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Sample records for turnip water extract

  1. Conservation of minimally processed apples using edible coatings made of turnip extract and xanthan gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dellinghausen Borges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of turnip extract and xanthan gum in the conservation of minimally processed apples. The apples were washed, sanitized with sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm for 15 minutes, peeled, and cut into eight pieces prior to being subjected to one of the following treatments in aqueous solution: A – water (control; B – turnip extract; C – turnip extract and CaCl2; D – xanthan gum, CaCl2 and glycerol; E – turnip extract, xanthan gum, CaCl2, and glycerol. Subsequently, the freshly cut apples were dried under ventilation on nylon screens to ensure drying of the coatings, and then packed in polystyrene trays, covered with polyvinylchloride films and stored at 4 ± 1 ° C for 13 days. The following parameters were evaluated: mass loss, firmness, colouration, pH value, soluble solids, and peroxidase/polyphenoloxidase activities. The edible coatings were found to be ineffective with respect to controlling mass loss, but the minimally processed apples coated with turnip extract maintained their initial levels of colouration, firmness and pH value. A considerable increase in peroxidase activity was registered for apples treated with turnip extract, suggesting that this effect may also be responsible for the reduction in browning. No advantage could be observed for the simultaneous presence of turnip extract and xanthan gum or calcium chloride. The turnip extract may represent an interesting alternative for applications to minimally processed apples, especially as it is a natural product, easily obtained, cost effective and contributes to the nutritional quality (e.g. as a source of calcium ions.

  2. Protective and antioxidant activities of turnip root ethanolic extract against cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Daryoush Mohajeri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug and at high doses is hepatotoxic. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Because of antioxidant potential of turnip (Brassica rapa. L root, the objective of this study was to examine the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE, on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.Materials and Method: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four equal groups. Group 1 was used as control; groups 2 and 4 were orally treated with TREE (200 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Groups 3 and 4 received a single intraperitoneal dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg on the 10th day of the experiment. At the end of experiment, serum levels of aspartate and alanine transaminases, lactate dehydogenase and total bilirubin, albumin and total proteins were assessed. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were assayed in liver homogenates. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verifications.Results: In group 4, TREE significantly (p=0.0001 decreased the elevated levels of serum biomarkers of hepatic injury and total bilirubin; and significantly increased the reduced levels of serum albumin and total proteins (respectively p=0.001, p=0.032. In this group, TREE significantly (p=0.0001 decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased values of hepatic antioxidants. Histopathologically, the changes were in the same direction with biochemical findings.Conclusion: Because of anti-oxidant potentials of TREE, it may have a protective effect against cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity in rats

  3. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats

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    Bahram Amouoghli-Tabrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and one of its most important consequences is renal insufficiency. A multitude of herbs has been described for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present study was to assess the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE on early nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Method: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups including: healthy rats, normal healthy rats receiving TREE, diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving TREE. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg; i.p. The extract (200 mg/kg was gavaged to TREE treatment groups daily for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment; serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were assessed. The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in the renal tissue. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verification. Statistically, the quantitative data obtained, compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.Results: In the diabetic rats, TREE significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarkers of renal injury. Furthermore, TREE significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Histopathological findings were in agreement with the biochemical findings.Conclusion: TREE has protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats with experimentally induced diabetes

  4. Bioepoxidation of isosafrol catalyzed by radish and turnip peroxidases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peroxidases (PODs) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and turnip (Brassica napus L.) were extracted and precipitated with ammonium sulfate using a simple, low cost and quick method. The activities of all ... The products of the reaction were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry.

  5. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    of various sorts of environmental noise and at the same time offers a stable threshold value. Thus we introduced a new Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) improving classification accuracy in areas that include shadow and dark surfaces that other classification methods often fail to classify correctly...

  6. Evaluation of turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as supplement for grazing beef cattle Avaliação do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como suplemento para bovinos de corte em pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vera Martins Franco

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to evaluate the use of the turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as alternative protein source for grazing zebu cattle. At the first experiment, the performance of Nellore zebu cattle was evaluated on grazing grass. Twenty four animals were distributed in three treatments and allocated on six paddocks, with four animals each and two repetitions. Treatments consisted of supplements with two levels of turnip forage residue (7.5 and 15.0% dry matter and without turnip forage (control. Pasture availability and quality were also evaluated. At the second trial, degradability of the residue turnip forage was measured in six rumen fistulated zebu cattle fed basal diet composed by grass coast-cross hay and concentrate (35% CP with 15% of turnip forage. No difference was observed among the treatments for the animal performance, but the steers fed 7.5% of turnip forage residue showed the highest daily gain weight (0.575 kg DGW. The turnip forage residue showed high and fast ruminal effective degradability of the dry matter (83.8%, crude protein (88.9% and neutral detergent fiber (52.1%. In conclusion, the turnip forage residue can be used as protein source in supplement diet for cattle, shifting the conventional protein sources up to 15% in supplement with 35% of total crude protein.Dois experimentos foram realizados visando avaliar o uso do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como fonte de proteína alternativa de suplementos para bovinos de corte em pastejo de gramíneas. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o desempenho de bovinos Nelore a pasto (ganho diário de peso, utilizando-se 24 animais, distribuídos em três tratamentos em seis piquetes com quatro animais cada e duas repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de suplementos com dois níveis do resíduo de nabo forrageiro (7,5 e 15,0% na matéria seca e sem nabo forrageiro (testemunha. A disponibilidade e qualidade da

  7. Assessment of allelopathic properties of Aloe ferox Mill. on turnip, beetroot and carrot

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    Sunday Arowosegbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa L., beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. and carrot (Daucus carota L. are common vegetables in South Africa. The allelopathic potential of aqueous leaf and root extracts of Aloe ferox Mill.- a highly valued medicinal plant- was evaluated against seed germination and seedling growth of the three vegetables in Petri dish experiments. The extracts were tested at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/mL. Leaf extract concentrations above 4 mg/mL inhibited the germination of all the crops, while the root extract had no significant effect on germination irrespective of concentration. Interestingly, the lowest concentration of leaf extract stimulated root length elongation of beetroot by 31.71%. Other concentrations significantly inhibited both root and shoot growth of the vegetable crops except the turnip shoot. The most sensitive crop was carrot, with percentage inhibition ranging from 29.15 to 100% for root and shoot lengths. Lower percentage inhibition was observed for the root extract than the leaf extract against shoot growth of beetroot and carrot. The results from this study suggested the presence of allelochemicals mostly in the leaves of A. ferox that could inhibit the growth of the turnip, beetroot and carrot.

  8. LEAFY TURNIP IS A NEW CROP FOR SALAD PRODUCTION LINES

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    V. A. Stepanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The collaborative work on growing of leafy turnip in condition of salad production line was conducted in ООО PKF «AGROTIP». The possibility of obtaining of ecologically safety salad turnip of cv. Selekta, Sapfir, and Biryuza at hydroponic system are shown. Data of yield, productivity, and content of ascorbic acid in green leaf of turnip growing in condition of flow hydroponic system are presented. The possibilities of using of tested turnip varieties in modern agrotechnological systems are discussed.

  9. SCANDINAVIAN TABLE AND STUBBLE TURNIPS: VARIABILITY AND VALUE FOR BREEDING

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    D. L. Kornyukhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic conditions of the Nordic countries are similar to the conditions of the North-West region of the Russian Federation, which makes it possible to introduce interesting varieties for Russian breeding. Most of the local varieties of stubble turnips in the USSR were created using Scandinavian material. Local varieties are the source of the genetic diversity of vegetable crops. The work with such material is promising in terms of searching for sources and donors of valuable traits for breeding programs. 16 samples of local table turnips and stubble turnips from the Scandinavian countries were obtained from the Nordic genebank and a comprehensive study was carried out. Samples are described from the point of view of the existing agrobiological classification of turnip (M.A. Shebalina. Most of the local accessions are mixed populations of two or more types. It was found that the local accessions of Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden were represented by table turnips of the Karelian and Petrovsky types, a Tankard yellow type prevailed among the stubble turnips. A representative of a very rare variety type of turnip Kostenevskaya (Petrozavodskaya was found. The fact of changing of the prevailing types of table and stubble turnips Scandinavian countries is probably connected with the introduction of the widespread European varieties of these cultures. Accessions of local Scandinavian stubble turnips have been identified as sources of productivity and valuable biochemical composition, exceeding the standard variety of Osterzundomsky. Gul Finlandsk, Norway (the Petrovskaya type, Ljusnedal, Sweden (May yellow greenhead type, Rana, Denmark, (the Bortfeld type and Ova Daehnfeldt, Denmark (Tankard yellow are promising sources for turnip breeding in Russian Federation. 

  10. Chemical composition of water extracts from shungite and shungite water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charykova, M.V.; Bornyakova, I.I.; Polekhovskij, Yu.S.; Charykov, N.A.; Kustova, E.V.; Arapov, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical analysis of water extracts from shungite-3 of Zagozhino deposit (Karelia) and natural water contacting with shungite rocks are done. Chemical composition and bactericide properties of shungite water are studied [ru

  11. Identification of Turnip mosaic virus isolated from canola in northeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During March and April of 2011, 436 samples showing viral disease symptoms were collected from canola fields in the Khorasan Razavi province. The samples were tested by double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Among the 436 ...

  12. Interfacial assembly of turnip yellow mosaic virus nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; He, Jinbo; Xu, Ji; Pingali, Saivenkatesh; Jutz, Günther; Böker, Alexander; Niu, Zhongwei; Li, Tao; Rawlinson, Dustin; Emrick, Todd; Lee, Byeongdu; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan; Russell, Thomas P; Wang, Qian

    2009-05-05

    An extensive study of the factors that affect the interfacial assembly of bionanoparticles at the oil/water (O/W) interface is reported. Bionanoparticles, such as viruses, have distinctive structural properties due to the unique arrangement of their protein structures. The assembly process of such bionanoparticles at interfaces is governed by factors including the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous layer, concentration of the particles, and nature of the oil phase. This study highlights the impact of these factors on the interfacial assembly of bionanoparticles at the O/W interface using native turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) as the prototype. Robust monolayer assemblies of TYMV were produced by self-assembly at the O/W interface using emulsions and planar interfaces. TYMV maintained its structure and integrity under different assembly conditions. For the emulsion droplets, they were fully covered with TYMV as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning force microscopy (SFM). Tensiometry and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) further supported this finding. Although the emulsions offered a complete coverage by TYMV particles, they lacked long-range ordering due to rapid exchange at the interface. By altering the assembly process, highly ordered, hexagonal arrays of TYMV were obtained at planar O/W interfaces. The pH, ionic strength, and viscosity of the solution played a crucial role in enhancing the lateral ordering of TYMV assembled at the planar O/W interface. This interfacial ordering of TYMV particles was further stabilized by introduction of a positively charged dehydroabietyl amine (DHAA) in the organic phase which held the assembly together by electrostatic interactions. The long-range array formation was observed using TEM and SFM. The results presented here illustrate that the interfacial assembly at the O/W interface is a versatile approach to achieve highly stable self-assembled structures.

  13. Root water extraction under combined water and osmotic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Dam, van J.C.; Metselaar, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using a numerical implicit model for root water extraction by a single root in a symmetric radial flow problem, based on the Richards equation and the combined convection-dispersion equation, we investigated some aspects of the response of root water uptake to combined water and osmotic stress. The

  14. Effects of Foliar Selenite on the Nutrient Components of Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.

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    Xiong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We administered foliar applications of 50, 100, and 200 mg L−1 selenium (Se, selenite on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn. and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (IV significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (IV positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper. Se (IV treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (IV could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L−1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 μg person−1 day−1 and its favorable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  15. Analysis of Water Extraction From Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, U.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of water concentration on the Moon is currently an area of active research. Recent studies suggest the presence of ice particles, and perhaps even ice blocks and ice-cemented regolith on the Moon. Thermal extraction of the in-situ water is an attractive means of sa tisfying water requirements for a lunar mission. In this paper, a model is presented to analyze the processes occurring during the heat-up of icy regolith and extraction of the evolved water vapor. The wet regolith is assumed to be present in an initially evacuated and sealed cell which is subsequently heated. The first step of the analysis invol ves calculating the gradual increase of vapor pressure in the closed cell as the temperature is raised. Then, in the second step, the cell is evacuated to low pressure (e.g., vacuum), allowing the water vapor to leave the cell and be captured. The parameters affecting water vap or pressure build-up and evacuation for the purpose of extracting water from lunar regolith are discussed in the paper. Some comparisons wi th available experimental measurements are also made.

  16. Kisaran Inang dan Keragaman Gejala Infeksi Turnip Mosaic Virus

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    Eliza Suryati Rusli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of mosaic disease on vegetable crops in Indonesia has been reported recently. The disease is caused by TuMV which is considered as a new and important virus on caisin and turnip in Indonesia. Field survey has been conducted to determine disease incidence in vegetable growing areas. Symptom variability and host range of TuMV was further studied through mechanical inoculation to cruciferae and solanaceae plants. Observation during field survey has proved that TuMV has infected caisin and turnip in Java and Bali. The highest intensity of mosaic disease i.e. 63,3% occurs in Tumpangan-Malang, followed by Denpasar Selatan and Bandungan-Semarang with the intensity of 30,5% and 19,0% respectively. TuMV infection causes different types of symptoms, such as: wrinkled leaf, blistered leaf, vein banding, vein clearing, leaf distortion and proliferation. The host range of TuMV involves those plants belong to cruciferae (cabbage, broccoli, caisin, turnip, cauliflower, chinese cabbage, pak coy; solanaceae (N. tabacum, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa; and chenopodiaceae (C. amaranticolor. Furthermore, N. glutinosa can be used as differential host for TuMV isolates.

  17. Microwave Extraction of Water from Boreholes in Regolith, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Resources Extraction Technology, Inc. is developing and testing microwave technology for extracting water (along with other volatiles) from planetary...

  18. An AFLP marker linked to turnip mosaic virus resistance gene in pak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An AFLP marker linked to turnip mosaic virus resistance gene in pak-choi. W Xinhua, C Huoying, Z Yuying, H Ruixian. Abstract. Pak-choi is one of the most important vegetable crops in China. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of its main pathogen. Screening the molecular marker linked to the TuMV resistance gene is an ...

  19. Investigation of hydrazide derivatives inhibitory effect on peroxidase enzyme purified from turnip roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaz, Züleyha; Öztekin, Aykut; Özdemir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Peroxidases (EC: 1.11.1.7) are haem proteins and contain iron (III) protoporphyrin IX (ferriprotoporphyrin IX) as the prosthetic group [1]. They are found in all cells and play a critical role in many biological processes, such as the host-defense mechanism [2]. Peroxidases (PODs) are widely used in clinical biochemistry, enzyme immunoassays, synthesis of various aromatic chemicals, treatment of waste water containing phenolic compounds [3, 4]. In this study, peroxidase enzyme was purified with Para amino benzohydrazide (PABH)-L-Tyrosine Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography to investigate the inhibitory effect of hydrazide derivatives on Turnip (Brassica rapa L.). IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzyme and inhibition type of these molecules were determined.

  20. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

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    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  1. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network

  2. Teratogenic effect of the water extract of bitter gourd ( Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been reported that the water extract of the whole unripe fruit of Momordica charantia can significantly reduce blood glucose levels. However the safety of its use during pregnancy has not been fully investigated. The aim of this investigation is to determine the safety of this extract during pregnancy. The water extract of ...

  3. Subcritical water extraction of bioactive compounds from dry loquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal properties of loquat leaf extracts (LLEs) are associated with their constituents of phenolic compounds and triterpenes. In this study, the efficacy of subcritical water extraction (SWE) technique was assessed by comparing with conventional solid-liquid extraction (CE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE). Results showed that ...

  4. Morphology, carbohydrate composition and vernalization response in a genetically diverse collection of Asian and European turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningwen; Zhao, Jianjun; Lens, Frederic; de Visser, Joan; Menamo, Temesgen; Fang, Wen; Xiao, Dong; Bucher, Johan; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Lin, Ke; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa displays enormous morphological diversity, with leafy vegetables, turnips and oil crops. Turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) represent one of the morphotypes, which form tubers and can be used to study the genetics underlying storage organ formation. In the present study we investigated several characteristics of an extensive turnip collection comprising 56 accessions from both Asia (mainly Japanese origin) and Europe. Population structure was calculated using data from 280 evenly distributed SNP markers over 56 turnip accessions. We studied the anatomy of turnip tubers and measured carbohydrate composition of the mature turnip tubers of a subset of the collection. The variation in 16 leaf traits, 12 tuber traits and flowering time was evaluated in five independent experiments for the entire collection. The effect of vernalization on flowering and tuber formation was also investigated. SNP marker profiling basically divided the turnip accessions into two subpopulations, with admixture, generally corresponding with geographical origin (Europe or Asia). The enlarged turnip tuber consists of both hypocotyl and root tissue, but the proportion of the two tissues differs between accessions. The ratio of sucrose to fructose and glucose differed among accessions, while generally starch content was low. The evaluated traits segregated in both subpopulations, with leaf shape, tuber colour and number of shoots per tuber explaining most variation between the two subpopulations. Vernalization resulted in reduced flowering time and smaller tubers for the Asian turnips whereas the European turnips were less affected by vernalization.

  5. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; comparison to hot water extraction, including purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Huurman, Sander

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a practical comparison of an acidified water extraction of freshly harvested Stevia
    plants (the NewFoss method) to the hot water extraction of dried Stevia plants, the industry standard. Both
    extracts are subsequently purified using lab-/bench scale standard industrial

  6. The RNA of turnip yellow mosaic virus exhibits icosahedral order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Steven B.; Lucas, Robert W.; Greenwood, Aaron; McPherson, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Difference electron density maps, based on structure factor amplitudes and experimental phases from crystals of wild-type turnip yellow mosaic virus and those of empty capsids prepared by freeze-thawing, show a large portion of the encapsidated RNA to have an icosahedral distribution. Four unique segments of base-paired, double-helical RNA, one to two turns in length, lie between 33-A and 101-A radius and are organized about either 2-fold or 5-fold icosahedral axes. In addition, single-stranded loops of RNA invade the pentameric and hexameric capsomeres where they contact the interior capsid surface. The remaining RNA, not seen in electron density maps, must serve as connecting links between these secondary structural elements and is likely icosahedrally disordered. The distribution of RNA observed crystallographically appears to be in agreement with models based on biochemical data and secondary structural analyses

  7. Atmospheric water on Mars, energy estimates for extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The Mars atmosphere is considered as a resource for water to support a human expedition. Information obtained from the Viking mission is used to estimate the near-surface water vapor level. The variability over the diurnal cycle is examined and periods of greatest water abundance are identified. Various methods for extracting atmospheric water are discussed including energy costs and the means for optimizing water extraction techniques.

  8. Molluscicidal activity of crude water leaf extracts of Alternanthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mortality figures by the use of probit gave LC50 of 40.42 (35.15 – 46.47) for the unevaporated crude water while the evaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 48.07 (42.81 – 54.28) for the dried leaf extract. For the fresh leaves the unevaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 32.57 (27.15 – 39.08) and evaporated crude ...

  9. In-Situ Resource Utilization: Water Extraction from Regolith

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several technologies are being evaluated to extract water from a variety of water-bearing extraterrestrial soils, including near-surface granular and hard hydrated...

  10. Extraction and determination of organosulfur compounds in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Liquid-liquid extraction is time consuming or requires large amounts of toxic solvents. Solid-phase microextraction and headspace sorptive extraction are time consuming. The main disadvantage of DLLME is that the extraction solvent is generally limited to solvents of density higher than water in order to be sedimented by ...

  11. Modification of Turnip yellow mosaic virus coat protein and its effect on virion assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Il Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV is a positive strand RNAvirus. We have modified TYMV coat protein (CP by inserting ac-Myc epitope peptide at the N- or C-terminus of the CP, andhave examined its effect on assembly. We introduced therecombinant CP constructs into Nicotiana benthamiana leavesby agroinfiltration. Examination of the leaf extracts by agarosegel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis showed that theCP modified at the N-terminus produced a band co-migratingwith wild-type virions. With C-terminal modification, however,the detected bands moved faster than the wild-type virions. Tofurther examine the effect, TYMV constructs producing themodified CPs were prepared. With N-terminal modification,viral RNAs were protected from RNase A. In contrast, the viralRNAs were not protected with C-terminal modification.Overall, the results suggest that virion assembly and RNApackaging occur properly when the N-terminus of CP ismodified, but not when the C-terminus is modified. [BMBReports 2013; 46(10: 495-500

  12. Antibacterial activity of water-phase extracts from bamboo shavings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... Key words: Water-phase extract of bamboo shavings (WEBS), antimicrobial activity, natural preservative. INTRODUCTION .... 7712 Afr. J. Biotechnol. Table 1. Antibacterial activity of extract from bamboo shavings (WEBS). Microorganism. Inhibition zone. (mm). Blank control. (distilled water). Positive control.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract of the plant in experimental animal models (anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing response method. The water extract of I. asarifolia in doses of ...

  14. Selenium Accumulation Characteristics and Biofortification Potentiality in Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Supplied with Selenite or Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for humans. About 70% of the regions in China, including most of the Tibetan Plateau, are faced with Se deficiency problems. Turnip is mainly distributed around the Tibetan Plateau and is one of the few local crops. In the present study, we compared the absorption and translocation differences of Se (IV selenite and Se (VI selenate in turnip. The results showed that Se treatment, either by soil addition (0.2–2 mg Se kg−1 dry soil or by foliar spraying (50–200 mg L−1 Se, could significantly increase the Se concentrations in turnips, and 0.5 mg Se (IV or Se (VI kg−1 dry matter in soils could improve the biomasses of turnips. Moreover, turnip absorbed significantly more Se (VI than Se (IV at the same concentration and also transferred much more Se (VI from roots to leaves. Based on the Se concentrations, as well as the bioconcentration factors and translocation coefficients, we considered that turnip might be a potential Se indicator plant. Subsequently, we estimated the daily Se intake for adults based on the Se concentrations in turnip roots. The results indicated that Se (IV should be more suitable as an artificial Se fertilizer for turnips, although the levels found in most samples in this study could cause selenosis to humans. In addition, we also estimated the optimum and maximum Se concentrations for treating turnips based on the linear relations between Se concentrations in turnip roots and Se treatment concentrations. The results provided preliminary and useful information about Se biofortification in turnips.

  15. Polyamine biosynthesis and the replication of turnip yellow mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) contains large amounts of nonexchangeable spermidine and induces an accumulation of spermidine in infected Chinese cabbage. By seven days after inoculation, a majority of protoplasts isolated from newly-emerging leaves stain with fluorescent antibody to the virus. These protoplasts contain 1-2 x 10 6 virions per cell and continue to produce virus in culture for at least 48 hours. [ 14 C]-Spermidine (10 μM) was taken up by these cells in amounts comparable to the original endogenous pool within 24 hours. However, the spermidine content of the cell was only marginally affected, implying considerable regulation of the endogenous pool(s). Putrescine and spermine were major products of the metabolism of exogenous spermidine. Radioactivity from exogenous [ 14 C]-spermidine was also readily incorporated into the nucleic acid-containing component of the virus, where it appeared as both spermidine and spermine. Thus, newly-formed virions contained predominantly newly-synthesized spermidine and spermine. However, inhibition of spermidine synthesis by dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) led to incorporation of pre-existing spermidine and increased amounts of spermine into newly-formed virions. The latter results were tested and confirmed in a second cellular system, consisting of health protoplasts infected with TYMC in vitro

  16. Tree-Inspired Design for High-Efficiency Water Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingwei; Li, Yiju; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Xiaoguang; Wang, Yanbin; Lacey, Steven D; Dai, Jiaqi; Wang, Chengwei; Jia, Chao; Wan, Jiayu; Yao, Yonggang; Gong, Amy; Yang, Bao; Yu, Zongfu; Das, Siddhartha; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-11-01

    The solar steam process, akin to the natural water cycle, is considered to be an attractive approach to address water scarcity issues globally. However, water extraction from groundwater, for example, has not been demonstrated using these existing technologies. Additionally, there are major unaddressed challenges in extracting potable water from seawater including salt accumulation and long-term evaporation stability, which warrant further investigation. Herein, a high-performance solar steam device composed entirely of natural wood is reported. The pristine, natural wood is cut along the transverse direction and the top surface is carbonized to create a unique bilayer structure. This tree-inspired design offers distinct advantages for water extraction, including rapid water transport and evaporation in the mesoporous wood, high light absorption (≈99%) within the surface carbonized open wood channels, a low thermal conductivity to avoid thermal loss, and cost effectiveness. The device also exhibits long-term stability in seawater without salt accumulation as well as high performance for underground water extraction. The tree-inspired design offers an inexpensive and scalable solar energy harvesting and steam generation technology that can provide clean water globally, especially for rural or remote areas where water is not only scarce but also limited by water extraction materials and methods. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Extraction of antioxidants from Chlorella sp. using subcritical water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, S. M.; Mustapa Kamal, S. M.; Harun, M. R.; Omar, R.; Siajam, S. I.

    2017-06-01

    Chlorella sp. microalgae is one of the main source of natural bioactive compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subcritical water extraction is the technique that offers an efficient, non-toxic, and environmental-friendly method to obtain natural ingredients. In this work, the extracts of Chlorella sp. microalgae was evaluated in terms of: chemical composition, extraction (polysaccharides) yield and antioxidant activity, using subcritical water extraction. Extractions were performed at temperatures ranging from 100°C to 300°C. The results show that by using subcritical water, the highest yield of polysaccharides is 23.6 that obtained at 150°C. Analysis on the polysaccharides yield show that the contents were highly influenced by the extraction temperature. The individual antioxidant activity were evaluated by in vitro assay using a free radical method. In general, the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained at different water temperatures was high, with values of 31.08-54.29 . The results indicated that extraction by subcritical water was effective and Chlorella sp. can be a useful source of natural antioxidants.

  18. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  19. Tightly bound soil water introduces isotopic memory effects on mobile and extractable soil water pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Sarah L; Prechsl, Ulrich E; Pace, Matthew; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-08-01

    Cryogenic vacuum extraction is the well-established method of extracting water from soil for isotopic analyses of waters moving through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. We investigate if soils can alter the isotopic composition of water through isotope memory effects, and determined which mechanisms are responsible for it. Soils with differing physicochemical properties were re-wetted with reference water and subsequently extracted by cryogenic water distillation. Results suggest some reference waters bind tightly to the soil and not all of this tightly bound water is removed during cryogenic vacuum extraction. Kinetic isotopic fractionation occurring when reference water binds to the soil is likely responsible for the 18 O-depletion of re-extracted reference water, suggesting an enrichment of the tightly bound soil water pool. Further re-wetting of cryogenically extracted soils indicates an isotopic memory effect of tightly bound soil water on water added to the soil. The data suggest tightly bound soil water can influence the isotopic composition of mobile soil water. Findings show that soils influence the isotope composition of soil water by (i) kinetic fractionation when water is bound to the soil and (ii) equilibrium fractionation between different soil water pools. These findings could be relevant for plant water uptake investigations and complicate ecohydrological and paleohydrological studies.

  20. Water extraction technique in mountainous areas from satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gordana; Avdan, Ugur

    2017-10-01

    Water monitoring is an important part of water resource management and has become an essential aspect of remote sensing. A number of indices have been developed for water extraction using satellite images. Even though all indices can extract the extent of a water body, none can do so without including a noise component, such as topographic shadows, cloud shadows, snow, ice, and buildup areas, all of which have spectrally similar characteristics under certain circumstances. In order to select the best index for water body extraction, several water indices have been compared. This paper proposes a method for extracting water bodies called the water extraction surface temperature index (WESTI). This method uses normalized difference water index (NDWI) and land surface temperature to eliminate the noise components, especially in mountainous and cold areas where other indices have very low accuracy. The results have shown that WESTI improves the NDWI results by removing more than 80% of topographic shadows, with an overall accuracy of 99% in all cases.

  1. Laboratory investigation of water extraction effects on saltwater wedge displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noorabadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a close connection between saltwater intrusion into aquifers and groundwater extraction. Freshwater extraction in coastal aquifers is one of the most important reasons for the saltwater intrusion into these aquifers. Condition of extraction system such as well depth, discharge rate, saltwater concentration and etc. could affect this process widely. Thus, investigating different extraction conditions comprises many management advantages.  In the present study, the effects of freshwater extraction on saltwater interface displacement have been investigated in a laboratory box. Three different well depths (H were considered with combinations of 3 different extraction rates (Q and 3 saltwater concentrations (C for detailed investigation of the effects of these factors variations on saltwater displacement. SEAWAT model has been used to simulate all the scenarios to numerically study of the process. The experimental and numerical results showed that when the C and Q rates were small and the well depth was shallow, the saltwater interface wouldn’t reach the extraction well, so the extracted water remained uncontaminated. When the C and Q rates were increased and the well was deepened, the salinity of the extracted water became higher. When the Q and C rates were high enough, in the shallow well depth, the final concentration of the extracted water was low but a huge part of the porous media was contaminated by the saltwater, furthermore when the well was deepened enough, the final concentration of the extracted water was increased but a small part of the porous media was contaminated by the saltwater. Finally, the results showed that when the Q and H rates were high enough, the extraction well behaved like a barrier and didn’t allow the advancing saltwater wedge toe to be intruded beyond the wells.

  2. Antidiabetic activity of water extract of Solanum trilobatum (Linn.) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanaceae), a medicinal plant widely used in the traditional Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus was evaluated in the alloxan monohydrate induced diabetic model. Graded doses of the water extract were ...

  3. Batteries for efficient energy extraction from a water salinity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D; Logan, Bruce E; Cui, Yi

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future.

  4. Batteries for Efficient Energy Extraction from a Water Salinity Difference

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na2-xMn 5O10 nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER FROM GUAYULE LATEX EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule commercialization for latex production to be used in medical products and other applications is now a reality. Currently, waste water following latex extraction is discharged into evaporation ponds. As commercialization reaches full scale, the liquid waste stream from latex extraction will b...

  7. In vivo Antimalarial Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vivo antimalarial effect of Eryngium thorifolium, an endemic plant in. Turkey. Methods: The methanol and water extracts were prepared and phytochemical analysis conducted on the extracts. Twenty four healthy Balb/c male mice, divided into 4 groups (n = 6), were infected intravenously with ...

  8. Effects of Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.) on promoting hypoxia-tolerance in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bingquan; Chen, Chun; Li, Jiaojie; Chen, Xiaojian; Li, Yunhong; Tang, Weimin; Jin, Lu; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-04

    Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.), widely distributed in Tibet region, is an edible and medical plant with effects of "tonic and anti-hypoxia" "heat-clearing and detoxification" and "alleviating fatigue" according to traditional Tibetan medical books. This research systematically studied the effects of Tibetan turnip on promoting hypoxia-tolerance in humans and the mechanisms. A 7-d, self-control and single-blind human feeding trial was conducted among 27 healthy subjects with 8 males and 10 females in feeding group fed with 7.5g turnip powder 2 times daily while 4 males and 5 females in control group fed with 7.5g radish powder twice a day. Subjects were required to undergo a hypoxia tolerance test (7.1% O 2 ) and a cardiopulmonary function evaluation (Bruce treadmill protocol) before (1st day) and after (9th day) the trial. Simultaneously, the anti-oxidative activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, MDA), routine and biochemical analyses of blood samples were evaluated. The females' SpO 2 increased significantly by 6.4% at the end of the hypoxia tolerance test after taking turnips (phypoxia symptoms in most of the subjects were alleviated as well. The anaerobic threshold, peak O 2 pulse and peak VO 2 /kg were significantly improved after 7-d turnip consumption during the Bruce treadmill test (phypoxia tolerance in healthy humans, which could be due to its abilities of improving oxygen uptake and delivery, enhancing body antioxidant capacity and increasing MCHC. However, further studies with larger samples and double-blind design are warranted, and future studies covering more diverse populations (unhealthy, athletic) would be also considered. Moreover, researches on identifying Tibetan turnip's active compounds are desired as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mortality in hibernating turnip moth larvae, Agrotis segetum, caused by Tolypocladium cylindrosporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Øgaard, Leif

    2000-01-01

    At one sampling site an entomopathogenic fungus, tentatively identified as Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, was found to severely reduce populations of hibernating turnip moth larvae (Agrotis segetum) in consecutive winters, while it was never recorded from other collection sites. It produced...... mouldy smell. The infectivity of the fungus was tested in a semi-field trial, where suspensions of conidia were applied to hibernating turnip moth larvae in plastic buckets. The experiment also included buckets with larvae and/or soil from the infested site in order to study the natural fungal...... studies with 10 insect species indicated that the fungus is probably specific to hibernating cutworms....

  10. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microwave-assisted water extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhili, Ezzohra; Tomao, Valerie; El Hajji, Hakima; El Boustani, Es-Seddik; Chemat, Farid; Dangles, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Green tea, a popular drink with beneficial health properties, is a rich source of specific flavanols (polyphenols). There is a special interest in the water extraction of green tea polyphenols since the composition of the corresponding extracts is expected to reflect the one of green tea infusions consumed worldwide. To develop a microwave-assisted water extraction (MWE) of green tea polyphenols. MWE of green tea polyphenols has been investigated as an alternative to water extraction under conventional heating (CWE). The experimental conditions were selected after consideration of both temperature and extraction time. The efficiency and selectivity of the process were determined in terms of extraction time, total phenolic content, chemical composition (HPLC-MS analysis) and antioxidant activity of the extracts. By MWE (80 degrees C, 30 min), the flavanol content of the extract reached 97.46 (+/- 0.08) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract, vs. only 83.06 (+/- 0.08) by CWE (80 degrees C, 45 min). In particular, the concentration of the most bioactive flavanol EGCG was 77.14 (+/- 0.26) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract obtained by MWE, vs 64.18 (+/- 0.26) mg/g by CWE. MWE appears more efficient than CWE at both 80 and 100 degrees C, particularly for the extraction of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Although MWE at 100 degrees C typically affords higher yields in total phenols, MWE at 80 degrees C appears more convenient for the extraction of the green tea-specific and chemically sensitive flavanols.

  12. Water extraction on Mars for an expanding human colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, M; Franz, B; Baker, T; Howe, S

    2015-11-01

    In-situ water extraction is necessary for an extended human presence on Mars. This study looks at the water requirements of an expanding human colony on Mars and the general systems needed to supply that water from the martian atmosphere and regolith. The proposed combination of systems in order to supply the necessary water includes a system similar to Honeybee Robotics' Mobile In-Situ Water Extractor (MISWE) that uses convection, a system similar to MISWE but that directs microwave energy down a borehole, a greenhouse or hothouse type system, and a system similar to the Mars Atmospheric Resource Recovery System (MARRS). It is demonstrated that a large water extraction system that can take advantage of large deposits of water ice at site specific locations is necessary to keep up with the demands of a growing colony. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods

  14. Oxygen isotope analysis of plant water without extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Farquhar, G.D.; Yong, J.W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of plant water (mainly xylem, phloem and leaf water) are gaming importance as the isotopic signals reflect plant-environment interactions, affect the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 and are eventually incorporated into plant organic matter. Conventionally, such isotopic measurements require a time-consuming process of isolating the plant water by azeotropic distillation or vacuum extraction, which would not complement the speed of isotope analysis provided by continuous-flow IRMS (Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry), especially when large data sets are needed for statistical calculations in biological studies. Further, a substantial amount of plant material is needed for water extraction and leaf samples would invariably include unenriched water from the fine veins. To measure sub-microlitre amount of leaf mesophyll water, a new approach is undertaken where a small disc of fresh leaf is cut using a specially designed leaf punch, and pyrolysed directly in an IRMS. By comparing with results from pyrolysis of the dry matter of the same leaf, the 18 O content of leaf water can be determined without extraction from fresh leaves. This method is validated using a range of cellulose-water mixtures to simulate the constituents of fresh leaf. Cotton leaf water δ 18 O obtained from both methods of fresh leaf pyrolysis and azeotropic distillation will be compared. The pyrolysis technique provides a robust approach to measure the isotopic content of water or any volatile present in a homogeneous solution or solid hydrous substance

  15. Extraction of lithium from sea water with metallic aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Extraction of lithium from sea water was investigated. It was found that a corrosion product of metallic aluminum immersed in sea water extracts lithium from it selectively. Effects of the temperature and the pH of sea water, and of the initial concentration of lithium in it were examined. On the basis of the analysis of the surface deposit on aluminum, which is a corrosion product of aluminum, the selectivity coefficients were calculated. For the extraction of lithium from natural sea water, the values of K sub(Na)sup(Li), K sub(Mg)sup(Li), K sub(Ca)sup(Li) and K sub(K)sup(Li) were 9.9 x 10 2 , 1.1 x 10, 4.5 x 10 and 4.4 x 10 2 , respectively. (author)

  16. Microwave Extraction of Lunar Water for Rocket Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Kaukler, William

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50% of the lunar surface is oxygen, present as oxides in silicate rocks and soil. Methods for reduction of these oxides could liberate the oxygen. Remote sensing has provided evidence of significant quantities of hydrogen possibly indicating hundreds of millions of metric tons, MT, of water at the lunar poles. If the presence of lunar water is verified, water is likely to be the first in situ resource exploited for human exploration and for LOX-H2 rocket fuel. In-Situ lunar resources offer unique advantages for space operations. Each unit of product produced on the lunar surface represents 6 units that need not to be launched into LEO. Previous studies have indicated the economic advantage of LOX for space tugs from LEO to GEO. Use of lunar derived LOX in a reusable lunar lander would greatly reduce the LEO mass required for a given payload to the moon. And Lunar LOX transported to L2 has unique advantages for a Mars mission. Several methods exist for extraction of oxygen from the soil. But, extraction of lunar water has several significant advantages. Microwave heating of lunar permafrost has additional important advantages for water extraction. Microwaves penetrate and heat from within not just at the surface and excavation is not required. Proof of concept experiments using a moon in a bottle concept have demonstrated that microwave processing of cryogenic lunar permafrost simulant in a vacuum rapidly and efficiently extracts water by sublimation. A prototype lunar water extraction rover was built and tested for heating of simulant. Microwave power was very efficiently delivered into a simulated lunar soil. Microwave dielectric properties (complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability) of lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A, were measured down to cryogenic temperatures and above room temperature. The microwave penetration has been correlated with the measured dielectric properties. Since the microwave penetration depth is a function of temperature

  17. Subcritical water extraction of organic matter from sedimentary rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Duy; Sephton, Mark A; Watson, Jonathan S

    2015-06-16

    Subcritical water extraction of organic matter containing sedimentary rocks at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts comparable to conventional solvent extraction. Subcritical water extraction of previously solvent extracted samples confirms that high molecular weight organic matter (kerogen) degradation is not occurring and that only low molecular weight organic matter (free compounds) are being accessed in analogy to solvent extraction procedures. The sedimentary rocks chosen for extraction span the classic geochemical organic matter types. A type I organic matter-containing sedimentary rock produces n-alkanes and isoprenoidal hydrocarbons at 300°C and 1500 psi that indicate an algal source for the organic matter. Extraction of a rock containing type II organic matter at the same temperature and pressure produces aliphatic hydrocarbons but also aromatic compounds reflecting the increased contributions from terrestrial organic matter in this sample. A type III organic matter-containing sample produces a range of non-polar and polar compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated aromatic compounds at 300°C and 1500 psi reflecting a dominantly terrestrial origin for the organic materials. Although extraction at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts that are comparable to solvent extraction, lower temperature steps display differences related to organic solubility. The type I organic matter produces no products below 300°C and 1500 psi, reflecting its dominantly aliphatic character, while type II and type III organic matter contribute some polar components to the lower temperature steps, reflecting the chemical heterogeneity of their organic inventory. The separation of polar and non-polar organic compounds by using different temperatures provides the potential for selective extraction that may obviate the need for subsequent preparative chromatography steps. Our results indicate that subcritical water extraction can act as a suitable

  18. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicit...

  19. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  20. An AFLP marker linked to turnip mosaic virus resistance gene in pak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... difficult to control by chemicals, and the natural plant resistance is the ... controlling TuMV-C4 resistance in Chinese cabbage. Zhang et al. ..... Plant Dis. 69: 28-31. Han HP, Sun RF, Zhang SJ, Li F, Zhang SF, Niu XK (2004). AFLP marker linked to turnip mosaic virus susceptible gene in Chinese cabbage ...

  1. Coat protein of Turnip mosaic virus in oilseed rape (Brassica napus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mohammad

    2Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad,. Iran. Accepted 15 August, 2012 ... led to prevalence of infectious diseases. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is an .... During the sampling of canola plants for the detection of virus, some colonies of aphids were ...

  2. In vitro Activity of Ethanol, Cold Water and Hot Water Extracts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine the efficacy of ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts of the stem bark of Canthium mannii (Rubiaceae) on un-embryonated and embryonated eggs of Ancylostoma caninum obtained from the faeces of naturally infected local dogs. The extracts were diluted in distilled ...

  3. [Chemical constituents from water extract of Radix isatidis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Wei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jian-Wei; Sun, Dong-Dong; Jü, Wen-Zheng; Wang, Kang-Cai

    2006-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents from water extract of Radix isatidis. (Isatis indigotica Fort. ). The water extract was underwent absorption by D101 macroporous resin, the portion eluted by ethanol of different concentrations was isolated and purified on silica gel column repeatedly. The obtained compounds were identified and structurally elucidated by their physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis. Five compounds were isolated from water extract of Radix isatidis, and were partly identified separately: 3-[2'-(5'-hydroxymethyl) furyl] -1 (2H) -isoquinolinone-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (I), lariciresinol-4,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (II), lariciresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (III), 2-hydroxy-1, 4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (IV), mannitol (V). Compound I is a new compound and compounds IV and V were isolated from the plant for the first time.

  4. Air sparging and soil vapor extraction to remediate ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, T.P.; Finkbeiner, J.A.; Warmus, P.J. [ATEC Associates, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An Air Sparging and Soil Vapor Extraction System was chosen to remediate petroleum impacted ground water over traditional remedial alternatives, such as ``pump and treat``, to expedite site closure. Field pilot testing, computer modeling and cost benefit analyses performed for several alternatives. Air Sparging and Soil Vapor Extraction pilot studies proved this technology to be the most effective with respect to remedial and economic concerns. Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) were closed at the facility located in North Eastern North Carolina in August of 1992. During UST closure, petroleum impacted ground water and soils were encountered. ATEC performed a Comprehensive Site assessment to delineate the impacted soil and ground water plume. Following completion of the site assessment, a Corrective Action Plan was prepared. As part of the Corrective Action Plan preparation, field pilot testing was performed to evaluate remedial alternatives and provide information for full scale design. The full scale treatment system was installed and started in January 1994. This effective Remedial System was selected over other options due to successful pilot testing results with site closure petitioning scheduled within 12 to 14 months after start up. The Air Sparging System, properly applied, is an effective and ``quick`` remedial option with no generation of ground water for disposal and permitting. This paper concentrates on the Air Sparging application applied at this North Carolina site. Although Vapor extraction was also implemented, this presentation does not elaborate on vapor extraction design or implementation and only discusses vapor extraction where it is directly related to the Air Sparging System.

  5. Ingestive and metabolic behavior of beef cattle fed diets with different levels of turnip forage (Rhaphanus sativus cake in replacement to soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir de Souza Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five substitution levels of soybean meal by turnip forage cake in the concentrate, on dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 in the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN in beef steer. The diets were isoprotein (6.5 % CP and isoenergetic (50.0% TDN, using in natura sugarcane silage as the only forage (85,5 %DM. Five castrated males were used, 1/2 Simental x Nelore cross, with average weight of 610 kg and 36 months old, all fistulated in the rumen. The different levels of replacement were: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, based on CP responsible of soybean meal of ration. Each experimental period lasted 19 days. The experiment was carried out in a 5x5 latin square experimental design, with five animals and five periods. The potential of dry matter intake (%BW and g/kg BW0,75 of turnip forage cake forage was obtained with 27% of replacement in the protean basis in relation to soybean meal, promoting, a maximum intake of 0,217 kg/animal/day, not proportionating alterations in the ruminal dynamic and in the blood.

  6. Model-based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, Rachel; Dees, Elizabeth

    2017-03-23

    The focus of this research effort centered around water recovery from high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) extracted waters (180,000 mg/L) using a combination of water recovery (partial desalination) technologies. The research goals of this project were as follows: 1. Define the scope and test location for pilot-scale implementation of the desalination system, 2.Define a scalable, multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, salt from saline brines, and 3. Validate overall system performance with field-sourced water using GE pre-pilot lab facilities. Conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) technology was established as a baseline desalination process. A quality function deployment (QFD) method was used to compare alternate high TDS desalination technologies to the base case FF-MVR technology, including but not limited to: membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO). Technoeconomic analysis of high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) was performed comparing the following two cases: 1. a hybrid seawater RO (SWRO) plus HPRO system and 2. 2x standard seawater RO system, to achieve the same total pure water recovery rate. Pre-pilot-scale tests were conducted using field production water to validate key process steps for extracted water pretreatment. Approximately 5,000 gallons of field produced water was processed through, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and steam regenerable sorbent operations. Improvements in membrane materials of construction were considered as necessary next steps to achieving further improvement in element performance at high pressure. Several modifications showed promising results in their ability to withstand close to 5,000 PSI without gross failure.

  7. Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Elizabeth M. [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Moore, David Roger [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Li, Li [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Kumar, Manish [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-05-28

    Over the last 1.5 years, GE Global Research and Pennsylvania State University defined a model-based, scalable, and multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, optionally, salt. The team explored saline brines that ranged across the expected range for extracted water for carbon sequestration reservoirs (40,000 up to 220,000 ppm total dissolved solids, TDS). In addition, the validated the system performance at pilot scale with field-sourced water using GE’s pre-pilot and lab facilities. This project encompassed four principal tasks, in addition to Project Management and Planning: 1) identify a deep saline formation carbon sequestration site and a partner that are suitable for supplying extracted water; 2) conduct a techno-economic assessment and down-selection of pre-treatment and desalination technologies to identify a cost-effective system for extracted water recovery; 3) validate the downselected processes at the lab/pre-pilot scale; and 4) define the scope of the pilot desalination project. Highlights from each task are described below: Deep saline formation characterization The deep saline formations associated with the five DOE NETL 1260 Phase 1 projects were characterized with respect to their mineralogy and formation water composition. Sources of high TDS feed water other than extracted water were explored for high TDS desalination applications, including unconventional oil and gas and seawater reverse osmosis concentrate. Technoeconomic analysis of desalination technologies Techno-economic evaluations of alternate brine concentration technologies, including humidification-dehumidification (HDH), membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), turboexpander-freeze, solvent extraction and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO), were conducted. These technologies were evaluated against conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) as a baseline desalination process. Furthermore, a

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Water Extract of Arisaema Erubescens Tubers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-arthritic activity of the water extract of Rhizoma Arisaematis (WERA) using collagen II (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Methods: CIA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rat by intra-dermal injection of bovine collagen type II (C II) in Freund's complete adjuvant (cFA). The rats were ...

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Water Extract of Arisaema Erubescens Tubers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-arthritic activity of the water extract of Rhizoma Arisaematis (WERA) using collagen II (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Methods: CIA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rat by intra dermal injection of bovine collagen type II (C II) in Freund's complete adjuvant (cFA). The rats were ...

  10. Amino acid composition of cowpea water and salt extractable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acid composition of cowpea water and salt extractable proteins as affected by high dose gamma irradiation. Abu Joseph Oneh. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 131-134. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Influence of water extract of Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory analysis of the water extract of Tithonia diversifolia shoot and root on infra-red spectrometer to determine the phytotoxic potential and greenhouse experiments to evaluate its phytotoxic effect and growth promoting attribute on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) were carried out. T. diversifolia contained some ...

  12. Effect of Water Extract Of Tetrapleura Tetraptera (Aidon) On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that oral administration of the water extract to the infected rats significantly reduced the parasite load, also weight loss was significantly lower in the infected and treated rats than the untreated ones. These positive observations were accompanied by reduced leukocytosis, improved state of anaemia and ...

  13. Teratogenic effect of the water extract of bitter gourd ( Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also showed that 31.2% of all the malformed litters had multiple congenital malformations. It also showed that the experimental rats had nine resorption sites while control had none. This demonstrates that the water extract of Momordica charantia is teratogenic in Sprague Dawley rats and should be used with caution in ...

  14. Molluscicidal activity of crude water leaf extracts of Alternanthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distress reaction started with retraction of tentacles and ended in some cases with death. Shock reaction results when snails are immersed in a more concentrated crude water extract which usually resulted in the death of the snails. Statistical analysis of average mortality figures by the use of probit gave LC50 of 40.42 ...

  15. Water Feature Extraction and Change Detection Using Multitemporal Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komeil Rokni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Urmia is the 20th largest lake and the second largest hyper saline lake (before September 2010 in the world. It is also the largest inland body of salt water in the Middle East. Nevertheless, the lake has been in a critical situation in recent years due to decreasing surface water and increasing salinity. This study modeled the spatiotemporal changes of Lake Urmia in the period 2000–2013 using the multi-temporal Landsat 5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images. In doing so, the applicability of different satellite-derived indexes including Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, Modified NDWI (MNDWI, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI, Water Ratio Index (WRI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI were investigated for the extraction of surface water from Landsat data. Overall, the NDWI was found superior to other indexes and hence it was used to model the spatiotemporal changes of the lake. In addition, a new approach based on Principal Components of multi-temporal NDWI (NDWI-PCs was proposed and evaluated for surface water change detection. The results indicate an intense decreasing trend in Lake Urmia surface area in the period 2000–2013, especially between 2010 and 2013 when the lake lost about one third of its surface area compared to the year 2000. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the NDWI-PCs approach for surface water change detection, especially in detecting the changes between two and three different times, simultaneously.

  16. Sperm aggregation by water extracts from two Bursera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, H; Garcia-Suarez, M D

    2001-01-01

    Some plants have more than the common utility value, as is the case of some members of the Bursera species such as the Mexican copal, a plant used for worship. Water extracts of several plants have vaginal contraceptive properties. The authors evaluated the sperm agglutinating activity of two Bursera species on human and boar sperm. Extracts from stems and leaves were obtained. Capacitated sperm samples were used in all cases. There were different agglutinating capacities, which were not observed in the vehicle-only samples. The most frequent sperm agglutination response was that involving the heads. Agglutinating activity was higher from stem- than leaf-derived extracts. The results indicate that proteins present in the extracts are responsible for the aggregation of sperm heads.

  17. Green-manure turnip for soybean based no-tillage farming systems in eastern Paraguay Adubação verde com nabo para soja em sistema de plantio direto no leste paraguaio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kubota

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A no-tillage soybean-wheat cropping system has been practiced for many years on the "Terra Rossa" soils of eastern Paraguay. Soil compactness and soil erosion have recently been identified as potential problems. This study examines the effect of replacing unprofitable wheat by green-manure turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg. on soil properties and soybean production. Gaseous phase, porosity, bulk density, water saturation, cone index, pH, exchangeable-cations, available-phosphorus (P and aggregate size distribution of the soil were measured. Contrary to initial expectations, turnip did not reduce soil compactness. Instead, turnip stabilized the aggregate structure of the surface soil. Positive effects of turnip on subsequent soybean growth and yield were detected in a rather dry year but not in an exceptionally wet year. In a second part of this study, nutrient return from turnip and wheat residues were compared. Turnip produced 10.7 t ha-1 of shoot dry matter, and absorbed 294, 27, 302, 175, and 33 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Wheat absorbed 98, 11, 67, 11, and 7 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively. About 75% of the N absorbed by wheat was removed from the field at harvest whereas most nutrients in the turnip residue were returned to the soil before planting of soybeans with positive effects on soil fertility. Additional benefits of green-manure turnip would include a reduced chance for erosion through improvements in aggregate structure and through a more complete soil cover.Um sistema de plantio direto de rotação soja-trigo foi praticado por muitos anos em uma "Terra Roxa" no leste do Paraguai. A compactação do solo e a erosão foram reconhecidas recentemente como problemas potenciais. Este estudo examina o efeito da substituição do trigo antieconômico pela adubação verde com nabo (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg. sobre as propriedades do solo e a produção de soja. A fase gasosa

  18. Comparison of RNA extraction methods in Thai aromatic coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researches have reported that nucleic acid in coconut water is in free form and at very low yields which makes it difficult to process in molecular studies. Our research attempted to compare two extraction methods to obtain a higher yield of total RNA in aromatic coconut water and monitor its change at various fruit stages. The first method used ethanol and sodium acetate as reagents; the second method used lithium chloride. We found that extraction using only lithium chloride gave a higher total RNA yield than the method using ethanol to precipitate nucleic acid. In addition, the total RNA from both methods could be used in amplification of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (Badh2 genes, which is involved in coconut aroma biosynthesis, and could be used to perform further study as we expected. From the molecular study, the nucleic acid found in coconut water increased with fruit age.

