two nuclear plants on a near-shore seagrass community was studied in South Biscayne Bay, Dade County, Florida, over the past four years. The focus of the study was to delineate the effects that a series of various pollutants have had on the dominant system of seagrass Thalassia testudinum and its related community. Data are included from studies on the effects of heavy metals, waste heat, and dredging activities, with emphasis on thermal pollution. In order to separate the perturbation of the specific pollutant from the natural fluctuations of the system, efforts were made to understand the dynamic processes in adjacent untouched areas

  9. Decadal increase in seagrass biomass and temperature at the CARICOMP site in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. López-Calderón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP was launched in 1993 to study regional long-term interactions between land and sea, taking standardized measurements of productivity and biomass of mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses. Since 1999 continuous measurements of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum parameters as well as environmental data have been recorded in Caribbean Panama. Replicate stations were selected near the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Bocas del Toro. Sediment cores and quadrants were placed there to estimate biomass and productivity, respectively. Mean values for productivity, standing crop, turnover rate, total dry biomass, and Leaf Area Index were 1.74gDW/m²/d, 66.6gDW/m², 2.62%/d, 1 481 gDW/m², and 4.65, respectively. Total dry biomass (shoots, rhizomes and roots and LAI of T. testudinum increased significantly during the study period. Mean values for total rainfall, Secchi disk depth, sea surface temperature, and salinity were 3 498mm, 8.24m, 28.79°C, and 32.26psu, respectively. Sea surface temperature was the only environmental variable with a statistically significant change, increasing from 1999 to 2010. Correlation between sea surface temperature and T. testudinum parameters (total biomass and LAI were both positive and significant. Human population has increased dramatically over the last ten years in Bocas del Toro region, increasing pressure (deforestation, runoff, wastewater over coastal ecosystems (seagrasses, mangroves, coral reefs. Change in the abundance of T. testudinum may be linked to ocean warming, as a consequence to satisfy plant’s metabolic requirements, although other local factors need to be analyzed (reduced grazing and increased eutrophication. A further warming of the ocean could have a negative effect on T. testudinum population, increasing respiratory demands and microbial metabolism.

  10. Ultraviolet-induced responses in two species of climax tropical marine macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrés, Y; Armstrong, R A; Connelly, X M

    2001-09-01

    In tropical regions nominal reductions in stratospheric ozone could be detrimental to marine organisms that live near their upper tolerance levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Well-known plant responses to UV include inhibition of photosynthesis, reductions in chlorophyll content, morphological changes and production of UV absorbing compounds such as flavonoids. An assessment of the effects and responses of two tropical marine macrophytes to full solar radiation and solar radiation depleted of UV were conducted in southwestern Puerto Rico. Changes in concentration of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments, and in leaf optical properties of the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle and the seagrass Thalassia testudinum, were evaluated in field exclusion experiments. Rhizophora mangle exposed to full solar radiation showed lower leaf reflectance and a shift of 5 nm in the inflection point of the red edge. Thalassia testudinum samples excluded from UV had significant increases in total chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations. These marine macrophytes showed increments in their concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds with exposure to UV radiation. Results indicate that even minor increases in UV radiation at low latitudes could have significant effects on the pigment composition of these climax species.

  11. Determination of the antioxidant capacity of two seagrass species according to the extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethia L. González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a wide variety of methods for obtaining of plant extracts that enable a good yield of bioactive metabolites. For several years, extractive techniques have been perfected for obtaining natural extracts with powerful pharmacological properties. Aims: To determine the influence of various extraction methods (infusion, decoction, microwave, maceration with heat and agitation, and constant heat and agitation on the content of solids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König (Hyrocharitacea and Syringodium filiforme kützing (Cymodoceaceae. Methods: The soluble solids content was determined by the gravimetric method; total phenolic content, using Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Results: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as the extraction solvent. In the case those that use the hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species. Conclusions: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as extraction solvent. In the case those that use hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species.

  12. Utilization of shallow-water seagrass detritus by Caribbean deep-sea macrofauna: delta13C evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchanek, T.H.; Williams, S.L.; Ogden, J.C.; Hubbard, D.K.; Gill, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Three dives were made using the DSRV Alvin in the deep-sea basin north of St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Detrital seagrasses and macrofaunal distributions at 2455 to 3950 m depth were assessed quantitatively. Counts of the manatee grass Syringodium filiforme contrasted sharply with those of the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum, reflecting an abundance proportional to previously reported export rates of the same species from Tague Bay, a nearby shallow source lagoon. Of the macrofaunal consumers that could potentially utilize this detrital nutrient source, three species of holothurians and two species of sea urchins were collected and/or observed. Gut content analyses revealed that all three holothurians deposit-feed on sediment and at least one species of sea urchin feeds almost exclusively on Syringodium. Carbon:nitrogen analyses of naturally occurring abyssal Thalassia detritus showed very low nitrogen content and a high C:N ratio, thus yielding a low nutritional value. Fresh Thalassia blades held in a litter bag experiment at 3950 m changed little in nitrogen content and C:N ratio after four years. A comparison was made of the stable carbon isotope ratios of 13 C: 12 C for abyssal seagrass detritus and other potential carbon sources with those for tissues from the holothurian and urchin consumers. The results are discussed. (author)

  13. Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-03-01

    The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

  14. Seagrass biomass and productivity in the Florida Keys, USA: ground-level and airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; McHan, C.; Carlson, D. F.; Hu, C.; Danielson, T.; Durnan, B.; English, D. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Herwitz, S.; Merrill, J.; Mewes, T.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass communities serve as essential habitat for fish and shellfish, and recent research indicates that they can play a significant role in reducing ocean acidification. As part of a collaborative project funded by the NASA ROSES program and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, we collected hyperspectral imagery of seagrass beds and measured productivity of Thalassia testudinum at Sugarloaf Key, Florida, in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. Our primary goal was to evaluate the utility of hyperspectral sensors, in general, and UAV platforms, in specific, to measure seagrass health and productivity. Airborne measurements using the AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system were carried out simultaneously with ground measurements of Thalassia fluorescence, oxygen metabolism, growth, and biomass, as well as remote sensing reflectance and several in situ optical properties. Water depths at the study site ranged from less than 1 m to 5 m. Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentrations (0.09-0.72 ug l-1), ag(440) (0-0.02 m-1), and turbidity (0.12-4.1 ntu) were relatively low for all three deployments, facilitating the collection of excellent imagery and application of water-column radiative-transfer corrections. Aboveground Thalassia and macroalgal biomass, at 18 sites in the study area, ranged from 210 to 690 and 11 to 590 gDW m-2, respectively. One-sided green leaf area index of Thalassia ranged from 0.7 to 3.0. Preliminary findings show that the sensitivity of relationships between seagrass productivity and biomass parameters and remotely-sensed habitat spectra is reduced with increasing water depth and, even in shallow water, is complicated by epiphytic algae and sediment coverage of leaf surfaces.

  15. Description of two new species of Rissoella Gray, 1847 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia from Venezuela, with a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Caballer Gutierrez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Rissoella Gray, 1847 are described from Venezuela, one from the National Park Morrocoy, Rissoella morrocoyensis sp. n. and the other from the Wildlife Refuge Isla de Aves, Rissoella venezolanicola sp. n. R. morrocoyensis sp. n. has a deep umbilicus (partly closed, preumbilical cord, black head, hypobranchial gland marked by a pale yellow boomerang-shaped ribbon and it lives on the leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks & König, 1805. R. venezolanicola sp. n. has an angled preumbilical cord which extends to the columella delimiting a trapezoid, a hypobranchial gland marked by a yellow quaver-shaped ribbon and protoconch with fuchsia highlights. It lives on the brown alga Dictyota spp. The records of Rissoella in the Caribbean are revised and illustrations, a comparative table and a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus are provided.

  16. Thalassiolins A-C: new marine-derived inhibitors of HIV cDNA integrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, David C; Hansen, Mark S T; Rhodes, Denise; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Ni, Haihong; McCammon, J Andrew; Bushman, Frederic D; Fenical, William

    2002-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication requires integration of viral cDNA into the host genome, a process mediated by the viral enzyme integrase. We describe a new series of HIV integrase inhibitors, thalassiolins A-C (1-3), isolated from the Caribbean sea grass Thalassia testudinum. The thalassiolins are distinguished from other flavones previously studied by the substitution of a sulfated beta-D-glucose at the 7-position, a substituent that imparts increased potency against integrase in biochemical assays. The most active of these molecules, thalassiolin A (1), displays in vitro inhibition of the integrase catalyzed strand transfer reaction (IC50=0.4 microM) and an antiviral IC50 of 30 microM. Molecular modeling studies indicate a favorable binding mode is probable at the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase.

  17. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  18. Recurrence of Seagrass Mortality in Florida Bay: The Role of Climate Change and Implications for Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Catastrophic mortality of seagrass in Florida Bay (USA) from 1987 to 1991 resulted in the complete loss of thousands of hectares of dense Thalassia testudinum beds. At that time, acutely toxic levels of dissolved sulfide in sediments were determined to be the proximal cause of seagrass mortality, but the mechanisms responsible for sulfide accumulation in sediments were not demonstrated. With the recurrence of seagrass mortality in Florida Bay in summer 2015, we show that several processes create the conditions that lead to sulfide toxicity and catastrophic mortality of Thalassia. Regional drought and elevated water temperature lead to hypersalinity, particularly in the northern Bay. In addition, evaporation of seawater on mudbanks and microtidal flow patterns create stratified brine layers in basins adjacent to mudbanks. Because of very high seagrass shoot densities and limited tidal exchange, brine layers limit oxygen diffusion and prevent oxidation of sulfide in sediments and bottom water, exposing roots, rhizomes and lateral meristems of Thalassia to acutely toxic levels of sulfide, causing extensive mortality. Dead belowground tissues provide labile carbon sources to sulfate-reducing bacteria enhancing sulfide production and creating a positive feedback loop of increasing sulfide toxicity leading to further seagrass death. The carbon sequestration capacity of these dense seagrass communities is diminished three ways: 1) export of dead seagrass shoots and leaves as floating wrack, 2) in situ decomposition of roots, rhizomes, and some leaf material, and 3) reduced areal productivity of surviving seagrasses. Climate analyses show that, in the short term ( 50 years), higher water temperatures and evaporation rates might result in recurring seagrass mortality events. However, in the long term, sea level rise will increase tidal exchange and flushing in Florida Bay reducing the likelihood of seagrass mortality.

  19. Ecological study of the effects of nuclear power plants on benthic macroplant microcosms in subtropical and tropical estuaries. Annual progress report, 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1975-05-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: the dynamic ecology of Thalassia and studies of the Thalassia community; basic ecology of Thalassia growth and reproduction; red macroalgal ecology; green macroalgal ecology; transplantation of Thalassia; succession in a previously damaged Thalassia community at Turkey Point; and thermal ecology of the Thalassia community of Card Sound and Turkey Point. (U.S.)

  20. Fungi and their biomass in detritus of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenberg) Ascherson

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, V.; Raghukumar, S.

    Kalpeni Island revealed different kinds of hyphae and unicellular thraustochytrid fungi, particularly in later stages of decomposition. Highest values of biomass estimatEd. by direct observations were 31840 x 10-6 g mycelial fungi per g dry wt. detritus...

  1. δ15N in the turtle grass from the Mexican Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera-Saenz, A.; Sanchez, A.; Ortiz-Hernandez, M.

    2013-05-01

    Nutrient inputs associated with population growth threaten the integrity of coastal ecosystems. To assess the rapid increase in tourism, we compared the δ15N from Thalassia testudinum collected at sites with different levels of tourism development and population to detect the N inputs of wastewater discharge (WD) along the coast of Quintana Roo. The contributions of nitrogen enriched in 15N are directly related to the increase of WD inputs in areas of high tourism development (Nichupte Lagoon in Cancun, >3 million tourists per year from 2007 to 2011 and 0.7 million of resident population) and decreased towards Bahia Akumal and Tulum (>3 million tourists per year from 2007 to 2011 and 0.15 million of resident population). The δ15N from T. testudinum was significantly lower at Mahahual and Puerto Morelos (about 0.4 million tourists per year in 2007 to 2011 and 0.25 million of resident population) than other the sites. In areas of the lowest development and with tourist activity restricted and small population, such as the Yum Balam Reserve and Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, the δ15N values were in much higher enrichment that Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. Therefore is suggested that Mahahual and Puerto Morelos may be used for baseline isotopic monitoring, over environmental pressure on the reef lagoon ecosystem, where tourist activities and population are growing very slow rate. The anthropogenic N input has the potential to impact, both environmentally and economically, the seagrass meadows and the coral reefs along the coast of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean.

  2. Biodiversidad íctica de praderas de pasto marino de la costa noroeste del Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela Ichthyc biodiversity of seagrass meadows from the Northwest coast of Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Ariza A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los pastos marinos son ecosistemas costeros de alta productividad, con gran diversidad y abundancia de peces, la cual es aprovechada por pescadores artesanales. En este estudio se analizó la estructura comunitaria íctica de praderas de Thalassia testudinum en Manzanillo (M y La Brea (LB, costa noroeste del Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. También, se realizaron muestreos mensuales (11-2006 al 10-2007, con la utilización de una red playera. Se capturaron 34 810 organismos agrupados en 13 órdenes, 36 familias y 83 especies. En ambas zonas, el número de especies fue similar, aunque el número de organismos vario, y se encontró para M un total de 55 especies y 13 210 organismos y para LB 58 especies y 21 600 organismos. Las especies más abundantes y de mayor biomasa en el área muestreada fueron: Nicholsina usta, Haemulon boschmae, H. steindachneri, Harengula jaguana, Halichoeres bivittatus y Hemiramphus brasiliensis. Los visitantes ocasionales fue el componente comunitario más frecuente con 59%, los cíclicos y los residentes permanentes obtuvieron 22 y 19%, respectivamente. En M la H’n fue de 1.71±0.64bits/ind; entretanto en LB fue 1.95±0.51bits/ind. Los valores de la diversidad estuvieron relacionados directamente con la equitabilidad e inversamente con la dominancia. Los bajos valores del índice de similaridad, entre localidades permite establecer que estas comunidades ícticas son disimiles, debido quizás a la estructuración de cada pradera de Thalassia y a la conectividad con otros sistemas.Ichthyc biodiversity of seagrass meadows from the Northwest coast of Cariaco Gulf , Venezuela. Seagrasses are highly productive coastal ecosystems with a high diversity and abundance of fishes, very important to support artisanal fisheries. We analyzed the fish community structure of Thalassia testudinum in the communities of Manzanillo (M and La Brea (LB, Northwest coast of Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela. Samples were taken monthly (Nov. 2006-Oct

  3. Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the shallow waters from Quintana Roo, Mexican Caribbean coast Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea de las aguas someras de Quintana Roo, Caribe mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Román-Contreras

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have focused on the palaemonid fauna of the Mexican Caribbean. This study provides a list of shallow water free-living and symbiont shrimps of the family Palaemonidae collected on turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum in Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo and Mahahual reef lagoon, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Ten species in 8 genera are reported, of which the genus Periclimenes is the most diverse with 3 species. An updated geographic distribution along the western Atlantic and other regions is provided for all the species. The greatest affinity of the palaemonid fauna studied, besides that with the Caribbean province, is with the Brazilian, Argentinian, and Texan zoogeographic provinces. Of the 10 species reported in this paper, 8 represent new local records in the studied area.Los crustáceos de la familia Palaemonidae del Caribe mexicano han sido poco estudiados. En este trabajo se presenta un listado de palemónidos de vida libre y simbiontes recolectados en el pasto marino Thalassia testudiuim de Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo y la laguna arrecifal de Mahahual, Quintana Roo, México. Se registran 10 especies pertenecientes a 8 géneros, siendo el género Periclimenes el más diverso con 3 especies. Para todas las especies se proporciona su distribución geográfica en la costa del Atlántico americano así como en otras regiones. Además de la provincia Caribeña, los palemónidos recolectados también muestran alta afinidad con otras provincias zoogeográficas como la Brasileña, Argentina y Texana; de las 10 especies registradas en este estudio, 8 representan nuevo registro local en el área estudiada.

