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Sample records for turnip sawfly athalia

  1. Sequestration of Glucosinolates and Iridoid Glucosides in Sawfly Species of the Genus Athalia and Their Role in Defense Against Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Sebastian E. W.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Müller, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    ), whereas Plantaginaceae contain iridoid glucosides (IGs) as characteristic secondary compounds. Athalia rosae and A. liberta feed on members of the Brassicaceae. Larvae of A. rosae sequester aromatic and aliphatic GLSs of Sinapis alba in their hemolymph, as shown previously, but no indolic GLSs; A. liberta...

  2. Introduced Pine Sawfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis F. Wilson

    1966-01-01

    The introduced pine, sawfly (Diprion similis (Hartig)) in North America was first discovered in 1914 in a nursery in New Haven, Conn. This insect might have been introduced in the cocoon stage on nursery stock or packing material from Holland. Since its arrival, it has advanced steadily westward, reaching Pennsylvania before 1920 and Ontario by 1931. The present range...

  3. The type specimens of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeger, Andreas; París, Mercedes; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose Luis

    2014-04-16

    The type specimens of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) housed in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, were examined. Lectotypes are designated and illustrated for the following 32 nominal taxa (preserved in the MNCN collection if not stated otherwise): Tenthredo acutiscutis Konow, 1908; Tenthredo aericeps Konow, 1907; Allantus albipectus Konow, 1907; Athalia bolivari Dusmet, 1896; Tristactus punctatus var. candidatus Konow, 1899; Tenthredo capistrata Konow, 1907; Megalodontes capitalatus Konow 1904 (coll. SDEI); Tenthredo casta Konow, 1908; Clydostomus cestatus Konow, 1908; Miocephala chalybea Konow, 1907 (coll. SDEI); Peus cupreiceps Konow, 1907; Metallopeus cupreolus Malaise, 1945 (coll. NHRS); Allantus dusmeti Konow, 1894 (coll. SDEI); Megalodontes dusmeti Enslin, 1914 (coll. ZSM); Megalodontes escalerai Konow, 1899; Tenthredo flavitarsis Konow, 1908; Sciopteryx galerita Konow, 1907; Tenthredo habenata Konow, 1907; Allantus inguinalis Konow, 1908; Clydostomus merceti Konow, 1908; Megalodontes merceti Konow 1904 (coll. SDEI); Tenthredo mordax Konow, 1908; Megalodontes mundus Konow, 1904; Tenthredo nimbata Konow, 1906; Tenthredo oculissima Konow, 1907; Peus pannulosus Konow, 1907; Tenthredo podagrica Konow, 1907; Arge segmentaria var. rufiventris Konow, 1899; Tenthredo rugiceps Konow, 1908; Tenthredo segrega Konow, 1908; Peus splendidus Konow 1907; Tenthredo suta Konow, 1906. Peus cupreiceps Konow, 1907, is considered to be a valid species. New synonymy is proposed for Tenthredo (Metallopeus) cupreiceps (Konow, 1907), comb. nov., spec. rev. (=Metallopeus cupreolus Malaise, 1945, syn. nov.; =Metallopeus inermis Malaise, 1945, syn. nov.). 

  4. Yellowheaded spruce sawfly--its ecology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Katovich; Deborah G. McCullough; Robert A. Haack

    1995-01-01

    Presents the biology and ecology of the yellowheaded spruce sawfly, and provides survey techniques and management strategies. In addition, it provides information on identification, classification, host range, and the historical records of outbreaks in the Lake States.

  5. Life history patters among North American tree-feeding sawflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; William J. Mattson

    1993-01-01

    This chapter deals broadly with the North American (NA) sawflies in the two superfamilies  Megalodontoidea (Xyelidae and Pamphiliidae, listed phylogenetically) and Tenthredinoidea (Pergidae, Argidae, Cimbicidae, Diprionidae, and...

  6. LEAFY TURNIP IS A NEW CROP FOR SALAD PRODUCTION LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stepanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The collaborative work on growing of leafy turnip in condition of salad production line was conducted in ООО PKF «AGROTIP». The possibility of obtaining of ecologically safety salad turnip of cv. Selekta, Sapfir, and Biryuza at hydroponic system are shown. Data of yield, productivity, and content of ascorbic acid in green leaf of turnip growing in condition of flow hydroponic system are presented. The possibilities of using of tested turnip varieties in modern agrotechnological systems are discussed.

  7. Identification of novel QTL for sawfly resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Sherman; D. K. Weaver; M. L. Hofland; S. E. Sing; M. Buteler; S. P. Lanning; Y. Naruoka; F. Crutcher; N. K. Blake; J. M. Martin; P. F. Lamb; G. R. Carlson; L. E. Talbert

    2010-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) (Cephus cinctus Nort.) is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) in the Northern Great Plains. This paper reports the genetic analysis of antixenosis for egg-laying WSS females in recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of hard red spring wheat. Female WSS preferentially choose certain wheat genotypes for egg-laying, with the...

  8. The Virginia pine sawfly in 1960 - a special cooperative report

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. McIntyre; R. C. Heller; C. L. Morris

    1961-01-01

    An outbreak of the pine sawfly, Neodiprion pratti pratti (Dyar), has existed in Maryland since 1955. By 1959 the insect had spread throughout 14 million acres in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of Virginia and into several North Carolina counties. Because egg surveys conducted in the spring of 1960 indicated a continuation of the epidemic, an aerial survey was conducted...

  9. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  10. SCANDINAVIAN TABLE AND STUBBLE TURNIPS: VARIABILITY AND VALUE FOR BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Kornyukhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic conditions of the Nordic countries are similar to the conditions of the North-West region of the Russian Federation, which makes it possible to introduce interesting varieties for Russian breeding. Most of the local varieties of stubble turnips in the USSR were created using Scandinavian material. Local varieties are the source of the genetic diversity of vegetable crops. The work with such material is promising in terms of searching for sources and donors of valuable traits for breeding programs. 16 samples of local table turnips and stubble turnips from the Scandinavian countries were obtained from the Nordic genebank and a comprehensive study was carried out. Samples are described from the point of view of the existing agrobiological classification of turnip (M.A. Shebalina. Most of the local accessions are mixed populations of two or more types. It was found that the local accessions of Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden were represented by table turnips of the Karelian and Petrovsky types, a Tankard yellow type prevailed among the stubble turnips. A representative of a very rare variety type of turnip Kostenevskaya (Petrozavodskaya was found. The fact of changing of the prevailing types of table and stubble turnips Scandinavian countries is probably connected with the introduction of the widespread European varieties of these cultures. Accessions of local Scandinavian stubble turnips have been identified as sources of productivity and valuable biochemical composition, exceeding the standard variety of Osterzundomsky. Gul Finlandsk, Norway (the Petrovskaya type, Ljusnedal, Sweden (May yellow greenhead type, Rana, Denmark, (the Bortfeld type and Ova Daehnfeldt, Denmark (Tankard yellow are promising sources for turnip breeding in Russian Federation. 

  11. Sawfly larval poisoning in cattle: Report on new outbreaks and brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Tessele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sawfly larval poisoning (SLP is an acute hepatotoxicosis documented in livestock in Australia, Denmark and in countries of South America. It is caused by the ingestion of the larval stage of insects of the suborder Symphyta, order Hymenoptera, commonly known as "sawfly". Three species of sawfly are reportedly involved in the toxicosis. The insect involved in Australian SLP is Lophyrotoma interrupta (Pergidae, in Denmark the cause of SLP is the ingestion of the larvae Arge pullata (Argidae, and in South American countries documented outbreaks of SLP were caused by the ingestion of yet another sawfly, Perreyia flavipes (Pergidae. In all geographical areas where it occurred, SLP causes important livestock losses. In cattle, as well as in other affected species, the disease has a short clinical course and in many outbreaks affected cattle can be found dead. When observed, clinical signs include apathy, recumbence, tremors, paddling movements and death in 24-48 hours. Neurological signs such aggressiveness attributable to hepatic encephalopathy are also observed. In cases with a more protracted course icterus and photodermatitis may develop. Gross findings included ascites, petechiae and ecchymosis over serosal surfaces of thoracic and abdominal cavities, and an enlarged liver that displays accentuation of the lobular pattern and edema of the gall bladder wall. Sawfly larval body fragments and heads are consistently found in the fore stomachs and occasionally abomasum of affected cattle. Main microscopic lesions are restricted to the liver and consist of centrolobular (periacinar to massive hepatocellular necrosis. In most lobules necrotic areas extended up to the portal triads where only a few viable hepatocytes remain. Mild to moderate lymphocyte necrosis is seen in lymphatic tissues. Cases occur in the winter months when the larval stages of the sawfly are developing. D-amino acid-containing peptides have been found to be the toxic principle in

  12. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

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    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae, furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Section of Entomology and Nematology. In this study, pear shoot sawfly in Eastern Slavonia occurred in the period of four weeks, starting from the third decade of April with the peak population at the beginning of the May. Adults flight is the most intensive during warm and sunny days, when temperatures are above 14°C. Adult sawflies are characterized by elongated body and antennae, usually 7-12 mm long and sexual dimorphism is present. Pest is univoltine. Basic colour of adult sawfly is black. Antennae are moniliform and consist of 20 (male - 22 (female segments. Females have red or dark red colored abdomen, while males have yellow or orange one. Eggs are cylindrically shaped, 0.8-1.0 mm long. Female lays approximately 30 eggs. Embryonic development of pear shoot sawfly eggs lasts from 11 to 14 days. Larvae are 8-10 mm long, white or pale yellow. Larvae molt three times. Pear shoot sawfly larvae were parasitized by insects from Hymenoptera order, from five identified and one unidentified genera. Level of parasitism by genera is as follows: Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae – 9.83%, Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – 2.01%, Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae – 1.66%, Pteromalus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae – 0.55%, Ichneumonida sp. (Hymenoptera: Pimplinae – 0.35% and unidentified genera – 0.62%. Plant parasitic species Metopoplax origani (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae was found in 1.80% of analyzed shoots. Larvae were

  13. Identification of Turnip mosaic virus isolated from canola in northeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During March and April of 2011, 436 samples showing viral disease symptoms were collected from canola fields in the Khorasan Razavi province. The samples were tested by double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Among the 436 ...

  14. Bioepoxidation of isosafrol catalyzed by radish and turnip peroxidases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peroxidases (PODs) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and turnip (Brassica napus L.) were extracted and precipitated with ammonium sulfate using a simple, low cost and quick method. The activities of all ... The products of the reaction were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry.

  15. Effects of Foliar Selenite on the Nutrient Components of Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We administered foliar applications of 50, 100, and 200 mg L−1 selenium (Se, selenite on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn. and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (IV significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (IV positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper. Se (IV treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (IV could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L−1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 μg person−1 day−1 and its favorable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  16. Kisaran Inang dan Keragaman Gejala Infeksi Turnip Mosaic Virus

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    Eliza Suryati Rusli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of mosaic disease on vegetable crops in Indonesia has been reported recently. The disease is caused by TuMV which is considered as a new and important virus on caisin and turnip in Indonesia. Field survey has been conducted to determine disease incidence in vegetable growing areas. Symptom variability and host range of TuMV was further studied through mechanical inoculation to cruciferae and solanaceae plants. Observation during field survey has proved that TuMV has infected caisin and turnip in Java and Bali. The highest intensity of mosaic disease i.e. 63,3% occurs in Tumpangan-Malang, followed by Denpasar Selatan and Bandungan-Semarang with the intensity of 30,5% and 19,0% respectively. TuMV infection causes different types of symptoms, such as: wrinkled leaf, blistered leaf, vein banding, vein clearing, leaf distortion and proliferation. The host range of TuMV involves those plants belong to cruciferae (cabbage, broccoli, caisin, turnip, cauliflower, chinese cabbage, pak coy; solanaceae (N. tabacum, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa; and chenopodiaceae (C. amaranticolor. Furthermore, N. glutinosa can be used as differential host for TuMV isolates.

  17. An AFLP marker linked to turnip mosaic virus resistance gene in pak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An AFLP marker linked to turnip mosaic virus resistance gene in pak-choi. W Xinhua, C Huoying, Z Yuying, H Ruixian. Abstract. Pak-choi is one of the most important vegetable crops in China. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of its main pathogen. Screening the molecular marker linked to the TuMV resistance gene is an ...

  18. Phylogeography of two parthenogenetic sawfly species (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): relationship of population genetic differentiation to host plant distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, C.; Barker, A.; Boevé, J.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Vos, de H.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the population genetic structure of two obligate parthenogenetic sawfly species, Aneugmenus padi (L.) Zhelochovtsev and Eurhadinoceraea ventralis (Panzer) Enslin (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Allozymes were used to detect genetic differences in larvae collected at different

  19. Advancing biological control of the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus) – new strategies in a 100 year struggle to manage a costly pest in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus, Norton), has become a destructive pest of cereal crops in the Northern Great Plains, including: Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba. Wheat stem sawflies (WSS) typically infest wheat (Triticum sp.), but they also d...

  20. Morphology, carbohydrate composition and vernalization response in a genetically diverse collection of Asian and European turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningwen; Zhao, Jianjun; Lens, Frederic; de Visser, Joan; Menamo, Temesgen; Fang, Wen; Xiao, Dong; Bucher, Johan; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Lin, Ke; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa displays enormous morphological diversity, with leafy vegetables, turnips and oil crops. Turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) represent one of the morphotypes, which form tubers and can be used to study the genetics underlying storage organ formation. In the present study we investigated several characteristics of an extensive turnip collection comprising 56 accessions from both Asia (mainly Japanese origin) and Europe. Population structure was calculated using data from 280 evenly distributed SNP markers over 56 turnip accessions. We studied the anatomy of turnip tubers and measured carbohydrate composition of the mature turnip tubers of a subset of the collection. The variation in 16 leaf traits, 12 tuber traits and flowering time was evaluated in five independent experiments for the entire collection. The effect of vernalization on flowering and tuber formation was also investigated. SNP marker profiling basically divided the turnip accessions into two subpopulations, with admixture, generally corresponding with geographical origin (Europe or Asia). The enlarged turnip tuber consists of both hypocotyl and root tissue, but the proportion of the two tissues differs between accessions. The ratio of sucrose to fructose and glucose differed among accessions, while generally starch content was low. The evaluated traits segregated in both subpopulations, with leaf shape, tuber colour and number of shoots per tuber explaining most variation between the two subpopulations. Vernalization resulted in reduced flowering time and smaller tubers for the Asian turnips whereas the European turnips were less affected by vernalization.

  1. The RNA of turnip yellow mosaic virus exhibits icosahedral order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Steven B.; Lucas, Robert W.; Greenwood, Aaron; McPherson, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Difference electron density maps, based on structure factor amplitudes and experimental phases from crystals of wild-type turnip yellow mosaic virus and those of empty capsids prepared by freeze-thawing, show a large portion of the encapsidated RNA to have an icosahedral distribution. Four unique segments of base-paired, double-helical RNA, one to two turns in length, lie between 33-A and 101-A radius and are organized about either 2-fold or 5-fold icosahedral axes. In addition, single-stranded loops of RNA invade the pentameric and hexameric capsomeres where they contact the interior capsid surface. The remaining RNA, not seen in electron density maps, must serve as connecting links between these secondary structural elements and is likely icosahedrally disordered. The distribution of RNA observed crystallographically appears to be in agreement with models based on biochemical data and secondary structural analyses

  2. Conservation of minimally processed apples using edible coatings made of turnip extract and xanthan gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dellinghausen Borges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of turnip extract and xanthan gum in the conservation of minimally processed apples. The apples were washed, sanitized with sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm for 15 minutes, peeled, and cut into eight pieces prior to being subjected to one of the following treatments in aqueous solution: A – water (control; B – turnip extract; C – turnip extract and CaCl2; D – xanthan gum, CaCl2 and glycerol; E – turnip extract, xanthan gum, CaCl2, and glycerol. Subsequently, the freshly cut apples were dried under ventilation on nylon screens to ensure drying of the coatings, and then packed in polystyrene trays, covered with polyvinylchloride films and stored at 4 ± 1 ° C for 13 days. The following parameters were evaluated: mass loss, firmness, colouration, pH value, soluble solids, and peroxidase/polyphenoloxidase activities. The edible coatings were found to be ineffective with respect to controlling mass loss, but the minimally processed apples coated with turnip extract maintained their initial levels of colouration, firmness and pH value. A considerable increase in peroxidase activity was registered for apples treated with turnip extract, suggesting that this effect may also be responsible for the reduction in browning. No advantage could be observed for the simultaneous presence of turnip extract and xanthan gum or calcium chloride. The turnip extract may represent an interesting alternative for applications to minimally processed apples, especially as it is a natural product, easily obtained, cost effective and contributes to the nutritional quality (e.g. as a source of calcium ions.

  3. Selenium Accumulation Characteristics and Biofortification Potentiality in Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Supplied with Selenite or Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for humans. About 70% of the regions in China, including most of the Tibetan Plateau, are faced with Se deficiency problems. Turnip is mainly distributed around the Tibetan Plateau and is one of the few local crops. In the present study, we compared the absorption and translocation differences of Se (IV selenite and Se (VI selenate in turnip. The results showed that Se treatment, either by soil addition (0.2–2 mg Se kg−1 dry soil or by foliar spraying (50–200 mg L−1 Se, could significantly increase the Se concentrations in turnips, and 0.5 mg Se (IV or Se (VI kg−1 dry matter in soils could improve the biomasses of turnips. Moreover, turnip absorbed significantly more Se (VI than Se (IV at the same concentration and also transferred much more Se (VI from roots to leaves. Based on the Se concentrations, as well as the bioconcentration factors and translocation coefficients, we considered that turnip might be a potential Se indicator plant. Subsequently, we estimated the daily Se intake for adults based on the Se concentrations in turnip roots. The results indicated that Se (IV should be more suitable as an artificial Se fertilizer for turnips, although the levels found in most samples in this study could cause selenosis to humans. In addition, we also estimated the optimum and maximum Se concentrations for treating turnips based on the linear relations between Se concentrations in turnip roots and Se treatment concentrations. The results provided preliminary and useful information about Se biofortification in turnips.

  4. Polyamine biosynthesis and the replication of turnip yellow mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) contains large amounts of nonexchangeable spermidine and induces an accumulation of spermidine in infected Chinese cabbage. By seven days after inoculation, a majority of protoplasts isolated from newly-emerging leaves stain with fluorescent antibody to the virus. These protoplasts contain 1-2 x 10 6 virions per cell and continue to produce virus in culture for at least 48 hours. [ 14 C]-Spermidine (10 μM) was taken up by these cells in amounts comparable to the original endogenous pool within 24 hours. However, the spermidine content of the cell was only marginally affected, implying considerable regulation of the endogenous pool(s). Putrescine and spermine were major products of the metabolism of exogenous spermidine. Radioactivity from exogenous [ 14 C]-spermidine was also readily incorporated into the nucleic acid-containing component of the virus, where it appeared as both spermidine and spermine. Thus, newly-formed virions contained predominantly newly-synthesized spermidine and spermine. However, inhibition of spermidine synthesis by dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) led to incorporation of pre-existing spermidine and increased amounts of spermine into newly-formed virions. The latter results were tested and confirmed in a second cellular system, consisting of health protoplasts infected with TYMC in vitro

  5. Effects of Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.) on promoting hypoxia-tolerance in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bingquan; Chen, Chun; Li, Jiaojie; Chen, Xiaojian; Li, Yunhong; Tang, Weimin; Jin, Lu; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-04

    Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.), widely distributed in Tibet region, is an edible and medical plant with effects of "tonic and anti-hypoxia" "heat-clearing and detoxification" and "alleviating fatigue" according to traditional Tibetan medical books. This research systematically studied the effects of Tibetan turnip on promoting hypoxia-tolerance in humans and the mechanisms. A 7-d, self-control and single-blind human feeding trial was conducted among 27 healthy subjects with 8 males and 10 females in feeding group fed with 7.5g turnip powder 2 times daily while 4 males and 5 females in control group fed with 7.5g radish powder twice a day. Subjects were required to undergo a hypoxia tolerance test (7.1% O 2 ) and a cardiopulmonary function evaluation (Bruce treadmill protocol) before (1st day) and after (9th day) the trial. Simultaneously, the anti-oxidative activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, MDA), routine and biochemical analyses of blood samples were evaluated. The females' SpO 2 increased significantly by 6.4% at the end of the hypoxia tolerance test after taking turnips (phypoxia symptoms in most of the subjects were alleviated as well. The anaerobic threshold, peak O 2 pulse and peak VO 2 /kg were significantly improved after 7-d turnip consumption during the Bruce treadmill test (phypoxia tolerance in healthy humans, which could be due to its abilities of improving oxygen uptake and delivery, enhancing body antioxidant capacity and increasing MCHC. However, further studies with larger samples and double-blind design are warranted, and future studies covering more diverse populations (unhealthy, athletic) would be also considered. Moreover, researches on identifying Tibetan turnip's active compounds are desired as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biology, host specificity tests, and risk assessment of the sawfly Heteroperreyia hubrichi, a potential biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Heteroperreyia hubrichi Malaise (Hymenoptera: Pergidae), a foliage feeding sawfly of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), was studied to assess its suitability as a classical biological control agent of this invasive weed in Hawaii. Nochoice host-specificity tests we...

  7. Odorant receptors of a primitive hymenopteran pest, the wheat stem sawfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, J C; Robertson, H M; Weaver, D K; Dlakić, M; Wanner, K W

    2013-12-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, is an herbivorous hymenopteran that feeds exclusively on members of the Graminae family. Synanthropically, it has become one of the most important insect pests of wheat grown in the northern Great Plains region of the USA and Canada. Insecticides are generally ineffective because of the wheat stem sawfly's extended adult flight period and its inaccessible larval stage, during which it feeds within the wheat stems, making it virtually intractable to most pest management strategies. While research towards integrated pest management strategies based on insect olfaction has proved promising, nothing is known about the molecular basis of olfaction in this important pest species. In this study we identified 28 unique odorant receptor (Or) transcripts from an antennal transcriptome. A phylogenetic analysis with the predicted Ors from the honey bee and jewel wasp genomes revealed at least four clades conserved amongst all three Hymenoptera species. Antennal expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR, and one male-biased and five female-biased Ors were identified. This study provides the basis for future functional analyses to identify behaviourally active odours that can be used to help develop olfactory-mediated pest management tools. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Mortality in hibernating turnip moth larvae, Agrotis segetum, caused by Tolypocladium cylindrosporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Øgaard, Leif

    2000-01-01

    At one sampling site an entomopathogenic fungus, tentatively identified as Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, was found to severely reduce populations of hibernating turnip moth larvae (Agrotis segetum) in consecutive winters, while it was never recorded from other collection sites. It produced...... mouldy smell. The infectivity of the fungus was tested in a semi-field trial, where suspensions of conidia were applied to hibernating turnip moth larvae in plastic buckets. The experiment also included buckets with larvae and/or soil from the infested site in order to study the natural fungal...... studies with 10 insect species indicated that the fungus is probably specific to hibernating cutworms....

  9. Interfacial assembly of turnip yellow mosaic virus nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; He, Jinbo; Xu, Ji; Pingali, Saivenkatesh; Jutz, Günther; Böker, Alexander; Niu, Zhongwei; Li, Tao; Rawlinson, Dustin; Emrick, Todd; Lee, Byeongdu; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan; Russell, Thomas P; Wang, Qian

    2009-05-05

    An extensive study of the factors that affect the interfacial assembly of bionanoparticles at the oil/water (O/W) interface is reported. Bionanoparticles, such as viruses, have distinctive structural properties due to the unique arrangement of their protein structures. The assembly process of such bionanoparticles at interfaces is governed by factors including the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous layer, concentration of the particles, and nature of the oil phase. This study highlights the impact of these factors on the interfacial assembly of bionanoparticles at the O/W interface using native turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) as the prototype. Robust monolayer assemblies of TYMV were produced by self-assembly at the O/W interface using emulsions and planar interfaces. TYMV maintained its structure and integrity under different assembly conditions. For the emulsion droplets, they were fully covered with TYMV as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning force microscopy (SFM). Tensiometry and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) further supported this finding. Although the emulsions offered a complete coverage by TYMV particles, they lacked long-range ordering due to rapid exchange at the interface. By altering the assembly process, highly ordered, hexagonal arrays of TYMV were obtained at planar O/W interfaces. The pH, ionic strength, and viscosity of the solution played a crucial role in enhancing the lateral ordering of TYMV assembled at the planar O/W interface. This interfacial ordering of TYMV particles was further stabilized by introduction of a positively charged dehydroabietyl amine (DHAA) in the organic phase which held the assembly together by electrostatic interactions. The long-range array formation was observed using TEM and SFM. The results presented here illustrate that the interfacial assembly at the O/W interface is a versatile approach to achieve highly stable self-assembled structures.

  10. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicit...

  11. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  12. An AFLP marker linked to turnip mosaic virus resistance gene in pak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... difficult to control by chemicals, and the natural plant resistance is the ... controlling TuMV-C4 resistance in Chinese cabbage. Zhang et al. ..... Plant Dis. 69: 28-31. Han HP, Sun RF, Zhang SJ, Li F, Zhang SF, Niu XK (2004). AFLP marker linked to turnip mosaic virus susceptible gene in Chinese cabbage ...

  13. Coat protein of Turnip mosaic virus in oilseed rape (Brassica napus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mohammad

    2Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad,. Iran. Accepted 15 August, 2012 ... led to prevalence of infectious diseases. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is an .... During the sampling of canola plants for the detection of virus, some colonies of aphids were ...

  14. Phylogeography of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae: Implications for Pest Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lesieur

    Full Text Available The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae, is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C. cinctus using two mitochondrial regions (COI and 16S. Subsequently, we characterized the structure of genetic diversity in the main wheat producing areas in North America using a combination of mtDNA marker and microsatellites in samples collected both in wheat fields and in grasses in wildlands. The strong genetic divergence observed between North American samples and Asian congeners, in particular the synonimized C. hyalinatus, did not support the hypothesis of a recent American colonization by C. cinctus. Furthermore, the relatively high genetic diversity both with mtDNA and microsatellite markers offered additional evidence in favor of the native American origin of this pest. The genetic diversity of North American populations is structured into three genetic clusters and these are highly correlated with geography. Regarding the recent southern outbreaks in North America, the results tend to exclude the hypothesis of recent movement of damaging wheat stem sawfly populations from the northern area. The shift in host plant use by local populations appears to be the most likely scenario. Finally, the significance of these findings is discussed in the context of pest management.

  15. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of allelopathic properties of Aloe ferox Mill. on turnip, beetroot and carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Arowosegbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa L., beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. and carrot (Daucus carota L. are common vegetables in South Africa. The allelopathic potential of aqueous leaf and root extracts of Aloe ferox Mill.- a highly valued medicinal plant- was evaluated against seed germination and seedling growth of the three vegetables in Petri dish experiments. The extracts were tested at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/mL. Leaf extract concentrations above 4 mg/mL inhibited the germination of all the crops, while the root extract had no significant effect on germination irrespective of concentration. Interestingly, the lowest concentration of leaf extract stimulated root length elongation of beetroot by 31.71%. Other concentrations significantly inhibited both root and shoot growth of the vegetable crops except the turnip shoot. The most sensitive crop was carrot, with percentage inhibition ranging from 29.15 to 100% for root and shoot lengths. Lower percentage inhibition was observed for the root extract than the leaf extract against shoot growth of beetroot and carrot. The results from this study suggested the presence of allelochemicals mostly in the leaves of A. ferox that could inhibit the growth of the turnip, beetroot and carrot.

  17. Behavior of Sethoxydim Alone or in Combination with Turnip Oils on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein HAMMAMI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sethoxydim is an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase inhibitor that changed the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence curve (kautsky curve in wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu. in greenhouse experiment. This experiment was conducted as completely randomized factorial design with three replications at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2012. Results of this study revealed that sethoxydim only and plus emulsifiable turnip oil changed the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence curve (kautsky curve 7 days after spraying. Sethoxydim plus emulsifiable turnip oil changed the shape of the kautsky curve more than for sethoxydim only. We found that in our study the fv/fm (maximum quantum efficiency was closely linked to the fresh and dry weight dose-response. Sethoxydim plus emulsifiable turnip oil proved more rapidly effect on fv/fm in comparison with sethoxydim only. The fresh and dry weight dose-response relationship with fv/fm showed a similar behavior. This study revealed a good relation between fresh and dry weight according with values of 28 DAS and fv/fm 7 DAS. In general, the findings of this study revealed that Fv/Fm is a good parameter for evaluating effect of sethoxydim little time after spraying. Also, this research showed that 4 folds more time for classical screening methods comparing to chlorophyll fluorescence method. Thereupon, classical screening methods may be replaced by chlorophyll fluorescence method in future.

  18. Cadmium Accumulation Characteristics in Turnip Landraces from China and Assessment of their Phytoremediation Potential for Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (HM pollution is a global environmental problem that threatens ecosystem and human health. Cadmium (Cd pollution is the most prominent HM pollution type because of its high toxicity, strong migration, and the large polluted area globally. Phytoremediation of contaminated soil is frequently practiced because of its cost-effectiveness and operability and because it has no associated secondary pollution. High-accumulation plants, including those identified as hyperaccumulators, play an important role in phytoremediation. Therefore, screening of plants to identify hyperaccumulators is important for continued phytoremediation. In the present study, we investigated the Cd tolerance and accumulation capabilities of 18 turnip landraces from China under a soil experiment with known Cd level. The results indicated that turnip has a high capacity for Cd accumulation. Furthermore, significant differences in Cd tolerance and accumulation characteristics were found among different landraces when they grew at 50 mg kg−1 (dry weight Cd concentration. Among the studied landraces, five turnip landraces met the requirements of Cd hyperaccumulators and three landraces were identified as potential candidates. However, the total Cd content accumulated by individual plant of different turnip landraces was dependent on both the Cd accumulation capacity and plant biomass. Compared with some reported Cd hyperaccumulators, turnip not only shows a high Cd-accumulation capacity but also has rapid growth and a wide distribution area. These advantages indicate that turnip may have considerable potential for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. Furthermore, the study also indicates that it is not advisable to consume turnip cultivated in an environment that exceeds safe Cd levels.