  19. Superheated water extraction, steam distillation and Soxhlet extraction of essential oils of Origanum onites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Mustafa Z; Kaymaz, Hilal

    2004-08-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) at various temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 degrees C), steam distillation, and Soxhlet extraction were compared in the extraction of essential oils from two samples of the plant Origanum onites, one cultivated, the other wild. C18 solid-phase extraction was used to elute the essential oils from the SWE aqueous extract. The compositions of the extracted essential oils obtained from all three methods were then characterized by comprehensive GCxGC/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS). The highest essential oil yields were obtained by using SWE at 150 degrees C with a flow rate of 2 mL min(-1) and a pressure of 60 bar for 30 min: these were 3.76 and 4.11% for wild and cultivated O. onites samples, respectively, expressed as a percentage of 100 g of dry (leaf) matter. The yields obtained using SWE at 150 degrees C were slightly higher than those from conventional methods. Steam distillation was performed for 3 h, and Soxhlet extraction was completed in 12 h. The major compounds found were borneol, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol.

  20. I-131 Extraction from Fresh water and Sewage plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souti, Maria-Evangelia; Hormann, Volker; Toma, Edda; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Alle 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The amount of maximum I-131 body activity of a patient released from a hospital in Germany (250 MBq) is comparable to the yearly reported total release of I-131 from all commercial nuclear power plants to ambient air and water. A large fraction of the body activity will be excreted and find its way to surface waters, through the sewage system. Thus medical iodine is the major contributor to the environmental I-131 in surface waters. Due to the path it follows (patient-sewage-sewage plant-fresh water) it can form organic complexes and as a result its concentration of organic iodine is relatively high. Existing methods, focusing on the removal of mainly iodide (I{sup -}) and iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}), were found to be insufficient to successfully extract the iodine from environmental samples, leading to highly variable results depending on the contribution of organic iodine. The reported work is based on testing and modifying existing methods. In order to accomplish the highest iodine yield, the inorganic iodine extraction is followed by a supplementary procedure for additionally separating the iodine bound to dissolved organic matter. The results show only slight variations of the I-131 extraction yield which is close to 90%, constituting this method as appropriate for successfully extracting I-131 from environmental samples (WWTP effluent, river water, lake water). Another advantage of our method is its applicability to high volume samples (20 L, 50 L), making it possible for a gamma spectrometer to detect activities as low as 0.5 mBq/l. (authors)

  1. Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Mars analog soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Aaron C; Fisher, Anita M; Fors-Francis, Kisa; Sherrit, Stewart

    2018-01-18

    For decades, the Martian regolith has stymied robotic mission efforts to catalog the organic molecules present. Perchlorate salts, found widely throughout Mars, are the main culprit as they breakdown and react with organics liberated from the regolith during pyrolysis, the primary extraction technique attempted to date on Mars. This work further develops subcritical water extraction (SCWE) as a technique for extraction of amino acids on future missions. The effect of SCWE temperature (185, 200, and 215°C) and duration of extraction (10-120 min) on the total amount and distribution of amino acids recovered was explored for three Mars analog soils (JSC Mars-1A simulant, an Atacama desert soil, and an Antarctic Dry Valleys soil) and bovine serum albumin (as a control solution of known amino acid content). Total amounts of amino acids extracted increased with both time and temperature; however, the distribution shifted notably due to the destruction of the amino acids with charged or polar side chains at the higher temperatures. The pure bovine serum albumin solution and JSC Mars 1A also showed lower yields than the Atacama and Antarctic extractions suggesting that SCWE may be less effective at hydrolyzing large or aggregated proteins. Changing solvent from water to a dilute (10 mM) HCl solution allowed total extraction efficiencies comparable to the higher temperature/time combinations while using the lowest temperature/time (185°C/20 min). The dilute HCl extractions also did not lead to the shift in amino acid distribution observed at the higher temperatures. Additionally, adding sodium perchlorate salt to the extraction did not interfere with recoveries. Native magnetite in the JSC Mars-1A may have been responsible for destruction of glycine, as evidenced by its uncharacteristic decrease as the temperature/time of extraction increased. This work shows that SCWE can extract high yields of native amino acids out of Mars analog soils with minimal disruption of the

  2. Microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Cláudia P; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2013-04-15

    The spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a food industry by-product that can be used as a rich source of polysaccharides. In the present work, the feasibility of microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from SCG was studied. Different ratios of mass of SCG to water, from 1:30 to 1:5 (g:mL) were used for a total volume of 80 mL. Although the amount of material extracted/batch (MAE1) increased with the increase of the concentration of the sample, the amount of polysaccharides achieved a maximum of 0.57 g/batch for 1:10. Glycosidic-linkage composition showed that all extraction conditions allowed to obtain mainly arabinogalactans. When the unextracted insoluble material was re-extracted under the same conditions (MAE2), a further extraction of polysaccharides was observed (0.34 g/batch for 1:10), mainly galactomannans. Also, a high amount of oligosaccharides, mainly derived from galactomannans, can be obtained in MAE2 (0.96 g/batch for 1:10). This technology allows to obtain galactomannans and arabinogalactans in proportions that are dependent on the operating conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lunar South Pole space water extraction and trucking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Zupp, G.; Schnitzler, B.; Larson, T.K.; Rice, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This concept proposes to use thermal processes alone to extract water from the lunar South Pole and launch payloads to low lunar orbit. Thermal steam rockets would use water propellant for space transportation. The estimated mass of a space water tanker powered by a nuclear heated steam rocket suggests it can be designed for launch in the Space Shuttle bay. The performance depends on the feasibility of a nuclear reactor rocket engine producing steam at 1,100 degrees Kelvin, with a power density of 150 Megawatts per ton of rocket, and operating for thousands of 20 minute cycles. An example uses reject heat from a small nuclear electric power supply to melt 17,800 tons per year of lunar ice. A nuclear heated steam rocket would use the propellant water to launch and deliver 3,800 tons of water per year to a 100 km low lunar orbit

  4. use of water extract of moringa oleifera seeds (wemos) in raw water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The paper presents the use of moringa seeds extract as alternative to alum in raw water treatment. Preliminary engineering properties such as jar test, speeds of flocculation; 98, 196 and. 260rpm; detention and setting times were conducted to determine the integrity of moringa extract as a natural coagulant. The results ...

  5. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparisons of soxhlet extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction for environmental solids: recovery, selectivity and effects on sample matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, S B; Grabanski, C B; Martin, E; Miller, D J

    2000-09-15

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100 degrees C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150 degrees C with pure CO2), and subcritical water (1 h at 250 degrees C, or 30 min at 300 degrees C). Although minor differences in recoveries for some PAHs resulted from the different methods, quantitative agreement between all of the methods was generally good. However, the extract quality differed greatly. The organic solvent extracts (Soxhlet and PLE) were much darker, while the extracts from subcritical water (collected in toluene) were orange, and the extracts from SFE (collected in CH2Cl2) were light yellow. The organic solvent extracts also yielded more artifact peaks in the gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-flame ionization detection chromatograms, especially compared to supercritical CO2. Based on elemental analysis (carbon and nitrogen) of the soil residues after each extraction, subcritical water, PLE, and Soxhlet extraction had poor selectivity for PAHs versus bulk soil organic matter (approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of the bulk soil organic matter was extracted along with the PAHs), while SFE with pure CO2 removed only 8% of the bulk organic matrix. Selectivities for different compound classes also vary with extraction method. Extraction of urban air particulate matter with organic solvents yields very high concentrations of n- and branched alkanes (approximately C18 to C30) from diesel exhaust as well as lower levels of PAHs, and no selectivity between the bulk alkanes and PAHs is obtained during organic solvent extraction. Some moderate selectivity with supercritical CO2 can be achieved by first extracting the bulk alkanes at mild conditions, followed by stronger conditions to extract the remaining PAHs, i.e., the least polar organics are the easiest organics to extract

  7. Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsyabilah, R.; Hanim, S.S.; Norsuhaila, M.H.; Noraishah, A.K.; Siti Kartina

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

  8. Nootropic Effects of Filipendula Vulgaris Moench Water Extract Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Amelchenko, V P

    2015-07-01

    Nootropic activity of water extract fractions from aerial parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench was demonstrated on the models of hermetic volume hypoxia, conditioned passive avoidance response, open field test, and forced swimming with a load. The fractions stimulated hypoxic resistance, normalized orientation and exploratory behavior, improved conditioned response reproduction during testing after hypoxic injury, and increased exercise tolerance. Fractionation of the extract led to dissociation of the effect components, which suggests that individual constituents have specific characteristics. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited most pronounced nootropic activity and was superior to plant extract by some characteristics. The detected effects seemed to be caused by modulation of the hippocampus activity the under the effects of phenol and triterpene compounds.

  9. Behavior of Sethoxydim Alone or in Combination with Turnip Oils on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein HAMMAMI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sethoxydim is an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase inhibitor that changed the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence curve (kautsky curve in wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu. in greenhouse experiment. This experiment was conducted as completely randomized factorial design with three replications at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2012. Results of this study revealed that sethoxydim only and plus emulsifiable turnip oil changed the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence curve (kautsky curve 7 days after spraying. Sethoxydim plus emulsifiable turnip oil changed the shape of the kautsky curve more than for sethoxydim only. We found that in our study the fv/fm (maximum quantum efficiency was closely linked to the fresh and dry weight dose-response. Sethoxydim plus emulsifiable turnip oil proved more rapidly effect on fv/fm in comparison with sethoxydim only. The fresh and dry weight dose-response relationship with fv/fm showed a similar behavior. This study revealed a good relation between fresh and dry weight according with values of 28 DAS and fv/fm 7 DAS. In general, the findings of this study revealed that Fv/Fm is a good parameter for evaluating effect of sethoxydim little time after spraying. Also, this research showed that 4 folds more time for classical screening methods comparing to chlorophyll fluorescence method. Thereupon, classical screening methods may be replaced by chlorophyll fluorescence method in future.

  10. Kinetics Extraction Modelling and Antiproliferative Activity of Clinacanthus nutans Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Nadiah Mohd Fazil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans is widely grown in tropical Asia and locally known “belalai gajah” or Sabah snake grass. It has been used as a natural product to treat skin rashes, snake bites, lesion caused by herpes, diabetes, fever, and cancer. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to determine the maximum yield and time of exhaustive flavonoids extraction using Peleg’s model and to evaluate potential of antiproliferative activity on human lung cancer cell (A549. The extraction process was carried out on fresh and dried leaves at 28 to 30°C with liquid-to-solid ratio of 10 mL/g for 72 hrs. The extracts were collected intermittently analysed using mathematical Peleg’s model and RP-HPLC. The highest amount of flavonoids was used to evaluate the inhibitory concentration (IC50 via 2D cell culture of A549. Based on the results obtained, the predicted maximum extract density was observed at 29.20 ± 14.54 hrs of extraction (texhaustive. However, the exhaustive time of extraction to acquire maximum flavonoids content exhibited approximately 10 hrs earlier. Therefore, 18 hrs of extraction time was chosen to acquire high content of flavonoids. The best antiproliferative effect (IC50 on A549 cell line was observed at 138.82 ± 0.60 µg/mL. In conclusion, the flavonoids content in Clinacanthus nutans water extract possesses potential antiproliferative properties against A549, suggesting an alternative approach for cancer treatment.

  11. Determination of estrogenic potential in waste water without sample extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avberšek, Miha; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka; Uranjek-Ževart, Nataša; Heath, Ester

    2013-09-15

    This study describes the modification of the ER-Calux assay for testing water samples without sample extraction (NE-(ER-Calux) assay). The results are compared to those obtained with ER-Calux assay and a theoretical estrogenic potential obtained by GC-MSD. For spiked tap and waste water samples there was no statistical difference between estrogenic potentials obtained by the three methods. Application of NE-(ER-Calux) to "real" influent and effluents from municipal waste water treatment plants and receiving surface waters found that the NE-(ER-Calux) assay gave higher values compared to ER-Calux assay and GC-MSD. This is explained by the presence of water soluble endocrine agonists that are usually removed during extraction. Intraday dynamics of the estrogenic potential of a WWTP influent and effluent revealed an increase in the estrogenic potential of the influent from 12.9 ng(EEQ)/L in the morning to a peak value of 40.0 ng(EEQ)/L in the afternoon. The estrogenic potential of the effluent was

  12. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  13. Cadmium Accumulation Characteristics in Turnip Landraces from China and Assessment of their Phytoremediation Potential for Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (HM pollution is a global environmental problem that threatens ecosystem and human health. Cadmium (Cd pollution is the most prominent HM pollution type because of its high toxicity, strong migration, and the large polluted area globally. Phytoremediation of contaminated soil is frequently practiced because of its cost-effectiveness and operability and because it has no associated secondary pollution. High-accumulation plants, including those identified as hyperaccumulators, play an important role in phytoremediation. Therefore, screening of plants to identify hyperaccumulators is important for continued phytoremediation. In the present study, we investigated the Cd tolerance and accumulation capabilities of 18 turnip landraces from China under a soil experiment with known Cd level. The results indicated that turnip has a high capacity for Cd accumulation. Furthermore, significant differences in Cd tolerance and accumulation characteristics were found among different landraces when they grew at 50 mg kg−1 (dry weight Cd concentration. Among the studied landraces, five turnip landraces met the requirements of Cd hyperaccumulators and three landraces were identified as potential candidates. However, the total Cd content accumulated by individual plant of different turnip landraces was dependent on both the Cd accumulation capacity and plant biomass. Compared with some reported Cd hyperaccumulators, turnip not only shows a high Cd-accumulation capacity but also has rapid growth and a wide distribution area. These advantages indicate that turnip may have considerable potential for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. Furthermore, the study also indicates that it is not advisable to consume turnip cultivated in an environment that exceeds safe Cd levels.

  14. Analytic game—theoretic approach to ground-water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2004-09-01

    The roles of cooperation and non-cooperation in the sustainable exploitation of a jointly used groundwater resource have been quantified mathematically using an analytical game-theoretic formulation. Cooperative equilibrium arises when ground-water users respect water-level constraints and consider mutual impacts, which allows them to derive economic benefits from ground-water indefinitely, that is, to achieve sustainability. This work shows that cooperative equilibrium can be obtained from the solution of a quadratic programming problem. For cooperative equilibrium to hold, however, enforcement must be effective. Otherwise, according to the commonized costs-privatized profits paradox, there is a natural tendency towards non-cooperation and non-sustainable aquifer mining, of which overdraft is a typical symptom. Non-cooperative behavior arises when at least one ground-water user neglects the externalities of his adopted ground-water pumping strategy. In this instance, water-level constraints may be violated in a relatively short time and the economic benefits from ground-water extraction fall below those obtained with cooperative aquifer use. One example illustrates the game theoretic approach of this work.

  15. Extraction of low rank coal with sub- and supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Do Park, S. [Korean Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Green House Gas Research Center

    2008-07-15

    Alaska coals were extracted with sub- and supercritical water (SCW) using a micro reactor. Conversion of coal was studied in the temperature range of 320-400{sup o}C, pressure 15-30 MPa and water density 0.06-0.7 g/cm{sup 3} for 0-2 h. The experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, pressure and water density on gas and liquid products respectively. The results show that the coal conversion in supercritical condition was higher than in sub-critical condition. The hexane soluble liquid product of original coal reaches a maximum 18.8% in the reaction time of 90 min at 400{sup o}C and 30 MPa. The contents of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} form especially well at supercritical condition. It is seen that supercritical condition was favourable to the hydrogen formation. With the increase of temperature, the sulfur in coal releases into the liquid and gas effluents. And the sulfur removal in liquid effluents is much greater than that in gas effluents. Higher water density causes higher conversion due to promotion of hydrolysis in coal extraction.

  16. Development of Directly Suspended Droplet Micro Extraction Method for Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kamal Rajabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient directly suspended droplet micro extraction in conjunction with gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD has been developed for extraction and determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs from water samples. In this technique a micro drop of 1-dodecanol is delivered to the surface of an aqueous sample while being agitated by a stirring bar in the bulk of solution. Factors relevant to the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. The optimized extraction conditions were extraction solvent: 1-dodecanol; extraction temperature: 60◦C; NaCl concentration: 0.5M; solvent extraction volume: 10 µL; stirring rate: 800rpm and the extraction time: 20 min. The detection limits of the method were in the range of 0.066–1.85 ngL−1, relation standard deviation (n=5 range were 0.102 - 0.964. A good linearity (r 2 ≥0.995 and a relatively broad dynamic linear range (25–2600ng.L−1 were obtained and recoveries of method were in the range of 90.729% - 102.343%. Finally, the proposedmethod was successfully utilized for pre concentration and determination of OCPs in different real samples.We successfully developed a method based on the DSDME technique combined with capillary GC-ECD for the analysis of OCPs in the water samples and compared with the conventional sample preparation method such as LPME. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso

  17. Specific chelating reagent to extract uranium from the sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabushi, Iwao; Kobuke, Yoshiaki

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of uranyl ions as seen from the chemistry of complex as the object of molecule recognition was examined on the basis of the research of structure and equilibrium in solution, in an attempt for the search of specific ligands and the molecular design of adsorbents. What is the most essential for the extraction of uranyl ions from sea water is the development of an excellent adsorbent with rapid adsorption, large equilibrium adsorption and high physical-chemical stability. Based on this appreciation, attempt has been made to find out the molecular design of an excellent adsorbent, starting with the chemistry of complex of uranyl ions. For the purpose, the following matters are reviewed: uranium in nature, the chemistry of complex of uranyl ions, specific ligands for the uranyl ions in sea water, the adsorbent resins for sea-water uranium, the proposals for an adsorbent system. (Mori, K.)

  18. Global Distribution of Plant-Extractable Water Capacity of Soil (Dunne)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. This data set...

  19. Global Distribution of Plant-Extractable Water Capacity of Soil (Dunne)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. This data set provides an...

  20. Static and dynamic superheated water extraction of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota

    2009-09-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) performed in both static and dynamic condition (S-SWE and D-SWE, respectively) was applied for the extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L. The influence of extraction pressure, temperature, time, and flow rate on the total yield of essential oil and the influence of extraction temperature on the extraction of some chosen components are discussed in the paper. The SWE extracts are related to PLE extracts with n-hexane and essential oil obtained by steam distillation. The superheated water extraction in dynamic condition seems to be a feasible option for the extraction of essential oil components from T. vulgaris L.

  1. Optimal Energy Extraction From a Hot Water Geothermal Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles R.; Tsang, Chin Fu; Mozumder, Sashi

    1981-01-01

    An analytical decision model is presented for determining optimal energy extraction rates from hot water geothermal reservoirs when cooled brine is reinjected into the hot water aquifer. This applied economic management model computes the optimal fluid pumping rate and reinjection temperature and the project (reservoir) life consistent with maximum present worth of the net revenues from sales of energy for space heating. The real value of product energy is assumed to increase with time, as is the cost of energy used in pumping the aquifer. The economic model is implemented by using a hydrothermal model that relates hydraulic pumping rate to the quality (temperature) of remaining heat energy in the aquifer. The results of a numerical application to space heating show that profit-maximizing extraction rate increases with interest (discount) rate and decreases as the rate of rise of real energy value increases. The economic life of the reservoir generally varies inversely with extraction rate. Results were shown to be sensitive to permeability, initial equilibrium temperature, well cost, and well life.

  2. Land subsidence caused by a single water extraction well and rapid water infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martinez-Noguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays several parts of the world suffer from land subsidence. This setting of the earth surface occurs due to different factors such as earth quakes, mining activities, and gas, oil and water withdrawal. This research presents a numerical study of the influence of land subsidence caused by a single water extraction well and rapid water infiltration into structural soil discontinuities. The numerical simulation of the infiltration was based on a two-phase flow-model for porous media, and for the deformation a Mohr–Coulomb model was used. A two-layered system with a fault zone is presented. First a single water extraction well is simulated producing a cone-shaped (conical water level depletion, which can cause land subsidence. Land Subsidence can be further increased if a hydrological barrier as a result of a discontinuity, exists. After water extraction a water column is applied on the top boundary for one hours in order to represent a strong storm which produces rapid water infiltration through the discontinuity as well as soil deformation. Both events are analysed and compared in order to characterize deformation of both elements and to get a better understanding of the land subsidence and new fracture formations.

  3. Comparing the effect of sub-critical water extraction with conventional extraction methods on the chemical composition of Lavandula stoechas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, E Sultan; Kirici, Saliha; Kaya, D Alpaslan; Türk, Murat; Sönmez, Ozgür; Inan, Memet

    2008-01-15

    The volatile extract composition of Lavandula stoechas flowers obtained by hydrodistillation (HD), subcrtical water extraction (SbCWE) and organic solvent extraction under ultrasonic irradiation (USE) were estimated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). One hundred and twenty four components were detected in SbCWE extracts while 94 and 65 signals were gained from HD and USE extracts, respectively. Most of the constituents were identified. The major compounds in all three extracts were fenchon, camphor, myrtenyl acetate, myrtenol and 1,8-cineol, but they differ in quantitatively. The total monoterpene hydrocarbons are higher in HD and USE extracts than those of SbCWE extract. However, SbCWE extract had higher concentration of light oxygenated compounds which contributes to the fragrance of the oil in a major extension. Heavy-oxygenated compounds was also in higher abundance in SbCWE extract (9.90%) than those of HD and USE extracts (3.19 and 4.78%, respectively). Effect of temperature on the extraction yield of SbCWE was investigated and while oil yield was increasing with an increase in temperature, a decrease in the extraction ability of sub-critical water toward the more polar compounds such as, 1,8-cineol, camphor and fenchon, was observed. Kinetic studies shown that SbCWE is clearly quicker than conventional alternatives. Most of components of volatile compounds were extracted at 15min.

  4. Water soxhlet extraction assisted by focused microwaves: a clean approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-12-15

    A prototype of a Soxhlet extractor that enables the use of water as extractant and application of focused microwaves on the cartridge zone has been designed and checked. The approach consists of a single unit in which the shortening of the distillation glassware allows reception of the water vapor in a refrigerant connected to the top of the sample cartridge vessel, its condensation, and dropping on the solid sample. When the water into the cartridge has reached a given level, irradiation with focused microwaves during an optimized time accelerates the leaching of the target analytes. Then, a valve is actuated and the extract is driven to the distillation flask where the leached species are concentrated as new vapor is formed and sent to the refrigerant and then to the cartridge. This new hybrid discontinuous-continuous approach has been used for leaching acid herbicides from different types of soil. The time required for total removal of the target compounds was 48 min. A flow injection manifold made posible the integration of the subsequent steps (preconcentration, chromatographic separation, UV detection) for the determination of the analytes, the recoveries of which range from 105.24 to 96.44%.

  5. Development of Speciality polymer to extract uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabushi, Iwao

    1983-01-01

    Polymer adsorbents were designed to extract uranium efficiently from sea water. The unique coordination structure of uranyl ion was suggested from x-ray crystallography and determining factors influencing equilibrium constants were elucidated. A quantitative estimation of the ligand efficiency was obtained. Based on these considerations on the coordination chemistry of uranyl ion, new polymer adsorbents were prepared and found to show excellent adsorption characteristics. The macrocyclic ligands mimicking crystallographic structure of the complex: planer headentate, were found to show large equilibrium constants as well as high selectivities toward metal ions. Direct usage of sea current was proposed as a most economical way of treating a huge amount of sea water. The polymer adsorbent could recover uranium with large adsorption rate just by immersing the resin into Kuroshio. (author)

  6. Study on the extraction of AP components in HTPB solid propellant by water/ethanol recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingqi; Du, Shiguo; Yan, Jun

    2017-10-01

    In order to improve the recovery of ammonium perchlorate (AP) components in scrapped HTPB solid propellants, the AP in HTPB solid propellants were extracted by water/ethanol mixed solvent system. The effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, volume ratio of water/ethanol, ratio of liquid to material, thickness of sample and extraction rate on AP extraction rate were discussed. The extraction results were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the best process parameter for extracting AP components from HTPB solid propellants: the extraction temperature was 70°C, the extraction time was 6h, the volume ratio of water/ethanol was 1:1, the ratio of liquid to material was 6:1(water/ethanol volume and sample mass ratio, ml/g) and the extraction frequency was 2 times. Under this condition, the recovery of AP was 90.5% and the purity of AP was 91.1%.

  7. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  8. Foodborne botulism associated with home-preserved turnip tops in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Anniballi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, foodborne botulism is a rare disease mainly due to home-preserved food. In the case reported here, clinical diagnosis was performed on the basis of clinical signs and referred consumption of home-preserved turnip tops in oil. Definitive diagnosis was performed by detection of botulinum toxin in sera and neuro-toxigenic organisms in stools and leftover food. This case report highlights the need of a high medical awareness, prompt clinical diagnosis, and synergic collaboration among the health authorities for a correct management of botulism as well as disease containment.

  9. Chlorophyll fluorescence extraction from water-leaving radiance of algae-containing water through polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Pang, Huifang; Liu, Yongjian; Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Lingling

    2017-12-01

    When measuring reflectance spectra, it is very important to accurately extract chlorophyll fluorescence from elastic- scattering light in water-leaving radiance. The elastic scattering of light by water particles produces partially polarized light. In contrast, chlorophyll fluorescence in planktonic algae yields completely unpolarized light. These properties can be used to separate fluorescent signals from the water-leaving radiance and thus to determine chlorophyll concentration. The algal species Aureococcus anophagefferens was used to conduct a laboratory polarization experiment. For the tests, we used a field spectroradiometer and a polarizer; measurements were collected using two different observation modes. The chlorophyll fluorescence curve extracted through polarization shows an excellent match with the results obtained using the fluorospectro photometer for both measurement modes, suggesting that polarization-based chlorophyll fluorescence extraction may be feasible. The extracted fluorescence is more reliable at incident zenith angles ranging from 30° to 60°. For algae-containing water, the results improve with increasing chlorophyll concentration. This method could help improve chlorophyll concentration measurement and the remote-sensing detection of resulting harmful algae blooms.

  10. Towards a more appropriate water based extraction for the assessment of organic contaminant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Zachary A.; Reid, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    This study correlated extractabilities of 37 d aged phenanthrene residues in four dissimilar soils with the fraction that was available for earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) accumulation and microorganism (Pseudomonas sp.) mineralisation. Extractability was determined using two established techniques, namely (1) a water based extraction using CO 2 equilibrated water and (2) an aqueous based hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction. Results showed no relationship between earthworm accumulation and phenanthrene extractability using either HPCD (r 2 =0.07; slope=-4.76; n=5) or the water based extraction (r 2 =0.31; slope=-5.34; n=5). Earthworm accumulation was overestimated by both techniques. In contrast, the fraction of phenanthrene extractable using both the HPCD technique and the water based extraction correlated strongly with microbial mineralisation. However, the slopes of these linear relationships were 0.48 (r 2 =0.96; n=10), and 0.99 (r 2 =0.88; n=10) for the water based extraction and HPCD, respectively. Thus, the HPCD extraction provided values that were numerically close to the mineralisation values, whilst the water based extraction values were approximately half the mineralisation values. It is submitted that HPCD extraction provided an appropriate method of assessing the fraction of contaminant available for microbial mineralisation in these dissimilar soils. - No significant difference was found between microbially mineralised phenanthrene and extractability using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in four dissimilar soils; the water-only extraction removed half of this fraction

  11. Functionalized sio2 microspheres for extracting oil from produced water

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu

    2017-03-16

    Functionalized material, methods of producing the functionalized material, and use thereof for separation processes such as but not limited to use for separating and extracting a dissolved organic foulant, charged contaminant or oily matter or any combination thereof from water, such as produced water, are provided. In an embodiment, the functionalized material is a mineral material, such as mica, silica (e.g. an SiO2 microsphere) or a metal oxide, and the outer surface of the material is functionalized with an alkyl chain or a perfluorinated species. In an embodiment, the method of making the functionalized material, includes: a) providing a mineral material; b) providing an alkyl chain and/or a perfluorinated species, the alkyl chain or perfluorinated species selected to dissolve organic foulants, charged contaminants or oily matter from water or any combination thereof; c) hydroxylating the material via a concentrated acid solution or a basic solution; and d) grafting the alkyl chain and/or the perfluorinated species onto the material via a silanation reaction.

  12. Endothelial extraction of tracer water varies with extravascular water in dog lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinard, F.P.; Cua, W.O.

    1987-01-01

    In multiple indicator-dilution experiments, transvascular passage of a permeating indicator is conventionally derived from the up-slope separation of the curve of the permeating indicator from that of a vascular reference and is expressed as the extraction (Ec). Extraction may be limited by the barrier (barrier-limited distribution). It may be limited by the volume of distribution accessible to it; in the time domain of an indicator-dilution experiment, the passage to and distribution in the extravascular volume are rapid relative to the velocity of blood in the exchange vessels. We examine here the relations of the extraction of tracer water as tritium oxide (THO) [Ec(THO)] and of the extraction of tracer sodium as 22Na [Ec(22Na)] to extravascular lung water, delta V wev, by adding isotonic fluid to the gas phase of the lungs. The net convective transvascular passage of water is negligible relative to the transendothelial molecular exchange. In 10 experiments in vivo and in 10 experiments in isolated perfused lungs, Ec(THO) increases as delta V wev increases. Ec(22Na) and the permeability-surface area product (PS) for 22Na do not change as delta V wev increases. We conclude that the extraction of THO is determined mainly by the volume accessible to it (flow- or volume-limited distribution) and that the extraction of 22Na is determined mainly by the resistance of the endothelium (barrier-limited distribution). A diffusion limitation in the added alveolar fluid rather than a barrier limitation at the endothelium may moderate Ec

  13. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  14. The presence of turnip yellows virus in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloševic Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 86 oilseed rape samples from six crops in different localities were collected during 2014 and analyzed for the presence of Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV using commercial double-antibody sandwich (DAS-ELISA kits. TuYV was serologically detected in 60 collected samples (69.77%, and none of the samples tested were positive for CaMV and TuMV. Six selected TuYV isolates were successfully transmitted by Myzus persicae to three test plants, confirming the infectious nature of the disease. In the selected ELISA-positive samples, the presence of TuYV was further confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. A comparison of the obtained sequence with those available in GenBank confirmed the presence of TuYV in oilseed rape samples. An analysis of P0 gene sequence data for a subset of these isolates showed they clustered with the known TuYV and were distinct from Beet western yellows virus (BWYV isolates.

  15. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  16. Water Extract of Deer Bones Activates Macrophages and Alleviates Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seok Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from deer bones, called nok-gol in Korean, have long been used to invigorate Qi. While neutropenia is not well detected in normal physiological condition, it could be a cause of severe problems to develop diseases such as infectious and cancerous diseases. Thus, a prevention of neutropenia in normal physiology and pathophysiological states is important for maintaining Qi and preventing disease progress. In cell biological aspects, activated macrophages are known to prevent neutropenia. In this study, we demonstrate that water extract of deer bone (herein, NG prevents neutropenia by activating macrophages. In mouse neutropenia model system in vivo where ICR mice were treated with cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress, an oral administration of NG altered the number of blood cells including lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. This in vivo effect of NG was relevant to that of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF that was known to improve neutropenia. Our in vitro studies further showed that NG treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and promoted macrophagic differentiation of mouse monocytic Raw264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, NG enhanced nitric oxide (NO synthesis and secretions of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α. Consistently, NG treatment induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, IKK, IκBα, and NF-κB in Raw264.7 cells. Thus, our data suggest that NG is helpful for alleviating neutropenia.

  17. Synthesis of bacterial cellulose using hot water extracted wood sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas Kiziltas, Esra; Kiziltas, Alper; Gardner, Douglas J

    2015-06-25

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), a type of nanopolymer produced by Acetobacter xylinum is a nanostructured material with unique properties and wide applicability. However, a standard medium used for the cultivation of BC, the Hestrin-Schramm medium, is expensive and prevents wide scale extension of BC applications. In this research, a relatively low-cost culture media was successfully developed from wood hot water extracts for the Acetobacter xylinus 23769 strain. Hot water extract (HWE) is a residual material originating from pulp mills and lignocellulosic biorefineries and consists of mainly monomeric sugars, organic acids and organics. The effects of different pH (5, 6, 7 and 8) and temperatures (26, 28 and 30°C) were also examined in this research. There were no significant differences in the crystallinity and the recorded Iα fraction of cellulose produced between Hestrin-Schramm and the HWE medium. The maximum production of 0.15g/l of BC was obtained at a pH of 8 and temperature of 28°C. Glucose and xylose in the HWE were the main nutrient sources utilized in all BC cultivations based on high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) results. HWE was shown to be a suitable carbon source for BC production, and a process was established for BC production from lignocellulosic feedstocks without using any modification of the HWE. HWE is an abundant and relatively inexpensive forest by-product. Using HWE for BC production could reduce burdens on the environment and also, achieve the goal of large scale BC production at low cost without using added culture nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  19. Therapeutic Effects of Water Soluble Danshen Extracts on Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Danshen is a traditional Chinese medicine with many beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms responsible for the antiatherogenic effect of water soluble Danshen extracts (DEs. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were treated with DE. To evaluate the effects of DE in vivo, carotid balloon injury and tail vein thrombosis were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and iliac artery stent was induced in New Zealand white rabbits. The inhibitory action of DE on platelet aggregation was confirmed with an impedance aggregometer. DE inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, and the migration and proliferation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulated VSMCs. Furthermore, DE prevented inflammation and apoptosis in HUVECs. Both effects of DE were reconfirmed in both rat models. DE treatment attenuated platelet aggregation in both in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Pretreatment with DE prevented tail vein thrombosis, which is normally induced by κ-carrageenan injection. Lastly, DE-treated rabbits showed decreased in-stent restenosis of stented iliac arteries. These results suggest that water soluble DE modulates key atherogenic events in VSMCs, endothelial cells, and platelets in both in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  20. Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on antioxidants from grape pomace before and after enological fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Salinas, José R; Bulnes, Pedro; Zúñiga, María Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís; Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Agosin, Eduardo; Pérez-Correa, José R

    2013-07-17

    Grape pomace was extracted with pressurized hot water at laboratory scale before and after fermentation to explore the effects of fermentation and extraction temperature (50-200 °C) and time (5 and 30 min) on total extracted antioxidant levels and activity and to determine the content and recovery efficiency of main grape polyphenols, anthocyanins, and tannins. Fermented pomace yielded more total antioxidants (TAs), antioxidant activity, and tannins, than unfermented pomace but fewer anthocyanins. Elevating the extraction temperature increased TA extraction and antioxidant activity. Maximum anthocyanin extraction yields were achieved at 100 °C and at 150 °C for tannins and tannin-anthocyanin adducts. Using higher temperatures and longer extraction times resulted in a sharp decrease of polyphenol extraction yield. Relevant proanthocyanidin amounts were extracted only at 50 and 100 °C. Finally, TA recovery and activity were not directly related to the main polyphenol content when performing pressurized hot water grape pomace extraction.

  1. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Grebennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents data about qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in water-ethanol extract of perspective clone of Mentha longifolia L. of NBE-NSC selection. Phenolic substances content in water-ethanol extract amounted to 3003.3 mg/100g. 13 components were determined in the extract. The extract contains caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid isomers, rosmarinic acid and glycosides of luteolin. Rosmarinic acid (50.2% prevails among phenolic substances of Mentha longifolia extract. The conclusion is that the use of this extract is possible to create products with high biological value

  2. Subcritical water extraction of bioactive compounds from dry loquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ERASTO

    non-conventional such ultrasonic-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction (Vetal et al., 2012, ... were ground using a grinder DYF-200 (Linda Machinery Company,. Zhejiang, China). Grinding was done to attain ..... emerged as an efficient tool for the characterization of extraction technique - matrix interaction ...

  3. THE PERFORMANCE OF Moringa oleifera SEED POWDER SODIUM CHLORIDE EXTRACT ON NATURAL SURFACE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Nwaiwu N.E; Moses J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the performance of Moringa oleifera sodium chloride extract on high turbidity natural surface water source (pond) water in the arid zone region of North East, Nigeria. Eight samples of collected high turbidity water were subjected to varying doses of a combination of Moringa oleifera seed powder (sodium chloride extract) and the aluminium sulphate (alum). The effluent of the sedimentation tank (into which has been added the raw water and crude sodium chloride ...

  4. Analytical and preparative separation of organic acids from water by extraction with trioctylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, S.H.; Hoyer, O.; Knobel, K.P.; Hodenberg, S. von

    1977-12-01

    The extraction of pure organic acids and of humic and ligninsulfonic acid from water by a solution of trioctylamine in chloroform was investigated (technical grade amine = ALAMINE). Quantitative separation is achieved by double extraction with 5% ALAMINE at pH 3,5 - 4. The acids may be back-extracted with dilute sodium hydroxide solution. Procedures are described for the analytical extraction of water samples of 200 to 2.000 ml and for the flow-through processing of large water volumes. (orig.) [de

  5. Extraction of uranium (VI) from sea water using hydrous metalic oxide binded with hydrophilic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigetomi, Yasumasa; Kojima, Takehiro; Kamba, Hideaki

    1978-01-01

    In the past five years, many researches have been made to extract U(VI) from sea water. This is a report of the extraction of U(VI) from sea water using hydrous titanium oxide binded with hydrophilic polymers, the apparatus for the adsorption and the separation of U(VI) by means of ion exchange. (author)

  6. Water extraction out of mortar during brick laying: A NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Spiekman, M.E.; Pel, L.; Kopinga, K.; Larbi, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The water extraction out of mortar during brick laying was studied using nuclear magnetic resonance. The experiments show that using a fired-clay brick, the water is extracted out of the mortar within 3 minutes, whereas in the case of a sand-lime brick this takes about 10 minutes. Prewetting a

  7. Water extraction out of mortar during brick laying. An NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The water extraction out of mortar during brick laying was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance. The water extraction is an important parameter that determines, e.g., the stiffness of the mortar due to compaction of the cement particles and the bond strength of the cured-mortar interfaces but allo

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of the water extract from dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. were assessed in both female and male rats. For the study of acute toxicity, a single oral administration of the water extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (10 female, 10 male) was performed and the results ...

  9. Extraction-spectrophotometric determination of purine alkaloids in water solutions using aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For extraction of caffeine, theobromin and theophylline from water solutions are applied aliphatic alcohols С3 – С9. Water concentrates analyzed method UF- spectrophotometry. Factors of distribution and extraction degree are calculated. Influence of length of a hydrocarbonic radical in a solvent and nature olecule salting-out agent on interphase distribution of alkaloids is studied. Dependence of quantitative characteristics extraction from number active groups in structure alkaloids is established.

  10. Startup Report for Ground Water Extraction, Treatment, and Recharge System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The document presents startup procedures, observations and measurements conducted during the startup of the Groundwater Extraction, Treatment and Recharge System, built for the 162nd Fighter Wing, Air...

  11. Effectiveness of Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Solid Phase Extraction, and Headspace Technique for Determination of Some Volatile Water-Soluble Compounds of Rose Aromatic Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbay, Hale Seçilmiş

    2017-01-01

    Steam distillation is used to isolate scent of rose flowers. Rose aromatic water is commonly used in European cuisine and aromatherapy besides its use in cosmetic industry for its lovely scent. In this study, three different sampling techniques, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), headspace technique (HS), and solid phase extraction (SPE), were compared for the analysis of volatile water-soluble compounds in commercial rose aromatic water. Some volatile water-soluble compounds of rose aromatic water were also analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). In any case, it was concluded that one of the solid phase extraction methods led to higher recoveries for 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) in the rose aromatic water than the liquid-liquid extraction and headspace technique. Liquid-liquid extraction method provided higher recovery ratios for citronellol, nerol, and geraniol than others. Ideal linear correlation coefficient values were observed by GCMS for quantitative analysis of volatile compounds ( r 2 ≥ 0.999). Optimized methods showed acceptable repeatability (RSDs 95%). For compounds such as α -pinene, linalool, β -caryophyllene, α -humulene, methyl eugenol, and eugenol, the best recovery values were obtained with LLE and SPE.

  12. Effectiveness of Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Solid Phase Extraction, and Headspace Technique for Determination of Some Volatile Water-Soluble Compounds of Rose Aromatic Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam distillation is used to isolate scent of rose flowers. Rose aromatic water is commonly used in European cuisine and aromatherapy besides its use in cosmetic industry for its lovely scent. In this study, three different sampling techniques, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE, headspace technique (HS, and solid phase extraction (SPE, were compared for the analysis of volatile water-soluble compounds in commercial rose aromatic water. Some volatile water-soluble compounds of rose aromatic water were also analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS. In any case, it was concluded that one of the solid phase extraction methods led to higher recoveries for 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PEA in the rose aromatic water than the liquid-liquid extraction and headspace technique. Liquid-liquid extraction method provided higher recovery ratios for citronellol, nerol, and geraniol than others. Ideal linear correlation coefficient values were observed by GCMS for quantitative analysis of volatile compounds (r2≥0.999. Optimized methods showed acceptable repeatability (RSDs 95%. For compounds such as α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, methyl eugenol, and eugenol, the best recovery values were obtained with LLE and SPE.

  13. Physicochemical and phytochemical properties of cold and hot water extraction from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2011-04-01

    Hibiscus cold (25 °C) and hot (90 °C) water extracts were prepared in various time-temperature combinations to determine equivalent extraction conditions regarding their physicochemical and phytochemical properties. Equivalent anthocyanins concentration was obtained at 25 °C for 240 min and 90 °C for 16 min. Total phenolics were better extracted with hot water that also resulted in a higher antioxidant capacity in these extracts. Similar polyphenolic profiles were observed between fresh and dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus acid and 2 derivatives were found in all extracts. Hydroxybenzoic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins constituted the polyphenolic compounds identified in hibiscus extracts. Two major anthocyanins were found in both cold and hot extracts: delphynidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside. In general, both cold and hot extractions yielded similar phytochemical properties; however, under cold extraction, color degradation was significantly lower and extraction times were 15-fold longer. Hibiscus beverages are prepared from fresh or dried calyces by a hot extraction and pasteurized, which can change organoleptic, nutritional, and color attributes. Nonthermal technologies such as dense phase carbon dioxide may maintain their fresh-like color, flavor, and nutrients. This research compares the physicochemical and phytochemical changes resulting from a cold and hot extraction of fresh and dried hibiscus calyces and adds to the knowledge of work done on color, quality attributes, and antioxidant capacity of unique tropical products. In addition, the research shows how these changes could lead to alternative nonthermal processes for hibiscus.

  14. Green Chemistry in Water Treatment: Use of Coagulant Derived from Acacia mearnsii Tannin Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio S. Mangrich; Universidade Federal do Paraná; Marta Eliane Doumer; Universidade Federal do Paraná; Anderson S. Mallmannn; Tanac S/A; Carlos Rodolfo Wolf; Tanac S/A

    2014-01-01

    News coagulants for water and sewage treatment are synthesized trough the chemical transformation of tannin extracts.  Tanfloc is a cationic polymeric coagulant produced from tannin extract of Acacia mearnsii. In this paper we are supporting the use of cationic polymeric coagulant for treatment of polluted water instead of aluminum or iron salts to support the sustainable water supply systems according with the principles of the green chemistry. DOI: 10.5935/1984-6835.20140002 Novos coag...

  15. Extraction of Betulin, Trimyristin, Eugenol and Carnosic Acid Using Water-Organic Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius N. Lugemwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates the use of water in organic solvents to extract natural products from plants. Measurement of the free-radical scavenging activity using by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH indicated that the extraction of plant material using ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water (4.5:4.5:1, v/v/v was exhaustive when carried out at room temperature for 96 h.

  16. Comparison of the mutagenic activity of XAD4 and blue rayon extracts of surface water and related drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Celia M; Coimbrão, Carlos A; Roubicek, Deborah A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de A

    2003-11-10

    The combination of mutagenicity tests and selective extraction methodologies can be useful to indicate the possible classes of genotoxic organic contaminants in water samples. Treated and source water samples from two sites were analyzed: a river under the influence of an azo dye-processing plant discharge and a reservoir not directly impacted with industrial discharges, but contaminated with untreated domestic sewage. Organic extraction was performed in columns packed with XAD4 resin, that adsorbs a broad class of mutagenic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), arylamines, nitrocompounds, quinolines, antraquinones, etc., including the halogenated disinfection by-products; and with blue rayon that selectively adsorbs polycyclic planar structures. The organic extracts were tested for mutagenicity with the Salmonella assay using TA98 and TA100 strains and the potencies were compared. A protocol for cleaning the blue rayon fibers was developed and the efficiency of the reused fibers was analyzed with spiked samples. For the river water samples under the influence of the azo-type dye-processing plant, the mutagenicity was much higher for both blue rayon and XAD4 extracts when compared to the water from the reservoir not directly impacted with industrial discharges. For the drinking water samples, although both sites showed mutagenic responses with XAD4, only samples from the site under the influence of the industrial discharge showed mutagenic activity with the blue rayon extraction, suggesting the presence of polycyclic compounds in those samples. As expected, negative results were found with the blue rayon extracts of the drinking water collected from the reservoir not contaminated with industrial discharges. In this case, it appears that using the blue rayon to extract drinking water samples and comparing the results with the XAD resin extracts we were able to distinguish the mutagenicity caused by industrial contaminants from the halogenated

  17. Toward Complete Utilization of Miscanthus in a Hot-Water Extraction-Based Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ting Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus (Miscanthus sp. Family: Poaceae was hot-water extracted (two h, at 160 °C at three scales: laboratory (Parr reactor, 300 cm3, intermediate (M/K digester, 4000 cm3, and pilot (65 ft3-digester, 1.841 × 106 cm3. Hot-water extracted miscanthus, hydrolyzate, and lignin recovered from hydrolyzate were characterized and evaluated for potential uses aiming at complete utilization of miscanthus. Effects of scale-up on digester yield, removal of hemicelluloses, deashing, delignification degree, lignin recovery and purity, and cellulose retention were studied. The scale-dependent results demonstrated that before implementation, hot-water extraction (HWE should be evaluated on a scale larger than a laboratory scale. The production of energy-enriched fuel pellets from hot-water extracted miscanthus, especially in combination with recovered lignin is recommended, as energy of combustion increased gradually from native to hot-water extracted miscanthus to recovered lignin. The native and pilot-scale hot-water extracted miscanthus samples were also subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using a cellulase-hemicellulase cocktail, to produce fermentable sugars. Hot-water extracted biomass released higher amount of glucose and xylose verifying benefits of HWE as an effective pretreatment for xylan-rich lignocellulosics. The recovered lignin was used to prepare a formaldehyde-free alternative to phenol-formaldehyde resins and as an antioxidant. Promising results were obtained for these lignin valorization pathways.

  18. Optimization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Extraction Efficiency Parameters for Sub- and Supercritical Water Extraction (SCWE) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Asahi A.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of molecules composed of multiple, bonded benzene rings. As PAHS are believed to be present on Mars, positive confirmation of their presence on Mars is highly desirable. To extract PAHS, which have low volatility, a fluid extraction method is ideal, and one that does not utilize organic solvents is especially ideal for in situ instrumental analysis. The use of water as a solvent, which at subcritical pressures and temperatures is relatively non-Polar, has significant potential. As SCWE instruments have not yet been commercialized, all instruments are individually-built research prototypes: thus, initial efforts were intended to determine if extraction efficiencies on the JPL-built laboratory-scale SCWE instrument are comparable to differing designs built elsewhere. Samples of soil with certified reference concentrations of PAHs were extracted using SCWE as well as conventional Soxhlet extraction. Continuation of the work would involve extractions on JPL'S newer, portable SCWE instrument prototype to determine its efficiency in extracting PAHs.

  19. High performance curcumin subcritical water extraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Mohammad; Najafpour-Darzi, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Meisam

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric rhizome, which consists about 2-5% of the total rhizome content and is a more valuable component of turmeric. For reducing the drawbacks of conventional extraction (using organic solvents) of curcumin, the water as a clean solvent was used for extracting curcumin. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) experimental setup was fabricated in a laboratory scale and the influences of some parameters (e.g. extraction temperature, particle size, retention time and pressure) on the yield of extraction were investigated. Optimum extraction conditions such as SWE pressure of 10bar, extractive temperature of 140°C, particle size of 0.71mm and retention time of 14min were defined. The maximum amount of curcumin extracted at the optimum condition was 3.8wt%. The yield of curcumin extraction was more than 76wt% with regards to the maximum possible curcumin content of turmeric, as known to be 5%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the outer surface of turmeric, before and after extraction, clearly demonstrated the effect of each parameter; changes in porosity and hardness of turmeric that is directly related to the amount of extracted curcumin in process optimization of the extraction parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Water isotope partitioning and ecohydrologic separation in mixed conifer forest explored with a centrifugation water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, W.; Mercer, J.; Pleasants, M.; Williams, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Isotopic partitioning of water within soil into tightly and loosely bound fractions has been proposed to explain differences between isotopic water sources used by plants and those that contribute to streams and ground water, the basis for the "two water worlds" hypothesis. We examined the isotope ratio values of water in trees, bulk soil, mobile water collected from soil lysimeters, stream water, and GW at three different hillslopes in a mixed conifer forest in southeastern Wyoming, USA. Hillslopes differed in aspect and topographic position with corresponding differences in surface energy balance, snowmelt timing, and duration of soil moisture during the dry summer. The isotopic results support the partitioning of water within the soil; trees apparently used a different pool of water for transpiration than that recovered from soil lysimeters and the source was not resolved with the isotopic signature of the water that was extracted from bulk soil via cryogenic vacuum distillation. Separating and measuring the isotope ratios values in these pools would test the assumption that the tightly bound water within the soil has the same isotopic signature as the water transpired by the trees. We employed a centrifugation approach to separate water within the soil held at different tensions by applying stepwise increases in rotational velocity and pressures to the bulk soil samples. Effluent and the remaining water (cryogenically extracted) at each step were compared. We first applied the centrifugation method in a simple lab experiment using sandy loam soil and separate introductions of two isotopically distinct waters. We then applied the method to soil collected from the montane hillslopes. For the lab experiment, we predicted that effluents would have distinct isotopic signatures, with the last effluent and extracted water more closely representing the isotopic signature of the first water applied. For our field samples, we predicted that the isotopic signature of the

  1. METHODS FOR PORE WATER EXTRACTION FROM UNSATURATED ZONE TUFF, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.M. SCOFIELD

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires an understanding of the chemistry of the water that moves through the host rock. The uniaxial compression method used to extract pore water from samples of tuffaceous borehole core was successful only for nonwelded tuff. An ultracentrifugation method was adopted to extract pore water from samples of the densely welded tuff of the proposed repository horizon. Tests were performed using both methods to determine the efficiency of pore water extraction and the potential effects on pore water chemistry. Test results indicate that uniaxial compression is most efficient for extracting pore water from nonwelded tuff, while ultracentrifugation is more successful in extracting pore water from densely welded tuff. Pore water splits taken from a single nonwelded tuff core during uniaxial compression tests have shown changes in pore water chemistry with increasing pressure for calcium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate, while the chemistry of pore water splits from welded and nonwelded tuffs using ultracentrifugation indicates that there is no significant fractionation of solutes

  2. EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CATION OF ALKYLDIMETHYLBENZYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE AT THE PHASE BOUNDARY WATER-MEMBRANE SOLVENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Luganska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction coefficients of the cation of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride at the phase boundary water-tricresylphosphate, water-dioctylphthalate, water-dibutylphtalate have been determined by the potentiometric titration of the aqueous phase with a silver electrode. The correctness of the obtained results has been proved by the titrimetric method with visual fixation of the equivalence point using methylene blue indicator.