  4. Biodiversidad íctica de praderas de pasto marino de la costa noroeste del Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Ariza A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los pastos marinos son ecosistemas costeros de alta productividad, con gran diversidad y abundancia de peces, la cual es aprovechada por pescadores artesanales. En este estudio se analizó la estructura comunitaria íctica de praderas de Thalassia testudinum en Manzanillo (M y La Brea (LB, costa noroeste del Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. También, se realizaron muestreos mensuales (11-2006 al 10-2007, con la utilización de una red playera. Se capturaron 34 810 organismos agrupados en 13 órdenes, 36 familias y 83 especies. En ambas zonas, el número de especies fue similar, aunque el número de organismos vario, y se encontró para M un total de 55 especies y 13 210 organismos y para LB 58 especies y 21 600 organismos. Las especies más abundantes y de mayor biomasa en el área muestreada fueron: Nicholsina usta, Haemulon boschmae, H. steindachneri, Harengula jaguana, Halichoeres bivittatus y Hemiramphus brasiliensis. Los visitantes ocasionales fue el componente comunitario más frecuente con 59%, los cíclicos y los residentes permanentes obtuvieron 22 y 19%, respectivamente. En M la H’n fue de 1.71±0.64bits/ind; entretanto en LB fue 1.95±0.51bits/ind. Los valores de la diversidad estuvieron relacionados directamente con la equitabilidad e inversamente con la dominancia. Los bajos valores del índice de similaridad, entre localidades permite establecer que estas comunidades ícticas son disimiles, debido quizás a la estructuración de cada pradera de Thalassia y a la conectividad con otros sistemas.

  5. Biomass loss and nutrient redistribution in an Indonesian Thalassia hemprichii seagrass bed following seasonal low tide exposure during daylight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Manuntun, R.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The intertidal reef flat of Barang Lompo Island, Indonesia, is exposed to air for several hours per day on the days around spring tides. The time of exposure shows a seasonal pattern. In the period January-June, the reef flat only runs dry at night, whereas in the period July-December, exposure only

  6. Survey of benthic dinoflagellates associated to beds of Thalassia testudinumin San Andres Island, Seaflower biosphere reserve, Caribbean Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez E, Angelica; Mancera Pineda, J Ernesto; Gavio, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the occurrence of epiphytic toxic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of San Andres Island, Caribbean Colombia, we analyzed the sea grass beds on the northern and eastern sides of the island. We found seven species of toxicogenic dinoflagellates, belonging to the genera Prorocentrum and Ostreopsis. The cell densities were generally low if compared with previous studies in other Caribbean sites, ranging from 0 to 836 cells/dry weights. The species encountered are known to produce toxins causing the diarrheic shellfish poisoning and ciguatera, poisonings which have been documented in the island.

  7. Antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi derived from three seagrass species: Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preuttiporn Supaphon

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi from three commonly found seagrasses in southern Thailand were explored for their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites. One hundred and sixty endophytic fungi derived from Cymodoceaserrulata (Family Cymodoceaceae, Halophilaovalis and Thalassiahemprichii (Family Hydrocharitaceae were screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by a colorimetric broth microdilution test against ten human pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 90028 and NCPF 3153, Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90112 and ATCC 90113 and clinical isolates of Microsporumgypseum and Penicilliummarneffei. Sixty-nine percent of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one test strain. Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Among the active fungi, seven isolates including Hypocreales sp. PSU-ES26 from C. serrulata, Trichoderma spp. PSU-ES8 and PSU-ES38 from H. ovalis, and Penicillium sp. PSU-ES43, Fusarium sp. PSU-ES73, Stephanonectria sp. PSU-ES172 and an unidentified endophyte PSU-ES190 from T. hemprichii exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against human pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of less than 10 µg/ml. The inhibitory extracts at concentrations of 4 times their MIC destroyed the targeted cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results showed the antimicrobial potential of extracts from endophytic fungi from seagrasses.

  8. Morphological and physiological responses of seagrasses (Alismatales to grazers (Testudines: Cheloniidae and the role of these responses as grazing patch abandonment cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Lacey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, are grazers influencing the distribution of seagrass within shallow coastal ecosystems, yet the drivers behind C. mydas patch use within seagrass beds are largely unknown. Current theories center on food quality (nutrient content as the plant responds to grazing disturbances; however, no study has monitored these parameters in a natural setting without grazer manipulation. To determine the morphological and physiological responses potentially influencing seagrass recovery from grazing disturbances, seagrasses were monitored for one year under three different grazing scenarios (turtle grazed, fish grazed and ungrazed in a tropical ecosystem in Akumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Significantly less soluble carbohydrates and increased nitrogen and phosphorus content in Thalassia testudinum were indicative of the stresses placed on seagrasses during herbivory. To determine if these physiological responses were the drivers of the heterogeneous grazing behavior by C. mydas recorded in Akumal Bay, patches were mapped and monitored over a six-month interval. The abandoned patches had the lowest standing crop rather than leaf nutrient or rhizome soluble carbohydrate content. This suggests a modified Giving Up Density (GUD behavior: the critical threshold where cost of continued grazing does not provide minimum nutrients, therefore, new patches must be utilized, explains resource abandonment and mechanism behind C. mydas grazing. This study is the first to apply GUD theory, often applied in terrestrial literature, to explain marine herbivore grazing behavior.

  9. Efecto antioxidante y contenido polifenólico de Syringodium filiforme (Cymodoceaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethia L González García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant effect and polyphenol content of Syringodium filiforme (Cymodoceaceae. The marine phanerogam Syringodium filiforme, known as "manatee grass", is a common species that grows in coastal areas associated to Thalassia testudinum. With the aim to describe some of its possible chemical characteristics, this study was performed with a sample of 1.2kg, collected in March 2009, in Guanabo beach, Havana, Cuba. The sample was dried (less than 12% humidity and a total extract prepared; other three extracts were prepared with the use of solvents of increasing polarity. The phytochemical screening and analytical determinations of each fraction were undertaken Total polyphenol content was determined using pyrogallol as reference´s standard; chlorophyll a and b and anthocyanin content were also quantified. Total extract and fractions antioxidant activity were evaluated by using the free radical scavenging activity assay with 1,1- Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl reactive (knowing as DPPH´s method. The phytochemical screening of the different extracts detected the presence of high concentrations of flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, antocyaninns, reducing sugars and alkaloids. The total extract and methanol fraction showed significant free radical scavenging properties, while the petroleum ether fraction showed moderate activity, and the chloroform fraction and the aqueous soluble precipitate (residual salt obtained didn’t show antioxidant properties against free radicals. The results of this work confirmed the potentialities of this species for biological purposes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 465-472. Epub 2011 March 01.

  10. Florida seagrass habitat evaluation: A comparative survey for chemical quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael A. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States)]. E-mail: lewis.michael@epa.gov; Dantin, Darrin D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States); Chancy, Cynthia A. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States); Abel, Kathryn C. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32514 (United States); Lewis, Christopher G. [Department of Water and Soil Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32103 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Contaminant concentrations were determined for media associated with 13 Florida seagrass beds. Concentrations of 10 trace metals were more commonly detected in surface water, sediment and two seagrass species than PAHs, pesticides and PCBs. Concentrations of copper and arsenic in surface water exceeded Florida aquatic life criteria more frequently than other trace elements. Total organic carbon, mercury, chromium, zinc, total chlordane, total PAHs, total PCBs, DDD and DDE were significantly greater in seagrass-rooted sediments than adjacent non-vegetated sediments. Total DDT, DDD, DDE, total chlordane, arsenic, copper and nickel exceeded proposed sediment quality guidelines at six of 13 grass beds. Pesticides, PAHs, and PCBs were below detection in seagrass tissues. Mercury, cadmium, nickel, lead and silver were detected in 50% or more of the tissues for Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Spatial, interspecific and tissue differences were usually an order of magnitude or less. - Some anthropogenic contaminants were prevalent in seagrass and their rooted sediments but the biological significance is unknown.

  11. Severe impacts of brown tides caused by Sargassum spp. on near-shore Caribbean seagrass communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I; Hernández Arana, Héctor A; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa E; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Canizales-Flores, Hazel M; González-Godoy, Carlos E; Barba-Santos, M Guadalupe; Vega-Zepeda, Alejandro; Collado-Vides, Ligia

    2017-09-15

    From mid-2014 until the end of 2015, the Mexican Caribbean coast experienced a massive influx of drifting Sargassum spp. that accumulated on the shores, resulting in build-up of decaying beach-cast material and near-shore murky brown waters (Sargassum-brown-tides, Sbt). The effects of Sbt on four near-shore waters included reduction in light, oxygen (hypoxia or anoxia) and pH. The monthly influx of nitrogen, and phosphorus by drifting Sargassum spp. was estimated at 6150 and 61kgkm -1 respectively, resulting in eutrophication. Near-shore seagrass meadows dominated by Thalassia testudinum were replaced by a community dominated by calcareous rhizophytic algae and drifting algae and/or epiphytes, resulting in 61.6-99.5% loss of below-ground biomass. Near-shore corals suffered total or partial mortality. Recovery of affected seagrass meadows may take years or even decades, or changes could be permanent if massive influxes of Sargassum spp. recur. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Trace metal analysis in sea grasses from Mexican Caribbean Coast by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Issac O, K.; Martinez, A.; Lavoisier, E.; Martinez, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The growing urban and tourist activity in the Mexican Caribbean coasts has resulted in an increase of chemical substances, metals in particular, discharged to the coastal waters. In order to reach an adequate management and conservation of these marine ecosystems it is necessary to perform an inventory of the actual conditions that reflect the vulnerability and the level of damage. Sea-grasses are considered good biological indicators of heavy metal contamination in marine systems. The goal of this preliminary work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb in Thalassia testudinum, a very common sea-grass in the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Samples were collected from several locations in the coasts of the Yucatan Peninsula: Holbox, Blanquizal and Punta Allen, areas virtually uninfluenced by anthropogenic activities. Trace elements in different part plants were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This is a very suitable technique since it offers a fast, accurate and multi-element analysis. Also, the analysis by PIXE can be performed directly on powdered leaves without a laborious sample preparation. The trace metal concentration determined in sea-grasses growing in Caribbean generally fall in the range of the lowest valuables reported for sea grasses from the Gulf of Mexico. The results indicate that the studied areas do not present contamination by heavy metals. (Author)

  13. Morphological and physiological responses of seagrasses (Alismatales) to grazers (Testudines: Cheloniidae) and the role of these responses as grazing patch abandonment cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Elizabeth A; Collado-Vides, Ligia; Fourqurean, James W

    2014-12-01

    Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, are grazers influencing the distribution of seagrass within shallow coastal ecosystems, yet the drivers behind C. mydas patch use within seagrass beds are largely unknown. Current theories center on food quality (nutrient content) as the plant responds to grazing disturbances; however, no study has monitored these parameters in a natural setting without grazer manipulation. To determine the morphological and physiological responses potentially influencing seagrass recovery from grazing disturbances, seagrasses were monitored for one year under three different grazing scenarios (turtle grazed, fish grazed and ungrazed) in a tropical ecosystem in Akumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Significantly less soluble carbohydrates and increased nitrogen and phosphorus content in Thalassia testudinum were indicative of the stresses placed on seagrasses during herbivory. To determine if these physiological responses were the drivers of the heterogeneous grazing behavior by C. mydas recorded in Akumal Bay, patches were mapped and monitored over a six-month interval. The abandoned patches had the lowest standing crop rather than leaf nutrient or rhi- zome soluble carbohydrate content. This suggests a modified Giving Up Density (GUD) behavior: the critical threshold where cost of continued grazing does not provide minimum nutrients, therefore, new patches must be utilized, explains resource abandonment and mechanism behind C. mydas grazing. This study is the first to apply GUD theory, often applied in terrestrial literature, to explain marine herbivore grazing behavior.

  14. Diet of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Aarin Conrad; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Gomez, Nicole Auil

    2017-01-01

    Belize contains important habitat for Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) and provides refuge for the highest known population density of this subspecies. As these animals face impending threats, knowledge of their dietary habits can be used to interpret resource utilization. The contents of 13 mouth, 6 digestive tract (stomach, duodenum and colon), and 124 fecal samples were microscopically examined using a modified point technique detection protocol to identify key plant species consumed by manatees at two important aggregation sites in Belize: Southern Lagoon and the Drowned Cayes. Overall, 15 different items were identified in samples from manatees in Belize. Five species of seagrasses (Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Ruppia maritima, Syringodium filiforme, and Halophila sp.) made up the highest percentage of items. The red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), was also identified as an important food item. Algae (Ulva sp., Chara sp., Lyngbya sp.) and invertebrates (sponges and diatoms) were also consumed. Variation in the percentage of seagrasses, other vascular plants, and algae consumption was analyzed as a 4-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with main effects and interactions for locality, sex, size classification, and season. While sex and season did not influence diet composition, differences for locality and size classification were observed. These results suggest that analysis of diet composition of Antillean manatees may help to determine critical habitat and use of associated food resources which, in turn can be used to aid conservation efforts in Belize.