  19. MODIS imagery improves pest risk assessment: A case study of wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestina, Jordan; Cook, Maxwell; Kumar, Sunil; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Ode, Paul J.; Peirs, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) has long been a significant insect pest of spring, and more recently, winter wheat in the northern Great Plains. Wheat stem sawfly was first observed infesting winter wheat in Colorado in 2010 and, subsequently, has spread rapidly throughout wheat production regions of the state. Here, we used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to generate habitat suitability maps in order to predict the risk of crop damage as this species spreads throughout the winter wheat-growing regions of Colorado. We identified environmental variables that influence the current distribution of wheat stem sawfly in the state and evaluated whether remotely sensed variables improved model performance. We used presence localities of C. cinctus and climatic, topographic, soils, and normalized difference vegetation index and enhanced vegetation index data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery as environmental variables. All models had high performance in that they were successful in predicting suitable habitat for C. cinctus in its current distribution in eastern Colorado. The enhanced vegetation index for the month of April improved model performance and was identified as a top contributor to MaxEnt model. Soil clay percent at 0–5 cm, temperature seasonality, and precipitation seasonality were also associated with C. cinctus distribution in Colorado. The improved model performance resulting from integrating vegetation indices in our study demonstrates the ability of remote sensing technologies to enhance species distribution modeling. These risk maps generated can assist managers in planning control measures for current infestations and assess the future risk of C. cinctus establishment in currently uninfested regions.

  20. Foodborne botulism associated with home-preserved turnip tops in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Anniballi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, foodborne botulism is a rare disease mainly due to home-preserved food. In the case reported here, clinical diagnosis was performed on the basis of clinical signs and referred consumption of home-preserved turnip tops in oil. Definitive diagnosis was performed by detection of botulinum toxin in sera and neuro-toxigenic organisms in stools and leftover food. This case report highlights the need of a high medical awareness, prompt clinical diagnosis, and synergic collaboration among the health authorities for a correct management of botulism as well as disease containment.

  1. Determinants of parasitoid communities of willow-galling sawflies: habitat overrides physiology, host plant and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Tommi; Leppänen, Sanna A; Várkonyi, Gergely; Shaw, Mark R; Koivisto, Reijo; Barstad, Trond Elling; Vikberg, Veli; Roininen, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Studies on the determinants of plant-herbivore and herbivore-parasitoid associations provide important insights into the origin and maintenance of global and local species richness. If parasitoids are specialists on herbivore niches rather than on herbivore taxa, then alternating escape of herbivores into novel niches and delayed resource tracking by parasitoids could fuel diversification at both trophic levels. We used DNA barcoding to identify parasitoids that attack larvae of seven Pontania sawfly species that induce leaf galls on eight willow species growing in subarctic and arctic-alpine habitats in three geographic locations in northern Fennoscandia, and then applied distance- and model-based multivariate analyses and phylogenetic regression methods to evaluate the hierarchical importance of location, phylogeny and different galler niche dimensions on parasitoid host use. We found statistically significant variation in parasitoid communities across geographic locations and willow host species, but the differences were mainly quantitative due to extensive sharing of enemies among gallers within habitat types. By contrast, the divide between habitats defined two qualitatively different network compartments, because many common parasitoids exhibited strong habitat preference. Galler and parasitoid phylogenies did not explain associations, because distantly related arctic-alpine gallers were attacked by a species-poor enemy community dominated by two parasitoid species that most likely have independently tracked the gallers' evolutionary shifts into the novel habitat. Our results indicate that barcode- and phylogeny-based analyses of food webs that span forested vs. tundra or grassland environments could improve our understanding of vertical diversification effects in complex plant-herbivore-parasitoid networks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Genetic Basis of Body Color and Spotting Pattern in Redheaded Pine Sawfly Larvae (Neodiprion lecontei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Catherine R; O'Quin, Claire T; Shackleford, Taylor; Sears, Connor R; Lindstedt, Carita

    2018-03-01

    Pigmentation has emerged as a premier model for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution, and a growing catalog of color loci is starting to reveal biases in the mutations, genes, and genetic architectures underlying color variation in the wild. However, existing studies have sampled a limited subset of taxa, color traits, and developmental stages. To expand the existing sample of color loci, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses on two types of larval pigmentation traits that vary among populations of the redheaded pine sawfly ( Neodiprion lecontei ): carotenoid-based yellow body color and melanin-based spotting pattern. For both traits, our QTL models explained a substantial proportion of phenotypic variation and suggested a genetic architecture that is neither monogenic nor highly polygenic. Additionally, we used our linkage map to anchor the current N. lecontei genome assembly . With these data, we identified promising candidate genes underlying: (1) a loss of yellow pigmentation in populations in the Mid-Atlantic/northeastern USA [C locus-associated membrane protein homologous to a mammalian HDL receptor-2 gene ( Cameo2 ) and lipid transfer particle apolipoproteins II and I gene ( apoLTP-II/I )], and (2) a pronounced reduction in black spotting in Great-Lakes populations [members of the yellow gene family , tyrosine hydroxylase gene ( pale ) , and dopamine N- acetyltransferase gene ( Dat )]. Several of these genes also contribute to color variation in other wild and domesticated taxa. Overall, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that predictable genes of large-effect contribute to color evolution in nature. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  3. Gregariousness does not vary with geography, developmental stage, or group relatedness in feeding redheaded pine sawfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbot, John W; Gaynor, Ryan L; Linnen, Catherine R

    2017-06-01

    Aggregations are widespread across the animal kingdom, yet the underlying proximate and ultimate causes are still largely unknown. An ideal system to investigate this simple, social behavior is the pine sawfly genus Neodiprion , which is experimentally tractable and exhibits interspecific variation in larval gregariousness. To assess intraspecific variation in this trait, we characterized aggregative tendency within a single widespread species, the redheaded pine sawfly ( N. lecontei ). To do so, we developed a quantitative assay in which we measured interindividual distances over a 90-min video. This assay revealed minimal behavioral differences: (1) between early-feeding and late-feeding larval instars, (2) among larvae derived from different latitudes, and (3) between groups composed of kin and those composed of nonkin. Together, these results suggest that, during the larval feeding period, the benefits individuals derive from aggregating outweigh the costs and that this cost-to-benefit ratio does not vary dramatically across space (geography) or ontogeny (developmental stage). In contrast to the feeding larvae, our assay revealed a striking reduction in gregariousness following the final larval molt in N. lecontei . We also found some intriguing interspecific variation: While N. lecontei and N. maurus feeding larvae exhibit significant aggregative tendencies, feeding N. compar larvae do not aggregate at all. These results set the stage for future work investigating the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying developmental and interspecific variation in larval gregariousness across Neodiprion .

  4. Folivory versus florivory—adaptiveness of flower feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeili, Babak; Müller, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of resources and defence is heterogeneous within plants. Specialist insects may prefer tissue with high concentrations of the plant’s characteristic defence compounds. Most herbivorous butterfly or sawfly larvae are considered to be folivores, so also the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a specialist herbivore on Brassicaceae. We investigated which tissue larvae choose to feed upon and how they perform on flowers, young or old leaves of Sinapis alba. Furthermore, constitutive and inducible levels of glucosinolates and myrosinases were investigated and nutrients analysed. Larvae moved from leaves to flowers for feeding from the third larval instar on. Flowers were not actively chosen, but larvae moved upwards on the plant, regardless of how plants were orientated (upright or inverted). Flower-feeding larvae were heavier and developed faster than larvae feeding on young leaves, and adults laid more eggs. Old leaves as food source resulted in the lowest growth rates. Flowers contained three and ten times higher myrosinase activities than young and old leaves, respectively, whereas glucosinolate concentrations and nitrogen levels of flowers and young leaves were comparable. Glucosinolate concentrations of old leaves were very low. Changes in tissue chemistry caused by larval feeding were tissue specific. Defence levels did not change in flowers and old leaves after A. rosae feeding in contrast to young leaves. The high insect performance on flowers cannot be explained by differences in chemical defence. Instead, the lack of mechanical defence (trichomes) is probably responsible. Movement to the flowers and folivory is overall highly adaptive for this sawfly species.

  5. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  6. The presence of turnip yellows virus in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloševic Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 86 oilseed rape samples from six crops in different localities were collected during 2014 and analyzed for the presence of Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV using commercial double-antibody sandwich (DAS-ELISA kits. TuYV was serologically detected in 60 collected samples (69.77%, and none of the samples tested were positive for CaMV and TuMV. Six selected TuYV isolates were successfully transmitted by Myzus persicae to three test plants, confirming the infectious nature of the disease. In the selected ELISA-positive samples, the presence of TuYV was further confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. A comparison of the obtained sequence with those available in GenBank confirmed the presence of TuYV in oilseed rape samples. An analysis of P0 gene sequence data for a subset of these isolates showed they clustered with the known TuYV and were distinct from Beet western yellows virus (BWYV isolates.

  7. Investigation of hydrazide derivatives inhibitory effect on peroxidase enzyme purified from turnip roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaz, Züleyha; Öztekin, Aykut; Özdemir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Peroxidases (EC: 1.11.1.7) are haem proteins and contain iron (III) protoporphyrin IX (ferriprotoporphyrin IX) as the prosthetic group [1]. They are found in all cells and play a critical role in many biological processes, such as the host-defense mechanism [2]. Peroxidases (PODs) are widely used in clinical biochemistry, enzyme immunoassays, synthesis of various aromatic chemicals, treatment of waste water containing phenolic compounds [3, 4]. In this study, peroxidase enzyme was purified with Para amino benzohydrazide (PABH)-L-Tyrosine Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography to investigate the inhibitory effect of hydrazide derivatives on Turnip (Brassica rapa L.). IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzyme and inhibition type of these molecules were determined.

  8. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  9. Novel microsatellite DNA markers indicate strict parthenogenesis and few genotypes in the invasive willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, V; Norgate, M; Ede, F J; Nyman, T; Sunnucks, P

    2013-02-01

    Invasive organisms can have major impacts on the environment. Some invasive organisms are parthenogenetic in their invasive range and, therefore, exist as a number of asexual lineages (=clones). Determining the reproductive mode of invasive species has important implications for understanding the evolutionary genetics of such species, more especially, for management-relevant traits. The willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) has been introduced unintentionally into several countries in the Southern Hemisphere where it has subsequently become invasive. To assess the population expansion, reproductive mode and host-plant relationships of this insect, microsatellite markers were developed and applied to natural populations sampled from the native and expanded range, along with sequencing of the cytochrome-oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region. Other tenthredinids across a spectrum of taxonomic similarity to N. oligospilus and having a range of life strategies were also tested. Strict parthenogenesis was apparent within invasive N. oligospilus populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere, which comprised only a small number of genotypes. Sequences of mtDNA were identical for all individuals tested in the invasive range. The microsatellite markers were used successfully in several sawfly species, especially Nematus spp. and other genera of the Nematini tribe, with the degree of success inversely related to genetic divergence as estimated from COI sequences. The confirmation of parthenogenetic reproduction in N. oligospilus and the fact that it has a very limited pool of genotypes have important implications for understanding and managing this species and its biology, including in terms of phenotypic diversity, host relationships, implications for spread and future adaptive change. It would appear to be an excellent model study system for understanding evolution of invasive parthenogens that diverge without sexual reproduction and

  10. History, geography and host use shape genomewide patterns of genetic variation in the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Robin K; Sousa, Vitor C; Niemiller, Matthew L; Linnen, Catherine R

    2017-02-01

    Divergent host use has long been suspected to drive population differentiation and speciation in plant-feeding insects. Evaluating the contribution of divergent host use to genetic differentiation can be difficult, however, as dispersal limitation and population structure may also influence patterns of genetic variation. In this study, we use double-digest restriction-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing to test the hypothesis that divergent host use contributes to genetic differentiation among populations of the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei), a widespread pest that uses multiple Pinus hosts throughout its range in eastern North America. Because this species has a broad range and specializes on host plants known to have migrated extensively during the Pleistocene, we first assess overall genetic structure using model-based and model-free clustering methods and identify three geographically distinct genetic clusters. Next, using a composite-likelihood approach based on the site frequency spectrum and a novel strategy for maximizing the utility of linked RAD markers, we infer the population topology and date divergence to the Pleistocene. Based on existing knowledge of Pinus refugia, estimated demographic parameters and patterns of diversity among sawfly populations, we propose a Pleistocene divergence scenario for N. lecontei. Finally, using Mantel and partial Mantel tests, we identify a significant relationship between genetic distance and geography in all clusters, and between genetic distance and host use in two of three clusters. Overall, our results indicate that Pleistocene isolation, dispersal limitation and ecological divergence all contribute to genomewide differentiation in this species and support the hypothesis that host use is a common driver of population divergence in host-specialized insects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Protective and antioxidant activities of turnip root ethanolic extract against cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Mohajeri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug and at high doses is hepatotoxic. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Because of antioxidant potential of turnip (Brassica rapa. L root, the objective of this study was to examine the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE, on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.Materials and Method: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four equal groups. Group 1 was used as control; groups 2 and 4 were orally treated with TREE (200 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Groups 3 and 4 received a single intraperitoneal dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg on the 10th day of the experiment. At the end of experiment, serum levels of aspartate and alanine transaminases, lactate dehydogenase and total bilirubin, albumin and total proteins were assessed. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were assayed in liver homogenates. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verifications.Results: In group 4, TREE significantly (p=0.0001 decreased the elevated levels of serum biomarkers of hepatic injury and total bilirubin; and significantly increased the reduced levels of serum albumin and total proteins (respectively p=0.001, p=0.032. In this group, TREE significantly (p=0.0001 decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased values of hepatic antioxidants. Histopathologically, the changes were in the same direction with biochemical findings.Conclusion: Because of anti-oxidant potentials of TREE, it may have a protective effect against cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity in rats

  12. A Multiple Decrement Life Table Reveals That Host Plant Resistance and Parasitism Are Major Causes of Mortality for the Wheat Stem Sawfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteler, Micaela; Peterson, Robert K D; Hofland, Megan L; Weaver, David K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of parasitism, host plant resistance, pathogens, and predation on the demography of wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), developing in susceptible (hollow stem) and resistant (solid stem) wheat hosts. This study is also the first to investigate the prevalence and impact of cannibalism on wheat stem sawfly mortality. Wheat stem sawflies were sampled in two commercial wheat fields over 4 yr from the egg stage through adult emergence, and multiple decrement life tables were constructed and analyzed. Cannibalism, host plant resistance, or unknown factors were the most prevalent factors causing egg mortality. Summer mortality of prediapause larvae ranged from 28 to 84%, mainly due to parasitism by Bracon cephi (Gahan) and Bracon lissogaster Muesebeck, cannibalism, and host plant resistance. Winter mortality ranged from 6 to 54% of the overwintering larvae, mainly due to unknown factors or pathogens. Cannibalism is a major cause of irreplaceable mortality because it is absolute, with only a single survivor in every multiple infested stem. Subsequent to obligate cannibalism, mortality of feeding larvae due to host plant resistance was lower in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Mortality from host plant resistance was largely irreplaceable. Irreplaceable mortality due to parasitoids was greater in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Host plant resistance due to stem solidness and parasitism in hollow stems cause substantial mortality in populations of actively feeding larvae responsible for all crop losses. Therefore, enhancing these mortality factors is vital to effective integrated pest management of wheat stem sawfly. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Is the possibility of replacing seed dressings containing neonicotinoids with other means of protection viable in major Polish agricultural crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyjaszczyk Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the limitations regarding the use of the neonicotinoids: clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid there are no currently available insecticide seed dressings for oilseed rape in Poland. For maize here is only one seed dressing containing methiocarb available with a very narrow registered scope of use. The impact of limitations on protection possibilities of other major Polish agricultural crops is either negligible or non-existent. In consequence a group of economically important insect pests of maize [dungbeetles (Melolonthidae; click beetles (Elateridae; noctuid moths (Agrotinae] and oilseed rape [leaf miners (Agromyzidae, turnip sawfly (Athalia colibri Christ., cabbage weevils (Curculionidae, cabbage root fly (Hylemyia brassicae Bche., diamond-back moth (Plutella maculipennis Curt.] is left without any legal possibility of chemical control. For the other important pests of the early growth stage of oilseed rape development, there are only pyrethroids available together with one product containing chloropiryfos that can be applied once per vegetation season. Since both maize and oilseed rape are grown in Poland on the area of approximately 1 million ha (each crop, this situation raises concerns about production possibilities as well as development of pest resistance.

  14. Development of a generalist predator, Podisus maculiventris, on glucosinolate sequestering and nonsequestering prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geem, Moniek; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Gols, Rieta

    2014-09-01

    Insect herbivores exhibit various strategies to counter the toxic effects of plant chemical defenses. These strategies include the detoxification, excretion, and sequestration of plant secondary metabolites. The latter strategy is often considered to provide an additional benefit in that it provides herbivores with protection against natural enemies such as predators. Profiles of sequestered chemicals are influenced by the food plants from which these chemicals are derived. We compared the effects of sequestration and nonsequestration of plant secondary metabolites in two specialist herbivores on the development of a generalist predator, Podisus maculiventris. Profiles of glucosinolates, secondary metabolites characteristic for the Brassicaceae, are known to differ considerably both inter- and intraspecifically. Throughout their immature (=nymphal) development, the predator was fed on larval stages of either sequestering (turnip sawfly, Athalia rosae) or nonsequestering (small cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae) prey that in turn had been feeding on plants originating from three wild cabbage ( Brassica oleracea) populations that have previously been shown to differ in their glucosinolate profiles. We compared survival, development time, and adult body mass as parameters for bug performance. Our results show that sequestration of glucosinolates by A. rosae only marginally affected the development of P. maculiventris. The effects of plant population on predator performance were variable. We suggest that sequestration of glucosinolates by A. rosae functions not only as a defensive mechanism against some predators, but may also be an alternative way of harmlessly dealing with plant allelochemicals.

  15. Modification of Turnip yellow mosaic virus coat protein and its effect on virion assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Il Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV is a positive strand RNAvirus. We have modified TYMV coat protein (CP by inserting ac-Myc epitope peptide at the N- or C-terminus of the CP, andhave examined its effect on assembly. We introduced therecombinant CP constructs into Nicotiana benthamiana leavesby agroinfiltration. Examination of the leaf extracts by agarosegel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis showed that theCP modified at the N-terminus produced a band co-migratingwith wild-type virions. With C-terminal modification, however,the detected bands moved faster than the wild-type virions. Tofurther examine the effect, TYMV constructs producing themodified CPs were prepared. With N-terminal modification,viral RNAs were protected from RNase A. In contrast, the viralRNAs were not protected with C-terminal modification.Overall, the results suggest that virion assembly and RNApackaging occur properly when the N-terminus of CP ismodified, but not when the C-terminus is modified. [BMBReports 2013; 46(10: 495-500

  16. Turnip mosaic virus Moves Systemically through Both Phloem and Xylem as Membrane-Associated Complexes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huanquan

    2015-01-01

    Plant viruses move systemically in plants through the phloem. They move as virions or as ribonucleic protein complexes, although it is not clear what these complexes are made of. The approximately 10-kb RNA genome of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) encodes a membrane protein, known as 6K2, that induces endomembrane rearrangements for the formation of viral replication factories. These factories take the form of vesicles that contain viral RNA (vRNA) and viral replication proteins. In this study, we report the presence of 6K2-tagged vesicles containing vRNA and the vRNA-dependent RNA polymerase in phloem sieve elements and in xylem vessels. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the presence in the xylem vessels of vRNA-containing vesicles that were associated with viral particles. Stem-girdling experiments, which leave xylem vessels intact but destroy the surrounding tissues, confirmed that TuMV could establish a systemic infection of the plant by going through xylem vessels. Phloem sieve elements and xylem vessels from Potato virus X-infected plants also contained lipid-associated nonencapsidated vRNA, indicating that the presence of membrane-associated ribonucleic protein complexes in the phloem and xylem may not be limited to TuMV. Collectively, these studies indicate that viral replication factories could end up in the phloem and the xylem. PMID:25717035

  17. Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov. (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Praesiricidae), the Hitherto largest sawfly from the Mesozoic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Taiping; Shih, Chungkun; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Large body size of an insect, in general, enhances its capability of predation, competition, and defense, resulting in better survivability and reproduction. Hymenopterans, most being phytophagous or parasitic, have a relatively small to medium body size, typically under 50.0 mm in body length. Herein, we describe Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., assigned to Praesiricidae, from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China. This new species is the largest fossil hymenopteran hitherto with body estimated >55.0 mm long and wing span >92.0 mm. H. duolunica is, to our knowledge, the only sawfly with Sc present in the hind wing but not in the forewing. Its Rs1 and M1 meeting each other at 145° angle represents an intermediate in the transition from "Y" to "T" shapes. Even though Hoplitolyda differs significantly from all previously described genera in two subfamilies of Praesricidae, we leave the new genus unplaced in existing subfamilies, pending discovery of material with more taxonomic structure. Hoplitolyda has many unique and interesting characters which might have benefitted its competition, survival, and reproduction: large body size and head with robust and strong mandibles for defense and/or sexual selection, unique wing venation and setal arrangements for flight capability and mobility, dense hairs on body and legs for sensing and protection, etc. Considering the reported ferocious predators of feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, birds, and mammals coexisting in the same eco-system, Hoplitolyda is an interesting case of "survival of the fittest" in facing its evolutionary challenges.

  18. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Porcel, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Low impact alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) are scarce encumbering pest management in organic apple orchards. We investigated the soil persistence and field efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo...... comprised the applied B. bassiana strain GHA. Larvae pupating in soil cages in the orchard for 49 d displayed 17% mycosis. The high efficacy under laboratory conditions was not seen in the field. B. bassiana application resulted in densities above the upper natural background level during the growing season...

  19. Soil Contamination With Heavy Metals and Its Effect on Growth, Yield and Physiological Responses of Vegetable Crop Plants (Turnip and Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raifa Ahmed Hassanein

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of irrigation with industrial wastewater on soil and plant. For these purpose turnip and lettuce plants were cultivated in soil irrigated with wastewater then heavy metals content of the soil, plant growth, yield and the subsequent changes in biochemical constituents of plant were examined. Irrigation with wastewater was found to load the soil with heavy metals (Pb, Co, Ni and Cd that were not detected in soil before irrigation. The magnitude of Cd in soils after irrigation with industrial wastewater exceeds the maximum allowable limit (3 mg Kg-1. Both turnip and lettuce exhibited significant decreases in leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots and roots as well as all the measured yield components in response to wastewater irrigation. The magnitude of decrease was positively correlated with the amounts of heavy metals detected in the soil and the inhibitory effect on turnip was much more pronounced than in lettuce. Furthermore, heavy metals accumulation in soil resulted in an oxidative damage to turnip and lettuce as indicated by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels in both plants comparing to control values. The significant increases in putrescine in lettuce and turnip shoots and roots and spermidine in lettuce roots as well as total phenolics and flavonoids in plants cultivated in soil enriched with heavy metals are believed to be defense mechanisms in turnip and lettuce plants to counteract the oxidative stress resulted from heavy metals contamination generated from irrigation with wastewater.

  20. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Amouoghli-Tabrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and one of its most important consequences is renal insufficiency. A multitude of herbs has been described for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present study was to assess the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE on early nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Method: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups including: healthy rats, normal healthy rats receiving TREE, diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving TREE. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg; i.p. The extract (200 mg/kg was gavaged to TREE treatment groups daily for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment; serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were assessed. The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in the renal tissue. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verification. Statistically, the quantitative data obtained, compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.Results: In the diabetic rats, TREE significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarkers of renal injury. Furthermore, TREE significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Histopathological findings were in agreement with the biochemical findings.Conclusion: TREE has protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats with experimentally induced diabetes

  1. Ascorbic acid accumulates as a defense response to Turnip mosaic virus in resistant Brassica rapa cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ayaka; Togawa, Satoko; Hikawa, Takahiro; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Masuta, Chikara; Inukai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We initially observed that Brassica rapa cultivars containing the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) resistance gene, Rnt1-1, accumulated a high level of endogenous ascorbic acid (AS) and dehydroascobic acid (DHA) when infected with TuMV. We here hypothesized a possible contribution of an elevated level of AS+DHA (TAA) to the Rnt1-1-mediated resistance, and conducted a series of experiments using B. rapa and Arabidopsis plants. The application of l-galactose (the key substrate in AS synthesis) to a susceptible cultivar could increase the TAA level ~2-fold, and simultaneously lead to some degree of enhanced viral resistance. To confirm some positive correlation between TAA levels and viral resistance, we analyzed two Arabidopsis knockout mutants (ao and vtc1) in the AS pathways; the TAA levels were significantly increased and decreased in ao and vtc1 plants, respectively. While the ao plants showed enhanced resistance to TuMV, vtc1 plants were more susceptible than the control, supporting our hypothesis. When we analyzed the expression profiles of the genes involved in the AS pathways upon TuMV infection, we found that the observed TAA increase was mainly brought about by the reduction of AS oxidation and activation of AS recycling. We then investigated the secondary signals that regulate endogenous TAA levels in response to viral infection, and found that jasmonic acid (JA) might play an important role in TAA accumulation. In conclusion, we reason that the elevated TAA accumulation in B. rapa plants would be at least partly mediated by the JA-dependent signaling pathway and may significantly contribute to viral resistance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Phylodynamic evidence of the migration of turnip mosaic potyvirus from Europe to Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaka, Ryosuke; Ohba, Kiho; Schwinghamer, Mark W; Fletcher, John; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Thomas, John E; Ho, Simon Y W; Gibbs, Adrian J; Ohshima, Kazusato

    2015-03-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is a potyvirus that is transmitted by aphids and infects a wide range of plant species. We investigated the evolution of this pathogen by collecting 32 isolates of TuMV, mostly from Brassicaceae plants, in Australia and New Zealand. We performed a variety of sequence-based phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of the complete genomic sequences and of three non-recombinogenic regions of those sequences. The substitution rates, divergence times and phylogeographical patterns of the virus populations were estimated. Six inter- and seven intralineage recombination-type patterns were found in the genomes of the Australian and New Zealand isolates, and all were novel. Only one recombination-type pattern has been found in both countries. The Australian and New Zealand populations were genetically different, and were different from the European and Asian populations. Our Bayesian coalescent analyses, based on a combination of novel and published sequence data from three non-recombinogenic protein-encoding regions, showed that TuMV probably started to migrate from Europe to Australia and New Zealand more than 80 years ago, and that distinct populations arose as a result of evolutionary drivers such as recombination. The basal-B2 subpopulation in Australia and New Zealand seems to be older than those of the world-B2 and -B3 populations. To our knowledge, our study presents the first population genetic analysis of TuMV in Australia and New Zealand. We have shown that the time of migration of TuMV correlates well with the establishment of agriculture and migration of Europeans to these countries. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Assembly and Annotation of Transcriptome Provided Evidence of miRNA Mobility between Wheat and Wheat Stem Sawfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halise B. Cagirici

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat Stem Sawfly (WSS, Cephus Cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae, is one of the most important pests, causing yield and economic losses in wheat and barley. The lack of information about molecular mechanisms of WSS for defeating plant’s resistance prevents application of effective pest control strategies therefore, it is essential to identify the genes and their regulators behind WSS infestations. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs are recognized with their regulatory functions on gene expression, tuning protein production by controlling transcriptional and post-transcriptional activities. A transcriptome-guided approach was followed in order to identify miRNAs, lncRNAs, and mRNA of WSS, and their interaction networks. A total of 1,893 were presented here as differentially expressed between larva and adult WSS insects. There were 11 miRNA families detected in WSS transcriptome. Together with the annotation of 1,251 novel mRNAs, the amount of genetic information available for WSS was expanded. The network between WSS miRNAs, lncRNAs, and mRNAs suggested miRNA-mediated regulatory roles of lncRNAs as competing endogenous RNAs. In the light of the previous evidence that small RNA molecules of a pathogen could suppress the immune response of host plant, we analyzed the putative interactions between larvae and wheat at the miRNA level. Overall, this study provides a profile of larva and adult WSS life stages in terms of coding and non-coding elements. These findings also emphasize the potential roles of wheat and larval miRNAs in wheat resistance to infestation and in the suppression of resistance which is critical for the development of effective pest control strategies.

  4. Photosynthesis and yield reductions from wheat stem sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): interactions with wheat solidness, water stress, and phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kevin J; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-04-01

    The impact of herbivory on plants is variable and influenced by several factors. The current study examined causes of variation in the impact of larval stem mining by the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), on spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. We performed greenhouse experiments over 2 yr to (1) study whether biotic (hollow versus solid stemmed host wheat) and abiotic (water, phosphorus stress) factors interact with C. cinctus stem mining to influence degree of mined stem physiological (photosynthesis) and yield (grain weight) reductions; and (2) determine whether whole plant yield compensatory responses occur to offset stem-mining reductions. Flag leaf photosynthetic reduction was not detected 16-20 d after infestation, but were detected at 40-42 d and doubled from water or phosphorus stresses. Main stem grain weight decreased from 10 to 25% from stem mining, largely due to reductions in grain size, with greater reductions under low phosphorus and/or water levels. Phosphorus-deficient plants without water stress were most susceptible to C. cinctus, more than doubling the grain weight reduction due to larval feeding relative to other water and phosphorus treatments. Two solid stemmed varieties with stem mining had less grain weight loss than a hollow stemmed variety, so greater internal mechanical resistance may reduce larval stem mining and plant yield reductions. Our results emphasize the importance of sufficient water and macronutrients for plants grown in regions impacted by C. cinctus. Also, solid stemmed varieties not only reduce wheat lodging from C. cinctus, they may reduce harvested grain losses from infested stems.