  3. Root water extraction and limiting soil hydraulic conditions estimated by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Metselaar, K.; Dam, van J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Root density, soil hydraulic functions, and hydraulic head gradients play an important role in the determination of transpiration-rate-limiting soil water contents. We developed an implicit numerical root water extraction model to solve the Richards equation for the modeling of radial root water

  4. Direct-immersion and water-extraction methods for measuring tritium contamination of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Takao; Kuroyanagi, Makoto; Tabei, Takeshi

    2007-08-01

    In the process of decommissioning a tritium-handling laboratory, direct-immersion and water-extraction methods for measuring tritium contamination in concrete were compared to a heating-cooling method. For this evaluation, concrete pieces chipped from contaminated concrete walls and floors were used. The direct-immersion method was about 2.5 times less sensitive at determining the level of contamination compared to the heating-cooling method. The water-extraction method was comparable with the heating-cooling method if the water extraction time was adequate.

  5. Time and moisture effects on total and bioavailable copper in soil water extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom-Petersen, Andreas; Hansen, H.C.B.; Nybroe, O.

    2004-01-01

    between total metal content and metal toxicity calls for integrated chemical and biological analysis. The aim of this work was to determine time- and moisture-dependent changes in total water-extractable Cu as well as bioavailable Cu in soil water extracts. Measurements of total water-extractable copper...... ([Cu](tot)) were performed using furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. An in vitro assay employing a Cu-specific Pseudomonas fluorescens reporter strain was used to estimate Cu that was biologically available to the reporter strain. We refer to this copper fraction as "bioavailable," [Cu](bio). We...

  6. Summary of water body extraction methods based on ZY-3 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Sun, Li Jian; Zhang, Chuan Yin

    2017-12-01

    Extracting from remote sensing images is one of the main means of water information extraction. Affected by spectral characteristics, many methods can be not applied to the satellite image of ZY-3. To solve this problem, we summarize the extraction methods for ZY-3 and analyze the extraction results of existing methods. According to the characteristics of extraction results, the method of WI& single band threshold and the method of texture filtering based on probability statistics are explored. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of all methods are compared, which provides some reference for the research of water extraction from images. The obtained conclusions are as follows. 1) NIR has higher water sensitivity, consequently when the surface reflectance in the study area is less similar to water, using single band threshold method or multi band operation can obtain the ideal effect. 2) Compared with the water index and HIS optimal index method, object extraction method based on rules, which takes into account not only the spectral information of the water, but also space and texture feature constraints, can obtain better extraction effect, yet the image segmentation process is time consuming and the definition of the rules requires a certain knowledge. 3) The combination of the spectral relationship and water index can eliminate the interference of the shadow to a certain extent. When there is less small water or small water is not considered in further study, texture filtering based on probability statistics can effectively reduce the noises in result and avoid mixing shadows or paddy field with water in a certain extent.

  7. Extending the analytical window for water-soluble organic matter in sediments by aqueous Soxhlet extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frauke; Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine sediments is a complex mixture of thousands of individual constituents that participate in biogeochemical reactions and serve as substrates for benthic microbes. Knowledge of the molecular composition of DOM is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in sediments. In this study, interstitial water DOM was extracted with Rhizon samplers from a sediment core from the Black Sea and compared to the corresponding water-extractable organic matter fraction (Soxhlet extraction, which mobilizes labile particulate organic matter and DOM. After solid phase extraction (SPE) of DOM, samples were analyzed for the molecular composition by Fourier Transform Ion-Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. The average SPE extraction yield of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water was 63%, whereas less than 30% of the DOC in Soxhlet-extracted organic matter was recovered. Nevertheless, Soxhlet extraction yielded up to 4.35% of the total sedimentary organic carbon, which is more than 30-times the organic carbon content of the interstitial water. While interstitial water DOM consisted primarily of carbon-, hydrogen- and oxygen-bearing compounds, Soxhlet extracts yielded more complex FT-ICR mass spectra with more peaks and higher abundances of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds. The molecular composition of both sample types was affected by the geochemical conditions in the sediment; elevated concentrations of HS- promoted the early diagenetic sulfurization of organic matter. The Soxhlet extracts from shallow sediment contained specific three- and four-nitrogen-bearing molecular formulas that were also detected in bacterial cell extracts and presumably represent proteinaceous molecules. These compounds decreased with increasing sediment depth while one- and two-nitrogen-bearing molecules increased, resulting in a higher

  8. MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION FOR TRACE ANALYSIS OF DIAZINON IN DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahiminejad ، S. J. Shahtaheri ، M. R. Ganjali ، A. Rahimi Forushani ، F. Golbabaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amongst organophosphate pesticides, the one most widely used and common environmental contaminant is diazinon; thus methods for its trace analysis in environmental samples must be developed. Use of diazinon imprinted polymers such as sorbents in solid phase extraction, is a prominent and novel application area of molecular imprinted polymers. For diazinon extraction, high performance liquid chromatography analysis was demonstrated in this study. During optimization of the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure for efficient solid phase extraction of diazinon, Plackett-Burman design was conducted. Eight experimental factors with critical influence on molecular imprinted solid phase extraction performance were selected, and 12 different experimental runs based on Plackett-Burman design were carried out. The applicability of diazinon imprinted polymers as the sorbent in solid phase extraction, presented obtained good recoveries of diazinon from LC-grade water. An increase in pH caused an increase in the recovery on molecular imprinted solid phase extraction. From these results, the optimal molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure was as follows: solid phase extraction packing with 100 mg diazinon imprinted polymers; conditioning with 5 mL of methanol and 6 mL of LC-grade water; sample loading containing diazinon (pH=10; washing with 1 mL of LC-grade water, 1 mL LC- grade water containing 30% acetonitrile and 0.5 mL of acetonitrile, respectively; eluting with 1 mL of methanol containing 2% acetic acid. The percentage recoveries obtained by the optimized molecular imprinted solid phase extraction were more than 90% with drinking water spiked at different trace levels of diazinon. Generally speaking, the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure and subsequent high performance liquid chromatography analysis can be a relatively fast and proper approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of diazinon in

  9. Subcritical water extraction of essential oil from Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naorashikin Saim; Rozita Osman; Wan Azriza Hirmi Mohd Yasin; Rossuriati Dol Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Subcritical water extraction (SWE) is a technique based on the use of water as an extractant, at temperatures between 100 and 374 degree Celsius and at a pressure high enough to maintain the liquid state. As the temperature of liquid water is raised under pressure, the polarity decreases and it can be used as an extraction solvent for a wide range of compounds. The application of SWE in the extraction of essential oil from coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seeds was studied. Ground coriander seeds (3-4 g) were subjected to SWE with water for an extraction time of 15 min under several extraction conditions (pressures of 870 and 1000 psi and temperatures of 65, 100 and 150 degree Celsius). The SWE method was compared with hydro distillation performed by treating 10 g of ground coriander seeds with 100 mL of water for 3 hours. Compounds were removed from the aqueous extract with hexane and determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MSD). It was found that the efficiency (g oil/ g of coriander) of SWE was higher than that provided by hydro distillation with reduced extraction time. The major compounds found were linalool, isoborneol, citronellyl butyrate and geraniol. SWE method has the possibility of manipulating the composition of the oil by varying the temperature and adjusting the pressure. (author)

  10. Extraction and characterisation of aqueous organic acids from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.; Moody, P.M.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from large volumes of groundwater associated with the Broubster and Needle's Eye natural analogue sites, and the BGS research site at Drigg in Cumbria. Extractions were performed by both batchwise extraction and radial flow chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. Retained humic substances were eluted using NaOH and separated into humic and fulvic components by acidification to pH 1. After separation the humic component was purified by repetitive precipitation and dissolution whilst the fulvic component was purified by absorption chromatography. The resulting humic substances were shown to be of high purity with respect to metallic elements, with less than 1% of available sites being occupied. During elution the association of trace elements with humic substances was monitored and a high degree of association between humic substances, U and the Rare Earth Elements was noted. (author)

  11. Activity of seaweed and cyanobacteria water extracts against Podosphaera xanthii on zucchini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roberti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effects of water extracts of algae belonging to the phylum Rodophyta, Heterokontophya, Chlorophyta and of Cyanobacteria against Podosphaera xanthii on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cotyledons. Each extract was sprayed on the upper surface of cotyledons at the concentration of 0.5 %, then cotyledons were inoculated with six 10-µl drops of a spore suspension of the pathogen (1×106 spores/ml, and incubated on water agar in Petri dishes. Depending on the species, the extracts showed inhibition, stimulation or no effect on the disease severity caused by P. xanthii and on the pathogen sporulation density. Extracts of Corallina sp., Halopithys sp., Sargassum sp. and Anabaena sp. showed significant inhibitory effect on both parameters. This study suggests that seaweed and cyanobacteria water extracts applied on zucchini cotyledons may be considered in further experiments on plants as a useful preventative tool for the disease management in sustainable agriculture.

  12. Pressurized water extraction of isoflavones by experimental design from soybean flour and Soybean Protein Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moras, Benjamin; Rey, Stéphane; Vilarem, Gérard; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    A Doehlert experimental design was conducted and surface response methodology was used to determine the effect of temperature, contact time and solid liquid ratio on isoflavone extraction from soybean flour or Soybean Protein Isolate in pressurized water system. The optimal conditions conducted gave an extraction yield of 85% from soybean flour. For Soybean Protein Isolate compared to soybean flour, the isoflavone extraction yield is 61%. This difference could be explained by higher aglycon content, while aglycon appears to be the least extracted isoflavone by pressurized water. The solid liquid ratio in the ASE cell was the overriding factor in obtaining high yields with both soybean products, while temperature has less influence. A high temperature causes conversion of the malonyls-glucosides and glucosides isoflavone derivatives into glucosides or aglycons forms. pressurized water extraction showed a high solubilization of protein material up to 95% of inserted Soybean Protein Isolate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Sosa, Edgar; Mora Gonzalez, Nestor; Morris Quevedo, Humberto J

    2013-01-01

    Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) is traditionally used by patients suffering from cancer as an antitumoral resource. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on tumour cells and identify through a phytochemical screening the principal families of phytocomponents contained in these extracts. The cytotoxic activity of these extracts was also evaluated on human melanoma cells (SK-mel-3) and human breast carcinoma (T-47D). The African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells Cercopithecus aethiops (Vero) were used as a non-tumour cells control. The results showed the presence of triterpenes/steroids, saponins, coumarins, reductor sugars, phenols and tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates/glycosides in the extracts. The water leaf extracts showed cytotoxic activity mainly on tumour cells, which contributes to explain the referred recovery by patients suffering form cancer that traditionally consume these extracts

  14. Extraction Yield Efficiency And Loss Of The Traditional Hot Water Floatation HWF Method Of Oil Extraction From The Seeds Of Allanblackia Floribunda

    OpenAIRE

    Alenyorege E. A.; Hussein Y. A.; Adongo T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The research was conducted to determine the Extraction Yield Extraction Efficiency and Extraction Loss associated with the traditional Hot Water Floatation method of oil extraction. Matured dry seeds of Allanblackia floribunda 50 Kg were used. Allanblackia floribunda a tree species of the Guttiferae family grows naturally in tropical rainforests zones. In Ghana Allanblackia floribunda is quite unknown hence little production of oil is carried out. However the oil extracted can have d...

  15. Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antidiabetic activity of water extract of Solanum trilobatum (Linn.) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... changes in body weight, serum lipid profiles and liver glycogen levels assessed in the extract treated diabetic rats ... of medicine. Key words: Antidiabetic activity, alloxan monohydrate, Gliben clamide, rats, Solanum trilobatum. .... either six weighing 150 - 200 g bred in Animal Tissue Culture Lab,. Karpagam ...

  17. In vivo Antimalarial Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The possible active compounds responsible for the observed chemosupression may be flavonoids, terpeneoids and anthraquinones which are present in the extract. This is the first report on the in vivo antimalarial activity of E. thorifolium. Keywords: Antimalarial, Eryngium thorifolium, Plasmodium berghei, ...

  18. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  19. The oxygen isotopic composition of water extracted from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, L.; Franchi, I.A.; Wright, I.P.; Pillinger, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of water extracted from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrites Semarkona and Bishunpur reveals differences in alteration mineralogy and levels of isotopic enrichment – reflecting key parameters in the alteration process.

  20. on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of Moringa stenopetala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-04

    Dec 4, 2006 ... effects and health problems associated with aluminum sulphate, polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum sulphate, iron hydroxide, iron chloride, soda ash and synthetic polymers used in water treatment. Use of natural coagulants for treatment of water and wastewater in developing countries is an area that is.

  1. Regulating water extraction in a river basin with upstream-downstream communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Mette Kildegaard

    This paper proposes a tax mechanism modelled for water extraction in a river system with upstream and downstream farmers. The tax mechanism is based on the regulator’s own estimation of aggregate extraction and for that reason the tax addresses the problem of asymmetric information...

  2. Anti-thrombotic and anti-tumor effect of water extract of caulis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-thrombosis and anti-tumor effect of the water extract of the caulis of Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehd. et Wils. (WCSW) in rat and mouse models. Methods: WCSW extract was prepared and the main constituents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The acute ...

  3. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  4. Potential of using plant extracts for purification of shallow well water in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A.; O'Neill, J. G.; Kululanga, G.

    There has been very little scientific research work into the use of plant extracts to purify groundwater. Research studies on the purification of groundwater have mainly been carried out in developed countries and have focused on water purification systems using aluminium sulphate (a coagulant) and chlorine (a disinfectant). Such systems are expensive and not viable for rural communities due to abject poverty. Shallow well water, which is commonly available throughout Africa, is often grossly contaminated and usually consumed untreated. As a result, water-related diseases kill more than 5 million people every year worldwide. This research was aimed at examining natural plant extracts in order to develop inexpensive ways for rural communities to purify their groundwater. The study involved creating an inventory of plant extracts that have been used for water and wastewater purification. A prioritisation system was derived to select the most suitable extracts, which took into account criteria such as availability, purification potential, yield and cost of extraction. Laboratory trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were added to water samples obtained from five shallow wells in Malawi. The trials consisted of jar tests to assess the coagulation potential and the resulting effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity and coliforms. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera, J. curcas and Guar gum can considerably improve the quality of shallow well water. Turbidity reduction was higher for more turbid water. A reduction efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved by all three extracts on shallow well water that had a turbidity of 49 NTU. A reduction in coliforms was about 80% for all extracts. The pH of the water samples increased with dosage, but remained within acceptable levels for drinking water for all the extracts

  5. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  6. The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of some medicinal plants and their water extracts from South East Serbia is determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. The two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts, to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in them. Content of investigated metals in both water extracts is markedly lower then in medicinal plants, but were higher in water extract prepared by method (I, with exception of lead content. The coefficients of extraction for the observed metal can be represented in the following order: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. Correlation coefficients between the metal concentration in the extract and total metal content in plant material vary in the range from 0.6369 to 0.9956. This indicates need the plants to be collected and grown in the unpolluted area and to examine the metal content. The content of heavy metals in the investigated medicinal plants and their water extracts is below the maximum allowable values, so they are safe to use.

  7. Infrared Spectroscopy of Bilberry Extract Water-in-Oil Emulsions: Sensing the Water-Oil Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kiefer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water-in-oil (w/o emulsions are of great interest in many areas of the life sciences, including food technology, bioprocess engineering, and pharmaceuticals. Such emulsions are complex multi-component systems and the molecular mechanisms which lead to a stable emulsion are yet to be fully understood. In this work, attenuated total reflection (ATR infrared (IR spectroscopy is applied to a series of w/o emulsions of an aqueous anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract dispersed in a medium chain triglyceride (MCT oil phase. The content of the emulsifier polyglycerin-polyricinoleat (PGPR has been varied systematically in order to investigate whether or not its concentration has an impact on the molecular stabilization mechanisms. The molecular stabilization is accessed by a careful analysis of the IR spectrum, where changes in the vibrational frequencies and signal strengths indicate alterations of the molecular environment at the water/oil interface. The results suggest that adding emulsifier in excess of 1% by weight does not lead to an enhanced stabilization of the emulsion.

  8. Uranium extraction from sea water with a granulated titanium-containing sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Yu.P.; Komarewsky, V.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Sharyigin, L.M.; Gonchar, V.F.; Malyich, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    A specially synthesized granulated titanium dioxide based sorbent of high mechanical strength was used for the extraction of uranium from sea water in a fluidized bed. The sorption process proceeds in an external diffusion kinetic area and depends only slightly on temperature. The kinetic behaviour of any sorbent during uranium extraction from natural sea water is assumed to be the same up to the moment of the process transition from the external to the internal kinetic area. (author)

  9. Turnip mosaic virus Moves Systemically through Both Phloem and Xylem as Membrane-Associated Complexes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huanquan

    2015-01-01

    Plant viruses move systemically in plants through the phloem. They move as virions or as ribonucleic protein complexes, although it is not clear what these complexes are made of. The approximately 10-kb RNA genome of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) encodes a membrane protein, known as 6K2, that induces endomembrane rearrangements for the formation of viral replication factories. These factories take the form of vesicles that contain viral RNA (vRNA) and viral replication proteins. In this study, we report the presence of 6K2-tagged vesicles containing vRNA and the vRNA-dependent RNA polymerase in phloem sieve elements and in xylem vessels. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the presence in the xylem vessels of vRNA-containing vesicles that were associated with viral particles. Stem-girdling experiments, which leave xylem vessels intact but destroy the surrounding tissues, confirmed that TuMV could establish a systemic infection of the plant by going through xylem vessels. Phloem sieve elements and xylem vessels from Potato virus X-infected plants also contained lipid-associated nonencapsidated vRNA, indicating that the presence of membrane-associated ribonucleic protein complexes in the phloem and xylem may not be limited to TuMV. Collectively, these studies indicate that viral replication factories could end up in the phloem and the xylem. PMID:25717035

  10. A review on green trend for oil extraction using subcritical water technology and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Weal; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M

    2015-01-01

    It became a global agenda to develop clean alternative fuels which were domestically available, environmentally acceptable and technically feasible. Thus, biodiesel was destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. Utilization of the non edible vegetable oils as raw materials for biodiesel production had been handled frequently for the past few years. The oil content of these seeds could be extracted by different oil extraction methods, such as mechanical extraction, solvent extraction and by subcritical water extraction technology SWT. Among them, SWT represents a new promising green extraction method. Therefore this review covered the current used non edible oil seeds for biodiesel production as well as giving a sharp focus on the efficiency of using the SWT as a promising extraction method. In addition the advantages and the disadvantages of the different biodiesel production techniques would be covered.

  11. Comparison of water extraction methods in Tibet based on GF-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lingjun; Shang, Kun; Liu, Jing; Sun, Zhongqing

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we compared four different water extraction methods with GF-1 data according to different water types in Tibet, including Support Vector Machine (SVM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Decision Tree Classifier based on False Normalized Difference Water Index (FNDWI-DTC), and PCA-SVM. The results show that all of the four methods can extract large area water body, but only SVM and PCA-SVM can obtain satisfying extraction results for small size water body. The methods were evaluated by both overall accuracy (OAA) and Kappa coefficient (KC). The OAA of PCA-SVM, SVM, FNDWI-DTC, PCA are 96.68%, 94.23%, 93.99%, 93.01%, and the KCs are 0.9308, 0.8995, 0.8962, 0.8842, respectively, in consistent with visual inspection. In summary, SVM is better for narrow rivers extraction and PCA-SVM is suitable for water extraction of various types. As for dark blue lakes, the methods using PCA can extract more quickly and accurately.

  12. Minimizing the water and air impacts of unconventional energy extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution compared to other fossil fuels and even water use compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Alternatively, it could slow the adoption of renewables and, done poorly, release toxic chemicals into water and air. Based on research to date, some primary threats to water resources come from surface spills, wastewater disposal, and drinking-water contamination through poor well integrity. For air resources, an increase in volatile organic compounds and air toxics locally is a potential health threat, but the switch from coal to natural gas for electricity generation will reduce sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and particulate pollution regionally. Critical needs for future research include data for 1) estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of unconventional hydrocarbons; 2) the potential for further reductions of water requirements and chemical toxicity; 3) whether unconventional resource development alters the frequency of well-integrity failures; 4) potential contamination of surface and ground waters from drilling and spills; and 5) the consequences of greenhouse gases and air pollution on ecosystems and human health.

  13. Antioxidant effect of water and acetone extracts of Fucus vesiculosuson oxidative stability of skin care emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poyato, Candelaria; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hermund, Ditte Baun

    2017-01-01

    A water and an acetone extract of the Icelandic brown algae Fucus vesiculosus were evaluated as potential natural sources of antioxidant compounds in skin care emulsions. To assess their efficacy in inhibiting lipid oxidation caused by photo- or thermoxidation, they were stored in darkness and room...... thermooxidation, only the water extract showed antioxidant activity against photooxidation....... temperature as control conditions, and compared to samples stored under accelerated conditions (light and room temperature, or darkness and 40°C). The presence of extracts in the skin care emulsions induced remarkable colour changes when the emulsions were exposed to light, and more extensively under high...

  14. Environmental-friendly wool fabric finishing by some water plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, environmental-friendly finishing of wool fabric were processed with several water extract plants, such as hibiscus, St. John's wort, and marigold. The plant extracts have good basis in the commercial dyeing of wool, for garment and carpet industry. At the same time, the environmental-friendly finishing by water extracts plants shows very good fastness of the antimicrobial properties and coloration of wool fabric. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes with "natural products" may represent not only a strategy to reduce risk and pollutants but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses, which can expend involving of ecology in trade policy.

  15. Investigation of mutagenicity of extracts of hydrobionts from lake Drukshiai and water from its streamlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekevichius, R.; Dagyte, B.; Sabaliuniene, I.; Shumyliene, I.; Mishkelevichiute, E.

    1995-01-01

    Rain-water samples from Ignalina NPP buildings and industry sewerage water samples collected in 1993-1994 induced statistically significant increase in levels of frameshift and and base-substitution mutations in Salmonella typhimurium Ames tester strains. It was found that mutagens originated not by Ignalina NPP get into lake Drukshiai from its streamlets. Extracts from 4 species of molluscs did not induce frameshift and base-substitution mutations in Ames tester-strains. Among extracts of liver, muscles and gonads from 4 fish species tested, the highest mutagenicity levels were induced by extracts of gonads from the largest fish. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Anthocyanin Characterization of Pilot Plant Water Extracts of Delonix regia Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile M. Gaydou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of new applications of pilot plant scale extraction and formulation processes for natural active bioproducts obtained from various underutilized tropical plants and herbs, we have manufactured water-extracts from Delonix regia flowers, grown in Ivory Coast. These extracts, which contain polyphenols, are traditionally home made and used as healthy bioproducts. They are reddish-coloured due to the presence of anthocyanins. The three major anthocyanins in these extracts have been characterized. The molecular structures were confirmed by LC-SM analysis. Amongst them, two are described for the first time in Delonix regia.

  17. Studies on plant extracts as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in air saturated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Daud; Abdul Razak Daud; Zainal Abidin Sidi

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness in inhibiting corrosion by garlic, soya bean, and tobacco extracts and their combinations in air saturated water at ambient temperature were studied by using electrochemical corrosion test. The range of inhibitor concentration studied was from 0.1 to 1.0 g/l. The variations of corrosion potential and corrosion current density was recorded and the results showed that the extracts have inhibitive properties in the corrosion of mild stee. The effectiveness of the inhibitors is in the following order: extract mixture > tobacco > garlic > soya bean extracts. (author)

  18. Effect of hot-water extraction on alkaline pulping of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yichao; Liu, Shijie; Li, Jiang; Sun, Runcang

    2010-01-01

    The effect of hot-water extraction on alkaline pulping was investigated. The properties of black liquor and pulp strength of bagasse were analyzed. The extraction was conducted at 160 degrees C for 30min where 13.2% of the mass was dissolved in the extraction liquor. Untreated bagasse and extracted bagasse were digested by soda and soda-AQ processes at 17% and 15.5% (with 0.1% AQ) alkali charge (NaOH). Cooking temperatures were 160 degrees C and 155 degrees C respectively. The pulp from extracted bagasse had a lower Kappa number and a higher viscosity compared to the pulp from the untreated bagasse. The black liquor from pulping extracted bagasse had a lower solid content, a lower viscosity and a lower silica content, but a higher heating value than that from pulping of untreated bagasse. Hot-water extraction resulted in a significant decrease in bleaching chemical consumption and the formation of chlorinated organics. Pulp strength properties such as the tensile index and the burst index were found to be lower, but the tear index, bulk, opacity and pulp freeness were found to be higher when hot-water extraction was applied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitric Acid and Water Extraction by T2EHDGA in n -Dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Emily L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; Chemistry Department, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; Holfeltz, Vanessa E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR; Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; Nash, Kenneth L. [Chemistry Department, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA

    2017-11-10

    Liquid-liquid distribution behavior of nitric acid (HNO3) and water by a diglycolamide ligand, N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyldiglycolamide (T2EHDGA) into n-dodecane diluent was investigated. Spectroscopic FTIR and NMR characterization of the organic extraction solutions indicate T2EHDGA carbonyl coordinates HNO3 and progressively aggregates at high acid conditions. Water extraction increases in the presence of HNO3. The experimentally observed distribution of HNO3 was modeled using the computer program, SXLSQI. The results indicated that the formation of two organic phase species—HNO3·T2EHDGA and (HNO3)2·T2EHDGA—satisfactory describes the acid transport behavior. Temperature dependent solvent extraction studies allowed for determination of thermodynamic extraction constants and ΔH and ΔS parameters for the corresponding extractive processes.

  20. Comparison of volatile compounds in water- and oil-soluble annatto (Bixa orellana L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Cuspinera, Verónica; Lubran, Meryl B; Rankin, Scott A

    2002-03-27

    Annatto is a natural food colorant extracted from the seeds of the Bixa orellana L. plant. Annatto is used in Latin American cuisine to add a deep red color as well as distinctive flavor notes to fish, meat, and rice dishes. In the United States, annatto extracts are primarily used to impart orange/yellow hues to cheese and other dairy foods. The objective of this study was to identify and compare volatile compounds present in water- and oil-soluble annatto extracts. Volatile compounds were recovered using dynamic headspace-solvent desorption sampling and analyzed using GC-MS. Compounds were identified by comparison to a mass spectral database, Kovats indexes, and retention times of known standards. Of the 107 compounds detected, 56 compounds were tentatively identified and 51 were positively identified. Volatile profile differences exist between water- and oil- soluble extracts, and annatto extracts contain odorants with the potential to influence food aroma.

  1. Subcritical water extraction and characterization of bioactive compounds from Haematococcus pluvialis microalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Meizoso, I; Jaime, L; Santoyo, S; Señoráns, F J; Cifuentes, A; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In this work, extraction and characterization of compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity from Haematococcus pluvialis microalga in red phase have been carried out. To do this, subcritical water extraction (SWE) has been combined with analytical techniques such as HPLC-DAD, HPLC-QqQ-MS and GC-MS and in vitro assays (i.e., for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity). The effect of the extraction temperature (50, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C) and solvent polarity has been studied in terms of yield and activity of the extracts. Results demonstrate that the extraction temperature has a positive influence in the extraction yield and antioxidant activity. Thus, the extraction yield achieved with this process was higher than 30% of dry weight at 200 degrees C as extraction temperature. Moreover, the extract obtained at 200 degrees C presented the highest antioxidant activity by far, while temperature does not seem to significatively affect the antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition was determined by HPLC-DAD, HPLC-QqQ-MS and GC-MS. Short chain fatty acids turned out to be responsible of the antimicrobial activity, whereas the antioxidant activity was correlated to vitamin E (present exclusively in the 200 degrees C extract), together with simple phenols, caramelization products and possible Maillard reaction products obtained during the extraction at high temperatures.

  2. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  3. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  4. Effect of extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Amomum villosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yajuan; Li, Xia; Wan, Mianjie; Chen, Jingping; Li, Shijie; Cao, Man; Zhang, Danyan

    2015-03-06

    In the present study, effect of different extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from the seeds of Amomum villosum were investigated. Firstly, four different extraction methods were used to extract WSP, which include hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE). As a result, four WSP samples, WSP(H), WSP(U), WSP(M) and WSP(E) were acquired. Then, the difference of four WSP samples in yield, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro were further compared. Experimental results showed that the four WSP samples had the same monosaccharide composition, but mere difference in the content; they all had typical IR spectra characteristic of polysaccharides. WSP(U) contained the highest contents of uronic acid and sulfate. The yield of WSP(U) was the highest and its antioxidant activity was the best. These results suggested that ultrasonic-assisted extraction was the best extraction method for WSP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. studies on solvent extraction of free hydrogen cyanide from river water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for free and strongly complexed cyanide measurement in river water was developed. Recovery tests from solution with and without river water, using various solvent combinations and background control were investigated to obtain an accurate and precise extraction method for the measurement of hydrogen ...

  6. Use of Water Extract of Moringa Oleifera Seeds (WEMOS) in Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Availability of clean water is a serious problem, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where conventional treatment methods are inappropriate due to high cost and low availability of chemical coagulants like alum. The paper presents the use of moringa seeds extract as alternative to alum in raw water treatment.

  7. Interaction of water extractable pentosans with gluten protein : effect on dough properties and gluten quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.; Oudgenoeg, G.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of modified water extractable pentosans (WEP) on gluten yield, dough properties, gluten quality and composition were studied. The results show that WEP interfere with gluten formation in both a direct and an indirect way. WEP interfere indirectly by competing for water and thus changing

  8. Effect of hot water extracted hardwood and softwood chips on particleboard properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Tsai Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell; Thomas Amidon

    2014-01-01

    The affinity of particleboard (PB) to water is one of the main limitations for using PB in moisture-rich environments. PB dimensional stability and durability can be improved by reducing the available hydroxyl groups in wood through hemicellulose removal, for example, by hot water extraction (HWE), which increases wood resistance to moisture uptake. The resulting...

  9. Study on earthed atomizing corona discharge enhancing the biodegradability of waste water from oil extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, S.; Xu, J.; Mi, J.; Li, N.

    2012-10-01

    This paper studies the usage of earthed atomizing corona discharge to dispose waste water from oil extraction. The I-V characteristic curves of earthed atomizing positive and negative corona discharge are compared to study the influence of water flux and inter-electrode distance (which refers to the distance between line electrode and plate electrodes) on discharge characteristics, and to measure the turbidity, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the variation tendency of BOD5/COD in the process of dealing with waste water from oil extraction by earthed atomizing corona discharge. Ultimately, the mechanism of earthed atomizing corona discharge is analyzed. Research results indicate that when using earthed atomizing corona discharge to dispose of waste water from oil extraction, as the processing time grows there is a maximum value of turbidity, the pH level increases gradually then stabilizes, COD appears to descend, and BOD5 as well as BOD5/COD both have minimum values. When the processing time attains 300 min, waste water from oil extraction is suitable for biochemical treatment, foreshadowing that earthed atomizing corona discharge technology demonstrates energy conservation characteristic in improving the biodegradability of waste water from oil extraction and has a brilliant application prospect waiting ahead.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRAL RNA EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY FROM ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of PCR by environmental factors is a common problem affecting the sensitive detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental waters. This inhibition is caused by one of three mechanisms: 1) failure to lyse the microorganism, 2) degradation or sequestering of the...

  11. The oxygen isotopic composition of water extracted from carbonaceous chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, L.; Franchi, Ian; Wright, Ian; Pillinger, Colin

    2001-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of water from carbonaceous chondrites suggests that close to isotopic equilibrium was attained on CI and CM parent bodies. This is more consistent with a closed system than one with fluid flow. Tagish Lake does not display such equilibrium.

  12. Separation and recovery of heavy metals from waste water using synergistic solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yang, Limei; Xu, Zheng; Sun, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal wastewater pollution is one of the three major water pollutions in the world. The zinc hydrometallurgy smelting process usually discharge large quantities of heavy metal wastewater into the environment. In this paper, a synergistic solvent extraction process has been developed to recover copper, nickel, zinc and cadmium respectively from calcium and magnesium. The synergistic organic system contained 0.50 M Versatic 10 and 0.5 M Mextral 984H in DT100. Adjusting pH to 2.0 at 40 °C, the copper will be extracted preferentially with the extraction rate more than 99%. Continuing to adjust pH to 4.2 at 40 °C, the nickel will be extracted secondly with an extraction rate more than 98%; the zinc and cadmium in raffinate could be extracted separately while pH is about 6.5.

  13. Extraction and Capture of Water from Martian Regolith Experimental Proof-of-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Bauman, Steven W.; Johnson, Kyle A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept for extraction of water from the Mars soil in a real-time, open-air process was demonstrated in a Mars environment chamber. The concept breadboard uses radiative heating to bake off water from exposed soil contained in a bin. An enclosure, intended to mimic the bottom of a rover, covers the bin. A fan continuously blows the Mars atmospheric gases through the enclosure to collect the evolved water while a tiller was used to churn up moist subsurface soil. These initial tests verified concept feasibility. The sweep gas generated by commercially available muffin fans at 7 Torr was sufficient to transfer water vapor into a condenser flow loop. The radiative heating, while non-optimized, heated the soil surface to 60 C to generate water vapor. A rototiller working through the soil bin brought sufficient amounts of new moist soil to the heated surface to show an increase in rate of water extraction.

  14. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil Contamination With Heavy Metals and Its Effect on Growth, Yield and Physiological Responses of Vegetable Crop Plants (Turnip and Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raifa Ahmed Hassanein

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of irrigation with industrial wastewater on soil and plant. For these purpose turnip and lettuce plants were cultivated in soil irrigated with wastewater then heavy metals content of the soil, plant growth, yield and the subsequent changes in biochemical constituents of plant were examined. Irrigation with wastewater was found to load the soil with heavy metals (Pb, Co, Ni and Cd that were not detected in soil before irrigation. The magnitude of Cd in soils after irrigation with industrial wastewater exceeds the maximum allowable limit (3 mg Kg-1. Both turnip and lettuce exhibited significant decreases in leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots and roots as well as all the measured yield components in response to wastewater irrigation. The magnitude of decrease was positively correlated with the amounts of heavy metals detected in the soil and the inhibitory effect on turnip was much more pronounced than in lettuce. Furthermore, heavy metals accumulation in soil resulted in an oxidative damage to turnip and lettuce as indicated by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels in both plants comparing to control values. The significant increases in putrescine in lettuce and turnip shoots and roots and spermidine in lettuce roots as well as total phenolics and flavonoids in plants cultivated in soil enriched with heavy metals are believed to be defense mechanisms in turnip and lettuce plants to counteract the oxidative stress resulted from heavy metals contamination generated from irrigation with wastewater.

  16. Energy consumption in desalinating produced water from shale oil and gas extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Tow, Emily W.; Chung, Hyung Won; Lienhard, John H.; Thiel, Gregory Parker; Banchik, Leonardo David

    2014-01-01

    On-site treatment and reuse is an increasingly preferred option for produced water management in unconventional oil and gas extraction. This paper analyzes and compares the energetics of several desalination technologies at the high salinities and diverse compositions commonly encountered in produced water from shale formations to guide technology selection and to inform further system development. Produced water properties are modeled using Pitzer's equations, and emphasis is placed on how t...

  17. Extracting urban water usage habits from smart meter data: a functional clustering approach

    OpenAIRE

    CHEIFETZ, Nicolas; SAME, Allou; NOUMIR, Zineb; SANDRAZ, Anne Claire; FELIERS, Cédric; HEIM, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Through automated meter reading systems, recent development of smart grids offers the opportunity for an efficient and responsible management of water resources. The present paper describes a novel methodology for identifying relevant usage profiles from hourly water consumption series collected by smart meters located on a water distribution network. The proposed approach operates in two stages. First, an additive time series decomposition model is used in order to extract seasonal patterns ...

  18. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi F; Cavalheiro, Mariana G; Viana, Martônio P; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Rocha-Bezerra, Lady C B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Morais, Selene M; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the toxicity of seed water extracts of 15 leguminous species upon Aedes aegypti larvae. A partial chemical and biochemical characterization of water extracts, as well as the assessment of their acute toxicity in mice, were performed. The extracts of Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Piptadenia moniliformis caused 100% of mortalit y after 1 to 3 h of exposure. They showed LC(50) and LC(90) values ranging from 0.43 ± 0.01 to 9.06 ± 0.12 mg/mL and from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 13.03 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Among the secondary metabolite constituents, the seed water extracts showed tannins, phenols, flavones, favonols, xanthones, saponins and alkaloids. The extracts also showed high soluble proteins content (0.98 to 7.71 mg/mL), lectin (32 to 256 HU/mL) and trypsin inhibitory activity (3.64 = 0.43 to 26.19 = 0.05 gIT/kg of flour) The electrophoretic profiles showed a great diversity of protein bands, many of which already described as insecticide proteins. The extracts showed low toxicity to mice (LD(50) > 0.15 = 0.01 g/kg body weight), but despite these promising results, further studies are necessary to understand the toxicity of these extracts and their constituents from primary and secondary metabolism upon Ae. aegypti.

  19. Water Extract of Juglans Regia L. And Diabetes Mellitus in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarahroodi S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: There are many reports about the glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants in animal models. There are a some reports in Iranian traditional medicine about glucose lowering effect of septum water extract of Juglans Regia L. In the present study, effect of aqueous extract of the septum of Juglans Regia L. on plasma glucose is assessed. Methods: After preparing the water extract of Juglans Regia L. and concentrating of it the lyophilized extract, was tested in diabetic (ip injection of streptozocin and normal rats. Comparison between groups was made by analysis of variance (ANOVA and the differences between the means assessed using student’s t test. Results: In an oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT, a single oral administration of the water extract at doses of 50, 250 and 750 mg/kg body weight didn’t lowered the plasma glucose level in the normal rats. Although that insulin administration (5IU/kg caused a reduction of serum glucose(P0.005. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that the water extract of the septum of Juglans regia's fruit didn’t have a significant hypoglycemic effect in rats.Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Juglans Regia L.; Rat.

  20. Simultaneous extraction and determination of anionic surfactants in waters and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Martín, Pablo A; Gómez-Parra, Abelardo; González-Mazo, Eduardo

    2006-05-12

    A new method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the most frequently used anionic surfactants - linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES) and alkyl sulfates (AS) - in aqueous and sediment samples. Preconcentration and purification of water samples are carried out by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE). The efficiency of two different extraction methods for the analysis of sediments - Soxhlet extraction and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) - has been compared. Identification and quantification of the target compounds is performed using a liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) system equipped with an electrospray interface (ESI) in negative ion-mode. Homologue recoveries are 85-123% for SPE, 94-112% for Soxhlet extraction and 81-125% for PLE in the case of LAS, and 60-94% for SPE, 61-109% for Soxhlet extraction and 55-99% for PLE in the case of AES, whereas the limits of detection are 0.1-0.5 ngml(-1) in water and 1-5 ngg(-1) in sediment. This method has been applied to the determination of anionic surfactants in the Guadalete estuary (SW Spain), and LAS concentration levels from 538 to 1014 ngg(-1) in sediments and from 25.1 to 64.4 ngml(-1) in waters have been found. AES values from 168 to 536 ngg(-1) in sediments and from 4.5 to 11.9 ngml(-1) in waters are reported for the first time in European rivers.

  1. Ascorbic acid accumulates as a defense response to Turnip mosaic virus in resistant Brassica rapa cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ayaka; Togawa, Satoko; Hikawa, Takahiro; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Masuta, Chikara; Inukai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We initially observed that Brassica rapa cultivars containing the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) resistance gene, Rnt1-1, accumulated a high level of endogenous ascorbic acid (AS) and dehydroascobic acid (DHA) when infected with TuMV. We here hypothesized a possible contribution of an elevated level of AS+DHA (TAA) to the Rnt1-1-mediated resistance, and conducted a series of experiments using B. rapa and Arabidopsis plants. The application of l-galactose (the key substrate in AS synthesis) to a susceptible cultivar could increase the TAA level ~2-fold, and simultaneously lead to some degree of enhanced viral resistance. To confirm some positive correlation between TAA levels and viral resistance, we analyzed two Arabidopsis knockout mutants (ao and vtc1) in the AS pathways; the TAA levels were significantly increased and decreased in ao and vtc1 plants, respectively. While the ao plants showed enhanced resistance to TuMV, vtc1 plants were more susceptible than the control, supporting our hypothesis. When we analyzed the expression profiles of the genes involved in the AS pathways upon TuMV infection, we found that the observed TAA increase was mainly brought about by the reduction of AS oxidation and activation of AS recycling. We then investigated the secondary signals that regulate endogenous TAA levels in response to viral infection, and found that jasmonic acid (JA) might play an important role in TAA accumulation. In conclusion, we reason that the elevated TAA accumulation in B. rapa plants would be at least partly mediated by the JA-dependent signaling pathway and may significantly contribute to viral resistance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Phylodynamic evidence of the migration of turnip mosaic potyvirus from Europe to Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaka, Ryosuke; Ohba, Kiho; Schwinghamer, Mark W; Fletcher, John; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Thomas, John E; Ho, Simon Y W; Gibbs, Adrian J; Ohshima, Kazusato

    2015-03-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is a potyvirus that is transmitted by aphids and infects a wide range of plant species. We investigated the evolution of this pathogen by collecting 32 isolates of TuMV, mostly from Brassicaceae plants, in Australia and New Zealand. We performed a variety of sequence-based phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of the complete genomic sequences and of three non-recombinogenic regions of those sequences. The substitution rates, divergence times and phylogeographical patterns of the virus populations were estimated. Six inter- and seven intralineage recombination-type patterns were found in the genomes of the Australian and New Zealand isolates, and all were novel. Only one recombination-type pattern has been found in both countries. The Australian and New Zealand populations were genetically different, and were different from the European and Asian populations. Our Bayesian coalescent analyses, based on a combination of novel and published sequence data from three non-recombinogenic protein-encoding regions, showed that TuMV probably started to migrate from Europe to Australia and New Zealand more than 80 years ago, and that distinct populations arose as a result of evolutionary drivers such as recombination. The basal-B2 subpopulation in Australia and New Zealand seems to be older than those of the world-B2 and -B3 populations. To our knowledge, our study presents the first population genetic analysis of TuMV in Australia and New Zealand. We have shown that the time of migration of TuMV correlates well with the establishment of agriculture and migration of Europeans to these countries. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Antioxidant properties of water extracts from Cassia tora L. in relation to the degree of roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, G C; Chuang, D Y

    2000-07-01

    The antioxidant properties of water extracts from Cassia tora L. (WECT) prepared under different degrees of roasting were investigated. The water extracts of unroasted C. tora L. (WEUCT) showed 94% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid at a dose of 0.2 mg/mL, which was higher than that of alpha-tocopherol (82%). Water extracts prepared from C. tora L. roasted at 175 degrees C for 5 min and at 200 degrees C for 5 min exhibited 83% and 82%, respectively, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. This result indicated that the antioxidant activities of WECT decreased with longer roasting time or higher roasting temperature. The IC(50) of WEUCT in liposome oxidation induced by the Fenton reaction was 0.41 mg/mL, which was higher than that of alpha-tocopherol (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL). WEUCT also exhibited good antioxidant activity in enzymatic and nonenzymatic microsome oxidative systems. The water extracts of roasted C. tora L. increased in the degree of browning and produced chemiluminescence when compared with the unroasted sample. However, the total polyphenolic compounds of WECT decreased after the roasting process finished. In conclusion, the decrease in the antioxidant activity of water extracts from roasted C. tora L. might have been due to the degradation of Maillard reaction products and the decrease of polyphenolic compounds.

  4. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

  5. A new approach to solvent extraction: Electronic pulses shatter water droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have invented a device that represents a significant improvement in the area of solvent extraction, which is a widely used technique to recover valuable materials from a liquid stream. Known as the Emulsion Phase Contactor (EPC), the technology uses a pulsed electrical field to enhance recovery of chemicals (either valuable products or pollutants) that are dissolved in water. Because of its higher efficiency, the recovery method can be accomplished in much smaller vessels than those used in conventional solvent extractors, which use mechanical processes to recover chemicals. When water droplets carrying the substance to be extracted are introduced into the EPC, they are shattered by electronic pulses that produce water particles in the 1- to 5-micron size range. These water particles are up to 100 times smaller than those created by mechanical agitation. These tiny particles produce a much greater surface area than can be achieved using chemical agitators, enabling the chemical solvent to extract more material from the water base. In addition, the EPC uses much less power than mechanical methods and has no moving parts; therefore, servicing requirements for the extraction apparatus are expected to be significantly reduced. ORNL researchers initially tested the technology at a very small scale, and evaluated its capabilities in extracting high-value substances such as isotopes, pharmaceuticals, and precious metals. Further work has indicated that the EPC can be applied on a much larger scale to handle more common chemical substances

  6. Larvicidal Effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray Leaf Water Extract against Culex sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ali Abdurrachman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are various vector mosquitoes that cause filariasis such as Culex sp. Controlling the number of vectors with larvacide can reduce the spread of this disease. The extracts of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray leaves are known to have larvicidal effects on Aedes aegypti larvae. The purpose of this study is to determine the larvicidal effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray leaf water extract against Culex larvae. Methods: This was an experimental study conducted during the period of October to November 2012 at the Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. First trials were conducted to find the most effective larvicidal concentration of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray leaf water extract in killing 25 Culex larvae. A concentration of 100 ml was decided as the testing concentration which would be compared to a positive control containing Abate® and a negative control containing distilled water. The number of dead larvae was calculated every hour for 48 hours. Results: Effective larvicidal concentration of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray leaf water extract was 60% (p=0.000 compared to negative control, which was lower than Abate®. Result also showed LC50 and LC90 of 24% and 42%, respectively. Conclusions: Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray leaf water extract has a larvicidal effect on Culex sp. larvae, although it is not as effective as Abate®, Hence, this leaf may be used as an alternative larvacide as these plants are easily available in the community and inexpensive.

  7. Effects of water extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shati, Ali A; Elsaid, Fahmy G

    2009-08-01

    Alcohol abuse has many harmful effects on human body. This study aimed to investigate the role of water extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as natural product extracts to detoxify the injuries of alcohol abuse on liver and brain of mice. Alcohol at a dose of 1.25 ml/50 ml water was orally administered at the first day of treatment with continuously increase of 1.25 ml per day to the end of experiment (14 days, 0.1 ml/45 g /d). Mice also were orally administered with alcohol and water extracts of thyme and ginger in concentration of 500 mg /kg body weight for 2 weeks. The results showed very highly significant increase in nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level in liver and brain and a very highly significant decrease in the total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity in alcoholic group. In addition, the liver function enzymes such as L-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and butyryl cholinesterase activities showed very highly significant increase in alcoholic group. In contrast, the water extracts of thyme and ginger showed significant amelioration on these changes both in liver and brain tissues. The water extracts of thyme and ginger has detoxifying and antioxidant effects. Therefore, it is recommended to use them to avoid alcohol toxicity.

  8. True Cost of Water: monetization of water risks, shared value creation, and local acceptability of extractive projects

    OpenAIRE

    Clere, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Among industrial sectors, water-related risks are undoubtedly most closely associated with the extractive industries. To date, the response by the sector has been limited to funding philanthropic projects and implementing  Corporate Social Responsibility. However, Veolia has developed a decision-making tool that monetizes water risks, with a view to not only reducing costs and preventing risks, but also creating new business and social opportunities.

  9. Machine vision extracted plant movement for early detection of plant water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacira, M; Ling, P P; Short, T H

    2002-01-01

    A methodology was established for early, non-contact, and quantitative detection of plant water stress with machine vision extracted plant features. Top-projected canopy area (TPCA) of the plants was extracted from plant images using image-processing techniques. Water stress induced plant movement was decoupled from plant diurnal movement and plant growth using coefficient of relative variation of TPCA (CRV[TPCA)] and was found to be an effective marker for water stress detection. Threshold value of CRV(TPCA) as an indicator of water stress was determined by a parametric approach. The effectiveness of the sensing technique was evaluated against the timing of stress detection by an operator. Results of this study suggested that plant water stress detection using projected canopy area based features of the plants was feasible.

  10. Comparison of Water Turbidity Removal Efficiencies of Descurainia Sophia Seed Extract and Ferric chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Peyda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Turbidity removal using inorganic coagulants such as iron and aluminum salts in water treatment processes causes environmental and human health concern. Historically, the use of natural coagulant to purify turbid water has been practiced for a long time. Recent research indicates that Descurainia Sophia seed can be effectively used as a natural coagulant to remove water turbidity. Method: In this work, turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract was compared with Ferric chloride. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale. The coagulation experiments were done with kaolin as a model soil to produce turbidity in distilled water. The turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract and Ferric chloride were conducted with jar test apparatus. In all experiments, initial turbidity was kept constant 100(NTU. Optimum combination of independent variables was used to compare two different types of coagulants. Result: The obtained results showed that Ferric chloride could remove 89.75% of the initial turbidity, while in case of Descurainia Sophia this value was 43.13%. The total organic carbon (TOC analysis of the treated water using seed extract showed an increased concentration of TOC equal to 0.99 mg/L. Conclusions: This research has shown that Descurainia Sophia seed extract has an acceptable potential in the coagulation/flocculation process to treat turbid water.

  11. Larvicidal Effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray Leaf Water Extract against Culex sp. Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Ali Abdurrachman; Diah Dhianawaty; Neneng Syarifah

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are various vector mosquitoes that cause filariasis such as Culex sp. Controlling the number of vectors with larvacide can reduce the spread of this disease. The extracts of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray leaves are known to have larvicidal effects on Aedes aegypti larvae. The purpose of this study is to determine the larvicidal effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray leaf water extract against Culex larvae. Methods: This was an experimental study con...

  12. Antimicrobial Activities of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using Water Extract of Arnicae anthodium

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrucka, Renata; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles has gained significant importance in recent years and has become the one of the most preferred methods. Also, green synthesis of nanoparticles is valuable branch of nanotechnology. Plant extracts are eco-friendly and can be an economic option for synthesis of nanoparticles. This study presents method the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using water extract of Arnicae anthodium. Formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–visble spectroscopy, Fourier...

  13. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  14. Size and Density of Artemisia annua Stomata Soaked in Water Extract of Gloriosa superba Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indah Rahmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herbaceous plant that produces artemisinin as a malaria drug, haemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial. Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains high colchicine compounds, especially on the seeds. Gloriosa superba extracts of tubers, stems, seeds, and leaves were used as biomutagen for many plants. Colchicine contains of these plants as antimitotic have been studied and proven by the mitotic index plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds was used as a mutagen for Artemisia annua. The aim of this study was to determine the size and density of Artemisia annua stomata soaked in water extract of Gloriosa superba seeds as a mutagen. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained naturally on Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul by using a maceration method with water solvent (1:1. Artemisia annua sprouts were obtained from B2P2TOOT Tawangmangu. Variables treatment on sprouts using water extract concentration of Gloriosa superba seeds and soaking time of Artemisia annua sprouts. Measurements of stomatal length, width and density were conducted in epidermis of Artemisia annua leaf. Observation and measurements of the stomata were conducted by using a light microscope. The results showed that the length and width of stomata were 0.025 mm and 0.017 mm respectively. The stomatal density of the control leaf (174.69 amount/mm2 was lower than the other treated plants. Stomatal size and density has increased with the increasing concentration extracts on treated plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds proved the effects on stomatal size and density of treated plants.  