  15. Laboratory investigation of the acoustic response of seagrass tissue in the frequency band 0.5-2.5 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Preston S; Dunton, Kenneth H

    2009-04-01

    Previous in situ investigations of seagrass have revealed acoustic phenomena that depend on plant density, tissue gas content, and free bubbles produced by photosynthetic activity, but corresponding predictive models that could be used to optimize acoustic remote sensing, shallow water sonar, and mine hunting applications have not appeared. To begin to address this deficiency, low frequency (0.5-2.5 kHz) acoustic laboratory experiments were conducted on three freshly collected Texas Gulf Coast seagrass species. A one-dimensional acoustic resonator technique was used to assess the biomass and effective acoustic properties of the leaves and rhizomes of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Independent biomass and gas content estimates were obtained via microscopic cross-section imagery. The acoustic results were compared to model predictions based on Wood's equation for a two-phase medium. The effective sound speed in the plant-filled resonator was strongly dependent on plant biomass, but the Wood's equation model (based on tissue gas content alone) could not predict the effective sound speed for the low irradiance conditions of the experiment, in which no free bubbles were generated by photosynthesis. The results corroborate previously published results obtained in situ for another seagrass species, Posidonia oceanica.

  16. [Hurricane Paloma's effects on seagrasses along Jardines de la Reina Archipelago, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Zúñiga, Adán; Pina, Fabián; Matos, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Seagrasses are one of the most important coastal ecosystems since they promote organic matter flow, nutrient cycling, food availability and refuge. Until now, reports on damages caused by storms and hurricanes on seagrass beds are uncommon and highly variable. The seagrass meadows of the East end of Jardines de la Reina archipelago were surveyed from Nov. 29th to Dec. 5th of 2008, in order to determinate the effects from the passing of Hurricane Paloma: a category three storm on the Saffir-Simpsom scale. A rapid field assessment of the affected areas was carried out using the manta tow technique. In six sites, seagrass was quantitatively evaluated using a 15cm diameter core (four sampling units per site) and shoot density was calculated. Remote sensing techniques were used to estimate seagrass cover. To estimate the percentage of affected areas, a Region of Interest (ROI) was first created over a Landsat image. The percentage of seagrass affected within the ROI was estimated through direct georeferentiation of the contours of the damaged area and with a comparison to the total seagrass extension. To find possible explanations for damages, a false colour image was created using the near infrared band, to highlight the differences between emerged and submerged zones. The direction of winds was estimated using ArcGis 9.2 creating circular buffers, from the centre of the hurricane and generating lines tangent to the buffers. Seagrass in the region was dominated by the angiosperm Thalassia testudinum. Regional mean density was 1 321 +/- 721 shoots/m2, a value regarded as high for the Caribbean area. Seagrass meadows were partly affected by sediment accumulation on the shoots of T. testudinum and uprooting rhizomes. The 7.6 km2 disturbed area represented 1% of the total seagrass area. Other sites, closer to the centre of the hurricane, did not show any damages on the marine vegetation. The keys location with respect to the hurricane track was the most likely cause of the

  17. Interannual variability in seagrass carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J. W.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Anderson, W. T.; Anderson, W. T.

    2001-12-01

    The shallow marine waters surrounding the southern tip of Florida provide an ideal environment for seagrasses, which are the most common benthic community in the region. Yet, these communities are susceptible to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances, especially changes in water quality caused by an increase the nutrient flux to the near shore environment. In order to better understand the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratio in marine plants, an extensive times series analysis was constructed from quarterly sampling of Thalassia testudinum (the dominate species in the study area) from 1996 through 1998. Sites for study where selected from permanent stations within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), from both sides of the Florida Keys - two stations on the bay side and two stations on the reef side. These data will also help to constrain elements of the carbon and nitrogen cycles affecting this region. The data analyzed over the three year study period show unique cyclic trends associated with seasonal changes in primary productivity and potentially changes in the nitrogen and carbon pools. Additionally, the analysis of our time series indicates that isotope food web studies need to take into account spatial and temporal changes when evaluating trophic levels. The mean carbon and nitrogen isotope values of T. testudinum from all 4 stations vary respectively from -7.2 per mil to -10.41 and 1.1 per mil to 2.2 per mil (n = 48). However, certain stations displayed anonymously depleted nitrogen isotope values, values as low as -1.2 per mil. These values potentially indicated that biogeochmical processes like N fixation, ammonification and denitrification cause regional pattern in the isotopic composition of the source DIN. Both carbon and nitrogen isotopes displayed seasonal enrichment-depletion trends, with maximum enrichment occurring during the summer. The overall seasonal variation for carbon 13 from the different stations ranged from 1 per mil to

  18. The influence of seagrass on shell layers and Florida Bay mudbanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, E.J.; Halley, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aerial photography indicates that sometime since the early 1970's, an emergent ridge of shell debris developed on a mudbank north of Calusa Key in Florida Bay. Coarse shell deposits on and within the Bay's shallow mudbanks are believed to be the product of transport during major storm events and subsequent winnowing. However, shell material from the ridge contains nuclear bomb 14C, supporting formation within the past 30 years and the last major hurricanes to influence Florida Bay were Donna and Betsy (1960 and 1965). Results from this study suggest that the Calusa ridge and other coarse shell deposits in Florida Bay can result from, 1) periodic seagrass mortality and wave-induced transport during frequent winter cold fronts and/or 2) mollusc blooms and subsequent burial. A survey of bottom types indicates that dense to intermediate beds of seagrass, mainly Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), occur within the shallow basins of western Florida Bay and along the margins of Bay mudbanks. Wave measurements and modeling indicate that Thalassia along mudbank margins can reduce incoming wave-energy by over 80%. Seagrass beds also host particularly dense populations of molluscs from periodic 'blooms' and are believed to be the major source of coarse sediments in the Bay. Thus, if bank-edge seagrass dies, sediments, including shell debris, become exposed and subject to greatly increased wave energy. Modeling indicates that winds typical of winter cold fronts in South Florida can produce near-bottom velocities and shear stress at a grass-free bank edge which are sufficient to transport coarse carbonate grains. Shell layers found at depth in mudbank cores can also be explained by previous episodes of sediment accretion over mollusc-rich seagrass beds or grass bed mortality at the edge of a mudbank and shell transport during cold front passage. The latter implies that mortality of marginal seagrass beds has occurred throughout the history of Florida Bay and that the

  19. Efecto antioxidante y contenido polifenólico de Syringodium filiforme (Cymodoceaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethia L González García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant effect and polyphenol content of Syringodium filiforme (Cymodoceaceae. The marine phanerogam Syringodium filiforme, known as "manatee grass", is a common species that grows in coastal areas associated to Thalassia testudinum. With the aim to describe some of its possible chemical characteristics, this study was performed with a sample of 1.2kg, collected in March 2009, in Guanabo beach, Havana, Cuba. The sample was dried (less than 12% humidity and a total extract prepared; other three extracts were prepared with the use of solvents of increasing polarity. The phytochemical screening and analytical determinations of each fraction were undertaken Total polyphenol content was determined using pyrogallol as reference´s standard; chlorophyll a and b and anthocyanin content were also quantified. Total extract and fractions antioxidant activity were evaluated by using the free radical scavenging activity assay with 1,1- Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl reactive (knowing as DPPH´s method. The phytochemical screening of the different extracts detected the presence of high concentrations of flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, antocyaninns, reducing sugars and alkaloids. The total extract and methanol fraction showed significant free radical scavenging properties, while the petroleum ether fraction showed moderate activity, and the chloroform fraction and the aqueous soluble precipitate (residual salt obtained didn’t show antioxidant properties against free radicals. The results of this work confirmed the potentialities of this species for biological purposes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 465-472. Epub 2011 March 01.La fanerógama marina Syringodium filiforme, conocida comúnmente como "Hierba Manatí", crece en los fondos marinos tropicales asociada con la especie Thalassia testudinum. Este estudio fue realizado con una muestra de S. filiforme (1.2kg peso húmedo recolectada en la playa de Guanabo en La Habana, Cuba en Marzo 2009. La muestra fue secada

  20. Importance of Mangroves, Seagrass Beds and the Shallow Coral Reef as a Nursery for Important Coral Reef Fishes, Using a Visual Census Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.; Gorissen, M. W.; Meijer, G. J.; Van't Hof, T.; den Hartog, C.

    2000-07-01

    The nursery function of various biotopes for coral reef fishes was investigated on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Length and abundance of 16 commercially important reef fish species were determined by means of visual censuses during the day in six different biotopes: mangrove prop-roots ( Rhizophora mangle) and seagrass beds ( Thalassia testudinum) in Lac Bay, and four depth zones on the coral reef (0 to 3 m, 3 to 5 m, 10 to 15 m and 15 to 20 m). The mangroves, seagrass beds and shallow coral reef (0 to 3 m) appeared to be the main nursery biotopes for the juveniles of the selected species. Mutual comparison between biotopes showed that the seagrass beds were the most important nursery biotope for juvenile Haemulon flavolineatum, H. sciurus, Ocyurus chrysurus, Acanthurus chirurgus and Sparisoma viride, the mangroves for juvenile Lutjanus apodus, L. griseus, Sphyraena barracuda and Chaetodon capistratus, and the shallow coral reef for juvenile H. chrysargyreum, L. mahogoni , A. bahianus and Abudefduf saxatilis. Juvenile Acanthurus coeruleus utilized all six biotopes, while juvenile H. carbonarium and Anisotremus surinamensis were not observed in any of the six biotopes. Although fishes showed a clear preference for a specific nursery biotope, most fish species utilized multiple nursery biotopes simultaneously. The almost complete absence of juveniles on the deeper reef zones indicates the high dependence of juveniles on the shallow water biotopes as a nursery. For most fish species an (partial) ontogenetic shift was observed at a particular life stage from their (shallow) nursery biotopes to the (deeper) coral reef. Cluster analyses showed that closely related species within the families Haemulidae, Lutjanidae and Acanthuridae, and the different size classes within species in most cases had a spatial separation in biotope utilization.

  1. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10m depth at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park, increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7±1.15 g/m2/d and biomass (822.8±391.84 g/m2 compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge, surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14kg/m2 and density (9.0±0.58 trees/100m2 in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4g/m2/d was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 1-22. Epub 2010 October 01.

  2. Multivariate Analysis of Water Quality and Benthic Macrophyte Communities in Florida Bay, USA Reveals Hurricane Effects and Susceptibility to Seagrass Die-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Cole

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass communities, dominated by Thalassia testudinum, form the principal benthic ecosystem within Florida Bay, Florida USA. The bay has had several large-scale seagrass die-offs in recent decades associated with drought and hypersaline conditions. In addition, three category-5 hurricanes passed in close proximity to the bay during the fall of 2005. This study investigated temporal and spatial trends in macrophyte abundance and water quality from 2006 to 2013 at 15 permanent transect sites, which were co-located with long-term water quality stations. Relationships, by year and by transect location (basin, between antecedent water quality (mean, minimum and maximum for a 6-month period and benthic macrophyte communities were examined using multivariate analyses. Total phosphorus, salinity, pH, turbidity, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, DIN to phosphate ratio (DIN:PO4-3, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen correlated with temporal and spatial variations in the macrophyte communities. Temporal analysis (MDS and LINKTREE indicated that the fall 2005 hurricanes affected both water quality and macrophyte communities for approximately a 2-year period. Spatial analysis revealed that five basins, which subsequently exhibited a major seagrass die-off during summer 2015, significantly differed from the other ten basins in macrophyte community structure and water quality more than 2 years before this die-off event. High total phosphorus, high pH, low DIN, and low DIN:PO4-3, in combination with deep sediments and high seagrass cover were characteristic of sites that subsequently exhibited severe die-off. Our results indicate basins with more mixed seagrass communities and higher macroalgae abundance are less susceptible to die-off, which is consistent with the management goals of promoting more heterogeneous benthic macrophyte communities.

  3. Acetogenic and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Inhabiting the Rhizoplane and Deep Cortex Cells of the Sea Grass Halodule wrightii†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Pinkart, Holly C.; Drake, Harold L.; Devereux, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Recent declines in sea grass distribution underscore the importance of understanding microbial community structure-function relationships in sea grass rhizospheres that might affect the viability of these plants. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses showed that sulfate-reducing bacteria and clostridia were enriched in sediments colonized by the sea grasses Halodule wrightii and Thalassia testudinum compared to an adjacent unvegetated sediment. Most-probable-number analyses found that in contrast to butyrate-producing clostridia, acetogens and acetate-utilizing sulfate reducers were enriched by an order of magnitude in rhizosphere sediments. Although sea grass roots are oxygenated in the daytime, colorimetric root incubation studies demonstrated that acetogenic O-demethylation and sulfidogenic iron precipitation activities were tightly associated with washed, sediment-free H. wrightii roots. This suggests that the associated anaerobes are able to tolerate exposure to oxygen. To localize and quantify the anaerobic microbial colonization, root thin sections were hybridized with newly developed 33P-labeled probes that targeted (i) low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria, (ii) cluster I species of clostridia, (iii) species of Acetobacterium, and (iv) species of Desulfovibrio. Microautoradiography revealed intercellular colonization of the roots by Acetobacterium and Desulfovibrio species. Acetogenic bacteria occurred mostly in the rhizoplane and outermost cortex cell layers, and high numbers of sulfate reducers were detected on all epidermal cells and inward, colonizing some 60% of the deepest cortex cells. Approximately 30% of epidermal cells were colonized by bacteria that hybridized with an archaeal probe, strongly suggesting the presence of methanogens. Obligate anaerobes within the roots might contribute to the vitality of sea grasses and other aquatic plants and to the biogeochemistry of the surrounding sediment. PMID:10543830

  4. Ocean acidification buffering effects of seagrass in Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Moyer, Ryan P.; Moore, Christopher; Tomasko, David A.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Torres-Garcia, Legna; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana; Smiley, Nathan; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified ocean acidification as a critical threat to marine and estuarine species in ocean and coastal ecosystems around the world. However, seagrasses are projected to benefit from elevated atmospheric pCO2, are capable of increasing seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states through photosynthesis, and may help buffer against the chemical impacts of ocean acidification. Additionally, dissolution of carbonate sediments may also provide a mechanism for buffering seawater pH. Long-term water quality monitoring data from the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County indicates that seawater pH has risen since the 1980‘s as seagrass beds have continued to recover since that time. We examined the role of seagrass beds in maintaining and elevating pH and carbonate mineral saturation state in northern and southern Tampa Bay where the percent of carbonate sediments is low (40%), respectively. Basic water quality and carbonate system parameters (including pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of CO2, and carbonate mineral saturation state) were measured over diurnal time periods along transects (50-100 m) including dense and sparse Thalassia testudinum. seagrass beds, deep edge seagrass, and adjacent bare sand bottom. Seagrass density and productivity, sediment composition and hydrodynamic parameters were also measured, concurrently. Results indicate that seagrass beds locally elevate pH by up to 0.5 pH unit and double carbonate mineral saturation states relative to bare sand habitats. Thus, seagrass beds in Tampa Bay may provide refuge for marine organisms from the impacts of ocean acidification.