  5. Temporal and spatial variations in microclimate influence the larval foraging behaviors and performance of a conifer-feeding sawfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, R C; Boone, J; Leggo, J J; Smith, S; Carleton, D; Quiring, D T

    2012-06-01

    Herbivorous insects are often exposed to broad temporal and spatial variations in microclimate conditions within their host plants and have adapted a variety of behaviors, such as avoidance or basking, to either offset or benefit from such variation. Field experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of daily and intratree variations in microclimate on the behaviors (feeding, resting, dispersal, and hiding) and associated performance of late-instar larvae of the yellowheaded spruce sawfly, Pikonema alaskensis (Rohwer) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) within crowns of 1.25-1.5 m tall black spruce (Picea mariana [Miller] Britton Sterns Poggenburg); late instars feed on developing shoots of young spruce and are often exposed to microclimatic extremes with unknown effects on performance. Larvae fed diurnally from just after dawn (0800 h) until dusk (2000 h) and rested throughout the night, with brief periods of dispersal occurring in the morning and evening. Neither larval behavior nor abiotic conditions differed significantly between the upper and lower crowns of trees. Temperature, humidity, and solar insolation all explained >90% of variation in feeding; however, sunrise and sunset were the most likely cues influencing diurnal behavior. Most larvae (94%) fed on the bottom, shaded side of shoots, and field experiments indicated that this behavior is adaptive with respect to microclimate, probably reducing hygrothermal stress. Thus, behavioral adaptations by P. alaskensis to daily and within-shoot microclimatic variation may reduce the risk of hygrothermal stress during dispersal or feeding, while still allowing larvae to feed on the preferred and highly nutritious upper crown foliage of young spruce.

  6. Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov. (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Praesiricidae, the Hitherto largest sawfly from the Mesozoic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large body size of an insect, in general, enhances its capability of predation, competition, and defense, resulting in better survivability and reproduction. Hymenopterans, most being phytophagous or parasitic, have a relatively small to medium body size, typically under 50.0 mm in body length. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we describe Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., assigned to Praesiricidae, from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China. This new species is the largest fossil hymenopteran hitherto with body estimated >55.0 mm long and wing span >92.0 mm. H. duolunica is, to our knowledge, the only sawfly with Sc present in the hind wing but not in the forewing. Its Rs1 and M1 meeting each other at 145° angle represents an intermediate in the transition from "Y" to "T" shapes. Even though Hoplitolyda differs significantly from all previously described genera in two subfamilies of Praesricidae, we leave the new genus unplaced in existing subfamilies, pending discovery of material with more taxonomic structure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hoplitolyda has many unique and interesting characters which might have benefitted its competition, survival, and reproduction: large body size and head with robust and strong mandibles for defense and/or sexual selection, unique wing venation and setal arrangements for flight capability and mobility, dense hairs on body and legs for sensing and protection, etc. Considering the reported ferocious predators of feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, birds, and mammals coexisting in the same eco-system, Hoplitolyda is an interesting case of "survival of the fittest" in facing its evolutionary challenges.

  7. The Influence of Vegetation and Landscape Structural Connectivity on Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Giovanni; Sommaggio, Daniele; Marini, Mario; Puppi, Giovanna; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Landi, Sara; Fabbri, Roberto; Pesarini, Fausto; Genghini, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto; Muzzi, Enrico; van Lenteren, Joop C; Masetti, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Vegetation analysis and insect samplings were carried out in nine sites within an intensively farmed landscape in northern Italy. Plant species richness and the percentage of tree, shrub, and herb cover were determined by means of the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet. Landscape structural connectivity was measured as the total length of hedgerow network (LHN) in a radius of 500 m around the center of each sampling transect. Butterflies species richness and abundance were positively associated both to herb cover and to plant species richness, but responded negatively to tree and shrub cover. Shrub cover was strictly correlated to both species richness and activity density of carabids. The species richness of syrphids was positively influenced by herb cover and plant richness, whereas their abundance was dependent on ligneous vegetation and LHN. Rarefaction analysis revealed that sawfly sampling was not robust and no relationship could be drawn with either vegetation parameters or structural connectivity. The specific responses of each insect group to the environmental factors should be considered in order to refine and optimize landscape management interventions targeting specific conservation endpoints. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Identification of Light-Independent Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Mutants Induced by Ethyl Methane Sulfonate in Turnip "Tsuda" (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Fei; Chen, Yun-Zhu; Kawabata, Saneyuki; Li, Yu-Hua; Wang, Yu

    2017-06-22

    The epidermis of swollen storage roots in purple cultivars of turnip "Tsuda" ( Brassica rapa ) accumulates anthocyanin in a light-dependent manner, especially in response to UV-A light, of which the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we mutagenized 15,000 seeds by 0.5% ( v / v ) ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and obtained 14 mutants with abnormal anthocyanin production in their epidermis of swollen storage roots. These mutants were classified into two groups: the red mutants with constitutive anthocyanin accumulation in their epidermis of storage roots even in underground parts in darkness and the white mutants without anthocyanin accumulation in the epidermis of storage roots in aboveground parts exposed to sunlight. Test cross analysis demonstrated that w9 , w68 , w204 , r15 , r21 , r30 and r57 contained different mutations responsible for their phenotypic variations. Further genetic analysis of four target mutants ( w9 , w68 , w204 and r15 ) indicated that each of them was controlled by a different recessive gene. Intriguingly, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, including structural and regulatory genes, coincided with their anthocyanin levels in the epidermis of storage roots in the four target mutants. We proposed that potential genes responsible for the mutations should be upstream factors of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in turnips, which provided resources to further investigate the mechanisms of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation.

  9. The genetic structure of Turnip mosaic virus population reveals the rapid expansion of a new emergent lineage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Tiansheng; Yin, Xiao; Zhang, Chengling; Chen, Jia; Tian, Yanping; Liu, Jinliang

    2017-08-29

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most widespread and economically important virus infecting both crop and ornamental species of the family Brassicaceae. TuMV isolates can be classified to five phylogenetic lineages, basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and Orchis. To understand the genetic structure of TuMV from radish in China, the 3'-terminal genome of 90 TuMV isolates were determined and analyzed with other available Chinese isolates. The results showed that the Chinese TuMV isolates from radish formed three groups: Asian-BR, basal-BR and world-B. More than half of these isolates (52.54%) were clustered to basal-BR group, and could be further divided into three sub-groups. The TuMV basal-BR isolates in the sub-groups I and II were genetically homologous with Japanese ones, while those in sub-group III formed a distinct lineage. Sub-populations of TuMV basal-BR II and III were new emergent and in a state of expansion. The Chinese TuMV radish populations were under negative selection. Gene flow between TuMV populations from Tai'an, Weifang and Changchun was frequent. The genetic structure of Turnip mosaic virus population reveals the rapid expansion of a new emergent lineage in China.

  10. Selenium, putrescine, and cadmium influence health-promoting phytochemicals and molecular-level effects on turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Chung, Ill-Min

    2015-04-15

    The effects of selenium, putrescine, and cadmium on the contents of glucosinolates, total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, anthocyanin, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and antioxidant capacities as well as gene regulation of phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates biosynthesis were investigated in turnip plants. Selenium dioxide (SeO2) treatment significantly induced the amount of gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoallysin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2)- and putrescine-treated plants had considerably enhanced gluconasturtiin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin levels, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant capacities were significantly increased in SeO2-treated plants. Lutein was higher in control plants followed by, in decreasing order, SeO2-, putrescine-, and CdCl2-treated plants. The chlorophyll content was significantly decreased and anthocyanin, MDA, and H2O2 levels were significantly increased with CdCl2 treatment. Moreover, plants treated with selenium and cadmium showed significant induction of genes related to glucosinolate, phenolic, and carotenoid biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that SeO2 significantly increased the contents of health-promoting compounds and enhanced the antioxidant capacities of turnip plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Yield, chemical composition and nutritional quality responses of carrot, radish and turnip to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Andaleeb; Khan, Ikhtiar; Mahmood, Abid; Hameed, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    Future concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is very important due to its apparent economic and environmental impact in terms of climate change. However, a compressive assessment of its effect on the nutritional and chemical characteristics of food crops has yet to be established. In the present study the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the yield, chemical composition and nutritional quality of three root vegetables, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. T-1-111), radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Mino) and turnip (Brassica rapa L. cv. Grabe) has been investigated. The yield of carrot, radish and turnip increased by 69, 139 and 72%, respectively, when grown under elevated CO2 conditions. Among the proximate composition, protein, vitamin C and fat contents decreased significantly for all the vegetables while sugar and fibre contents were increased. Response of the vegetables to elevated CO2 , in terms of elemental composition, was different with a significant decrease in many important minerals. Elevated CO2 decreased the amount of majority of the fatty acids and amino acids in these vegetables. It was observed that elevated CO2 increased the yield of root vegetables but many important nutritional parameters including protein, vitamin C, minerals, essential fatty acids and amino acids were decreased. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Collard, mustard and turnip greens: Effects of varieties and leaf position on concentrations of ascorbic acid, folate, B-carotene, lutein and phylloquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy Brassica crops: collard (Brassica oleracea L.), mustard (B. juncea L.) and turnip (B. rapa) greens are important commercial and culinary vegetables; especially in the southern United States. However, almost no information on essential human-health vitamins [ascorbic acid (vit C), folate (vit...

  13. Complete genome sequence of turnip ringspot virus Překlad názvu do češtiny/angličtiny:

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 11 (2009), s. 1851-1853 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Radish mosaic virus * Turnip ringspot virus * complete sequences Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.909, year: 2009

  14. Comparison of helper component-protease RNA silencing suppression activity, subcellular localization, and aggregation of three Korean isolates of Turnip mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, we performed a nationwide survey in Korean radish fields to investigate the distribution of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Brassica chinensis sap-inoculated with TuMV-infected radish tissue showed different symptom severity with three isolates. In order to investigate variation among Korean Tu...

  15. Joint influence of meteorological events on light trapping of turnip moth (Scotia segetum Schiff

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    Puskas János

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The light-trap collecting results, showing its flight activity, of turnip moth (Scotia segetum S c h i f f was examined connected with meteorological events. These factors were instability line, the convergence zone, the cyclogenesis, the country-wide rain, the cold- and warm weather fronts, the maritime- and continental moderate, arctic and subtropical air masses used the data published in "Calendar of Weather Phenomena" between 1967 and 1990 by National Meteorological Service. There were 29832 moths caught during 3232 night by 64 light-trap stations in the examined period. During one night more light-traps operated, therefore 25.021 observing data were worked up. We mean that the observing data are the same as the catching data at one night, at one observing station. The data of meteorological events were collected into groups according to their occurrence on one day alone or together with other ones. They were collected into separated groups according to arriving after a day without any meteorological events or if there were any of them on the previous day. The values of relative catch (RC were calculated daily for each observing stations and generations used the catching data. There was made a comparison between the relative catch (RC values and the meteorological events belonging to the data and on previous and following days. Then the relative catch values were summarized and averaged daily. The differences of daily average values of significance levels were controlled with t-test in all the groups. More than 95% significance levels were found in 36 groups. The favourable and infavourable influences of each event are the strongest at that time, when have influence not only alone but also with other effects simultaneously or they follow one another in a short time. Our results prove clearly, it is not enough to examine exclusively the modifying influence of each meteorological event on light-trap collecting. The success of light trapping is

  16. Contribution of host intracellular transport machineries to intercellular movement of turnip mosaic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Agbeci

    Full Text Available The contribution of different host cell transport systems in the intercellular movement of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV was investigated. To discriminate between primary infections and secondary infections associated with the virus intercellular movement, a gene cassette expressing GFP-HDEL was inserted adjacent to a TuMV infectious cassette expressing 6K₂:mCherry, both within the T-DNA borders of the binary vector pCambia. In this system, both gene cassettes were delivered to the same cell by a single binary vector and primary infection foci emitted green and red fluorescence while secondarily infected cells emitted only red fluorescence. Intercellular movement was measured at 72 hours post infiltration and was estimated to proceed at an average rate of one cell being infected every three hours over an observation period of 17 hours. To determine if the secretory pathway were important for TuMV intercellular movement, chemical and protein inhibitors that blocked both early and late secretory pathways were used. Treatment with Brefeldin A or Concanamycin A or expression of ARF1 or RAB-E1d dominant negative mutants, all of which inhibit pre- or post-Golgi transport, reduced intercellular movement by the virus. These treatments, however, did not inhibit virus replication in primary infected cells. Pharmacological interference assays using Tyrphostin A23 or Wortmannin showed that endocytosis was not important for TuMV intercellular movement. Lack of co-localization by endocytosed FM4-64 and Ara7 (AtRabF2b with TuMV-induced 6K₂-tagged vesicles further supported this conclusion. Microfilament depolymerizing drugs and silencing expression of myosin XI-2 gene, but not myosin VIII genes, also inhibited TuMV intercellular movement. Expression of dominant negative myosin mutants confirmed the role played by myosin XI-2 as well as by myosin XI-K in TuMV intercellular movement. Using this dual gene cassette expression system and transport inhibitors

  17. Beyond genomic variation--comparison and functional annotation of three Brassica rapa genomes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Zhang, Ningwen; Severing, Edouard I; Nijveen, Harm; Cheng, Feng; Visser, Richard G F; Wang, Xiaowu; de Ridder, Dick; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-03-31

    Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resulting genomes together with the Chinese cabbage Chiifu reference genome to obtain an impression of the B. rapa pan-genome. The number of genes with protein-coding changes between the three genotypes was lower than that among different accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be explained by the smaller effective population size of B. rapa due to its domestication. Based on orthology to a number of non-brassica species, we estimated the date of divergence among the three B. rapa morphotypes at approximately 250,000 YA, far predating Brassica domestication (5,000-10,000 YA). By analysing genes unique to turnip we found evidence for copy number differences in peroxidases, pointing to a role for the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in the generation of morphological variation. The estimated date of divergence among three B. rapa morphotypes implies that prior to domestication there was already considerably divergence among B. rapa genotypes. Our study thus provides two new B. rapa reference genomes, delivers a set of computer tools to analyse the resulting pan-genome and uses these to shed light on genetic drivers behind the rich morphological variation found in B. rapa.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator Gene Family in Turnip Under Diverse Metal Ion Stresses

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    Xiong Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The cation diffusion facilitator (CDF family is one of the gene families involved in metal ion uptake and transport in plants, but the understanding of the definite roles and mechanisms of most CDF genes remain limited. In the present study, we identified 18 candidate CDF genes from the turnip genome and named them BrrMTP1.1–BrrMTP12. Then, we performed a comparative genomic analysis on the phylogenetic relationships, gene structures and chromosome distributions, conserved domains, and motifs of turnip CDFs. The constructed phylogenetic tree indicated that the BrrMTPs were divided into seven groups (groups 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12 and formed three major clusters (Zn-CDFs, Fe/Zn-CDFs, and Mn-CDFs. Moreover, the structural characteristics of the BrrMTP members in the same group were similar but varied among groups. To investigate the potential roles of BrrMTPs in turnip, we conducted an expression analysis on all BrrMTP genes under Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, Na, and Cd stresses. Results showed that the expression levels of all BrrMTP members were induced by at least one metal ion, indicating that these genes may be related to the tolerance or transport of those metal ions. Based on the roles of different metal ions for plants, we hypothesized that BrrMTP genes are possibly involved in heavy metal accumulation and tolerance to salt stress apart from their roles in the maintenance of mineral nutrient homeostasis in turnip. These findings are helpful to understand the roles of MTPs in plants and provide preliminary information for the study of the functions of BrrMTP genes.

  19. Ultrastructural Characterization of Turnip Mosaic Virus-Induced Cellular Rearrangements Reveals Membrane-Bound Viral Particles Accumulating in Vacuoles.

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    Wan, Juan; Basu, Kaustuv; Mui, Jeannie; Vali, Hojatollah; Zheng, Huanquan; Laliberté, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Positive-strand RNA [(+) RNA] viruses remodel cellular membranes to facilitate virus replication and assembly. In the case of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), the viral membrane protein 6K2 plays an essential role in endomembrane alterations. Although 6K2-induced membrane dynamics have been widely studied by confocal microscopy, the ultrastructure of this remodeling has not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the formation of TuMV-induced membrane changes by chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution (HPF/FS) for transmission electron microscopy at different times of infection. We observed the formation of convoluted membranes connected to rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) early in the infection process, followed by the production of single-membrane vesicle-like (SMVL) structures at the midstage of infection. Both SMVL and double-membrane vesicle-like structures with electron-dense cores, as well as electron-dense bodies, were found late in the infection process. Immunogold labeling results showed that the vesicle-like structures were 6K2 tagged and suggested that only the SMVL structures were viral RNA replication sites. Electron tomography (ET) was used to regenerate a three-dimensional model of these vesicle-like structures, which showed that they were, in fact, tubules. Late in infection, we observed filamentous particle bundles associated with electron-dense bodies, which suggests that these are sites for viral particle assembly. In addition, TuMV particles were observed to accumulate in the central vacuole as membrane-associated linear arrays. Our work thus unravels the sequential appearance of distinct TuMV-induced membrane structures for viral RNA replication, viral particle assembly, and accumulation. Positive-strand RNA viruses remodel cellular membranes for different stages of the infection process, such as protein translation and processing, viral RNA synthesis, particle assembly, and virus transmission. The

  20. The tRNA-like structure of Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA is a 3'-translational enhancer

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    Matsuda, Daiki; Dreher, Theo W.

    2004-01-01

    Many positive stand RNA viral genomes lack the poly(A) tail that is characteristic of cellular mRNAs and that promotes translation in cis. The 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of such genomes are expected to provide similar translation-enhancing properties as a poly(A) tail, yet the great variety of 3' sequences suggests that this is accomplished in a range of ways. We have identified a translational enhancer present in the 3' UTR of Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RNA using luciferase reporter RNAs with generic 5' sequences transfected into plant cells. The 3' terminal 109 nucleotides comprising the tRNA-like structure (TLS) and an upstream pseudoknot (UPSK) act in synergy with a 5'-cap to enhance translation, with a minor contribution in stabilizing the RNA. Maximum enhancement requires that the RNA be capable of aminoacylation, but either the native valine or engineered methionine is acceptable. Mutations that decrease the affinity for translation elongation factor eEF1A (but also diminish aminoacylation efficiency) strongly decrease translational enhancement, suggesting that eEF1A is mechanistically involved. The UPSK seems to act as an important, though nonspecific, spacer element ensuring proper presentation of a functional TLS. Our studies have uncovered a novel type of translational enhancer and a new role for a plant viral TLS

  1. The nuclear inclusion a (NIa protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV cleaves amyloid-β.

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    Hye-Eun Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nuclear inclusion a (NIa protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. NIa was previously shown to possess a relatively strict substrate specificity with a preference for Val-Xaa-His-Gln↓, with the scissile bond located after Gln. The presence of the same consensus sequence, Val(12-His-His-Gln(15, near the presumptive α-secretase cleavage site of the amyloid-β (Aβ peptide led us to hypothesize that NIa could possess activity against Aβ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Western blotting results showed that oligomeric as well as monomeric forms of Aβ can be degraded by NIa in vitro. The specific cleavage of Aβ was further confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. NIa was shown to exist predominantly in the cytoplasm as observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The overexpression of NIa in B103 neuroblastoma cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell death caused by both intracellularly generated and exogenously added Aβ. Moreover, lentiviral-mediated expression of NIa in APP(sw/PS1 transgenic mice significantly reduced the levels of Aβ and plaques in the brain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the degradation of Aβ in the cytoplasm could be a novel strategy to control the levels of Aβ, plaque formation, and the associated cell death.

  2. Genetic variation of the Turnip mosaic virus population of Vietnam: a case study of founder, regional and local influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Duc; Tran, Hoa Thi Nhu; Ohshima, Kazusato

    2013-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most important viruses infecting a wide range of plant species, primarily from the family Brassicaceae. Thirty TuMV isolates were collected from Brassica and Raphanus plants in Vietnam during 2006-2008. Host reaction studies showed that many of the isolates belonged to Brassica/Raphanus (BR) host-infecting type. Sequence-based phylogenetic and population genetic analyses were made of the complete polyprotein gene sequences, and of four non-recombinogenic regions of those sequences (i.e. genes of the helper-component proteinase protein, protein 3, nuclear inclusion b protein and coat protein). These were used to assess the subpopulation differentiation and divergence between Vietnamese TuMV populations and those of nearby Asian countries. Nine inter- and intralineage recombination type patterns were identified in the genomes of the Vietnamese isolates, of which seven were novel. All the Vietnamese non-recombinant isolates fell into the world-B group of TuMV and clustered with Chinese isolates. The estimates of genetic differentiation and gene flow reveal that the TuMV populations of Vietnam, China and Japan are genetically linked but have clear local founder effects. This, the first population genetic study of a TuMV population in Southeast Asia, indicates the importance of such studies for providing the scientific basis of control strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nearly complete mitogenome of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Brullé, 1832) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae): rearrangements in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Özgül; Korkmaz, E Mahir

    2017-10-01

    The Cimbicidae is a small family of the primitive and relatively less diverse suborder Symphyta (Hymenoptera). Here, nearly complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) was sequenced using next generation sequencing and comparatively analysed with the mitogenome of Trichiosoma anthracinum. The sequenced length of C. lateralis mitogenome was 14,899 bp with an A+T content of 80.60%. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons and all are terminated with TAR or T- stop codon. All tRNA genes preferred usual anticodons. Compared with the inferred insect ancestral mitogenome, two tRNA rearrangements were observed in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters, representing a new event not previously reported in Symphyta. An illicit priming of replication and/or intra/inter-mitochondrial recombination and TDRL seem to be responsible mechanisms for the rearrangement events in these gene clusters. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the position of Corynis within Cimbicidae and recovered a relationship of Tenthredinoidea + (Cephoidea + Orussoidea) in Symphyta.

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Analysis of the Calcineurin B-like Protein and Calcineurin B-like Protein-Interacting Protein Kinase Gene Families in Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa

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    Xin Yin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL–CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK complex has been identified as a primary component in calcium sensors that perceives various stress signals. Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa has been widely cultivated in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau for a century as a food crop of worldwide economic significance. These CBL–CIPK complexes have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, no report is available on the genome-wide characterization of these two gene families in turnip. In the present study, 19 and 51 members of the BrrCBL and BrrCIPK genes, respectively, are first identified in turnip and phylogenetically grouped into three and two distinct clusters, respectively. The expansion of these two gene families is mainly attributable to segmental duplication. Moreover, the differences in expression patterns in quantitative real-time PCR, as well as interaction profiles in the yeast two-hybrid assay, suggest the functional divergence of paralog genes during long-term evolution in turnip. Overexpressing and complement lines in Arabidopsis reveal that BrrCBL9.2 improves, but BrrCBL9.1 does not affect, salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Thus, the expansion of the BrrCBL and BrrCIPK gene families enables the functional differentiation and evolution of some new gene functions of paralog genes. These paralog genes then play prominent roles in turnip's adaptation to the adverse environment of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Overall, the study results contribute to our understanding of the functions of the CBL–CIPK complex and provide basis for selecting appropriate genes for the in-depth functional studies of BrrCBL–BrrCIPK in turnip.

  5. Replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA of lucerne transient streak virus are supported in divergent hosts by cocksfoot mottle virus and turnip rosette virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, O P; Sinha, R C; Gellatly, D L; Ivanov, I; AbouHaidar, M G

    1993-04-01

    Cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus supports replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA (sat-RNA) of lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in two monocotyledonous species, Triticum aestivum and Dactylis glomerata. Additionally, LTSV sat-RNA replicates effectively in the presence of turnip rosette sobemovirus in Brassica rapa, Raphanus raphanistrum and Sinapsis arvensis, but not in Thlaspi arvense or Nicotiana bigelovii, indicating that host species markedly influence this interaction. Previous reports of the association between LTSV sat-RNA and helper sobemoviruses were limited to dicotyledonous hosts. Our results demonstrate that the biological interaction between these two entities spans divergent dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species.

  6. Genetic control of immunity to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) pathotype 1 in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydiate, Derek J; Pilcher, Rachel L Rusholme; Higgins, Erin E; Walsh, John A

    2014-08-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is the major virus infecting crops of the genus Brassica worldwide. A dominant resistance gene, TuRB01b, that confers immunity to the virus isolate UK 1 (a representative pathotype 1 isolate of TuMV) on Brassica rapa was identified in the Chinese cabbage cultivar Tropical Delight. The TuRB01b locus was mapped to a 2.9-cM interval on B. rapa chromosome 6 (A6) that was flanked by RFLP markers pN101e1 and pW137e1. This mapping used a first backcross (B(1)) population segregating for the resistance gene at TuRB01b and sets of RFLP markers employed in previous mapping experiments in Brassica. Virus-plant interaction phenotypes were assayed in inbred progeny derived from B(1) individuals to allow different virus isolates to be tested. Comparative mapping confirmed that A6 of B. rapa was equivalent to chromosome 6 of Brassica napus (A6) and that the map position of TuRB01b in B. rapa could be identical to that of TuRB01 in B. napus. Detailed evaluation of plant-virus interactions showed that TuRB01 and TuRB01b had indistinguishable specificities to a range of TuMV isolates. The possibility that TuRB01 and TuRB01b represent similar or identical alleles at the same A genome resistance locus suggests that B. napus acquired TuRB01 from the B. rapa gene pool.

  7. Disruption of Ethylene Responses by Turnip mosaic virus Mediates Suppression of Plant Defense against the Green Peach Aphid Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Clare L; De Alwis, Manori; Bak, Aurélie; Dong, Haili; Whitham, Steven A; Jander, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Plants employ diverse responses mediated by phytohormones to defend themselves against pathogens and herbivores. Adapted pathogens and herbivores often manipulate these responses to their benefit. Previously, we demonstrated that Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense induced in response to feeding by its aphid vector, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), and increases aphid fecundity compared with uninfected control plants. Further, we determined that production of a single TuMV protein, Nuclear Inclusion a-Protease (NIa-Pro) domain, was responsible for changes in host plant physiology and increased green peach aphid reproduction. To characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we examined the role of three phytohormone signaling pathways, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene (ET), in TuMV-infected Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), with or without aphid herbivory. Experiments with Arabidopsis mutants ethylene insensitive2 and ethylene response1, and chemical inhibitors of ET synthesis and perception (aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and 1-methylcyclopropene, respectively), show that the ET signaling pathway is required for TuMV-mediated suppression of Arabidopsis resistance to the green peach aphid. Additionally, transgenic expression of NIa-Pro in Arabidopsis alters ET responses and suppresses aphid-induced callose formation in an ET-dependent manner. Thus, disruption of ET responses in plants is an additional function of NIa-Pro, a highly conserved potyvirus protein. Virus-induced changes in ET responses may mediate vector-plant interactions more broadly and thus represent a conserved mechanism for increasing transmission by insect vectors across generations. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Coordinate changes in gene expression and triacylglycerol composition in the developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kalpio, Marika; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Lehto, Kirsi; Niemi, Jarmo; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki P

    2014-02-15

    Crop production for vegetable oil in the northern latitudes utilises oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera) and turnip rape (B. rapa subsp. oleifera), having similar oil compositions. The oil consists mostly of triacylglycerols, which are synthesised during seed development. In this study, we characterised the oil composition and the expression levels of genes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the developing seeds in optimal, low temperature (15 °C) and short day (12-h day length) conditions. Gene expression levels of several genes were altered during seed development. Low temperature and short day treatments increased the level of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3n-3) in turnip rape and short day treatment decreased the total oil content in both species. This study gives a novel view on seed oil biosynthesis under different growth conditions, bringing together gene expression levels of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway and oil composition over a time series in two related oilseed species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Single amino acid change in the helicase domain of the putative RNA replicase of turnip crinkle virus alters symptom intensification by virulent satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmer, C W; Stenzler, L; Chen, X; Fay, N; Hacker, D; Howell, S H

    1992-01-01

    The virulent satellite [satellite C (sat C)] of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a small pathogenic RNA that intensifies symptoms in TCV-infected turnip plants (Brassica campestris). The virulence of sat C is determined by properties of the satellite itself and is influenced by the helper virus. Symptoms produced in infections with sat C differ in severity depending on the helper virus. The TCV-JI helper virus produces more severe symptoms than the TCV-B helper virus when inoculated with sat C. To find determinants in the TCV helper virus genome that affect satellite virulence, the TCV-JI genome was cloned and the sequence compared to the TCV-B genome. The genomes were found to differ by only five base changes, and only one of the base changes, at nucleotide position 1025, produced an amino acid change, an aspartic acid----glycine in the putative viral replicase. A chimeric TCV genome (TCV-B/JI) containing four of the five base changes (including the base change at position 1025) and a mutant TCV-B genome (TCV-B1025G) containing a single base substitution at position 1025 converted the TCV-B genome into a form that produces severe symptoms with sat C. The base change a position 1025 is located in the helicase of the putative viral replicase, and symptom intensification appears to result from differences in the rate of replication of the satellite supported by the two helper viruses. Images PMID:1370351

  10. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenius Marja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690

  11. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Ari; Pohjantähti-Maaroos, Hanna; Wallenius, Marja; Kankkunen, Päivi; Aro, Heikki; Husgafvel, Sari; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Oksanen, Kalevi

    2010-12-01

    Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of Virgino R CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol by 11% (p < 0.001). The level of oxidized LDL was 16% lower after oil period (p = 0.024). Minimal differences in arterial elasticity were not statistically significant. Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  12. Ingestive and metabolic behavior of beef cattle fed diets with different levels of turnip forage (Rhaphanus sativus cake in replacement to soybean meal

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    Valdecir de Souza Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five substitution levels of soybean meal by turnip forage cake in the concentrate, on dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 in the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN in beef steer. The diets were isoprotein (6.5 % CP and isoenergetic (50.0% TDN, using in natura sugarcane silage as the only forage (85,5 %DM. Five castrated males were used, 1/2 Simental x Nelore cross, with average weight of 610 kg and 36 months old, all fistulated in the rumen. The different levels of replacement were: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, based on CP responsible of soybean meal of ration. Each experimental period lasted 19 days. The experiment was carried out in a 5x5 latin square experimental design, with five animals and five periods. The potential of dry matter intake (%BW and g/kg BW0,75 of turnip forage cake forage was obtained with 27% of replacement in the protean basis in relation to soybean meal, promoting, a maximum intake of 0,217 kg/animal/day, not proportionating alterations in the ruminal dynamic and in the blood.