  15. Time and moisture effects on total and bioavailable copper in soil water extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom-Petersen, Andreas; Hansen, H.C.B.; Nybroe, O.

    2004-01-01

    between total metal content and metal toxicity calls for integrated chemical and biological analysis. The aim of this work was to determine time- and moisture-dependent changes in total water-extractable Cu as well as bioavailable Cu in soil water extracts. Measurements of total water-extractable copper......Environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in soil frequently involves testing of freshly spiked soils kept under stable humidity conditions, but it has been questioned whether these assessments are representative of the field situation. Furthermore, the poor correspondence that is often found...... ([Cu](tot)) were performed using furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. An in vitro assay employing a Cu-specific Pseudomonas fluorescens reporter strain was used to estimate Cu that was biologically available to the reporter strain. We refer to this copper fraction as "bioavailable," [Cu](bio). We...

  16. Extraction of Lithium from Lepidolite Using Mixed Grinding with Sodium Sulfide Followed by Water Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeryeong Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mixed grinding with Na2S followed by water leaching was performed to extract Li from lepidolite. The leachability of Li increases dramatically in the ground mixture, regardless of the mixing ratio over the range of 1:1 to 3:1, while only 4.53% of Li was extracted in lepidolite ground without Na2S. The leachability increased with an increase of the grinding time, and ultimately, 93% of the Li was leached by water from the ground mixture with a weight ratio of 3:1 (Na2S:Lepidolite. In the process of the mixed grinding, the Li-contained lepidolite was destructured crystallographically, and it might have changed to different compounds. This process enables us to extract Li from lepidolite via a water leaching treatment.

  17. Pressurized hot water extraction of β-glucans from Cantharellus tubaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Seoane, Paula; González-Muñoz, María Jesús; Falqué, Elena; Domínguez, Herminia

    2018-02-20

    Cantharellus tubaeformis was processed by pressurized hot water extraction (80-240 °C) with the aim of maximizing the extraction of oligomeric fractions, β-glucans and the in vitro antioxidant properties of the extracts. Increased severity of treatment enhanced the extraction yields above 62% at temperatures of 210 ºC or higher, corresponding to the maximum β-glucan yields. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained at 170 ºC, although the highest content of phenolic compounds was obtained at the highest severity studied. This hydrothermal treatment can be considered a suitable process to obtain extracts with antioxidant properties and rich in β-glucans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ionsfrom water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; VonStosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Extraction of dilute metal ions from water was performed near room temperature with a variety of ionic liquids. Distribution coefficients are reported for fourteen metal ions extracted with ionic liquids containing cations 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium [4MOPYR]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPYRRO]{sup +} or 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPIP]{sup +}, and anions tetrafluoroborate [BF{sub 4}]{sup +}, trifluoromethyl sulfonate [TfO]{sup +} or nonafluorobutyl sulfonate [NfO]{sup +}. Ionic liquids containing octylpyridinium cations are very good for extracting mercury ions. However, other metal ions were not significantly extracted by any of these ionic liquids. Extractions were also performed with four new task-specific ionic liquids. Such liquids containing a disulfide functional group are efficient and selective for mercury and copper, whereas those containing a nitrile functional group are efficient and selective for silver and palladium.

  19. A novel mechanism for the extraction of metals from water to ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Camiel H C; Sánchez, Antonio; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Kobrak, Mark N

    2013-11-11

    We present a novel mechanism for the extraction of metals from aqueous phases to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) by use of a high-temperature salt as an extraction agent. The mechanism capitalizes on the fact that charged metal complexes are soluble in ILs; this allows for extraction of charged complexes rather than the neutral species, which are formed by conventional approaches. The use of a well-chosen extraction agent also suppresses the competing ion-exchange mechanism, thus preventing degradation of the ionic liquid. The approach permits the use of excess extractant to drive the recovery of metals in high yield. This work presents both a thermodynamic framework for understanding the approach and experimental verification of the process in a range of different ILs. The method has great potential value in the recovery of metals, water purification and nuclear materials processing. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. STUDYING IMMUNOBIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PREPARED WATER_SALT EXTRACTS OF INSECT ALLERGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Radikova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the indirect degranulation of mast cells, anaphylaxis test, solid phase immune enzyme analysis, the researchers evaluated the immuno biological features of serum of 20 patients suffering from atopic mild and moderate bronchial asthma with domestic sensitization. All received water salt extracts of insects (cockroach, black beetle, American cock roach, ash gray cockroach, cricket, fly, moth, mealworm, weevil, billbug demonstrated specific activity. An immune enzyme analysis has revealed more intensive allergic features of substances extracted from black beetle, cockroach, fly and moth.Key words: insect allergens, allergen specific immunotherapy, immuno biological features of allergic extracts, Ige anti bodies.

  1. Comparative analysis of different methods of extraction of present hydrocarbons in industrial residual waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa, Judith Rocio; Serrano, Martin; Stashenko, Elena

    2002-01-01

    A comparison among four extraction techniques such as: liquid - liquid (LLE) continuous and for lots, solid phase extraction (SPE), solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (S-HS) was carried out. The main purpose of this research was to determine the highest recovery efficiencies and how reproducible the tests are while varying parameters such as time, extraction technique, type of solvents and others. Chromatographic parameters were optimized in order to carry out the analyses. Hydrocarbon's quantification of residual waters was achieved by using a high-resolution gas chromatography with a gas flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID). Validation of the method was carried out by analyzing real samples taken in different sampling places of the residual waters treatment plant of Ecopetrol - Barrancabermeja. The use of extraction methods that require big solvent quantities and long time for analysis are losing validity day by day. Techniques such as the HS-SPME and static HS are offered as alternatives for quantifying hydrocarbons. They show total lack of solvents, high sensibility, selectivity and the techniques are reproducible. Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (static HS) techniques were chosen as the extraction techniques to validate the method in real samples. Both techniques showed similar results for the determination of total hydrocarbons (in the gasoline range)

  2. Water soluble polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis: extraction and in vitro anti-cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurd, Forouzan; Samavati, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis algae (SP) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure. The optimal conditions for ultrasonic extraction of SP were determined by response surface methodology. The four parameters were, extraction time (X1), extraction temperature (X2), ultrasonic power (X3) and the ratio of water to raw material (X4), respectively. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation. The optimum conditions were extraction time of 25 min, extraction temperature 85°C, ultrasonic power 90 W and ratio of water to raw material 20 mL/g. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental yield was 13.583±0.51%, well matched with the predicted models with the coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.9971. Then, we demonstrated that SP polysaccharides had strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Overall, SP may have potential applications in the medical and food industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The general properties of water - nitrobenzene - crown - bis-1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanura, P.

    2003-01-01

    The extraction and stability constants in the system water - nitrobenzene have been collected and general rules valid for water - nitrobenzene - crown - bis-1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate extraction system have been found. The main principles are size compatibility of ion diameter and crown cavity diameters, the flexibility of crown, the basicity of crown and the steric factor of both the ligand and the extracted ion. The extraction in the system water - mineral acid or salt polyoxyethylene compound - bis-1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate - nitrobenzene is more complicated than can be expected from usually used ion diameter - crown cavity diameter compatibility principle. The other important factors are the basicity and the deformability of crown, steric aspect and the angles of bonds of extracted ion. The binuclear 'sandwich' complexes with H + ion and Sr 2+ or Ba 2+ ions have been proved for dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6). On the other hand, only SrL 2 and BaL 2 (L = 15C5) complexes are formed in nitrobenzene saturated with water. The addition of polyoxyethylene compound usually increases the distribution ratio of alkali earth metal ions and the selectivity of its mutual separation. (authors)

  4. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety, TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site. Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and with elements such as Magnesium (Mg, Manganese (Mn, Iron (Fe, Sulphur (S, Copper (Cu and Zinc (Zn. Nitrogen (N, Phosphorous (P and Potassium (K were found in the extract. The study showed that due to the presence of hydrocyanic acid in the extract, this waste found around the cassava processing sites possesses phytotoxic effects on weeds/vegetation in form of leaf decoloration (yellowing, wilting and eventually death. Crude cassava water extract showed a probable natural herbicide which can be used by the peasant farmers because it is environmental friendly and easily biodegradable into harmless compounds in the environment

  5. Solid-phase extraction-spectrophotometric determination of uranium(VI) in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Mohammadzadeh, Darush; Yamini, Yadollah

    2003-01-01

    A method for the extraction and determination of uranyl ion in natural waters using octadecyl bonded silica membrane disks modified with piroxicam and spectrophotometry with arsenazo(III) is proposed. The perconcentration step was studied with regard to experimental parameters such as amount of extractant, type and amount of eluent, pH, flow rates and tolerance limit of diverse ions on the recovery of uranyl ion. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 0.4 μg L -1 of uranyl. The method was applied to the recovery of uranyl from different water samples. (orig.)

  6. Solid-phase extraction-spectrophotometric determination of uranium(VI) in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Mohammadzadeh, Darush [Department of Chemistry, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran); Yamini, Yadollah [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Moddars University, Tehran (Iran)

    2003-03-01

    A method for the extraction and determination of uranyl ion in natural waters using octadecyl bonded silica membrane disks modified with piroxicam and spectrophotometry with arsenazo(III) is proposed. The perconcentration step was studied with regard to experimental parameters such as amount of extractant, type and amount of eluent, pH, flow rates and tolerance limit of diverse ions on the recovery of uranyl ion. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 0.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} of uranyl. The method was applied to the recovery of uranyl from different water samples. (orig.)

  7. Identification of Light-Independent Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Mutants Induced by Ethyl Methane Sulfonate in Turnip "Tsuda" (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Fei; Chen, Yun-Zhu; Kawabata, Saneyuki; Li, Yu-Hua; Wang, Yu

    2017-06-22

    The epidermis of swollen storage roots in purple cultivars of turnip "Tsuda" ( Brassica rapa ) accumulates anthocyanin in a light-dependent manner, especially in response to UV-A light, of which the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we mutagenized 15,000 seeds by 0.5% ( v / v ) ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and obtained 14 mutants with abnormal anthocyanin production in their epidermis of swollen storage roots. These mutants were classified into two groups: the red mutants with constitutive anthocyanin accumulation in their epidermis of storage roots even in underground parts in darkness and the white mutants without anthocyanin accumulation in the epidermis of storage roots in aboveground parts exposed to sunlight. Test cross analysis demonstrated that w9 , w68 , w204 , r15 , r21 , r30 and r57 contained different mutations responsible for their phenotypic variations. Further genetic analysis of four target mutants ( w9 , w68 , w204 and r15 ) indicated that each of them was controlled by a different recessive gene. Intriguingly, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, including structural and regulatory genes, coincided with their anthocyanin levels in the epidermis of storage roots in the four target mutants. We proposed that potential genes responsible for the mutations should be upstream factors of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in turnips, which provided resources to further investigate the mechanisms of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation.

  8. The genetic structure of Turnip mosaic virus population reveals the rapid expansion of a new emergent lineage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Tiansheng; Yin, Xiao; Zhang, Chengling; Chen, Jia; Tian, Yanping; Liu, Jinliang

    2017-08-29

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most widespread and economically important virus infecting both crop and ornamental species of the family Brassicaceae. TuMV isolates can be classified to five phylogenetic lineages, basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and Orchis. To understand the genetic structure of TuMV from radish in China, the 3'-terminal genome of 90 TuMV isolates were determined and analyzed with other available Chinese isolates. The results showed that the Chinese TuMV isolates from radish formed three groups: Asian-BR, basal-BR and world-B. More than half of these isolates (52.54%) were clustered to basal-BR group, and could be further divided into three sub-groups. The TuMV basal-BR isolates in the sub-groups I and II were genetically homologous with Japanese ones, while those in sub-group III formed a distinct lineage. Sub-populations of TuMV basal-BR II and III were new emergent and in a state of expansion. The Chinese TuMV radish populations were under negative selection. Gene flow between TuMV populations from Tai'an, Weifang and Changchun was frequent. The genetic structure of Turnip mosaic virus population reveals the rapid expansion of a new emergent lineage in China.

  9. Selenium, putrescine, and cadmium influence health-promoting phytochemicals and molecular-level effects on turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Chung, Ill-Min

    2015-04-15

    The effects of selenium, putrescine, and cadmium on the contents of glucosinolates, total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, anthocyanin, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and antioxidant capacities as well as gene regulation of phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates biosynthesis were investigated in turnip plants. Selenium dioxide (SeO2) treatment significantly induced the amount of gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoallysin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2)- and putrescine-treated plants had considerably enhanced gluconasturtiin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin levels, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant capacities were significantly increased in SeO2-treated plants. Lutein was higher in control plants followed by, in decreasing order, SeO2-, putrescine-, and CdCl2-treated plants. The chlorophyll content was significantly decreased and anthocyanin, MDA, and H2O2 levels were significantly increased with CdCl2 treatment. Moreover, plants treated with selenium and cadmium showed significant induction of genes related to glucosinolate, phenolic, and carotenoid biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that SeO2 significantly increased the contents of health-promoting compounds and enhanced the antioxidant capacities of turnip plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Yield, chemical composition and nutritional quality responses of carrot, radish and turnip to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Andaleeb; Khan, Ikhtiar; Mahmood, Abid; Hameed, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    Future concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is very important due to its apparent economic and environmental impact in terms of climate change. However, a compressive assessment of its effect on the nutritional and chemical characteristics of food crops has yet to be established. In the present study the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the yield, chemical composition and nutritional quality of three root vegetables, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. T-1-111), radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Mino) and turnip (Brassica rapa L. cv. Grabe) has been investigated. The yield of carrot, radish and turnip increased by 69, 139 and 72%, respectively, when grown under elevated CO2 conditions. Among the proximate composition, protein, vitamin C and fat contents decreased significantly for all the vegetables while sugar and fibre contents were increased. Response of the vegetables to elevated CO2 , in terms of elemental composition, was different with a significant decrease in many important minerals. Elevated CO2 decreased the amount of majority of the fatty acids and amino acids in these vegetables. It was observed that elevated CO2 increased the yield of root vegetables but many important nutritional parameters including protein, vitamin C, minerals, essential fatty acids and amino acids were decreased. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Conventional Treatment of Surface Water Using Moringa Oleifera Seeds Extract as a Primary Coagulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman A. Muyibi, Ahmed Hissein M Birima, Thamer A. Mohammed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study involved the use of a model pilot scale water treatment plant to treat turbid surface water from a stream using processed Moringa oleifera seed with 25 % w/w oil extracted as primary coagulant. The water treatment plant was made up of four unit operations: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration (rapid sand filter. Test runs were carried out for three hours per run over a three-month period with turbidities ranging from 18 to 261 NTU. The turbidity, pH, and alkalinity as well as the filter head loss were measured every 30 minutes during the experimental runs. Average turbidity removal of up to 96 % at an effective doses of 20 and 30 mg/l of oil extracted M. oleifera for low (< 50 NTU and moderate turbidity (< 100 NTU water respectively was observed doses 50 – 80 mg/l for high turbidity (> 100 NTU water. M. oleifera seed extract was found to have no significant effect on pH or alkalinity of the water. The residual turbidities measured during most of the test runs satisfied the Malaysian Guideline for Drinking Water Supplies. Key Words: Moringa oleifera, primary coagulant, coagulation, pilot plant, filtration.

  12. The influence of extraction procedure on ion concentrations in sediment pore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Jackson, B.P.

    1998-01-01

    Sediment pore water has the potential to yield important information on sediment quality, but the influence of isolation procedures on the chemistry and toxicity are not completely known and consensus on methods used for the isolation from sediment has not been reached. To provide additional insight into the influence of collection procedures on pore water chemistry, anion (filtered only) and cation concentrations were measured in filtered and unfiltered pore water isolated from four sediments using three different procedures: dialysis, centrifugation and vacuum. Peepers were constructed using 24-cell culture plates and cellulose membranes, and vacuum extractors consisted of fused-glass air stones attached with airline tubing to 60cc syringes. Centrifugation was accomplished at two speeds (2,500 and 10,000 x g) for 30 min in a refrigerated centrifuge maintained at 4?C. Only minor differences in chemical characteristics and cation and anion concentrations were found among the different collecting methods with differences being sediment specific. Filtering of the pore water did not appreciably reduce major cation concentrations, but trace metals (Cu and Pb) were markedly reduced. Although the extraction methods evaluated produced pore waters of similar chemistries, the vacuum extractor provided the following advantages over the other methods: (1) ease of extraction, (2) volumes of pore water isolated, (3) minimal preparation time and (4) least time required for extraction of pore water from multiple samples at one time.

  13. Pressurized hot water extraction followed by miniaturized membrane assisted solvent extraction for the green analysis of alkylphenols in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro-González, N; Turnes-Carou, I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2015-02-27

    A novel and Green analytical methodology for the determination of alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, nonylphenol) in sediments was developed and validated. The method was based on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) followed by miniaturized membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design in order to minimize the number of assays according to Green principles. Matrix effect was studied and compensated using deuterated labeled standards as surrogate standards for the quantitation of the target compounds. The analytical features of the method were satisfactory: relative recoveries varied between 92 and 103% and repeatability and intermediate precision were MQL) ranged from 0.061 (4-n-nonylphenol) to 1.7ngg(-1) dry weight (nonylphenol). Sensitivity, selectivity, automaticity and fastness are the main advantages of the exposed methodology. Reagent consumption, analysis time and waste generation were minimized. The "greenness" of the proposed method was evaluated using an analytical Eco-Scale approach and satisfactory results were obtained. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated analysing sediment samples of Galicia coast (NW of Spain) and the ubiquity of alkylphenols in the environment was demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Value of Water in Extraction of Natural Gas from the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsaite, R.; Abdalla, C.; Collins, A.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of shale has increased the demand for the essential input of water in natural gas production. Increased utilization of water by the shale gas industry, and the development of water transport and storage related infrastructure suggest that the value of water is increasing where hydraulic fracturing is occurring. Few studies on the value of water in industrial uses exist and, to our knowledge, no studies of water's value in extracting natural gas from shale have been published. Our research aims to fill this knowledge gap by exploring several key dimensions of the value of water used in shale gas development. Our primary focus was to document the costs associated with water acquisition for shale gas extraction in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, two states located in the gas-rich Marcellus shale formation with active drilling and extraction underway. This research involved a) gathering data on the sources of and costs associated with water acquisition for shale gas extraction b) comparing unit costs with prices and costs paid by the gas industry users of water; c) determining factors that potentially impact total and per unit costs of water acquisition for the shale gas industry; and d) identifying lessons learned for water managers and policy-makers. The population of interest was all private and public entities selling water to the shale gas industry in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Primary data were collected from phone interviews with water sellers and secondary data were gathered from state regulatory agencies. Contact information was obtained for 40 water sellers in the two states. Considering both states, the average response rate was 49%. Relatively small amounts of water, approximately 11% in West Virginia and 29% in Pennsylvania, were purchased from public water suppliers by the shale gas industry. The price of water reveals information about the value of water. The average price charged to gas companies was 6.00/1000 gallons and 7

  15. The effect of temperature on pressurised hot water extraction of pharmacologically important metabolites as analysed by UPLC-qTOF-MS and PCA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khoza, BS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , namely, pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE), was used to extract pharmacologically important metabolites from dried Moringa oleifera leaves. Here, the temperature of the extraction solvent (pure water) was altered while keeping other factors constant...

  16. Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan-nan; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-10

    Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the effect of T. orientalis extract on the telogen to anagen transition, the protein expression levels of β-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles were determined by immunohistochemistry. We observed that T. orientalis extract promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 N mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of T. orientalis extract induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to either the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. We also observed increases in both the number and size of hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of β-catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group, compared to the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. These results suggest that T. orientalis extract promotes hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might therefore be a potential hair growth-promoting agent.

  17. Subcritical water extraction of phenolic and antioxidant constituents from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erşan, Sevcan; Güçlü Üstündağ, Özlem; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2018-07-01

    Pistachio hulls, important by-products of pistachio processing, were extracted using an environmentally friendly process with subcritical water (SCW) at a pressure of 6.9 MPa in the range of 110 and 190 °C, and a flow rate of 4 ml/min. Detailed HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n analyses allowed the identification of 49 phenolic compounds in the SCW extracts. Total gallotannin yields up to 33 g/kg were reached at 150-170 °C, where gallic acid (22.2 g/kg) and penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (9.77 g/kg) levels were 13.2- and 10.6-fold higher than those in the aqueous methanol extracts. Flavonols were also effectively extracted at 110-150 °C (4.37-5.65 g/kg), while anacardic acid recovery was poor (1.13-2.77 g/kg). Accordingly, high amounts of anacardic acids (up to 50.7 g/kg) were retained in the extraction residue, revealing that SCW extraction allowed selective extraction of gallotannins and flavonols. Antioxidant capacities ranged from 0.68 to 1.20 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g for SCW extracts increasing with temperature up 190 °C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Godlewska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.. Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%. It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants.

  19. Kinetic and Thermodynamics studies for Castor Oil Extraction Using Subcritical Water Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Wael; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M; Hilal, Amr; Al Mahdy, Dalia A; Mahrous, Engy A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2016-06-01

    In this work both kinetic and thermodynamics of castor oil extraction from its seeds using subcritical water technique were studied. It was found that the extraction process followed two consecutive steps. In these steps, the oil was firstly extracted from inside the powder by diffusion mechanism. Then the extracted oil, due to extending the extraction time under high temperature and pressure, was subjected to a decomposition reaction following first order mechanism. The experimental data correlated well with the irreversible consecutive unimolecular-type first order mechanism. The values of both oil extraction rate constants and decomposition rate constants were calculated through non-linear fitting using DataFit software. The extraction rate constants were found to be 0.0019, 0.024, 0.098, 0.1 and 0.117 min(-1), while the decomposition rate constants were 0.057, 0.059, 0.014, 0.019 and 0.17 min(-1) at extraction temperatures of 240, 250, 260, 270 and 280°C, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of the oil extraction process were investigated using Arrhenius equation. The values of the activation energy, Ea, and the frequency factor, A, were 73 kJ mol(-1) and 946, 002 min(-1), respectively. The physicochemical properties of the extracted castor oil including the specific gravity, viscosity, acid value, pH value and calorific value were found to be 0.947, 7.487, 1.094 mg KOH/g, 6.1, and 41.5 MJ/Kg, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that ricinoleic acid (83.6%) appears as the predominant fatty acid in the extracted oil followed by oleic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (2.3%).

  20. Effects of water extract of propolis on fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Muhsine; Özpolat, Emine

    2015-12-15

    The present study examined the effects of water extract of propolis on the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality in vacuum-packed fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during storage at 2°C. Treatments in the study included the following: control (P0) without extract of propolis, 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3) and 0.5 (P5) % (v/w) the water extract of propolis, respectively. After 24 days of storage, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values were 57.76, 44.66, 42.23 and 36.5mg/100g, and total viable counts (TVC) were 8.9, 8.3, 7.96 and 6.95logcfu/g, for water extract of propolis additions of 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3), 0.5 (P5) and 0 (control; P0) % (v/w), respectively. The highest acceptable TVB-N value was adopted as 30 mg/100g, corresponding to shelf lives of 9, 15, 18 and 21 days for P0, P1, P3 and P5, respectively. Addition of 0.1% water extract of propolis extended the product's shelf-life by approximately 6 days, whereas the 0.5% water extract of propolis resulted in a significant shelf-life extension of the shibuta fillets, i.e. by approximately 12 days, according to sensory data, as compared to the control sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantify Water Extraction by TBP/Dodecane via Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomami, Bamin; Cui, Shengting; De Almeida, Valmor F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the interfacial transport of water into the most prevalent nuclear reprocessing solvent extractant mixture, namely tri-butyl- phosphate (TBP) and dodecane, via massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations on the most powerful machines available for open research. Specifically, we will accomplish this objective by evolving the water/TBP/dodecane system up to 1 ms elapsed time, and validate the simulation results by direct comparison with experimentally measured water solubility in the organic phase. The significance of this effort is to demonstrate for the first time that the combination of emerging simulation tools and state-of-the-art supercomputers can provide quantitative information on par to experimental measurements for solvent extraction systems of relevance to the nuclear fuel cycle. Results: Initially, the isolated single component, and single phase systems were studied followed by the two-phase, multicomponent counterpart. Specifically, the systems we studied were: pure TBP; pure n-dodecane; TBP/n-dodecane mixture; and the complete extraction system: water-TBP/n-dodecane two phase system to gain deep insight into the water extraction process. We have completely achieved our goal of simulating the molecular extraction of water molecules into the TBP/n-dodecane mixture up to the saturation point, and obtained favorable comparison with experimental data. Many insights into fundamental molecular level processes and physics were obtained from the process. Most importantly, we found that the dipole moment of the extracting agent is crucially important in affecting the interface roughness and the extraction rate of water molecules into the organic phase. In addition, we have identified shortcomings in the existing OPLS-AA force field potential for long-chain alkanes. The significance of this force field is that it is supposed to be optimized for molecular liquid simulations. We found that it failed for dodecane and

  2. Quantify Water Extraction by TBP/Dodecane via Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomami, Bamin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cui, Shengting [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Kevin [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-05-16

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the interfacial transport of water into the most prevalent nuclear reprocessing solvent extractant mixture, namely tri-butyl- phosphate (TBP) and dodecane, via massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations on the most powerful machines available for open research. Specifically, we will accomplish this objective by evolving the water/TBP/dodecane system up to 1 ms elapsed time, and validate the simulation results by direct comparison with experimentally measured water solubility in the organic phase. The significance of this effort is to demonstrate for the first time that the combination of emerging simulation tools and state-of-the-art supercomputers can provide quantitative information on par to experimental measurements for solvent extraction systems of relevance to the nuclear fuel cycle. Results: Initially, the isolated single component, and single phase systems were studied followed by the two-phase, multicomponent counterpart. Specifically, the systems we studied were: pure TBP; pure n-dodecane; TBP/n-dodecane mixture; and the complete extraction system: water-TBP/n-dodecane two phase system to gain deep insight into the water extraction process. We have completely achieved our goal of simulating the molecular extraction of water molecules into the TBP/n-dodecane mixture up to the saturation point, and obtained favorable comparison with experimental data. Many insights into fundamental molecular level processes and physics were obtained from the process. Most importantly, we found that the dipole moment of the extracting agent is crucially important in affecting the interface roughness and the extraction rate of water molecules into the organic phase. In addition, we have identified shortcomings in the existing OPLS-AA force field potential for long-chain alkanes. The significance of this force field is that it is supposed to be optimized for molecular liquid simulations. We found that it failed for dodecane and

  3. Optimization of extraction of phenolic compounds from flax shives by pressurized low-polarity water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Mazza, G

    2006-10-04

    Pressurized low-polarity water (PLPW) extraction of phenolic compounds from flax shive was investigated using statistically based optimization and the "one-factor-at-a-time" method. Extraction variables examined using central composite design (CCD) included temperature, flow rate, and NaOH concentration of the extracting water. Extraction of phenolic compounds including p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone, and feruric acid was affected by temperature and NaOH concentration; and extraction of all phenolic compounds, except ferulic acid, increased with temperature and NaOH concentration of the extracting water. Flow rate had little effect on concentration of phenolic compounds at equilibrium, but the extraction rate at the early phase was higher for higher flow rates. The mechanism of PLPW extraction of flax shive phenolics was also investigated using a two-site kinetic model and a thermodynamic model. To determine the extraction mechanism, flow rate was varied from 0.3 to 4.0 mL/min while temperature and NaOH concentration were fixed at 180 degrees C and 0.47 M, respectively. The flow rate tests showed the extraction rates of total phenolic (TP) compounds increased with flow rate and can be described by a thermodynamic model. The results from the thermodynamic model demonstrated that a K(D) value of 30 agreed with the experimental data in the flow rate range of 0.3-4.0 mL/min. When the effect of the three independent variables was evaluated simultaneously using CCD, a maximum TP concentration of 5.8 g/kg of dry flax shive (DFS) was predicted from the combination of a high temperature (230.5 degrees C), a high initial concentration of NaOH (0.63 M), and a low flow rate (0.7 mL/min). Maximum TP concentration of 5.7 g/kg of DFS was obtained from extraction conditions of 180 degrees C, 0.3 or 0.5 mL/min, and 0.47 M NaOH at equilibrium. A second-order regression model generated by CCD predicted a maximum TP concentration of 5.8 g

  4. Collard, mustard and turnip greens: Effects of varieties and leaf position on concentrations of ascorbic acid, folate, B-carotene, lutein and phylloquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy Brassica crops: collard (Brassica oleracea L.), mustard (B. juncea L.) and turnip (B. rapa) greens are important commercial and culinary vegetables; especially in the southern United States. However, almost no information on essential human-health vitamins [ascorbic acid (vit C), folate (vit...

  5. Complete genome sequence of turnip ringspot virus Překlad názvu do češtiny/angličtiny:

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 11 (2009), s. 1851-1853 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Radish mosaic virus * Turnip ringspot virus * complete sequences Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.909, year: 2009

  6. Comparison of helper component-protease RNA silencing suppression activity, subcellular localization, and aggregation of three Korean isolates of Turnip mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, we performed a nationwide survey in Korean radish fields to investigate the distribution of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Brassica chinensis sap-inoculated with TuMV-infected radish tissue showed different symptom severity with three isolates. In order to investigate variation among Korean Tu...

  7. Joint influence of meteorological events on light trapping of turnip moth (Scotia segetum Schiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskas János

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The light-trap collecting results, showing its flight activity, of turnip moth (Scotia segetum S c h i f f was examined connected with meteorological events. These factors were instability line, the convergence zone, the cyclogenesis, the country-wide rain, the cold- and warm weather fronts, the maritime- and continental moderate, arctic and subtropical air masses used the data published in "Calendar of Weather Phenomena" between 1967 and 1990 by National Meteorological Service. There were 29832 moths caught during 3232 night by 64 light-trap stations in the examined period. During one night more light-traps operated, therefore 25.021 observing data were worked up. We mean that the observing data are the same as the catching data at one night, at one observing station. The data of meteorological events were collected into groups according to their occurrence on one day alone or together with other ones. They were collected into separated groups according to arriving after a day without any meteorological events or if there were any of them on the previous day. The values of relative catch (RC were calculated daily for each observing stations and generations used the catching data. There was made a comparison between the relative catch (RC values and the meteorological events belonging to the data and on previous and following days. Then the relative catch values were summarized and averaged daily. The differences of daily average values of significance levels were controlled with t-test in all the groups. More than 95% significance levels were found in 36 groups. The favourable and infavourable influences of each event are the strongest at that time, when have influence not only alone but also with other effects simultaneously or they follow one another in a short time. Our results prove clearly, it is not enough to examine exclusively the modifying influence of each meteorological event on light-trap collecting. The success of light trapping is

  8. Contribution of host intracellular transport machineries to intercellular movement of turnip mosaic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Agbeci

    Full Text Available The contribution of different host cell transport systems in the intercellular movement of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV was investigated. To discriminate between primary infections and secondary infections associated with the virus intercellular movement, a gene cassette expressing GFP-HDEL was inserted adjacent to a TuMV infectious cassette expressing 6K₂:mCherry, both within the T-DNA borders of the binary vector pCambia. In this system, both gene cassettes were delivered to the same cell by a single binary vector and primary infection foci emitted green and red fluorescence while secondarily infected cells emitted only red fluorescence. Intercellular movement was measured at 72 hours post infiltration and was estimated to proceed at an average rate of one cell being infected every three hours over an observation period of 17 hours. To determine if the secretory pathway were important for TuMV intercellular movement, chemical and protein inhibitors that blocked both early and late secretory pathways were used. Treatment with Brefeldin A or Concanamycin A or expression of ARF1 or RAB-E1d dominant negative mutants, all of which inhibit pre- or post-Golgi transport, reduced intercellular movement by the virus. These treatments, however, did not inhibit virus replication in primary infected cells. Pharmacological interference assays using Tyrphostin A23 or Wortmannin showed that endocytosis was not important for TuMV intercellular movement. Lack of co-localization by endocytosed FM4-64 and Ara7 (AtRabF2b with TuMV-induced 6K₂-tagged vesicles further supported this conclusion. Microfilament depolymerizing drugs and silencing expression of myosin XI-2 gene, but not myosin VIII genes, also inhibited TuMV intercellular movement. Expression of dominant negative myosin mutants confirmed the role played by myosin XI-2 as well as by myosin XI-K in TuMV intercellular movement. Using this dual gene cassette expression system and transport inhibitors

  9. Naphthenic acids and other acid-extractables in water samples from Alberta: what is being measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewer, David M; Young, Rozlyn F; Whittal, Randy M; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2010-11-01

    There is increasing international interest in naphthenic acids (NAs, classical formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2)) found in the oil sands from Alberta, Canada and in petroleum from around the world. The complexity of NAs poses major analytical challenges for their quantification and characterization. We used ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR MS) to probe the make up of NAs from various sources by searching for peaks corresponding to the formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(x), for combinations of n=8 to 30, Z=0 to -12, and x=2 to 5. The sources included three commercial NAs preparations, and the acid-extractable organics from eight oil sand process-affected waters (OSPW) and from six surface fresh waters. Extracts from OSPW contained between 1 and 7% sulfur. The mass spectra showed between 300 and 1880 peaks, with >99% of the peaks having m/z between 145 and 600. In most cases, 50% of the compounds in the extracts of OSPW were not "naphthenic acids". Based on these findings, it appears that the term "naphthenic acids", which has been used to describe the toxic extractable compounds in OSPW, should be replaced by a term such as "oil sands tailings water acid-extractable organics (OSTWAEO)". Classical and oxy-NAs are components of OSTWAEO, but this term would not be as misleading as "naphthenic acids". Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Six-Month Chronic Toxicity Study of Tamarind Pulp (Tamarindus indica L.) Water Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Irene; Setiawan, Finna; Sasongko, Lucy D N; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2017-03-08

    Tamarind water extract has been shown to demonstrate an anti-obesity effect. In this research, long-term use of tamarind pulp water extract safety was evaluated. Tamarind pulp was extracted by reflux method, followed by freeze-drying to obtain dry extract. Wistar rats were divided into six groups, with 20 animals of each sex per group. The control group and satellite control group received carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) 0.5% 1 mL/100 g bw (body weight) per day. Treatment groups received tamarind pulp extract at doses of 75, 200, 1000, satellite 1000 mg/kg bw per day for six months. After six months, control groups and the treatment group were sacrificed. Satellite groups were sacrificed one month later. Relative organ weights, hematology and clinical biochemistry profiles were determined. After six months, there were no significant change in body weight, hematologic, and clinical biochemistry profiles of the tested group. Body weight of male rats in the satellite 1000 mg/kg bw group was significantly increased in week 30 compared to the satellite control group ( p tamarind pulp extract was generally safe and well tolerated at the tested dose.

  11. Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Ji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is becoming a popular treatment for modulating diverse immune disorders. Phellinus linteus (P. linteus as one of the CAMs has been used to modulate cancers, inflammation and allergic activities. However, little evidence has been shown about its underlying mechanism of action by which it exerts a beneficial role in dermatological disease in vivo. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of P. linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis (AD and elucidated its action mechanism. Methods The immunomodulatory effect of total extract of P. linteus on IgE production by human myeloma U266B1 cells was measured by ELISA. To further identify the effective components, P. linteus was fractionated into methanol soluble, water soluble and boiling water soluble extracts. Each extract was treated to U266B1 cells and primary B cells to compare their inhibitory effects on IgE secretion. To test the in vivo efficacy, experimental atopic dermatitis (AD was established by alternative treatment of DNCB and house dust mite extract into BALB/c mice. Water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA or ceramide as a positive control were topically applied to ears of atopic mouse every day for 2 weeks and progression of the disease was estimated by the following criteria: (a ear thickness, clinical score, (b serum total IgE, IgG and mite specific IgE level by ELSIA, (c histological examination of ear tissue by H&E staining and (d cytokine profile of total ear cells and CD4+ T cells by real time PCR and ELSIA. Results Treatment of total extracts of P. linteus to U266B1 inhibited IgE secretion. Among the diverse extracts of P. linteus, water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA significantly reduced the IgE production in primary B cells and B cell line U266B1. Moreover, treatment of WA reduced AD symptoms such as ear swelling, erythema, and dryness and decreased recruitment of lymphocyte into the inflamed site

  12. Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Sun; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Jung-Eun; Rho, Jeonghae; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2012-09-18

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming a popular treatment for modulating diverse immune disorders. Phellinus linteus (P. linteus) as one of the CAMs has been used to modulate cancers, inflammation and allergic activities. However, little evidence has been shown about its underlying mechanism of action by which it exerts a beneficial role in dermatological disease in vivo. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of P. linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) and elucidated its action mechanism. The immunomodulatory effect of total extract of P. linteus on IgE production by human myeloma U266B1 cells was measured by ELISA. To further identify the effective components, P. linteus was fractionated into methanol soluble, water soluble and boiling water soluble extracts. Each extract was treated to U266B1 cells and primary B cells to compare their inhibitory effects on IgE secretion. To test the in vivo efficacy, experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) was established by alternative treatment of DNCB and house dust mite extract into BALB/c mice. Water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA) or ceramide as a positive control were topically applied to ears of atopic mouse every day for 2 weeks and progression of the disease was estimated by the following criteria: (a) ear thickness, clinical score, (b) serum total IgE, IgG and mite specific IgE level by ELSIA, (c) histological examination of ear tissue by H&E staining and (d) cytokine profile of total ear cells and CD4(+) T cells by real time PCR and ELSIA. Treatment of total extracts of P. linteus to U266B1 inhibited IgE secretion. Among the diverse extracts of P. linteus, water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA) significantly reduced the IgE production in primary B cells and B cell line U266B1. Moreover, treatment of WA reduced AD symptoms such as ear swelling, erythema, and dryness and decreased recruitment of lymphocyte into the inflamed site. Interestingly WA treatment significantly

  13. Unavoidable food supply chain waste: acid-free pectin extraction from mango peel via subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Matharu, A S

    2017-09-21

    Mango peel is the major by-product of mango processing, and compromises 7-24% of the total mango weight. In this study, pectin was extracted from mango peel waste by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) in the absence of mineral acid. A highest yield of 18.34% was achieved from the Kesar variety and the pectin was characterised using ATR-IR spectroscopy, TGA and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy to confirm the structure. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was analysed with both titrimetry and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and a high DE (>70%) was observed for all three varieties (Keitt, Sindhri and Kesar). This is the first report on acid-free subcritical water extraction of pectin from mango peel, which provides a green route for the valorisation of mango peel waste and contributes to a source of biobased materials and chemicals for a sustainable 21 st century.

  14. Quantification of total and water extractable essential elements in medicinal plants used for stomach problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Shar, G.Q.; Mangrio, A.M; Shaikh, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease is well known. Present study has been undertaken in our laboratories to quantify the commonly occurring elements in three medicinal plans. Peganum harmala Linn, Phyllanthus emblica Linn, Tamarix dioca used for stomach problems using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Wet digestion method has been used to extract the acid extractable metals. Samples were boiled in water to obtain water extractable metals. The validation of the method was checked with the NBS-1570 (Spinach) as Standard Reference Material. Levels of essential elements were found high as compared to concentration of toxic elements. The considerable amounts of essential such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron were found in all these plant samples. (author)

  15. Application of dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 to selective extraction of radioactive strontium from waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakshin, V.V.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Vilkova, O.M.; Tuzova, A.M.; Fedorova, A.T.; Rodionova, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Influence of various factors on strontium extraction in the system nitric acid-dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 was studied to develop the technique for determining 89 Sr and 90 Sr content in natural waters and aqueous salt solutions. Conditions for selective strontium extraction from complex salt systems containing Ba, Cs, Ru, Ce and other radionuclides were found. It is shown that coefficient of strontium distribution is sufficiently higher, as compared to coefficients of Cs, Ru, Ce distribution. Extraction performance under chosen conditions enables to elevate sufficiently the distribution coefficient of these substances. The scheme of radiochemical analysis is given. Strontium content in natural waters and salt solutions was determined with the use of described radiochemical method

  16. Hydrothermal pretreatment of wood by mild steam explosion and hot water extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasz-Mucha, Joanna; Hasani, Merima; Theliander, Hans

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the two most common hydrothermal pre-treatments for wood - mild steam explosion and hot water extraction - both with the prospect of enabling extraction of hemicelluloses and facilitating further processing. Although both involve autohydrolysis of the lignocellulosic tissue, they are performed under different conditions: the most prominent difference is the rapid, disintegrating, discharge employed in the steam explosion opening up the structure. In this comparative study, the emphasis was placed on local composition of the pre-treated wood chips (of industrially relevant size). The results show that short hot water extraction treatments lead to significant variations in the local composition within the wood chips, while steam explosion accomplishes a comparably more even removal of hemicelluloses due to the advective mass transport during the explosion step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety and efficacy of a Labisia pumila var alata water extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the safety and efficacy of Labisia pumila (LP) water extract on sexual health, lipid profile and inflammatory markers in 36 healthy pre-and post-menopausal North American women. Participants were randomized to either LP (200 mg) or placebo for 12 ...

  18. Toxicity studies of the water extract from the calyces of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were studied in male and female rats. After 14 days of a single oral administration of test substance 5,000 mg/kg body weight, measurement of the body and organ weights, necropsy and health monitoring were performed. No signs and ...

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In ayurvedic and Thai traditional medicine, the fruit of T. chebula is useful in arthritic disorders, inflammation, tumor, pains, chronic and recurrent fever. The study investigated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Materials and methods: The water extract of T. chebula fruit was ...

  20. Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Hyptis Suavoelens on the Food, Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Hyptis Suavoelens on the Food, Water Consumption and Weight of Laboratory Experimental Rats. ... Resistance to these drugs which occurs with increasing frequency consequently underlies the necessity to develop new agents for malaria chemotherapy, (family Labiatae) a plant traditionally ...

  1. Cold water extraction (CWE). Procedure for the determination of the alkali content and pore solution composition

    OpenAIRE

    Plusquellec, Gilles; De Weerdt, Klaartje

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the cold water extraction (CWE) procedure which allows to determine the free alkali content of hydrated cement paste, mortar or concrete. The calculation of the pH using the thermodynamic modelling software PhreeqC is presented in the appendix

  2. Ultraviolet-visible absorptive features of water extractable and humic fractions of animal manure and compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    UV-vis spectroscopy is a useful tool for characterizing water extractable or humic fractions of natural organic matter (WEOM). Whereas the whole UV-visible spectra of these fractions are more or less featureless, the specific UV absorptivity at 254 and 280 nm as well as spectral E2/E3 and E4/E6 rat...

  3. Pressurized hot water extraction of proteins from Sambucus nigra L. branches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Jiří; Hohnová, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 108, DEC (2017), s. 312-315 ISSN 0926-6690 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) R200311521 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : elderberry * pressurized hot water extraction * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  4. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Water Extractable Polysaccharides from Leaves of Plantago major L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukova, Paolina K; Karcheva-Bahchevanska, Diana P; Bivolarski, Veselin P; Mladenov, Rumen D; Iliev, Ilia N; Nikolova, Mariana M

    2017-06-01

    Plantago major L. leaves have been used for centuries by the traditional medicine in the treatment of infectious disorders of the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. Researchers have reported that hot water extracts of Plantago major possess a broad-spectrum of anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Their beneficial properties may be due to the significant content of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides that have been isolated from the leaves of Plantago major L. have different structures - pectic substances, galactans, arabinogalactans, glucomannans. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between the structure of the water extractable polysaccharides isolated from Plantago major L. leaves and their enzymatic hydrolysis with different carbohydrate hydrolases. The hydrolysis reactions were performed with the enzymes hemicellulase and mannanase. Spectrophotometric total reducing sugars assay was used to examine the hydrolysis yield. The monosaccharide and oligosaccharide compositions were determined using HPLC analysis. The highest hydrolysis yield of the water extractable polysaccharides from Plantago major leaves was obtained by treatment with hemicellulase. The hydrolysis yield increased with the augmentation of the ratio of enzyme to polysaccharide. Galactose was the prevalent monosaccharide identified in the composition of the isolated polysaccharides. Oligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization were also detected. The enzymatic hydrolysis of water extractable polysaccharides from Plantago major leaves allows us to obtain different types of oligosaccharides with beneficial effects on both human health and industry.

  5. Safety and efficacy of a Labisia pumila var alata water extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kgk-002

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... pumila (LP) water extract on sexual health, lipid profile and inflammatory markers in 36 healthy pre-and .... LP or placebo in the morning after breakfast. ... mental health. Secondary outcome measure. The secondary outcomes included plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-C ...

  6. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  7. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; clarification followed by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Huurman, Sander

    2016-01-01

    As part of the PPS Kleinschalige bioraffinage project (WP1b), fresh Stevia material was used in the extraction of steviol glycosides using water acidified through conversion of sugar by microorganisms naturally present on the plant. Two successive harvests from the same plot were used. Previous

  8. Effects of hot-water extraction on the thermochemical conversion of shrub willow via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot-water extraction (TM) (HWE) is a pretreatment technology designed to facilitate the subsequent hydrolysis of cellulose by removing the majority of the hemicellulose and ash content from the solid biomass. The HWE process generates salable sugars and other products as part of the process. The bio...

  9. Effects of hot water extraction pretreatment on pyrolysis of shrub willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment of biomass via hot water extraction (HWE) reduces the amount of hemicellulose and ash in the biomass resulting in a concentration of cellulose and lignin content. In this study, we tested the effect of HWE as a biomass pretreatment on the pyrolysis of shrub willow via both conventional he...

  10. Renal Cell Toxicity of Water-Soluble Coal Extracts from the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, A. S.; Ford, S.; Ihnat, M.; Gallucci, R. M.; Philp, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    In the Gulf Coast, many rural residents rely on private well water for drinking, cooking, and other domestic needs. A large portion of this region contains lignite coal deposits within shallow aquifers that potentially leach organic matter into the water supply. It is proposed that the organic matter leached from low-rank coal deposits contributes to the development of kidney disease, however, little work has been done to investigate the toxicity of coal extracts. In this study, human kidney cells (HK-2) were exposed to water-soluble extracts of Gulf Coast Coals to assess toxicity. Cell viability was measured by direct counts of total and necrotic cells. A dose-response curve was used to generate IC50 values, and the extracts showed significant toxicity that ranged from 0.5% w/v to 3% w/v IC50. The most toxic extract was from Louisiana where coal-derived organic material has been previously linked to high incidents of renal pelvic cancer (RPC). Although the toxic threshold measured in this study is significantly higher than the concentration of organic matter in the groundwater, typically <5 mg/L (0.005% w/v), residents in the affected areas may consume contaminated water over a lifetime. It is possible that the cumulative toxic effects of coal-derived material contribute to the development of disease.

  11. Treatment of water turbidity and bacteria by using a coagulant extracted from Plantago ovata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Ramavandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A biocoagulant was successfully extracted from Plantago ovata by using an FeCl3-induced crude extract (FCE. The potential of FCE to act as a natural coagulant was tested for clarification using the turbid water of a river. Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the effects of turbidity concentration, coagulant quantity, water pH, and humic acid concentration on the coagulation of water turbidity by FCE. The maximum turbidity removal was occurred at water pH<8. At the optimum dosage of FCE, only 0.8 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon was released to the treated water. An increase in the humic acid led to the promotion of the water turbidity removal. Results demonstrated that the FCE removed more than 95.6% of all initial turbidity concentrations (50–300 NTU. High bacteriological quality was achieved in the treated water. FCE as an eco-friendly biocoagulant was revealed to be a very efficient coagulant for removing turbidity from waters.

  12. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534 543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47 29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  13. Influence of natural organic matter on the extraction efficiency of flame retardants from surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Jakob; Ahrens, Lutz; Nguyen, Minh A; Josefsson, Sarah; Berggren Kleja, Dan; Wiberg, Karin

    2017-11-17

    The influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the solid-phase extraction (SPE) efficiency was investigated for legacy and emerging flame retardants (FRs; n=26) in surface water. Three different groups of FRs were analyzed: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). In addition, five sorbents (Amberlite XAD-2, Amberlite IRA-743, Oasis HLB, Chromabond HR-P, and Chromabond HR-X) were evaluated for the extraction of FRs (n=33) in water, of which Oasis HLB eluted with dichloromethane and acetone:n-hexane (1:1, v/v) provided the highest overall recoveries. In subsequent NOM experiments, where FRs were extracted from water containing different NOM concentrations, both increased and decreased extraction efficiency with increasing NOM level were observed. Physicochemical and semi-empirical quantum chemistry properties were calculated for the FRs and used for analyzing relations between FRs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed that the FRs separated into four different groups based on their properties. The FRs within each group responded similarly to increasing NOM, while differences in behavior were observed between the groups. This suggests that the structural properties of micropollutants highly influence NOM-FR interaction mechanisms. For instance, at high NOM levels, recoveries decreased substantially for FRs containing a moiety that can form strong hydrogen bonds (such as the double-bonded oxygen in e.g., OPFRs). Many of the compounds showed maximum extraction efficiency at higher levels of NOM. This suggests that binding of NOM to the sorbent and subsequent interaction between sorbent-bound NOM and FRs is an important mechanism for extraction of micropollutants from surface waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  15. Bark anatomy, chemical composition and ethanol-water extract composition of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Caroline J.; Miranda, Isabel; Quilhó, Teresa; Mori, Fábio Akira; Pereira, Helena

    2017-01-01

    The bark of Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan were characterized in relation to anatomical and chemical features. The barks were similar and included a thin conducting phloem, a largely dilated and sclerified non-conducting phloem, and a rhyridome with periderms with thin phellem interspersed by cortical tissues. Only small differences between species were observed that cannot be used alone for taxonomic purposes. The summative chemical composition of A. peregrina and A. colubrina was respectively: 8.2% and 7.7% ash; 28.8% and 29.3% extractives; 2.4% and 2.6% suberin; and 18.9% lignin. The monosaccharide composition showed the predominance of glucose (on average 82% of total neutral sugars) and of xylose (9%). The ethanol-water extracts of A. peregrina and A. colubrina barks included a high content of phenolics, respectively: total phenolics 583 and 682 mg GAE/g extract; 148 and 445 mg CE/g extract; tannins 587 and 98 mg CE/g extract. The antioxidant activity was 238 and 269 mg Trolox/g extract. The barks of the Anadenanthera species are a potential source of polar extractives that will represent an important valorization and therefore contribute to improve the overall economic potential and sustainability of A. peregrina and A. colubrina PMID:29281656

  16. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT FROM WILD THYME ON COLORADO POTATO BEETLE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L. on feeding adults and larvae of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Feeding intensity assessment was conducted by dipping leaves of potato in respective solutions of the extracts and determining the mass of food consumed by adults and larvae, and changes of larvae body weight once daily. In addition, absolute deterrence index and palatability index were calculated. The results of the experiment showed that for an efficient limitation of the feeding adult Colorado potato beetles, an extract from dry matter of wild thyme with a concentration of at least 10% should be used. L4 larvae appear to be considerably more susceptible to the effect of T. serpyllum extract. In their case, an efficient limitation of the feeding, as well as body weight gain can be obtained using extracts from both dry and fresh matter, at concentrations of over 5% for dry matter and over 20% for fresh matter. With the increase of extract concentration, the value of the calculated palatability index decreases, and the deterrence index value increases.