  5. Environmental state and tendencies of the Puerto Morelos CARICOMP site, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E Rodríguez-Martínez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CARICOMP site at Puerto Morelos, Mexico was monitored from 1993 to 2005. No significant changes in air temperature, wind patterns, periodicity and quantity of rainfall, sea-surface temperature and water transparency were observed between sampling years. During the study four hurricane impacts were registered. At the coral reef site overall mean cover of fleshy algae (47% and turf algae (36% were high, whereas cover of corals (2% and sponges (3%, and abundance of sea-urchins (0.04 org m-2 were consistently low. Gorgonians were dominant and showed changes in their community structure; the number of species increased from 1993 to 1995, their abundance decreased after Hurricane Roxanne (1995 and recovered by 2001. At four seagrass sites total community biomass remained constant (707.1-929.6 g dry m-2 but the above-ground biomass of the seagrass Syringodium filiforme and fleshy algae increased gradually. Total biomass (531-699 g dry m-2 and leaf productivity (0.89-1.56 g dry m-2 d-1 of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum remained constant, but the species invested proportionally more biomass in above-ground leaf tissues at the end of the study. The minor hurricanes from 1993 until 2005 had no detectable impacts on the seagrass beds, however, the major Hurricane Wilma (October 2005 changed the community composition at three stations and caused complete burial of the vegetation at a coastal station. The gradual changes in the seagrass and reef communities recorded in the 12 years of continuous monitoring of the CARICOMP site may reflect the increased pollution caused by the rapid augment in urban and tourist developments along the coasts and inland from Puerto Morelos, coupled with poor water management practices. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 23-43. Epub 2010 October 01.

  6. Turbulent mixing and fluid transport within Florida Bay seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jennifer C. R.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.

    2017-10-01

    Seagrasses serve an important function in the ecology of Florida Bay, providing critical nursery habitat and a food source for a variety of organisms. They also create significant benthic structure that induces drag, altering local hydrodynamics that can influence mixing and nutrient dynamics. Thalassia testudinum seagrass meadows were investigated to determine how shoot density and morphometrics alter local wave conditions, the generation of turbulence, and fluid exchange above and within the canopy. Sparsely vegetated and densely vegetated meadows were monitored, with shoot densities of 259 ± 26 and 484 ± 78 shoots m-2, respectively. The temporal and spatial structure of velocity and turbulence were measured using acoustic Doppler velocimeters and an in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) system positioned both above and within the seagrass canopy. The retention of fluid within the canopy was determined by examining e-folding times calculated from the concentration curves of dye plumes released within the seagrass canopy. Results show that a shear layer with an inflection point develops at the top of the seagrass canopy, which generates instabilities that impart turbulence into the seagrass meadow. Compared to the overlying water column, turbulence was enhanced within the sparse canopy due to flow interaction with the seagrass blades, but reduced within the dense canopy. Wave generated oscillatory motion penetrated deeper into the canopy than unidirectional currents, enhancing fluid exchange. Both shoot density and the relative magnitude of wave- versus current-driven flow conditions were found to be important controls on turbulent exchange of water masses across the canopy-water interface.

  7. The distribution of seagrasses in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.C Steiner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds are the largest organism-built marine habitat in Dominica, yet have only been surveyed since 2007. Standardized examinations along a depth gradient between 0 and 24m, focusing on magnoliophyte species composition and benthic cover of shoots at 17 seagrass bed sites, were carried out between September 10 and December 7, 2008. The Cymodoceaceae Syringodium filiforme (Kuetzing 1860 and Halodule wrightii (Ascherson 1868, as well as the Hydrocharitaceae Halophila decipiens (Ostenfeld 1902, H. stipulacea (Fosskal & Ascherson 1867 and Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex König 1805 displayed distinct regional and horizontal distribution patterns. Syringodium filiforme is the island’s dominant seagrass along the western and northern coasts, occurring at depths between 2 and 18m and with a mean benthic cover ranging from 0.9-10% along the West coast. Along the North coast it grew between 0.2 and 1m depth with a mean maximum benthic cover of 48.9%. Halodule wrightii grew along the North and West coasts, in depths between 1 and 14m in areas of recent and chronic disturbances. Its delicate morphology and sparse benthic cover (Pastos marinos son los ambientes más grandes constituidos por organismos en Dominica. Sin embargo, sólo se han examinado desde 2007. Entre el 10 de septiembre y 9 de diciembre 2008, se examinaron la composicion de especies y la densidad de magnoliofitas en profundidades de 0 a 24m. Los Cymodoceaceae: Syringodium filiforme y Halodule wrightii, tal como los Hydrocharitaceae: Halophila decipiens, H. stipulacea y Thalassia testudinum, mostraron una distribución regional y horizontal muy distinta. Syringodium filiforme fue la especie dominante en las costas del oeste y del norte de la isla. Se encontró en profundidades de 2 a 18m y con un promedio de cobertura béntica de 0.9-10% en la costa del oeste. En las costas del norte creció entre 0.2 y 1m de profundidad con un pormedio de cobertura béntica de 48.9%. Halodule

  8. Diversidad y abundancia de moluscos de la epifauna en la comunidad sublitoral de Punta Patilla,Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antulio Prieto A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad de una comunidad malacológica sublitoral en Punta Patilla, Estado Sucre, Venezuela, desde septiembre 1990 hasta septiembre 1991. Se identificaron 25 especies, 14 bivalvos y 11 gasterópodos. Los parámetros de diversidad total en número de la comunidad fueron H´=3.41 bits/ind., J´=0.74 y 1-D =0.85. Las máximas diversidades mensuales se observaron en marzo 1991 (3.12 bits/ind., junio 1991 (2.88 bits/ind y septiembre 1991 (2.95 bits/ind. y la mínima ocurrió en agosto 1991 (1.20 bits/ind.. Los datos del número de individuos conforman una línea recta ajustada por la serie logarítmica con un índice alfa =4.56 y alfa =3.11 para los de biomasa. Las especies más abundantes fueron Chione cancellata, Antigona listeri, Chione granulata y Arca zebra entre los bivalvos, y Chicoreus brevifrons, Turritella variegata y Phyllonotus pomum entre los gasterópodos, estos presentaron las máximas biomasas individuales. La biomasa total promedio de la comunidad (56.80 g/m² es baja cuando se compara con otros reportes de áreas tropicales. Los moluscos habitaron fondos de grava y arenofangoso cubiertos por praderas de Thalasia testudinumDiversity and abundance of mollusks in the sublittoral epifaunal community of Punta Patilla, Venezuela. The diversity of a sublittoral epifaunal mollusk community of Punta Patilla, Sucre State, Venezuela, was studied from September 1990 to September 1991. We identified 25 species (14 bivalves and 11 gastropods of mollusks that inhabit gravel, soft sand and bottoms covered by Thalassia testudinum.Total diversity indices were H´= 3.42, J´= 0.74 and 1-D = 0.85. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in March 1991 (3.12 bits/ ind., June 1991 (2.88 bits/ind. and September 1991 (2.95 bits/ind.; minimum diversity was recorded in August 1991 (1.20 bits/ind..A log series model showed a diversity index alpha = 4.56 for species abundance data and alpha = 3.11 for biomass data. The more abundant species were

  9. [Demography of Caulerpa paspaloides var. wudermanni (Bryopsidales: Caulerpaceae) in the coastal zone of Campeche, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sergio Armando; Gallegos, Margarita E; Mandujano, María C

    2014-06-01

    Demography of Caulerpa paspaloides var. wudermanni (Bryopsidales: Caulerpaceae) in the coastal zone of Campeche, México. The subaquatic vegetation of Los Petenes, Campeche, Mexico, stands out due to its considerable floristic diversity, composed of a great variety of sea grasses and several species of the genus Caulerpa sp. This is a genus of ecological relevance, with the invasive species in the Mediterranean, with negative impact on several native sub-aquatic plants; nevertheless, little is known about the demography and population dynamics of Caulerpa species and their contribution to food webs. Thus the main objective of this study was to describe the demographics of Caulerpa paspaloides var. wudermanni, using the number of stolons, complete and incomplete fronds, the diameter of the stolons and the biomass. The information was used to determine the growth rate (lambda) of this species. The study was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve of Los Petenes, which is located in the Northwest of the state of Campeche. The submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Petenes Biosphere consists of monospecific and mixed populations of seagrass species (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme). Although chlorophytes, brown algae and red algae, are fundamental elements in the specific composition of the SAV in Petenes, several species of Caulerpa are prominent because of their coverage and abundance. In May and June of 2010, significant differences in the quantity of stolons, their diameter, incomplete and complete fronds, and the size of the stolons and rhizomes, were observed. In 2010, the finite population growth rate (lambda) was 2.38 +/- 0.1571 for individuals and 1.20 +/- 0.1356 for the population, and in 2011 the values of lambda were 1.80 +/- 0.3608 and 1.35 +/- 0.1571, respectively. From these results it can be concluded that the population is growing; however, growth is controlled by biotic and abiotic factors. Despite there was no apparent

  10. CAMBIOS EN LA FLORA BÉNTICA DE ARRECIFE HORNOS (VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Godínez-Ortega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Arrecife Hornos pertenece al Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano y por su accesibilidad a la costa ha sufrido el impacto antropogénico directo causando cambios en su biodiversidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la composición y estructura florística, además de verificar los posibles cambios florísticos que han ocurrido en el área desde el último estudio en 1962. Los muestreos fueron realizados en las épocas de secas y lluvias (abril, 2008 y junio, 2008, respectivamente. La atribución de flora presente para 5 formas de vida (pastos marinos + epífitas, calcificadas/costrosas, filamentosas, tubulares/ laminares, racemosas/carnosas fue realizada con base en el análisis de la cobertura vegetal muestreada en 50 m2. Al comparar las especies del presente estudio con las especies reportadas en la literatura previamente se observó que de las 58 especies, 25 son nuevos reportes para Arrecife Hornos. La flora en 2008 fue pobre en comparación con las reportadas en 1962 (27 especies comparadas con las 58 especies. La flora de 1962 tenía un índice de Cheney de 3.5 que indica una flora mixta con elementos tropicales y subtropicales, sin embargo, para el presente estudio observamos un índice de 25 lo cual indica una flora tropical sin elementos subtropicales. Diversas especies de Sargassum hystrix var. buxifolium y S. polyceratium, comunes en 1962 han desparecido de Arrecife Hornos y especies con afinidad a aguas tropicales como Caulerpa racemosa y C. sertularioides están ahora presentes. Los valores de cobertura nos demuestran que Arrecife Hornos está cubierto en su mayoría por Thalassia testudinum y algas calcificadas (Lithophyllum aff. congestum y en menor proporción algas filamentosas, laminares y racemosas. El presente estudio sugiere la existencia de cambios en la composición y cobertura fitobentónica de Arrecife Hornos.

  11. W Photoprotection in Tropical Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Roy A.

    1997-01-01

    of W-absorbing flavonoid compounds in red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and the seagrass Thalassia testudinum, are presented. This research also provides, for the first time, a permanent record of daily W irradiance measurements at a tropical -location.

  12. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10m depth at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park, increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7±1.15 g/m2/d and biomass (822.8±391.84 g/m2 compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge, surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14kg/m2 and density (9.0±0.58 trees/100m2 in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4g/m2/d was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 1-22. Epub 2010 October 01.Los arrecifes coralinos, pastos marinos y manglares de la costa Caribe de Costa Rica han sido monitoreados desde 1999 siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP. La cobertura de coral vivo en el arrecife de Meager Shoal (7 a 10m de

  13. Environmental state and tendencies of the Puerto Morelos CARICOMP site, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E Rodríguez-Martínez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CARICOMP site at Puerto Morelos, Mexico was monitored from 1993 to 2005. No significant changes in air temperature, wind patterns, periodicity and quantity of rainfall, sea-surface temperature and water transparency were observed between sampling years. During the study four hurricane impacts were registered. At the coral reef site overall mean cover of fleshy algae (47% and turf algae (36% were high, whereas cover of corals (2% and sponges (3%, and abundance of sea-urchins (0.04 org m-2 were consistently low. Gorgonians were dominant and showed changes in their community structure; the number of species increased from 1993 to 1995, their abundance decreased after Hurricane Roxanne (1995 and recovered by 2001. At four seagrass sites total community biomass remained constant (707.1-929.6 g dry m-2 but the above-ground biomass of the seagrass Syringodium filiforme and fleshy algae increased gradually. Total biomass (531-699 g dry m-2 and leaf productivity (0.89-1.56 g dry m-2 d-1 of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum remained constant, but the species invested proportionally more biomass in above-ground leaf tissues at the end of the study. The minor hurricanes from 1993 until 2005 had no detectable impacts on the seagrass beds, however, the major Hurricane Wilma (October 2005 changed the community composition at three stations and caused complete burial of the vegetation at a coastal station. The gradual changes in the seagrass and reef communities recorded in the 12 years of continuous monitoring of the CARICOMP site may reflect the increased pollution caused by the rapid augment in urban and tourist developments along the coasts and inland from Puerto Morelos, coupled with poor water management practices. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 23-43. Epub 2010 October 01.El sitio CARICOMP en Puerto Morelos, México, se monitoreo de 1993 a 2005. No se registraron cambios significativos en la temperatura del aire, los patrones de viento, la

  14. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  15. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  16. Demografía de Caulerpa paspaloides var. Wudermannii (Bryopsidales: Caulerpaceae en la zona costera de Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Armando Fuentes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación subacuática de Los Petenes, Campeche, México, se destaca por su gran diversidad florística, compuesto por una gran variedad de pastos marinos y varias especies del género Caulerpa sp. Caulerpa es un género de relevancia ecológica, con especies como la Caulerpa taxifolia, que es invasiva en el Mediterráneo, con un impacto negativo en varias plantas sub-acuáticas nativas, pero poco se sabe acerca de la demografía y la dinámica poblacional de las especies de Caulerpa y su contribución a las redes alimenticias. El objetivo general es conocer la demografía de Caulerpa sp., por medio del número de estolones, frondas completas e incompletas, el diámetro de los estolones y la biomasa. El estudio se realizó en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Los Petenes, en Campeche, México. La Vegetación Acuática Sumergida (VAS en la Biosfera de los Petenes está constituida por poblaciones tanto monoespecíficas como mixtas de las especies de pastos marinos Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii y Syringodium filiforme. Aunque las especies de algas clorófitas, feofitas y rodófitas son elementos fundamentales de la VAS, destacan por su cobertura y abundancia las especies de Caulerpa. En mayo y junio del 2010, hubo diferencias significativas de la cantidad de estolones, su diámetro, frondas completas e incompletas y el tamaño de los estolones como el de los ejes erectos. En el 2010 el valor de la tasa finita de crecimiento poblacional (l fue de 2.38±0.15 con el método de las marcas y con el de la biomasa 1.20±0.13 y en el 2011 los valores fueron de 1.80±0.36 con las marcas y de 1.35±0.15 con la biomasa. Los resultados indican que la población está creciendo, pero es controlada por factores bióticos y abióticos. A pesar de que no se detecta la especie como una amenaza aparente, sugerimos que se continúen estos estudios demográficos sobre C. paspaloides var. wurdemannii e incluso de otras especies del mismo género. No solo

  17. Environmental evaluation near to a fuel vendor inside of the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. II: water quality, sediments and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rada, M.; Losada, F.