  13. The Role of a Host Protein (TIP) in the Resistance Response of Arabidopsis to Turnip Crinkle Virus Infection.

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    T. Jack Morris, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0118

    2008-10-20

    Our research on Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) has shown that the viral capsid protein (CP) is both a virulence factor as well as the elicitor of a hypersensitive resistance response (HR) to the virus in Arabidopsis. Initially, we identified a protein from Arabidopsis that specifically interacted with the viral CP using a yeast two-hybrid screen. This protein, designated TIP for TCV-Interacting Protein, is a member of the NAC family of plant transcription factors implicated in the regulation of development and senescence. When TCV CP was mutated to eliminate its ability to interact with TIP, the corresponding virus mutants broke the HR-mediated resistance conferred by the HRT resistance (R) gene in Arabidopsis ecotype Dijon (Di)-17. This result suggested that TIP is a component of the signal transduction pathway that leads to the genetically specified TCV resistance. We next confirmed that TIP and the viral CP interact in plant cells and that this interaction prevents nuclear localization of this transcription factor. We demonstrated that TCV CP suppresses post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a newly discovered RNA-mediated defense system in plants. Together these results suggest that the CP is a virulence factor that could well be functioning through its interaction with TIP. We have proposed a model involving the role of TIP and CP in triggering HR mediated plant defense that fits with the current thinking about how gene-for-gene resistance may function. A unique component of our system is the opportunity to link R-gene function with the newly discovered RNA silencing pathway that is not only a potent defense against viral pathogens, but also regulates early development in plants. In the current funding period we made several significant findings: First, we completed an array analysis comparing gene expression in Arabidopsis infected with TCV and a mutant virus unable to bind TIP. Second, we produced transgenic lines that over-express and inducibly under

  14. Functional evolution of a multigene family: orthologous and paralogous pheromone receptor genes in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum.

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    Dan-Dan Zhang

    Full Text Available Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs, for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z-5-decenyl, (Z-7-dodecenyl and (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z-5-decenyl acetate, (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and

  15. Chalcone synthase family genes have redundant roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis and in response to blue/UV-A light in turnip (Brassica rapa; Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Wang, Yu; Zhan, Yaguang; Li, Yuhua; Kawabata, Saneyuki

    2013-12-01

    The epidermis of Brassica rapa (turnip) cv. Tsuda contains light-induced anthocyanins, visible signs of activity of chalcone synthase (CHS), a key anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme, which is encoded by the CHS gene family. To elucidate the regulation of this light-induced pigmentation, we isolated Brassica rapa CHS1-CHS6 (BrCHS1-CHS6) and characterized their cis-elements and expression patterns. Epidermises of light-exposed swollen hypocotyls (ESHS) were harvested to analyze transcription levels of BrCHS genes by real-time PCR. Different promoters for the genes were inserted into tobacco to examine pCHS-GUS activity by histochemistry. Yeast-one-hybridization was used to detect binding activity of BrCHS motifs to transcription factors. Transcript levels of BrCHS1, -4, and -5 and anthocyanin-biosynthesis-related genes F3H, DFR, and ANS were high, while those of BrCHS2, -3, and -6 were almost undetectable in pigmented ESHS. However, in leaves, CHS5, F3H, and ANS expression was higher than in nonpigmented ESHS, but transcription of DFR was not detected. In the analysis of BrCHS1 and BrCHS3 promoter activity, GUS activity was strong in pigmented flowers of BrPCHS1-GUS-transformed tobacco plants, but nearly absent in BrPCHS3-GUS-transformed plants. Transcript levels of regulators, BrMYB75 and BrTT8, were strongly associated with the anthocyanin content and were light-induced. Coregulated cis-elements were found in promoters of BrCHS1,-4, and -5, and BrMYB75 and BrTT8 had high binding activities to the BrCHS Unit 1 motif. The chalcone synthase gene family encodes a redundant set of light-responsive, tissue-specific genes that are expressed at different levels and are involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Tsuda turnip.

  16. Green-manure turnip for soybean based no-tillage farming systems in eastern Paraguay Adubação verde com nabo para soja em sistema de plantio direto no leste paraguaio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kubota

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A no-tillage soybean-wheat cropping system has been practiced for many years on the "Terra Rossa" soils of eastern Paraguay. Soil compactness and soil erosion have recently been identified as potential problems. This study examines the effect of replacing unprofitable wheat by green-manure turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg. on soil properties and soybean production. Gaseous phase, porosity, bulk density, water saturation, cone index, pH, exchangeable-cations, available-phosphorus (P and aggregate size distribution of the soil were measured. Contrary to initial expectations, turnip did not reduce soil compactness. Instead, turnip stabilized the aggregate structure of the surface soil. Positive effects of turnip on subsequent soybean growth and yield were detected in a rather dry year but not in an exceptionally wet year. In a second part of this study, nutrient return from turnip and wheat residues were compared. Turnip produced 10.7 t ha-1 of shoot dry matter, and absorbed 294, 27, 302, 175, and 33 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Wheat absorbed 98, 11, 67, 11, and 7 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively. About 75% of the N absorbed by wheat was removed from the field at harvest whereas most nutrients in the turnip residue were returned to the soil before planting of soybeans with positive effects on soil fertility. Additional benefits of green-manure turnip would include a reduced chance for erosion through improvements in aggregate structure and through a more complete soil cover.Um sistema de plantio direto de rotação soja-trigo foi praticado por muitos anos em uma "Terra Roxa" no leste do Paraguai. A compactação do solo e a erosão foram reconhecidas recentemente como problemas potenciais. Este estudo examina o efeito da substituição do trigo antieconômico pela adubação verde com nabo (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg. sobre as propriedades do solo e a produção de soja. A fase gasosa

  17. Cinética de secagem do nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. The drying kinetics of forage turnips (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Aparecida de Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições foi realizado um trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o modelo matemático que melhor descreve a secagem de sementes de nabo forrageiro, bem como o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação em diferentes condições de ar. Sementes colhidas com teor de água de 0,36 (decimal b.s. foram secas até 0,09 (decimal b.s. em secador experimental com as temperaturas controladas de 30; 40; 50; 60 e 70 °C e umidades relativas de 47,3; 26,2; 12,0; 10,1 e 5,1%, respectivamente. Os dados de coeficiente de difusão foram analisados por meio de análise de variância pelo teste F e regressão, adotando-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade. Conclui-se que dentre os modelos analisados, o que apresentou melhor ajuste para descrever as curvas de secagem do nabo forrageiro foi o de Midilli. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo aumenta com a elevação da temperatura, apresentando valores entre 3,23 x 10-11 e 10,42 x 10-11 m² s-1, para faixa de temperatura de 30 a 70 °C. A relação entre o coeficiente de difusão e a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, que apresenta uma energia de ativação para a difusão líquida no processo de secagem do nabo forrageiro de 24,78 kJ mol-1.A study aimed at determining the best mathematical model to describe the drying of forage-turnip seeds, along with the diffusion coefficient and activation energy under different air-conditions, was carried out in a randomized design with four replications. Seeds were harvested, having a moisture content of 0.36 (decimal bs and then dried to 0.09 (decimal bs in an experimental dryer at controlled temperatures of 30; 40; 50; 60 and 70 °C and relative humidities of 47.3; 26.2; 12.0; 10.1 and 5.1%, respectively. The effective coefficient of diffusion was calculated by F-test variance analysis and regression, adopting a 5% level of probability. The conclusion was reached that among the models

  18. The NIa-Pro protein of Turnip mosaic virus improves growth and reproduction of the aphid vector, Myzus persicae (green peach aphid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Clare L; Yang, Chunling; Nanduri, Ananya C; De Jong, Hannah N; Whitham, Steven A; Jander, Georg

    2014-02-01

    Many plant viruses depend on aphids and other phloem-feeding insects for transmission within and among host plants. Thus, viruses may promote their own transmission by manipulating plant physiology to attract aphids and increase aphid reproduction. Consistent with this hypothesis, Myzus persicae (green peach aphids) prefer to settle on Nicotiana benthamiana infected with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and fecundity on virus-infected N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is higher than on uninfected controls. TuMV infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense, and increases the amount of free amino acids, the major source of nitrogen for aphids. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, 10 TuMV genes were over-expressed in plants to determine their effects on aphid reproduction. Production of a single TuMV protein, nuclear inclusion a-protease domain (NIa-Pro), increased M. persicae reproduction on both N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. Similar to the effects that are observed during TuMV infection, NIa-Pro expression alone increased aphid arrestment, suppressed callose deposition and increased the abundance of free amino acids. Together, these results suggest a function for the TuMV NIa-Pro protein in manipulating the physiology of host plants. By attracting aphid vectors and promoting their reproduction, TuMV may influence plant-aphid interactions to promote its own transmission. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France); Chapuis, Sophie [Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Laboratoire propre du CNRS conventionné avec l’Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France); Revers, Frédéric [INRA, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 1332 de Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon (France); Ziegler-Graff, Véronique [Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Laboratoire propre du CNRS conventionné avec l’Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Brault, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.brault@colmar.inra.fr [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France)

    2015-12-15

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74 kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. - Highlights: • The C-terminal domain of TuYV-RT is required for long-distance movement. • CIPK7 from Arabidopsis interacts with RT{sub Cter} in yeast and in plants. • CIPK7 overexpression increases virus titer locally but not virus systemic movement. • CIPK7 localizes to plasmodesmata. • CIPK7 could be a defense protein regulating virus export.

  20. Persistência de palhada e liberação de nutrientes do nabo forrageiro no plantio direto Persistence and nutrients release of forage turnip straw utilized as mulching in no-tillage crop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A palhada das plantas de cobertura, mantida sobre o solo no plantio direto, representa uma reserva de nutrientes para cultivos subseqüentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a decomposição e a liberação de macronutrientes de resíduos de nabo forrageiro. O experimento foi realizado no campo, durante o ano de 1998, no Município de Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR. O nabo forrageiro foi dessecado e manejado com rolo-faca 30 dias após a emergência. Avaliaram-se a persistência de palhada e a liberação de nutrientes dos resíduos aos 0, 13, 35 e 53 dias após o manejo. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O nabo forrageiro produziu, até o estádio de pré-florescimento, elevada quantidade de massa seca da parte aérea em cultivo de inverno (2.938 kg ha-1, acumulando 57,2, 15,3, 85,7, 37,4, 12,5 e 14,0 kg ha-1, respectivamente, de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. O manejo do nabo forrageiro no estádio de pré-florescimento apresenta rápida degradação da palhada, acarretando liberação de quantidades significativas de macronutrientes. Os nutrientes disponibilizados em maior quantidade e velocidade para a cultura subseqüente, são o K e o N. A maior velocidade de liberação de macronutrientes pelo nabo forrageiro ocorre no período compreendido entre 10 e 20 dias após o manejo da fitomassa.Straw of covering plants kept on soil surface in no-tillage system is an important source of nutrients for subsequent tillage. The objective of this work was to evaluate decomposition and macronutrients release from forage turnip residues. The experiment was set under field conditions during 1998 in Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR, Brazil. Forage turnip plants were desiccated and lodged 30 days after emergence. Straw persistence and nutrient release were evaluated at 0, 13, 35 and 53 days after management. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. Until pre-flowering stage, the forage

  1. (UF3GT) in turnip

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    2012-09-04

    Sep 4, 2012 ... Poudel PR, Goto-Yamamoto N, Mochioka R, Kataoka I, Beppu K. (2008). Expression analysis of UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O- glucosyltransferase (UFGT) gene in an interspecific hybrid grape between Vitis ficifolia var. ganebu and Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of. Alexandria. Plant Biotechnol. Rep. 2(4):233-238.

  2. Evaluation of turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as supplement for grazing beef cattle Avaliação do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como suplemento para bovinos de corte em pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vera Martins Franco

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to evaluate the use of the turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as alternative protein source for grazing zebu cattle. At the first experiment, the performance of Nellore zebu cattle was evaluated on grazing grass. Twenty four animals were distributed in three treatments and allocated on six paddocks, with four animals each and two repetitions. Treatments consisted of supplements with two levels of turnip forage residue (7.5 and 15.0% dry matter and without turnip forage (control. Pasture availability and quality were also evaluated. At the second trial, degradability of the residue turnip forage was measured in six rumen fistulated zebu cattle fed basal diet composed by grass coast-cross hay and concentrate (35% CP with 15% of turnip forage. No difference was observed among the treatments for the animal performance, but the steers fed 7.5% of turnip forage residue showed the highest daily gain weight (0.575 kg DGW. The turnip forage residue showed high and fast ruminal effective degradability of the dry matter (83.8%, crude protein (88.9% and neutral detergent fiber (52.1%. In conclusion, the turnip forage residue can be used as protein source in supplement diet for cattle, shifting the conventional protein sources up to 15% in supplement with 35% of total crude protein.Dois experimentos foram realizados visando avaliar o uso do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como fonte de proteína alternativa de suplementos para bovinos de corte em pastejo de gramíneas. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o desempenho de bovinos Nelore a pasto (ganho diário de peso, utilizando-se 24 animais, distribuídos em três tratamentos em seis piquetes com quatro animais cada e duas repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de suplementos com dois níveis do resíduo de nabo forrageiro (7,5 e 15,0% na matéria seca e sem nabo forrageiro (testemunha. A disponibilidade e qualidade da

  3. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  4. COMPORTAMENTO DO NABO FORRAGEIRO (Raphanus sativus L. E DA NABIÇA (Raphanus raphanistrum L. COMO ADUBO VERDE PERFORMANCE OF TURNIP (Raphanus sativus L. AND WILD RADISH (Raphanus raphanistrum L. AS GREEN MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson da Silva Moraes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento do nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. e da nabiça (Raphanus raphani Turnip como alternativa de adubação verde para no período de inverno. Para tal, foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, com dois tratamentos (espécies e quatro repetições, em parcelas de 20 m2. Quando as plantas atingiram 50% de floração, foram avaliados a altura, o número de folhas, a área foliar, a massa seca e os teores de macronutrientes e carbono orgânico na massa seca. Em seguida, foi feito o corte das plantas rente ao solo em cada parcela. Trinta dias, foram contabilizados o número de rebrotes por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram que não houve diferenças significativas no crescimento, acúmulo de fitomassa, acúmulo de N, P, Ca e Mg e relação C:N. As duas espécies apresentaram atributos desejáveis para suas utilizações como adubo verde no período de inverno. Contudo, o corte realizado não promoveu a completa eliminação das plantas nas espécies. Assim, a recomendação dessas espécies como adubo verde, deve estar relacionada ao uso de herbicida dessecante.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Adubação verde; fitomassa; acumulação.

    This study had as objective to evaluate the behavior of turnip (Raphanus sativus L. and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. as winter green manures. An experiment was carried out as randomized complete blocks design, using 20 m2 plots, with two treatments (species and four replications. When the plants reached 50% flowering, height, number of leaves, leaf area, dry matter, and macronutrient and organic carbon contents in the dry matter were evaluated. Plants were cut close to soil surface, and the number of sprouts per plot was

  5. Carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of plant viruses: evidence for protein-nucleic acid interactions in belladonna mottle virus and detection of polyamines in turnip yellow mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, R; Sitaramant, K; Heusst, K L; Argost, P; Markley, J L

    1983-10-30

    Belladonna mottle virus (BDMV) enriched in carbon-13 was isolated from infected tobacco plants grown in a 2% 13C02, 8% 12CO2 atmosphere. The enrichment led to a fivefold improvement in the signal to noise ratio of the (13)C NMR spectrum of BDMV. 1H and 13C NMR peaks of the intact virion are broad. However, upon removal of the RNA, many sharp peaks appear in spectra of the empty capsid which are attributed to aliphatic amino acid side chains at the inner surface of the protein shell that have gained segmental mobility. These include resonances assigned to the side chain of glutamate. Internal motions are necessary to account for the experimental 13C NMR linewidths. Aliphatic 13CHn (n = 1-3) groups must have correlation times on the order of 10 nsec and quaternary carbons must have correlation times between 50 and 300 nsec to explain the narrow line widths. No sharp peaks were observed in the aromatic regions of 1H or 13C NMR spectra; thus all the aromatic side chains seem to be tightly packed in the capsid as well as the virion. 1H and 13C NMR have been used for the first time to detect polyamines in virus particles. 1H NMR studies confirmed the presence of polyamines, apparently packaged during assembly, in turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and demonstrated their absence in BDMV. Sedimentation analysis has shown that the RNA is released upon increasing the pH above neutrality for BDMV but only above pH 11.5 for TYMV (R. Virudachalam, K. Sitaraman, K. L. Heuss, J. L. Markley, and P. Argos, Virology 130, 351-359, 1983). 1H NMR studies demonstrated that the BDMV capsid is permeable to polyamines and that the pH stability of BDMV with added spermidine is comparable to that of TYMV.

  6. Bioepoxidation of isosafrol catalyzed by radish and turnip peroxidases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... 3Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química, Departamento de Engenharia Química e Engenharia de. Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Campus Universitário, Trindade, Florianópolis, SC, 88040-. 900, Brazil. Received 26 November, 2014; Accepted 17 March, 2015.

  7. Assessing phenological synchrony between the Chinese sawfly, Cephus fumipennis, its egg-larval parasitoid, Collyria catoptron, and the North American sawfly, Cephus cinctus: Implications for biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatyana A. Rand; Wendell L. Morrill; Justin B. Runyon; Kim A. Hoelmer; Thomas G. Shanower; Jeffrey L. Littlefield; David K. Weaver

    2016-01-01

    Many pest and beneficial insects overwinter as larvae in a state of diapause, with development resuming in the spring. In these cases, rates of post-diapause development of parasitoids must be synchronised with the vulnerable life stages of their hosts. Phenological asynchrony between introduced parasitoids and their targeted hosts has limited the success of some...

  8. Sawflies and ponderosa pine: hypothetical response surfaces for pine genotype, ontogenic stage, and stress level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Wagner

    1991-01-01

    Patterns that occur in nature are the result of a complex set of current and historical factors that interact with one another and the adaptive plasticity of plants. Scientists are forced to assess such processes on the basis of series of "snapshots" over a relatively short time that represent only part of the grand pattern. In the case of insects interacting...

  9. Using matrix population models to inform biological control management of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic models are a powerful means of identifying vulnerable life stages of pest species and assessing the potential effectiveness of various management approaches in reducing pest population growth and spread. In a biological control context, such models can be used to focus foreign explorati...

  10. First report of turnip mosaic virus in tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica, Solanaceae) is an important vegetable in Mexican cuisine. It is of Mesoamerica origin and now is grown widely in the Western Hemisphere. In 2011, commercially grown tomatillo plants in San Benito Counties, California exhibited severe stunting with foliage showing m...

  11. Comparisons of the genetic structure of populations of Turnip mosaic virus in west east Eurasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomimura, K.; Špak, Josef; Katis, N.; Jenner, C. E.; Walsh, J.A.; Gibbs, A.J.; Ohshima, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 330, - (2004), 408-423 ISSN 0042-6822 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : mosaic virus * genetic structure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.071, year: 2004

  12. Persistence in soil and on foliage of the nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Mohamed; H.C. Coppel; J.D. Podgwaite

    1982-01-01

    Six plots of pine trees harboring high densities of N. sertifer larvae were sprayed with the nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) of this species. Half of these plots were resprayed in the second year of the study. Polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) were recovered in all plots from soil and foliage sampled at fixed time intervals within a 21-month period...

  13. Accumulation of nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the European pine sawfly (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) as a function of larval weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Mohamed; H.C. Coppel; J.D. Podgwaite; W.D. Rollinson

    1983-01-01

    Disease-free larvae of Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) treated with its nucleopolyhedrosis virus in the field and under laboratory conditions showed a high correlation between virus accumulation and body weight. Simple linear regression models were found to fit viral accumulation versus body weight under either circumstance.

  14. Sixteenth to eightteenth century depictions of cole crops (Brassica oleracea L.), turnip (B. rapa L. cultivar group Vegetable turnip) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in Flandres and the present-day Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Cole and neep crops are old crops in the Low Countries. The first archival records date from the 14th century. The crops have been described in herbals of the 16th and 17th century. During the 16th to 18th century they have also been depicted on paintings. In a herbal of 1554 by Dodonaeus white, red

  15. Reduction of EPSP synthase in transgenic wild turnip (Brassica rapa) weed via suppression of aroA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrizi, Danial

    2014-12-01

    EPSPS is coded with the aroA gene, a key enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step of shikimate pathway. The current study focuses on the suppression of aroA gene in weedy Brassica rapa. For this purpose B. rapa was transformed with double-stranded RNA interference construct designed to silence aroA gene. This developed in a significant decline in EPSPS (about 72 %) in T0 and T1 plants. In order to study the gene flow, the B. rapa control and B. napus plants were pollinated with T0 B. rapa. Results showed that in the next generation of challenging plants, the pollinated normal B. rapa showed the T1 symptoms and performance. Statistical analysis of data showed that knocking down of aroA will lead to a weakness and decreasing in investigated morphological, physiological and phonological characteristics. Meanwhile pollinated B. napus plant species have been not fertilized by T0 B. rapa. To conclude current result is the first evidence of aroA gene inhibition induces a high decrease in EPSPS protein in B. rapa. Also this result provides a basis for the future investigation in order to controlling B. rapa via molecular approach along with agronomical, biological and chemical methods regarding environmental considerations.

  16. First Genome Sequence of Wild Onion Symptomless Virus, a Novel Member of Potyvirus in the Turnip Mosaic Virus Phylogenetic Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Savas; Mitoma, Shinichiro; Nomiyama, Rei; Honda, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The nearly complete genome sequence of a new species of potyvirus was obtained from the symptomless wild onion (Allium sp.) in Turkey. This virus has less than 67% nucleotide sequence identities over the polyprotein to other known potyviruses. We propose the name wild onion symptomless virus for this novel potyvirus. PMID:27540073

  17. The release of a pheromonotropic neuropeptide, PBAN, in the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, exhibits a circadian rhythm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závodská, Radka; von Wowern, G.; Löfstedt, C.; Rosén, W. Q.; Šauman, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2009), s. 435-440 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : pheromone biosynthesis activating * neuropeptide (PBAN) * circadian rhythm Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2009

  18. Blood from a turnip: tissue origin of low-coverage shotgun sequencing libraries affects recovery of mitogenome sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F. Keith; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Tomback, Diana F.

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing methods allow rapid, economical accumulation of data that have many applications, even at relatively low levels of genome coverage. However, the utility of shotgun sequencing data sets for specific goals may vary depending on the biological nature of the samples sequenced. We show that the ability to assemble mitogenomes from three avian samples of two different tissue types varies widely. In particular, data with coverage typical of microsatellite development efforts (∼1×) from DNA extracted from avian blood failed to cover even 50% of the mitogenome, relative to at least 500-fold coverage from muscle-derived data. Researchers should consider possible applications of their data and select the tissue source for their work accordingly. Practitioners analyzing low-coverage shotgun sequencing data (including for microsatellite locus development) should consider the potential benefits of mitogenome assembly, including internal barcode verification of species identity, mitochondrial primer development, and phylogenetics.

  19. BT TOXIN IS NOT TAKEN UP FROM SOIL OR HYDROPONIC CULTURE BY CORN, CARROT, RADISH, OR TURNIP. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  1. Formation of large viroplasms and virulence of Cauliflower mosaic virus in turnip plants depend on the N-terminal EKI sequence of viral protein TAV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Geldreich

    Full Text Available Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV TAV protein (TransActivator/Viroplasmin plays a pivotal role during the infection cycle since it activates translation reinitiation of viral polycistronic RNAs and suppresses RNA silencing. It is also the major component of cytoplasmic electron-dense inclusion bodies (EDIBs called viroplasms that are particularly evident in cells infected by the virulent CaMV Cabb B-JI isolate. These EDIBs are considered as virion factories, vehicles for CaMV intracellular movement and reservoirs for CaMV transmission by aphids. In this study, focused on different TAV mutants in vivo, we demonstrate that three physically separated domains collectively participate to the formation of large EDIBs: the N-terminal EKI motif, a sequence of the MAV domain involved in translation reinitiation and a C-terminal region encompassing the zinc finger. Surprisingly, EKI mutant TAVm3, corresponding to a substitution of the EKI motif at amino acids 11-13 by three alanines (AAA, which completely abolished the formation of large viroplasms, was not lethal for CaMV but highly reduced its virulence without affecting the rate of systemic infection. Expression of TAVm3 in a viral context led to formation of small irregularly shaped inclusion bodies, mild symptoms and low levels of viral DNA and particles accumulation, despite the production of significant amounts of mature capsid proteins. Unexpectedly, for CaMV-TAVm3 the formation of viral P2-containing electron-light inclusion body (ELIB, which is essential for CaMV aphid transmission, was also altered, thus suggesting an indirect role of the EKI tripeptide in CaMV plant-to-plant propagation. This important functional contribution of the EKI motif in CaMV biology can explain the strict conservation of this motif in the TAV sequences of all CaMV isolates.

  2. Finish line plant–insect interactions mediated by insect feeding mode and plant interference: a case study of Brassica interactions with diamondback moth and turnip aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soufbaf, Mahmoud; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Hui, Cang

    2017-01-01

    There are gaps in our understanding of plant responses under different insect phytophagy modes and their subsequent effects on the insect herbivores’ performance at late season. Here we compared different types of insect feeding by an aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, and a lepidopteran, Plutella xylostella,

  3. Taxonomy of the genus Athallia and its diversity in Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jan; Halici, M.G.; Güllü, M.; Demirel, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2016), s. 319-328 ISSN 1300-008X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Athalia baltistanica * Caloplaca alcarum, inconnexa, nesodes, raesaenenii * phylogeny * species concept * Teloschistaceae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2016

  4. Studies on the Asian sawflies of Formosempria Takeuchi (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, with notes on the suitability of F. varipes Takeuchi as a biological control agent for skunk vine, Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Formosempria Takeuchi, 1929, is distributed in southeastern Asia from Taiwan and China to Vietnam, Myanmar, and possibly northern India. Three species are included: F. crassicornis Wei & Nie, 2002, F. shanensis Malaise, 1961, and F. varipes Takeuchi, 1929 (= F. annamensis Malaise, 1961, syn. n.; = F. metallica Wei, 2003, syn. n.. Formosempria varipes was reared from larvae feeding on Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Hong Kong and was a potential biological agent for the invasive P. foetida in Florida. Larval feeding tests indicate more than one species of Paederia are suitable hosts for F. varipes and further study for use as a biological control agent in Florida is unwarranted. Descriptions and illustration of the species are given, and life history notes on F. varipes are presented.

  5. The Natural and Cultural Environmental Resources of the Aquilla Creek Watershed, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-11-01

    canadensis Jacq. Wild Lettuce Lactuca serriola L. Prickly Lettuce Lepidium austrinum Small Southern Peppergrass Lepidium virginicum L. var. medium...white ants) Plecoptera (Stoneflies) Hemiptera (Bugs) Homoptera (Cicadas, leafhoppers, aphids , scale insects) Heteroptera Hymenoptera (Sawflies, ants

  6. Dispersal of four fritillary butterflies within identical landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fric, Zdeněk; Hula, V.; Klímová, M.; Zimmermann, K.; Konvička, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2010), s. 543-552 ISSN 0912-3814 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Czech Agency of Nature Conservation(CZ) VaV/620/01/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : conservation * Euphydryas aurinia * Melitaea athalia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010

  7. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., mustard greens, turnip greens, kohlrabi), corn, fresh (field, sweet, pop, seed), corn fodder and forage...) cranberry, grapes, melons, (watermelon, honeydew, crenshaw, cantaloupe, casaba, persian), nectarines, pears...

  8. 76 FR 23882 - Metiram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...%; tomato, processed, 25%; turnip tops, 86%; walnut, 37.5%; watermelon, 55%; and wheat, grain, 3.5%. For the..., winter, 25%; tomato, fresh, 54%; tomato, processed, 54%; walnut, 31%; watermelon, 10%; and wheat, grain...%; turnip tops, 36%; walnut, 36%; watermelon, 45%; and wheat, grain, 11%. In most cases, EPA uses available...

  9. Nutrient composition of selected traditional native American plant foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten wild plants (cattail narrow leaf shoots, chokecherries, beaked hazelnuts, lambsquarters, plains pricklypear, prairie turnips, stinging nettles, wild plums, raspberries, rose hips) from three Native American reservations in North Dakota were analyzed to expand composition information of tradition...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Treatment To Stop Bleeding If blood loss is causing ... flow. In some cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eating lead in paint or soil, or drinking water that contains lead. Teens Teens are at risk ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Treatment To Stop Bleeding If blood loss is causing ...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1016 - Ethylene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a plant regulator on plants, seeds, or cuttings and on all food commodities after harvest and when..., soybean, squash, tomato, turnip, and watermelon fields as part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture...

  13. Genetic dissection of leaf development in Brassica rapa using a ‘geneticalgenomics’ approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.; Wang, H.; Basnet, R.K.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, K.; Hou, X.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Treatment To Stop Bleeding If blood loss is causing ...