  17. Extraction of uranium from sea water with the granular composite adsorbent by using the fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Kitamura, Takao

    1981-01-01

    To clarify the technical problems existing in the extraction process of uranium from sea water, uranium was extracted from natural sea water, with the granulated C-Ti-OH composite adsorbent. The adsorption of uranium from sea water was carried out by using the fixed bed that had been designed in our laboratory. The uranium recovery from the sea water was 13.9% in the adsorption process of 56 d. The adsorbed uranium was eluted from the adsorbent with 0.5 N NaHCO 3 -0.5N Na 2 CO 3 soln. at 70 0 C. The elution recovery was 97.4% for 35 h. The uranium contained in the eluate was concentrated twenty times as much as in the anion exchange process, and then 100 times in the solvent extraction process with oxine-chloroform and TOA-kerosene. About 0.7 g of yellow cake was prepared from natural sea water, and it was identified to be pure 2UO 2 .NH 3 .3H 2 O by X-ray diffraction method and X-ray fluorometry. (author)

  18. Use of in-situ Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark for remediation of soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The system involves the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole by use of entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an underground storage tank was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 ft 2 . The release produced vadose-zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 to 30 ft below ground surface (bgs) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. In addition, a layer of free-floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 25 ft bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 ft. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and ground water to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hr a day, with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days (28 weeks), over 17,000 lb of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations indicated that TPH and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations

  19. [Determination of biphenyl ether herbicides in water using HPLC with cloud-point extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Yan; Li, Yuan-Qian; Wang, Shen-Jiao; Ouyang, Hua-Xue; Zheng, Bo

    2010-01-01

    To determine residues of multiple biphenyl ether herbicides simultaneously in water using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with cloud-point extraction. The residues of eight biphenyl ether herbicides (including bentazone, fomesafen, acifluorfen, aclonifen, bifenox, fluoroglycofenethy, nitrofen, oxyfluorfen) in water samples were extracted with cloud-point extraction of Triton X-114. The analytes were separated and determined using reverse phase HPLC with ultraviolet detector at 300 nm. Optimized conditions for the pretreatment of water samples and the parameters of chromatographic separation applied. There was a good linear correlation between the concentration and the peak area of the analytes in the range of 0.05-2.00 mg/L (r = 0.9991-0.9998). Except bentazone, the spiked recoveries of the biphenyl ether herbicides in the water samples ranged from 80.1% to 100.9%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.70% to 6.40%. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.10 microg/L to 0.50 microg/L. The proposed method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and can meet the requirements of determination of multiple biphenyl ether herbicides simultaneously in natural waters.

  20. An evaluation of water quality in private drinking water wells near natural gas extraction sites in the Barnett Shale formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Brian E; Hunt, Laura R; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Oka, Hyppolite; Walton, Jayme L; Hopkins, Dan; Osorio, Alexandra; Bjorndal, Bryan; Hu, Qinhong H; Schug, Kevin A

    2013-09-03

    Natural gas has become a leading source of alternative energy with the advent of techniques to economically extract gas reserves from deep shale formations. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in aquifers overlying the Barnett Shale formation of North Texas. We evaluated samples from 100 private drinking water wells using analytical chemistry techniques. Analyses revealed that arsenic, selenium, strontium and total dissolved solids (TDS) exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) in some samples from private water wells located within 3 km of active natural gas wells. Lower levels of arsenic, selenium, strontium, and barium were detected at reference sites outside the Barnett Shale region as well as sites within the Barnett Shale region located more than 3 km from active natural gas wells. Methanol and ethanol were also detected in 29% of samples. Samples exceeding MCL levels were randomly distributed within areas of active natural gas extraction, and the spatial patterns in our data suggest that elevated constituent levels could be due to a variety of factors including mobilization of natural constituents, hydrogeochemical changes from lowering of the water table, or industrial accidents such as faulty gas well casings.

  1. Extending the applicability of pressurized hot water extraction to compounds exhibiting limited water solubility by pH control: curcumin from the turmeric rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euterpio, Maria Anna; Cavaliere, Chiara; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE, also known as subcritical water extraction) is commonly considered to be an environmentally friendly extraction technique that could potentially replace traditional methods that use organic solvents. Unfortunately, the applicability of this technique is often limited by the very low water solubility of the target compounds, even at high temperatures. In this paper, the scope for broadening the applicability of PHWE by adjusting the pH of the water used in the extraction is demonstrated in the extraction of curcumin (which exhibits very limited water solubility) from untreated turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes. Although poor extraction yields were obtained, even at high temperatures when using degassed water or neutral phosphate buffer as the extraction medium, yields exceeding those obtained by Soxhlet extraction were achieved using highly acidic pH buffers due to curcumin protonation. The influence of the temperature, pH, and buffer concentration on the extraction yield were investigated in detail by means of a series of designed experiments. Optimized conditions for the extraction of curcumin from turmeric by PHWE were estimated at 197 °C using 62 g/L buffer concentration at pH 1.6. The relationships between these variables were subjected to statistical analysis using response surface methodology.

  2. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Soxhlet and shaking methods for pendimethalin extraction from soils: effect of soil properties and water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spack, Lionel; Alvarez, Cristina; Martins, Jean M. F.; Tarradellas, Joseph

    1998-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction with CO 2 was applied to the analysis of traces of pendimethalin, a herbicide of the dinitroanilines group, in four different natural soils. The Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method was compared with the classical Soxhlet and shaking methods in terms of ease to run, extraction efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility. The influence of the physico-chemical properties of the soil matrix on herbicide extraction was then evaluated with the SFE method. The supercritical fluid extraction system used in the present study was found to be much easier to run than the other two methods, less time consuming and requires fewer operations as it was optimized for on-line sample clean up. SFE is the most selective of the three tested methods as fewer co-extracts are obtained in the final samples. SFE with CO 2 is particularly powerful because pendimethalin is highly hydrophobic. However, this makes pendimethalin a poor choice for a selectivity study of SFE as it is very rapidly extracted at any CO 2 density. Pendimethalin extraction with supercritical CO 2 was found to be almost complete with average recoveries of 96-99%, similarly to Soxhlet but with a much lower standard deviation (8-10%). The performance of SFE was shown to be unaffected by soil parameters except soil water content. It is demonstrated indeed that extraction efficiency is not linearly related to soil water content, and optimal recovery was found for water contents ranging from 2 to 15% depending on the type of soil. Soil water increases extraction efficiency because water acts as a modifier of the supercritical fluid and increases the penetration of the fluid inside the soil particles (clay swelling). In contrast to SFE and Soxhlet, the efficiency of the shaking method appeared to be partial and strongly dependent on soil properties. Although initial developments should be needed, the various benefits of SFE-CO 2 make this method attractive compared to traditional methods.

  3. Estimating the impact of seawater on the production of soil water-extractable organic carbon during coastal erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fugen; Ping, Chien-Lu; Guo, Laodong; Jorgenson, Torre

    2008-01-01

    The production of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) during arctic coastal erosion and permafrost degradation may contribute significantly to C fluxes under warming conditions, but it remains difficult to quantify. A tundra soil collected near Barrow, AK, was selected to evaluate the effects of soil pretreatments (oven drying vs. freeze drying) as well as extraction solutions (pure water vs. seawater) on WEOC yields. Both oven drying and freeze drying significantly increased WEOC release compared with the original moist soil samples; dried samples released, on average, 18% more WEOC than did original moist samples. Similar results were observed for the production of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic C. However, extractable OC released from different soil horizons exhibited differences in specific UV absorption, suggesting differences in WEOC quality. Furthermore, extractable OC yields were significantly less in samples extracted with seawater compared with those extracted with pure water, likely due to the effects of major ions on extractable OC flocculation. Compared with samples from the active horizons, upper permafrost samples released more WEOC, suggesting that continuously frozen samples were more sensitive than samples that had experienced more drying-wetting cycles in nature. Specific UV absorption of seawater-extracted OC was significantly lower than that of OC extracted using pure water, suggesting more aromatic or humic substances were flocculated during seawater extraction. Our results suggest that overestimation of total terrestrial WEOC input to the Arctic Ocean during coastal erosion could occur if estimations were based on WEOC extracted from dried soil samples using pure water.

  4. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL; Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Hestekin', Jamie A [Fayetteville, AR; Henry, Michael P [Batavia, IL; Pujado, Peter [Kildeer, IL; Oroskar, Anil [Oak Brook, IL; Kulprathipanja, Santi [Inverness, IL; Randhava, Sarabjit [Evanston, IL

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  5. STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF OIL EXTRACTION ON WATERS FROM TICLENI AREA, GORJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂPĂŢÎNĂ CAMELIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface and groundwater pollution can be direct and indirect. In the extraction activity, oil and sewage are potential sources of groundwater pollution in the area. Petroleum is extracted from the deposit through methods that constitute both primary and secondary exploatation. The pollution in the areas of petroleum extraction is caused by leaks from the transport pipes. In the majority of the cases , the damages of the transport pipes are caused by the corrosive effect of salt water, which constitute the liquid impurity of the petroleum extract. A large quantity of petroleum products penetrate into the hydrosphere from industrial leaks and refineries, either directly in the sea or via the continental hydrographic network. It is estimated that via all these routes a quantity of 5-10 million tons of oilpenetrate into the ocean waters annually. In the area of Ţicleni, surface and groundwater quality indicators were monitored: pH, sulphates, chlorides, conductivity, hardness and oxygen content. The main water course draining under study in the area is the Amaradia River, a tributary of the Jiu River.Here samples were taken for analysis. Comparing the obtained results with the limits stipulated by the Order 161/2006 it is found that the groundwater samples analyzed from the section located at the confluence of Strâmba brook with Cioiana brook corresponds to the third grade in terms of salinity (chlorides, class II for sulphates and class I for the oxygen regime (chemical oxygen demand.

  6. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  7. Water contamination from oil extraction activities in Northern Peruvian Amazonian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusta-García, Raúl; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Mayor, Pedro; González-Crespo, Carlos; Rosell-Melé, Antoni

    2017-06-01

    Oil extraction activities in the Northern Peruvian Amazon have generated a long-standing socio-environmental conflict between oil companies, governmental authorities and indigenous communities, partly derived from the discharge of produced waters containing high amounts of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. To assess the impact of produced waters discharges we conducted a meta-analysis of 2951 river water and 652 produced water chemical analyses from governmental institutions and oil companies reports, collected in four Amazonian river basins (Marañon, Tigre, Corrientes and Pastaza) and their tributaries. Produced water discharges had much higher concentrations of chloride, barium, cadmium and lead than are typically found in fresh waters, resulting in the widespread contamination of the natural water courses. A significant number of water samples had levels of cadmium, barium, hexavalent chromium and lead that did not meet Peruvian and international water standards. Our study shows that spillage of produced water in Peruvian Amazon rivers placed at risk indigenous population and wildlife during several decades. Furthermore, the impact of such activities in the headwaters of the Amazon extended well beyond the boundaries of oil concessions and national borders, which should be taken into consideration when evaluating large scale anthropogenic impacts in the Amazon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Tulasi, Ratna; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao

    2016-03-09

    Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities.

  9. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities.

  10. Developing waste water charges and water extraction charges into an all-embracing water utilisation charge; Weiterentwicklung von Abwasserabgabe und Wasserentnahmeentgelten zu einer umfassenden Wassernutzungsabgabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, Erik; Koeck, Wolfgang; Kern, Katharina; Moeckel, Stefan [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Hollaender, Robert; Faelsch, Marcel; Voelkner, Thomas [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement

    2011-10-15

    The use of economic instruments in water protection policy in the form of wastewater charges under German federal law and the various water extraction charges levied by individual German federal states has a long history in Germany. The critical accompaniment of these instruments in economics and politics is equally as long. A comprehensive, more recent analysis of experiences with the instruments wastewater charges and water extraction charges in Germany has not yet been conducted. In particular Art. 9 of the EU's Water Framework Directive that requires among other things to take into account the basic cost recovery principle for water services (including environmental and resource costs) gives reason to put these instruments to the test: To what extent do wastewater charges and water extraction charges contribute to the new legally-formulated goals of the European Community in water quality policy? Can effectiveness and efficiency be improved through a change of design and are they even a model for an extension of charge requirements on further water uses? The WFD also offers cause here to think about the extent to which the application of economic control mechanisms should be expanded in terms of claims on aquatic ecosystem services. In a reform and modernisation of these charges as well as in the introduction of new charges, the specifications of European and federal law as well as steering aspects from economics and public economics and altered basic conditions in water management must be considered. Given this background, in an interdisciplinary analysis the report examines the efficiency and reform options of existing charges as well as the introduction of new water use charges in the fields of agriculture, shipping and hydro-power. (orig.)

  11. Studies on solvent extraction of free hydrogen cyanide from river water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Ojeka

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A method for free and strongly complexed cyanide measurement in river water was developed. Recovery tests from solution with and without river water, using various solvent combinations and background control were investigated to obtain an accurate and precise extraction method for the measurement of hydrogen cyanide in Kaduna River, Nigeria. The method enhanced the determination of undissociated hydrogen cyanide and the equilibria between hydrogen cyanide, cyanide ion and complex cyanides. A small portion of the hydrogen cyanide was extracted by equilibrating the sample with methylchloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, hexane and 2-octanol inclusions, respectively, in the solvent matrix with 2.5 M NaOH. The extracted hydrogen cyanide is transferred into tetrasodium pyrophosphate solution and determined colorimetrically. A total cyanide concentration of 0.03 mg/L in the river water and 0.40 mg/L in an effluent water sample, respectively, were obtained by the proposed method compared to 0.020 and 0.45 mg/L from the established diffusion method. The proposed method was sensitive and reproducible in the range of 0 to 5 mgL-1 of hydrogen cyanide with detectable limit of about 0.01 mgL-1.

  12. Solid phase extraction for the speciation and preconcentration of inorganic selenium in water samples: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Latorre, C; Barciela García, J; García Martín, S; Peña Crecente, R M

    2013-12-04

    Selenium is an essential element for the normal cellular function of living organisms. However, selenium is toxic at concentrations of only three to five times higher than the essential concentration. The inorganic forms (mainly selenite and selenate) present in environmental water generally exhibit higher toxicity (up to 40 times) than organic forms. Therefore, the determination of low levels of different inorganic selenium species in water is an analytical challenge. Solid-phase extraction has been used as a separation and/or preconcentration technique prior to the determination of selenium species due to the need for accurate measurements for Se species in water at extremely low levels. The present paper provides a critical review of the published methods for inorganic selenium speciation in water samples using solid phase extraction as a preconcentration procedure. On the basis of more than 75 references, the different speciation strategies used for this task have been highlighted and classified. The solid-phase extraction sorbents and the performance and analytical characteristics of the developed methods for Se speciation are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Milled Wood Lignins (MWLs Isolated from Sugar Maple (SM and Hot-Water Extracted Sugar Maple (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh J. Goundalkar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To further elucidate the advantageous effects of hot-water extraction (HWE on delignification, milled wood lignin (MWL was isolated from sugar maple (SM and from hot-water extracted sugar maple (ESM. Ball-milled wood was analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD before and after dioxane:water (DW extraction. The MWL samples were analyzed by analytical and spectral methods. The results indicated that the MWL isolated from SM and ESM was mainly released from the middle lamella (ML and the secondary wall (SW, respectively. The cleavage of dibenzodioxocin (DB and spirodienone (SD lignin substructures during HWE is suggested. The removal of lignin during acetone:water (AW extraction of hot-water extracted wood indicates that including an additional operation in a hardwood HWE-based biorefinery would be beneficial for processing of wood.

  14. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of μg/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

  15. Selective extraction of trace mercury and cadmium from drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Jianlong; Yun, Guichun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new alternative method, i.e., selective extraction by weakly basic anion exchange resin, has been developed for the removal of trace cadmium and mercury ions from drinking water sources. The mechanism of heavy metal removal is based on selective extraction as the results of LEWIS-base-acid interactions. Transfer of trace mercury species from liquid to resin phase coincides well with the performance of film diffusion. The results demonstrated that the presence of chlorine has a negligible influence on the removal of mercury. However, humic acids can strongly bind mercury by the formation of complex compounds and therefore become the obstacle in the diffusion progress. At neutral or base pH, the resin material exhibits the favorable uptake of heavy metals. In filter experiments, the studied resin material offers favorable properties in the selective extraction of trace mercury and cadmium.

  16. Subtle Effects of Aliphatic Alcohol Structure on Water Extraction and Solute Aggregation in Biphasic Water/ n -Dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Andrew W.; Qiao, Baofu; Chiarizia, Renato; Ferru, Geoffroy; Forbes, Tori; Ellis, Ross J.; Soderholm, L.

    2017-04-03

    Organic phase aggregation behavior of 1-octanol and its structural isomer, 2-ethylhexanol, in a biphasic n-dodecane water system is studied with a combination of physical measurement, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and atomistic molecular dynamic simulations. Physical properties of the organic phases are probed following their mixing and equilibration with immiscible water phases. Studies reveal that the interfacial tension decreases as a function of increasing alcohol concentration over the solubility range of the alcohol with no evidence for a critical aggregate concentration (cac). An uptake of water into the organic phases is quantified, as a function of alcohol content, by Karl Fischer titrations. The extraction of water into dodecane was further assessed as a function of alcohol concentration via the slope-analysis method sometimes employed in chemical separations. This provides a qualitative understanding of solute (water/alcohol) aggregation in the organic phase. The physical results are supported by analyses of SAXS data that reveals an emergence of aggregates in n-dodecane at elevated alcohol concentrations. The observed aggregate structure is dependent on the alcohol tail group geometry, consistent with surfactant packing parameter. The formation of these aggregates is discussed at a molecular level, where alcohol-alcohol and alcohol-water H-bonding interactions likely dominate the occurrence and morphology of the aggregates.

  17. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The

  18. Effects of water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) roots on immunity and telomerase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang; Badmaev, Vladimir

    2017-05-12

    Background Immunity and Longevity Methods A water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) [vern. Turmeric] roots (TurmericImmune™) standardized for a minimum 20 % of turmeric polysaccharides ukonan A, B, C and D was evaluated for its biological properties in in vitro tissue culture studies. Results The water extract of turmeric (TurP) exhibited induced-nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested the immunomodulatory effects of TurP. In addition, the polysaccharides up-regulated function of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) equally to the phenolic compound from turmeric, curcumin. Conclusions The ukonan family of polysaccharides may assist in promoting cellular immune responses, tissue repair and lifespan by enhancing immune response and telomere function.

  19. The effect of water extracts of Euphorbia hirta on cartilage degeneration in arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kah Heng; Chen, Yu Sui; Judson, John Paul; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Sim, Yen Mi; Er, Hui Meng

    2008-12-01

    The effect of water extracts of Euphorbia hirta on the histological features and expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in the rat articular cartilage was investigated. Arthritis was induced in rats using Freund's Complete Adjuvant containing heat-killed M. tuberculosis, and treated with water extracts of E. hirta. Paraffin tissue sections of the arthritic joints were evaluated. The extent of cartilage degeneration was found to be greatest in rats treated with the highest dosage of E. hirta, followed by rats in the untreated group. Rats treated with the intermediary and low dosages of Euphorbia hirta showed improved histology. MMP-13 levels were found to be decreased with decreasing dosages of E. hirta. TIMP-1 levels were found to increase with decreasing dosages of E. hirta. MMP-3 levels fluctuated without any appreciable pattern. Low dosages of E. hirta seem to be beneficial in reducing cartilage degeneration in cases of arthritis.

  20. Improved Orthogonal T-Snake Model for Complex Water Boundary Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Lingkui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A topology adaptive snake (T-Snake model based on orthogonal grids is introduced and improved in this paper, and a proper energy function is designed. A detection and handling mechanism for topological conflict that caused by island shaped hollow is proposed in the model, and therefore accurate extraction for complex boundary of river containing river islands is achieved. For the disadvantage of the need to manually construct the initial contour in the orthogonal T-Snake model, using the minimum fractal dimension to obtain one area of the water and automatically generate an initial contour. The experiment shows that the algorithm of this paper can accurately extract the boundary of the complex water which contains deeply concave regions or river islands, and it has higher accuracy and less time cost than classic Snake model and GVF Snake model.

  1. Improvement of the flocculation process in water treatment by using moringa oleifera seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez-Martín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity encourages researchers to keep working on natural coagulant agents such as Moringa oleifera seed extract, that could be used even in developing countries. With this scope, this investigation is focused on the optimization of certain parameters affecting the use of this coagulant product in the clarification of real surface water. Acidic pH levels seem to enhance the coagulation performance and the turbidity removal increases as the stirring period becomes longer (up to 95% with 40 min. The optimum stirring rate is identified as 80 rpm. Water clarified with this optimum coagulation and flocculation process is turbidity-competitive with other well known coagulants and flocculants and its quality is inside standard ranges for clarified water. No microbial growth is observed within the first 72 hours after the coagulant trials.

  2. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of μg/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

  3. Electromembrane extraction and preconcentration of carbendazim and thiabendazole in water samples before capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amilton Moreira; Loureiro, Hugo Campos; de Jesus, Francielly Fernanda Souza; de Jesus, Dosil Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Electromembrane extraction using a polypropylene hollow fiber impregnated with 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene was evaluated for the extraction and preconcentration of the fungicides thiabendazole and carbendazim from water samples before capillary electrophoresis analysis. The composition of the supported liquid membrane, the HCl concentration in the acceptor solution, and the stirring rate (of the donor solution) were optimized using the one-variable-at-a-time method. In contrast, a face-centered central composition design was used for optimization of voltage, extraction time, and concentration of HCl in the donor solution. After optimization, electromembrane extraction provided enrichment factors of 50 and 26 for thiabendazole and carbendazim that allowed us to achieve limits of detection of 1.1 and 2.3 μg/L, respectively. Repeatability (intraday precision) expressed as the relative standard deviation varied from 2.5 to 2.8%, while the interday precision ranged from 3.1 to 3.3%. The proposed method was applied for analysis of samples of tap and river water, and acceptable precision and accuracy were attained. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Alternative sorptive extraction method for gas chromatography determination of halogenated anisoles in water and wine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Rodriguez, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)], E-mail: qnisaac@usc.es; Rubi, E.; Bollain, M.H.; Cela, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2007-09-05

    An alternative sorptive microextraction method for the determination of five halogenated anisoles in water and wine matrices is proposed. Analytes were concentrated in an inexpensive and disposable piece of bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), desorbed with a small volume of organic solvent, and determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) or tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of several factors on the efficiency of extraction and desorption steps was investigated in detail and the observed behaviour justified on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the solid-phase microextraction technique. Under optimised conditions, analytes were first extracted in the headspace (HS) mode, at room temperature, for 2.5 h and then desorbed with 1 mL of n-pentane. This extract was further evaporated to 50 {mu}L. The overall extraction yield of the procedure ranged from 40 to 55% and the limits of quantification remained between 0.5 and 20 ng L{sup -1}, depending on the compound considered and the detection technique. Precision and linearity of the method were excellent for all species with both GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS detection. Matrix effects were evaluated with different water and wine samples; moreover, the suitability of the PDMS sorbent for storage of analytes, under different conditions, was demonstrated.

  5. Alternative sorptive extraction method for gas chromatography determination of halogenated anisoles in water and wine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, R.; Rodriguez, I.; Rubi, E.; Bollain, M.H.; Cela, R.

    2007-01-01

    An alternative sorptive microextraction method for the determination of five halogenated anisoles in water and wine matrices is proposed. Analytes were concentrated in an inexpensive and disposable piece of bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), desorbed with a small volume of organic solvent, and determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) or tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of several factors on the efficiency of extraction and desorption steps was investigated in detail and the observed behaviour justified on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the solid-phase microextraction technique. Under optimised conditions, analytes were first extracted in the headspace (HS) mode, at room temperature, for 2.5 h and then desorbed with 1 mL of n-pentane. This extract was further evaporated to 50 μL. The overall extraction yield of the procedure ranged from 40 to 55% and the limits of quantification remained between 0.5 and 20 ng L -1 , depending on the compound considered and the detection technique. Precision and linearity of the method were excellent for all species with both GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS detection. Matrix effects were evaluated with different water and wine samples; moreover, the suitability of the PDMS sorbent for storage of analytes, under different conditions, was demonstrated

  6. Water extracts of Brassica oleracea var. costata potentiate paraquat toxicity to rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C; Pontes, H; Carmo, H; Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Valentão, P; Andrade, P B; Remião, F; Bastos, M L; Carvalho, F

    2009-09-01

    Tronchuda cabbage extracts have been proven to have antioxidant potential against various oxidative species in cell free systems, though its antioxidant potential in cellular models remained to be demonstrated. In the present study, we used primary cultures of rat hepatocytes for the cellular assay system and paraquat PQ exposure as a pro-oxidant model agent, to test whether tronchuda cabbage hydrolysed water extracts provide protective or aggravating effects towards PQ-induced oxidative stress and cell death. For this purpose cellular parameters related to oxidative stress were measured, namely the generation of superoxide anion, glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation, intracellular ATP levels, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), activity of antioxidant enzymes, and cell death. The obtained results demonstrated that the studied hydrolysed water extracts of tronchuda cabbage, especially rich in kaempferol (84%) and other polyphenols, namely hydroxycinnamic acids and traces of quercetin, can potentiate the toxicity of PQ in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. These results highlight that prospective antioxidant effects of plant extracts, observed in vitro, using non-cellular systems, are not always confirmed in cellular models, in which the concentrations required to scavenge pro-oxidant species may be highly detrimental to the cells.

  7. Electrochemical monitoring of the co-extraction of water with hydrated ions into an organic solvent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareček, Vladimír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 88, MAR 2018 (2018), s. 57-60 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-09980S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Liquid/liquid interface * Water co-extraction dynamics * Emulsification Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cell s, batteries, fuel cell s, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.396, year: 2016

  8. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to malachite green (MG may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L−1 (S/N = 3 in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L−1 in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10–1000 μg·L−1. Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L−1 gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD, 85.4% (9.17% RSD and 96.0% (7.44% RSD, respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (<2 min per sample quantitative detection of malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples.

  9. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  10. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics.

  11. Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Parker, Danny L.; Tabor, Cynthia L.; Holm, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the above ground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms

  12. Analysis of trace dicyandiamide in stream water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography UV spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huidong; Sun, Dongdi; Gunatilake, Sameera R; She, Jinyan; Mlsna, Todd E

    2015-09-01

    An improved method for trace level quantification of dicyandiamide in stream water has been developed. This method includes sample pretreatment using solid phase extraction. The extraction procedure (including loading, washing, and eluting) used a flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and dicyandiamide was eluted with 20mL of a methanol/acetonitrile mixture (V/V=2:3), followed by pre-concentration using nitrogen evaporation and analysis with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV). Sample extraction was carried out using a Waters Sep-Pak AC-2 Cartridge (with activated carbon). Separation was achieved on a ZIC(®)-Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) chromatography column and quantification was accomplished based on UV absorbance. A reliable linear relationship was obtained for the calibration curve using standard solutions (R(2)>0.999). Recoveries for dicyandiamide ranged from 84.6% to 96.8%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were below 6.1% with a detection limit of 5.0ng/mL for stream water samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Extraction and detection of baculoviral DNA from lake water, detritus and forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, L S; Trevors, J T; Holmes, S B

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a quick, reproducible, sensitive method for baculoviral DNA extraction, purification and detection from freshwater and forest litter environments. The extraction protocol utilizes enzymatic and chemical lysis and physical disruption. To assess the efficiency of the extraction and purification protocol, PCR was used to detect a 530 bp DNA fragment from the genome of a genetically-modified baculovirus, Choristoneura fumiferana NPVegt-/lacZ+. The detection limit of PCR amplification was routinely about 4.1 x 102 occlusion bodies (OBs) 450 microl-1 lake water. Template DNA from the detritus and forest litter samples required 100-fold dilutions before use in PCR reactions. The detection limits for detritus and forest litter samples were routinely about 7.41 x 103 and 2.08 x 104 OBs 0.5 g-1 dry weight, respectively. The DNA extraction and purification methodology is reproducible, sensitive and can be used in lieu of, or in conjunction with, insect bioassays. The DNA extraction and purification protocol described in this paper will facilitate risk assessment and ecological studies of both wild-type and genetically-modified baculoviruses.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Seaweed Extracts: In Vitro Assays, Evaluation in 5 % Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In this study the antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds, namely Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides, were evaluated both in in vitro assays and in 5 % fish oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides...... showed higher antioxidant activity both in in vitro assays and in 5 % oil-in-water emulsion in the presence or absence of iron. In spite of the higher phenolic content and very good antioxidant activity in some of the in vitro assays, the absolute ethanol extracts of both the species showed a pro......-oxidative tendency in 5 % fish oil-in-water emulsion in the presence or absence of iron. In order to investigate the reason for the higher antioxidant activity of 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides, these extracts were further fractionated into polyphenol-rich, protein-rich, polysaccharide-rich and low...

  15. In vitro activity of ethanolic and water extract of guava leaves at various concentrations against Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chemical substances used for prevention of dental caries are known to have many side-effects. Thus, natural products should be explored for their anticaries action. Objectives: To prepare 5% and 20% concentrations of ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves and to assess their activity against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: In vitro experimental study was conducted in Department of Biosciences. Ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves were prepared using Soxhlet extractor. Two concentrations 5% and 20% weight/volume of both extracts were prepared. Test organism L. acidophilus Microbial Type Culture Collection 447 was obtained in lyophillized form. After revival in nutrient broth, bacteria were grown on Lactobacilli de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar for further experiment. Antimicrobial testing of extracts was done using Agar well-diffusion method. Ten plates each were prepared for both extracts. Chlorhexidine (0.2% served as a positive control and distilled water as a negative control. Results: Mean zone of inhibition produced by 5% and 20% ethanolic extract was 11.2 mm and 14.1 mm respectively and by 5% and 20% water extract was 1.6 mm and 5.1 mm respectively. Statistical analysis of results using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey′s test revealed that activity of 5% ethanolic extract and 5%, 20% water extract was significantly less than that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. There was no statistical difference in efficacy of 20% ethanolic extract of guava and 0.2% chlorhexidine (P = 0.270. Conclusion: Ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves possess antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus with 20% ethanolic extract being as efficacious as 0.2% chlorhexidine.

  16. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmann, T. Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electroanalytical chemistry was employed to assess cesium ion extraction in biphasic systems. • Water|ionic liquid systems are much more efficient than traditional water|organic ones. • The metal ion to ligand stoichiometry and overall complexation constant were determined. • The stoichiometry was confirmed by mass spectrometry. • The ligand CMPO used in TRUEX processes was found to be effective for the FIT. - Abstract: A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P 66614 + ) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion (TB − ) was employed within a water|P 66614 TB (w|P 66614 TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. 137 Cs is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is therefore of considerable importance. The extraction was facilitated by the ligand octyl(phenyl)-N,N′-diisobutylcarbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) used in TRans-Uranium EXtraction processes and investigated through well established liquid|liquid electrochemistry. This study gave access to the metal ion to ligand (1:n) stoichiometry and overall complexation constant, β, of the interfacial complexation reaction which were determined to be 1:3 and 1.6 × 10 11 at the w|P 66614 TB interface while the study at w|o elicited an n equal to 1 with β equal to 86.5. Through a straightforward relationship, these complexation constant values were converted to distribution coefficients, δ α , with the ligand concentrations studied for comparison to other studies present in the literature; the w|o and w|IL systems gave δ α of 2 and 8.2 × 10 7 , respectively, indicating a higher overall extraction efficiency for the latter. For the w|o system, the metal ion-ligand stoichiometries were confirmed through isotopic distribution analysis of mass

  17. Optimal dynamic water allocation: Irrigation extractions and environmental tradeoffs in the Murray River, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom

    2011-12-01

    A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to optimally and dynamically allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, dynamic programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to optimally allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an optimal way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase optimal environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.

  18. Extraction of triazole fungicides in environmental waters utilizing poly (ionic liquid)-functionalized magnetic adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Liao, Yingmin; Huang, Xiaojia

    2017-11-17

    This work prepared a new poly (ionic liquid)-functionalized magnetic adsorbent (PFMA) for the extraction of triazole fungicides (TFs) in environmental waters prior to determination by high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). A polymerizable ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-allylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was employed to copolymerize with divinylbenzene on the surface of modified magnetite to fabricate the PFMA. The morphology, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the new adsorbent were investigated by different techniques. A series of key parameters that influence the extraction performance including the amount of PFMA, desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time, sample pH value and ionic strength were optimized in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the prepared PFMA could extract targeted TFs effectively and quickly under the format of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Satisfactory linearities were achieved in the range of 0.1-200.0μg/L for triadimenol and 0.05-200.0μg/L for other TFs with good coefficients of determination above 0.99 for all analytes. The limits of detection (S/N=3) and limits of quantification (S/N=10) for TFs were in the range of 0.0050-0.0078μg/L and 0.017-0.026μg/L, respectively. Environmental waters including lake, river and well waters were used to demonstrate the applicability of developed MSPE-HPLC-DAD method, and satisfactory recoveries and repeatability were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of polydimethylsiloxane rod extraction to the determination of sixteen halogenated flame retardants in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Iglesias, Mònica; Salvadó, Victòria; Cela, Rafael

    2013-04-03

    An extraction and preconcentration procedure for the determination in water samples of several halogenated flame retardants (FRs), nine brominated diphenyls ethers (BDEs) and seven non-BDE FRs, was developed and validated. The optimised procedure is based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rods as sorptive extraction material, followed by liquid desorption and gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) determination, rendering an efficient and inexpensive method. The final optimised protocol consists of overnight extraction of 100mL of sample solutions containing 40% MeOH and 4% NaCl, followed by a 15-min sonication-assisted desorption with 300 μL of ethyl acetate, solvent evaporation and GC-NCI-MS analysis. Under these conditions, extraction efficiencies in the 9 to 70% range were obtained, leading to enrichment factors between 108 and 840, detection limits in the range from 0.4 to 10 ng L(-1)and RSD values in the 2-23% range. After method validation, different real water samples, including river, ria, sea, landfill leachate, influent and effluent wastewater from an urban sewage treatment plant (STP) and effluent wastewater from a textile industry, were analysed. BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100 and BDE-197 were detected in wastewater and landfill leachate samples at concentration levels up to 2887 ng L(-1). Among the non-BDE FRs, bis (2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (DEHTBP) was detected in surface water samples (sea, river and ria) between 1.3 and 2.2 ng L(-1) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) in the landfill leachate (64 ng L(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction Optimization of Water-Extracted Mycelial Polysaccharide from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis was found to be an efficient elicitor to enhance diosgenin accumulation in D. zingigerensis cultures, and also demonstrated antioxidant activity. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the extraction process of WPS from F. oxysporum Dzf17 using Box-Behnken design (BBD. The ranges of the factors investigated were 1–3 h for extraction time (X1, 80–100 °C for extraction temperature (X2, and 20–40 (v/w for ratio of water volume (mL to raw material weight (g (X3. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results with the determination coefficient (R2 of 0.9978. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface contour plots, the extraction parameters were optimized as 1.7 h for extraction time, 95 °C for extraction temperature, 39 (v/w for ratio of water volume (mL to raw material weight (g, and with 2 extractions. The maximum value (10.862% of WPS yield was obtained when the WPS extraction process was conducted under the optimal conditions.

  1. Kinetics of Ultrasound-Assisted Flavonoid Extraction from Agri-Food Solid Wastes Using Water/Glycerol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris P. Makris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red grape pomace (RGP and onion solid wastes (OSW were used as raw material to produce flavonoid-enriched extracts, using ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction. The extraction medium used was composed of water and glycerol and under the conditions used the extraction of flavonoids from both materials was shown to obey first-order kinetics. Maximum diffusivities (De values were 4.01 × 10−11 and 2.35 × 10−11 m2·s−1, for RGP and OSW extraction, respectively, while the corresponding activation energies (Ea were 14.00 and 15.23 kJ·mol−1.

  2. Effect of methanol/acetone/water extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis on the nutritional value of unheated rapeseed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M; Amiot, J; Cheour, F; De La Noüe, J; Goulet, G; Brisson, G J

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of the extraction of phenols by methanol/acetone/water and proteolysis (pepsin 1 hour; trypsin 2 hours) on the nutritional characteristics of unheated rapeseed protein as measured by weight gain, protein intake, net protein ratio, apparent digestibility and absorbed protein. The effect of proteolysis of the methanol/acetone/water extracted rapeseed protein, and the effect of mixing the methanol/acetone/water extract back with the extracted rapeseed protein was also studied. Extraction of phenolic compounds from rapeseed flour significantly improved weight gain, protein intake, net protein ratio and absorbed protein value. However, the mixing of phenolic extract with the extracted rapeseed protein did not appear to have a significant effect. Enzymatic hydrolysis (1 hour with pepsin and 2 hours with trypsin) of the raw material significantly improved the weight gain and protein intake. The combined methanol/acetone/water extraction and protein hydrolysis treatments were beneficial on all nutritional quality parameters of rapeseed protein. These results suggest that the protein-bound phenolic compounds, rather than the free phenolic compounds contribute mainly to the decrease in the nutritional values of proteins associated with phenolic compounds in raw flour before extraction.

  3. Effects of pH control with phthalate buffers on hot-water extraction of hemicelluloses from spruce wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Pranovich, Andrey; Holmbom, Bjarne

    2011-11-01

    Ground spruce wood was extracted with water at 170 °C at four different pH levels (3.8, 4.0, 4.2 and 4.4) achieved by using phthalate buffers. Static batch extractions were carried out in an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE-300). The extracted non-cellulosic carbohydrates, predominantly galactoglucomannans (GGMs), were characterised mainly by sugar unit analysis and molar mass determination. Compared to extraction with plain water, extractions with phthalate buffer solutions gave similar yields of non-cellulosic carbohydrates, but gave up to 70% less monosaccharides, and consequently higher molar masses of extracted GGMs. Moreover, at these pH levels, the hydrolysis of acetyl groups were decreased by 40% compared to extraction with plain water, thus maintaining the water solubility of GGMs. It is concluded that hot water extraction of hemicelluloses in high-molar-mass form (average Mw about 10 kDa) from wood in good yields (8% of wood) demands appropriate control of pH, to a level of about 4. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Beyond genomic variation--comparison and functional annotation of three Brassica rapa genomes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Zhang, Ningwen; Severing, Edouard I; Nijveen, Harm; Cheng, Feng; Visser, Richard G F; Wang, Xiaowu; de Ridder, Dick; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-03-31

    Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resulting genomes together with the Chinese cabbage Chiifu reference genome to obtain an impression of the B. rapa pan-genome. The number of genes with protein-coding changes between the three genotypes was lower than that among different accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be explained by the smaller effective population size of B. rapa due to its domestication. Based on orthology to a number of non-brassica species, we estimated the date of divergence among the three B. rapa morphotypes at approximately 250,000 YA, far predating Brassica domestication (5,000-10,000 YA). By analysing genes unique to turnip we found evidence for copy number differences in peroxidases, pointing to a role for the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in the generation of morphological variation. The estimated date of divergence among three B. rapa morphotypes implies that prior to domestication there was already considerably divergence among B. rapa genotypes. Our study thus provides two new B. rapa reference genomes, delivers a set of computer tools to analyse the resulting pan-genome and uses these to shed light on genetic drivers behind the rich morphological variation found in B. rapa.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator Gene Family in Turnip Under Diverse Metal Ion Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The cation diffusion facilitator (CDF family is one of the gene families involved in metal ion uptake and transport in plants, but the understanding of the definite roles and mechanisms of most CDF genes remain limited. In the present study, we identified 18 candidate CDF genes from the turnip genome and named them BrrMTP1.1–BrrMTP12. Then, we performed a comparative genomic analysis on the phylogenetic relationships, gene structures and chromosome distributions, conserved domains, and motifs of turnip CDFs. The constructed phylogenetic tree indicated that the BrrMTPs were divided into seven groups (groups 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12 and formed three major clusters (Zn-CDFs, Fe/Zn-CDFs, and Mn-CDFs. Moreover, the structural characteristics of the BrrMTP members in the same group were similar but varied among groups. To investigate the potential roles of BrrMTPs in turnip, we conducted an expression analysis on all BrrMTP genes under Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, Na, and Cd stresses. Results showed that the expression levels of all BrrMTP members were induced by at least one metal ion, indicating that these genes may be related to the tolerance or transport of those metal ions. Based on the roles of different metal ions for plants, we hypothesized that BrrMTP genes are possibly involved in heavy metal accumulation and tolerance to salt stress apart from their roles in the maintenance of mineral nutrient homeostasis in turnip. These findings are helpful to understand the roles of MTPs in plants and provide preliminary information for the study of the functions of BrrMTP genes.

  6. Extraction of uranium from sea water by means of fibrous complex adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamatsu, Tokuhisa; Oguchi, Noboru; Kanchiku, Yoshihiko; Aoyagi, Takanobu

    1982-01-01

    Fibrous complex adsorbents for uranium extraction from sea water were prepared by introducing titanic acid or basic zinc carbonate as effective constituents into fibrous ion exchangers. A fibrous chelate type adsorbent was also tested. Among the adsorbents examined, the following ones demonstrated excellent properties for the recovery of uranium from sea water. a) A fibrous, weakly acidic cation exchanger was treated with titanyl sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid solution, which was followed by neutralization to afford a fibrous adsorbent containing titanic acid (QC-1f(Ti)). The adsorption capacity for uranium in sea water was estimated by extrapolation to be 50μg-U/g-Ad or 1170 μg-U/g-Ti. b) A fibrous, strongly acidic cation exchanger was treated in a similar way to afford another type of fibrous adsorbent with titanic acid incorporated (QCS-Ti). The adsorption capacity was estimated by extrapolation to be 20-30 μg-U/g-Ad. (author)

  7. Extraction and Capture of Water from Martian Regolith Experimental Proof-of-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane; Kleinhenz, Julie; Bauman, Steve; Johnson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0:Lists in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) as enabling for robust human Mars missionsLO2LCH4 ascent propulsion 25,000 kg oxygen from atmosphere for ascent and life support Atmospheric based ISRU processes less operationally complex than surface based limited concept evaluation to date and Mars surface water property and distribution uncertainty would not allow [Mars soil water processing] to be base lined at this time Limited Concept Evaluation to Date Lunar regolith O2 extraction processing experience Lunar regolith is fluidized and heated to high temperatures with H2 to produce H2O from iron-bearing minerals Mars similarity concept: Soil placed in fluidized bed reactor Heated to moderate temperatures Inert gas flow used to fluidize the bed and help with water desorption Challenges: High-temperature dusty seals Working gas requires downstream separation and recycling to reduce consumables loss Batch process heating thermally inefficient.

  8. The extraction and effect in the system uranyl nitrate-dietyl ether-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Luina, A.; Gutierrez Jodra, L.; Rius Miro, A.

    1960-01-01

    The solute transfer of uranyl nitrate from diethyl ether to water has been studied in a spray column using water as dispersed phase and a direction of extraction from ether to water. The column is 102 cm long and has a diameter of 4,7 cm. The entrances of the phases are 77 cm apart. The rates of flow of both phases have been used as variables and the concentration of the continuous phase has been determined at different heights. The curves of logarithm of concentration of the continuous phase vs. distance to interphase show the present of a drop of concentration in the entrance of the continuous phase. This depends on the rates of flow of the phases. No effect in the entrance of the dispersed phase has been found. (Author) 20 refs

  9. Actual evapotranspiration, root extraction, water regime and productivity in the case of lucerne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambal, S.; Berger, A.; Parisot, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements were made of the actual evaportranspiration, root extraction and above-ground yield in the case of two varieties of lucerne Medicago sativa L. - Du Puits and Polder - and mixtures of them in equal parts. The daily kinetics of the water potential of the leaves and the collar show that the water regimes of the two varieties are identical in a first approximation. The root systems are different. Polder has the deeper system. The regime of the binary mixture is not simply a juxtaposition of the regimes of the constitutents. Two types of non-linearity were found. The first relates to water flow and the second to productivity. It is postulated that the root systems of the two varieties constituting the mixture undergo plastic deformation, leading to a more efficient resultant system. A system of this type needs, on the other hand, an allocation of photosynthates that would affect its productivity. (author)

  10. Chemical and biological properties of hot water extract from delipidated cells of Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Yokosawa, A; Arai, H; Nagai, H; Kurita, K

    1976-09-01

    A water-soluble fraction was isolated from delipidated cells of Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG by extraction with hot water. Chemical analyses revealed that the above fraction presumably consisted of a peptidoglycan containing 5-10% of nucleic acids. When it was injected into guinea pigs with Freund's incomplete adjuvant plus egg white albumin as antigen, an increase of circulating antibody was observed as shown by the augmented titers of precipitin and hemagglutinin. The results of skin test and corneal reaction indicated that the fraction mentioned above induced delayed hypersensitivity to egg white albumin. Footpad reaction in mice demonstrated that the above fraction induced delayed hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells. It was confirmed in addition that the adjuvant activity of this fraction was not due to the presence of nucleic acids. This adjuvant-active fraction was designated as HSA (hot-water soluble adjuvant.

  11. The final effect of extraction system in the uranyl nitrate-water-diethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Luina, A.; Gutierrez Jodra, L.; Miro, A. R.

    1957-01-01

    The solute transfer of uranyl nitrate from diallylether to water has been studied in a spray column using water as dispersed phase and a direction of extraction from ether to water. The column is 102 cm. long has a diameter of 4. 7 cm. The entrances of the phases are 7 7 cm. apart. The rates of flow of both phases have been used as variables and the concentration of the continuous phase has been determined; at different heights. The curves of logarithm of concentration of the continuous phase vs , distance to interphase show the presence of a drop of concentration in the entrance of the continuous phase. This depends on the rates of flow of the phases. No effect in the entrance of the dispersed phase has been found. (Author)

  12. An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations by others and internal investigations at Philip Morris International (PMI have shown that the standard trapping and extraction procedure used for conventional cigarettes, defined in the International Standard ISO 4387 (Cigarettes -- Determination of total and nicotine-free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine, is not suitable for high-water content aerosols. Errors occur because of water losses during the opening of the Cambridge filter pad holder to remove the filter pad as well as during the manual handling of the filter pad, and because the commercially available filter pad holder, which is constructed out of plastic, may adsorb water. This results in inaccurate values for the water content, and erroneous and overestimated values for Nicotine Free Dry Particulate Matter (NFDPM. A modified 44 mm Cambridge filter pad holder and extraction equipment which supports in situ extraction methodology has been developed and tested. The principle of the in situ extraction methodology is to avoid any of the above mentioned water losses by extracting the loaded filter pad while kept in the Cambridge filter pad holder which is hermetically sealed by two caps. This is achieved by flushing the extraction solvent numerous times through the hermetically sealed Cambridge filter pad holder by means of an in situ extractor. The in situ methodology showed a significantly more complete water recovery, resulting in more accurate NFDPM values for high-water content aerosols compared to the standard ISO methodology. The work presented in this publication demonstrates that the in situ extraction methodology applies to a wider range of smoking products and smoking regimens, whereas the standard ISO methodology only applies to a limited range of smoking products and smoking regimens, e.g., conventional cigarettes smoked under ISO smoking regimen. In cases where a comparison of yields between the PMI HTP and

  13. Investigation of water-soluble organic matter extracted from shales during leaching experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaling; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wilke, Franziska D. H.; Horsfield, Brian

    2017-04-01

    The huge volumes and unknown composition of flowback and produced waters cause major public concerns about the environmental and social compatibility of hydraulic fracturing and the exploitation of gas from unconventional reservoirs. Flowback and produced waters contain not only residues of fracking additives but also chemical species that are dissolved from the shales themselves during fluid-rock interaction. Knowledge of the composition, size and structure of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as well as the main controls on the release of DOC are a prerequisite for a better understanding of these interactions and its effects on composition of flowback and produced water. Black shales from four different geological settings and covering a maturity range Ro = 0.3-2.6% were extracted with deionized water. The DOC yields were found to decrease rapidly with increasing diagenesis and remain low throughout catagenesis. Four DOC fractions have been qualitatively and quantitatively characterized using size-exclusion chromatography. The concentrations of individual low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) decrease with increasing maturity of the samples except for acetate extracted from the overmature Posidonia shale, which was influenced by hydrothermal brines. The oxygen content of the shale organic matter also shows a significant influence on the release of organic acids, which is indicated by the positive trend between oxygen index (OI) and the concentrations of formate and acetate. Based on our experiments, both the properties of the organic matter source and the thermal maturation progress of the shale organic matter significantly influence the amount and quality of extracted organic compounds during the leaching experiments.

  14. Sequential microwave superheated water extraction of mannans from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Cláudia P; Moreira, Ana S P; Domingues, M Rosário M; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2014-03-15

    The feasibility of using sequential microwave superheated water extraction (MAE) for the recovery of mannans from spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Due to the high contents of mannose still present in the SCG residue left after two consecutive MAE, the unextracted material was re-suspended in water and submitted to a third microwave irradiation (MAE3) at 200 °C for 3 min. With MAE3, mannose recovery achieved 48%, increasing to 56% by MAE4, and reaching a maximum of 69% with MAE5. Glycosidic-linkage analysis showed that in MAE3 mainly galactomannans were recovered, while debranched galactomannans were recovered with MAE4 and MAE5. With increasing the number of extractions, the average degree of polymerization of the mannans decreased, as observed by size-exclusion chromatography and by methylation analysis. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a decrease on cell walls thickness. After final MAE5, the remaining un-extracted insoluble material, representing 22% of the initial SCG, was composed mainly by cellulose (84%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term

  16. Microporous Carbon Spheres Solid Phase Membrane Tip Extraction for the Analysis of Nitrosamines in Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Salisu Musa; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A simple solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) utilizing microporous carbon spheres (MCS) was developed for the analysis of nitrosamines in aqueous samples. The method termed MCS-SPMTE was optimized for various important extraction parameters namely conditioning organic solvent, extraction time, effects of salt addition and pH change, desorption time, desorption solvent and sample volume. Under the optimized conditions, the method indicated good linearity in the range of 10-100 μg/ L with coefficients of determination, r 2 ≥0.9984. The method also demonstrated good reproducibility with % RSDs values ranging from 2.2 - 8.9 (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method ranged from 3.2 - 4.8 μg/ L and 10.9 - 15.9 μg/L respectively. Recoveries for both tap-water and lake water samples spiked at 10 μg/L were in the range of 83.2 - 107.5 %. (author)

  17. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States); Peterson, P.K. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States)

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  18. Impact of Hot-Water Extraction on Acetone-Water Oxygen Delignification of Paulownia Spp. and Lignin Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A hardwood-based biorefinery process starting with hot-water extraction (HWE is recommended in order to remove most of the hemicelluloses/xylans before further processing. HWE may be followed by delignification in acetone/water in the presence of oxygen (AWO for the production of cellulose and lignin. In this study, the HWE-AWO sequence was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing lignin from the fast-growing species Paulownia tomentosa (PT and Paulownia elongata (PE, in comparison with the reference species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum, SM. HWE might lead to a remarkable increase in lignin accessibility, and as a result, a greater AWO delignification degree was observed for extracted PT, PE, and SM than for unextracted ones. Organosolv lignin was recovered from the spent liquor of AWO delignification of PT with/without prior HWE and characterized to evaluate the benefits of HWE on the lignin structure and purity. The lignin recovered from the spent liquor of HWE-AWO sequence is of higher purity and lighter color than that recovered from the AWO spent liquor. These properties along with low sulfur content are desirable for lignin high-value applications.

  19. Extraction of Water from Martian Regolith Simulant via Open Reactor Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunek, Andrew J.; Linne, Diane L.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Bauman, Steven W.