    2000-01-01

    , which was the local reference. The amount of lead found in all analyzed samples was acceptable, according to the standards set by the State of Washington (maximum value: 292 mg/kg), while the concentration of lead in the sediments around the supply dock were 1.5 to 3.4 times greater than the Dutch norm. It can be concluded that there is no evidence of an accumulation of Va of Pb in the species selected (Thalassia testudinum, Isognomon alatus y Ascidia nigra) as bioindicators. An observation program is proposed in which variables similar to those measured for this characterization will be studied with some modifications. A more intense sampling of some variables is recommended (lead in water and sediments, total coliform and fecal matter in consecutive samples and in days following a high concentration of visitors) as is the elimination or minimization of other variables. (author) [es

  18. Carbon and nitrogen translocation between seagrass ramets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marbà, N.; Hemminga, M.A.; Mateo, M.A.; Duarte, C.M.; Maas, Y.E.M.; Terrados, J.; Gacia, E.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial scale and the magnitude of carbon and nitrogen translocation was examined in 5 tropical (Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila stipulacea, Halodule uninervis, Thalassodendron ciliatum, Thalassia hemprichii) and 3 temperate (Cymodocea nodosa, Posidonia oceanica, Zostera noltii) seagrass species

  19. New records of marine water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) from the Pujada Bay (West Pacific Ocean) and the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pesic, V.; Chatterjee, T.; Troch, M. de; Ingole, B.S.

    sabangensis Viets, 1984 are known from India and the Philippines, respectively. Materials examined in the present study were collected among sea grasses Thalassia hemprichii (Pujada Bay) and marine macroalgae, Padina (Andaman Sea). The collected sea grasses...

  20. The seagrasses of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Komarpant, D.S.; Rodrigues, R.

    and is dominated by Cymodocea rotundata, C. serrulata, Thalassia hemprichii, Halodule uninervis, H. pinifolia, Halophila beccarii, H. ovata and H. ovalis. Distribution occurs from the intertidal zone to a maximum depth of Ca 15 m. Maximum growth and biomass occur...

  1. Distribution of seagrasses along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    the Tamil Nadu Coast. Seagrasses were observed from intertidal to subtidal regions down to 8 m depth. Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenberg) Aschers. and Cymodocea serrulata (R. Brown) Aschers. and Magnus were the dominant seagrasses in the subtidal zones...

  2. Mapping of seagrass meadows from the Lakshadweep Islands (India), using aerial photographs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Inamdar, S.N.

    six major islands of Lakshadweep was estimated to be 112 ha with standing crop of ca 800 metric tonnes. The dominant seagrass species observed was Thalassia hemprichii while Cymodocea rotundata, Halophila ovata, Syringodium isoetifolium and Halodule...

  3. Distribution and ecology of seagrass communities in the Western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, A. A.

    1. Nine seagrasses were identified and their distributions on coral reef islands and the African coastline studied. 2. Transects were worked to show the vertical zonation of the seagrasses. The more important communities encountered in order from low water spring tide level to the infralittoral were a Halodule uninervis community, a halodule - Thalassi or Thalassia - Cymodocea serrulata community, a Thalassia - Syringodium community, a Thalassia hemprichii community, and finally a Cymodocea ciliata community. 3. Halodule was the main pioneer species. 4. Thalassia and Cymodocea ciliata formed beds which in thelatter seagrass grew at depths of up to 40m. 5. Cymodecea ciliata grew on exposed or semi-exposed shores and formed mats 30-40cm thick. 6. The main environmental factors influencing the zonation of these seagrasses are substrate type, water depth, exposure to waves and current, and tidal range. They grow where water temperatures ranges between 26-30°C, but in littoral pools they may have to withstand temperatures as high as 38°C for short periods. 7. The substrates in which these seagrasses grow range from fine sand and silt to coarse sand mixed with coral debris. Thalassia was the only species which tolerated anoxic sediments and its roots can ramify through black sediments smelling of hydrogen sulphide. Halodule and Syringodium tolerates some lowering of sediment oxygen content. 8. Average standing stock of the main communities expressed as g Fresh Weight per square metre were ss follows: Halodule uninervis, 2430; Halophila ovalis, 465; Thalassia-Halodule, 4250; Thalassia-Cymodecea serrulata, 2907; Thalassia hemprichii, 4125; Cymodocea ciliata, 6050. There was evidence that seagrass biomass increased from LWS down into the infralittoral. The same communities were also analysed for the standing crops of assocated algae and macrofauna.

  4. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Subspecies identification of C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital C...

  6. Seagrass Biomass and Productivity in Seaweed and Non-Seaweed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seagrass beds are often subjected to stress resulting from natural and human activities. In this study, the shoot density, biomass and growth characteristics of Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides were measured to assess the impact of seaweed farming activities on seagrass meadows at Marumbi, Chwaka Bay and ...

  7. Diversity and distribution of seagrasses in the Union of the Comoros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study represents the first in situ assessment of seagrasses in the Union of the Comoros. The presence of the following 10 species (ranked in order of abundance) was confirmed: Thalassia hemprichii, Thalassodendron ciliatum, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halodule wrightii, Cymodocea rotundata, Cymodocea serrulata, ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seasonal seagrass physiology was assessed through gross primary production, respiration and photosynthetic characteristics of three seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata, Thalassia hemprichii and Zostera muelleri. At the higher water temperatures of summer, respiration rates increased in all three species, as did their ...

  9. The Effect of Food Quality and Rearing Density on the Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Seven combinations of aquatic plant extracts were tested to feed juveniles of H. scabra: Thalassia hemprichii, T. hemprichii with 3 % Spirulina, Sargassum latifolium, S. latifolium with 3 % Spirulina, Thalassodendron ciliatum, Syringodium isoetifolium and organic biofilm. A control test consisted in rearing ...

  10. Electrochemiluminescence from Tunicate, Tunichrome--Metal Complexes and Other Biological Samples (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-17

    terrestrial grass ( Eleusine indica ) was gathered from wooded areas around St Andrew Sound. Several blades of each plant species were crushed with...that live (green) grass (E. indica ) extracts exhibited high solution-phase ECL levels 200 ~ Ill c Cll .. .E .J 0 w c Ill Cll :;: 900 800...Figure 12. Comparison of intrinsic biological ECL from live (green) and dead (brown) terrestrial grass (E. indica ) and liv’ seagrass (T. testudinum

  11. Crecimiento del caracol Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae en cuatro ambientes de Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de Jesús Navarrete

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la tasa de crecimiento de caracoles cultivados en corrales en cuatro ambientes diferentes. El cultivo se realizó de octubre de 1993 a marzo de 1994. 16 corrales de 50 m² de área cada uno, cuatro por ambiente, fueron colocados en los siguientes ambientes: Thalassia, Thalassia-arena, Arena y Coral, todos dentro de la laguna arrecifal en Punta Gavilán y Banco Chinchorro. En cada ambiente se introdujeron 20 caracoles de las siguientes tallas: 1 100-120, 2 120-140, 3 140-160 y 4 160-180 mm de longitud de concha. Los caracoles se midieron mensualmente con un vernier con una precisión de un mm. El crecimiento se evaluó por dos métodos: a el incremento marginal promedio de la concha y por el método de Gulland-Holt. En el primer método, el ambiente Arena mostró el mayor crecimiento (3.21 + 0.26 mm/mes en Punta Gavilán, mientras que en Banco Chinchorro, el mayor crecimiento ocurrió en coral (2.31 + 0.44 mm/mes. Con el segúndo método la mayor longitud asintótica en Punta Gavilán se midió en Thalassia-arena (287.5 mm, mientras que en Banco Chinchorro, la mayor longitud asintótica se midió en Arena (318.1 mm. Existieron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento entre los sitios y eso muestra que el crecimiento de los juveniles se relaciona con la cantidad de alimento disponible el cual fue mayor en Thalassia y Thalassia-arena. Sin embargo se requiere evaluar la cantidad de alimento, principalmente microfitobentos en los ambientes sin vegetación como Arena y Coral.The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m² each, four pens per environment, were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a

  12. 1979 Ecological study of fishes and the water quality characteristics of Florida Bay, Everglades National Park, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Fish collections under varying ecological conditions were made by trawling and seining, monthly and quarterly in depths of 45 ppt) persisted for nearly 2 years during the 1974 - 1975 severe drought period. Significant reductions in fish abundance/diversity were observed in relation to hypersaline conditions. Bay-wide macrobenthic communities were mapped (presence/absence) and were primarily comprised of turtle grass (Thalassia), shoalgrass [(Diplanthera = (Halodule)], and/or green algae P...

  13. An Annotated Bibliography on the Biological Effects of Constructing Channels, Jetties, and other Coastal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    was composed mostly of live seagrasses or detritus. Crustaceans were more abundant in the natural marsh than in the other two areas and showed a...measured. After more than a year no recolonization of seagrasses , Thalassia testudinwn and Syringodiwn filiforme, occurred in any dredged area. Some re...Redish Bay, Texas, both before and after the dredging of an intracoastal canal. Moderate values of photosynthesis (2 to 8 grams of oxygen per square

  14. [Growth of Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) snail in 4 environments of Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, A J

    2001-03-01

    The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m2 each, four pens per environment), were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length) and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a) shell marginal mean increase and b) the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 +/- 0.26 mm/month) at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 +/- 0.44 mm/month). Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm), whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm). There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability.

  15. Ecological study of the effects of power plants on benthic macroplant microcosms in subtropical and tropical estuaries. Annual progress report, 1975--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1976-05-01

    The major focus was to understand the function of the seagrass community and to relate this to the impact of energy related activities, most importantly, thermal effluent. In addition, the increased turbidity, current, siltation and heavy metals were factors at the Turkey Point site. We attempted to delineate the effect of heat in the laboratory to determine the upper thermal tolerance of the seagrass. This was shown to be quite close to the combined effect of all the pollutants in the field for Thalassia and the macroalgae. This would indicate that temperature is a very fundamental factor in the growth and survival of the seagrass community

  16. Bioactivity of sea grass against the malarial fever mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suburamaniyan Vijayakumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the seagrass extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus Methods: Seagrass extracts, Halodule pinifolia (H. pinifolia, Cymodocea serrulata (C. serrulata and Thalasia testudinum (T. testudinum were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01 mg-0.1 mg. After 24 h the mortality rate was identified with the formulae [(% of test mortality - % of control mortality/(100 - % of control mortality]伊100. Each experiment was conducted with three replicates and a concurrent control group. A control group consisted of 1 mL of dimethylsulfoxide and 199 mL of distilled water only. Results: The root extract of H. pinifolia showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum concentration of extract of LC 50 value of (0.614依0.006 µg/mL with lower confidence limit-upper confidence limit value of (0.052-0.072 and LC90 value of 0.9120 µg/mL followed by leaf extract of C. serrulata LC 50 value of (0.074依0.008 µg/mL and LC90 value of 0.1487 µg/mL. T. testudinum leaf extract showed LC 50 value of (0.082依0.006 µg/mL. The regression equation of root and leaf extract of H. pinifolia for 4 th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were Y=5.229+1.36x (R2=0.993 and Y=2.369+1.21x (R2=0.878 respectively and analysis of variation was significant at P<0.05 level. The result of the preliminary phytochemical constituents showed the presence of saponin, steroids, terpenoid, phenols, protein and sugars. Conclusions: From the present study the ethanolic extracts of seagrass of H. pinifolia possess lead compound for development of larvicidal activity.

  17. Effect of nutrient enrichment on the source and composition of sediment organic carbon in tropical seagrass beds in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songlin; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wu, Yunchao; Lian, Zhonglian; Huang, Xiaoping

    2016-09-15

    To assess the effect of nutrient enrichment on the source and composition of sediment organic carbon (SOC) beneath Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides in tropical seagrass beds, Xincun Bay, South China Sea, intertidal sediment, primary producers, and seawater samples were collected. No significant differences on sediment δ(13)C, SOC, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were observed between T. hemprichii and E. acoroides. SOC was mainly of autochthonous origin, while the contribution of seagrass to SOC was less than that of suspended particulate organic matter, macroalgae and epiphytes. High nutrient concentrations contributed substantially to SOC of seagrass, macroalgae, and epiphytes. The SOC, MBC, and MBC/SOC ratio in the nearest transect to fish farming were the highest. This suggested a more labile composition of SOC and shorter turnover times in higher nutrient regions. Therefore, the research indicates that nutrient enrichment could enhance plant-derived contributions to SOC and microbial use efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulfur cycling and sulfide intrusion in mixed Southeast Asian tropical seagrass meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Pedersen, Ole; Ikejima, Kou

    2006-01-01

    Seagrass distribution and sediment biogeochemical conditions were measured around Libong Island in the Andaman Sea, Thailand. Seagrass diversity was moderate for a tropical site (four species found: Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii......), with the diminutive species H. ovalis particularly abundant and perhaps serving as important food for dugongs present in the area. Although the sediment organic matter content was low in the seagrass meadows, the sulfate reduction rates were high (48-138 mmol m-2 d-1). A significant positive relationship between...... belowground biomass and sulfate reduction rates across the seagrass species examined indicates that stimulation of microbial activity in the rhizosphere sediments is controlled by the biomass of roots and rhizomes, rather than by specific seagrass characteristics (e.g., morphology, plant activity). The low...

  19. Heat stress of two tropical seagrass species during low tides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D.; Borum, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses grow submerged in aerated seawater but often in low O2 sediments. Elevated temperatures and low O2 are stress factors. Internal aeration was measured in two tropical seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides, growing with extreme tides and diel temperature amplitudes......), the high temperatures and reduced CO2 would have diminished PN, whereas RD increased (Q10 of 2.0-2.7) above that at 33°C (0.45 and 0.33 μmol O2 m-2 s-1, respectively). During night-time low tides, O2 declined resulting in shoot base anoxia in both species, but incoming water containing c. 20 kPa O2...

  20. Cultivation-dependent analysis of the microbial diversity associated with the seagrass meadows in Xincun Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Ling, Juan; Wang, You-Shao; Chen, Biao; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Dong, Jun-De

    2015-10-01

    Microbial communities have largely existed in the seagrass meadows. A total of 496 strains of the bacteria in the seagrass meadows, which belonged to 50 genera, were obtained by the plate cultivation method from three sites of Xincun Bay, South China Sea. The results showed that Bacillales and Vibrionales accounted for the highest proportions of organisms in all communities. The diversity of the bacteria in the sediment was higher than that associated with seagrass. Thalassia hemperichii possessed the highest abundance of bacteria, followed by Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata. Robust seasonal dynamics in microbial community composition were also observed. It was found that microbial activities were closely tied to the growth stage of the seagrass. The microbial distribution was the lowest in site 3. The abundance of the bacteria was linked to the interactions between bacteria and plants, the condition of plant and even the coastal water quality and the nutrition level in the sediment.