  15. Artificially-induced nucleopolyhedrosis virus epizootic in populations of Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Mohamed; H.C. Coppel; J.D. Podgwaite

    1983-01-01

    An artificially-induced epizootic was created in European pine sawfly (N. sertifer) populations at density levels of 5, 7, and 10 colonies per tree when plots were treated with 3.5 x 108 polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) per 0.04 ha. The progress of the epizootic was followed daily. The onset of mortality was at 13 days...

  16. The influence of soil properties on the development of Cephalcia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cedar web-spinning sawfly, Cephalcia tannourinensis (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) is considered a major defoliator of the cedar forests in Lebanon. In the early 1990's, a severe damage of the Tannourine Hadath El-Jebbeh cedar forest was caused by the sudden outbreak of this insect. The insect has a complex life ...

  17. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 2. Forest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard

    1974-01-01

    Southeast Alaska's remaining virgin forests have few insect pests. The black-headed budworm and the hemlock sawfly, both western hemlock defoliators, are the most important species. They kill some trees, kill tops in others, and cause growth loss, but stands survive their attacks. Extensive conversion of virgin stands to second growth may result in an increase in...

  18. An entomopathogenic fungus and nematode prove ineffective for biocontrol of an invasive leaf miner Profenusa thomsoni in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Progar; J.J. Kruse; John Lundquist; K.P. Zogas; M.J. Rinella

    2015-01-01

    A non-native invasive sawfly, the amber-marked birch leaf miner Profenusa thomsoni (Konow), was first detected in south-central Alaska in 1996 and is now widely distributed throughout urban and wild birch trees in Alaska. Impacts have been considered primarily aesthetic because leaf miners cause leaves of birch trees (Betula...

  19. Host Plants Indirectly Influence Plant Virus Transmission by Altering Gut Cysteine Protease Activity of Aphid Vectors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Patricia V.; Ghanim, Murad; Rebelo, Ana Rita; Santos, Rogerio S.; Orsburn, Benjamin C.; Gray, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is a vector of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV, Luteoviridae), transmitted exclusively by aphids in a circulative manner. PLRV transmission efficiency was significantly reduced when a clonal lineage of M. persicae was reared on turnip as compared with the weed physalis, and this was a transient effect caused by a host-switch response. A trend of higher PLRV titer in physalis-reared aphids as compared with turnip-reared aphids was observed at 24 h and 72 h after virus acquisition. The major difference in the proteomes of these aphids was the up-regulation of predicted lysosomal enzymes, in particular the cysteine protease cathepsin B (cathB), in aphids reared on turnip. The aphid midgut is the site of PLRV acquisition, and cathB and PLRV localization were starkly different in midguts of the aphids reared on the two host plants. In viruliferous aphids that were reared on turnip, there was near complete colocalization of cathB and PLRV at the cell membranes, which was not observed in physalis-reared aphids. Chemical inhibition of cathB restored the ability of aphids reared on turnip to transmit PLRV in a dose-dependent manner, showing that the increased activity of cathB and other cysteine proteases at the cell membrane indirectly decreased virus transmission by aphids. Understanding how the host plant influences virus transmission by aphids is critical for growers to manage the spread of virus among field crops. PMID:27932519

  20. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of soil fauna as soil quality indicator has been of great importance to understand the biological, chemical and physical variations of ecosystems. The collembola takes part in a group of organisms that has an active participation in organic material transformations of soil. The aim of this work was to evaluate the collembola reproduction in laboratory condition. The used substrate was sample of soil collected from citrus and pinus area with the following treatments: a citrus soil with: common vetch ground straw, corn ground straw, turnip ground straw, broiller litter and in soil and, b pinus soil with: common vetch ground straw, corn ground straw, turnip ground straw, broiller litter and in soil. The treatments were maintained in plastic pots at 26 ºC in the darkness, during 180 days, with five repetitions. The soil material from citrus area with turnip ground straw favored the collembola reproduction in laboratory conditions.

  3. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  4. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation of forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the current study was to determine nutrient digestibility, VFA production, N metabolism, and CH4 production of canola (Brassica napus L.), rapeseed (B. napus L.), turnip (B. rapa L.), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) fed with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in continuous...

  5. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  6. 77 FR 43524 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ..., N 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]- N 2- cyano- N 1-methylacetamidine, in or on asparagus at 0.8 ppm... document titled ``Acetamiprid: Human Health Risk Assessment for New Uses on Asparagus; Brassica, Leafy..., in or on asparagus at 0.80 ppm; Brassica, leafy greens, subgroup 5B at 15 ppm; turnip greens at 15...

  7. Comparative study of peroxidase purification from apple and orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... It was observed that after partial purification, the enzyme activity was ... present in higher plants like turnip, sweet potato, tomato, ... enzyme extracted. Thermal treatment. To selectively inactivate the contaminating traces of the catalase moieties, crude enzyme extract was heated at 65°C for 3 min in a.

  8. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This method has been successfully used to separate out RNA and protein part of the structure in spherical viruses and ribosomes (Zaccai 1978). Figure 8 shows the organization of protein and RNA in turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) as obtained using SANS technique (acrot et al 1977).

  9. Evaluation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... genotype were considered as stable. Rapeseed has attained the status of alternate crop of wheat, in the rainfed areas of District Mansehra. Some traditional landraces of Turnip Rape are widely cultivated as conventional crop mostly for fodder, hair oil and green vegetable. Commercial cultivation of B.

  10. East Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-30

    in cultivation, such as lettuce, turnip cabbage, early radish, Brussels sprouts, endives , asparagus, Chinese cab- bage, and the like. It is very...organizational forms that best correspond to the needs for conserving con- ventional fuel. There is the need for most rapidly introducing in

  11. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were developed through data mining of 3,803 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) previously published. A total of 144 di- to penta-type SSRs were identified and they were screened for polymorphism between two turnip cultivars, 'Tsuda' and 'Yurugi Akamaru'. Out of 90 EST-SSRs for ...

  12. Occurrence of Potato virus X on hybrid dock in Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrzik, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2009), s. 49-52 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : hybrid dock * potato virus X * Radish mosaic virus * Turnip yellow mosaic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2009

  13. Why are chillies pungent?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    peppers as the principal food of native Americans and compared them to the turnip (Andrews 1984). The seeds ... 1564) that extols its praises; the Bhojana Kutuhala, a Marathi text on the enjoyment of food by Raghu- .... Bryant B P, Savchenko A, Clark L and Mason J R 2000 Potential for cell culture techniques as a wildlife.

  14. 76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...%; watermelon, 30%; wheat, grain, 2.3%. In the 2007 chronic risk assessment for mancozeb, the Agency estimated..., 1%; rye grain, 1%; squash, summer, 41%; squash, winter, 8%; tomato, 49%; watermelon, 28%; wheat...%; turnip tops, 86%; walnut, 37.5%; watermelon, 55%; wheat, grain, 3.5%. In the 2007 chronic risk assessment...

  15. 75 FR 56897 - S-metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... the parent compound, in or on carrot at 0.3 part per million (ppm); cucumber, okra, sesame seed, and.... For mustard greens the MRL in the United States will be established at a higher level than in Canada..., seed at 0.13 ppm, sorghum, sweet, stalk at 4.0 ppm, and turnip greens at 1.8 ppm. VI. Statutory and...

  16. 78 FR 68741 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...%; cherries, (babyfood), 42%; cherries (all other food forms), 100%; corn, sweet, 22%; hops 64%; plum 26...%; cherries (all other food forms), 66%; corn, sweet, 14%; hops, 64%; plum, 24%; turnip, 44%). For further... A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology (Gas Chromatography/Nitrogen...

  17. 76 FR 69690 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... detection of residues by gas chromatography using nitrogen phosphorous detection (GC/NPD). Contact: Andrew..., leafy greens, subgroup 5B at 15 ppm; turnip greens at 15 ppm; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed at 0.01 ppm; corn, sweet, forage at 10 ppm; corn, sweet, stover at 30 ppm; vegetable, fruiting...

  18. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: The influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Schreiner, M.; Krumbein, A.; Ciska, E.; Holst, B.; Rowland, I.; Schrijver, de R.; Hansen, M.; Gerhäuser, C.; Mithen, R.; Dekker, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these

  19. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Plant Metabolites in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de C.H.; Schipper, A.; Hall, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Brassicaceae family comprises a variety of plant species that are of high economic importance as -vegetables or industrial crops. This includes crops such as Brassica rapa (turnip, Bok Choi), B. oleracea (cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower, etc.), and B. napus (oil seed rape), and also includes the

  20. Emerging viruses in the genus Comovirus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrzik, Karel; Koloniuk, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2010), s. 290-292 ISSN 0920-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Capsid proteins * plant virus * Radish mosaic virus * Turnip ringspot virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2010

  1. 77 FR 25716 - Fipronil; Receipt of Applications for Emergency Exemptions, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... treatment and meaningful involvement of any group, including minority and/or low income populations, in the... oz. of product per acre, to a maximum of 600 acres of rutabagas and turnips, for use of up to a potential maximum of 19.5 gallons of product. Applications would potentially be made from April 1 through...

  2. 78 FR 23557 - Fipronil; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemptions, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... treatment and meaningful involvement of any group, including minority and/or low income populations, in the... than one application at 4.16 fluid oz. of product per acre, to a maximum of 600 acres of rutabagas and turnips, for use of up to a potential maximum of 19.5 gallons of product. Applications would potentially...

  3. Identification and characterisation of Xanthomonas campestris pv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ednar Wulff

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... turnip, 'FBLM2' mustard, 'Miracle F1' cawliflower and 'SxD1' cole). (Lelliot and Stead, 1987). Reference Xcc strains NCPPB. 3207 and B147 were included as positive controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All the putative Xcc strains isolated from seed and leaf samples were tested by ...

  4. Quantitative trait loci for flowering time and morphological traits in multiple populations of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, P.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Kim, J.S.; Shen, Shuxing; Pino del Carpio, D.; Song, Xiaofei; Jin, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Wang, Xiaowu; Koornneef, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Brassica rapa and the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. Here is a report on quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flowering time, seed and pod traits, growth-related traits, leaf morphology, and turnip formation in

  5. 7 CFR 361.5 - Sampling of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., husk 35 5 10 Turnip 50 5 10 Watermelon 500 25 50 AGRICULTURAL SEED: Agrotricum 500 100 500 Alfalfa 50... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling of seeds. 361.5 Section 361.5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.5 Sampling of...

  6. New in vitro method for evaluating antiviral activity of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates against plant viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Holý, Antonín; Pavingerová, Daniela; Votruba, Ivan; Špaková, Vlastimila; Petrzik, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2010), s. 296-303 ISSN 0166-3542 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/0707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Brassica * Chemotherapy * Turnip yellow mosaic virus * Ribavirin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.439, year: 2010

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of BrrTCP Transcription Factors in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancan Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor (TCP gene family is a plant-specific transcription factor that participates in the control of plant development by regulating cell proliferation. However, no report is currently available about this gene family in turnips (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa. In this study, a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed in turnips. Thirty-nine TCP genes in turnip genome were identified and distributed on 10 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that the family was classified as two clades: class I and class II. Gene structure and conserved motif analysis showed that the same clade genes have similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The expression profiles of 39 TCP genes were determined through quantitative real-time PCR. Most CIN-type BrrTCP genes were highly expressed in leaf. The members of CYC/TB1 subclade are highly expressed in flower bud and weakly expressed in root. By contrast, class I clade showed more widespread but less tissue-specific expression patterns. Yeast two-hybrid data show that BrrTCP proteins preferentially formed heterodimers. The function of BrrTCP2 was confirmed through ectopic expression of BrrTCP2 in wild-type and loss-of-function ortholog mutant of Arabidopsis. Overexpression of BrrTCP2 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the diminished leaf size. Overexpression of BrrTCP2 in triple mutants of tcp2/4/10 restored the leaf phenotype of tcp2/4/10 to the phenotype of wild type. The comprehensive analysis of turnip TCP gene family provided the foundation to further study the roles of TCP genes in turnips.

  8. Host Plants Indirectly Influence Plant Virus Transmission by Altering Gut Cysteine Protease Activity of Aphid Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Patricia V; Ghanim, Murad; Alexander, Mariko; Rebelo, Ana Rita; Santos, Rogerio S; Orsburn, Benjamin C; Gray, Stewart; Cilia, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae , is a vector of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV, Luteoviridae), transmitted exclusively by aphids in a circulative manner. PLRV transmission efficiency was significantly reduced when a clonal lineage of M. persicae was reared on turnip as compared with the weed physalis, and this was a transient effect caused by a host-switch response. A trend of higher PLRV titer in physalis-reared aphids as compared with turnip-reared aphids was observed at 24 h and 72 h after virus acquisition. The major difference in the proteomes of these aphids was the up-regulation of predicted lysosomal enzymes, in particular the cysteine protease cathepsin B (cathB), in aphids reared on turnip. The aphid midgut is the site of PLRV acquisition, and cathB and PLRV localization were starkly different in midguts of the aphids reared on the two host plants. In viruliferous aphids that were reared on turnip, there was near complete colocalization of cathB and PLRV at the cell membranes, which was not observed in physalis-reared aphids. Chemical inhibition of cathB restored the ability of aphids reared on turnip to transmit PLRV in a dose-dependent manner, showing that the increased activity of cathB and other cysteine proteases at the cell membrane indirectly decreased virus transmission by aphids. Understanding how the host plant influences virus transmission by aphids is critical for growers to manage the spread of virus among field crops. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Influence of life history and sex on metal accumulation in two beetle species (insecta: Coleoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindqvist, L.; Block, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Insects are important components of most terrestrial environments owing to their great abundance, biomass and diversity. They also make up an important food resource for other animals. Consequently, in many food webs insects constitute important links in metal-transport chains between trophic levels. Therefore trace-metal concentrations in insects have an important influence on the trace-metal distribution in the biosphere. In various insects, Cd, Cu and Zn are usually accumulated to the extent that they reach levels above those of the food, whereas Fe is not. In response to metal pollution, accumulation of nonessential metals was found to increase markedly, whereas essential metals accumulated less owing to regulating mechanisms in the insects. In polluted environments, metal concentrations were found to be higher in predatory invertebrates than in phytophagous ones in studies where insects were analysed in broad categories such as families. However, no such trend was observed when species were treated separately. The pattern of metal accumulation can differ between species. This is true even for species utilizing the same food resource. For instance, concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe differed between four species of sawflies feeding on pine needles from the same locality. It is therefore likely that insects with different food sources accumulate metals differently depending on the concentration and chemical form of the metals in the food. There have been few studies aimed at determining whether patterns of metal accumulation differ between males and females of the same species. In one such study on the sawfly Neodiprion sertifer concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe tended to be higher in males than in females. However, this pattern was not found in two other sawfly species. Target organs for Cd were found to differ between males and females in the grasshopper Aiolopus thalassinus. The testis accumulated Cd to a higher degree than the ovaries.

  10. Performance of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae in different food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crislaine Sartori Suzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently observed in Brazil, Helicoverpa armigera became a relevant pest due to its rapid spread and the economic importance of crops in which it has established, such as soybean and maize. Understanding its establishment process in different regions and production systems, as well as the population dynamics of a polyphagous pest, as the basis for its management, depends on the knowledge of the effect of plant species as food sources on the pest biology. A laboratory experiment was conducted, supplying the caterpillars with reproductive organs of soybean, maize, canola, black oat, oat, turnip and ryegrass. It was concluded that the different food sources affect the larval development of H. armigera. Maize and wheat ears and canola siliques are the best food sources for the development of H. armigera. Ryegrass ears, on the other hand, are the worst ones. Black oat and oat panicles and turnip siliques are less suitable than soybean pods as food sources for the caterpillars.

  11. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  12. Effects of actonomycin D and ultraviolet irradiation on multiplication of brome mosaic virus in host and non-host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, K.; Furusawa, I.; Okuno, T.

    1981-01-01

    The modes of multiplication of brome mosaic virus (BMV) were compared in protoplasts isolated from host and non-host plants. BMV actively multiplied in the leaves and isolated mesophyll protoplasts of barley, a host of BMV. BMV multiplication in barley protoplasts was inhibited by addition of actinomycin D immediately after inoculation or by u.v. irradiation of the protoplasts before inoculation. In contrast, although BMV could not multiply in leaves of radish and turnip (non-hosts for BMV) it multiplied at a low level in protoplasts isolated from these two plant species. Moreover, u.v. irradiation, or the addition of actinomycin D, enhanced multiplication of BMV in radish and turnip protoplasts. These results suggest that (i) in the host cells replication of BMV is dependent on cellular metabolism of nucleic acid and protein, and (ii) in the non-host cells a substance(s) inhibitory to replication of BMV is synthesized. (author)

  13. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  14. 40 CFR 180.507 - Azoxystrobin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 12.0 Corn, field, grain 0.05 Corn, field, refined oil 0.3 Corn, field, stover 25.0 Corn, pop, grain 0... Peanut, refined oil 0.6 Pecan 0.01 Peppermint, tops 30 Persimmon 2.0 Pistachio 0.50 Potato 0.03 Pulasan 2... Tomato 0.2 Tomato, paste 0.6 Turnip, greens 25 Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7 30.0 Vegetable...

  15. 76 FR 16301 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ..., nutmeat at 0.02 ppm; peanut, refined oil at 0.04 ppm; pistachio at 0.06 ppm; safflower, seed at 4.5 ppm... at 0.03 ppm; peanut, nutmeat at 0.02 ppm; peanut, refined oil at 0.03 ppm; pistachio at 0.06 ppm... Soybean, seed 0.25 Sugarcane, cane 0.30 Sunflower, seed 5.0 Turnip, greens 25 Vegetable, foliage of legume...

  16. 40 CFR 180.589 - Boscalid; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., subgroup 5B 18.0 Bushberry, subgroup 13B 13.0 Caneberry, subgroup13A 6.0 Canistel 1.5 Canola, refined oil 5..., succulent shelled, subgroup 6B, except cowpea 0.6 Peanut 0.05 Peanut, meal 0.15 Peanut, refined oil 0.15... 0.1 Pea, field, seed 0.1 Radish, roots 0.1 Rice, hulls 0.50 Turnip, roots 0.1 Vegetable, foliage of...

  17. 7 CFR 201.46 - Weight of working sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 500 7 Yellow 300 500 9 Manilagrass 2 20 Medic, black 5 50 585 Milkvetch 9 90 270 Millet: Browntop 8 80... Mustard: Black 2 20 1,255 India 5 50 625 White 15 150 160 Napiergrass 5 50 Needlegrass, green 7 70 370 Oat... Spinach, New Zealand 200 500 13 Squash 200 500 14 Tomato 5 50 405 Tomato, husk 2 35 1,240 Turnip 5 50 535...

  18. Antioxidant properties of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Sotelo Pérez, Tamara; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables include some economically interesting crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and turnip, which are consumed all over the world. A high intake of Brassica vegetables reduces the risk of age-related chronic illness such as cardiovascular health and other degenerative diseases and reduces the risk of several types of cancer, thanks in part to the antioxidant properties of different compounds. Compared to other vegetables, Brassica vegetables have...

  19. 40 CFR 180.294 - Benomyl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../09 Pineapple, postharvest 35.0 1/1/08 Pistachio 0.2 1/1/07 Plum, postharvest 15.0 1/1/08 Plum, prune..., leaves 10.0 1/1/07 Papaya 3.0 1/1/08 Pistachio 0.2 1/1/07 Turnip, greens 6.0 1/1/07 Watercress 10.0 1/1...

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    than 800 dunums at a cost of nearly 200 dinars per dunum. This cost is for pesti- cides, plastic, gas, seeds and seedlings . As a financier of the...thanked, afflicted with frost. If some seedlings were affected, the farmer overcame the problem by replanting immediately. "I expect the profit per...potatoes, carrots, turnips, chard, and lettuce is up by only 50 centimes or 1 dinar, but nobody talks about that. People have fallen into the trap of

  1. Cap- and initiator tRNA-dependent initiation of TYMV polyprotein synthesis by ribosomes: Evaluation of the Trojan horse model for TYMV RNA translation

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Daiki; Dreher, Theo W.

    2007-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RNA directs the translation of two overlapping open reading frames. Competing models have been previously published to explain ribosome access to the downstream polyprotein cistron. The Trojan horse model, based on cell-free experiments, proposes noncanonical cap-independent initiation in which the 3′-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) functionally replaces initiator tRNA, and the valine bound to the TLS becomes cis-incorporated into viral protein. The initia...

  2. Association of Pectolytic Fluorescent PSeudomonas with Postharvest Rots of Onion

    OpenAIRE

    H.H. El-Hendawy

    2004-01-01

    Five isolates of pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads were obtained from a rotted onion bulb and identified as Pseudomonas marginalis. At both 4 and 25oC, all isolates caused soft rot to detached plant parts of onion and to carrot, celery, cucumber, pepper, spinach, tomato and turnip (but not garlic). They did not however cause any symptoms in living plants of these same species. These results suggest that the onion isolates are a postharvest pathogen which is not destructive in th...

  3. 40 CFR 180.532 - Cyprodinil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities: Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.02 Almond, hulls 8.0 Apple, wet pomace 0.15 Avocado 1.2 Bean... Turnip, greens 10.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.70 Vegetable, leaves of root and tuber, group 2 10 Vegetable, root, except sugarbeet, subgroup 1B 0.75 Watercress 20 1 Import only (b) Section 18 emergency...

  4. Effect of type and level of dietary fibre supplements in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moharib, Sorial A.; Rashad, Mona M.

    2003-01-01

    Both experimental and clinical studies have indicated that a novel source of dietary fibres is potentially hypolipidemic. In the present study, turnip, sugar beet, cabbage and fenugreek green leaves were used as natural new sources of dietary fibres, to examine their effects on nutritional parameters and lipid metabolism in rats fed for 8 weeks comparing with a control diet (fibre-free control). Chemical analyses of the 4 plants revealed that there are differences between the ratios of solubl...

  5. Effect of soil-spraying time on root-colonization ability of antagonistic Streptomyces griseoviridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KORTEMAA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-colonization ability of Streptomyces griseoviridis Anderson et al. was tested on turnip rape (Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera DC. and carrot (Daucus carota L. by the sand-tube method. Non-sterile sand was sprayed with a microbial suspension immediately or 7 days after the seed had been sown. Results expressed as population frequencies and densities indicated that S. griseoviridis effectively colonizes the rhizosphere when the microbe is applied immediately after sowing but less effectively when it is applied 7 days later. Detection values of S. griseoviridis were higher for turnip rape than for carrot. In sterile sand, S. griseoviridis invaribly colonized the rhizosphere of turnip rape after each of the two applications. These findings indicate that S. griseoviridis can compete with indigenous soil microbes in the rhizosphere if it is sufficiently abundant in the soil before the seed emerges. If applied later, however, it competes rather poorly. In root-free nonsterile sand, S. griseoviridis dispersed and survived well.;

  6. Biological and microbiological attributes in Oxisol managed with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of winter cover crops and fertilization with nitrogen to the soil can have an effect on their biological and microbiological attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological and microbiological attributes in soil under different winter cover crops and nitrogen doses. The experiment was conducted at the Frederico Westphalen-RS campus of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM in a Rhodic Hapludox soil. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial arrangement (2 x 10: 10 winter cover crops systems (Fallow [control], black oats, white oats, ryegrass, forage turnip, vetch, white lupine; black oat + forage turnip; black oat + vetch and black oat + vetch + fodder turnip, and two nitrogen rates in the form of urea applied in successive crops of beans common and maize, with four replications. We assessed the biological attributes (Margalef’s richness, Simpson’s dominance, Shannon’s diversity and abundance of organisms and microbiological (carbon and nitrogen microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and microbial quotient of the soil. The fallow with wild species and white lupine showed greater Simpson’s dominance and abundance of organisms due to the increase in the number of individuals of the order Collembola. Vetch improved the biological attributes of the soil with increase in Collembola abundance and diversity of organisms of soil fauna. The application of nitrogen favored the microbial biomass carbon and reduced the metabolic quotient.

  7. An enzymatic method for removal of phenol from industrial effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.; Singh, J. [DN College, Meerut (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Phenols occur in wastewater of a number of industries, such as high temperature coal conversion, petroleum refining, resin and plastic, wood and dye industries, etc. It can be toxic when present at elevated levels and is known to be carcinogenous. An enzymatic method for removal of phenols from industrial wastewater, using turnip peroxidase, has been developed. Phenol-containing industrial wastewater was treated with immobilized turnip peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the reaction, a number of phenols are oxidized to form the corresponding free radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. Free radicals polymerize to form substances that are less soluble in water than the original substances. The precipitates were removed by conventional methods and residual phenol was estimated. The present report describes the immobilization of turnip peroxidase on silica via covalent coupling, and its utility in phenol removal. A comparative study was also carried out with other immobilization techniques, viz., calcium alginate entrapment, polyacrylamide gel entrapment, etc. Peroxidase, covalently bound to silica, showed 95% removal of phenol, whereas naphthol was removed up to 99%.

  8. Breeding success and lutein availability in great tit ( Parus major)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Saila; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2009-11-01

    The relationship among temporal variation in the availability of carotenoid-rich food, tissue carotenoid levels and breeding success are poorly known. We studied how diet quality and quantity affect the carotenoid profile and fledging success of great tit ( Parus major) nestlings along a pollution gradient. We found declining seasonal trend in lutein concentration of caterpillars, which may be the explanation for the declining trend in nestlings' lutein concentration of plasma with season, despite the increase in caterpillar biomass. This may be because the biomass of most lutein-rich caterpillars (autumnal moths) decreased and less lutein-rich caterpillars (sawflies) increased during the breeding season. The temporal difference in occurrence of different caterpillar species means that peak lutein availability does not coincide with peak caterpillar abundance. However the positive association between total larval biomass and the number of great tit fledglings may suggest that fledging success depends more on total caterpillar availability than on lutein concentration of caterpillars.

  9. A unique nest-protection strategy in a new species of spider wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Staab

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera show a great variation in reproductive potential and nesting behavior, from thousands of eggs in sawflies to just a dozen in nest-provisioning wasps. Reduction in reproductive potential in evolutionary derived Hymenoptera is often facilitated by advanced behavioral mechanisms and nesting strategies. Here we describe a surprising nesting behavior that was previously unknown in the entire animal kingdom: the use of a vestibular cell filled with dead ants in a new spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae species collected with trap nests in South-East China. We scientifically describe the 'Bone-house Wasp' as Deuteragenia ossarium sp. nov., named after graveyard bone-houses or ossuaries. We show that D. ossarium nests are less vulnerable to natural enemies than nests of other sympatric trap-nesting wasps, suggesting an effective nest protection strategy, most likely by utilizing chemical cues emanating from the dead ants.

  10. Insect feeding and oviposition deterrents from western red cedar foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R I; Pierce, H D; Borden, J H; Oehlschlager, A C

    1981-01-01

    The feeding deterrent activity of fractions from the foliage of western red cedar,Thujaplicata Donn, was studied in laboratory bioassays using the white pine weevil,Pissodes strobi Peck, as a test insect. The most active fraction was the volatile mixture that comprises the leaf oil of this tree species. Further fractionation of the leaf oil indicated feeding deterrent activity in the monoterpene hydrocarbon, thujone, and terpene alcohol fractions. When tested alone, both (-)-3-isothujone and (+)-3-thujone, which made up 75-88% and 5-10% of the leaf oil, respectively, deterred feeding by the weevils. Western red cedar leaf oil also showed antifeedant activity with the alder flea beetle,Altica ambiens (Le Conte), and served as an oviposition deterrent for the onion root maggot,Hylemya antiqua Meigen. The leaf oil, however, had no inhibitory effect on the feeding of the leaf roller,Epinotia solandriana L., and the red-backed sawfly,Eriocampa ovata L.

  11. The occurrence and evolution of nectar extraction apparatus among Hymenoptera ‘Symphyta'. Jervis, M. & Vilhelmsen, L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    We review feeding biology and mouthpart structure generally among adults of the basal hymenopteran, or ‘symphytan', lineages (sawflies, woodwasps, horntails and their relatives). These insects feed on a wide range of materials: floral and extrafloral nectar, pollen, plant (floral and leaf ) tissues......, plant (angiosperm) sap, the juice of ripe fruit, the spermatial fluid of rust fungi, sternorrhynchan bug honeydew, and insect tissues. Adults show feeding-related mouthpart specialization either for consuming pollen (the Xyelidae only) or for consuming ‘concealed' floral nectar (several families). Seven...... Takeuchi). CNEA of some type or other has arisen at least twice within the family Tenthredinidae and at least twice within the pergid subfamily Euryinae. Evolutionary parallelism in CNEA structure has occurred between the basal, ‘symphytan', hymenopteran lineages and the Apocrita, a phenomenon hitherto...

  12. Reciprocal diversification in a complex plant-herbivore-parasitoid food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokma Folmer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants, plant-feeding insects, and insect parasitoids form some of the most complex and species-rich food webs. According to the classic escape-and-radiate (EAR hypothesis, these hyperdiverse communities result from coevolutionary arms races consisting of successive cycles of enemy escape, radiation, and colonization by new enemy lineages. It has also been suggested that "enemy-free space" provided by novel host plants could promote host shifts by herbivores, and that parasitoids could similarly drive diversification of gall form in insects that induce galls on plants. Because these central coevolutionary hypotheses have never been tested in a phylogenetic framework, we combined phylogenetic information on willow-galling sawflies with data on their host plants, gall types, and enemy communities. Results We found that evolutionary shifts in host plant use and habitat have led to dramatic prunings of parasitoid communities, and that changes in gall phenotype can provide "enemy-free morphospace" for millions of years even in the absence of host plant shifts. Some parasites have nevertheless managed to colonize recently-evolved gall types, and this has apparently led to adaptive speciation in several enemy groups. However, having fewer enemies does not in itself increase speciation probabilities in individual sawfly lineages, partly because the high diversity of the enemy community facilitates compensatory attack by remaining parasite taxa. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that niche-dependent parasitism is a major force promoting ecological divergence in herbivorous insects, and that prey divergence can cause speciation in parasite lineages. However, the results also show that the EAR hypothesis is too simplistic for species-rich food webs: instead, diversification seems to be spurred by a continuous stepwise process, in which ecological and phenotypic shifts in prey lineages are followed by a lagged evolutionary

  13. The Synthesis of Polyamines from Methionine in Intact and Disrupted Leaf Protoplasts of Virus-Infected Chinese Cabbage 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seymour S.; Balint, Robert; Sindhu, Ram K.