    2018-01-01

    To demonstrate proof of concept water extraction from simulated Martian regolith, an open reactor design is presented along with experimental results. The open reactor concept avoids sealing surfaces and complex moving parts. In an abrasive environment like the Martian surface, those reactor elements would be difficult to maintain and present a high probability of failure. A general lunar geotechnical simulant was modified by adding borax decahydrate (Na2B4O7·10H2O) (BDH) to mimic the 3 percent water content of hydrated salts in near surface soils on Mars. A rotating bucket wheel excavated the regolith from a source bin and deposited the material onto an inclined copper tray, which was fitted with heaters and a simple vibration system. The combination of vibration, tilt angle and heat was used to separate and expose as much regolith surface area as possible to liberate the water contained in the hydrated minerals, thereby increasing the efficiency of the system. The experiment was conducted in a vacuum system capable of maintaining a Martian like atmosphere. Evolved water vapor was directed to a condensing system using the ambient atmosphere as a sweep gas. The water vapor was condensed and measured. Processed simulant was captured in a collection bin and weighed in real time. The efficiency of the system was determined by comparing pre- and post-processing soil mass along with the volume of water captured.

  20. Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth C. Chapman,† Rosemary C. Capo,† Brian W. Stewart,*,† Carl S. Kirby,‡ Richard W. Hammack,§

    2012-02-24

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ∼375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (εSr SW = +13.8 to +41.6, where εSr SW is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  1. Extraction of soil water by plants: development and validation of a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. de Jong van Lier

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative model of water movement within the immediate vicinity of an individual root is developed and results of an experiment to validate the model are presented. The model is based on the assumption that the amount of water transpired by a plant in a certain period is replaced by an equal volume entering its root system during the same time. The model is based on the Darcy-Buckingham equation to calculate the soil water matric potential at any distance from a plant root as a function of parameters related to crop, soil and atmospheric conditions. The model output is compared against measurements of soil water depletion by rice roots monitored using γ-beam attenuation in a greenhouse of the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"/Universidade de São Paulo(ESALQ/USP in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1993. The experimental results are in agreement with the output from the model. Model simulations show that a single plant root is able to withdraw water from more than 0.1 m away within a few days. We therefore can assume that root distribution is a less important factor for soil water extraction efficiency.

  2. Toxicity studies of the water extract from the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Khonsung, Parirat; Lertprasertsuke, Nirush; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2013-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were studied in male and female rats. After 14 days of a single oral administration of test substance 5,000 mg/kg body weight, measurement of the body and organ weights, necropsy and health monitoring were performed. No signs and differences of the weights or behaviour compared to the control rats were observed. The results indicated that the single oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract in the amount of 5,000 mg/kg body weight does not produce acute toxicity. The chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats daily with the extract at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days. The examinations of signs, animal behaviour and health monitoring showed no defects in the test groups compared to the control groups. Both test and control groups (day 270th) and satellite group (day 298th) were analysed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining haematology, blood clinical chemistry, and microanatomy. Results showed no differences from the control groups. Overall, our study demonstrated that an oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days does not cause chronic toxicity in rat.

  3. New determination method of radon-220 in water by toluene extraction and liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Murakami, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    220 Rn in mineral springs is easily extracted into toluene solution (containing a definite amount of liquid scientillator), which is carefuly transferred into counting vial. The activity in the solution is measured by integral counting technique with a liquid scintillation counter. 220 Rn, being extracted, rapidly disappears but 212 Pb (half-life 10.64 h) and its descendants form a radioactive equilibrium in toluene solution around 3.7 h after the extraction. The establishment of radioactive equilibrium is proved by α and β rays energy spectrum and also by the formation of growth decay curve. The shape of this curve entirely coincides with decay curve constructed by application of the Bateman equations for 212 Pb and its descendants. It was proved that integral counting technique could practically give hundred percent counting efficiency for 1α and 2β emitters in radioactive equilibrium. A calculating formula for 220 Rn contents in water is proposed based upon these facts, together with necessary correction terms such as extractability, decay rate during measurement and so on. The detection limits of this method is found as (6.8 +- 0.9) x 10 -10 Ci (standard deviation incounting) under the conditions of 5 cpm (one tenth of background counting rate) and total counting time of 400 min. Some practical examples of determination of 220 Rn in mineral springs are shown together with 222 Rn contents to prove the availability and feasibility of this method. (author)

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed...... oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety......, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity...

  5. TBP assisted uranyl extraction from water to water/organic interface to organic phase: molecular dynamics of uranyl complex with water, acid and TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, P.; Ali, Sk. M.; Shenoy, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    Reprocessing of the used fuel, not only diminishes the volume and toxicity of high level waste but is also required to produce the new fuel for nuclear reactors. It has been observed that the extraction of uranyl ions from dissolver solution to the organic phase is influenced by co extraction of other species, such as water and nitric acid and it is assumed that the presence of water or acid droplets in the organic phase intensifies the coordination mechanism of TBP. Present study is dedicated to revisit the molecular process of uranyl extraction from aqueous phase to organic phase, using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Here, we consider the biphasic systems to gain insights into the characteristics of the interface and humidity of organic phase under different acidic and neutral conditions. The consequences regarding the interfacial landscape, in the extraction process are considered by comparing the MD results of interfacial systems with various TBP and acid concentration. Further, the importance of charge transferability during uranyl-TBP complexation have been investigated with NO 3 - counter ions. Overall, this study aims at improving the description of molecular composition of various species and the structure of interface, in order to better understand the molecular-level complexation reaction occurring at the interface in different neutral and acidic environment

  6. Preparation of alumina-coated magnetite nanoparticle for extraction of trimethoprim from environmental water samples based on mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Chuanzhou; Chen, Ligang; Liu, Jun; Jin, Haiyan; Xu, Haoyan; Ding, Lan

    2009-04-13

    In this study, a new type of alumina-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)/Al(2)O(3) NPs) modified by the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully synthesized and applied for extraction of trimethoprim (TMP) from environmental water samples based on mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE). The coating of alumina on Fe(3)O(4) NPs not only avoids the dissolving of Fe(3)O(4) NPs in acidic solution, but also extends their application without sacrificing their unique magnetization characteristics. Due to the high surface area of these new sorbents and the excellent adsorption capacity after surface modification by SDS, satisfactory concentration factor and extraction recoveries can be produced with only 0.1g Fe(3)O(4)/Al(2)O(3) NPs. Main factors affecting the adsolubilization of TMP such as the amount of SDS, pH value, standing time, desorption solvent and maximal extraction volume were optimized. Under the selected conditions, TMP could be quantitatively extracted. The recoveries of TMP by analyzing the four spiked water samples were between 67 and 86%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 2 to 6%. Detection and quantification limits of the proposed method were 0.09 and 0.24 microg L(-1), respectively. Concentration factor of 1000 was achieved using this method to extract 500 mL of different environmental water samples. Compared with conventional SPE methods, the advantages of this new Fe(3)O(4)/Al(2)O(3) NPs MHSPE method still include easy preparation and regeneration of sorbents, short times of sample pretreatment, high extraction yields, and high breakthrough volumes. It shows great analytical potential in preconcentration of organic compounds from large volume water samples.

  7. Development of a subcritical water extraction approach for trace analysis of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol, and florfenicol amine in poultry tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiming; Song, Rong; Rao, Zhenghua; Wei, Shulin; Jia, Zheng; Suo, Decheng; Fan, Xia

    2015-10-30

    Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a novel and alternative technology for the separation of trace amounts of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol and its major metabolite florfenicol amine from poultry tissues and its results were compared with those of conventional shaking extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction. Decreasing the polarity of water by successively increasing the extraction temperature from 50°C to 200°C at the moderate pressure enabled selective, highly effective extractions to be performed. Rapid quantification of the target compounds was carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The critical parameters of subcritical water extraction such as solvent modifier, temperature, pressure, extraction time, and static cycles were varied with control. The optimized extraction procedures using subcritical water as extraction solvent, were carried out on a pressurized liquid extractor operated at 150°C and 100bar, applying two static cycles for 3min. Average recoveries of the four analytes from fortified samples ranged between 86.8% and 101.5%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 7.7%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) for the target compounds were in the ranges of 0.03-0.5μgkg(-1) and 0.1-2.0μgkg(-1), respectively. The proposed method is fast, sensitive, water-based thus more environmental acceptable, making it a suitable replacement for conventional organic solvent extraction in veterinary drug residue analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of water extracts of Chinese propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiali; Chen, Bin; Luo, Liping; Zhang, Xi; Dai, Ximo; Gong, Shangji

    2011-12-14

    The present study investigated the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the water extract of propolis (WEP) collected from 26 locations in China. Spectrophotometry was used to determine the physicochemical properties and the chemical constituents of WEP. Phenolic compounds in WEP were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD with reference standards. The antioxidant activities [characterized by reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability] of WEP were also measured. Results show that epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, morin, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, naringenin, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, pinocembrin, and chrysin are the major functional phenolic compounds in Chinese WEPs. Furthermore, most WEPs show strong antioxidant activities, which are significantly correlated with E(1cm)(1%), an index for the estimation of the quality of WEP. WEPs also contain many more active constituents than ethanol extracts of propolis.

  9. Cloud point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of nickel in water samples using dimethylglyoxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new and simple method for the preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of nickel was developed by cloud point extraction (CPE. In the proposed work, dimethylglyoxime (DMG was used as the chelating agent and Triton X-114 was selected as a non-ionic surfactant for CPE. The parameters affecting the cloud point extraction including the pH of sample solution, concentration of the chelating agent and surfactant, equilibration temperature and time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 10-150 ng mL-1 with a detection limit of 4 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation for 9 replicates of 100 ng mL-1 Ni(II was 1.04%. The interference effect of some anions and cations was studied. The method was applied to the determination of Ni(II in water samples with satisfactory results.

  10. Water stability of zeolite imidazolate framework 8 and application to porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2011-11-25

    Zeolite imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) has permanent porosity, high surface area, hydrophobic property, open metal sites and remarkable water stability. These novel properties characterize the material as being different from other moisture sensitive metal-organic frameworks and endow ZIF-8 with the potential to extract trace analytes from environmental water samples. In the present study, ZIF-8 was synthesized and used as a sorbent for micro-solid-phase extraction of 6 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental water samples for the first time. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as desorption time, extraction time, desorption solvent and salt concentration were investigated. Environmental water samples collected from a local lake were processed using this novel μ-SPE procedure. ZIF-8 proved to be a very efficient extraction sorbent for the extraction of trace analytes from water samples. The limits of detection from gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of PAHs were 0.002-0.012 ng/ml. The linear ranges were 0.1-50 or 0.5-50 ng/ml. The relative standard deviations for five replicates of the extractions were in the range of 2.1-8.5%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. C-Med 100, a hot water extract of Uncaria tomentosa, prolongs lymphocyte survival in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Ch; Pero, R W; Ivars, F

    2003-01-01

    Water extracts of the bark of Uncaria tomentosa, a vine indigenous to South America, has been used for generations as an "immuno modulator". To understand the basis of this immuno modulatory effect we fed mice in their drinking water with C-Med 100, which is a commercially available water extract from Uncaria tomentosa. We found a dose-dependent increase in spleen cell numbers in the supplemented mice, but the proportions of B cells, T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, and memory lymphocytes were normal. However, there were no detectable changes of the lymphoid architecture of the spleen even after long-term treatment. Further, when C-Med 100 treatment was interrupted the cellularity returned to normal level within four weeks. The increased number of lymphocytes was most likely not due to increased production because C-Med 100 did not have any significant effect on precursor cells nor on the accumulation of recent thymic emigrants in the spleen. We conclude that accumulation is most likely due to prolonged cell survival, because adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that C-Med 100 treatment significantly prolonged lymphocyte survival in peripheral lymphoid organs, without increasing their proliferation rate. Since the accumulation was reversible and without detectable pathological effects, these results suggest the use of C-Med 100 as a potential agent for clinically accelerating the recovery of patients from leukopenia.

  12. Effect of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steak quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Miraglia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steaks stored at 4°C under modified atmosphere. Twenty-four salmon steaks were respectively immersed in solutions of the diluted phenolic extract at 1.5 g/L (A, 3 g/L (B, and water only as a control (CTR, packaged within a protective atmosphere (70% carbon dioxide, 25% nitrogen and 5% oxygen and then stored at 4°C. After 2 h, and 3 and 6 days of storage, the fish samples were analysed for the total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, colour (CIE L*a*b* colour system, phenolic composition, α- tocopherol content, antioxidant activity by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙ assay, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS. A 3 g/L phenolic extract contributed positively to the hygienic quality of the salmon by reducing the microbial growth during storage. The treated samples were slightly yellower than the CTR but only at the beginning of storage. The flesh contained 6.2% of the total polyphenols present in the initial solutions, with various percentages of the single fractions. After 6 days storage, the α- tocopherol content in the CTR and A samples was statistically lower than the B group that also showed the lowest DPPH˙ and TBARS values. In conclusion, the phenolic extract increased the microbiological quality and antioxidant concentration and decreased the lipid oxidation of salmon steaks during storage at 4°C under modified atmosphere.

  13. The water extract of Coleus barbatus Benth decreases gastric secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia A. Fischman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Coleus barbatus (Labiatae Benth is popularly used in Brazil "for the healing of liver and stomach diseases". The water extract (WE 1 to 10 g/Kg, p.o. of stem and leaves given to rats and mice did not induce signs of intoxication. Preveious treatment of mice with WE (1 g/kg, p.o. shortened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. by 37 por cento, althoyugh the extract alone did not increase the spontaneous activity nor did it induce hyperexcitability. In mice WE (2 g/Kg, p.o. increased the intestinal transit of charcoal by 30 por cento, while reduced gastric secretions ion rats treated with WE (2g/Kg intraduodenal 3,9 ± 1.0 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml/4h, respectively. The treatment also reduced the total acid secretion from 34.4 ± 11.0 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mEq/l and raisedgastric pH from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 6.5 ± 0.8. Treatment with WE (2g/Kg, p.o. protected against gastric ulcers induced by stress (5.3 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.5 ulcers/cm², but did nor protect against indonethacin induced ulcers. The results show that the water extract of C barbatus Benth produces mild stimulation of thecentral nervous system and increases intestinal movements. The extract also reduces gastric secretion indicating an antidyspeptic activity, and protects against gastric ulcers induced by stress.

  14. The Influence of pH of Extracting Water on the Composition of Seaweed Extracts and Their Beneficial Properties onLepidium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Baltic seaweeds were used to obtain aqueous extracts (E) through changing initial pH of deionised water added to algal biomass (EpH3·H 2 O, EpH7·H 2 O, and EpH10·H 2 O) and through changing pH of the mixture of algae and deionised water (EpH3, EpH7, and EpH10). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of the concentration of polyphenols and micro- and macroelements. The highest concentration of polyphenols was determined in extract EpH3 and the lowest in extract EpH10·H 2 O. It was found that the obtained extracts had similar concentrations of elements (except EpH3). The phytotoxicity of algal extracts (0.5, 2.5, and 10%) was examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum . No phytotoxic effects were observed. It was found that they had beneficial effects on the cultivated plants (length and weight). The best biostimulant effect was observed in the groups treated with EpH3 (2.5%), EpH7 (2.5%), and EpH7 (10%). The dry weight of plants was similar in all the groups. Algal extract also improved the multielemental composition of plant. The greatest concentration of total chlorophyll in plants was obtained by using extract EpH10·H 2 O, 0.5%. These results proved that algal extracts have high potential to be applied in cultivation of plants.

  15. The Influence of pH of Extracting Water on the Composition of Seaweed Extracts and Their Beneficial Properties on Lepidium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Godlewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Baltic seaweeds were used to obtain aqueous extracts (E through changing initial pH of deionised water added to algal biomass (EpH3·H2O, EpH7·H2O, and EpH10·H2O and through changing pH of the mixture of algae and deionised water (EpH3, EpH7, and EpH10. Algal extracts were characterized in terms of the concentration of polyphenols and micro- and macroelements. The highest concentration of polyphenols was determined in extract EpH3 and the lowest in extract EpH10·H2O. It was found that the obtained extracts had similar concentrations of elements (except EpH3. The phytotoxicity of algal extracts (0.5, 2.5, and 10% was examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum. No phytotoxic effects were observed. It was found that they had beneficial effects on the cultivated plants (length and weight. The best biostimulant effect was observed in the groups treated with EpH3 (2.5%, EpH7 (2.5%, and EpH7 (10%. The dry weight of plants was similar in all the groups. Algal extract also improved the multielemental composition of plant. The greatest concentration of total chlorophyll in plants was obtained by using extract EpH10·H2O, 0.5%. These results proved that algal extracts have high potential to be applied in cultivation of plants.

  16. Membrane solid-phase extraction: Field application for isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, E.T.; Koleis, J.C.; Gates, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) membranes (M-SPE) were used to isolate microgram-per-liter to nanogram-per-liter quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 4- to 8-liter ground-water samples from a crude-oil-contaminated ground-water site near Bemidji, Minnesota. The M-SPE method was evaluated (1) under laboratory conditions using reagent water fortified with individual PAH at 1.23 micrograms per liter, and (2) at the Bemidji site. At the site, ground-water samples were processed and PAH isolated using a M-SPE system connected directly to the well pump. Following sample isolation, all M-SPE samples were extracted using dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring. Operationally, the M-SPE method provided a simple means to isolate PAH on site at the wellhead, particularly for anoxic water samples. Acceptable recoveries, ranging from 56 to over 100 percent, were observed for lower molecular weight PAH (naphthalene to pyrene) using the M-SPE method. Recoveries using M-SPE were somewhat lower, but reproducible, for higher molecular weight PAH (chrysene to benzo[ghi]perylene), ranging from 18 to 56 percent. M-SPE provides the capability to collect and field isolate PAH from a sufficiently large number of samples to identify environmental chemical processes occurring at individual compound concentrations of 50 to 1,200 nanograms per liter. Using M-SPE, the potential for facilitated transport of PAH by in situ-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was evaluated at the site. Plots comparing DOC and PAH concentrations indicate that PAH concentrations increase exponentially with linear increases in DOC concentrations

  17. Abundance and characteristics of lignin liquid intermediates in wood (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) during hot water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of the conditions of hot water extraction (HWE) on abundance, properties, and structure of lignin depolymerization products. HWE of extracted softwood (ponderosa pine) was conducted using temperatures from 140 to 320°C for 90 min. HWE materials were then subjected to a soxhlet...

  18. Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE): Using Color to Monitor Spacecraft Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009, an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE) technology was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). The kit, called the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), was launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the suitability of CSPE technology for routine use monitoring water quality on the ISS. CSPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric technique that combines colorimetric reagents, solid-phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water samples. In CSPE, a known volume of sample is metered through a membrane disk that has been impregnated with an analyte-specific colorimetric reagent and any additives required to optimize the formation of the analyte-reagent complex. As the sample flows through the membrane disk, the target analyte is selectively extracted, concentrated, and complexed. Formation of the analyte-reagent complex causes a detectable change in the color of the membrane disk that is proportional to the amount of analyte present in the sample. The analyte is then quantified by measuring the color of the membrane disk surface using a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer (DRS). The CWQMK provides the capability to measure the ionic silver (Ag +) and molecular iodine (I2) in water samples on-orbit. These analytes were selected for the evaluation of CSPE technology because they are the biocides used in the potable water storage and distribution systems on the ISS. Biocides are added to the potable water systems on spacecraft to inhibit microbial growth. On the United States (US) segment of the ISS molecular iodine serves as the biocide, while the Russian space agency utilizes silver as a biocide in their systems. In both cases, the biocides must be maintained at a level sufficient to control bacterial growth, but low enough to avoid any negative effects on crew health. For example, the

  19. Development of a Nucleic Acid Extraction Procedure for Simultaneous Recovery of DNA and RNA from Diverse Microbes in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent R. Hill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinking and environmental water samples contain a diverse array of constituents that can interfere with molecular testing techniques, especially when large volumes of water are concentrated to the small volumes needed for effective molecular analysis. In this study, a suite of enteric viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites were seeded into concentrated source water and finished drinking water samples, in order to investigate the relative performance of nucleic acid extraction techniques for molecular testing. Real-time PCR and reverse transcription-PCR crossing threshold (CT values were used as the metrics for evaluating relative performance. Experimental results were used to develop a guanidinium isothiocyanate-based lysis buffer (UNEX buffer that enabled effective simultaneous extraction and recovery of DNA and RNA from the suite of study microbes. Procedures for bead beating, nucleic acid purification, and PCR facilitation were also developed and integrated in the protocol. The final lysis buffer and sample preparation procedure was found to be effective for a panel of drinking water and source water concentrates when compared to commercial nucleic acid extraction kits. The UNEX buffer-based extraction protocol enabled PCR detection of six study microbes, in 100 L finished water samples from four drinking water treatment facilities, within three CT values (i.e., within 90% difference of the reagent-grade water control. The results from this study indicate that this newly formulated lysis buffer and sample preparation procedure can be useful for standardized molecular testing of drinking and environmental waters.

  20. Molecular characterization of inhibiting biochar water-extractable substances using electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron R; Sleighter, Rachel L; Hatcher, Patrick G; Lee, James W

    2013-01-01

    Biochar has gained significant interest worldwide for its potential use as both a carbon sequestration technique and soil amendment. Recently, research has shown that pinewood-derived biochar water extracts inhibited the growth of aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae, while chicken litter- and peanut shell-derived biochar water extracts showed no growth inhibition. With the use of electrodialysis, the pinewood-derived biochar water extract is separated into 3 fractions (anode-isolated, center chamber retained, and cathode-isolated substances) all with varying toxic effects. Because of its ultrahigh resolution and mass precision, electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) is utilized in this study to analyze biochar water extracts at a molecular level to enhance our understanding of the toxic nature of pinewood-derived biochar water extracts as compared to benign peanut shell-derived biochar water extracts. The molecular composition of pinewood-derived biochar water extracts shows unique carbohydrate ligneous components and sulfur containing condensed ligneous components that are both absent from the peanut shell water extracts and more prevalent in the anode-isolated substances. Using Kendrick mass defect analysis, we also determine that the most likely inhibitor species contain carboxyl and hydroxyl homologous series, both of which are characteristic functional groups hypothesized in our previous research for the inhibitor species. We have suggested that inhibition of aquatic photosynthetic microorganism growth is most likely due to degraded lignin-like species rich in oxygen containing functionalities. From the study conducted here, we show the potential of ultrahigh resolution FTICR-MS as a valuable analytical technique for determining whether certain biochars are safe and benign for use as carbon sequestration and soil amendment.

  1. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  2. Ultrastructural Characterization of Turnip Mosaic Virus-Induced Cellular Rearrangements Reveals Membrane-Bound Viral Particles Accumulating in Vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Juan; Basu, Kaustuv; Mui, Jeannie; Vali, Hojatollah; Zheng, Huanquan; Laliberté, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Positive-strand RNA [(+) RNA] viruses remodel cellular membranes to facilitate virus replication and assembly. In the case of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), the viral membrane protein 6K2 plays an essential role in endomembrane alterations. Although 6K2-induced membrane dynamics have been widely studied by confocal microscopy, the ultrastructure of this remodeling has not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the formation of TuMV-induced membrane changes by chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution (HPF/FS) for transmission electron microscopy at different times of infection. We observed the formation of convoluted membranes connected to rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) early in the infection process, followed by the production of single-membrane vesicle-like (SMVL) structures at the midstage of infection. Both SMVL and double-membrane vesicle-like structures with electron-dense cores, as well as electron-dense bodies, were found late in the infection process. Immunogold labeling results showed that the vesicle-like structures were 6K2 tagged and suggested that only the SMVL structures were viral RNA replication sites. Electron tomography (ET) was used to regenerate a three-dimensional model of these vesicle-like structures, which showed that they were, in fact, tubules. Late in infection, we observed filamentous particle bundles associated with electron-dense bodies, which suggests that these are sites for viral particle assembly. In addition, TuMV particles were observed to accumulate in the central vacuole as membrane-associated linear arrays. Our work thus unravels the sequential appearance of distinct TuMV-induced membrane structures for viral RNA replication, viral particle assembly, and accumulation. Positive-strand RNA viruses remodel cellular membranes for different stages of the infection process, such as protein translation and processing, viral RNA synthesis, particle assembly, and virus transmission. The

  3. Anti-fungal activity of cold and hot water extracts of spices against fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touba, Eslaminejad Parizi; Zakaria, Maziah; Tahereh, Eslaminejad

    2012-02-01

    Crude extracts of seven spices, viz. cardamom, chilli, coriander, onion, garlic, ginger, and galangale were made using cold water and hot water extraction and they were tested for their anti-fungal effects against the three Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani using the 'poisoned food technique'. All seven spices studied showed significant anti-fungal activity at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30% of the crude extract) in-vitro. The cold water extract of garlic exhibited good anti-fungal activity against all three tested fungi. In the case of the hot water extracts, garlic and ginger showed the best anti-fungal activity. Of the two extraction methods, cold water extraction was generally more effective than hot water extraction in controlling the pathogens. Against P. exigua, the 10% cold water extracts of galangale, ginger, coriander and cardamom achieved total (100%) inhibition of pathogen mycelial growth. Total inhibition of F. nygamai mycelial growth was similarly achieved with the 10% cold water extracts garlic. Against R. solani, the 10% cold water extract of galangale was effective in imposing 100% inhibition. Accordingly, the 10% galangale extract effectively controlled both P. exigua and R. solani in vitro. None of the hot water extracts of the spices succeeded in achieving 100% inhibition of the pathogen mycelial growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extractive fixed-site polymer sorbent for selective boron removal from natural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A; Shinde, Rakesh N; Pandey, Ashok K; Kumar, Sangita D; Reddy, A V R

    2013-09-15

    Water contamination by boron is a widespread environmental problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends maximum boron concentration of 2.4 mg L(-1) for drinking water. The paper presents a simple method for preparation of functionalized sheet sorbent for selective extraction of boron from natural water. The pores of commercially available poly(propylene) membrane were functionalized by room temperature in situ crosslinking of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) with a cyclic diamine piperazine. The precursor membranes were chemically modified with N-methyl D-glucamine which is selective for boron. Characterization of membrane was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) techniques. The functionalized membrane has been characterized in terms of parameters that influence the sorption of boron from aqueous streams like pH, uptake capacity, contact time, effects of competing ions and reusability. The maximum boron sorption capacity determined experimentally was 28 mg g(-1). The studies showed that trace concentrations of boron were quantitatively removed from water at neutral pH. The developed fixed site polymer sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and fast kinetics as compared to various sorbents reported in literature. It was successfully applied for the removal of boron from ground water and seawater samples in presence of high concentration of interfering ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraction, characterization and application of malva nut gum in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y C; Norli, I; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Morad, N

    2015-06-01

    In view of green developments in water treatment, plant-based flocculants have become the focus due to their safety, degradation and renewable properties. In addition, cost and energy-saving processes are preferable. In this study, malva nut gum (MNG), a new plant-based flocculant, and its composite with Fe in water treatment using single mode mixing are demonstrated. The result presents a simplified extraction of the MNG process. MNG has a high molecular weight of 2.3 × 10⁵ kDa and a high negative charge of -58.7 mV. From the results, it is a strong anionic flocculant. Moreover, it is observed to have a branch-like surface structure. Therefore, it conforms to the surface of particles well and exhibits good performance in water treatment. In water treatment, the Fe-MNG composite treats water at pH 3.01 and requires a low concentration of Fe and MNG of 0.08 and 0.06 mg/L, respectively, when added to the system. It is concluded that for a single-stage flocculation process, physico-chemical properties such as molecular weight, charge of polymer, surface morphology, pH, concentration of cation and concentration of biopolymeric flocculant affect the flocculating performance.

  6. Final Report - Energy Reduction and Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, John; Fanselow, Dan; Abbas, Charles; Sammons, Rhea; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-08-06

    3M and Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a novel membrane solvent extraction (MSE) process that can substantially reduce energy and water consumption in ethanol production, and accelerate the fermentation process. A cross-flow membrane module was developed, using porous membrane manufactured by 3M. A pilot process was developed that integrates fermentation, MSE and vacuum distillation. Extended experiments of 48-72 hours each were conducted to develop the process, verify its performance and begin establishing commercial viability.

  7. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Water Extractable Polysaccharides from Leaves of Plantago major L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukova Paolina K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Plantago major L. leaves have been used for centuries by the traditional medicine in the treatment of infectious disorders of the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. Researchers have reported that hot water extracts of Plantago major possess a broad-spectrum of anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Their beneficial properties may be due to the significant content of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides that have been isolated from the leaves of Plantago major L. have different structures – pectic substances, galactans, arabinogalactans, glucomannans.

  8. Skin Wound Healing Effects and Action Mechanism of Acai Berry Water Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Mi Hyun; Choi, Seunghye; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the wound healing effect of acai berry water extracts (ABWE) and a possible underlying mechanism involved in its action using various in vitro and in vivo models. The wound healing effect of ABWE was evaluated by migration assay using HS68 fibroblast cells. In addition, its effect on mRNA expression of procollagen, fibronectin, and MMP-1 was determined. Moreover, the wound healing effect of ABWE was evaluated in in vivo wound models through macrosc...

  9. Selective solid phase extraction of lanthanides from tap and river waters with ion imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Manel; Ndiaye, Massamba Mbacké; Pinta, Thomas; Pichon, Valérie; Vercouter, Thomas; Delaunay, Nathalie

    2017-04-22

    For the first time, an ion imprinted polymer (IIP) able to selectively extract simultaneously all the lanthanide ions was successfully synthesized in acetonitrile using Nd 3+ as a template ion, methacrylic acid as a complexing monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. A non-imprinted polymer (NIP) was synthesized under the same conditions as those of the IIP, but in the absence of the template ion. After the removal of the template ions, grounding and sieving, the IIP particles were packed in solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The selectivity of the IIP was evaluated by comparing its behavior with the one of the NIP. Each SPE step (percolation, washing, and elution) was optimized in order to find the best compromise between the selectivity and the extraction recoveries. Using the optimized SPE conditions, the extraction recoveries of eight lanthanide ions representative of the lanthanide family were higher than 77% with an average value of 83% with the IIP, whereas, in the case of the NIP, they ranged between 14 and 36% and they were below 3% for the interfering ions from alkali, transition, and post-transition metal families with the IIP. A first evaluation of the reproducibility of the SPE profiles was carried out by performing statistical tests on the data obtained with several cartridges filled with particles obtained from two different IIP and NIP syntheses. Promising results were obtained. The specific capacity, i. e. the adsorption capacity of Nd 3+ ions by the specific cavities of the imprinted polymer, was about 9 mg of Nd 3+ per gram of IIP (60 μmol g -1 ), which is more than enough for the extraction of the lanthanide ions at trace levels. The breakthrough volume was about 1 mL per mg of IIP, leading to an enrichment factor of 15, which allows not only to selectively extract the lanthanides but also to concentrate them. Finally, the imprinted polymer was successfully used to selectively extract lanthanides from tap and

  10. Extractive scintillating polymer sensors for trace-level detection of uranium in contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, Christine E. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clemson University, 127 Earle Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); DeVol, Timothy A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, 342 Computer Court, Anderson, SC 29625 (United States); Husson, Scott M., E-mail: shusson@clemson.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clemson University, 127 Earle Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This contribution describes the synthesis of robust extractive scintillating resin and its use in a flow-cell detector for the direct detection of uranium in environmental waters. The base poly[(4-methyl styrene)-co-(4-vinylbenzyl chloride)-co-(divinylbenzene)-co-(2-(1-napthyl)-4-vinyl-5-phenyloxazole)] resin contains covalently bound fluorophores. Uranium-binding functionality was added to the resin by an Arbuzov reaction followed by hydrolysis via strong acid or trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr)-mediated methanolysis. The resin was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry. Fluorophore degradation was observed in the resin hydrolyzed by strong acid, while the resin hydrolyzed by TMSBr-mediated methanolysis maintained luminosity and showed hydrogen bonding-induced Stokes' shift of ∼100 nm. The flow cell detection efficiency for uranium of the TMSBr-mediated methanolysis resin was evaluated at pH 4, 5 and 6 in DI water containing 500 Bq L{sup −1} uranium-233 and demonstrated flow cell detection efficiencies of 23%, 16% and 7%. Experiments with pH 4, synthetic groundwater with 50 Bq L{sup −1} uranium-233 exhibited a flow cell detection efficiency of 17%. The groundwater measurements show that the resins can concentrate the uranyl cation from waters with high concentrations of competitor ions at near-neutral pH. Findings from this research will lay the groundwork for development of materials for real-time environmental sensing of alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides. - Highlights: • Extractive scintillating resins synthesized with covalently bound fluor and ligand. • Methylphosphonic acid-derivitized resins characterized for optical properties. • Online detection of uranium in ground water demonstrated at near-neutral pH.

  11. Dietary Fiber Extraction from Defatted Corn Hull by Hot-Compressed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn hulls were abundant and inexpensive byproducts of the corn dry or wet milling processes, but most of them were discarded as agro-wastes. The aim of this study was to extract the dietary fiber by hot-compressed water (HCW from defatted corn hull and to determine the chemical properties. Results showed that temperature and time played critical roles in extraction efficiency; the maximal yield of dietary fiber A (DFA extracted by HCW reached 33.0% at 150°C for 60 min. The yield of dietary fiber B (DFB increased from 2.0% to 56.9% as the temperature increased from 110 to 180°C, while the yield of solid residue (SR decreased from 88.7% to 27.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results demonstrated that C-H, O-H, C=O, COO- occurred in the DFA, SR and DFB. The dietary fiber polysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and uronic acid.

  12. Bioautography and chemical characterization of antimicrobial compound(s) in commercial water-soluble annatto extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Cuspinera, Veronica; Rankin, Scott A

    2005-04-06

    Annatto preparations based on extracts of the seed of tropical bush Bixa orellana L consist of carotenoid-type pigments. Previous reports indicate that commercial annatto extracts have biological activities against microorganisms of significance to food fermentation, preservation, and safety. The objective of this study was to separate and identify the compound(s) responsible for the antimicrobial activity of annatto preparations. Commercial water-soluble annatto extracts were screened by thin-layer chromatography and bioautography followed by liquid chromatography/photodiode array/mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/MS) analysis of active fractions. Bioautography revealed two fractions with antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. LC/PDA/MS analysis of both fractions revealed 9'-cis-norbixin (UV(max) 460 and 489 nm) and all-trans-norbixin (UV(max) 287, 470, and 494 nm) as the major components. Structure confirmation was achieved by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Results indicate that 9'-cis-norbixin and all-trans-norbixin are responsible for the antimicrobial properties of annatto.

  13. Comparison of metals extractability from Al/Fe-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Bai, Leilei; Pei, Yuansheng; Wendling, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Recycling of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) as environment amendments has attracted substantial interest due to their productive reuse concomitant with waste minimization. In the present study, the extractability of metals within six Al/Fe-hydroxide-comprised WTRs collected throughout China was investigated using fractionation, in vitro digestion and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The results suggested that the major components and structure of the WTRs investigated were similar. The WTRs were enriched in Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg, also contained varying quantities of As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn, but Ag, Hg, Sb, and Se were not detected. Most of the metals within the WTRs were largely non-extractable using the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure, but many metals exhibited high bioaccessibility based on in vitro digestion. However, the WTRs could be classified as non-hazardous according to the TCLP assessment method used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Further analysis showed the communication factor, which is calculated as the ratio of total extractable metal by BCR procedure to the total metal, for most metals in the six WTRs, was similar, whereas the factor for Ba, Mn, Sr, and Zn varied substantially. Moreover, metals in the WTRs investigated had different risk assessment code. In summary, recycling of WTRs is subject to regulation based on assessment of risk due to metals prior to practical application.

  14. Non-cellulosic heteropolysaccharides from sugarcane bagasse - sequential extraction with pressurized hot water and alkaline peroxide at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Protibha Nath; Pranovich, Andrey; Dax, Daniel; Willför, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    The xylan-rich hemicellulose components of sugarcane bagasse were sequentially extracted with pressurized hot-water extraction (PHWE) and alkaline peroxide. The hemicelluloses were found to contain mainly arabinoxylans with varying substitutions confirmed by different chemical and spectroscopic methods. The arabinoxylans obtained from PHWE were found to be more branched compared to those obtained after alkaline extraction. Sequential extraction could be useful for the isolation of hemicelluloses with different degree of branching, molar mass, and functional groups from sugarcane bagasse, which can be of high potential use for various industrial applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction of water and solutes from argillaceous rocks for geochemical characterisation: Methods, processes and current understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Elisa; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Pitsch, Helmut; Lalieux, Philippe; Aranyossy, Jean-François

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a comprehensive critical review, initiated by the OECD/NEA "Clay Club," of the extraction techniques available to obtain water and solutes from argillaceous rocks. The paper focuses on the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the consequences on the isotopic and chemical composition of the extracted pore water and the attempts made to reconstruct its original composition. Finally, it provides some examples of reliable techniques and information, as a function of the purpose of the geochemical study. Résumé. Cet article résume les résultats d'une synthèse critique d'ensemble, lancée par le OECD/NEA "Clay Club", sur les techniques d'extraction disponibles pour obtenir l'eau et les solutés de roches argileuses. L'article est consacré aux mécanismes impliqués dans les processus d'extraction, aux conséquences sur la composition isotopique et chimique de l'eau porale extraite et aux tentatives faites pour reconstituer sa composition originelle. Finalement, il donne quelques exemples de techniques fiables et d'informations, en fonction du but de l'étude géochimique. Resúmen. Este artículo resume los resultados de una revisión crítica exhaustiva (iniciada por el "Clay Club" OECD/NEA) de las técnicas de extracción disponibles para obtener agua y solutos en rocas arcillosas. El artículo se centra en los mecanismos involucrados en los procesos extractivos, las consecuencias en la composición isotópica y química del agua intersticial extraída, y en los intentos realizados para reconstruir su composición original. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de técnicas fiables e información, en función del propósito del estudio geoquímico.

  16. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi F. Farias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the toxicity of seed water extracts of 15 leguminous species upon Aedes aegypti larvae. A partial chemical and biochemical characterization of water extracts, as well as the assessment of their acute toxicity in mice, were performed. The extracts of Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Piptadenia moniliformis caused 100% of mortalit y after 1 to 3 h of exposure. They showed LC50 and LC90 values ranging from 0.43 ± 0.01 to 9.06 ± 0.12 mg/mL and from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 13.03 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Among the secondary metabolite constituents, the seed water extracts showed tannins, phenols, flavones, favonols, xanthones, saponins and alkaloids. The extracts also showed high soluble proteins content (0.98 to 7.71 mg/mL, lectin (32 to 256 HU/mL and trypsin inhibitory activity (3.64 = 0.43 to 26.19 = 0.05 gIT/kg of flour The electrophoretic profiles showed a great diversity of protein bands, many of which already described as insecticide proteins. The extracts showed low toxicity to mice (LD50 > 0.15 = 0.01 g/kg body weight, but despite these promising results, further studies are necessary to understand the toxicity of these extracts and their constituentsfrom primary and secondary metabolism upon Ae. aegypti.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a toxicidade dos extratos aquosos de sementes de 15 espécies de leguminosas contra larvas de Aedes aegypti. Foi realizada uma caracterização química e bioquímica parcial dos extratos aquosos e a avaliação da toxicidade aguda em camundongos. Os extratos de Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum e Piptadenia moniliformis causaram 100% de mortalidade depois de 1 a 3 h de exposição e mostraram valores de CL50 e CL90 entre 0,43 = 0,01 e 9,06 ± 0,12 e entre 0,71 = 0,02 e 13,03 = 0,15 mg/mL, respectivamente. Dentre os constituintes do metabolismo secundário, os extratos

  17. Extraction of bioactive compounds from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) defatted seeds using water and ethanol under sub-critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoira, Romina; Velez, Alexis; Andreatta, Alfonsina E; Martínez, Marcela; Maestri, Damián

    2017-12-15

    Sesame seeds contain a vast array of lignans and phenolic compounds having important biological properties. An optimized method to obtain these seed components was designed by using water and ethanol at high pressure and temperature conditions. The maximum concentrations of lignans, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols compounds were achieved at 220°C extraction temperature and 8MPa pressure, using 63.5% ethanol as co-solvent. Under these conditions, the obtained sesame extracts gave the best radical scavenging capacity. Kinetic studies showed a high extraction rate of phenolic compounds until the first 50min of extraction, and it was in parallel with the highest scavenging capacity. The comparison of our results with those obtained under conventional extraction conditions (normal pressure, ambient temperature) suggests that recovery of sesame bioactive compounds may be markedly enhanced using water/ethanol mixtures at sub-critical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A NEW 2D OTSU FOR WATER EXTRACTION FROM SAR IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available SAR image segmentation is a crucial step that heavily influences the performance of image interpretation. The texture factor to replace the neighborhood mean dimension in the traditional Otsu method is proposed in this work, aiming at the problem that the SAR image has unique characteristics and the original 2D Otsu method only considers the pixel neighborhood mean information. In this paper, TerraSAR image with the single band and single polarization is used to water extraction. Firstly, the semantic function is used to analyze the structural characteristics of the sample image to determine the optimal parameters of the texture information extraction. Then, calculate the textural measures such as contrast, entropy, homogeneity, mean and second moment based on gray level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM method. The results are compared with the artificially marked images and the results of the original 2D Otsu.The experimental results achieve higher objective values, which shows the proposed algorithm using texture factor has a high practical value for SAR Image water segmentation.

  19. Solid phase extraction for determination of 90Sr in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometakova, J.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the use of an extraction chromatography for determination of 90 Sr in samples of contaminated water. The aim of the thesis was to compare selected products from the point of view of the strontium yields and time needed. Three commercial products: 3M Empore Strontium Rad Disk, AnaLig, Sr-Resin and two classical methods: liquid-liquid extraction with tributylphosphate and carbonate co-precipitation (to eliminate interferers) were used for separation of 90 Sr. The water sample was used in radiochemical analysis for determination volume activity of 90 Sr. A radiochemical strontium yield was traced by using radionuclide 85 Sr. Samples were counted over a two week period to monitor the ingrowth of 90 Y on TRI CARB LSC counter. Samples were measured using an HPGe detector to find out 85 Sr recoveries at 514 keV line and they were counted directly by Cherenkov counting after the growth of 90 Y using TriCarb LSC counter after a two- week period (author)

  20. Selective extraction of vanadium from the APV-precipitated waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui; Li, Hong-Yi; Tu, Chun-Bin; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Hai-Xing; Xie, Bing

    In the process of precipitating ammonium polyvanadate (APV) to produce vanadium pentoxide in Pan-steel in China, rest waste water usually contains about 24 333mg/L V(V), 2 100g/L Cr(VI),20 500mg/L Si(IV) and 20 100g/L Na2SO4. In order to recover valuable and also toxic metal ions contained in the waste water, effective extraction method of using anion exchange resin was realized to extract Vanadium selectively, leading to effective separation between vanadium and chromium. To ensure vanadium was absorbed by the resin, V(V) and Cr(VI) were reduced to V(IV) and Cr(III) by NaHSO3, respectively, and then V(IV) was oxidized by H2O2 to V(V) anions. Effects of temperature, solution pH, concentration of ions and absorbing time on vanadium absorption rate were investigated. Chromium was precipitated from rest solution while vanadium was eluted from resin by NaOH solution and then precipitated. Results showed that vanadium recovery of 73% could be obtained in optimized condition. The resin could be regenerated by 3% hydrochloric acid, which indicated the recyclability of the resin and thus low cost of this established method.

  1. The tRNA-like structure of Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA is a 3'-translational enhancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Daiki; Dreher, Theo W.

    2004-01-01

    Many positive stand RNA viral genomes lack the poly(A) tail that is characteristic of cellular mRNAs and that promotes translation in cis. The 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of such genomes are expected to provide similar translation-enhancing properties as a poly(A) tail, yet the great variety of 3' sequences suggests that this is accomplished in a range of ways. We have identified a translational enhancer present in the 3' UTR of Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RNA using luciferase reporter RNAs with generic 5' sequences transfected into plant cells. The 3' terminal 109 nucleotides comprising the tRNA-like structure (TLS) and an upstream pseudoknot (UPSK) act in synergy with a 5'-cap to enhance translation, with a minor contribution in stabilizing the RNA. Maximum enhancement requires that the RNA be capable of aminoacylation, but either the native valine or engineered methionine is acceptable. Mutations that decrease the affinity for translation elongation factor eEF1A (but also diminish aminoacylation efficiency) strongly decrease translational enhancement, suggesting that eEF1A is mechanistically involved. The UPSK seems to act as an important, though nonspecific, spacer element ensuring proper presentation of a functional TLS. Our studies have uncovered a novel type of translational enhancer and a new role for a plant viral TLS

  2. The nuclear inclusion a (NIa protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV cleaves amyloid-β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Eun Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nuclear inclusion a (NIa protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. NIa was previously shown to possess a relatively strict substrate specificity with a preference for Val-Xaa-His-Gln↓, with the scissile bond located after Gln. The presence of the same consensus sequence, Val(12-His-His-Gln(15, near the presumptive α-secretase cleavage site of the amyloid-β (Aβ peptide led us to hypothesize that NIa could possess activity against Aβ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Western blotting results showed that oligomeric as well as monomeric forms of Aβ can be degraded by NIa in vitro. The specific cleavage of Aβ was further confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. NIa was shown to exist predominantly in the cytoplasm as observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The overexpression of NIa in B103 neuroblastoma cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell death caused by both intracellularly generated and exogenously added Aβ. Moreover, lentiviral-mediated expression of NIa in APP(sw/PS1 transgenic mice significantly reduced the levels of Aβ and plaques in the brain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the degradation of Aβ in the cytoplasm could be a novel strategy to control the levels of Aβ, plaque formation, and the associated cell death.

  3. Genetic variation of the Turnip mosaic virus population of Vietnam: a case study of founder, regional and local influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Duc; Tran, Hoa Thi Nhu; Ohshima, Kazusato

    2013-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most important viruses infecting a wide range of plant species, primarily from the family Brassicaceae. Thirty TuMV isolates were collected from Brassica and Raphanus plants in Vietnam during 2006-2008. Host reaction studies showed that many of the isolates belonged to Brassica/Raphanus (BR) host-infecting type. Sequence-based phylogenetic and population genetic analyses were made of the complete polyprotein gene sequences, and of four non-recombinogenic regions of those sequences (i.e. genes of the helper-component proteinase protein, protein 3, nuclear inclusion b protein and coat protein). These were used to assess the subpopulation differentiation and divergence between Vietnamese TuMV populations and those of nearby Asian countries. Nine inter- and intralineage recombination type patterns were identified in the genomes of the Vietnamese isolates, of which seven were novel. All the Vietnamese non-recombinant isolates fell into the world-B group of TuMV and clustered with Chinese isolates. The estimates of genetic differentiation and gene flow reveal that the TuMV populations of Vietnam, China and Japan are genetically linked but have clear local founder effects. This, the first population genetic study of a TuMV population in Southeast Asia, indicates the importance of such studies for providing the scientific basis of control strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovative sampling and extraction methods for the determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Shivani; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

    2015-03-15

    Two different innovative approaches were used for the determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in water: stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and passive sampling, followed by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. SBSE was developed by comparing EG-Silicone and PDMS stir bars and optimizing main parameters to attain high preconcentration. Quantitative analysis was carried out by mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode and multiple reaction monitoring. The SBSE-LC-MS/MS method provided satisfactory figures of merit with LOD (7.5-71 ng L(-1)) and LOQ (22.5-213 ng L(-1)). The developed method was successfully applied to real samples collected from river water and wastewater effluents. The obtained results showed the presence of all analytes at trace levels, in a wide range of concentrations. The passive sampling approach was carried out by using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS); samplers were deployed for 15 days in river and tap water, allowing to detect analytes at ultra-trace levels. Time-Weighted Average concentration of NSAIDs in river water was estimated in the range 0.33-0.46 ng L(-1), using the sampling rates previously obtained by means of a simple calibration system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Water pollution risk associated with natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, Daniel J; Reaven, Sheldon J

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, shale gas formations have become economically viable through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. These techniques carry potential environmental risk due to their high water use and substantial risk for water pollution. Using probability bounds analysis, we assessed the likelihood of water contamination from natural gas extraction in the Marcellus Shale. Probability bounds analysis is well suited when data are sparse and parameters highly uncertain. The study model identified five pathways of water contamination: transportation spills, well casing leaks, leaks through fractured rock, drilling site discharge, and wastewater disposal. Probability boxes were generated for each pathway. The potential contamination risk and epistemic uncertainty associated with hydraulic fracturing wastewater disposal was several orders of magnitude larger than the other pathways. Even in a best-case scenario, it was very likely that an individual well would release at least 200 m³ of contaminated fluids. Because the total number of wells in the Marcellus Shale region could range into the tens of thousands, this substantial potential risk suggested that additional steps be taken to reduce the potential for contaminated fluid leaks. To reduce the considerable epistemic uncertainty, more data should be collected on the ability of industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facilities to remove contaminants from used hydraulic fracturing fluid. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Rhodiola-water extract induces β-endorphin secretion to lower blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Jing; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Cheng, Yung-Ze; Lin, Hung Jung; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2013-10-01

    Rhodiola rosea (Rhodiola) is grown at high altitudes and northern latitudes. It is mainly used clinically as an adaptogen, but antihypertensive effects have been reported for the extract. These have not been well investigated, so in the present study, we evaluated the effect of Rhodiola-water extract on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and investigated the potential mechanism(s) for this action. In conscious male SHRs, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate were recorded using the tail-cuff method. Plasma β-endorphin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rhodiola-water extract decreased SBP in SHRs in a dose-dependent manner, and this action was more significant than that in normal group named Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. This reduction of SBP in SHRs was inhibited by pretreatment with the selective opioid μ-receptor antagonist, cyprodime, but not by naloxonazine, an antagonist specific to opioid μ1-receptor. Also, the SBP-lowering action of Rhodiola-water extract was attenuated in adrenalectomized SHRs. Moreover, Rhodiola-water extract dose-dependently increased β-endorphin release in SHRs, and the elevation of β-endorphin in SHRs was higher than that in WKY. Thus, we suggest that Rhodiola-water extract can induce release of β-endorphin to lower SBP in SHRs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reduction of inflammatory hyperplasia in the intestine in colon cancer-prone mice by water-extract of Cistanche deserticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yamin; Guan, Qiunong; Guo, Yuhai; Du, Caigan

    2012-06-01

    Cistanche deserticola has commonly been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat many health problems including irritable bowel syndrome or constipation. This study was designed to test the efficacy of a water-extract of C. deserticola in the prevention of colorectal cancer in a mouse model. Polysaccharide-rich water-extract of C. deserticola was prepared by boiling its stem powder in distilled water. Tgfb1Rag2 null mice were used as an experimental model. Here we showed that feeding of water-extract of C. deserticola significantly reduced the number of mucosal hyperplasia and intestinal helicobacter infection in mice. This beneficial effect correlated with significant stimulation of the immune system, evidenced by the enlargement of the spleens with increased number of splenic macrophage and natural killer cells, and with more potent cytotoxicity of splenocytes. In vitro water-extract of C. deserticola enhanced the cytotoxicity of naïve splenocytes against a human colon cancer cell line, and in macrophage cultures up-regulated nitric oxide synthase II expression and stimulated phagocytosis. In conclusion, our data indicate that oral administration of C. deserticola extract reduces inflammatory hyperplastic polyps and helicobacter infection in mice by its immune-stimulatory activity, suggesting that C. deserticola extract may have potential in preventing intestinal inflammation disorders including colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The effects of adding agrimony and sage extracts to water on blood biochemistry and meat quality of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Supuka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the effects of supplementation of agrimony extract (Agrimonia eupatoria L. and a combination of agrimony with sage extract (Salvia officinalis L. to water during the fattening period of broiler chickens on selected biochemical and antioxidant indicators in blood, and on the nutritional composition and oxidative stability of meat. A total of 117 Cobb 500 chicks were randomly divided on the day of hatching into three groups (n = 39 in each and fattened for 42 days. All groups were fed the same diets. In experimental group A water was supplemented with agrimony extract (0.2%. In experimental group AS water was supplemented with a combination of agrimony (0.1% and sage (0.1% extracts. Group C was control without supplementation. The total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and malondialdehyde in serum were decreased (P P P < 0.05 in both experimental groups compared to control. Our results indicate that supplementation of agrimony and sage extract to water can beneficially influence the antioxidant status as well as oxidative stability of thigh meat and thus improve meat quality. This is a first similar study comparing addition of plant extracts to water in broiler nutrition.