  1. Similarity microalgal epiphyte composition on seagrass of Enhalus acoroides and Thalasia hemprichii from different waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, R.; Zainuri, M.; Ambariyanto, A.; Widianingsih; Trianto, A.; Mahendrajaya, R. T.

    2018-03-01

    The epiphytes are all autotrophic organisms that are permanently attached to rhizomes, roots, and leaves of seagrasses. The epiphyte is an important primary producer for the seagrass ecosystem and contributes significantly to the food chain. This study aims to identify the composition of microepiphyte algae on Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii and their similarity levels of both compositions. The 20 leaves samples of E. acoroides and T. hemprichii were observed. The epiphytic microalgae which found on the surface of the seagrass leaves were scrapped, collected in a bottle sample, and fixed with 70 % alcohol and identified into genera. The relation of epiphytic microalgal genera to the location and species of seagrass was analyzed using similarity analysis. The Chrysophyta, Cyanophyta, and Chlorophyta epiphytic microalgal were found. There were similarity variations of the microalgal epiphyte in seagrass of E. acoroides and T. hemprichii and seagrass habitat sites. Morphology and seagrass life affects the abundance and diversity of the epiphytic microalgal attached to the seagrass and it may be associated with the epiphytic lifetime in the seagrass.

  2. Biodiversity of seagrass bed in Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarti, T.; Hariyanto, S.; Wedayanti, A.; Rahmawati, A. D.; Safitri, D. P.; Alificia, R. I.; Suwono

    2017-09-01

    Seagrass beds are flowering plants that live on the seabed. Seagrass provides a habitat for diverse flora and fauna, spawning ground, nursery ground, raising ground, and feeding ground. Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park has many beaches, such as Kajang Beach, Si Banjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Serondo Beach. This study was aimed to determine species composition, seagrass dominated, and the diversity index of seagrass and substrate in Resort Balanan - Baluran National Park. This research was carried out in Kajang Beach, Sibanjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Sirondo Beach from August to September 2015 using belt transect method, each transect consists of 15 plots (19 transects = 285 plots) and using the frame of 1x1 m. This research found seven genera and ten species : Cymodoce (C rotundata and C. serrulata), Syringodium (S. isoelifolium), Thallassodendron (T. ciliatum), Enhalus (E. acoroides) , Halodule (H. univernis and H. pinifolia), Halophila (H. ovalis and H. decipiens), and Thalassia (T. hemprichii). The diversity index of seagrass bed was moderate [H'=1.90] in Balanan Resort. The substrate of seagrass bed was mud, gravel, sand, clay sand and rubble in Balanan Resort. The dominance index was near zero [C = 0.194], that means no dominant species.

  3. Effect of nutrient enrichment on the source and composition of sediment organic carbon in tropical seagrass beds in the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Songlin; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wu, Yunchao; Lian, Zhonglian; Huang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of nutrient enrichment on the source and composition of sediment organic carbon (SOC) beneath Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides in tropical seagrass beds, Xincun Bay, South China Sea, intertidal sediment, primary producers, and seawater samples were collected. No significant differences on sediment δ 13 C, SOC, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were observed between T. hemprichii and E. acoroides. SOC was mainly of autochthonous origin, while the contribution of seagrass to SOC was less than that of suspended particulate organic matter, macroalgae and epiphytes. High nutrient concentrations contributed substantially to SOC of seagrass, macroalgae, and epiphytes. The SOC, MBC, and MBC/SOC ratio in the nearest transect to fish farming were the highest. This suggested a more labile composition of SOC and shorter turnover times in higher nutrient regions. Therefore, the research indicates that nutrient enrichment could enhance plant-derived contributions to SOC and microbial use efficiency. - Highlights: • Response of sources and composition of SOC to nutrient enrichment was observed. • Similar SOC sources and composition were observed in the two seagrass communities. • Nutrient enrichment enhanced seagrass and macroalgae and epiphytes contribution to SOC. • High nutrient concentration stimulated the MBC and the MBC/SOC ratio.

  4. Contribution of seagrass plants to CO2 capture in a tropical seagrass meadow under experimental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyanova, Diana; Gullström, Martin; Lyimo, Liberatus D; Dahl, Martin; Hamisi, Mariam I; Mtolera, Matern S P; Björk, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Coastal vegetative habitats are known to be highly productive environments with a high ability to capture and store carbon. During disturbance this important function could be compromised as plant photosynthetic capacity, biomass, and/or growth are reduced. To evaluate effects of disturbance on CO2 capture in plants we performed a five-month manipulative experiment in a tropical seagrass (Thalassia hemprichii) meadow exposed to two intensity levels of shading and simulated grazing. We assessed CO2 capture potential (as net CO2 fixation) using areal productivity calculated from continuous measurements of diel photosynthetic rates, and estimates of plant morphology, biomass and productivity/respiration (P/R) ratios (from the literature). To better understand the plant capacity to coping with level of disturbance we also measured plant growth and resource allocation. We observed substantial reductions in seagrass areal productivity, biomass, and leaf area that together resulted in a negative daily carbon balance in the two shading treatments as well as in the high-intensity simulated grazing treatment. Additionally, based on the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and starch in the rhizomes, we found that the main reserve sources for plant growth were reduced in all treatments except for the low-intensity simulated grazing treatment. If permanent, these combined adverse effects will reduce the plants' resilience and capacity to recover after disturbance. This might in turn have long-lasting and devastating effects on important ecosystem functions, including the carbon sequestration capacity of the seagrass system.

  5. Heat stress of two tropical seagrass species during low tides - impact on underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration and diel in situ internal aeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D.; Borum, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses grow submerged in aerated seawater but often in low O2 sediments. Elevated temperatures and low O2 are stress factors. Internal aeration was measured in two tropical seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides, growing with extreme tides and diel temperature amplitudes....... Temperature effects on net photosynthesis (PN) and dark respiration (RD) of leaves were evaluated. Daytime low tide was characterized by high pO2 (54 kPa), pH (8.8) and temperature (38°C) in shallow pools. As PN was maximum at 33°C (9.1 and 7.2 μmol O2 m-2 s-1 in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively......), the high temperatures and reduced CO2 would have diminished PN, whereas RD increased (Q10 of 2.0-2.7) above that at 33°C (0.45 and 0.33 μmol O2 m-2 s-1, respectively). During night-time low tides, O2 declined resulting in shoot base anoxia in both species, but incoming water containing c. 20 kPa O2...

  6. Seasonal changes in environmental variables, biomass, production and nutrient contents in two contrasting tropical intertidal seagrass beds in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erftemeijer, Paul L A; Herman, Peter M J

    1994-09-01

    Seasonal dynamics were studied by monthly monitoring of biological and environmental variables in permanent quadrats in two contrasting intertidal seagrass beds in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, from February 1991 to January 1992. Datasets were analysed with canonical correlation analysis for correlations between environmental and biological variables. Considerable variation in biomass, production and plant tissue nutrient contents in a monospecific seagrass bed of Enhalus acoroides, growing on a coastal terrigenous mudbank (Gusung Tallang), was assumed to be related to riverine influences of the nearby Tallo River. The variation in seagrass variables at this site could, however, not be significantly correlated to seasonal patterns in rainfall, salinity, tides, nutrient availability, water motion or turbidity. A seasonal cycle in biomass, production and nutrient contents in a mixed seagrass bed of Thalassia hemprichii and E. acoroides, growing on carbonate sand on the reef flat of an offshore coral island (Barang Lompo), was found to be largely determined by tidal exposure and water motion. Exposure of the intertidal seagrass bed during hours of low water during spring tides showed a gradual shift from exposure during the night (January-June) to exposure during daylight (July-December). Daylight exposure resulted in a significant loss of above-ground plant biomass through desiccation and 'burning' of leaves. The observed seasonal dynamics of the seagrass bed on reef sediment contrast with reports from the Caribbean, where the effect of tidal exposure on comparable shallow-water seagrass communities is relatively insignificant due to a small tidal amplitude.

  7. Identifikasi Kandungan Senyawa Fitokimia Pada Daun dan Akar Lamun di Pantai Samuh Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Gede Widya Bintang Gustavina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass is the only flowering plant which has a true roots, leaves, and stems, an angiosperm plant that adapted to live entirely in the ocean. Seagrass produces several compounds which produced through secondary metabolism, one of the secondary metabolism is the phytochemicals. Seagrass ecosystem in Tanjung Benoa was discovered along Samuh Beach, where 9 kinds of seagrass species were found around the seagrass ecosystem in Tanjung Benoa. Samuh Beach has a tranquil water conditions and sandy substrate. The activities of marine tourism and hotel waste disposal in Tanjung Benoa waters cause major ecological pressure and physical pressure for the seagrass ecosystem. This study aims to determine the content of phytochemicals in the leaves and roots of seagrass. Screening method was used to determine the content of bioactive alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, and tannin compounds. Each of these compounds has an important role in the seagrass. The existence of chemical compounds of the flavonoid, alkaloid and steroid groups in the roots and leaves of Cymodocea rotundata seagrass, Enhalus acoroides, Thalassia hemprichi, Halophila ovalis, Halophila minor, Halodule uninervis and Sryngodium isoetifolium in this study indicate that the seven species of seagrass has potential as a natural chemical antifouling, antifungal, and antibacterial.Then the seagrass will be protected from the danger of predators or epiphanies that interfere with the growth of seagrass and the ecosystems on Samuh Beach will remain intact.

  8. Status and threats on seagrass beds using GIS in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Cao Van; Thao, Nguyen Van; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Ve, Nguyen Dac; Tien, Dam Duc

    2012-10-01

    Seagrasses, marine flowering plants, are widely distributed along temperate and tropical coastlines of the world. Seagrasses have key ecological roles in coastal ecosystems and can form extensive meadows supporting high biodiversity. Till now, fourteen seagrass species belonging to four families were found in Vietnam: Halophila beccarii, H. decipiens, H. ovalis, H. minor, Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides, Ruppia maritima, Halodule pinifolia, H. uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymadocea rotundata, C. serrulata and Thalassodendron ciliatum. A total area of seagrass beds in Vietnam is estimated to be approximately 17000 ha by satellite images and GIS technology. In recent years, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds in Vietnam have been serious decreased compared with those 10-15 years ago. The decline level depended on the impacts by the natural process, the economical activities and the conservation awareness of local people. Thus, it is different at each coastal area. Generally speaking, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds were decreased by more than 50%. Seagrasses on tidal flats in some areas such as Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Phu Quoc seem to be nearly lost. The distribution areas of seagrass beds in 2009 at Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon and Cua Dai estuary was decreased by 50-70% of those in early 1990s.

  9. The Suez Canal as a habitat and pathway for marine algae and seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, A. A.

    The Suez Canal supports a diversified benthic algal flora; 133 species of benthic algae are now known from the Canal, as compared with only 24 in 1924. The vertical and horizontal distribution of algae is considered in relation to hydrographic factors. The algae display zonation and 3-4 algal belts are distinguished on the Canal banks on buoys and pier supports. Associated fauna include Balanus amphitrite and Brachidontes variabilis, together with various hydroids, sponges, ascidians, asteroids, ophiuroids and crustaceans. Merceriella enigmatica thrives well in brackish water habitats. The algal flora in the Bitter Lakes resembles that in the Red Sea. The number of Red Sea species decreases from Suez to Port Said in the littoral zone. On the other hand, bottom algae predominantly belong to Red Sea flora. Thirty of the species of algae found belong to the Indo-Pacific flora; half of these are new records to the Canal. Several of these Indo-Pacific algae have recently become established in the Eastern Mediterranean, whereas only two of the Mediterranean macro-algal flora (viz. Caulerpa prolifera and Halopteris scoparia) have been found in the Gulf of Suez. Two seagrasses, Halopia ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii, are recorded for the first time in the Canal. Only Halophila stipulacea has found its way into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, but none of the Mediterranean seagrasses is found either in the Canal or in the Red Sea.

  10. Sebaran Spasial Komunitas Lamun di Pulau Bone Batang Sulawesi Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dody Priosambodo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai sebaran spasial komunitas lamun dilakukan di pulau Bone Batang, Sulawesi Selatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh karakteristik habitat dan faktor lingkungan khususnya pada fauna yang hidup pada spesies lamun dan sebaran spasialnya. Data kepadatan lamun diperoleh dari 8 stasiun disekitar pulau. Komposisi spesies lamun pada kawasan terumbu karang diamati dengan metode Tarp. Melalui persamaan Bay-Curtis dan analisis n-MDS, hasil menunjukkan bahwa komposisi lamun dari stasiun yang ada pada pulau Bone Batang terdiri atas spesies yang sama dengan Indeks kesamaan lebih dari 75% kecuali pada stasiun 2 dan 3. Komposisi lamun dibagi dalam 3 kelompok. Analisis korespondensi menunjukkan bahwa sebaran spasial dari stasiun berbeda dan dipengaruhi oleh karakteristik habitat. Thalassia hemprichii mendominasi stasiun 1, 3, 7, 8 sementara Cymodea rotundata mendominasi stasiun 2, 5, 6. Spesies perintis contohnya Halodule uninervis dan Halophila ovalis mendominasi stasiun 3 dan 4. Spesies lamun terbesar Enhalus acoroides mendominasi stasiun 7 dan 8. Sebaran spasial dan komposisi spesies juga menunjukkan bahwa padang lamun di Bone Batang dalam tahap dewasa. Fauna yang hidup di padang lamun Bone Batang melimpah dan didominasi spesies liang. Dapat disimpulkan, bahwa campuran komunitas lamun dengan beragam spesies lamun dan dipengaruhi oleh karakteristik habitat dan fauna yang hidup di dalamnya.Kata kunci: Sebaran Spasial, Lamun, Asosiasi Fauna, Sulawesi Selatan

  11. Nitrate fertilisation does not enhance CO2 responses in two tropical seagrass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Y X; Vogel, N; Collier, C J; Holtum, J A M; Flores, F; Uthicke, S

    2016-03-15

    Seagrasses are often considered "winners" of ocean acidification (OA); however, seagrass productivity responses to OA could be limited by nitrogen availability, since nitrogen-derived metabolites are required for carbon assimilation. We tested nitrogen uptake and assimilation, photosynthesis, growth, and carbon allocation responses of the tropical seagrasses Halodule uninervis and Thalassia hemprichii to OA scenarios (428, 734 and 1213 μatm pCO2) under two nutrients levels (0.3 and 1.9 μM NO3(-)). Net primary production (measured as oxygen production) and growth in H. uninervis increased with pCO2 enrichment, but were not affected by nitrate enrichment. However, nitrate enrichment reduced whole plant respiration in H. uninervis. Net primary production and growth did not show significant changes with pCO2 or nitrate by the end of the experiment (24 d) in T. hemprichii. However, nitrate incorporation in T. hemprichii was higher with nitrate enrichment. There was no evidence that nitrogen demand increased with pCO2 enrichment in either species. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, nutrient increases to levels approximating present day flood plumes only had small effects on metabolism. This study highlights that the paradigm of increased productivity of seagrasses under ocean acidification may not be valid for all species under all environmental conditions.