    1981-01-01

    In exploring the role of the chloroplast in the multiplication of turnip yellow mosaic virus, the biosyntheses of the major viral polyamine, spermidine, as well as that of the tetramine, spermine were studied. The synthesis of these polyamines from [2-14C]methionine in protoplasts of Chinese cabbage leaf cells derived from healthy plants or those infected by turnip yellow mosaic virus were examined. Populations of protoplasts of infected leaves are homogeneous with respect to containing chloroplast aggregates in contrast to those of healthy leaves. Protoplast preparations have been shown to incorporate methionine into protein, spermidine, and spermine more rapidly than do fresh leaf discs, which also show a very slow utilization of labeled arginine and ornithine into polyamine. Protein synthesis is similar for 4 hours in both healthy and infected protoplasts. Accumulation of labeled spermidine stops after 2 hours in healthy protoplasts but continues in the infected protoplasts. Much of the newly synthesized protein and spermidine is present in the easily sedimentable fraction of the readily disrupted protoplasts. Disrupted and diluted protoplasts have a decreased ability to metabolize methionine to protein and spermidine. The residual synthetic activity is essentially entirely in the easily sedimentable fraction. However, this fraction is unable to synthesize spermine, an activity found in protoplasts and disrupted protoplasts. Disrupted protoplasts contain spermidine synthase (EC 2.5.1.16) and about a quarter of this activity is present in a low-speed sedimentable fraction containing the chloroplasts. The protoplast system is suitable for an analysis of polyamine synthesis in turnip yellow mosaic virus infection and appears particularly suitable for study of the distribution of the enzymes involved. Images PMID:16662066

  14. Next generation sequence analysis of the forage peanut (Arachis pintoi virome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Gutiérrez Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    resulted in the complete genome assembly of Peanut mottle virus (9707 nt, Turnip yellows virus (5578 nt and two variants of a virus with phylogenetic affinity to the genus Allexivirus. These two variants lack ORF6 present in Allexivirus and probably belong to an uncharacterized genus within the family Alphaflexiviridae. The presence of at least three viruses infecting A. pintoi in Colombia highlights the importance of starting a germplasm clean-up program of the plant material used as seed in this crop.

  15. Ethnoarcheology of the Bay Springs Farmsteads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-20

    including: sweet potatoes, potatoes, various types of beans, peas, squash, tomatoes, onions, okra, lettuce , melons, pumpkins, and turnips. These vegetables...distribution of kitchen and food remains, ceramics ( kc ), food bone (kb) including shell, and food containers (kj) like canning jars and plastic...Items kj kc kb ’g am aw ah wt wa wr pt 1 564 61 2 2 127 54 1 2 99 8 2 1 8 4 38 Feature 2 195 108 1 7 6 35 3 1006 5 16 3 612 84 71 21 4 63 10 1 7 13 5 19

  16. The biology of flowering and pollination in umbellate vegetables. Part III. (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum Gaud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Warakomska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried-out on turnip root celery (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum Gaud.. Aim of the study was to examine the biology of flowering and the degree of flower atractiveness, as well as the insect influence on their pollination. The research was conducted during 1979 and 1981 vegetation seasons. Observations were made near Lublin on the loessy brown soil. Seeds were the most abundant in IV and V umbel rows. The isolated flowers did not produce less fertile seeds than the non-isolated ones. Recorded pollen production ranged to 100 kg per ha. The Syrphidae which pollinated celery, fed on their pollen.

  17. Emergency Preparedness: A Handbook for Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    either over a slow fire or in the hot sun. Hang all drying meat high to keep it away from animals. Cover to prevent blow-fly infestation. If mold ...forms on the outside, brush or wash off before eating. In damp weather smoked or air-dried meat must be redried to prevent molding . To preserve cooked...Fescue, Sorghum 4000 to 6000 R Cotton, Sugar Cane, Melons Celery 6000 to 8000 R / Soybeans, Beets, Broccoli, Red Clover 8000 to 12,000 R Rice, Turnips

  18. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND INHERITANCE OF «A» TYPE SEED COAT IN BRASSICA RAPA L. POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ignatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and inheritance of «A» and «B» types of seed coat in populations of B. rapa originated from Europe, Central Asia, China and Japan was studied. «A» type seeds were found in Central Asian and Japanese populations represented by toria, Asian turnip and plants of «B». rapa ssp. nipposinica (L.H.Bailey Hanelt. In intraspecific crosses, «A» type of seed coat was controlled by two complementary dominant genes. 

  19. SNP diversity within and among Brassica rapa accessions reveals no geographic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhuanpää, P; Erkkilä, M; Tenhola-Roininen, T; Tanskanen, J; Manninen, O

    2016-01-01

    Genetic diversity was studied in a collection of 61 accessions of Brassica rapa, which were mostly oil-type turnip rapes but also included two oil-type subsp. dichotoma and five subsp. trilocularis accessions, as well as three leaf-type subspecies (subsp. japonica, pekinensis, and chinensis) and five turnip cultivars (subsp. rapa). Two-hundred and nine SNP markers, which had been discovered by amplicon resequencing, were used to genotype 893 plants from the B. rapa collection using Illumina BeadXpress. There was great variation in the diversity indices between accessions. With STRUCTURE analysis, the plant collection could be divided into three groups that seemed to correspond to morphotype and flowering habit but not to geography. According to AMOVA analysis, 65% of the variation was due to variation within accessions, 25% among accessions, and 10% among groups. A smaller subset of the plant collection, 12 accessions, was also studied with 5727 GBS-SNPs. Diversity indices obtained with GBS-SNPs correlated well with those obtained with Illumina BeadXpress SNPs. The developed SNP markers have already been used and will be used in future plant breeding programs as well as in mapping and diversity studies.

  20. X-Ray structure of a truncated form of cytochrome f from chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Young-In; Huang, Li-Shar; Zhang, Zhaolei; Fernando-Velasquez, Javier G.; Berry, E. A.

    2000-03-01

    A truncated form of cytochrome f from Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii (an important eukaryotic model organism for photosynthetic electron transfer studies) has been crystallized (space group P212121; 3 molecules/ asymmetric unit) and its structure determined to 2.0 Angstrom by molecular replacement using the coordinates of a truncated turnip cytochrome f as a model. The structure displays the same folding and detailed features as turnip cytochrome f including: (a) an unusual heme Fe ligation by alpha-amino group of tyrosine 1, (b) a cluster of lysine residues (proposed docking site of plastocyanin), and (c) the presence of a chain of 7 water molecules bound to conserved residues and extending between the heme pocket and K58 and K66 at the lysine cluster. For this array of waters we propose a structural role. Two cytochrome f molecules are related by a non-crystallographic symmetry operator which is a distorted proper 2-fold rotation. This may represent the dimeric relation of the monomers in situ, however the heme orientation suggested by this model is not consistent with previous epr measurements on oriented membranes.

  1. Variation in G lucosinolate C ontents of C ruciferous P lants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites of almost all plants of the order Brassicales, and have been known to control nematode populations. In this study, 14 glucosinolates were identified, quantified, and compared in several varieties and cultivars of cruciferous plants including Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage, Brassica juncea var. crispifolia L. H. Bailey (mustard, Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea (leaf mustard, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale, Raphanus sativus L. (radish, and Brassica campestris L. ssp. oleifera (winter turnip rape. The most abundant glucosinolate in mustard, leaf mustard, kale, and radish was sinigrin. In leaf mustard, the sinigrin content ranged from 193.05 μmol/g to 215.52 μmol/g, and in mustard, the sinigrin contents of blue mustard and red mustard were 219.08 μmol/g and 215.73 μmol/g, respectively. Kale and radish contained 137.79 μmol/g and 120.25 μmol/g, respectively, of sinigrin. Gluconapin was the most abundant glucosinolate in winter turnip rape, at 121.17 μmol/g. Chinese cabbage contained mostly glucocochlearin (79.88 μmol/g. These results will be useful in the development of environmentally friendly plant-based pesticides by allowing for proper control of glucosinolates based on those present in the chosen plant species.

  2. The effect of the fodder species over the interchangeable bases of sulfated acid soil in municipality of Paipa (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Angélica Bernal Figueroa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the limitations on acid sulphated soils (SSA is related to the inhibition in the absorption of interchangeable bases generated mainly by excesses of aluminum oxide of change; this affects its productivity and limits the availability of nutrients for plants. This research evaluated in greenhouse, the effect of fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L., forage turnip (Brassica rapa L. and fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. on the interchangeable bases of an SSA, contrasted with a not sulfated ground, in order to identify species for management and rehabilitation of these soils in Paipa (Boyacá. An experimental design was implemented with 6 treatments and 3 repetitions in which the basis measurement was made in the ground before and after the species plating and the measured leaf area and plants height when their vegetative period ended. Several significative statistic differences were found (P<0.01 in the basis concentration, as well as in the variables in the leaf area and height of the plant. The results indicated that the growth of the turnip (B. rapa and horseradish (R. sativus fodder, along with the complementary use of calcareous amendments as a corrective, led to an increase in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, and Na in the SSA, and presented a better growth and resistance to them. Similarly, the planting of fodder beet (B. vulgaris generated positive effects in the soil; however, the height and leaf area of this species were affected in the SSA, which limits their productivity.

  3. Effects of fluorides on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazoe, F.

    1975-11-01

    Fluorine compounds known to be air pollutants, such as hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrachloride, are highly poisonous to plants even at ppm - ppb levels. As solid microparticles, acidic sodium fluoride and cryolite cause problems by adhering to plant leaves and absorbing into plant bodies. Plants are classified by their susceptibility to hydrogen fluoride: gladiolus, apricot, buckwheat, turnip and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are most susceptible showing slight injury at less than 5 ppb for 7-9 days; maize, pepper, and dahlia are fairly susceptible, followed by azalea, rose, lilac, and alfalfa, then by oak and tomato. Gladiolus is used as an indicator plant. The exposure factor for one species was known. The symptoms of plants exposed to gaseous fluorine compounds are described in detail at various concentrations. The causal mechanism of the injuries due to fluorine compounds is described in detail, with the method of determining the fluorine content of plant parts. 7 references.

  4. Radionuclide content of selected root vegetables as influenced by culinary preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Doswell, A.C.; Ciravolo, T.G.; Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    A greenhouse study involving root vegetables (carrot, red beet, and turnips) was conducted primarily to evaluate the effect of culinary processing (light washing, scrubbing, and peeling) on the radionuclide content of the edible portions. In terms of concentration ratio of the radionuclides left in roots after peeling, the trend follows: 90 Sr> 137 Cs>> 234 U congruent with 238 U≥ 238 Pu. The actinide contents in the roots were apparently due to surface adherence of the contaminated soil particulates as indicated by the diminution of the contents upon brushing the surface, which were further decreased by peeling the skin. Rigorous culinary processing of roots, such as scrubbing or peeling, could substantially diminish the contents of the actinides, but not of the more mobile 90 Sr and 137 Cs

  5. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Bionanoparticle-Silica Composites and Mesoporous Silica with Large Pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Z.; Yang, L.; Kabisatpathy, S.; He, J.; Lee, A.; Ron, J.; Sikha, G.; Popov, B.N.; Emrick, T.; Russell, T. P.; Wang. Q.

    2009-03-24

    A sol-gel process has been developed to incorporate bionanoparticles, such as turnip yellow mosaic virus, cowpea mosaic virus, tobacco mosaic virus, and ferritin into silica, while maintaining the integrity and morphology of the particles. The structures of the resulting materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis. The results show that the shape and surface morphology of the bionanoparticles are largely preserved after being embedded into silica. After removal of the bionanoparticles by calcination, mesoporous silica with monodisperse pores, having the shape and surface morphology of the bionanoparticles replicated inside the silica, was produced,. This study is expected to lead to both functional composite materials and mesoporous silica with structurally well-defined large pores.

  7. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references

  8. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y; Yokota, S; Ono, F

    2012-01-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  9. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Y.; Yokota, S.; Ono, F.

    2012-07-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  10. Ground Based Program for the Physical Analysis of Macromolecular Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Alexander J.

    1999-01-01

    In a reported period in situ atomic force microscopy was utilized in our laboratory to study mechanisms of growth and kinetics of crystallization of ten protein and virus crystals. These included canavalin, thaumatin, apoferritin, lipase, catalase, t-RNA, lysozyme, xylanase, turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV). We have also designed and constructed in our laboratory both in situ conventional two-beam Michelson and phase shift Mach-Zenhder interferometers. Computer software for the processing of the interferometric images was developed as well. Interferometric techniques were applied for studies of growth kinetics and transport phenomena in crystallization of several macromolecular crystals. As a result of this work we have published 21 papers and have given many presentations at international and national meetings. A list of these publications and conference presentations is attached.

  11. A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Beverage, “Shalgam”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Coskun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shalgam is a traditional Turkish beverage produced by lactic acid fermentation. Shalgam is also sold in markets in some European cities. In shalgam production, bulgur flour (formed during the crushing process, it is the part that remains under the sieve after breaking the outer shells of boiled dried wheat for processing, salt, water, purple carrot, turnip, and sometimes red beet is used. The traditional method of production can take 10–12 days. Commercial production takes 4–5 days. Shalgam is a probiotic food and a good source of nutrients. It helps regulate the pH of the digestive system. It contains β-carotene, group B vitamins, calcium, potassium, and iron. People also use it as a medicine because of its antiseptic agents. Shalgam consumption should be increased and become worldwide.

  12. Migration of plant viruses: Time correlations with the agriculture history and human immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Kazusato

    2015-01-01

    In this review, I made the phylodynamic comparisons of three plant viruses, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), using the genomic sequences of a large numbers of isolates collected worldwide. We analyzed these genomic nucleotide sequences, in combination with published sequences, to estimate the timescale and rate of evolution of the individual genes of TuMV, CaMV and CMV. The main hosts of the viruses are Brassicaceae crops. We also compared these estimates from complete sequences with those from which non-synonymous and invariate codons had been removed. Our analyses provided a preliminary definition of the present geographical structure of three plant virus populations in the world, and showed that the time of migration of three plant viruses correlate well with agriculture history and human immigration.

  13. Attenuation of Carcinogenesis and the Mechanism Underlying by the Influence of Indole-3-carbinol and Its Metabolite 3,3'-Diindolylmethane: A Therapeutic Marvel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthanila, V L; Poornima, J; Mirunalini, S

    2014-01-01

    Rising evidence provides credible support towards the potential role of bioactive products derived from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, brussels sprouts, turnips, kohlrabi, bok choy, and radishes. Many epidemiological studies point out that Brassica vegetable protects humans against cancer since they are rich sources of glucosinolates in addition to possessing a high content of flavonoids, vitamins, and mineral nutrients. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) belongs to the class of compounds called indole glucosinolate, obtained from cruciferous vegetables, and is well-known for tits anticancer properties. In particular, I3C and its dimeric product, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been generally investigated for their value against a number of human cancers in vitro as well as in vivo. This paper reviews an in-depth study of the anticancer activity and the miscellaneous mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenicity thereby broadening its therapeutic marvel.

  14. Attenuation of Carcinogenesis and the Mechanism Underlying by the Influence of Indole-3-carbinol and Its Metabolite 3,3′-Diindolylmethane: A Therapeutic Marvel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Maruthanila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising evidence provides credible support towards the potential role of bioactive products derived from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, brussels sprouts, turnips, kohlrabi, bok choy, and radishes. Many epidemiological studies point out that Brassica vegetable protects humans against cancer since they are rich sources of glucosinolates in addition to possessing a high content of flavonoids, vitamins, and mineral nutrients. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C belongs to the class of compounds called indole glucosinolate, obtained from cruciferous vegetables, and is well-known for tits anticancer properties. In particular, I3C and its dimeric product, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM, have been generally investigated for their value against a number of human cancers in vitro as well as in vivo. This paper reviews an in-depth study of the anticancer activity and the miscellaneous mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenicity thereby broadening its therapeutic marvel.

  15. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  16. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Hideaki; Yamashita, Eiki; Kubo, Chikako; Ichiki-Uehara, Tamaki; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Omura, Toshihiro; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-01-01

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  17. Recent progress in the use of 'omics technologies in brassicaceous vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eWitzel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuing advances in 'omics methodologies and instrumentation is enhancing the under-standing of how plants cope with the dynamic nature of their growing environment. 'Omics platforms have been only recently extended to cover horticultural crop species. Many of the most widely cultivated vegetable crops belong to the genus Brassica: these include plants grown for their root (turnip, rutabaga/swede, their swollen stem base (kohlrabi, their leaves (cabbage, kale, pak choi and their inflorescence (cauliflower, broccoli.Characterization at the genome, transcript, protein and metabolite levels has illustrated the complexity of the cellular response to a whole series of environmental stresses, including nutrient deficiency, pathogen attack, heavy metal toxicity, cold acclimation, and excessive and sub-optimal irradiation. This review covers recent applications of 'omics technologies to the brassicaceous vegetables, and discusses future scenarios in achieving improvements in crop end-use quality.

  18. Multivariate analysis of the heavy metal concentrations in the vegetable and soil samples-a case study from district charsadda and district mardan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.; Rahman, Z.; Bibi, S.; Shah, F.; Gulab, H.; Ali, L.

    2017-01-01

    Multivariate statistical methods like cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and regression analysis were applied on the metals concentration of both the vegetables and soil samples collected from the districts Charsada and Mardan to classify them in different groups. The concentrations of seven heavy metals including Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Ag, Pb, Sb were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) in the leaves, fruits, extracts, and soil samples of potato, colocasia, turnip, radish, cabbage, angular loofah, cucumber, bitter gourd, round melon, and pumpkin. The concentration of copper, chromium, cobalt, nickel, silver, lead and antimony were found in the range of 6.133-72.933, 32.233-92.5, 2.25-8.083, 0.366-143.53, 0.4-4.467, 11.916-157.96, 28.75-165.367 mgKg/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

  19. Radioactive contaminants in raw materials and foodstuffs of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovicj, S.; Krainchanicj, M.; Stankovicj, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the results of activity level of radioactive caesium 134 and 137 in the samples of raw materials (barley, oats, soybean, sunflower, pumpkin seed, hops, shreded sugar beet, maize), animal feedstuffs (alfalfa, alfalfa meal, rape, concentrates fed to chickens, pigs or bpvines, dry turnip shreds) and foodstuff of plant origin (lettuce, spinach, cabbage, carrot, celery, cucumber, tomato, olives, sesame). All samples - produced locally on the major part but also including some imported stuff -have been subjected to continuous gamma spectrometry starting with the Chernobyl accident in 1986 through 1989. The highest activity of caesium was recorded in the samples of animal feedstuffs (alfalfa, alfalfa meal, rape) in the years 1986 and 1987. In time, however, the activity tends to drop considerably. (author) 4 refs.; 3 tabs

  20. A viral suppressor protein inhibits host RNA silencing by hooking up with Argonautes

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Hailing

    2010-05-01

    RNA viruses are particularly vulnerable to RNAi-based defenses in the host, and thus have evolved specific proteins, known as viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs), as a counterdefense. In this issue of Genes & Development, Azevedo and colleagues (pp. 904-915) discovered that P38, the VSR of Turnip crinkle virus, uses its glycine/tryptophane (GW) motifs as an ARGONAUTE (AGO) hook to attract and disarm the host\\'s essential effector of RNA silencing. Several GW motif-containing cellular proteins are known to be important partners of AGOs in RNA silencing effector complexes in yeast, plants, and animals. The GW motif appears to be a versatile and effective tool for regulating the activities of RNA silencing pathways, and the use of GW mimicry to compete for and inhibit host AGOs may be a strategy used by many pathogens to counteract host RNAi-based defenses. © 2010 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Entrapping ribosomes for viral translation: tRNA mimicry as a molecular Trojan horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, Sharief; Bink, Hugo H J; van den Worm, Sjoerd H E; Pleij, Cornelis W A; Kraal, Barend

    2003-01-10

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) has a genomic plus-strand RNA with a 5' cap followed by overlapping and different reading frames for the movement protein and polyprotein, while the distal coat protein cistron is translated from a subgenomic RNA. The 3'-untranslated region harbors a tRNA-like structure (TLS) to which a valine moiety can be added and it is indispensable for virus viability. Here, we report about a surprising interaction between TYMV-RNA-programmed ribosomes and 3'-valylated TLS that yields polyprotein with the valine N terminally incorporated by a translation mechanism resistant to regular initiation inhibitors. Disruption of the TLS exclusively abolishes polyprotein synthesis, which can be restored by adding excess TLS in trans. Our observations imply a novel eukaryotic mechanism for internal initiation of mRNA translation.

  2. Potyviruses differ in their requirement for TOR signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouibrahim, Laurence; Rubio, Ana Giner; Moretti, André; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Menand, Benoît; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Caranta, Carole

    2015-09-01

    Potyviruses are important plant pathogens that rely on many plant cellular processes for successful infection. TOR (target of rapamycin) signalling is a key eukaryotic energy-signalling pathway controlling many cellular processes such as translation and autophagy. The dependence of potyviruses on active TOR signalling was examined. Arabidopsis lines downregulated for TOR by RNAi were challenged with the potyviruses watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). WMV accumulation was found to be severely altered while TuMV accumulation was only slightly delayed. In another approach, using AZD-8055, an active site inhibitor of the TOR kinase, WMV infection was found to be strongly affected. Moreover, AZD-8055 application can cure WMV infection. In contrast, TuMV infection was not affected by AZD-8055. This suggests that potyviruses have different cellular requirements for active plant TOR signalling.

  3. Association of Pectolytic Fluorescent PSeudomonas with Postharvest Rots of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. El-Hendawy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads were obtained from a rotted onion bulb and identified as Pseudomonas marginalis. At both 4 and 25oC, all isolates caused soft rot to detached plant parts of onion and to carrot, celery, cucumber, pepper, spinach, tomato and turnip (but not garlic. They did not however cause any symptoms in living plants of these same species. These results suggest that the onion isolates are a postharvest pathogen which is not destructive in the field but becomes a threat to fresh vegetables stored at low-temperature. Analysis of cellulosolytic and pectic enzymes revealed that pectic lyases, but not polygalacturonases, pectin methyl esterases and cellulases were produced in culture by each isolate.

  4. Colonoscopic diagnosis of rectal perforation by foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Y Kshirsagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A foreign body in the rectum is not as common as other parts of the body and presents a dilemma for management. Variety of foreign bodies have been found into the rectum such as turnip, stick, tumbler, paper pot, screw driver, live shell, glass bottle, vibrator, door handle, electric bulb, candles, and fruits. Some are introduced for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose like thermometer, enema tubes, disposable enema tips, irrigation catheters. Emergency department procedures include rectal examination, proctoscopy, and abdominal radiography. Although foreign bodies can be removed in the emergency department in about two out of three cases, some still require a laparotomy and a diverting colostomy to remove the object or to treat bowel perforation.

  5. [Plant potyvirus evolution: the survey of the genetic structure of populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Kazusato

    2012-01-01

    The Potyvirus is the largest genus of the largest family of plant RNA viruses, the Potyviridae. The potyviruses infect not only dicotyledonous but also monocotyledonous plants. The potyvirus phylogeny shows that the genus probably originated from a virus of monocotyledonous plants and that it first diverged approximately 7250 years ago in Southwest Eurasia or North Africa. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) belongs to the genus Potyvirus and infects a wide range of plant species, most from the family Brassicaceae. TuMV is most studied a potyvirus species for molecular evolution and the genetic structure of populations. The use of computer programs for better understanding of the evolution and the genetic structures of populations of potyviruses and TuMV are illustrated.

  6. Sulforaphane composition, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of crucifer vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur compounds in sulphur rich food have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of cancer development. One such compound is sulforaphane (SF, a cancer chemopreventive agent identified in broccoli (F. cruciferae. In this study, SF content was assessed in extracts of several crucifer vegetables including broccoli, brussels sprout, green cabbage, red cabbage, Chinese kale and turnip, in parallel with anticancer and antioxidant activity. Among tested crucifers, cabbage demonstrated a pronounced anticancer effect against A-549 lung cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 38 μg mL−1, and correlated with high SF levels at 540 μg g−1. Except for red cabbage and kale, crucifer extracts displayed moderate to weak activity in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH free radicals relative to vitamin E standard.

  7. Escaping compound eye ancestry: the evolution of single-chamber eyes in holometabolous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschbeck, Elke K

    2014-08-15

    Stemmata, the eyes of holometabolous insect larvae, have gained little attention, even though they exhibit remarkably different optical solutions, ranging from compound eyes with upright images, to sophisticated single-chamber eyes with inverted images. Such optical differences raise the question of how major transitions may have occurred. Stemmata evolved from compound eye ancestry, and optical differences are apparent even in some of the simplest systems that share strong cellular homology with adult ommatidia. The transition to sophisticated single-chamber eyes occurred many times independently, and in at least two different ways: through the fusion of many ommatidia [as in the sawfly (Hymenoptera)], and through the expansion of single ommatidia [as in tiger beetles (Coleoptera), antlions (Neuroptera) and dobsonflies (Megaloptera)]. Although ommatidia-like units frequently have multiple photoreceptor layers (tiers), sophisticated image-forming stemmata tend to only have one photoreceptor tier, presumably a consequence of the lens only being able to efficiently focus light on to one photoreceptor layer. An interesting exception is found in some diving beetles [Dytiscidae (Coleoptera)], in which two retinas receive sharp images from a bifocal lens. Taken together, stemmata represent a great model system to study an impressive set of optical solutions that evolved from a relatively simple ancestral organization. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Zig-zagging across Central Europe: recent range extension, dispersal speed and larval hosts of Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera, Argidae in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan M. Blank

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aproceros leucopoda, the zig-zag sawfly, an invasive pest of elms (Ulmus spp., was found in two separate areas of Germany through July 2014, i.e., a northern area including the states of Berlin, Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, and a southern area in Bavaria. A speed of self-dispersal of 45–90 km/yr has been calculated from earlier and present records. Observations of A. leucopoda in Belgium and the Netherlands during 2013, which are 360–610 km distant from records in Germany of that year, are interpreted as resulting from human-mediated jump dispersal. Larvae, feeding traces and cocoons were frequently found on the native elm species U. minor and U. glabra, whereas none could be detected on U. laevis. Other occurrences were often on Resista® elms, causing severe defoliation in a recent planting. New host plant records for A. leucopoda are: U. minor ‘Webbiana’, U. minor var. suberosa, and the Resista® cultivars U. ‘New Horizon’, U. ‘Regal’ and U. ‘Rebona’. The future dispersal of A. leucopoda throughout most of Germany is expected, because at least U. glabra and U. minor are widespread in this country.

  9. Genes, enzymes and chemicals of terpenoid diversity in the constitutive and induced defence of conifers against insects and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    Insects select their hosts, but trees cannot select which herbivores will feed upon them. Thus, as long-lived stationary organisms, conifers must resist the onslaught of varying and multiple attackers over their lifetime. Arguably, the greatest threats to conifers are herbivorous insects and their associated pathogens. Insects such as bark beetles, stem- and wood-boring insects, shoot-feeding weevils, and foliage-feeding budworms and sawflies are among the most devastating pests of conifer forests. Conifer trees produce a great diversity of compounds, such as an enormous array of terpenoids and phenolics, that may impart resistance to a variety of herbivores and microorganisms. Insects have evolved to specialize in resistance to these chemicals -- choosing, feeding upon, and colonizing hosts they perceive to be best suited to reproduction. This review focuses on the plant-insect interactions mediated by conifer-produced terpenoids. To understand the role of terpenoids in conifer-insect interactions, we must understand how conifers produce the wide diversity of terpenoids, as well as understand how these specific compounds affect insect behaviour and physiology. This review examines what chemicals are produced, the genes and proteins involved in their biosynthesis, how they work, and how they are regulated. It also examines how insects and their associated pathogens interact with, elicit, and are affected by conifer-produced terpenoids.

  10. Classification of Defoliated Trees Using Tree-Level Airborne Laser Scanning Data Combined with Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hyyppa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and rising temperatures have been observed to be related to the increase of forest insect damage in the boreal zone. The common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L. (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae is regarded as a significant threat to boreal pine forests. Defoliation by D. pini can cause severe growth loss and tree mortality in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae. In this study, logistic LASSO regression, Random Forest (RF and Most Similar Neighbor method (MSN were investigated for predicting the defoliation level of individual Scots pines using the features derived from airborne laser scanning (ALS data and aerial images. Classification accuracies from 83.7% (kappa 0.67 to 88.1% (kappa 0.76 were obtained depending on the method. The most accurate result was produced using RF with a combination of data from the two sensors, while the accuracies when using ALS and image features separately were 80.7% and 87.4%, respectively. Evidently, the combination of ALS and aerial images in detecting needle losses is capable of providing satisfactory estimates for individual trees.