  9. Pre-concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in river water using back extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesmawati, T. A.; Moelyo, M.; Rizqiani, A.; Tanuwidjaja, S.

    2017-03-01

    Dissolved heavy metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni in natural water can be the source of harmful contaminant for human health and aquatic life in aquatic systems. Particular treatment is needed for low concentration of metals in water samples using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS) measurement. The sample was collected from Cikapundung River in Siliwangi and Dayeuhkolot, Bandung. Back-extraction procedure was used as an alternative method for pre-concentration in trace metal analysis. Ammonium Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (APDC) and Diethylammonium Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDDC) in Methyl Isobuthyl Ketone (MIBK) were used as chelating agent. In this study, the application of back-extraction procedure using APDC/DDDC chelating agent in MIBK resulted the detection limit of 2.2 μg/L for Pb; 1.6 μg/L for Cd; and 1.0 μg/L for Ni. The result showed that sensitivity was increased 4 times for Pb, 6 times for Ni, and none for Cd. The highest concentration of Pb in Cikapundung River was found 8.0 μg/L. All Ni concentration in water samples were under limit of detection. Method validation was conducted in this study and found that the value of correlation coefficient (r) for Pb, Cd and Ni was 0.9995, 0.9960 and 0.9994, respectively. The recovery value for Pb, Cd and Ni were 112.0, 81.5 and 85.9%, respectively in Cikapundung River, and 119.0, 83.5 and 85.9 %, respectively, in groundwater samples. The value of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) for Pb, Cd and Ni in Cikapundung River were 2.01, 2.15 and 6.40%, respectively. On the other hand, the value of RSD of Pb, Cd and Ni in groundwater were 2.70, 3.30 and 7.69%, respectively. In conclusion, back-extraction method can be applied as pre-concentration for low concentration of Pb and Ni in river water samples.

  10. Insuring Water Sustainability for Resource Extraction in the New Mexico Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.; Schuhen, M. D.; Lofton, O. W.; Walker, L. T. N.; Johnson, P. B.; Land, L. A.; Herrell, D.

    2017-12-01

    Advancements in directional drilling and well completion technologies have resulted in an exponential growth in the use of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas extraction. Within the New Mexico portion of the Permian Basin (see figure), water demand to complete each hydraulically fractured well is estimated to average 7.3 acre-feet (2.4 million gallons), which has resulted in an increase in the regional water demand of over 5000 acre-feet per year. The rise in demand along with proposed rule changes that govern the regulation and management of hydraulic fracturing on Federal and Indian lands (40 CFS 3160) has created concern as to the regions ability to meet the demand in a manner that can sustainably meet the needs of the variety of water users and other stakeholders in the region while also protecting human health and the environment. Funded by the Bureau of Land Management who is charged with managing the regions water resources on Federal lands, this project is addressing those concerns using a multi-disciplinary approach that synthesizes data collection, field verification, and system dynamics (SD) modeling to better understand the dynamics of the regional water supply and demand under different management, policy, and growth scenarios. The scientific challenge has been in bringing together disparate data in a manner that exposes the temporal and spatial dynamics of the regional water supply in the context of increasing demands and changing policy and management scenarios. Field verification and testing activities are used to evaluate existing borehole data to insure that the data are accurate and up to date. The SD model simulates forecasted increases in drilling activity and water demand relative to each water source to identify areas that are most vulnerable and to estimate risk to water sustainability. Key to this is the models ability to seamlessly handle uncertainty such that it produces probabilistic outputs that allow decision makers to explore and

  11. Development of a selective molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid-phase extraction for indomethacin from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Li, Ya-Hui; Wei, Shuang; Li, Yuan; Deng, Anping

    2008-08-01

    A selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) for indomethacin (IDM) from water samples was developed. Using IDM as template molecule, acrylamide (AM) or methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as crosslinker, and bulk or suspension polymerization as the synthetic method, three molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized and characterized with a rebinding experiment. It was found that the MIP of AM-EDMA produced by bulk polymerization showed the highest binding capacity for IDM, and so it was chosen for subsequent experiments, such as those testing the selectivity and recognition binding sites. Scatchard analysis revealed that at least two kinds of binding sites formed in the MIP, with the dissociation constants of 7.8 micromol L(-1) and 127.2 micromol L(-1), respectively. Besides IDM, three structurally related compounds--acemetacin, oxaprozin and ibuprofen--were employed for selectivity tests. It was observed that the MIP exhibited the highest selective rebinding to IDM. Accordingly, the MIP was used as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the extraction and enrichment of IDM in water samples. The extraction conditions of the MISPE column for IDM were optimized to be: chloroform or water as loading solvent, chloroform with 20% acetonitrile as washing solution, and methanol as eluting solvent. Water samples with or without spiking were extracted by the MISPE column and analyzed by HPLC. No detectable IDM was observed in tap water and the content of IDM in a river water sample was found to be 1.8 ng mL(-1). The extraction efficiencies of the MISPE column for IDM in spiked tap and river water were acceptable (87.2% and 83.5%, respectively), demonstrating the feasibility of the prepared MIP for IDM extraction.

  12. Triaxial- and uniaxial-compression testing methods developed for extraction of pore water from unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mower, T.E.; Higgins, J.D.; Yang, I.C.

    1989-01-01

    To support the study of hydrologic system in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, two extraction methods were examined to obtain representative, uncontaminated pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff. Results indicate that triaxial compression, which uses a standard cell, can remove pore water from nonwelded tuff that has an initial moisture content greater than 11% by weight; uniaxial compression, which uses a specifically fabricated cell, can extract pore water from nonwelded tuff that has an initial moisture content greater than 8% and from welded tuff that has an initial moisture content greater than 6.5%. For the ambient moisture conditions of Yucca Mountain tuffs, uniaxial compression is the most efficient method of pore-water extraction. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Determination of parabens in house dust by pressurised hot water extraction followed by stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Noelia; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2011-09-16

    This study describes the development of a new method for determining p-hydroxybenzoic esters (parabens) in house dust. This optimised method was based on the pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) of house dust, followed by the acetylation of the extracted parabens, stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with a polydimethylsiloxane stir bar, and finally analysis using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The combination of SBSE and PHWE allows the analytes to be preconcentrated and extracted from the aqueous extract in a single step with minimal manipulation of the sample. Furthermore the in situ acetylation of parabens prior to SBSE improved their extraction efficiency and their GC-MS signal. The method showed recoveries of between 40 and 80%, good linearity, repeatability and reproducibility (paraben to 2.1 ng g(-1) for methyl paraben) and quantification (from 3.3 ng g(-1) for propyl paraben to 8.5 ng g(-1) for methyl paraben). The proposed method was applied to the analysis of house dust samples. All the target parabens were found in the samples. Methyl and propyl parabens were the most abundant, with concentrations up to 2440 ng g(-1) and 910 ng g(-1), respectively. The high levels of parabens found in the samples confirm the importance of determining organic contaminants in indoor environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Degradation effects in the extraction of antioxidants from birch bark using water at elevated temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michelle; Zettersten, Camilla; Nyholm, Leif; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-02-24

    Experiments with birch bark samples have been carried to enable a distinction between extraction and degradation effects during pressurised hot water extraction. Two samples, E80 and E180, contained birch bark extracts obtained after extraction at 80 and 180°C for up to 45 min, respectively. Two other samples, P80 and P180, were only extracted for 5 min at the two temperatures and were thereafter filtered and hydrothermally treated at 80 and 180°C, respectively. During the latter treatment, samples were collected at different times to assess the stability of the extracted compounds. An offline DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, as well as a high performance liquid chromatographic separation coupled to an electrochemical detector, were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the processed samples. The results obtained with the different techniques were compared to assess the yield of the extraction and degradation processes. In addition, an online hyphenated system comprising high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode-array; electrochemical; and tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ECD-MS/MS) was used to study the compositions of the extracts in more detail. The results for the samples processed at 80°C showed that the extraction reached a steady-state already after 5 min, and that the extracted compounds were stable throughout the entire extraction process. Processing at 180°C, on the other hand, gave rise to partly degraded extracts with a multitude of peaks in both the diode array and electrochemical detectors, and a higher antioxidant capacity compared to for the extracts obtained at 80°C. It is concluded that HPLC-DAD-ECD is a more appropriate technique for the determination of antioxidants than the DPPH assay. The mass spectrometric results indicate that one of the extracted antioxidants, catechin, was isomerised to its diastereoisomers; (+)-catechin, (-)-catechin, (+)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin. Copyright

  15. Emerging organic pollutants in the vadose zone of a soil aquifer treatment system: Pore water extraction using positive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopilniak, Alexander; Elkayam, Roy; Rossin, Anna Voloshenko; Lev, Ovadia

    2018-01-01

    Trace organic compounds in effluents, water streams and aquifers are amply reported. However, the mobile pool of Emerging Organic Contaminants (EOCs) in the deep parts of the vadose zone is hard to estimate, due to difficulties in extraction of sufficient quantity of pore water. Here, we present a new methodology for depth profiling of EOCs in pore water by Positive Displacement Extraction (PDE): Pore water extraction from unsaturated soil samples is carried out by withdrawal of soil cores by direct-push drilling and infiltrating the core by organics free water. We show that EOC concentrations in the water eluted in the plateau region of the inverse breakthrough curve is equal to their pore water concentrations. The method was previously validated for DOC extraction, and here the scope of the methodology is extended to pore water extraction for organic pollutants analysis. Method characteristics and validation were carried out with atrazine, simazine, carbamazepine, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine and caffeine in the concentration range of several ng to several μg/liter. Validation was carried out by laboratory experiments on three different soils (sandy, sandy-clayey and clayey). Field studies in the vadose zone of a SAT system provided 27 m deep EOC profiles with less than 1.5 m spatial resolution. During the percolation treatment, carbamazepine remained persistent, while the other studied EOCs were attenuated to the extent of 50-99%.The highest degradation rate of all studied EOCs was in the aerobic zone. EOC levels based on PDE and extraction by centrifugation were compared, showing a positive bias for centrifugation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraction and Separation of Trace Amounts Lead (П in Water Samples Using Nano Polyacrylonitril Modified Ethylendiamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and selective method for extraction of trace amounts of Pb (II in water samples based on the adsorption of its modification nano polyacrylonitrile fiber (PANF was examined in this study. PANF was prepared by adding acrylic fibers to ethylendiamin (EDA with different concentration solutions. A new technique using a solid phase extraction (SPE cartridge with modified PANF as sorbent was developed for the preconcentration of trace amounts of lead and was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. Ethylenediamine plays a key role as chelating reagent on ultrahigh specific surface of PANF. Some of the important parameters on the preconcentration and complex formation were selected and optimized. Under the optimized conditions the limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were 0.167, 0.562 and the proposed method has a good reproducibility 0.81% (RSD %. The enrichment factor was 200 and the percentage of recovery was in the range of 95-100%. The method was successfully applied to the recovery of Pb2+in different type of water samples. PANF and its derivate such as PANF-EDA in this study are full of potential to use as an excellent adsorbent in the extraction method like SPE and solid phase micro extraction (SPME. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso

  17. Bioluminescence inhibition assays for toxicity screening of wood extractives and biocides in paper mill process waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Anna; Latorre, Anna; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià

    2004-02-01

    The risk associated with wood extractives, biocides, and other additives in pulp and paper mill effluents was evaluated by performing a characterization of process waters and effluents in terms of toxicity and chemical analysis. The individual toxicity of 10 resin acids, two unsaturated fatty acids, and three biocides was estimated by measuring the bioluminescence inhibition with a ToxAlert 100 system. Median effective concentration values (EC50) of 4.3 to 17.9, 1.2 to 1.5, and 0.022 to 0.50 mg/L were obtained, respectively. Mixtures of these three families of compounds showed antagonistic effects. Chemical analysis of process waters was performed by liquid chromatography- and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Biocides such as 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzotiazole (TCMTB) (EC50 = 0.022 mg/L) and 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilpropionamide (DBNPA) (EC50 = 0.50 mg/L) were the most toxic compounds tested and were detected at concentrations of 16 and 59 microg/L, respectively, in a closed-circuit recycling paper mill. Process waters from kraft pulp mills, printing paper mills, and packing board paper mills showed the highest concentration of resin acids (up to 400 microg/L) and accounted for inhibition percentages up to 100%. Detergent degradation products such as nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) and the plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) were also detected in the waters at levels of 0.6 to 10.6, 0.3 to 1.4, and 0.7 to 187 microg/L, respectively. However, once these waters were biologically treated, the concentration of detected organic compounds diminished and the toxicity decreased in most cases to values of inhibition lower than 20%.

  18. The determination of molybdenum in sea water by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method with BMPP-iso-amyl alcohol extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Yoshifumi; Nakai, Toshio; Kawamura, Fumikazu

    1979-01-01

    A trace of molybdenum in sea water is determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using solvent extraction. Molybdenum (VI) is complexed with 4-benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-5-pyrazolone (BMPP) and extracted into iso-amyl alcohol. To find the optimum condition for the extraction of molybdenum, experiments are tried on the effects of pH, concentration of BMPP, and interference of divers ions. It is shown that extraction is complete in the pH range 1.0 - 3.0 at 0.2 w/v% BMPP concentration and that Na, K, Sr, Ca and Mg at high concentration have no effects on the extraction but in excess of 2 mg Fe(III), Cr(VI), and V(V) depress the absorbance of molybdenum markedly, probably because of complex formation or preferential extraction. One liter of sea water in which 10 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid is added is concentrated to 200 ml by heating and then filtered using Toyo Roshi No. 3 filter paper. The solution adjusted to pH 2.5 by the addition of sodium acetate is placed in a separatory funnel, and then extracted with 10 ml of 0.2 w/v% solution of BMPP in iso-amyl alcohol by shaking for 10 min. It is found out that the sea water samples contain 7 - 11 μg Mo/liter and the results are agreed well with those that have previously been published. (author)

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of dulse (Palmaria palmata) resulting from the simultaneous water-extraction of phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daeyoung; Nishizawa, Mizuho; Shimizu, Yutaka; Saeki, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    The use of dulse (Palmaria palmata) as a source of edible anti-inflammatory products was evaluated in this study. Phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a were simultaneously extracted from lyophilized dulse leaves via water-extraction, and subjected to thermolysin digestion to produce thermolysin-digested water-extract (d-DWE). d-DWE significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells), and orally administered d-DWE mitigated acute inflammation in carrageenan-induced paw edema of mice. Mass spectrometry revealed d-DWE contained peptide LRDGEIILRY (derived from phycoerythrin β-chain) and chlorophyll a decomposition products, and they individually reduced the secretion of the proinflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate the anti-inflammatory activity could be from a combined effect of phycobiliprotein and chlorophyll a decomposition products prepared from the water-extract of dulse. Thus, inexpensive and safe water-extraction method is effective for the extraction of anti-inflammatory components from dulse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure followed by spectrofluorimetry to determine carbaryl in different water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabrizi, Ahad Bavili, E-mail: a.bavili@tbzmed.ac.ir, E-mail: abavilitabrizia@gmail.com [Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Mohammad Reza [Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ostadi, Hadi [Department of Chemistry, Payam-e-noor University, Ardabil Branch, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this study, a new method based on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) has been developed for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of carbaryl from environmental water samples. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs were synthesized and modified by the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), then successfully applied for the extraction of carbaryl and its determination by spectrofluorimetry. Main factors affecting the adsolubilization of carbaryl such as the amount of SDS, pH value, standing time, desorption solvent and maximal extraction volume were optimized. Under the selected conditions, carbaryl could be quantitatively extracted. Acceptable recoveries (84.5-91.9%) and relative standard deviations (6.2%) were achieved in analyzing spiked water samples. A concentration factor of 20 was achieved by the extraction of 100 mL of environmental water samples. The limit of detection and quantification were found to be 2.1 and 6.9 μg L{sup -1}, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of carbaryl in environmental water samples. (author)

  1. Characterization and Utilization of Tannin Extract for the Selective Adsorption of Ni (II Ions from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Meethale Kunnambath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper studies the preparation of a new tannin gel from Acacia nilotica for water purification and waste water remediation. Design of experiments is used for optimizing the tannin gel using tannin extract (Taguchi method with formaldehyde in the assistance of microwave (TGAN by the help of iodine number. The feasible combinations were tested in the removal of nickel from simulated and river water. In this study, the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, and initial metal concentration on Ni (II biosorption on modified Acacia nilotica tannin gel (TGAN was investigated. Tannin gel was characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, and EDAX. The kinetic data was tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion model. The results suggested that the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.998 was the best choice among all the kinetic models describing the adsorption behavior of Ni (II onto TGAN. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models were used to represent the equilibrium data. The best interpretation for the experimental data was given by the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity 250 mg g−1 of Ni (II was obtained at pH 5.04 at 296 K. Adsorption of Ni (II onto TGAN is confirmed qualitatively by the use of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The BOD and COD values are considerably reduced after adsorption.

  2. Hydrological Drought in the Anthropocene: Impacts of Local Water Extraction and Reservoir Regulation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenhua; Zhao, Jianshi; Li, Hong-Yi; Mishra, Ashok; Ruby Leung, L.; Hejazi, Mohamad; Wang, Wei; Lu, Hui; Deng, Zhiqun; Demissisie, Yonas; Wang, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Hydrological drought is a substantial negative deviation from normal hydrologic conditions and is influenced by climate and human activities such as water management. By perturbing the streamflow regime, climate change and water management may significantly alter drought characteristics in the future. Here we utilize a high-resolution integrated modeling framework that represents water management in terms of both local surface water extraction and reservoir regulation and use the Standardized Streamflow Index to quantify hydrological drought. We explore the impacts of water management on hydrological drought over the contiguous U.S. in a warming climate with and without emissions mitigation. Despite the uncertainty of climate change impacts, local surface water extraction consistently intensifies drought that dominates at the regional to national scale. However, reservoir regulation alleviates drought by enhancing summer flow downstream of reservoirs. The relative dominance of drought intensification or relief is largely determined by the water demand, with drought intensification dominating in regions with intense water demand such as the Great Plains and California, while drought relief dominates in regions with low water demand. At the national level, water management increases the spatial extent of extreme drought despite some alleviations of moderate to severe drought. In an emissions mitigation scenario with increased irrigation demand for bioenergy production, water management intensifies drought more than the business-as-usual scenario at the national level, so the impacts of emissions mitigation must be evaluated by considering its benefit in reducing warming and evapotranspiration against its effects on increasing water demand and intensifying drought.

  3. Purification of simulated waste water using green synthesized silver nanoparticles of Piliostigma thonningii aqueous leave extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, K. O.; Ihebunna, O.

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis of nanoparticles from various biological systems has been reported, but among all such systems, biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plants is considered the most suitable method. The use of plant material not only makes the process eco-friendly, but also the abundance makes it more economical. The aim of this study was to biologically synthesize silver nanoparticle using Piliostigma thonningii aqueous leaf extract and applied in the purification of laboratory stimulated waste with optimization using the different conditions of silver nanoparticle production such as time, temperature, pH, concentration of silver nitrate and volume of the aqueous extract. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, nanosizer, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The time intervals for the reaction with aqueous silver nitrate solution shows an increase in the absorbance with time and became constant giving a maximum absorbance at 415 nm at 60 min of incubation. The pH of 6.5, temperature 65 °C, 1.25 mM of silver nitrate and 5 ml of plant extract was the best condition with maximum absorbance. The results from nanosizer, UV-vis and TEM suggested the biosynthesis silver nanoparticle to be spherical ranging from 50 nm to 114 nm. The EDX confirmed the elemental synthesis of silver at 2.60 keV and FTIR suggested the capping agent to be hydroxyl (OH) group with -C=C stretching vibrations. The synthesized silver nanoparticle also shows heavy metal removal activity in laboratory simulated waste water. The safety toxicity studies show no significant difference between the orally administered silver nanoparticles treated water group and control group, while the histopathological studies show well preserved hepatic architecture for the orally administered silver nanoparticle treated waste water group when compared with the control

  4. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2017-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The bioregional assessment programme has modelled the impacts of coal seam gas development on surface and groundwater resources in three regions of eastern Australia, namely the Clarence-Moreton, Gloucester, and Namoi regions. This presentation will discuss the

  5. Simultaneous extraction and concentration of water pollution tracers using ionic-liquid-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Teresa B V; Passos, Helena; Lima, Diana L D; Sousa, Ana C A; Coutinho, João A P; Esteves, Valdemar I; Freire, Mara G

    2017-07-29

    Human activities are responsible for the release of innumerous substances into the aquatic environment. Some of these substances can be used as pollution tracers to identify contamination sources and to prioritize monitoring and remediation actions. Thus, their identification and quantification are of high priority. However, due to their presence in complex matrices and at significantly low concentrations, a pre-treatment/concentration step is always required. As an alternative to the currently used pre-treatment methods, mainly based on solid-phase extractions, aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and K 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 are here proposed for the simultaneous extraction and concentration of mixtures of two important pollution tracers, caffeine (CAF) and carbamazepine (CBZ). An initial screening of the IL chemical structure was carried out, with extraction efficiencies of both tracers to the IL-rich phase ranging between 95 and 100%, obtained in a single-step. These systems were then optimized in order to simultaneously concentrate CAF and CBZ from water samples followed by HPLC-UV analysis, for which no interferences of the ABS phase-forming components and other interferents present in a wastewater effluent sample have been found. Based on the saturation solubility data of both pollution tracers in the IL-rich phase, the maximum estimated concentration factors of CAF and CBZ are 28595- and 8259-fold. IL-based ABS can be thus envisioned as effective pre-treatment techniques of environmentally-related aqueous samples for a more accurate monitoring of mixtures of pollution tracers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water Extract of Ashwagandha Leaves Limits Proliferation and Migration, and Induces Differentiation in Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kataria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Root extracts of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha are commonly used as a remedy for a variety of ailments and a general tonic for overall health and longevity in the Indian traditional medicine system, Ayurveda. We undertook a study to investigate the anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing activities in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX by examining in glioma cells. Preliminary detection for phytochemicals was performed by thin-layer chromatography. Cytotoxicity was determined using trypan blue and MTT assays. Expression level of an hsp70 family protein (mortalin, glial cell differentiation marker [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP] and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Anti-migratory assay was also done using wound-scratch assay. Expression levels of mortalin, GFAP and NCAM showed changes, subsequent to the treatment with ASH-WEX. The data support the existence of anti-proliferative, differentiation-inducing and anti-migratory/anti-metastasis activities in ASH-WEX that could be used as potentially safe and complimentary therapy for glioma.

  7. Extraction of citral oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) by steam-water distillation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, P. N.; Husin, H.; Asnawi, T. M.; Adisalamun

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, production of citral oil from lemon grass (Cymbopogon Cytratus) is done by a traditional technique whereby a low yield results. To improve the yield, an appropriate extraction technology is required. In this research, a steam-water distillation technique was applied to extract the essential oil from the lemongrass. The effects of sample particle size and bed volume on yield and quality of citral oil produced were investigated. The drying and refining time of 2 hours were used as fixed variables. This research results that minimum citral oil yield of 0.53% was obtained on sample particle size of 3 cm and bed volume of 80%, whereas the maximum yield of 1.95% on sample particle size of 15 cm and bed volume of 40%. The lowest specific gravity of 0.80 and the highest specific gravity of 0.905 were obtained on sample particle size of 8 cm with bed volume of 80% and particle size of 12 cm with bed volume of 70%, respectively. The lowest refractive index of 1.480 and the highest refractive index of 1.495 were obtained on sample particle size of 8 cm with bed volume of 70% and sample particle size of 15 cm with bed volume of 40%, respectively. The solubility of the produced citral oil in alcohol was 70% in ratio of 1:1, and the citral oil concentration obtained was around 79%.

  8. Affinity extraction of emerging contaminants from water based on bovine serum albumin as a binding agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastavros, Efthimia; Remmers, Rachael A; Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David A; Hage, David S

    2018-03-01

    Affinity sorbents using bovine serum albumin as a binding agent were developed and tested for the extraction of environmental contaminants from water. Computer simulations based on a countercurrent distribution model were also used to study the behavior of these sorbents. Several model drugs, pesticides, and hormones of interest as emerging contaminants were considered in this work, with carbamazepine being used as a representative analyte when coupling the albumin column on-line with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The albumin column was found to be capable of extracting carbamazepine from aqueous solutions that contained trace levels of this analyte. Further studies of the bovine serum albumin sorbent indicated that it had higher retention under aqueous conditions than a traditional C 18 support for most of the tested emerging contaminants. Potential advantages of using these protein-based sorbents included the low cost of bovine serum albumin and its ability to bind to a relatively wide range of drugs and related compounds. It was also shown how simulations could be used to describe the elution behavior of the model compounds on the bovine serum albumin sorbents as an aid in optimizing the retention and selectivity of these supports for use with liquid chromatography or methods such as liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp. Bark Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Durak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia. Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study.

  10. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp. and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01 and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.. CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.

  11. Determination of nanomolar chromate in drinking water with solid phase extraction and a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Yang, Bo; Byrne, Robert H

    2012-06-15

    Determination of chromate at low concentration levels in drinking water is an important analytical objective for both human health and environmental science. Here we report the use of solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with a custom-made portable light-emitting diode (LED) spectrophotometer to achieve detection of chromate in the field at nanomolar levels. The measurement chemistry is based on a highly selective reaction between 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) and chromate under acidic conditions. The Cr-DPC complex formed in the reaction can be extracted on a commercial C18 SPE cartridge. Concentrated Cr-DPC is subsequently eluted with methanol and detected by spectrophotometry. Optimization of analytical conditions involved investigation of reagent compositions and concentrations, eluent type, flow rate (sample loading), sample volume, and stability of the SPE cartridge. Under optimized conditions, detection limits are on the order of 3 nM. Only 50 mL of sample is required for an analysis, and total analysis time is around 10 min. The targeted analytical range of 0-500 nM can be easily extended by changing the sample volume. Compared to previous SPE-based spectrophotometric methods, this analytical procedure offers the benefits of improved sensitivity, reduced sample consumption, shorter analysis time, greater operational convenience, and lower cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Potent antioxidative and UVB protective effect of water extract of Eclipta prostrata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chin-Feng; Huang, Wen-Ying; Guo, Hong-Yi; Wang, Bo Rong

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, including Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced skin damage, is involved in numerous diseases. This study demonstrates that water extract of Eclipta prostrata L. (WEP) has a potent effect in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radicals, and chelating ferrous ion, exhibiting IC50 values of 0.23 mg/mL, 0.48 mg/mL, and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively. The WEP total phenol content was 176.45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g sample. Chlorogenic acid, a component of the plant's active ingredients, was determined by HPLC and antioxidative assay. However, no caffeic acid, stigmasterol, or wedelolactone was present in WEP. WEP absorbs both UVA and UVB irradiation, and furthermore, the extract shows a dose-dependent response in the protection of HaCaT human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts 3T3 cells against UVB-induced cytotoxicity, which may result from a synergistic effect between chlorogenic acid and other active components present in WEP.

  13. Antiglycemic Effect of Water Extractable Arabinoxylan from Wheat Aleurone and Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovemore Nkhata Malunga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the effects of arabinoxylan (AX polysaccharides on postprandial glucose response have resulted in contrasting results owing to the diversity in AX structures. Four water extractable AX (WEAX extracts obtained from wheat aleurone and bran were used to investigate (a the effect of AX on activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, (b influence of AX chemical composition on their inhibition potency, and (c kinetics of enzyme inhibition. α-Amylase activity was not significantly affected by the presence WEAX fractions regardless of type or concentration. WEAX inhibited α-glucosidase activity only when maltose was used as a substrate but not sucrose. The IC50 values of WEAX (4.88±0.3–10.14±0.5 mg/mL were highly correlated to ferulic acid content (R=-0.89, arabinose to xylose ratio (R=-0.67, and relative proportions of xylose being unsubstituted (R=0.69, disubstituted (R=-0.63, and monosubstituted (R=-0.76. The Lineweaver–Burk plot suggested an uncompetitive enzyme inhibition mode. Thus, our results suggest that antiglycemic properties of WEAX may be derived from direct inhibition of α-glucosidase activity.

  14. Water-Soluble Polysaccharide Extracts from the Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes) with HMGCR Inhibitory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Ramirez, Alicia; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Morales, Diego; Govers, Coen; Synytsya, Andriy; Wichers, Harry J; Iacomini, Marcello; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Water extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus containing no statins showed 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitory activity (in vitro) that might be due to specific water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPs); when isolated and deproteinized, increasing concentrations of the WSP extract induced higher inhibition. The WSP extract contained mainly β-glucans, mannogalactans, and glycogen (e.g., α-glucans), although derivatives or fragments with lower molecular weights (between 14 and 3.5 kDa) were present and were able to induce the inhibitory activity. The extract contained more β-(1→3)-glucans than β-(11→3),(11→6)-glucans, and they partially survived digestion and managed to pass through Caco2 cell monolayers to the lower compartment after in vitro digestion and transport experiments. The WSP might also modulate Caco2 membrane integrity.

  15. Cactus (Opuntia humifusa) water extract ameliorates loperamide-induced constipation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Hee; Park, Kyungmi; Kim, Eun Young; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-01-17

    Korean cactus Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) is rich in pectin, phenols, flavonoids, and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. Some Koreans drink Cheonnyuncho juice prepared by grinding Cheonnyuncho with water. Cheonnyuncho is well known for its functional properties and antioxidant effects, but its effect on constipation has not been sufficiently studied. Loperamide (2 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to induce constipation in rats. The animals were divided into four groups: a normal group (NOR), constipation control group (CON), and two constipation groups receiving the Cheonnyuncho extract (CE) at two different concentrations in drinking water, 3% (L-CE group) and 6% (H-CE group), for 25 days. The fecal pellet numbers of NOR and L-CE were significantly increased from 35.67 ± 2.09 (CON) to 50.60 ± 1.38 and 46.50 ± 2.91 after loperamide treatment, respectively (p < 0.05). The water content of fecal excretions was significantly enhanced in only the L-CE group (33.05 ± 0.49%) compared to control (23.38 ± 1.26%) (p < 0.05) after loperamide treatment. The oral intake of CE (L-CE and H-CE groups) significantly increased levels of the intestinal transit ratio (45.25 ± 1.86% and 41.05 ± 2.47%, respectively) compared to the CON group (32.15 ± 2.05%) (p < 0.05). Treatment with the low concentration of CE significantly increased fecal levels of acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids, as well as the total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration. Histological analyses revealed that the thickness of the distal colon also increased in the CE-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Constipation decreased when CE was fed to the rats. In particular, the fecal pellet number and water content, as well as histological parameters such as distal colon thickness, improved. The CE treatment also increased the fecal SCFA content. These results show that the extract of Cheonnyuncho (O. humifusa) alleviated the

  16. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Analysis of the Calcineurin B-like Protein and Calcineurin B-like Protein-Interacting Protein Kinase Gene Families in Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL–CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK complex has been identified as a primary component in calcium sensors that perceives various stress signals. Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa has been widely cultivated in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau for a century as a food crop of worldwide economic significance. These CBL–CIPK complexes have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, no report is available on the genome-wide characterization of these two gene families in turnip. In the present study, 19 and 51 members of the BrrCBL and BrrCIPK genes, respectively, are first identified in turnip and phylogenetically grouped into three and two distinct clusters, respectively. The expansion of these two gene families is mainly attributable to segmental duplication. Moreover, the differences in expression patterns in quantitative real-time PCR, as well as interaction profiles in the yeast two-hybrid assay, suggest the functional divergence of paralog genes during long-term evolution in turnip. Overexpressing and complement lines in Arabidopsis reveal that BrrCBL9.2 improves, but BrrCBL9.1 does not affect, salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Thus, the expansion of the BrrCBL and BrrCIPK gene families enables the functional differentiation and evolution of some new gene functions of paralog genes. These paralog genes then play prominent roles in turnip's adaptation to the adverse environment of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Overall, the study results contribute to our understanding of the functions of the CBL–CIPK complex and provide basis for selecting appropriate genes for the in-depth functional studies of BrrCBL–BrrCIPK in turnip.

  17. Retention and loss of water extractable carbon in soils: effect of clay properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung-Ta; Marschner, Petra

    2014-02-01

    Clay sorption is important for organic carbon (C) sequestration in soils, but little is known about the effect of different clay properties on organic C sorption and release. To investigate the effect of clay content and properties on sorption, desorption and loss of water extractable organic C (WEOC), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, a loamy sand alone (native) or mixed with clay isolated from a surface or subsoil (78 and 96% clay) resulting in 90, 158 and 175 g clay kg(-1) soil. These soil treatments were leached with different WEOC concentrations, and then CO2 release was measured for 28 days followed by leaching with reverse osmosis water at the end of experiment. The second experiment was conducted to determine WEOC sorption and desorption of clays isolated from the loamy sand (native), surface soil and subsoil. Addition of clays isolated from surface and subsoil to sandy loam increased WEOC sorption and reduced C leaching and cumulative respiration in percentage of total organic C and WEOC added when expressed per g soil and per g clay. Compared to clays isolated from the surface and subsoil, the native clay had higher concentrations of illite and exchangeable Ca(2+), total organic C and a higher CEC but a lower extractable Fe/Al concentration. This indicates that compared to the clay isolated from the surface and the subsoil, the native clay had fewer potential WEOC binding sites because it had lower Fe/Al content thus lower number of binding sites and the existing binding sites are already occupied native organic matter. The results of this study suggest that in the soils used here, the impact of clay on WEOC sorption and loss is dependent on its indigenous organic carbon and Fe and/or Al concentrations whereas clay mineralogy, CEC, exchangeable Ca(2+) and surface area are less important. © 2013.

  18. Antihyperglycaemic potential of the water-ethanol extract of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, René; Mboumi, Rostand Youmbi; Fondjo, Angèle Foyet; Tagne, Michel Archange Fokam; N'dillé, Gabriel Patrice Roland Mengue; Yonkeu, Jeanne Ngogang

    2008-01-01

    Kalanchoe crenata is a vegetable widely used in Cameroon and largely efficient in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of the water-ethanol extract of this plant (WEKC) on blood glucose levels was investigated in fasting normal and diet-induced diabetic rats (MACAPOS 1) after a short- and medium-term treatment. Diabetes was induced by submitting Wistar rats to a hypercaloric sucrose diet over 4 months. Six hours after a single oral administration of WEKC, 135 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight extracts significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the blood glucose levels both in normal and diabetic rats without real dose-dependent effect. During the medium-term treatment, 200 mg kg(-1) WEKC administered daily for 4 weeks significantly reduced blood glucose levels within week 1 (P < 0.05), with a maximum effect at week 4 (-52%, P < 0.01), while maintaining glycaemia within the normal range. All the WEKC-treated diabetic rats exhibited significant (P < 0.01) increase in insulin sensitivity index (K (ITT)) compared with the initial time and to the untreated diabetic animals. Animals treated for 4 weeks exhibited a slight resistance in body-weight gain and decrease in food and water intake. The WEKC activities on all parameters assessed were comparable with the glibenclamide effects. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that K. crenata contains terpenoids, tannins, polysaccharids, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. The data suggest that K. crenata might contain important chemical components that could induce significant improvement in glucose clearance and/or uptake and resistance to body-weight gain and insulin sensitivity, and could be a potent alternative or complementary therapeutic substance in the control of type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant conditions.

  19. Modification of propranolol's bioavailability by Eurycoma longifolia water-based extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, S A B; Amrah, S; Wahab, M S A; Ismail, Z; Ismail, R; Yuen, K H; Gan, S H

    2010-12-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia), a herb commonly consumed for its aphrodisiac properties, is widely used by Asian males. This may include hypertensive patients receiving propranolol which may cause sexual dysfunction as one of its side-effects. There is no published study of the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between propranolol and the herb. To study propranolol's pharmacokinetics when E. longifolia is consumed, comparing volunteers given either propranolol or a placebo. This is a placebo-controlled randomized single-blinded crossover study of the effect of a water-based extract of E. longifolia on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of proporanolol (Inderal(®)) in 14 healthy non-smoker young males. Eighty milligram of propranonol was orally administered with (i) placebo (Lactose) or (ii) 200 mg of water-based extract of E. longifolia (0·0272 ± 0·0026%eurycomanone) following an overnight fasting. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0·5, 1, 1·5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h for propranolol's plasma concentration determinations using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. When propranolol was administered with E. longifolia, its bioavailability (AUC0-∞) decreased by 29% while C(max) was reduced by 42% and T(max) was significantly prolonged by almost 86%. The terminal elimination half-life, however, was not significantly affected. The bioavailability of propranolol is significantly decreased when consumed together with E. longifolia. The interaction is due to a reduction in absorption, rather than an increase in propranolol's metabolism. Although the pharmacodynamics of propranolol was not affected in healthy volunteers, caution is still advisable with co-administration of the drug and the herb. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Extraction of gold and mercury from sea water with bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate prior to neutron activation-. gamma. -spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.C.; Lo, J.M.; Wai, C.M. (Idaho Univ. Moscow (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1983-11-01

    Gold and mercury in sea water can be selectively extracted by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate into chloroform at pH <= 1. The matrix species and many other trace elements in the system are effectively removed during extraction. When neutron activation-..gamma..-spectrometry is used, the detection limits for gold and mercury are 0.001 and 0.01 ..mu..g l/sup -1/, respectively. The relative precision is 9% for gold and 13% for mercury.

  1. Exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as an alternative carbon source: the effect of peptone, yeast extract and beef extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Seesuriyachan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water (CW is a by-product of food industry and has little value in Thailand. It is usually discarded as a wasteinto the environment. Consequently, we developed a value added process of exopolysaccharide (EPS production usingLactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 and coconut water. The effect of three expensive supplements (peptone, yeast extractand beef extract on EPS and biomass production was investigated at 35°C for 24 h. Using a mod-MRS-CW medium, preparedby replacing the de-ionized water with 100% CW and supplemented with 20 g/l crystalline sucrose and a reduced quantity(50% of the three expensive supplements (5 g/l of peptone, 2.5 g/l of yeast extract, and 2.5 g/l of beef extract gave thehighest yield of EPS (12.3 g/l. By optimizing the conditions for fermentation (pH 5.5, agitation speed at 50 rpm and initialsucrose concentration of 100 g/l, EPS yield increased up to 38.2 g/l. When compared with the modified MRS medium, themedium supplemented with CW was found to be suitable for the reduction of cost spent on the organic nitrogen and growthfactors (savings close to 50%.

  2. Development and Validation of a HPLC-UV Method for Extraction Optimization and Biological Evaluation of Hot-Water and Ethanolic Extracts of Dendropanax morbifera Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Jae Choi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae has been used in traditional oriental remedies for cancer, inflammation, diabetes, and thrombosis. However, a validated analytical method, standardization, and optimization of extraction conditions with respect to biological activity have not been reported. In this study, a simple and validated HPLC method for identifying and quantifying active substances in D. morbifera was developed. Hot water and ethanolic D. morbifera leaf extracts from different production regions were prepared and evaluated with regard to their chemical compositions and biological activities. The contents of active compounds such as rutin and chlorogenic acid were determined in four samples collected from different regions. The 80% ethanolic extract showed the best antioxidant activity, phenolic content, reducing power, and xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitory activity. The validated HPLC method confirmed the presence of chlorogenic acid and rutin in D. morbifera leaf extracts. The antioxidant and XO inhibitory activity of D. morbifera extract could be attributed to the marker compounds. Collectively, these results suggest that D. morbifera leaves could be beneficial for the treatment or prevention of hyperuricemia-related disease, and the validated HPLC method could be a useful tool for the quality control of food or drug formulations containing D. morbifera.

  3. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAHID DASTJERDI, Elahe; ABDOLAZIMI, Zahra; GHAZANFARIAN, Marzieh; AMDJADI, Parisa; KAMALINEJAD, Mohammad; MAHBOUBI, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Methods: Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7–100%, 40.6–99.9%, 85.2–86.5%, 66.4–84.4% and 35.5–56.3% respectively. Conclusion: Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting. PMID:26171362

  4. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Ghazanfarian, Marzieh; Amdjadi, Parisa; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mahboubi, Arash

    2014-12-01

    Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7-100%, 40.6-99.9%, 85.2-86.5%, 66.4-84.4% and 35.5-56.3% respectively. Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting.

  5. Replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA of lucerne transient streak virus are supported in divergent hosts by cocksfoot mottle virus and turnip rosette virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, O P; Sinha, R C; Gellatly, D L; Ivanov, I; AbouHaidar, M G

    1993-04-01

    Cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus supports replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA (sat-RNA) of lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in two monocotyledonous species, Triticum aestivum and Dactylis glomerata. Additionally, LTSV sat-RNA replicates effectively in the presence of turnip rosette sobemovirus in Brassica rapa, Raphanus raphanistrum and Sinapsis arvensis, but not in Thlaspi arvense or Nicotiana bigelovii, indicating that host species markedly influence this interaction. Previous reports of the association between LTSV sat-RNA and helper sobemoviruses were limited to dicotyledonous hosts. Our results demonstrate that the biological interaction between these two entities spans divergent dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species.

  6. Genetic control of immunity to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) pathotype 1 in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydiate, Derek J; Pilcher, Rachel L Rusholme; Higgins, Erin E; Walsh, John A

    2014-08-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is the major virus infecting crops of the genus Brassica worldwide. A dominant resistance gene, TuRB01b, that confers immunity to the virus isolate UK 1 (a representative pathotype 1 isolate of TuMV) on Brassica rapa was identified in the Chinese cabbage cultivar Tropical Delight. The TuRB01b locus was mapped to a 2.9-cM interval on B. rapa chromosome 6 (A6) that was flanked by RFLP markers pN101e1 and pW137e1. This mapping used a first backcross (B(1)) population segregating for the resistance gene at TuRB01b and sets of RFLP markers employed in previous mapping experiments in Brassica. Virus-plant interaction phenotypes were assayed in inbred progeny derived from B(1) individuals to allow different virus isolates to be tested. Comparative mapping confirmed that A6 of B. rapa was equivalent to chromosome 6 of Brassica napus (A6) and that the map position of TuRB01b in B. rapa could be identical to that of TuRB01 in B. napus. Detailed evaluation of plant-virus interactions showed that TuRB01 and TuRB01b had indistinguishable specificities to a range of TuMV isolates. The possibility that TuRB01 and TuRB01b represent similar or identical alleles at the same A genome resistance locus suggests that B. napus acquired TuRB01 from the B. rapa gene pool.

  7. Disruption of Ethylene Responses by Turnip mosaic virus Mediates Suppression of Plant Defense against the Green Peach Aphid Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Clare L; De Alwis, Manori; Bak, Aurélie; Dong, Haili; Whitham, Steven A; Jander, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Plants employ diverse responses mediated by phytohormones to defend themselves against pathogens and herbivores. Adapted pathogens and herbivores often manipulate these responses to their benefit. Previously, we demonstrated that Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense induced in response to feeding by its aphid vector, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), and increases aphid fecundity compared with uninfected control plants. Further, we determined that production of a single TuMV protein, Nuclear Inclusion a-Protease (NIa-Pro) domain, was responsible for changes in host plant physiology and increased green peach aphid reproduction. To characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we examined the role of three phytohormone signaling pathways, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene (ET), in TuMV-infected Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), with or without aphid herbivory. Experiments with Arabidopsis mutants ethylene insensitive2 and ethylene response1, and chemical inhibitors of ET synthesis and perception (aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and 1-methylcyclopropene, respectively), show that the ET signaling pathway is required for TuMV-mediated suppression of Arabidopsis resistance to the green peach aphid. Additionally, transgenic expression of NIa-Pro in Arabidopsis alters ET responses and suppresses aphid-induced callose formation in an ET-dependent manner. Thus, disruption of ET responses in plants is an additional function of NIa-Pro, a highly conserved potyvirus protein. Virus-induced changes in ET responses may mediate vector-plant interactions more broadly and thus represent a conserved mechanism for increasing transmission by insect vectors across generations. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. The role of water in unconventional in situ energy resource extraction technologies: Chapter 7 in Food, energy, and water: The chemistry connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Bern, Carleton R.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Haines, Seth; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Global trends toward developing new energy resources from lower grade, larger tonnage deposits that are not generally accessible using “conventional” extraction methods involve variations of subsurface in situ extraction techniques including in situ oil-shale retorting, hydraulic fracturing of petroleum reservoirs, and in situ recovery (ISR) of uranium. Although these methods are economically feasible and perhaps result in a smaller above-ground land-use footprint, there remain uncertainties regarding potential subsurface impacts to groundwater. This chapter provides an overview of the role of water in these technologies and the opportunities and challenges for water reuse and recycling.

  9. Moisture absorption and retention abilities of the water-extracted taheebo; Tahibocha mizuchushutsubutsu no kyushitsu {center{underscore}dot} hoshitsuno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimofuruya, Hiroshi; Kunieda, Yoshihiko; Tsujide, Yutaka [Suzuka National College of Technology, Mie (Japan). Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Tsuchie, Yoko [Suzuka University of Medical Science, Mie (Japan). Department of Clinical Nutrrition; Suzuki, Jiro [Toyohashi University of Tecnology, Aichi (Japan). Department of Ecological Engineering

    1999-09-10

    Hygroscopic abilities of taheebo, extracted from the bark of Tabebuia avellanedae Lorents and Griseb, were examined by physico-chemical technics in comparison with those of urea, glycerol and D-glucitol used in cosmetics. When the relative humidity increased from 31.0 % to 91.0 %, the increased amounts of the moisture absorption capacity of urea and D-glucitol after 24 hours standing were 133 % and 98 % respectively, whereas its amount of the water-extracted Taheebo was 66 %. The moisture absorption capacity of ureas and D-glucitol were dependent on changes in the relative humidity, while the moisture absorption capacity of water-extracted Taheebo was not greatly influenced by changes n the relative humidity. Furthermore, in the dry silica-gel desiccator, the water-extracted Taheebo showed the best moisture retention capacity among the samples tested. these results suggested that the water-extracted Taheebo was a desirable hygroscopic material because it exhibited relative high hygroscopic ability under conditions with various humidity and high moisture retention capacity even in the dry silica-gel desiccator. (author)

  10. Mixed functional monomers-based monolithic adsorbent for the effective extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Miao; Zhu, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaojia

    2018-01-05

    Effective extraction is a key step in the determination of sulfonylurea herbicides (SUHs) in complicated samples. According to the chemical properties of SUHs, a new monolithic adsorbent utilizing acrylamidophenylboronic acid and vinylimidazole as mixed functional monomers was synthesized. The new adsorbent was employed as the extraction phase of multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction (MMF-SPME) of SUHs, and the extracted SUHs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Results well evidence that the prepared adsorbent could extract SUHs in environmental waters and soil effectively through multiply interactions such as boronate affinity, dipole-dipole and π-π interactions. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the limits of detection for target SUHs in environmental water and soil samples were 0.018-0.17μg/L and 0.14-1.23μg/kg, respectively. At the same time, the developed method also displayed some analytical merits including wide linear dynamic ranges, good method reproducibility, satisfactory sensitivity and low consume of organic solvent. Finally, the developed were successfully applied to monitor trace SUHs in environmental water and soil samples. The recoveries at three fortified concentrations were in the range of 70.6-119% with RSD below 11% in all cases. The obtained results well demonstrate the excellent practical applicability of the developed MMF-SPME-HPLC-DAD method for the monitoring of SUHs in water and soil samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-07-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as both a food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC), made by extracting fresh leaves with water, utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates into moringa isothiocyanates. Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate, and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate exhibited 80% stability at 37°C for 30 days. MC, and both of the isothiocyanates described above significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, both attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFα at 1 and 5 μM. These results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates, delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction of calcium from water into nitrobenzene using strontium dicarbollylcobaltate in the presence of 18-crown-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMANUEL MAKRLIK

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available From extraction experiments and g-activity measurements, the extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium Ca2+(aq + SrL2+(nb « CaL2+(nb + Sr2+(aq taking place in the two-phase water-nitrobenzene system (L = 18-crown-6, aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase was evaluated as log Kex(Ca2+, SrL2+ = -1. 9±0.1. Furthermore, the stability constant of the calcium - 18-crown-6 complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water was calculated for the temperature of 25°C: log bnb (CaL2+ = 10.1±0.1.

  13. New lab-made coagulant based on Schinopsis balansae tannin extract: synthesis optimization and preliminary tests on refractory water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J.; Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Coco-Rivero, B.

    2014-09-01

    Quebracho colorado tannin extract was used as a coagulant raw material for water and wastewater treatment. The chemical synthesis follows a Mannich reaction mechanism and provides a fully working coagulant that can remove several pollutants from water. This paper addresses the optimization of such synthesis and confirms the feasibility of the coagulant by testing it in a preliminary screening for the elimination of dyes and detergents. The optimum combination of reagents was 6.81 g of diethanolamine (DEA) and 2.78 g of formaldehyde (F) per g of tannin extract. So obtained coagulant was succesfully tested on the removal of 9 dyes and 8 detergents.

  14. The chemical composition, antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of water-extractable polysaccharide conjugates from northern Manitoba lingonberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Ross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. is a small northern fruit that has been harvested historically by native North Americans and Northern Europeans. These berries have been traditionally consumed as food and for medicinal use. Lingonberries are reported to be rich in vitamin C, benzoic acid, and anthocyanins, which have been implicated in health benefits associated with the consumption of lingonberries. We hypothesized that water-extractable polysaccharides, conjugated with proteins and/or phenolics may also serve as bioactive compounds with potential health benefits in northern Manitoba lingonberries. A hot water extraction was used to obtain water-extractable polysaccharides from lingonberries and the water-extractable polysaccharides were fractionated into water-eluted/neutral and NaCl-eluted/acidic fractions using chromatography. The water-extractable polysaccharides were evaluated for their chemical composition and structural features. The antioxidant activity (FRAP and ABTS assays and potential of the polysaccharides to serve as α-glucosidase inhibitors were determined. The chemical composition and structural features of the water-extractable polysaccharides were influenced by fraction. The water-extractable polysaccharides and fractions all possessed antioxidant activity, while only the water-extractable polysaccharide conjugates and NaCl-eluted/acidic fraction demonstrated appreciable α-glucosidase inhibition. This work provides novel information indicating that water-extractable polysaccharide conjugates isolated from northern Manitoba lingonberry demonstrate bioactivity.