  12. Seagrasses in tropical Australia, productive and abundant for decades decimated overnight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Peter C; Greenway, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    Seagrass ecosystems provide unique coastal habitats critical to the life cycle of many species. Seagrasses are a major store of organic carbon. While seagrasses are globally threatened and in decline, in Cairns Harbour, Queensland, on the tropical east coast of Australia, they have flourished. We assessed seagrass distribution in Cairns Harbour between 1953 and 2012 from historical aerial photographs, Google map satellite images, existing reports and our own surveys of their distribution. Seasonal seagrass physiology was assessed through gross primary production, respiration and photosynthetic characteristics of three seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata, Thalassia hemprichii and Zostera muelleri. At the higher water temperatures of summer, respiration rates increased in all three species, as did their maximum rates of photosynthesis. All three seagrasses achieved maximum rates of photosynthesis at low tide and when they were exposed. For nearly six decades there was little change in seagrass distribution in Cairns Harbour. This was most likely because the seagrasses were able to achieve sufficient light for growth during intertidal and low tide periods. With historical data of seagrass distribution and measures of species production and respiration, could seagrass survival in a changing climate be predicted? Based on physiology, our results predicted the continued maintenance of the Cairns Harbour seagrasses, although one species was more susceptible to thermal disturbance. However, in 2011 an unforeseen episodic disturbance - Tropical Cyclone Yasi - and associated floods lead to the complete and catastrophic loss of all the seagrasses in Cairns Harbour.

  13. High midday temperature stress has stronger effects on biomass than on photosynthesis: A mesocosm experiment on four tropical seagrass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rushingisha; Gullström, Martin; Mangora, Mwita M; Mtolera, Matern S P; Björk, Mats

    2018-05-01

    The effect of repeated midday temperature stress on the photosynthetic performance and biomass production of seagrass was studied in a mesocosm setup with four common tropical species, including Thalassia hemprichii , Cymodocea serrulata , Enhalus acoroides , and Thalassodendron ciliatum . To mimic natural conditions during low tides, the plants were exposed to temperature spikes of different maximal temperatures, that is, ambient (29-33°C), 34, 36, 40, and 45°C, during three midday hours for seven consecutive days. At temperatures of up to 36°C, all species could maintain full photosynthetic rates (measured as the electron transport rate, ETR) throughout the experiment without displaying any obvious photosynthetic stress responses (measured as declining maximal quantum yield, Fv/Fm). All species except T. ciliatum could also withstand 40°C, and only at 45°C did all species display significantly lower photosynthetic rates and declining Fv/Fm. Biomass estimation, however, revealed a different pattern, where significant losses of both above- and belowground seagrass biomass occurred in all species at both 40 and 45°C (except for C. serrulata in the 40°C treatment). Biomass losses were clearly higher in the shoots than in the belowground root-rhizome complex. The findings indicate that, although tropical seagrasses presently can cope with high midday temperature stress, a few degrees increase in maximum daily temperature could cause significant losses in seagrass biomass and productivity.

  14. SIMPANAN KARBON PADANG LAMUN DI KAWASAN PANTAI SANUR, KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Ibnu Graha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass is one of the marine resources that considerably potential as a CO2 absorbent and functioned as carbon sinks in the oceans known as blue carbon. The result of carbon sequestration from the process of photosynthesis is stored as carbon stocks on seagrass tissue, or streamed to multiple compartments, such as sediment, herbivores and other ecosystems. This study aims to assess the potential for carbon stock storage in biomass on a tissue of seagrass in Sanur Beach coastal area. The observations of seagrass are included the seagrass type, seagrass stands, and measurement of environmental parameters. Then the sampling was conducted to obtain the value of seagrass biomass. The carbon stocks obtained through the conversion of biomass by using carbon concentration analysis of seagrass tissue and then carried a spatial distribution of carbon stocks. Types of seagrass found in Sanur Beach coastal area consist of eight species that are Enhalus acroides, Thalassia hemprichii, Halophila ovalis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymodocea serrulata, Cymodocea rotundata, Halodule uninervis and Halodule pinifolia. The result of the carbon stock seagrass in the bottom substrate is 60% greater than the carbon stock in the top substrate which is 40%. Seagrass covering 322 ha of Sanur Beach coastal area with a total potential carbon storage of 66.60 tons or 0.21 tons / ha. Seagrass key role as a carbon storage is on the bottom substrate tissue, and Enhalus acroides is a seagrass species that contributes the most to the carbon storage.

  15. Nitrate fertilisation does not enhance CO2 responses in two tropical seagrass species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Y. X.; Vogel, N.; Collier, C. J.; Holtum, J. A. M.; Flores, F.; Uthicke, S.

    2016-03-01

    Seagrasses are often considered “winners” of ocean acidification (OA); however, seagrass productivity responses to OA could be limited by nitrogen availability, since nitrogen-derived metabolites are required for carbon assimilation. We tested nitrogen uptake and assimilation, photosynthesis, growth, and carbon allocation responses of the tropical seagrasses Halodule uninervis and Thalassia hemprichii to OA scenarios (428, 734 and 1213 μatm pCO2) under two nutrients levels (0.3 and 1.9 μM NO3-). Net primary production (measured as oxygen production) and growth in H. uninervis increased with pCO2 enrichment, but were not affected by nitrate enrichment. However, nitrate enrichment reduced whole plant respiration in H. uninervis. Net primary production and growth did not show significant changes with pCO2 or nitrate by the end of the experiment (24 d) in T. hemprichii. However, nitrate incorporation in T. hemprichii was higher with nitrate enrichment. There was no evidence that nitrogen demand increased with pCO2 enrichment in either species. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, nutrient increases to levels approximating present day flood plumes only had small effects on metabolism. This study highlights that the paradigm of increased productivity of seagrasses under ocean acidification may not be valid for all species under all environmental conditions.

  16. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in seagrasses C-labeling evidence for the c(3) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T J; Abel, K M

    1979-04-01

    The delta(13)C values of several seagrasses were considerably less negative than those of terrestrial C(3) plants and tended toward those of terrestrial C(4) plants. However, for Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers and Halophila spinulosa (R. Br.) Aschers, phosphoglycerate and other C(3) cycle intermediates predominated among the early labeled products of photosynthesis in (14)C-labeled seawater (more than 90% at the earliest times) and the labeling pattern at longer times was brought about by the operation of the C(3) pathway. Malate and aspartate together accounted for only a minor fraction of the total fixed label at all times and the kinetic data of this labeling were not at all consistent with these compounds being early intermediates in seagrass photosynthesis. Pulse-chase (14)C-labeling studies further substantiated these conclusions. Significant labeling of photorespiratory intermediates was observed in all experiments. The kinetics of total fixation of label during some steady-state and pulse-chase experiments suggested that there may be an intermediate pool of inorganic carbon of variable size closely associated with the leaves, either externally or internally. Such a pool may be one cause for the C(4)-like carbon isotope ratios of seagrasses.

  17. Temporal changes in the abundance, leaf growth and photosynthesis of three co-occurring Philippine seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agawin, N S.R.; Duarte, C M.; Fortes, M D.; Uri, J S.; Vermaat, J E.

    2001-06-01

    The analysis of the temporal changes in shoot density, areal leaf biomass, leaf growth and parameters of the photosynthesis-irradiance relationship of three tropical seagrass species (Enhalus acoroides, Thalassia hemprichii and Cymodocea rotundata), co-existing in a shallow subtidal meadow in Cape Bolinao, Philippines, shows that species-specific traits are significant sources of temporal variability, and indicates that these seagrass species respond differently to a common environmental forcing. Species-specific differences are much less important as source of variability of the temporal change in chlorophyll concentration of seagrass leaves. The results indicate that the temporal changes in photosynthetic performance of these seagrasses were driven by environmental forcing and their specific responses to it mostly, but the temporal change in their abundance and leaf growth was also controlled by other factors. The significant contribution of species-specific factors in the temporal changes of biomass, growth and photosynthetic performance of co-occurring seagrass species in Cape Bolinao should contribute to the maintenance of the multispecific, highly productive meadows characteristic of pristine coastal ecosystems in Southeast (SE) Asia.

  18. Homologous Recombination between Genetically Divergent Campylobacter fetus Lineages Supports Host-Associated Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duim, Birgitta; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Zomer, Aldert L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Homologous recombination is a major driver of bacterial speciation. Genetic divergence and host association are important factors influencing homologous recombination. Here, we study these factors for Campylobacter fetus, which shows a distinct intraspecific host dichotomy. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) and venerealis are associated with mammals, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) is associated with reptiles. Recombination between these genetically divergent C. fetus lineages is extremely rare. Previously it was impossible to show whether this barrier to recombination was determined by the differential host preferences, by the genetic divergence between both lineages or by other factors influencing recombination, such as restriction-modification, CRISPR/Cas, and transformation systems. Fortuitously, a distinct C. fetus lineage (ST69) was found, which was highly related to mammal-associated C. fetus, yet isolated from a chelonian. The whole genome sequences of two C. fetus ST69 isolates were compared with those of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus strains for phylogenetic and recombination analysis. In total, 5.1–5.5% of the core genome of both ST69 isolates showed signs of recombination. Of the predicted recombination regions, 80.4% were most closely related to Cft, 14.3% to Cff, and 5.6% to C. iguaniorum. Recombination from C. fetus ST69 to Cft was also detected, but to a lesser extent and only in chelonian-associated Cft strains. This study shows that despite substantial genetic divergence no absolute barrier to homologous recombination exists between two distinct C. fetus lineages when occurring in the same host type, which provides valuable insights in bacterial speciation and evolution. PMID:29608720

  19. Occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Timmerman, Arjen J; Severs, Tim T; Kusters, Johannes G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these Epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. However, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. In this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large variety of reptiles. From 2011 to 2013, 444 cloacal swabs and fecal samples originating from 417 predominantly captive-held reptiles were screened for Epsilonproteobacteria. Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genus specific PCRs were performed directly on all samples. All samples were also cultured on selective media and screened for the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria. Using a tiered approach of AFLP, atpA, and 16S rRNA sequencing, 432 Epsilonproteobacteria isolates were characterized at the species level. Based on PCR, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter were detected in 69.3% of the reptiles; 82.5% of the chelonians, 63.8% of the lizards, and 58.0% of the snakes were positive for one or more of these genera. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from 22.1% of the reptiles and were isolated most frequently from chelonians (37.0%), followed by lizards (19.6%) and snakes (3.0%). The most commonly isolated taxa were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, reptile-associated Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, and a putative novel Campylobacter taxon. Furthermore, a clade of seven related putative novel Helicobacter taxa was isolated from lizards and chelonians. This study shows that reptiles carry various intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria taxa, including several putative novel taxa.

  20. Occurrence, Diversity, and Host Association of Intestinal Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter in Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Kik, Marja; Timmerman, Arjen J.; Severs, Tim T.; Kusters, Johannes G.; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these Epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. However, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. In this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large variety of reptiles. From 2011 to 2013, 444 cloacal swabs and fecal samples originating from 417 predominantly captive-held reptiles were screened for Epsilonproteobacteria. Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genus specific PCRs were performed directly on all samples. All samples were also cultured on selective media and screened for the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria. Using a tiered approach of AFLP, atpA, and 16S rRNA sequencing, 432 Epsilonproteobacteria isolates were characterized at the species level. Based on PCR, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter were detected in 69.3% of the reptiles; 82.5% of the chelonians, 63.8% of the lizards, and 58.0% of the snakes were positive for one or more of these genera. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from 22.1% of the reptiles and were isolated most frequently from chelonians (37.0%), followed by lizards (19.6%) and snakes (3.0%). The most commonly isolated taxa were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, reptile-associated Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, and a putative novel Campylobacter taxon. Furthermore, a clade of seven related putative novel Helicobacter taxa was isolated from lizards and chelonians. This study shows that reptiles carry various intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria taxa, including several putative novel taxa. PMID:24988130

  1. Occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter in reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J Gilbert

    Full Text Available Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these Epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. However, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. In this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large variety of reptiles. From 2011 to 2013, 444 cloacal swabs and fecal samples originating from 417 predominantly captive-held reptiles were screened for Epsilonproteobacteria. Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genus specific PCRs were performed directly on all samples. All samples were also cultured on selective media and screened for the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria. Using a tiered approach of AFLP, atpA, and 16S rRNA sequencing, 432 Epsilonproteobacteria isolates were characterized at the species level. Based on PCR, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter were detected in 69.3% of the reptiles; 82.5% of the chelonians, 63.8% of the lizards, and 58.0% of the snakes were positive for one or more of these genera. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from 22.1% of the reptiles and were isolated most frequently from chelonians (37.0%, followed by lizards (19.6% and snakes (3.0%. The most commonly isolated taxa were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, reptile-associated Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, and a putative novel Campylobacter taxon. Furthermore, a clade of seven related putative novel Helicobacter taxa was isolated from lizards and chelonians. This study shows that reptiles carry various intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria taxa, including several putative novel taxa.