  11. Preemptive Circular Defence of Immature Insects: Definition and Occurrences of Cycloalexy Revisited

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    Guillaume J. Dury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycloalexy was coined by Vasconcellos-Neto and Jolivet in 1988 and further defined by Jolivet and collaborators in 1990 in reference to a specific type of circular defence. The term has been applied to numerous organisms, including adult insects, nymphs, and even vertebrates, but has lost precision with the accumulation of anecdotal reports not addressing key elements of the behaviour as first defined. We review the literature and propose three criteria that are sufficient and necessary to define the behaviour: (1 individuals form a circle; (2 defensive attributes of the individuals are positioned on the periphery of the circle, and as a result, the periphery of the circle uniformly contains either heads or abdomens; (3 animals preemptively adopt the circle as a resting formation, meaning it is not necessary to observe predation. When these considerations are taken into account, cycloalexy appears less common in nature than the literature suggests. We argue that unequivocal cases of cycloalexy have been found only in sawflies (Tenthredinoidea: Pergidae, Argidae, leaf beetles (Chrysolemidae: Galerucinae, Cassidinae, Chrysomelinae, Criocerinae, weevils (Curculionidae: Phelypera distigma, and midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Forcipomyia. Reports of cycloalexy in caterpillars (Saturniidae: Hemileucinae: Lonomia, Papilionidae require further documentation. We report one new case of cycloalexy in thrips (Thysanoptera and question reports of cycloalexic behaviour in other taxa.

  12. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Moore, Allen J.; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. PMID:28025279

  13. Biology and outbreaks of Microdiprion pallipes (Hymenoptera; Diprionidae) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, E. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology)

    1994-01-01

    During outbreaks, Microdiprion pallipes (Fall.) is the most destructive of the pine sawflies in Sweden. Its distribution includes most provinces, but damaging outbreaks have until recently occurred only in two inland areas in northern Sweden. These areas are characterised by high elevation, a harsh climate, and slow tree growth. The four recorded outbreak periods showed a 10 year periodicity. Outside these areas, a lesser outbreak occurred in 1988 to 1990, on the east coast (province of Uppland). Outbreak patterns, life history variation, and mortality factors were studied. Factors that may explain the distribution of outbreaks and the population patterns were identified.Experimental and observational evidence on the potential of various factors to influence fecundity, dispersal, and survival was evaluated. In the outbreak areas, there were few major population factors. Parasitism by Rhorus substitutor (Thunb.) was the largest cause of larval mortality and the only important density-dependent mortality factor. The different diapause strategies of M. pallipes and R. substitutor may contribute to stabilize this system. Different flight periods of the host and the parasitoid may explain a possible correlation between weather and outbreaks. Elsewhere in Sweden, where low population densities prevail, there may be similarities in population processes between M. pallipes and the other widely distributed diprionids with solitary larvae, which never have attained outbreak densities in Sweden. Interactions with other diprionids through shared natural enemies may be an important population process and may influence the distribution of outbreaks. 37 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  14. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

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    Reza Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses: yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis Westendorf f. sp. tritici and wheat stem sawfly (WSS Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae, and abiotic stresses: cold and drought. The main objectives were to (i quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and (ii characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces to stresses were observed. Landraces resistant to each stress were identified and agronomically characterized. Percentage reduction due to the stresses varied from 11.4% (yellow rust to 21.6% (cold stress for 1000-kernel weight (TKW and from 19.9 (yellow rust to 91.9% (cold stress for grain yield. Landraces from Asia and Europe showed enhanced genetic potential for both grain yield and cold tolerance under highland rainfed conditions of Iran. The findings showed that TKW and yield productivity could be used to assess the response of durum wheat landraces to different stresses. In conclusion, landraces showed high levels of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and selected landraces can serve in durum wheat breeding for adaptation to cold and drought-prone environments.

  15. Convergently-evolved structural anomalies in the coiled coil domains of insect silk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Tara D; Trueman, Holly E; Walker, Andrew A; Weisman, Sarah; Campbell, Peter M; Dong, Zhaoming; Huson, Mickey G; Woodhead, Andrea L; Church, Jeffrey S

    2014-06-01

    The use of coiled coil proteins as the basis of silk materials is an engineering solution that has evolved convergently in at least five insect lineages-the stinging hymenopterans (ants, bees, hornets), argid sawflies, fleas, lacewings, and praying mantises-and persisted throughout large radiations of these insect families. These coiled coil silk proteins share a characteristic distinct from other coiled coil proteins, in that they are fabricated into solid materials after accumulating as highly concentrated solutions within dedicated glands. Here, we relate the amino acid sequences of these proteins to the secondary and tertiary structural information available from biophysical methods such as X-ray scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy. We investigate conserved and convergently evolved features within these proteins and compare these to the features of classic coiled coil proteins including tropomyosin and leucine zippers. Our analysis finds that the coiled coil domains of insect silk proteins have several common structural anomalies including a high prevalence of alanine residues in core positions. These atypical features of the coiled coil fibrous proteins - which likely produce deviations from canonical coiled-coil structure - likely exist due to selection pressures related to the process of silk fabrication and the final function of the proteins. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. THE EFFECT OF WINTER CATCH CROPS ON WEED INFESTATION IN SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE WEED CONTROL METHODS

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    Robert Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in east-central Poland (52°06’ N, 22°55’ E over 2008–2011 to study the effect of winter catch crops on the weed infestation, number, and fresh matter of weeds in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata. The following winter catch crops were grown: hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth., white clover (Trifolium repens L., winter rye (Secale cereale L., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. and winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa var. typica Posp.. The catch crops were sown in early September and incorporated in early May. The effect of the catch crops was compared to the effect of FYM (30 t·ha-1 and control without organic manuring (NOM. Three methods of weed control were used: HW – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – the herbicide Guardian Complete Mix 664 SE, immediately after sowing of corn seeds, Z+T – a mixture of the herbicides Zeagran 340 SE and Titus 25 WG applied at the 3–4-leaf stage of sweet corn growth. Rye and turnip rape catch crops had least weeds in their fresh matter. Sweet corn following winter catch crops was less infested by weeds than corn following farmyard manure and non-manured corn. Least weeds and their lowest weight were found after SC, BRT and VV. LM and BRT reduced weed species numbers compared with FYM and NOM. The greatest weed species diversity, determined at the corn flowering stage, was determined after SC and FYM. The number and weight of weeds were significantly lower when chemically controlled compared with hand weeding. The best results were observed after a post-emergent application of the mixture Z+T. The weed species diversity on Z+T-treated plots was clearly lower compared with GCM and HW.

  17. Multiple mechanisms increase levels of resistance in Rapistrum rugosum to ALS herbicides

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    Zhara M Hatami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapistrum rugosum (turnip weed is a common weed of wheat fields in Iran, which is most often controlled by tribenuron-methyl (TM, a sulfonylurea (SU belonging to the acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibiting herbicides group. Several cases of unexplained control failure of R. rugosum by TM have been seen, especially in Golestan province-Iran. Hence, there is lack of research in evaluation of the level of resistance of the R. rugosum populations to TM, using whole plant dose–response and enzyme assays, then investigating some potential resistance mechanisms Results revealed that the resistance factor (RF for resistant (R populations was 2.5 to 6.6 fold higher than susceptible (S plant. Neither foliar retention, nor 14C-TM absorption and translocation were the mechanisms responsible for resistance in turnip weed. Metabolism of TM was the second resistant mechanism in two populations (Ag-R5 and G-1, in which three metabolites were found. The concentration of TM for 50% inhibition of ALS enzyme activity in vitro showed a high level of resistance to the herbicide (resistance factors were from 28 to 38 and cross-resistance to sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinone (SCT, pyrimidinyl-thiobenzoate (PTB and triazolopyrimidine (TP, with no cross-resistance to imidazolinone (IMI. Substitution Pro 197 to Ser 197 provided resistance to four of five ALS-inhibiting herbicides including SU, TP, PTB and SCT with no resistance to IMI. These results documented the first case of R. rugosum resistant population worldwide and demonstrated that both RST and NRST mechanisms are involved to the resistance level to TM.

  18. Can we use photography to estimate radiation interception by a crop canopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakwizira, E; Meenken, E D; George, M J; Fletcher, A L

    2015-03-01

    Accuracy of determining radiation interception, and hence radiation use efficiency, depends on the method of measuring photosynthetically active radiation intercepted. Methods vary, from expensive instruments such as Sunfleck ceptometers to simple methods such as digital photography. However, before universal use of digital photography there is need to determine its reliability and compare it with conventional, but expensive, methods. In a series of experiments at Lincoln, New Zealand, canopy development for barley, wheat, white clover and four forage brassica species was determined using both digital photographs and Sunfleck ceptometer. Values obtained were used to calculate conversion coefficient (Kf/Ki) ratios between the two methods. Digital photographs were taken at 45° and 90° for barley, wheat and white clover and at only 90° for brassicas. There was an interaction of effects of crop and cultivar for the cereal crops. Barley closed canopies earlier than wheat, and 'Emir' barley and 'Stettler' wheat had consistently higher canopy cover than 'Golden Promise' and 'HY459', respectively. Canopy cover was consistently larger at 45° than 90° for cereals. However, for white clover, the angle of digital photography was not important. There was also an interaction between effects of species and method of determining canopy cover for brassicas. Photographs gave higher cover values than ceptometer for forage rape and turnip, but the relationship was variable for forage kale and swede. Kf/Ki ratios of 1.0-1.10 for cereals, white clover and forage rape and turnip show that digital photographs can be used to estimated radiation interception, in place of Sunfleck ceptometer, for these crops. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Intercropping enhances productivity and maintains the most soil fertility properties relative to sole cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Jin, Xin; Bao, Xing-Guo; Li, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Sun, Jian-Hao; Christie, Peter; Li, Long

    2014-01-01

    Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year) and 2012 (the 4th year) the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM) did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN) did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha-1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha-1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully managed

  20. Metal contamination of home gardens soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R.; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    Background For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Methods Home gardens (n=63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity duration in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Conclusions Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1+F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references. We

  1. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses

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    Asako eUchiyama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010. To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV, which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP, Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread.

  2. Discoloration Effects of Traditional Turkish Beverages on different Composite Restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglar, Serdar; Keskin, Erol; Orun, Tahir; Es, Abdulhamit

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the discoloring effects of five beverages including, especially, traditional Turkish ones on five commonly used dental composites by using a spectrophotometer device. Five methacrylate-based composites (shade A2) were selected to evaluate their color stability (175 disk samples). Four of them (Filtek Ultimate Universal, Clearfil Majesty ES-2, Tetric EvoCeram, and Cavex Quadrant Universal LC) were nanofilled universal composites for both anterior and posterior restorations, and one (Clearfil Majesty Posterior) was nano-superfilled for posterior restorations. The tested beverages were tamarind syrup, ottoman syrup, turnip juice, pomegranate juice, and distilled water (control). All samples were kept in an incubator at 37°C for 12 days (measured at 3rd, 6th, 12th day intervals) in immersion solutions which was equivalent to 1 year in vivo. Color measurements were made with VITA Easyshade Advance (Vident, Brea, CA) spectrophotometer device according to CIE L*a*b* system. Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance and least significant difference test to analyze differences in L*a*b* and ΔE values. All materials showed significant discoloration (p < 0.05) when compared with the control group. The highest ΔE was observed in turnip juice, whereas ottoman syrup had the lowest ΔE. Tetric EvoCeram showed the lowest ΔE, while Clearfil Majesty ES-2 showed the highest ΔE. In all the groups tested, clinically unacceptable ΔE values were obtained. Although color stability of methacrylate-based composites has been widely investigated, this has not been done before with these kinds of immersion solutions. Potential discoloration might be limited by dietary adjustments based on in vitro evaluations.

  3. Intercropping Enhances Productivity and Maintains the Most Soil Fertility Properties Relative to Sole Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Jin, Xin; Bao, Xing-Guo; Li, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Sun, Jian-Hao; Christie, Peter; Li, Long

    2014-01-01

    Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year) and 2012 (the 4th year) the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM) did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN) did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha−1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha−1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully managed

  4. 18S rDNA sequences and the holometabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmean, D; Kimsey, L S; Berbee, M L

    1992-12-01

    The Holometabola (insects with complete metamorphosis: beetles, wasps, flies, fleas, butterflies, lacewings, and others) is a monophyletic group that includes the majority of the world's animal species. Holometabolous orders are well defined by morphological characters, but relationships among orders are unclear. In a search for a region of DNA that will clarify the interordinal relationships we sequenced approximately 1080 nucleotides of the 5' end of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene from representatives of 14 families of insects in the orders Hymenoptera (sawflies and wasps), Neuroptera (lacewing and antlion), Siphonaptera (flea), and Mecoptera (scorpionfly). We aligned the sequences with the published sequences of insects from the orders Coleoptera (beetle) and Diptera (mosquito and Drosophila), and the outgroups aphid, shrimp, and spider. Unlike the other insects examined in this study, the neuropterans have A-T rich insertions or expansion regions: one in the antlion was approximately 260 bp long. The dipteran 18S rDNA evolved rapidly, with over 3 times as many substitutions among the aligned sequences, and 2-3 times more unalignable nucleotides than other Holometabola, in violation of an insect-wide molecular clock. When we excluded the long-branched taxa (Diptera, shrimp, and spider) from the analysis, the most parsimonious (minimum-length) trees placed the beetle basal to other holometabolous orders, and supported a morphologically monophyletic clade including the fleas+scorpionflies (96% bootstrap support). However, most interordinal relationships were not significantly supported when tested by maximum likelihood or bootstrapping and were sensitive to the taxa included in the analysis. The most parsimonious and maximum-likelihood trees both separated the Coleoptera and Neuroptera, but this separation was not statistically significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Interacting agricultural pests and their effect on crop yield: application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ilai N; Menalled, Fabian D; Weaver, David K; Robison-Cox, James F

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of

  6. Carotenoids in a food chain along a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Saila; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lehikoinen, Esa; Toivonen, Eija; Eeva, Tapio

    2008-11-15

    Carotenoids are synthesized by plants, therefore insects and birds must obtain them from their diet. They function in pigmentation and as antioxidants. We studied the carotenoid profiles in a model food chain (plant-insect-bird) in an air pollution gradient to find out whether heavy metal pollution affects the transfer of carotenoids across the trophic levels. Birch leaves showed higher beta-carotene and, one of the birch species (Betula pendula), higher total carotenoids levels in the polluted area. There was no difference in the lutein concentration of caterpillars' food source, birch leaves, between the study areas. Autumnal moth larvae accumulated lutein more efficiently than beta-carotene while sawfly larvae accumulated beta-carotene over lutein. Because of different antioxidant profiles in different leaf chewing insects their sensitivity to pollution stress may differ. The lutein concentration of plasma and feathers of Great tit nestlings did not differ along the pollution gradient. The lack of difference in lutein concentration of autumnal moth larvae along pollution gradient may partly explain the lutein concentrations of Great tit nestlings, since the abundance of autumnal moth larvae peak during the nestling phase of Great tit. The lutein concentration of autumnal moth larvae was positively associated to circulating plasma lutein level of Great tit indicating the importance of carotenoid rich diet during the nestling phase. In addition, the higher the plasma lutein concentration the more lutein was deposited to feathers, irrespective of the other possible functions of lutein in nestlings. We found that carotenoid levels differed between the polluted and the unpolluted area especially at lower levels of food chain: in birches and in caterpillars.

  7. High density mapping and haplotype analysis of the major stem-solidness locus SSt1 in durum and common wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirby T.; N’Diaye, Amidou; MacLachlan, P. R.; Clarke, John M.; Ruan, Yuefeng; Cuthbert, Richard D.; Knox, Ron E.; Wiebe, Krystalee; Cory, Aron T.; Walkowiak, Sean; Beres, Brian L.; Graf, Robert J.; Clarke, Fran R.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Distelfeld, Assaf; Pozniak, Curtis J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding for solid-stemmed durum (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is one strategy to minimize yield losses caused by the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton). Major stem-solidness QTL have been localized to the long arm of chromosome 3B in both wheat species, but it is unclear if these QTL span a common genetic interval. In this study, we have improved the resolution of the QTL on chromosome 3B in a durum (Kofa/W9262-260D3) and common wheat (Lillian/Vesper) mapping population. Coincident QTL (LOD = 94–127, R2 = 78–92%) were localized near the telomere of chromosome 3BL in both mapping populations, which we designate SSt1. We further examined the SSt1 interval by using available consensus maps for durum and common wheat and compared genetic to physical intervals by anchoring markers to the current version of the wild emmer wheat (WEW) reference sequence. These results suggest that the SSt1 interval spans a physical distance of 1.6 Mb in WEW (positions 833.4–835.0 Mb). In addition, minor QTL were identified on chromosomes 2A, 2D, 4A, and 5A that were found to synergistically enhance expression of SSt1 to increase stem-solidness. These results suggest that developing new wheat cultivars with improved stem-solidness is possible by combining SSt1 with favorable alleles at minor loci within both wheat species. PMID:28399136

  8. Interacting Agricultural Pests and Their Effect on Crop Yield: Application of a Bayesian Decision Theory Approach to the Joint Management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ilai N.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Weaver, David K.; Robison-Cox, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of

  9. Interacting agricultural pests and their effect on crop yield: application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilai N Keren

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly in wheat (Triticum aestivum systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the

  10. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Adam J; Vogel, Kevin J; Moore, Allen J; Schmitz, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Covert Infection of Insects by Baculoviruses

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    Trevor Williams

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Baculoviruses (Baculoviridae are occluded DNA viruses that are lethal pathogens of the larval stages of some lepidopterans, mosquitoes, and sawflies (phytophagous Hymenoptera. These viruses have been developed as biological insecticides for control of insect pests and as expression vectors in biotechnological applications. Natural and laboratory populations frequently harbor covert infections by baculoviruses, often at a prevalence exceeding 50%. Covert infection can comprise either non-productive latency or sublethal infection involving low level production of virus progeny. Latency in cell culture systems involves the expression of a small subset of viral genes. In contrast, covert infection in lepidopterans is associated with differential infection of cell types, modulation of virus gene expression and avoidance of immune system clearance. The molecular basis for covert infection may reside in the regulation of host–virus interactions through the action of microRNAs (miRNA. Initial findings suggest that insect nudiviruses and vertebrate herpesviruses may provide useful analogous models for exploring the mechanisms of covert infection by baculoviruses. These pathogens adopt mixed-mode transmission strategies that depend on the relative fitness gains that accrue through vertical and horizontal transmission. This facilitates virus persistence when opportunities for horizontal transmission are limited and ensures virus dispersal in migratory host species. However, when host survival is threatened by environmental or physiological stressors, latent or persistent infections can be activated to produce lethal disease, followed by horizontal transmission. Covert infection has also been implicated in population level effects on host–pathogen dynamics due to the reduced reproductive capacity of infected females. We conclude that covert infections provide many opportunities to examine the complexity of insect–virus pathosystems at the organismal

  12. Classification of Needle Loss of Individual Scots Pine Trees by Means of Airborne Laser Scanning

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    Tuula Kantola

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest disturbances caused by pest insects are threatening ecosystem stability, sustainable forest management and economic return in boreal forests. Climate change and increased extreme weather patterns can magnify the intensity of forest disturbances, particularly at higher latitudes. Due to rapid responses to elevating temperatures, forest insect pests can flexibly change their survival, dispersal and geographic distributions. The outbreak pattern of forest pests in Finland has evidently changed during the last decade. Projection of shifts in distributions of insect-caused forest damages has become a critical issue in the field of forest research. The Common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L. (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae is regarded as a significant threat to boreal pine forests. Defoliation by D. pini has resulted in severe growth loss and mortality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae in eastern Finland. In this study, tree-wise defoliation was estimated for five different needle loss category classification schemes and for 10 different simulated airborne laser scanning (ALS pulse densities. The nearest neighbor (NN approach, a nonparametric estimation method, was used for estimating needle loss of 701 Scots pines, using the means of individual tree features derived from ALS data. The Random Forest (RF method was applied in NN-search. For the full dense data (~20 pulses/m2, the overall estimation accuracies for tree-wise defoliation level varied between 71.0% and 86.5% (kappa-values of 0.56 and 0.57, respectively, depending on the classification scheme. The overall classification accuracies for two class estimation with different ALS pulse densities varied between 82.8% and 83.7% (kappa-values of 0.62 and 0.67, respectively. We conclude that ALS-based estimation of needle losses may be of acceptable accuracy for individual trees. Our method did not appear sensitive to the applied pulse densities.

  13. Corpos estranhos animados em otorrinolaringologia Strange animated bodies in othorinolaringology

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    Ricardo R. Figueiredo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Forma de estudo: Clínico retrospectivo. Material e método: Foram reportados 56 casos de corpos estranhos animados em orelhas (55 insetos e 1 aracnídeo e 1 caso (inseto em fossas nasais. O material foi coletado no setor de Emergência do serviço de ORL do Hospital Municipal Souza Aguiar, no centro do Rio de Janeiro, entre os anos de 1998 e 2000, e identificado por zoólogos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. A maior parte dos casos ocorreu em Nova Iguaçu e Campo Grande, sendo analisados os quadros clínicos e as complicações ocorridas. Resultado: Os insetos são: 30,35% Blattaria (baratas; 25% Diptera (moscas e mosquitos; 12,5% Lepidoptera (borboletas e mariposas; 10,7% Coleoptera (besouros; 7,15% Hemiptera (percevejos, cigarras, afídeos, etc., 5,35% Hymenoptera (vespas, abelhas, formigas, marimbondos e 5,31 % outros.Study design: Clinical retrospective. Material and method: Fufty-six cases of animated foreign bodies collected inside human ears (55 insects and 1 arachnid and one case collected in nasal fossae (insect were reported. The material was collected in the Emergency sector of Souza Aguiar Hospital, in Rio de Janeiro, between 1998 and 2000, and was identified by zoologists of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Most of the cases had occurred in Nova Iguaçu and Campo Grande, suburbs of Rio de Janeiro. Clinical features and complications were analyzed. Results: The recorded insects are: 30,35% Blattaria (cockroaches; 25% Diptera (flies and mosquitos; 12,5% Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 10,7% Coleoptera (beetles; 7,15% Hemiptera (bugs, cicads, aphids, etc., 5,35% Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, and sawflies and 5,31 % others.

  14. Propriedades físicas de Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico sob sistemas de manejo na sucessão soja-milho no período de três anos = Physical properties in distrofic Red Latosol under management systems in the succession soybean-maize in three years

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    Reny Adilmar Prestes Lopes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou alterações das propriedades físicas teor de água, densidade e porosidade do solo em áreas sob sistemas de semeadura direta e preparo convencional nas culturas de soja e milho em três anos agrícolas. O experimento foi instalado no NúcleoExperimental de Engenharia Agrícola da Unioeste (Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Nos dois primeiros anos foi implantada a cultura de soja; no terceiro ano, milho, como cultura de verão, e aveia preta e nabo forrageiro, como cobertura de inverno. Durante os três anos,foram observados redução do teor de água e densidade do solo e aumento da porosidade. As variações nas propriedades físicas do solo mostraram relação diretamente proporcional entre teor de água e densidade do solo e inversamente para porosidade. O solo apresentoumelhorias nas condições físicas pelo acréscimo de porosidade e redução de densidade com as culturas de aveia preta+nabo forrageiro e milho. O manejo soja/milho em rotação com aveia preta+nabo forrageiro mostrou-se mais adequado na melhoria das condições físicas dosolo do que os sistemas de manejo, uma vez que nenhum dos sistemas teve maior destaque na melhoria das propriedades físicas avaliadas em todo o período.This study evaluated alterations in the physical properties water content, soil density and porosity in areas under no tillage and tillage systems in the cultures of soybean and maize in three agricultural years. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Nucleus of Agricultural Engineering of Unioeste (Cascavel, state of Paraná. Soybean culture occurred in the first two years and in the third year maize, as summer crop, black oats and forage turnip as winter cover crops. During these three years the study observed reduction of water content and soil density andincrease of porosity . The variations as regards the physical properties of the soil showed direct proportional relation between water content and soil density and was

  15. Ruminal degradability In Situ of nutritive components of some / Degradabilidade ruminal In Situ dos componentes nutritivos de alguns suplementos concentrados usados na alimentação de bovinos

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    Filipe Alexandre Boscaro de Castro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Degradability “in situ” of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of whole cotton seed (WCS, soybean meal (SM, sunflower seed (SS, turnip cake (TC and ground corn (GC were determined with incubation of nylon bags in the rumen of five steers ½ Simmental-Zebu. The effective degradability (ED of dry matter and crude protein with 5%/h of passage rate were respectively 40,93 and 48,95% for cotton seed; 67,35 and 53,20% for soybean meal; 63,38 and 72,50% for sunflower seed; 66,59 and 57,82% for turnip cake and 3,65 e 54,18% for ground corn. Through the fermentation rates of the different nutritious components determined on this experiment it was concluded that turnip cake has a potential to substitute soybean meal as a protein source in ruminant feeding; sunflower seed presents a high soluble fraction of crude protein and the cotton seed ether extract may affect negatively the degradation of dry matter and organic matter of this feed, specially when provided ground to the animals.As degradabilidades in situ da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do caroço de algodão integral (CAI, farelo de soja (FS, grão de girassol (GG, torta de nabo forrageiro (TN e do milho triturado (MT foram determinadas com a incubação de sacos de náilon no rúmen de cinco bovinos ½ sangue Simental-Zebu. As degradabilidades efetivas (DE da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB a taxa de passagem de 5%/h, foram, respectivamente, 40,93 e 48,95% para o caroço de algodão integral; 67,35 e 53,20% para o farelo de soja; 63,38 e 72,50% para o grão de girassol; 66,59 e 57,82 para torta de nabo forrageiro e 63,65 e 54,18% para o milho triturado. Por meio das taxas de fermentação dos diferentes componentes nutritivos determinadas neste experimento, pode-se concluir que a torta de nabo forrageiro

  16. OCCURRENCE OF PHYTOPHAGOUS SCARABAEIDAE (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA LARVAE IN DIFFERENT SUCCESSION CROP SYSTEMS OCORRÊNCIA DE LARVAS DE SCARABAEIDAE FITÓFAGOS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE SUCESSÃO DE CULTURAS

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    Elison Floriano Tiago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about Scarabaeidae phytophagous are still rare for the Center-West Region of Brazil. Thus, in the experimental area of the Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, the succession of soybean, maize, and forage turnip was sowed from February 2004 to October 2005, when the larvae population dynamics was evaluated. From October 2006 to May 2008, nine succession systems were sowed, the larval density evaluated, and the identification of the current species was carried out. When the larvae were sampled for soybean, in January 2005 and 2006, the highest densities were found in the field (3.44 larvae m-2 and 4.19 larvae m-2, respectively. The forage turnip, sampled in October 2004 and 2005, showed the lowest densities (0.03 larvae m-2 and 0.02 larvae m-2, respectively. In the crop succession systems, the following species were found: Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (highest amount, Liogenys bidenticeps Moser, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard, Paranomala inconstans (Burmeister, Geniates borelli Camerano, Cyclocephala forsteri Endrodi, Cyclocephala verticalis Burmeister, and Phyllophaga sp. For the succession systems with maize sowed at the traditional season, the highest larval densities were found, specially favoring the development of L. fuscus, while the succession systems with soybean, maize, and under fallow, and soybean, crotalaria, and forage turnip, as well as the three systems with cotton-plant, did not favor it.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; Glycine max; Raphanus sativus; soil pests; larvae density.Informações sobre Scarabaeidae fitófagos são ainda escassas para a região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Por esta razão, na área experimental da Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, em Aquidauana (MS, foi semeada, de fevereiro de 2004 a outubro de 2005, a sucessão de culturas soja, milho e nabo forrageiro, onde se avaliou a dinâmica da densidade larval. De outubro de 2006 a maio

  17. Influence of the nature and age of cover crop residues on the sorption of three pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassigneul, Ana; Alletto, Lionel; Chuette, Delphine; Le Gac, Anne-Laure; Hatier, Jules; Etievant, Veronique; Bergheaud, Valérie; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Méchin, Valérie; Justes, Eric; Benoit, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In agricultural fields, soil and water quality preservation is strongly influenced by pesticides use and behavior. To limit the environmental impacts of agricultural activities, best management practices such as the use of cover crops are encouraged. Cover crops during the fallow period were found to be efficient in reducing nitrate leaching, controlling soil erosion, improving soil organic content and enhancing soil biological activity. This technique was also found to modify soil water dynamics in the following crop. According to these effects, modifications on pesticide behavior in soil, such as sorption, degradation and transport, are expected (Alletto et al., 2012 ; 2013). In this study, the impact of the nature and level of decomposition of cover crop was studied on the sorption characteristics of three pesticides. These pesticides differed in their physicochemical characteristics (hydrophobicity, solubility, persistence) and were two herbicides, S-metolachlor and glyphosate, which are largely used in maize production and predominantly found as pollutants in water; and one fungicide, epoxiconazole. Correlations between pesticide sorption and physicochemical characteristics of the cover crop residues were studied. Residues of oat, turnip rape, red clover and phacelia were collected in March 2011 and incubated at 28°C and at the water holding capacity during 0, 6, 28 or 56 days. For each date, adsorption of the three radiolabeled pesticides was measured in batch on the different cover crop residues, and their biochemical composition (Van Soest fractionation), hydrophobicity (contact angle measurement) and C/N ratio were determined. Results showed that the adsorption of the pesticides differed significantly according to (i) the pesticide, (ii) the nature of cover crop, (iii) the decomposition level of the cover crop and the interaction cover crop x decomposition time. Epoxiconazole was the most adsorbed molecule, with Kd values ranging from 161 ± 30 L/Kg (oat

  18. THE STRUCTURE AND YIELD LEVEL OF SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF WINTER CATCH CROPS AND WEED CONTROL METHOD