  15. Simultaneous determination of trace rare-earth elements in simulated water samples using ICP-OES with TODGA extraction/back-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, FuKai; Gong, AiJun; Qiu, LiNa; Zhang, WeiWei; Li, JingRui; Liu, Yu; Liu, YuNing; Yuan, HuiTing

    2017-01-01

    The determination of trace rare-earth elements (REEs) can be used for the assessment of environmental pollution, and is of great significance to the study of toxicity and toxicology in animals and plants. N, N, N', N'-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA) is an environmental friendly extractant that is highly selective to REEs. In this study, an analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 trace REEs in simulated water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). With this method, TODGA was used as the extractant to perform the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) sample pretreatment procedure. All 16 REEs were extracted from a 3 M nitric acid medium into an organic phase by a 0.025 M TODGA petroleum ether solution. A 0.03 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) solution was used for back-extraction to strip the REEs from the organic phase into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase was concentrated using a vacuum rotary evaporator and the concentration of the 16 REEs was detected by ICP-OES. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3σ, n = 7) for the REEs ranged from 0.0405 ng mL-1 (Nd) to 0.5038 ng mL-1 (Ho). The relative standard deviations (c = 100 ng mL-1, n = 7) were from 0.5% (Eu) to 4.0% (Tm) with a linear range of 4-1000 ng mL-1 (R2 > 0.999). The recoveries of 16 REEs ranged from 95% to 106%. The LLE-ICP-OES method established in this study has the advantages of simple operation, low detection limits, fast analysis speed and the ability to simultaneously determine 16 REEs, thereby acting as a viable alternative for the simultaneous detection of trace amounts of REEs in water samples.

  16. [Effect of Water Extracts from Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus on It's Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Duo-yong; Fu, Xue-yan; Rong, Jia-wang; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Distilled water(CK), water extracts of rhizosphere soil(50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) were applied to test their effect on early growth and physiological characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. The water extracts from rhizospher soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly increased seedling emergence rate, root length and vigor index of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling when at the concentration of 100 mg/mL or below, however,there was no significant effect at 200 mg/mL or higher. The water extracts from rhizosphere soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly reduced the SOD activity in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling at 400 mg/mL and POD activity at 200 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL,while significantly increased the MDA content. Water extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus rhizosphere soil significantly affected Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner, generally, low concentrations increased the SOD and POD activity which improved seed germination and seedling growth, while high concentrations caused cell membrane damage of the seedling.

  17. On the visualization of water-related big data: extracting insights from drought proxies' datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Vitali; Corzo, Gerald; van Lanen, Henny A. J.; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2017-04-01

    Big data is a growing area of science where hydroinformatics can benefit largely. There have been a number of important developments in the area of data science aimed at analysis of large datasets. Such datasets related to water include measurements, simulations, reanalysis, scenario analyses and proxies. By convention, information contained in these databases is referred to a specific time and a space (i.e., longitude/latitude). This work is motivated by the need to extract insights from large water-related datasets, i.e., transforming large amounts of data into useful information that helps to better understand of water-related phenomena, particularly about drought. In this context, data visualization, part of data science, involves techniques to create and to communicate data by encoding it as visual graphical objects. They may help to better understand data and detect trends. Base on existing methods of data analysis and visualization, this work aims to develop tools for visualizing water-related large datasets. These tools were developed taking advantage of existing libraries for data visualization into a group of graphs which include both polar area diagrams (PADs) and radar charts (RDs). In both graphs, time steps are represented by the polar angles and the percentages of area in drought by the radios. For illustration, three large datasets of drought proxies are chosen to identify trends, prone areas and spatio-temporal variability of drought in a set of case studies. The datasets are (1) SPI-TS2p1 (1901-2002, 11.7 GB), (2) SPI-PRECL0p5 (1948-2016, 7.91 GB) and (3) SPEI-baseV2.3 (1901-2013, 15.3 GB). All of them are on a monthly basis and with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. First two were retrieved from the repository of the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI). They are included into the Analyses Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) project (iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.IRI/.Analyses/.SPI/). The third dataset was

  18. Extraction of Phytochemical Compounds from Eucheuma cottonii and Gracilaria sp using Supercritical CO2 Followed by Subcritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyorini Dwi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of phytochemical compounds (such as β-carotene, linoleic acids, carrageenan, and polyphenols from algae Eucheuma cottonii and Gracilaria sp with supercritical CO2 followed by subcritical water has been investigated. Supercritical CO2 extraction was carried out at pressure of 25 MPa, temperature of 60°C, CO2 flowrate of 15 ml/min, and ethanol flowrate of 0.25 ml/min. To determine the content of carotenoids and linoleic acids, the extracted compounds were analyzed using a spectrophotometer UV-Vis. The residue of algae starting material was subsequently extracted by subcritical water at pressures of 3, 5, and 7 MPa, and temperatures of 120, 140, 160, and 180 °C. Carrageenan extracted by subcritical water was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR, while the total phenolic compound was analyzed with UV-vis spectrophotometer. Moreover, the antioxidant efficiency of extract was also examined by DPPH assay method. Based on the analytical result, β-carotene and linoleic acid content in Eucheuma cottonii were 209.91 and 321.025 μg/g sample, respectively. While β-carotene and linoleic acid content in Gracilaria sp were 219.99 and 286.52 μg/g sample, respectively. The optimum condition of subcritical water extraction was at 180°C and 7 MPa. At this condition, the highest TPC content in the extract from Eucheuma cottonii and Gracilaria sp were 18.51 mg GAE/g sample and 22.47 mg GAE/g sample, respectively; while the highest yield of carrageenan extracted from Eucheuma cottonii and Gracilaria sp were 61.33 and 65.54 g/100 g dried algae, respectively. At the same condition, the antioxidant efficiency was 0.513 min-1 for Eucheuma cottonii and 0,277 min-1 for Gracilaria sp. Based on the results the extraction method effectively separated non-polar and polar compounds, then increased the antioxidant efficiency of extract.

  19. Deproteinization of water-soluble ß-glucan during acid extraction from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwengiel, Artur; Stachowiak, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Some ß-glucans can be easily extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms but commonly used extraction procedures are not satisfactory. A simultaneous method for acid extraction and deproteinization in the case of Pleurotus ostreatus was developed using response surface methodology. The optimized extraction conditions proposed here (30°C, 3.8% HCl, 300min, stirring) allow for the simultaneous extraction and deproteinization of polysaccharides. Additionally, the acid extraction yield was 7 times greater than that of hot water extraction. The combined enzymatic digestion with lyticase, ß-glucanase, exo-1,3-ß-d-glucanase, and ß-glucosidase results elucidated that an extract containing ß-1,3-ß-1,6-ß-1,4-glucan. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the two glucan fractions obtained do not contain linked proteins. The weight average molecular weight of the first fraction (Mw=1137kDa) was 60 times higher than that of the second fraction (Mw=19kDa). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Novel Liquid-Liquid Extraction for the Determination of Sertraline in Tap Water and Waste Water at Trace Levels by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçoğlu, Elif Seda; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Keyf, Seyfullah

    2017-09-01

    A simple, green and fast analytical method was developed for the determination of sertraline in tap and waste water samples at trace levels by using supportive liquid-liquid extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Different parameters affecting extraction efficiency such as types and volumes of extraction and supporter solvents, extraction period, salt type and amount were optimized to get lower detection limits. Ethyl acetate was selected as optimum extraction solvent. In order to improve the precision, anthracene-D10 was used as an internal standard. The calibration plot of sertraline was linear from 1.0 to 1000 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection value under the optimum conditions was found to be 0.43 ng/mL. In real sample measurements, spiking experiments were performed to check the reliability of the method for these matrices. The spiking experiments yielded satisfactory recoveries of 91.19 ± 2.48%, 90.48 ± 5.19% and 95.46 ± 6.56% for 100, 250 and 500 ng/mL sertraline for tap water, and 85.80 ± 2.15% and 92.43 ± 4.02% for 250 and 500 ng/mL sertraline for waste water.

  1. Cytokine-Rich Adipose Tissue Extract Production from Water-Assisted Lipoaspirate: Methodology for Clinical Use

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    Jenny Lopez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proper functioning wound healing strategies are sparse. Adequate vascular formation to the injured area, as well as replacement of the volume loss, is fundamental in soft tissue repair. Tissue engineering strategies have been proposed for the treatment of these injury sites. Novel cell-free substance, human adipose tissue extract (ATE, has been previously shown to induce in vitro angiogenesis and adipogenesis and in vivo soft tissue formation. This study reports the translation of ATE preparation from laboratory to the operating room (OR. ATE samples for this study were derived from adipose tissue obtained with the water-jet assisted liposuction technique from 27 healthy patients. The variables studied included incubation time (15, 30, and 45 min, temperature (room temperature vs. 37°C, and filter type to determine the optimal method yielding the most consistent total protein content, as well as consistent and high expression of adipose-derived growth factors and cytokines, including: vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-6, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor. Following the optimization, samples were produced in the OR and tested for their sterility. No significant differences were observed when comparing extract incubation time points or incubation temperature. Nonetheless, when studying the different filter types used, a syringe filter with PES membrane with larger filter area showed significantly higher protein concentration (p ≤ 0.018. When studying the different growth factor concentrations, ELISA results showed less variation in cytokine concentrations in the OR samples with the optimized protocol. All of the OR samples were tested sterile. The devised protocol is an easy and reproducible OR-ready method for ATE generation. As an attractive source of growth factors, ATE is a promising alternative in the vast field of tissue engineering. Its clinical applications include

  2. Measurement of strontium isotope ratio in nitric acid extract of peanut testa by ICP-Q-MS after removal of Rb by extraction with pure water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Hioki, Akiharu; Chiba, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    The difference in the distributions of Sr and Rb in peanut seeds was utilized to develop a precise method for Sr isotope ratio measurement by inductively coupled plasma quadruple mass spectrometry (ICP-Q-MS). The testa instead of the whole peanut seed was selected as the sample because apparent enrichment of Sr in comparison to Rb was found in the testa. Furthermore, Rb in the testa was removed by pure water extraction with the aid of sonication to remove the isobaric interference in Sr isotope ratio measurement. The testa taken from one peanut seed was treated as one sample for the analysis. After optimization of the operating conditions, pure water (10 mL for each sample) extraction in 30 min with sonication was able to remove over 95% of Rb in the testa, while after the Rb removal Sr could be completely extracted using 10 mL of 0.3 mol L(-1) HNO3 for each sample. The integration time in ICP-Q-MS measurement was optimized to achieve a lower measurement uncertainty in a shorter time; the results showed that 1s was required and enough for the precise measurement of Sr isotope ratios giving a relative standard uncertainty (n=10) of ca. 0.1%. The present method was applied to peanut seeds grown in Japan, China, USA, India, and South Africa. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Effect of Components in Water on the Extraction of Herbal Medicine—Advanced Approach Using Multivariate Analysis—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Yasushi

    Many kinds of water products have been offered commercially suggesting some strange efficacy beyond our scientific knowledge even now at which various advanced scientific and technological research have been highly promoted. However, it seems quite obvious that such a strange efficacy must be nonexistent. If such efficacy were really existing, it must be solved by some suitable scientific procedure. In this study, the extraction of paeoniflorin from paeoniae radix was examined by varying the kind of extracting water. Then, the result was analyzed using multivariate analysis where the effect on the extraction was assumed to be ascribed to the ionic species dissolved in each water examined. The dissolved species were analyzed by chemical and instrumental analyses. According to the multivariate analysis, the amount of extracted paeoniflorin (Y) was presented by the following regression equation. The result shows that pH, [Ca2+], and [HCO3 -] were significant parameters and the combination of Ca2+ and HCO3 - affected negatively on the extraction of paeoniflorin. Y=28.11-0.71 pH-0.0034[Ca2+]-0.93[HCO3 -] where [Ca2+] is the concentration of calcium ion and [HCO3 -] is that of bicarbonate ion.

  4. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum Mill. COGERMINATION, WATER EXTRACTS AND RESIDUES ON HOARY CRESS (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.

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    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine allelopathic effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. on germination and growth parameters of weed species hoary cress (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.. Cogermination of hoary cress with parsley seeds, water extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass in concentrations of 5 and 10% (50 and 100 g per litre of distilled water were evaluated in Petri dishes. Effect of water extracts from fresh parsley biomass in aforementioned concentrations as well as effects of fresh and dry parsley residues in two rates (10 and 20 g/kg of soil were examined in pots with soil. Cogermination of seeds stimulated root length, but decreased shoot length and fresh weight of hoary cress seedlings. In the Petri dish assay, extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass reduced germination of hoary cress, but had both stimulatory as well as inhibitory effect on other parameters. The highest concentration of dry biomass extract completely reduced germination rate of hoary cress (by 100%. In the pot experiment, extracts from fresh parsley biomass had stimulatory effect on weed growth parameters except for root length which was inhibited with higher concentration by 4.2%. Fresh parsley residues reduced germination, root and shoot length of hoary cress, while dry parsley residues promoted measured parameters, with the exception of root length.

  5. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

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    B. Santoso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on in vitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e. Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimental treatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plant extracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stage technique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract ranged from 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane production was significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4 production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability (r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production in ruminants.

  6. Coordinate changes in gene expression and triacylglycerol composition in the developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kalpio, Marika; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Lehto, Kirsi; Niemi, Jarmo; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki P

    2014-02-15

    Crop production for vegetable oil in the northern latitudes utilises oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera) and turnip rape (B. rapa subsp. oleifera), having similar oil compositions. The oil consists mostly of triacylglycerols, which are synthesised during seed development. In this study, we characterised the oil composition and the expression levels of genes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the developing seeds in optimal, low temperature (15 °C) and short day (12-h day length) conditions. Gene expression levels of several genes were altered during seed development. Low temperature and short day treatments increased the level of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3n-3) in turnip rape and short day treatment decreased the total oil content in both species. This study gives a novel view on seed oil biosynthesis under different growth conditions, bringing together gene expression levels of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway and oil composition over a time series in two related oilseed species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single amino acid change in the helicase domain of the putative RNA replicase of turnip crinkle virus alters symptom intensification by virulent satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmer, C W; Stenzler, L; Chen, X; Fay, N; Hacker, D; Howell, S H

    1992-01-01

    The virulent satellite [satellite C (sat C)] of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a small pathogenic RNA that intensifies symptoms in TCV-infected turnip plants (Brassica campestris). The virulence of sat C is determined by properties of the satellite itself and is influenced by the helper virus. Symptoms produced in infections with sat C differ in severity depending on the helper virus. The TCV-JI helper virus produces more severe symptoms than the TCV-B helper virus when inoculated with sat C. To find determinants in the TCV helper virus genome that affect satellite virulence, the TCV-JI genome was cloned and the sequence compared to the TCV-B genome. The genomes were found to differ by only five base changes, and only one of the base changes, at nucleotide position 1025, produced an amino acid change, an aspartic acid----glycine in the putative viral replicase. A chimeric TCV genome (TCV-B/JI) containing four of the five base changes (including the base change at position 1025) and a mutant TCV-B genome (TCV-B1025G) containing a single base substitution at position 1025 converted the TCV-B genome into a form that produces severe symptoms with sat C. The base change a position 1025 is located in the helicase of the putative viral replicase, and symptom intensification appears to result from differences in the rate of replication of the satellite supported by the two helper viruses. Images PMID:1370351

  8. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenius Marja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690

  9. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Ari; Pohjantähti-Maaroos, Hanna; Wallenius, Marja; Kankkunen, Päivi; Aro, Heikki; Husgafvel, Sari; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Oksanen, Kalevi

    2010-12-01

    Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of Virgino R CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol by 11% (p < 0.001). The level of oxidized LDL was 16% lower after oil period (p = 0.024). Minimal differences in arterial elasticity were not statistically significant. Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  10. The enhanced inhibition of water extract of black tea under baking treatment on α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Da-Peng; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    This paper studied the inhibition of water extract of natural or baked black tea on the activity of α-amylase and α- glucosidase. Baking treatment was found to be one effective way to enhance the inhibition of black tea on both α-amylase and α- glucosidase, and IC 50 of water extract of baked black tea (BBTWE) were 1.213mg/mL and 4.190mg/mL, respectively, while IC 50 of water extract of black tea (BTWE) were 1.723mg/mL and 6.056mg/mL, respectively. This study further studied the mechanism of the effect of water extract on α-amylase and α- glucosidase using HPLC, circular dichroism, and synchronous fluorescence. HPLC analysis of tea polyphenols showed that the content of tea polyphenols with low polarity increased after baking. In addition, BBTWE had higer abilty on decreasing the hydrophobicity of tryptophan residues than BTWE for both α-amylase and α- glucosidase.The increase of α-helix proportion of α-amylase when treated with BBTWE was more obvious than that when treated with BTWE. In a word, thermal process of baked foods may be beneficial for tea polyphenols to reduce the rate of starch digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  12. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human PathogenPseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Nicolic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence,

  13. Investigation into the effects of temperature and stirring rate on the solid-phase extraction of diuron from water using a C18 extraction disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C E; Abraham, M H

    2000-07-14

    A novel experimental method for determining the equilibrium constant, Keq, and the uptake rate constant, kup, for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of diuron from water using a C18 Empore extraction disk is reported. Log Keq and log kup are determined at 7.0, 11.0, 18.0 and 23.0 degrees C and for stirring rates of 100, 200 and 400 rpm. From a Van 't Hoff plot of log Keq versus T-1 the enthalpy of sorption, delta H0, is shown to be negative which indicates that the thermodynamic process of uptake is exothermic. The rate of stirring has no effect on log Keq over the temperature range 7.0-23.0 degrees C. The enthalpy of activation, delta H0, calculated from Arrhenius plots of log kup versus T-1 at 100, 200 and 400 rpm show that the kinetic process of uptake is endothermic. At 100 rpm the rate of uptake is limited by the aqueous diffusion of diuron. At 200 rpm or greater the aqueous diffusion layer around the disk is sufficiently small to prevent diffusion from being a limiting factor. The method described in this paper is limited to the analysis of analytes that contain a significant UV chromophore and are relatively soluble in water, but it can also be used to investigate pH and salinity effects on the SPE of diuron from water.

  14. Selective extraction of emerging contaminants from water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using functionalized ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cong; Li, Tianhao; Twu, Pamela; Pitner, William R; Anderson, Jared L

    2011-03-25

    Functionalized ionic liquids containing the tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (FAP) anion were used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the extraction of 14 emerging contaminants from water samples. The extraction efficiencies and selectivities were compared to those of an in situ IL DLLME method which uses an in situ metathesis reaction to exchange 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM-Cl) to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (BMIM-NTf(2)). Compounds containing tertiary amine functionality were extracted with high selectivity and sensitivity by the 1-(6-amino-hexyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (HNH(2)MPL-FAP) IL compared to other FAP-based ILs and the BMIM-NTf(2) IL. On the other hand, polar or acidic compounds without amine groups exhibited higher enrichment factors using the BMIM-NTf(2) IL. The detection limits for the studied analytes varied from 0.1 to 55.1 μg/L using the traditional IL DLLME method with the HNH(2)MPL-FAP IL as extraction solvent, and from 0.1 to 55.8 μg/L using in situ IL DLLME method with BMIM-Cl+LiNTf(2) as extraction solvent. A 93-fold decrease in the detection limit of caffeine was observed when using the HNH(2)MPL-FAP IL compared to that obtained using in situ IL DLLME method. Real water samples including tap water and creek water were analyzed with both IL DLLME methods and yielded recoveries ranging from 91% to 110%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study the Antioxiative Properties of the Marine Algae Cystoseira trinodis extracts from Chabahar Coastal Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taheri

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the different algal extracts of C. trinodis has antioxidant properties with varying degrees and effective use of this compound as a therapeutic tool can be programmed. Further research on the purification and extraction of the constituents of the extract and identification the most effective combination should be conducted.

  16. Subcritical water extraction combined with molecular imprinting technology for sample preparation in the detection of triazine herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengnian; Wang, Shanshan; She, Yongxin; Zhang, Chao; Zheng, Lufei; Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Du, Xinwei; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-15

    A selective, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective sample extraction method based on a combination of subcritical water extraction (SWE) and molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed for the determination of eight triazine herbicides in soil samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In SWE, the highest extraction yields of triazine herbicides were obtained under 150°C for 15min using 20% ethanol as the organic modifier. Addition of MIP during SWE increased the extraction efficiency, and using MIP as a selective SPE sorbent improved the enrichment capability. Soil samples were treated with the optimized extraction MIP/SWE-MISPE method and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The novel technique was then applied to soil samples for the determination of triazine herbicides, and better recoveries (78.9%-101%) were obtained compared with using SWE-MISPE (30%-67%). Moreover, this newly developed method displayed good linearity (R 2 >0.99) and precision (2.7-9.8%), and low enough detection limits (0.4-3.3μgkg -1 ). This combination of SWE and MIP technology is a simple, effective and promising method to selectively extract class-specific compounds in complex samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SIMPLE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS ON SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825368)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  18. Withania somnifera water extract as a potential candidate for differentiation based therapy of human neuroblastomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kataria

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood disease of the sympathetic nervous system. Treatments are often ineffective and have serious side effects. Conventional therapy of neuroblastoma includes the differentiation agents. Unlike chemo-radiotherapy, differentiation therapy shows minimal side effects on normal cells, because normal non-malignant cells are already differentiated. Keeping in view the limited toxicity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, the current study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of Ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WEX for anti-proliferative potential in neuroblastoma and its underlying signalling mechanisms. ASH-WEX significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced cell differentiation as indicated by morphological changes and NF200 expression in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. The induction of differentiation was accompanied by HSP70 and mortalin induction as well as pancytoplasmic translocation of the mortalin in ASH-WEX treated cells. Furthermore, the ASH-WEX treatment lead to induction of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM expression and reduction in its polysialylation, thus elucidating its anti-migratory potential, which was also supported by downregulation of MMP 2 and 9 activity. ASH-WEX treatment led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increase in early apoptotic population. Modulation of cell cycle marker Cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic marker bcl-xl and Akt-P provide evidence that ASH-WEX may prove to be a promising phytotherapeutic intervention in neuroblatoma related malignancies.

  19. Facile synthesis of high strength hot-water wood extract films with oxygen-barrier performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ge-Gu; Fu, Gen-Que; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Ya-Shuai; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-01-01

    Biobased nanocomposite films for food packaging with high mechanical strength and good oxygen-barrier performance were developed using a hot-water wood extract (HWE). In this work, a facile approach to produce HWE/montmorillonite (MMT) based nanocomposite films with excellent physical properties is described. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of the MMT content on the structure and mechanical properties of nanocomposites and the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the physical properties of the HWE-MMT films. The experimental results suggested that the intercalation of HWE and CMC in montmorillonite could produce compact, robust films with a nacre-like structure and multifunctional characteristics. This results of this study showed that the mechanical properties of the film designated FCMC0.05 (91.5 MPa) were dramatically enhanced because the proportion of HWE, MMT and CMC was 1:1.5:0.05. In addition, the optimized films exhibited an oxygen permeability below 2.0 cm3 μm/day·m2·kPa, as well as good thermal stability due to the small amount of CMC. These results provide a comprehensive understanding for further development of high-performance nanocomposites which are based on natural polymers (HWE) and assembled layered clays (MMT). These films offer great potential in the field of sustainable packaging.

  20. Antibacterial activity of water-soluble extract from pine needles of Cedrus deodara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Cai; He, Qiang; Sun, Qun; Zhong, Kai; Gao, Hong

    2012-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of water-soluble extract from pine needles of Cedrus deodara (WEC) was evaluated on five food-borne bacteria, and its related mechanism was investigated by transmission electron microscope. In vitro antibacterial assay showed that WEC possesses a remarkable antibacterial activity against tested food-borne bacteria including Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values in the ranges of 0.78-12.5 mg/ml and 1.56-25mg/ml, respectively. In a food system of fresh-squeezed tomato juice, WEC was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Shikimic acid was isolated from WEC and identified as the main antibacterial compound. All results of our study suggested that WEC might be a new potential source of natural antibacterial agents applicable to food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a Cloud-Point Extraction Method for Cobalt Determination in Natural Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Jamali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, and versatile cloud-point extraction (CPE methodology has been developed for the separation and preconcentration of cobalt. The cobalt ions in the initial aqueous solution were complexed with 4-Benzylpiperidinedithiocarbamate, and Triton X-114 was added as surfactant. Dilution of the surfactant-rich phase with acidified ethanol was performed after phase separation, and the cobalt content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The main factors affecting CPE procedure, such as pH, concentration of ligand, amount of Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature, and incubation time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD for cobalt was 0.5 μg L-1, with sensitivity enhancement factor (EF of 67. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 2–150 μg L-1, and relative standard deviation was 3.2% (c=100 μg L-1; n=10. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace cobalt in real water samples with satisfactory analytical results.

  2. Methodology for {sup 210}Po extraction from underground waters; Metodologia para a extracao de Po-210 em aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Fabiano Tomazini da; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    1998-07-01

    This work describes the first results obtained by the implementation of the methodology of {sup 210}Po extraction from underground waters. This methodology was first tested in the analysis of uranite sample from the Pocos de Caldas plateau (MG-Brazil) which constitutes a important natural source of {sup 210}Po. For the uranine sample a counting rate of 1.67 cpm for {sup 210}Po was obtained and for underground water 0.3 cpm was obtained which demonstrates that the used methodology is efficient for water analysis.

  3. The Role of a Host Protein (TIP) in the Resistance Response of Arabidopsis to Turnip Crinkle Virus Infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Jack Morris, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0118

    2008-10-20

    Our research on Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) has shown that the viral capsid protein (CP) is both a virulence factor as well as the elicitor of a hypersensitive resistance response (HR) to the virus in Arabidopsis. Initially, we identified a protein from Arabidopsis that specifically interacted with the viral CP using a yeast two-hybrid screen. This protein, designated TIP for TCV-Interacting Protein, is a member of the NAC family of plant transcription factors implicated in the regulation of development and senescence. When TCV CP was mutated to eliminate its ability to interact with TIP, the corresponding virus mutants broke the HR-mediated resistance conferred by the HRT resistance (R) gene in Arabidopsis ecotype Dijon (Di)-17. This result suggested that TIP is a component of the signal transduction pathway that leads to the genetically specified TCV resistance. We next confirmed that TIP and the viral CP interact in plant cells and that this interaction prevents nuclear localization of this transcription factor. We demonstrated that TCV CP suppresses post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a newly discovered RNA-mediated defense system in plants. Together these results suggest that the CP is a virulence factor that could well be functioning through its interaction with TIP. We have proposed a model involving the role of TIP and CP in triggering HR mediated plant defense that fits with the current thinking about how gene-for-gene resistance may function. A unique component of our system is the opportunity to link R-gene function with the newly discovered RNA silencing pathway that is not only a potent defense against viral pathogens, but also regulates early development in plants. In the current funding period we made several significant findings: First, we completed an array analysis comparing gene expression in Arabidopsis infected with TCV and a mutant virus unable to bind TIP. Second, we produced transgenic lines that over-express and inducibly under

  4. Functional evolution of a multigene family: orthologous and paralogous pheromone receptor genes in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Zhang

    Full Text Available Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs, for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z-5-decenyl, (Z-7-dodecenyl and (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z-5-decenyl acetate, (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and

  5. Pore-water extraction from unsaturated tuff by triaxial and one-dimensional compression methods, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Timothy E.; Higgins, Jerry D.; Yang, In C.; Peters, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    Study of the hydrologic system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires the extraction of pore-water samples from welded and nonwelded, unsaturated tuffs. Two compression methods (triaxial compression and one-dimensional compression) were examined to develop a repeatable extraction technique and to investigate the effects of the extraction method on the original pore-fluid composition. A commercially available triaxial cell was modified to collect pore water expelled from tuff cores. The triaxial cell applied a maximum axial stress of 193 MPa and a maximum confining stress of 68 MPa. Results obtained from triaxial compression testing indicated that pore-water samples could be obtained from nonwelded tuff cores that had initial moisture contents as small as 13 percent (by weight of dry soil). Injection of nitrogen gas while the test core was held at the maximum axial stress caused expulsion of additional pore water and reduced the required initial moisture content from 13 to 11 percent. Experimental calculations, together with experience gained from testing moderately welded tuff cores, indicated that the triaxial cell used in this study could not apply adequate axial or confining stress to expel pore water from cores of densely welded tuffs. This concern led to the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-dimensional compression cell. The one-dimensional compression cell used in this study was constructed from hardened 4340-alloy and nickel-alloy steels and could apply a maximum axial stress of 552 MPa. The major components of the device include a corpus ring and sample sleeve to confine the sample, a piston and base platen to apply axial load, and drainage plates to transmit expelled water from the test core out of the cell. One-dimensional compression extracted pore water from nonwelded tuff cores that had initial moisture contents as small as 7.6 percent; pore water was expelled from densely welded tuff cores that had initial moisture contents as small as 7

  6. Noble gas paleotemperatures and water contents of stalagmites - a new extraction tool and a new paleoclimate proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, N.; Scheidegger, Y.; Brennwald, M. S.; Fleitmann, D.; Figura, S.; Wieler, R.; Kipfer, R.

    2012-04-01

    Stalagmites represent excellent multi-proxy paleoclimate archives as they cover long timescales and can be dated with high precision [e.g., 1]. The absolute temperature at which a stalagmite grew, can be deduced from the amounts of atmospheric noble gases dissolved in the stalagmite's fluid inclusion water (= noble gas temperature, NGT) [2-4]. We present technical advances towards more robust NGT determinations and also propose a new paleoclimate proxy, namely the stalagmite's water content, which is a "by-product" of NGT determination. Water contents and oxygen isotope records of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island (Yemen) were found to vary systematically: progressively lighter oxygen is accompanied by decreasing water contents and vice versa. Via the oxygen isotope records [5] the stalagmites' water contents are linked to the amounts of precipitation on Socotra Island. High precipitation, i.e., high drip rates lead to homogeneous calcite growth with low porosity and therefore a small number of water-filled inclusions, i.e. low water contents. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular crystal growth with higher porosity, leading to higher water contents of the calcite (see also [6]). Therefore the stalagmites' water contents seem to record changes in drip water supply and, under favourable conditions, changes in regional precipitation. The current method to extract water and noble gases from stalagmite samples is experimentally challenging and subject to certain limitations (e.g., time-consuming sample preparation in a glove box, temperature restrictions for water extraction, and the often inadequate correction for air from residual air-filled inclusions [3, 4]). To overcome these limitations we have developed a new type of crusher directly attached to our noble gas line. It not only allows crushing and separating the samples into different grain size fractions in vacuo, but the separates can be individually heated to significantly higher

  7. Characterization of halogenated DBPs and identification of new DBPs trihalomethanols in chlorine dioxide treated drinking water with multiple extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiarui; Zhang, Xiangru; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Xiaohu; Gong, Tingting

    2017-08-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) is a widely used alternative disinfectant due to its high biocidal efficiency and low-level formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. A major portion of total organic halogen (TOX), a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs, formed in ClO 2 -treated drinking water is still unknown. A commonly used pretreatment method for analyzing halogenated DBPs in drinking water is one-time liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which may lead to a substantial loss of DBPs prior to analysis. In this study, characterization and identification of polar halogenated DBPs in a ClO 2 -treated drinking water sample were conducted by pretreating the sample with multiple extractions. Compared to one-time LLE, the combined four-time LLEs improved the recovery of TOX by 2.3 times. The developmental toxicity of the drinking water sample pretreated with the combined four-time LLEs was 1.67 times higher than that pretreated with one-time LLE. With the aid of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, a new group of polar halogenated DBPs, trihalomethanols, were detected in the drinking water sample pretreated with multiple extractions; two of them, trichloromethanol and bromodichloromethanol, were identified with synthesized standard compounds. Moreover, these trihalomethanols were found to be the transformation products of trihalomethanes formed during ClO 2 disinfection. The results indicate that multiple LLEs can significantly improve extraction efficiencies of polar halogenated DBPs and is a better pretreatment method for characterizing and identifying new polar halogenated DBPs in drinking water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Microbial assisted phyto extraction of metals and growth of soybean (glycine max l. merrill) on industrial waste water contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Bano, A.

    2012-01-01

    Pots experiments were made to investigate the role of effective microorganisms (EM) in improving phyto extraction of metals (Cd/sup +2/ and Mn/sup +2/) and growth of soybean plant in industrial waste water polluted soil. Waste water applications to soil were made in four different dilutions (i.e. 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Effective microorganisms were added into waste water prior to application. Effect of treatments on growth parameters was studied. The Cd/sup +2/ and Mn/sup +2/ concentrations in different parts of plant were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Plant height significantly increased at all treatments except at 25% waste water treatment. Plant dry biomass and oil contents in seed significantly increased with all treatments compared to control but were higher at low concentration of waste water. Waste water treatments significantly increased the Cd and Mn accumulation in plant while inoculation of EM further enhanced the metals accumulation. The maximum accumulation of Cd and Mn found in plant treated with 100% waste water in combination with effective microorganisms. At harvest, the Cd/sup +2/ concentration decreased in leaves but increased in roots followed by stem > seeds, while, Mn/sup +2/ accumulation increased in leaves followed by roots > stem > seeds. Conclusively, EM enhanced the phyto extraction of Cd and Mn and also increased the oil contents in soybean on polluted soil. These findings suggest further investigation to find out a suitable concentration of industrial waste water in combination with EM for better growth of soybean and improving phyto extraction of metals. (author)

  9. Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

  10. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Agaricus blazei hot water extract shows anti quorum sensing activity in the nosocomial human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soković, Marina; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Nikolić, Miloš; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2014-04-03

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  12. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Soković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  13. TOTAL AND HOT-WATER EXTRACTABLE CARBON RELATIONSHIP IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEMS AND LAND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Šeremešić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the hot water extractable organic carbon (HWOC in 9 arable and 3 non arable soil samples on Haplic Chernozem. The hot water extractable carbon represents assimilative component of the total organic matter (OM that could contain readily available nutrients for plant growth. The obtained fraction of organic carbon (C makes up only a small percentage of the soil OM and directly reflects the changes in the rhizosphere. This labile fraction of the organic matter was separated by hot water extraction at 80°C. In our study the HWOC content in different samples ranged from 125 mg g-1 to 226 mg g-1. On the plots that are under native vegetation, higher values were determined (316 mg g-1 to 388 mg g-1. Whereas samples from arable soils were lower in HWOC. It was found that this extraction method can be successfully used to explain the dynamics of the soil OM. Soil samples with lower content of the total OM had lower HWOC content, indicating that the preservation of the OM depends on the renewal of its labile fractions.

  14. Molecular identification of polymers and anthropogenic particles extracted from oceanic water and fish stomach - A Raman micro-spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Chen, Michael; Wagner, Jeff; Wang, Zhong-Min; Wall, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    Pacific Ocean trawl samples, stomach contents of laboratory-raised fish as well as fish from the subtropical gyres were analyzed by Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) to identify polymer residues and any detectable persistent organic pollutants (POP). The goal was to access specific molecular information at the individual particle level in order to identify polymer debris in the natural environment. The identification process was aided by a laboratory generated automated fluorescence removal algorithm. Pacific Ocean trawl samples of plastic debris associated with fish collection sites were analyzed to determine the types of polymers commonly present. Subsequently, stomach contents of fish from these locations were analyzed for ingested polymer debris. Extraction of polymer debris from fish stomach using KOH versus ultrapure water were evaluated to determine the optimal method of extraction. Pulsed ultrasonic extraction in ultrapure water was determined to be the method of choice for extraction with minimal chemical intrusion. The Pacific Ocean trawl samples yielded primarily polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) particles >1 mm, PE being the most prevalent type. Additional microplastic residues (1 mm - 10 μm) extracted by filtration, included a polystyrene (PS) particle in addition to PE and PP. Flame retardant, deca-BDE was tentatively identified on some of the PP trawl particles. Polymer residues were also extracted from the stomachs of Atlantic and Pacific Ocean fish. Two types of polymer related debris were identified in the Atlantic Ocean fish: (1) polymer fragments and (2) fragments with combined polymer and fatty acid signatures. In terms of polymer fragments, only PE and PP were detected in the fish stomachs from both locations. A variety of particles were extracted from oceanic fish as potential plastic pieces based on optical examination. However, subsequent RMS examination identified them as various non-plastic fragments, highlighting the importance

  15. Suppression of dust mite extract and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis by the water extract of Lindera obtusiloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Hui-Hun; Singh, Thoudam S K; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Suh, Won Mo; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    The Lindera obtusiloba has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation and dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of topical application of Lindera obtusiloba water extract (LOWE) on the house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD). We established AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of DFE/DNCB to the ears. After a topical application of LOWE on the skin lesions, the epidermal thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine were measured. In addition, the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-31, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the ears was assayed. LOWE reduced AD symptoms based on ear thickness, histopathological analysis, and serum IgE levels. LOWE inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and elevation of serum histamine in AD model. Moreover, LOWE suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-31, and TNF-α in the ears. Our results showed that topical application of LOWE exerts beneficial effects in AD symptoms, suggesting that LOWE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extracting cross sections and water levels of minor streams and ditches from LiDAR point data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelens, Jennifer; Dondeyne, Stefaan; Deckers, Jozef; Van Orshoven, Jos; Diels, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative data on the shape and dimensions of location-specific cross-sections is useful for water and floodplain management. In addition, information about the water level is often needed, for example to be used as a boundary condition in hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater models. To detect a water course, let alone the cross section of small streams, the spatial resolution of DEM's derived from LiDAR or other data sources is insufficient. This is not the case for high resolution LiDAR data clouds. An aerial LiDAR database encompassing on average 16 points per square meter is available for the entire Flanders region. LiDAR elevation point clouds and digital RGB aerial images were collected simultaneously. To extract the right points for determination of the water course's cross-section at a given location, a buffer zone is defined around a predefined cross-section. This is based on the assumption that the cross-section of a channel is invariable over a small distance (0.1-1m). The set of extracted and then projected points was subjected to curve fitting based on shape language modelling (SLM). Based on the modelled cross-sectional profile, characteristics like cross-sectional area, width and water level were extracted. Furthermore, normalized indices combining the RGB and intensity data were used to detect the presence of water and the different characteristics of the points close to the water level and close to the banks. The study area is located in the alluvial valley of the Dijle, 20 km east of Brussels. It is part of the nature reserve 'de Doode Bemde'. The area of the test site is 10.3 ha and contains a ditch network of approximately three km. The field data, collected during August 2015 with a real time kinematic (RTK) GPS, was used for validation. The measurement result contained 153 cross sections with all the bathymetry data under the water level. Validation showed that all of the cross-sections modelled with the LiDAR data had a positive mean

  17. Nonwoven polypropylene as a novel extractant phase holder for the determination of insecticides in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lu; Li, Songqing; Zhang, Panjie; Yang, Xiaoling; Yang, Miyi; Lu, Runhua; Gao, Haixiang

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a novel liquid-phase microextraction approach using nonwoven polypropylene as the extraction solvent holder was developed. Nonwoven polypropylene, a hydrophobic material, is widely used in the cleanup of oil spills. Due to its large surface area, efficient, and full extraction can be achieved. Nonwoven polypropylene containing an ionic liquid was used to extract benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron) through vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction. The parameters that affected the extraction efficiency included the type and volume of the extractant, the extraction time, the time and solvent volume for desorption and the mass and surface area of the nonwoven polypropylene. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained, with coefficients of determination greater than 0.9996, and the limit of detections of these compounds, calculated at S/N = 3, were in the range of 0.73-5.0 ng/mL. The recoveries of the four insecticides at two spiked levels ranged from 93.3 to 102.0%, with relative standard deviations of less than 4.0%. The proposed method was then successfully used for the rapid determination of benzoylurea insecticides in spiked real water samples before liquid chromatographic analysis. The procedure is simple, inexpensive, easy to execute, and can be widely used. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) for the green recovery of bioactive compounds and steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Barba, Francisco J; Granato, Daniel; Galanakis, Charis M; Herceg, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Putnik, Predrag

    2018-07-15

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves are a natural source of diterpenic glycosides, and various bioactive compounds. The objectives were to characterize antioxidants and steviol glycosides in the extracts obtained from Stevia after "green" pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). PHWE extracts were obtained at different temperatures (100, 130, 160 °C); static extraction times (5 and 10 min), and cycle numbers (1, 2, 3) using a constant pressure of 10.34 MPa. Temperature was the most important parameter for extraction, where the highest recoveries of all bioactive compounds (except for carotenoids) were at 160 °C. Extracts obtained at longer static times had more steviol glycosides, condensed tannins, and chlorophyll A. Higher amounts of total phenols, condensed tannins, and steviol glycosides were obtained under higher cycle numbers. This study indicated that PHWE is useful for recovering polar and nonpolar antioxidants and steviol glycosides. PHWE may be a suitable technique for scale-up to industrial applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of a Lithium-ion Selective Metallacrown to Extraction-Spectrophotometric Determination of Lithium in Saline Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Saito, Yuki; Takahashi, Suguru

    2018-01-01

    The solvent-extraction behavior of Li + and Na + with a Li + selective metallacrown, [{Ru(η 6 -3,5-dimethylanisole)(2,3-pyridinediolate)} 3 ], was investigated in the presence of organic dye anions, 3',3″,5',5″-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester ([TBPE] - ), 2,6-dichloroindophenolate, and picrate ([pic] - ). Each alkali metal ion was extracted as a 1:1:1 ternary complex of the metal ion, metallacrown, and anion. The Li + /Na + extraction selectivity is anion dependent and highest with [pic] - . Therefore, we devised an extraction-spectrophotometric determination method for Li + in saline water based on the extraction of Li + using the metallacrown and [pic] - for high selectivity and subsequent replacement of [pic] - in the extracted species with [TBPE] - for high sensitivity. When applying this to artificial seawater samples containing known concentrations of Li + , a linear relationship was observed between the absorbance at 571 nm of the organic phase and the Li + concentration in the samples. By this method, the determination of Li + at the sub-ppm level in natural seawater is possible.

  20. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  1. Facile preparation of water soluble curcuminoids extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder by using steviol glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; Si, Jinbeom; Kang, Choongil; Chung, Byoungsang; Chung, Donghwa; Kim, Doman

    2017-01-01

    Curcuminoids from rhizomes of Curcuma longa possess various biological activities. However, low aqueous solubility and consequent poor bioavailability of curcuminoids are major limitations to their use. In this study, curcuminoids extracted from turmeric powder using stevioside (Ste), rebaudioside A (RebA), or steviol glucosides (SG) were solubilized in water. The optimum extraction condition by Ste, RebA, or SG resulted in 11.3, 9.7, or 6.7mg/ml water soluble curcuminoids. Curcuminoids solubilized in water showed 80% stability at pH from 6.0 to 10.0 after 1week of storage at 25°C. The particle sizes of curcuminoids prepared with Ste, RebA, and SG were 110.8, 95.7, and 32.7nm, respectively. The water soluble turmeric extracts prepared with Ste, RebA, and SG showed the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (SC50) activities of 127.6, 105.4, and 109.8μg/ml, and the inhibition activities (IC50) against NS2B-NS3(pro) from dengue virus type IV of 14.1, 24.0 and 15.3μg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Pesticide residue determination in surface waters by stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, A; Fernández-Franzón, M; Ruiz, M J; Font, G; Picó, Y

    2009-03-01

    In this stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method, 16 pesticides were extracted from surface water samples by sorption onto 1 mm polydimethylsiloxane layer coated on a 10-mm-length stir bar magnet. After liquid desorption of the analytes with 1 ml of methanol, the detection was performed on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyzer using selected reaction monitoring mode via electrospray ionization. Parameters affecting SBSE operation, including sample volume, salt addition, extraction time, stirring rate, and desorption conditions, have been evaluated. The optimized SBSE method required two 50 ml aliquots of surface water samples, one aliquot was added of 30% NaCl and stirred at 900 rpm during 1 h for testing five pesticides with log K(o/w) 3. The method was validated in spiked surface water samples at limits of quantifications (LOQs) and ten times the LOQs showing recoveries Albufera Lake and surrounding channels, showing that SBSE is a powerful tool for routine control analysis of pesticide residues in surface water.

  3. Understanding flood-induced water chemistry variability extracting temporal patterns with the LDA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, A. H.; Tavenard, R.; Emonet, R.; De Lavenne, A.; Malinowski, S.; Guyet, T.; Quiniou, R.; Odobez, J.; Merot, P.; Gascuel-odoux, C.

    2013-12-01

    Studying floods has been a major issue in hydrological research for years, both in quantitative and qualitative hydrology. Stream chemistry is a mix of solutes, often used as tracers, as they originate from various sources in the catchment and reach the stream by various flow pathways. Previous studies (for instance (1)) hypothesized that stream chemistry reaction to a rainfall event is not unique but varies seasonally, and according to the yearly meteorological conditions. Identifying a typology of flood temporal chemical patterns is a way to better understand catchment processes at the flood and seasonal time scale. We applied a probabilistic model (Latent Dirichlet Allocation or LDA (2)) mining recurrent sequential patterns from a dataset of floods. A set of 472 floods was automatically extracted from a daily 12-year long record of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, sulfate and chloride concentrations. Rainfall, discharge, water table depth and temperature are also considered. Data comes from a long-term hydrological observatory (AgrHys, western France) located at Kervidy-Naizin. From each flood, a document has been generated that is made of a set of "hydrological words". Each hydrological word corresponds to a measurement: it is a triplet made of the considered variable, the time at which the measurement is made (relative to the beginning of the flood), and its magnitude (that can be low, medium or high). The documents and the number of pattern to be mined are used as input data to the LDA algorithm. LDA relies on spotting co-occurrences (as an alternative to the more traditional study of correlation) between words that appear within the flood documents. It has two nice properties that are its ability to easily deal with missing data and its additive property that allows a document to be seen as a mixture of several flood patterns. The output of LDA is a set of patterns easily represented in graphics. These patterns correspond to typical reactions to rainfall

  4. An on-line method for pressurized hot water extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of quercetin glucosides from onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Sofia; Liu, Jiayin; Khan, Samiullah; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Turner, Charlotta

    2013-06-27

    A novel environmentally sound continuous-flow hot water extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis method for determination of quercetin in onion raw materials was successfully constructed using a stepwise optimization approach. In the first step, enzymatic hydrolysis of quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside to quercetin was optimized using a three level central composite design considering temperature (75-95°C), pH (3-6) and volume concentration of ethanol (5-15%). The enzyme used was a thermostable β-glucosidase variant (termed TnBgl1A_N221S/P342L) covalently immobilized on either of two acrylic support-materials (Eupergit(®) C 250L or monolithic cryogel). Optimal reaction conditions were irrespective of support 84°C, 5% ethanol and pH 5.5, and at these conditions, no significant loss of enzyme activity was observed during 72 h of use. In a second step, hot water extractions from chopped yellow onions, run at the optimal temperature for hydrolysis, were optimized in a two level design with respect to pH (2.6 and 5.5), ethanol concentration (0 and 5%) and flow rate (1 and 3 mL min(-1)) Obtained results showed that the total quercetin extraction yield was 1.7 times higher using a flow rate of 3 mL min(-1) (extraction time 90 min), compared to a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) (extraction time 240 min). Presence of 5% ethanol was favorable for the extraction yield, while a further decrease in pH was not, not even for the extraction step alone. Finally, the complete continuous flow method (84°C, 5% ethanol, pH 5.5, 3 mL min(-1)) was used to extract quercetin from yellow, red and shallot onions and resulted in higher or similar yield (e.g. 8.4±0.7 μmol g(-1) fresh weight yellow onion) compared to a conventional batch extraction method using methanol as extraction solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antidepressant effects of the water extract from Taraxacum officinale leaves and roots in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Cheng; Shen, Ji-Duo; Li, Yang-Yang; Huang, Qi

    2014-08-01

    The leaves and roots of the Taraxacum officinale F. (Asteraceae) is widely used as traditional medicinal herb in Eastern Asian countries. In the present study, the antidepressant-like effects of the water extract of T. officinale (WETO) leaves and roots were investigated in mice using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT). Effects of acute (1-day) and chronic treatments (14-days) with WETO (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) on the behavioral changes in FST, TST and OFT, and the serum corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone concentration were assessed in mice. Chronic treatment (14-days) with WETO at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased the immobility time in both FST (92.6, 85.1 and 77.4 s) and TST (84.8, 72.1 and 56.9 s). Acute treatment (1-day) with WETO at a dose of 200 mg/kg also markedly decreased the immobility time in both FST (81.7 s) and TST (73.2 s). However, all treatments did not affect the locomotor activity in the OFT. Moreover, FST induced a significant increase in serum CRF (5.8 ng/ml), ACTH (104.7 pg/ml) and corticosterone levels (37.3 ng/ml). Chronic treatment (14-days) with WETO decreased the serum CRF (200 mg/kg: 3.9 ng/ml) and corticosterone (50 mg/kg: 29.9 ng/ml; 100 mg/kg: 22.5 ng/ml; 200 mg/kg: 19.8 ng/ml) levels. These results clearly demonstrated the antidepressant effects of WETO in animal models of behavioral despair and suggested the mechanism involved in the neuroendocrine system.

  6. Procedure of evaluation on adsorbent for extraction of uranium from sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Noboru

    1982-01-01

    Experimental procedures on the evaluation of adsorbent for the extraction of uranium from seawater and an analytical method of the data were studied on a granulated hydrous titanium oxide as a representative example. Adsorption system for the evaluation adopted a multi-layer and fluidized adsorption bed. The experiment for the evaluation was carried out by using a small column, 2 cm of diameter, for 10 days. The standard condition was 0.6 mm of granule size, 25 0 C of temperature and 10 cm of statistic bed thickness. One of the flow rates was set up at S sub(V) = 2.5 min -1 and another one was set up at two times or a half of the flow rate. The measurements were carried out on the bed thickness of statistic and fluidizing state, granule size, flow rate, temperature, adsorption quantities after 5 and 10 days. An empirical formula on adsorption quantity was derived as follows from these data: C = K 1 t sup(m 1 )K 2 S sub(V)sup(m 2 ). The difference of density between granule and sea-water was decided from grule size, flow rate and expansion ratio by Max Leva's equation. The adsorption ability was expressed by adsorption quantity per unit volume for 10 days at 50% of recovery (standard uranium uptake) or recovery ratio at S sub(V) = 2.5 min -1 (standard recovery). The former could be better because it was applicable to various adsorbents. These results decided the specification of adsorption process, namely the adsorbent inventory and parameters of the design, by application of analytical method to the previous paper. The economical evaluation indicator was mainly composed of the adsorbent inventory, the construction of adsorption bed and the adsorbent supply. An example of the evaluation was shown on a granulated hydrous titanium oxide. (J.P.N.)

  7. Horseradish extract promotes urinary bladder carcinogenesis when administered to F344 rats in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Man; Hasumura, Mai; Imai, Toshio; Takami, Shigeaki; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2017-07-01

    Horseradish extract (HRE), consisting mainly of a mixture of allyl isothiocyanate and other isothiocyanates, has been used as a food additive. To evaluate the potential hazards of HRE, a 104-week chronic study, a 2-week analysis of cell proliferation in the urinary bladder and a medium-term promotion bioassay of HRE were conducted with administration at concentrations of up to 0.04% HRE in the drinking water to male F344 rats. In the 104-week chronic study with 32 male rats per group, no treatment-related increases in the incidences of neoplastic lesions in any organ, including urinary bladder, were observed, except for simple hyperplasia in the urinary bladder in rats treated with HRE at concentrations of more than 0.01% (5.0 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 ). In the promotion study, HRE treatment after N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine initiation caused a clear increase in papillary or nodular hyperplasia, papilloma, and urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in the groups given HRE for 13 weeks at doses higher than 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.04% (2.7, 5.4 and 20.5 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 ), respectively. In the 2-week cell proliferation analysis, treatment with HRE at concentrations greater than 0.005% (3.9 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 ) caused transient increases in 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling indices in the urothelium. Although clear tumor induction was not observed, administration of relatively low-dose HRE increased cell proliferation in the urothelium and exerted obvious promoting effects on rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mode of action of HRE in the rat urinary bladder to facilitate data extrapolation from the present study and provide insights into risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a water extract of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Chou, Pei-Yu; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Wang, Bor-Sen; Chen, Jwo-Sheng; Chien, Yi-Chung; Huang, Ming-Hsing

    2009-11-12

    This study investigated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a water extract of Trachelospermum jasminoides (WET) in ICR mice. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of WET was established. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and