  2. Remote Sensing of Seagrass Leaf Area Index and Species: The Capability of a Model Inversion Method Assessed by Sensitivity Analysis and Hyperspectral Data of Florida Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Hedley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The capability for mapping two species of seagrass, Thalassia testudinium and Syringodium filiforme, by remote sensing using a physics based model inversion method was investigated. The model was based on a three-dimensional canopy model combined with a model for the overlying water column. The model included uncertainty propagation based on variation in leaf reflectances, canopy structure, water column properties, and the air-water interface. The uncertainty propagation enabled both a-priori predictive sensitivity analysis of potential capability and the generation of per-pixel error bars when applied to imagery. A primary aim of the work was to compare the sensitivity analysis to results achieved in a practical application using airborne hyperspectral data, to gain insight on the validity of sensitivity analyses in general. Results showed that while the sensitivity analysis predicted a weak but positive discrimination capability for species, in a practical application the relevant spectral differences were extremely small compared to discrepancies in the radiometric alignment of the model with the imagery—even though this alignment was very good. Complex interactions between spectral matching and uncertainty propagation also introduced biases. Ability to discriminate LAI was good, and comparable to previously published methods using different approaches. The main limitation in this respect was spatial alignment with the imagery with in situ data, which was heterogeneous on scales of a few meters. The results provide insight on the limitations of physics based inversion methods and seagrass mapping in general. Complex models can degrade unpredictably when radiometric alignment of the model and imagery is not perfect and incorporating uncertainties can have non-intuitive impacts on method performance. Sensitivity analyses are upper bounds to practical capability, incorporating a term for potential systematic errors in radiometric alignment may

  3. Generic phylogeny, historical biogeography and character evolution of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant family Hydrocharitaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Yun; Chen, Jin-Ming; Gituru, Robert Wahiti; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2012-03-10

    Hydrocharitaceae is a fully aquatic monocot family, consists of 18 genera with approximately 120 species. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics and exhibits great diversity in form and habit including annual and perennial life histories; submersed, partially submersed and floating leaf habits and linear to orbicular leaf shapes. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the Tertiary fossil record in Europe. At present, the historical biogeography of the family is not well understood and the generic relationships remain controversial. In this study we investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of Hydrocharitaceae by integrating fossils and DNA sequences from eight genes. We also conducted ancestral state reconstruction for three morphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses produced a phylogeny with most branches strongly supported by bootstrap values greater than 95 and Bayesian posterior probability values of 1.0. Stratiotes is the first diverging lineage with the remaining genera in two clades, one clade consists of Lagarosiphon, Ottelia, Blyxa, Apalanthe, Elodea and Egeria; and the other consists of Hydrocharis-Limnobium, Thalassia, Enhalus, Halophila, Najas, Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nechamandra and Maidenia. Biogeographic analyses (DIVA, Mesquite) and divergence time estimates (BEAST) resolved the most recent common ancestor of Hydrocharitaceae as being in Asia during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene (54.7-72.6 Ma). Dispersals (including long-distance dispersal and migrations through Tethys seaway and land bridges) probably played major roles in the intercontinental distribution of this family. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that in Hydrocharitaceae evolution of dioecy is bidirectional, viz., from dioecy to hermaphroditism, and from hermaphroditism to dioecy, and that the aerial-submerged leaf habit and short-linear leaf shape are the ancestral states. Our study has shed light on the previously controversial

  4. Isotopic ratios and elemental contents as indicators of seagrass C processing and sewage influence in a tropical macrotidal ecosystem (Madagascar, Mozambique Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Lepoint

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic ratios and elemental concentrations of carbon and nitrogen were measured in seven seagrass species colonising different tidal flats near Toliara (SW Madagascar in order to determine the potential use of these parameters for assessing C processing and sewage use by tropical seagrasses. Nitrogen concentrations measured in upper intertidal seagrasses near Toliara were almost twice those measured on the tidal flat near a healthy mangrove situated 20 km away from Toliara town. At Toliara Beach, δ15N values were correlated with the N concentrations of Halodule sp., one of the dominant species on the tidal flat. This correlation did not exist for Halophila ovalis, the other dominant species. An increase in N concentrations and δ15N values demonstrates the influence of sewage coming directly onto Toliara Beach on the N cycles of intertidal seagrasses. Nevertheless, this influence seems restricted to the upper littoral zone and was not the main cause of seagrass die-off. On the other hand, at the mangrove site, δ15N values were not correlated with the N concentrations of Halodule sp. or Thalassia hemprichii, showing that natural δ15N variability is driven by other factors than the δ15N of N sources. Moreover, inter-individual variability of δ15N values was greater than inter-specific or inter-site variability, making the δ15N difficult to interpret in the context of human-disturbance influence on the N cycle of tropical seagrasses. δ13C values were close to -9‰, indicating the use of HCO3- inorganic carbon source by the seven investigated species. Contrary to our hypothesis, variation between sites and location on the tidal flat was limited, suggesting limited impact on δ13C values of sewage, emersion duration and mechanisms for HCO3- incorporation.

  5. An examination of the population dynamics of syngnathid fishes within Tampa Bay, Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather D. MASONJONES, Emily ROSE, Lori Benson McRAE,Danielle L. DIXSON

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass ecosystems worldwide have been declining, leading to a decrease in associated fish populations, especially those with low mobility such as syngnathids (pipefish and seahorses. This two-year pilot study investigated seasonal patterns in density, growth, site fidelity, and population dynamics of Tampa Bay (FL syngnathid fishes at a site adjacent to two marinas under construction. Using a modified mark-recapture technique, fish were collected periodically from three closely located sites that varied in seagrass species (Thalassia spp., Syringodium spp., and mixed-grass sites and their distance from open water, but had consistent physical/chemical environmental characteristics. Fish were marked, photographed for body size and gender measurements, and released the same day at the capture site. Of the 5695 individuals surveyed, 49 individuals were recaptured, indicating a large, flexible population. Population density peaks were observed in July of both years, with low densities in late winter and late summer. Spatially, syngnathid densities were highest closest to the mouth of the bay and lowest near the shoreline. Seven species of syngnathid fishes were observed, and species-specific patterns of seagrass use emerged during the study. However, only two species, Syngnathus scovelli and Hippocampus zosterae, were observed at high frequencies. For these two species, body size decreased across the study period, but while S. scovelli’s population density decreased, H. zosterae’s increased. Across six of the seven species, population size declined over the course of this preliminary study; however, seasonal shifts were impossible to distinguish from potential anthropogenic effects of construction [Current Zoology 56 (1: 118–133, 2010].

  6. The short-term impacts of a cyclone on seagrass communities in Southwest Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté-Laurin, Marie-Claude; Benbow, Sophie; Erzini, Karim

    2017-04-01

    Cyclones are large-scale disturbances with highly destructive potential in coastal ecosystems. On February 22, 2013, a powerful tropical cyclone made landfall on the southwest coast of Madagascar, a region which is infrequently hit by such extreme weather events coming from the Mozambique Channel. Seagrass ecosystems, which provide valuable ecosystems services to local communities, are especially vulnerable because they thrive in shallow waters. The impact of Cyclone Haruna on seagrass diversity, height and coverage and associated fish diversity, abundance and biomass was assessed in 3 sites near Andavadoaka (22°07‧S, 43°23‧E) before and after the event using fish underwater visual census, video-transects, and seagrass quadrats. The cyclone caused a significant loss in seagrass cover at all 3 sites. Thalassia hemprichii and Syringodium isoetifolium were the most affected species. Andavadoaka beach, the most exposed site, which was also subject to human use and was most fragmented, suffered the largest negative effects of the cyclone. Cyclone Haruna was not found to significantly affect fish assemblages, which are highly mobile organisms able to use a diversity of niches and adjacent habitats after seagrass fragmentation. Extensive sampling and longer time-scale studies would be needed to fully evaluate the cyclone impact on communities of seagrass and fish, and track potential recovery in seagrass coverage. The intensity and destructive potential of cyclones is expected to increase with global warming, which is of concern for developing countries that encompass most of the world's seagrass beds. This study provided a unique and key opportunity to monitor immediate impacts of an extreme disturbance in a region where cyclones rarely hit coastal ecosystems and where local populations remain highly dependent on seagrass meadows.

  7. Heat stress of two tropical seagrass species during low tides - impact on underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration and diel in situ internal aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D; Borum, Jens; Zavala-Perez, Andrea; Kendrick, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Seagrasses grow submerged in aerated seawater but often in low O2 sediments. Elevated temperatures and low O2 are stress factors. Internal aeration was measured in two tropical seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides, growing with extreme tides and diel temperature amplitudes. Temperature effects on net photosynthesis (PN ) and dark respiration (RD ) of leaves were evaluated. Daytime low tide was characterized by high pO2 (54 kPa), pH (8.8) and temperature (38°C) in shallow pools. As PN was maximum at 33°C (9.1 and 7.2 μmol O2  m(-2) s(-1) in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively), the high temperatures and reduced CO2 would have diminished PN , whereas RD increased (Q10 of 2.0-2.7) above that at 33°C (0.45 and 0.33 μmol O2  m(-2)  s(-1) , respectively). During night-time low tides, O2 declined resulting in shoot base anoxia in both species, but incoming water containing c. 20 kPa O2 relieved the anoxia. Shoots exposed to 40°C for 4 h showed recovery of PN and RD , whereas 45°C resulted in leaf damage. These seagrasses are 'living near the edge', tolerant of current diel O2 and temperature extremes, but if temperatures rise both species may be threatened in this habitat. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Generic phylogeny, historical biogeography and character evolution of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant family Hydrocharitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling-Yun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrocharitaceae is a fully aquatic monocot family, consists of 18 genera with approximately 120 species. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics and exhibits great diversity in form and habit including annual and perennial life histories; submersed, partially submersed and floating leaf habits and linear to orbicular leaf shapes. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the Tertiary fossil record in Europe. At present, the historical biogeography of the family is not well understood and the generic relationships remain controversial. In this study we investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of Hydrocharitaceae by integrating fossils and DNA sequences from eight genes. We also conducted ancestral state reconstruction for three morphological characters. Results Phylogenetic analyses produced a phylogeny with most branches strongly supported by bootstrap values greater than 95 and Bayesian posterior probability values of 1.0. Stratiotes is the first diverging lineage with the remaining genera in two clades, one clade consists of Lagarosiphon, Ottelia, Blyxa, Apalanthe, Elodea and Egeria; and the other consists of Hydrocharis-Limnobium, Thalassia, Enhalus, Halophila, Najas, Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nechamandra and Maidenia. Biogeographic analyses (DIVA, Mesquite and divergence time estimates (BEAST resolved the most recent common ancestor of Hydrocharitaceae as being in Asia during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene (54.7-72.6 Ma. Dispersals (including long-distance dispersal and migrations through Tethys seaway and land bridges probably played major roles in the intercontinental distribution of this family. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that in Hydrocharitaceae evolution of dioecy is bidirectional, viz., from dioecy to hermaphroditism, and from hermaphroditism to dioecy, and that the aerial-submerged leaf habit and short-linear leaf shape are the ancestral states. Conclusions

  9. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà , N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha−1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha−1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of −8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha−1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m−2 yr−1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr−1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2

  10. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.

    2015-08-24

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha−1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha−1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of −8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha−1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m−2 yr−1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr−1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2

  11. Ecología del manglar en una zona arida: exposición al oleaje y estructura del manglar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Cintrón

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations in a mangrove lined coast in south-western Puerto Rico (rainfall 800-1,000 mm; evaporation 1,900-2,200 mm; mean annual temperature 25º C; and average tidal range 0.3 m have shown that the degree of structural development of the mangrove forest is closely related to wave exposure. In exposed coastal segments, sand berms formed by wave action within the outer fringe prevent water flow towards the inner forest, resulting in high salinities. The berms are higher in areas where the outer mangrove fringe has been destroyed by storms or other causes. Dead mangrove stands are found behind these areas and salinities reach 75-80‰ We suggest that the mangrove fringe contributes to dissipate wave energy over a broad area which reduces the high of the berm. The presence of absence of "blowholes" in the seagrass Thalassia; bed is an index of the degree of protection that the coast receives. The "thickness" of the mangrove fringe is also related to the degree of shelter: it is "thin" in high energy segments, "thick" in coastal segments subject to intermediate energy and "thin"again in the most sheltered locations. In the outlying cays mangrove development follows a similar pattern: the outer exposed cays (essentially coral islands mantled by coarse sands are devoid of mangrove cover or have stunted trees (generally Laguncularia; canopy height, 2 m. Islands which are less exposed are colonized by Rhizophora which frequently forms overwashed forests (canopy height, 8-9 m. In the most seltered areas, Rhizophora colonizes the shallow banks, forming islands which soon develop an inner hypersaline lagoon due to the accumulation of material in the outer edges and the accumulation of salt in the interior. The wave energy level reaching a given section of the coast is therefore an important factor which determines the degree of structural development of the mangrove forest. High energy levels are associated with erosion, destruction or deposition of

  12. Diurnal variation in rates of calcification and carbonate sediment dissolution in Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Halley, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Water quality and circulation in Florida Bay (a shallow, subtropical estuary in south Florida) are highly dependent upon the development and evolution of carbonate mud banks distributed throughout the Bay. Predicting the effect of natural and anthropogenic perturbations on carbonate sedimentation requires an understanding of annual, seasonal, and daily variations in the biogenic and inorganic processes affecting carbonate sediment precipitation and dissolution. In this study, net calcification rates were measured over diurnal cycles on 27 d during summer and winter from 1999 to 2003 on mud banks and four representative substrate types located within basins between mud banks. Substrate types that were measured in basins include seagrass beds of sparse and intermediate density Thalassia sp., mud bottom, and hard bottom communities. Changes in total alkalinity were used as a proxy for calcification and dissolution. On 22 d (81%), diurnal variation in rates of net calcification was observed. The highest rates of net carbonate sediment production (or lowest rates of net dissolution) generally occurred during daylight hours and ranged from 2.900 to -0.410 g CaCO3 m-2 d-1. The lowest rates of carbonate sediment production (or net sediment dissolution) occurred at night and ranged from 0.210 to -1.900 g CaCO3 m -2 night-1. During typical diurnal cycles, dissolution during the night consumed an average of 29% of sediment produced during the day on banks and 68% of sediment produced during the day in basins. Net sediment dissolution also occurred during daylight, but only when there was total cloud cover, high turbidity, or hypersalinity. Diurnal variation in calcification and dissolution in surface waters and surface sediments of Florida Bay is linked to cycling of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis and respiration. Estimation of long-term sediment accumulation rates from diurnal rates of carbonate sediment production measured in this study indicates an overall average

  13. Transplantation of benthic species to mitigate impacts of coastal development in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M.H Gayle

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining regional competitiveness and economic viability for Port Bustamante -Kingston Harbour, Jamaica,required improved accessibility to "Post Panamax "(too large to pass through the Panama Canalcontainer vessels.Removal of the northern portion of the shallow coral reef at Rackham ’s Cay,which was partially obstructing the western end of the east ship channel,was proposed.This aesthetically valuable reef was used by local fishermen and comprises part of the declared Palisadoes -Port Royal Protected Area.The proposal to transplant certain of the benthic species was advanced to mitigate loss of viable reef components.Between December 2001 and February 2002,sixty thousand items,consisting of reef building massive and branching corals; gorgonians;urchins (Diadema and Tripneustes spp.and Thalassia meristems were relocated.During dredging,sedimentation rates from suspended solids in the water column were 0.003 g/cm² /day at the control site and 0.008 g/cm² /day at the dredge site.Coral cover in the relocation area increased from 15%to 20%while bare substrate decreased from 27%to 21%.This paper documents the mitigation required;some factors controlling the ecology of Rackham ’s Cay reef;the methodology of the relocation process;and the level of post-dredging survivorship of relocated corals.Political and economic realities of some proposed developments often over-ride ecological considerations. Transplantation of important marine benthic species although time consuming, technically challenging,and expensive,may be one way for developers and ecologists to achieve sometimes disparate goals.This project cost US$1.7 million.The "items "moved were neither unique nor endemic and remain vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic impacts.This project increased public awareness and interest regarding the ecological and economic importance of reef ecosystems.It is anticipated that future coastal and inland developments will benefit from the lessons