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    Robert Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic manuring is suggested to be necessary in sweet corn cultivation. It is not always possible to use farmyard manure due to economic, production or technical reasons. Catch crops used as green manures can be an alternative source of organic matter. The experiment was carried out in central-east Poland (52°06’N, 22°55’E, in years 2008–2011. The successive effect of winter catch crops (hairy vetch, white clover, winter rye, Italian ryegrass, winter turnip rape and the type of weed control on the growth and yielding of sweet corn was examined. The catch crops were sown in early September, incorporated in early May. The effect of the winter catch crops on yield was compared to the effect of FYM at a rate of 30 t·ha-1 and the control without organic manuring. The sweet corn was grown directly after organic fertilization. Three methods of weed control was used: Hw – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – herbicide Guardian CompleteMix 664 SE, immediately after sowing the seed corn, Z+T – a mixture of herbicides Zeagran 340 SE + Titus 25 WG, in the 3–4 leaf stage sweet corn. The highest yields of biomass were found for winter rye (35.5 t·ha-1 FM and 7.3 t·ha-1 DM, the most of macroelements accumulated winter turnip rape (480.2 kg N+P+K+Ca+Mg·ha-1. Generally, leguminous catch crops had similar to the FYM and better than non-leguminous catch crops yield-forming effect. The highest yield of marketable ears of sweet corn was obtained after FYM (14.4 t·ha-1 and after hairy vetch catch crop (14.0 t·ha-1. A similar yield-forming effect also had white clover and Italian ryegrass. The most of ears from 1 ha was achieved after white clover catch crop (59.3 tausend, similar after FYM and hairy vetch catch crop. The highest kernel yields were found after FYM (10.7 t·ha-1. The yields of kernel after hairy vetch and white clover catch crops were significantly higher than after non-leguminous catch crops. Z+T weed control

  19. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, Roberta [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Hashim, Dana [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Guazzetti, Stefano [Public Health Service, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Donna, Filippo [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina [Department of Food Chemistry, Metal Laboratory, IZSLER, Brescia (Italy); Beone, Gian Maria [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Università Cattolica, Piacenza (Italy); Lucchini, Roberto G. [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (United States); Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Background: For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Methods: Home gardens (n = 63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity durations in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Conclusions: Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1 + F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references

  20. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R.; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Methods: Home gardens (n = 63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity durations in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Conclusions: Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1 + F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references

  1. Allelopathy of winter cover straws on the initial maize growthAlelopatia de palhadas de coberturas de inverno sobre o crescimento inicial de milho

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    Jaqueline Senen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural crops is common planting the main crop on the remains of straw harvesting the crop earlier due to no-tillage system. The straw remaining in the soil can exert positive or negative influence on the main crop through the release of organic compounds that carry allelopathy on plants of the subsequent growing. This experiment consisted of mixing and blending of different types of turnip (Brassica rapa L., oats (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. Ex RE Fries, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. and rapeseed (Brassica napus L . var in soil and placed in plastic trays where they planted the seeds of maize. The experimental design was completely randomized design with six treatments and three repetições. As ratings were: emergence, rate of emergence, shoot length, root length, root dry weight, dry weight of shoots. The cover crops canola and safflower showed a positive effect, as crambe, turnips and oats had a negative effect on initial growth of maize seedlings, are not suitable for cover crop to maize sowing.Nas lavouras agrícolas é comum o cultivo da cultura principal sobre os restos de palha da colheita do cultivo anterior em decorrência do sistema de plantio direto. A palhada remanescente no solo pode exercer influência positiva ou negativa sobre a cultura principal pela liberação de compostos orgânicos que exercem alelopatia sobre as plantas da cultura subsequente. Este experimento constou da mistura e homogeneização das palhas de nabo (Brassica rapa L., aveia (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries, cartamo (Carthamus tinctorius L. e canola (Brassica napus L.var no solo, que foi colocado em bandejas plásticas onde semeou-se o milho. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizados com seis tratamentos e três repetições. As características analizadas foram: emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento de parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, massa

  2. Protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry for ruminants feeding

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    Ricardo Andrés Botero Carrera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to classify 20 protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry with potential to use in ruminant feeding. The meals evaluated were: cottonseed, canudo-de-pito, crambe, sunflower, castor-oil seeds detoxified with calcium, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds and soybean; and the cakes were: cottonseed, peanut, babassu, crambe, palm oil, sunflower, licuri, macauba seeds, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds, turnip and jatropha. The samples were quantified to determine dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, acid detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch levels. The CP profile was characterized in fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, rumen degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible neutral detergent fiber and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein were evaluated. The OM, CP, EE, NDFap, NFC, ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch contents varied from 81.95 to 95.41%, 18.92 to 57.75%, 0.56 to 18.40%, 10.13 to 62.30%, 3.89 to 27.88%, 6.15 to 36.86%, 1.19 to 5.04%, 0 to 17.87% and 0.68 to 14.50%, respectively. The values of fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C ranged from 5.40 to 43.31%, 0.08 to 37.63%, 16.75 to 79.39%, 1.86 to 59.15% and 0.60 to 11.47%, respectively. Concentrations of IVDMD, IVNDFD, rumen-degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible NDF and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein ranged from 31.00 to 95.92%, 55.04 to 97.74%, 41.06 to 97.61%, 2.39 to 58.94, 9.27 to 94.26%, 1.05 to 40.80% and 0.29 to 2.92%, respectively. Some of these products can replace soybean meal, specially the Macauba seeds cake, cottonseed meal and peanut and turnip cakes based on digestive

  3. Alelopatia de cultivos de cobertura vegetal sobre plantas infestantes = Allelopathy of cover crop on weed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Kazue Tokura

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o potencial alelopático de cultivos de cobertura vegetal de trigo, aveia preta, milheto, nabo forrageiro e colza sobre o desenvolvimento de plantas infestantes e verificou qual das coberturas vegetais exerce maior controle sobre as mesmas. Os cultivos de cobertura vegetal foram implantados sob preparo convencional (uma aração e uma gradagem no Núcleo Experimental de Engenharia Agrícola (NEEA, da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (Unioeste, Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Mensalmente, realizou-se o acompanhamento e identificação das plantas infestantes emersas nas áreas de cobertura vegetal no período de agosto de 2000 a agosto de 2001. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que das espécies encontradas, o capim marmelada foi o que apresentou maior potencial alelopático e a erva-de-santa-maria o menor. As coberturasvegetais que apresentaram melhor controle do total de plantas infestantes presentes na área experimental, incluindo àquelas com reconhecido potencial alelopático, foram aveia preta, colza, nabo forrageiro e milheto.This work evaluated the cover crop allelopathic potential of wheat, black oat, pearl millet, turnip and rape on the development of weed plants. It also verified which cover crop has larger control on the weed plants. The cover crop was implanted under conventional tillage (one disk plowing plus one disk harrowing in the Experimental Nucleus of Agricultural Engineering (NEEA, of the State University of the West of Paraná (Unioeste, Cascavel, Paraná State. Monthly (from August 2000 to August 2001, weed plants identification in the cover crop area was made. Results showed that from the found species, the alexander grass was the one that presented larger allelopathic potential, and, the mexican-tea was the one that presented smaller control. The vegetable coverings that presented larger control of the total of weed plants in the experimental area, including those with

  4. Determination of household and industrial chemicals, personal care products and hormones in leafy and root vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Irene; Martín, Julia; Abril, Concepción; Santos, Juan Luis; Alonso, Esteban

    2018-01-19

    A multiresidue method has been developed for the determination of emerging pollutants in leafy and root vegetables. Selected compounds were 6 perfluoroalkyl compounds (5 perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), 3 non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol and nonylphenolethoxylates), 8 anionic surfactants (4 alkylsulfates and 4 linear alkylbenzene sulfonates), 4 preservatives (parabens), 2 biocides (triclosan and triclocarban), 2 plasticizers (bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), 6 UV-filters (benzophenones) and 4 hormones. The method is based on ultrasound-assisted extraction, clean-up by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Due to the diversity of the physico-chemical properties of the target compounds, and to better evaluate the influence of sample treatment variables in extraction efficiencies, Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize extraction solvent volume, number of extraction cycles and d-SPE sorbent amount. Linearity (R 2 ) higher than 0.992, accuracy (expressed as relative recoveries) in the range from 81 to 126%, precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) lower than 19% and limits of detection between 0.025 and 12.5ngg -1 dry weight were achieved. The method was applied to leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach and chard) and root vegetables (carrot, turnip and potato) from a local market. The highest concentrations corresponded to the surfactants reaching levels up to 114ngg -1 (dry weight), in one of the lettuce samples analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. IMI resistance associated to crop-weed hybridization in a natural Brassica rapa population: characterization and fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta, M S; Torres Carbonell, F; Pandolfo, C; Presotto, A D; Cantamutto, M A; Poverene, M

    2017-03-01

    Wild turnip (Brassica rapa) is a common weed and a close relative to oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The Clearfield® production system is a highly adopted tool which provides an alternative solution for weed management, but its efficiency is threatened by gene transfer from crop to weed relatives. Crop-weed hybrids with herbicide resistance were found in the progeny of a B. rapa population gathered from a weedy stand on the borders of an oilseed rape (B. napus) imidazolinone (IMI)-resistant crop. Interspecific hybrids were confirmed by morphological traits in the greenhouse and experimental field, survival after imazethapyr applications, DNA content through flow cytometry, and pollen viability. The transference of herbicide resistance was demonstrated even in a particular situation of pollen competition between both an herbicide-resistant crop and a non-resistant crop. However, IMI resistance was not found in further generations collected at the same location. These results verify gene transmission from oilseed rape to B. rapa in the main crop area in Argentina where resistant and susceptible varieties are found and seed loss and crop volunteers are common. Hybridization, introgression, and herbicide selection would be associated with the loss of effectiveness of IMI technology.

  7. Selection during crop diversification involves correlated evolution of the circadian clock and ecophysiological traits in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkhunova, Yulia; Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; Baker, Robert L; Aston, Timothy Llewellyn; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Crop selection often leads to dramatic morphological diversification, in which allocation to the harvestable component increases. Shifts in allocation are predicted to impact (as well as rely on) physiological traits; yet, little is known about the evolution of gas exchange and related anatomical features during crop diversification. In Brassica rapa, we tested for physiological differentiation among three crop morphotypes (leaf, turnip, and oilseed) and for correlated evolution of circadian, gas exchange, and phenological traits. We also examined internal and surficial leaf anatomical features and biochemical limits to photosynthesis. Crop types differed in gas exchange; oilseed varieties had higher net carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance relative to vegetable types. Phylogenetically independent contrasts indicated correlated evolution between circadian traits and both gas exchange and biomass accumulation; shifts to shorter circadian period (closer to 24 h) between phylogenetic nodes are associated with higher stomatal conductance, lower photosynthetic rate (when CO2 supply is factored out), and lower biomass accumulation. Crop type differences in gas exchange are also associated with stomatal density, epidermal thickness, numbers of palisade layers, and biochemical limits to photosynthesis. Brassica crop diversification involves correlated evolution of circadian and physiological traits, which is potentially relevant to understanding mechanistic targets for crop improvement. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Waste cooking oil transformed into bio diesel; Oleo de fritura transformado em biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Nei Hansen de; Hoff, Nicole Marques; Zulim, Lucas Leone [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana (PUC/PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: nei.almeida@pucpr.br, e-mail: nicole.hoff@ufpr.br, e-mail: Lucas.zulim@zipmail.com.br

    2006-07-01

    Vegetable oils obtained from renewable cultures like soybean oil, sunflower oil and forage turnip oil, they can be transformed into bio diesel by reversible transesterification and esterification reactions with ethanol in presence of catalysts, forming ethyl esters (bio diesel) and glycerol. Most of the bio diesel fabrication commercial process uses methanol as reagent. Due the great amount of free fatty acids in the spent cooking oil compared with vegetable oil, was necessary the performance of two reactions, one of transesterification and another of esterification to obtain ethyl ester at high level. The bio diesel used as fuel produce dioxide emission due the explosion reactions with compressed air in the diesel engine. This gas can be recycled by photosynthesis fixing carbon on soil and liberating oxygen to the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide liberated by fossil fuel are not absorbed by plants remaining in the atmosphere causing the greenhouse effect. The high temperature used in vegetal oils, frying vegetable oil of foods, oxidizes the oil and forms free fatty acids, that are transformed into bio diesel using type and amounts of appropriated catalysts in the reaction, since the present humidity in the waste cooking oil increases the acid value of the oil too. The technology developed by Unit Operation laboratory PUC-PR Chemical Engineering course, produces 30 liters by each batch whit ethyl esters yields above 98%. Tests in stationary Diesel motor for mix B10, had resulted in increased values of torque and power for all speed motor if compared with 100% conventional diesel. (author)

  9. Influence of changes in crop cultivation areas on pollen contents of honey (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-L. VARIS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen counts were done on honey collected by a Finnish honey corporation in late summer 1997 from the entire beekeeping area of Finland. The most common pollen type was Brassicaceae pollen, which was represented by 60% of the grains counted. It was followed by Salix spp. (10%, Trifolium repens + T. hybridum (10% and T. pratense + T. medium (6.5% species. Pollen grains of Phacelia spp, Filipendula ulmaria, Apiaceae, Sorbus aucuparia, Malus domestica, and Rubus idaeus were also numerous. These pollen types constituted 96% of all the pollen examined. These results and those of the earlier pollen counts in Finland were compared with the cultivation areas of the most important nectariferous crops. In the 1930s white clover was the most important honey source in Finland and its pollen was very dominant in honey. Since the 1950s oilseed crops have been grown in increasing rates and pure timothy-meadow fescue pastures and hay stands with heavy N applications have decreased the share of Trifolium species. The proportion of Brassicaceae pollen has continuously increased with the increase of the growing area of turnip rape Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera and rape, B. napus ssp. oleifera. At the same time the proportion of T. repens + T. hybridum pollen has decreased so that their mutual relationships are now reversed compared to the beginning of the 1960s. Changes in land use were thus very clearly to be seen in the pollen content of honey.;

  10. Metal poisoning and human health hazards due to contaminated salad vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Matiullah, J.; Akram, M.; Naeem, K.

    2011-01-01

    The consumption of salad vegetables grown in industrial areas may create adverse affects on human health by causing serious diseases and impairment of the vital organs of human body. To determine the concentrations of toxic metals such as, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Sb and Se in salad vegetables namely tomato, cabbage, turnip, radish, carrot, onion, salad leaves, beet and cucumber, the samples were collected within the vicinity of industrial areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. After processing, the samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The highest concentrations were observed for arsenic (2.3 ± 0.02 μg/g) in radish, manganese (16 ± 1.3 μg/g) in salad leaves, selenium (0.2 ± 0.02 μg/g) in cabbage and antimony (0.08 ± 0.001 μg/g) in salad leaves respectively which were also higher than those recommended by the National Environmental Quality Control (NEQC) standards and World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the amounts of injurious arsenic (2.3 μg/g) and selenium (0.4 μg/g) in all salad vegetables according to standard values of NEQS are two to four times higher (1.0 and 0.1 μg/g), respectively. (author)

  11. Magnesium absorption in human subjects from leafy vegetables, intrinsically labeled with stable 26Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.; Spencer, H.; Welsh, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Collards, turnip greens, leaf lettuce, and spinach, grown in nutrient solution so that their Mg content was 80 to 90% 26 Mg, were tested in ambulant male volunteers stabilized on a constant metabolic diet. The freeze-dried vegetables were incorporated in bran muffins in which the vegetables replaced part of the bran. Bran muffins without vegetables were consumed for breakfast each day. They were also used as a standard test meal to which the vegetable muffins were compared. All subjects participated in three consecutive isotope absorption tests: one of the standard test meal and two of the vegetables. The standard test was carried out after at least 30 days on the controlled diet. Subsequent tests of vegetables followed at 4-wk intervals. Each test meal contained 30 microCi 28 MgCl2 and 50 mg stable 26 Mg, the latter either as the intrinsic label of a test vegetable or as 26 MgCl 2 in solution taken with the standard bran muffins. Net absorption of both isotopes was measured to establish exchangeability and to determine relative Mg absorption from the vegetables. Exchangeability was 90% or higher from all meals tested. Relative Mg absorption was highest from collards and least from the standard test meal. Net absorption values ranged from 40 to 60%

  12. Residues of Avermectin B1a in rotational crops and soils following soil treatment with [14C]Avermectin B1a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moye, H.A.; Malagodi, M.H.; Yoh, H.; Leibee, G.L.; Ku, C.C.; Wislocki, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    [ 14 C]Avermectin B 1 a was applied twelve times to muck and sandy loam soils and three times to sandy soil at 0.025-0.030 lb/acre per application. These applications simulated the intended use of avermectin B 1 a on celery, vegetables, and cotton, respectively. Following three aging periods in each soil type, sorghum, lettuce, and carrot or turnip seeds were planted and harvested at one-fourth, half, and full size. Analysis of these crops by oxidative combustion demonstrated that crops grown in muck, sandy loam, and sandy soils contained radiolabeled residues ranging from below the limit of quantitation (BLQ) to 7.4 μg/kg of avermectin B 1 a equivalents, BLQ to 11.6 μg/kg, and BLQ to 3.54 μg/kg, respectively. There was a general trend of decreasing residue concentrations with increasing preharvest intervals in crops grown in all soils. The radioactivity present in muck and sandy loam soils disappeared with half-lives ranging from 103 to 267 days and from 102 to 132 days, respectively

  13. Heterotrimeric G-proteins facilitate resistance to plant pathogenic viruses in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenya, Eric; Trusov, Yuri; Dietzgen, Ralf Georg; Botella, José Ramón

    2016-08-02

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins, consisting of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits, are important signal transducers in eukaryotes. In plants, G-protein-mediated signaling contributes to defense against a range of fungal and bacterial pathogens. Here we studied response of G-protein-deficient mutants to ssRNA viruses representing 2 different families: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) (Bromoviridae) and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) (Potyviridae). We found that development of spreading necrosis on infected plants was suppressed in the Gβ-deficient mutant (agb1-2) compared to wild type and Gα-deficient mutant (gpa1-4). In accordance, ion leakage caused by viral infection was also significantly reduced in agb1-2 compared to wild type and gpa1-4. Nevertheless, both viruses replicated better in agb1-2 plants, while gpa1-4 was similar to wild type. Analysis of pathogenesis-related genes showed that Gβ negatively regulated salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid marker genes during CMV and TuMV infections. Interestingly, analysis of salicylic acid deficient transgenic plants indicated that salicylic acid did not affect resistance against these viruses and did not influence the Gβ-mediated defense response. We conclude that heterotrimeric G-proteins play a positive role in defense against viral pathogens probably by promoting cell death.

  14. SUPLEMENTAÇÃO COM FONTES PROTEICAS NA TERMINAÇÃO DE NOVILHAS DE CORTE: ESTUDO BIOECONÔMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondineli Pavezzi Barbero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate biological and economically the use of three protein sources (soybean meal (SM, cottonseed (CS or turnip cake (TC, in the supplement formulation (1.0 % of body weight (BW in the finishing stage of heifers grazing Marandu grass pastures during the dry season. This experiment was conducted in the city of Potirendaba, São Paulo State, and the chemical analyses were performed at the Londrina State University, Paraná State. The experimental area had six hectares, divided into three paddocks, each one with six crossbred heifers (Simmental × Nellore, initial BW of 210 ± 8.34 kg, and age of 15 ± 3 months. Economic analysis was performed using the method of partial budgeting. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replicates per treatment (n = 18. Analysis of variance was conducted, and means were compared by Tukey test (P <0.05. Animals supplemented with TC exhibited lower weight gain (SM = 0.81, CS = 0.76 and TC = 0.40 kg / animal / day; P <0.05. Negative changes were observed in net income for the CS supplements (US $ -22.15 / animal and TC (US $ -1.96 / animal relative to the SM supplement, ,which showed better biologic and economic results

  15. SUPPLEMENTATION WITH PROTEIN SOURCES IN THE FINISHING STAGE OF BEEF HEIFERS: A BIOECONOMICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondineli Pavezzi Barbero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate biological and economically the use of three protein sources (soybean meal (SM, cottonseed (CS or turnip cake (TC, in the supplement formulation (1.0 % of body weight (BW in the finishing stage of heifers grazing Marandu grass pastures during the dry season. This experiment was conducted in the city of Potirendaba, São Paulo State, and the chemical analyses were performed at the Londrina State University, Paraná State. The experimental area had six hectares, divided into three paddocks, each one with six crossbred heifers (Simmental × Nellore, initial BW of 210 ± 8.34 kg, and age of 15 ± 3 months. Economic analysis was performed using the method of partial budgeting. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replicates per treatment (n = 18. Analysis of variance was conducted, and means were compared by Tukey test (P <0.05. Animals supplemented with TC exhibited lower weight gain (SM = 0.81, CS = 0.76 and TC = 0.40 kg / animal / day; P <0.05. Negative changes were observed in net income for the CS supplements (US $ -22.15 / animal and TC (US $ -1.96 / animal relative to the SM supplement, which showed better biologic and economic results. Keywords: beef cattle; partial budgets; supplementation.

  16. RNA virus interference via CRISPR/Cas13a system in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Aman, Rashid

    2017-11-04

    CRISPR/Cas systems confer immunity against invading nucleic acids and phages in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR/Cas13a (known previously as C2c2) is a class 2 type VI-A ribonuclease capable of targeting and cleaving single stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules of the phage genome. Here, we employ CRISPR/Cas13a to engineer interference with an RNA virus, Turnip Mosaic Virus (TuMV), in plants. CRISPR/Cas13a produced interference against green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing TuMV in transient assays and stable overexpression lines of Nicotiana benthamiana. crRNAs targeting the HC-Pro and GFP sequences exhibited better interference than those targeting other regions such as coat protein (CP) sequence. Cas13a can also process pre-crRNAs into functional crRNAs. Our data indicate that CRISPR/Cas13a can be used for engineering interference against RNA viruses, providing a potential novel mechanism for RNA-guided immunity against RNA viruses, and for other RNA manipulations in plants.

  17. Inhibition of RNA recruitment and replication of an RNA virus by acridine derivatives with known anti-prion activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Sasvari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small molecule inhibitors of RNA virus replication are potent antiviral drugs and useful to dissect selected steps in the replication process. To identify antiviral compounds against Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV, a model positive stranded RNA virus, we tested acridine derivatives, such as chlorpromazine (CPZ and quinacrine (QC, which are active against prion-based diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that CPZ and QC compounds inhibited TBSV RNA accumulation in plants and in protoplasts. In vitro assays revealed that the inhibitory effects of these compounds were manifested at different steps of TBSV replication. QC was shown to have an effect on multiple steps, including: (i inhibition of the selective binding of the p33 replication protein to the viral RNA template, which is required for recruitment of viral RNA for replication; (ii reduction of minus-strand synthesis by the tombusvirus replicase; and (iii inhibition of translation of the uncapped TBSV genomic RNA. In contrast, CPZ was shown to inhibit the in vitro assembly of the TBSV replicase, likely due to binding of CPZ to intracellular membranes, which are important for RNA virus replication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Since we found that CPZ was also an effective inhibitor of other plant viruses, including Tobacco mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus, it seems likely that CPZ has a broad range of antiviral activity. Thus, these inhibitors constitute effective tools to study similarities in replication strategies of various RNA viruses.

  18. Inhibition of RNA Recruitment and Replication of an RNA Virus by Acridine Derivatives with Known Anti-Prion Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Bach, Stéphane; Blondel, Marc; Nagy, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Small molecule inhibitors of RNA virus replication are potent antiviral drugs and useful to dissect selected steps in the replication process. To identify antiviral compounds against Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a model positive stranded RNA virus, we tested acridine derivatives, such as chlorpromazine (CPZ) and quinacrine (QC), which are active against prion-based diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report that CPZ and QC compounds inhibited TBSV RNA accumulation in plants and in protoplasts. In vitro assays revealed that the inhibitory effects of these compounds were manifested at different steps of TBSV replication. QC was shown to have an effect on multiple steps, including: (i) inhibition of the selective binding of the p33 replication protein to the viral RNA template, which is required for recruitment of viral RNA for replication; (ii) reduction of minus-strand synthesis by the tombusvirus replicase; and (iii) inhibition of translation of the uncapped TBSV genomic RNA. In contrast, CPZ was shown to inhibit the in vitro assembly of the TBSV replicase, likely due to binding of CPZ to intracellular membranes, which are important for RNA virus replication. Conclusion/Significance Since we found that CPZ was also an effective inhibitor of other plant viruses, including Tobacco mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus, it seems likely that CPZ has a broad range of antiviral activity. Thus, these inhibitors constitute effective tools to study similarities in replication strategies of various RNA viruses. PMID:19823675

  19. Biological and physiological studies on the effect of some botanical oils and gamma irradiation on the Greasy Cut Worm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL- Wahed Ali, A.G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon ( Lepidoptera-Noctuidae ) is a serious pest for the seedlings of most crops such as cotton, maize, beans, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, chinese broccoli, chinese cabbage, Chinese spinach, corn, eggplant, flowering white cabbage, green beans, head cabbage, lettuce, mustard cabbage, potato, spinach, sugarcane, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, as well as many other plants. An extensive listing of hosts of the greasy cutworm may be found in (Rings et al. 1975). The extensive and continuous use of synthetic pesticides in control of agricultural pests have created many problems, one of them is the incapability of toxic agents in controlling the target pests at the recommended doses. Therefore, it was of great interest to investigate some alternative methods as substitutes for insecticides in the control of this pest. Among these methods, is the irradiation, plant extracts and oils. Irradiation techniques seem to offer solutions that are desirable in many aspects, contributing that this treatment should eventually prove to be cheaper, safer and more reliable than chemical control. Irradiation shortens life span of insects (Baxter and Blair, 1969), possibly by accelerating senescence (Aly et al., 1996). Irradiation may also cause protein denaturation, which may impair enzyme activity (Ljubenov and Andreev, 1974) and (Tribe and Webb, 1979 a, b, c). According to (Kinipling, 1955), insect exposure to ionizing radiation causes sterilization through induction of dominates lethal mutation in the genetic structure of organisms. This technique to be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including Agrotis ipsilon has been studied

  20. The effect of Ni on concentration of the most abundant essential cations in several Brassica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik-Delić Marina I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some plants from the genus Brassica have the ability to tolerate excessive concentrations of heavy metals, including Ni. Considering the fact that Ni is a very toxic element for living beings we wanted to examine its influence on some species from genus Brassicaceae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ni on distribution and accumulation of essential macronutrients from the standpoint of food quality and phytoremediation potential. Experiments were performed using winter (W and spring (S varieties of rapeseed (Brassica napus, L., white mustard (Brassica alba, L., black mustard (Brassica nigra, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The seeds were exposed to 10 μM Ni from the beginning of germination. Plants were grown in water cultures, in semi-controlled conditions of a greenhouse, on ½ strength Hoagland solution to which was added Ni in the same concentration as during germination. Concentrations and distribution of Ca, Mg, K in leaf and stem were altered in the presence of increased concentration of Ni. Significant differences were found between the control and Ni-treated plants as well as among the genotypes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31036 i br. TR 31016

  1. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  2. Effects of Soil Management Practices on Water Erosion under Natural Rainfall Conditions on a Humic Dystrudept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ferreira Chaves de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation and is influenced by rainfall, soil, topography, land use, soil cover and management, and conservation practices. The objective of this study was to quantify water erosion in a Humic Dystrudept in two experiments. In experiment I, treatments consisted of different rates of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage conditions. In experiment II, treatments consisted of a no-tillage in natural rangeland, burned natural rangeland and natural rangeland. Forage turnip, black beans, common vetch, and corn were used in rotation in the treatments with crops in the no-tillage during study period. The treatments with crops and the burned rangeland and natural rangeland were compared to a bare soil control, without cultivation and without fertilization. Increasing fertilization rates increased organic carbon content, soil resistance to disintegration, and the macropore volume of the soil, due to the increase in the dry mass of the crops, resulting in an important reduction in water erosion. The exponential model of the ŷ = ae-bx type satisfactorily described the reduction in water and soil losses in accordance with the increase in fertilization rate and also described the decrease in soil losses in accordance with the increase in dry mass of the crops. Water erosion occurred in the following increasing intensity: in natural rangeland, in cultivated natural rangeland, and in burned natural rangeland. Water erosion had less effect on water losses than on soil losses, regardless of the soil management practices.

  3. Tyfon as a valuable forage crop and a prospective source of biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Геннадіївна Гур’єва

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are an inexhaustible source of biologically active compounds. Traditional medicinal plants and relatively new hybrid plants are used for phytomedicines’ obtaining. Tyfon is one of such plants. It is a hybrid of Chinese cabbage and turnip which is used in fodder production. This culture is valuable due to the presence of a large predictable resource base.Goal. The aim of our work was a profound phytochemical study of tyfon plant material, as well as the study of pharmacological activity of phytosubstances on its basis.Methods. The qualitative analysis was carried out using quality reactions and thin-layer chromatography. The quantitative analysis of the biologically active compounds content was carried out by the means of gravimetric, titrimetric, spectrophotometric methods and gas chromatography.Results. The presence of carbohydrates, carbonic acids, amino acids, flavonoids, tannins, steroidal compounds, carotenoids, chlorophylls, sulfur-containing compounds as well as the compounds of a volatile fraction was determined as a result of the study. On the basis of experiments carried out the method of a thick extract obtaining was substantiated and its acute toxicity and anabolic activity was determined. The polysaccharide complex of tyfon leaves, having immune stimulating activity, was obtained.Conclusions. The plant material of tyfon is prospective for obtaining substances on its basis and carrying out their further pharmacological study

  4. Transfer factors of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil (Andosol) to crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group

    2003-03-01

    In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil to agricultural crops, we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from Andosol to edible parts of crops were as follows: water dropwort, 0.24; lettuce, 0.00098; onion, 0.0011; radish, 0.0044; turnip, 0.0013 and eggplant, 0.00010. The mean value of the TFs of radioiodine for edible parts of wheat (on a dry weight basis) was 0.00015. We also studied the distributions of iodine in crops. There was a tendency for the TFs of leaves to be higher than those of tubers, fruits and grains. A very high TF was found for water dropwort, because this plant was cultivated under a waterlogged condition, in which iodine desorbed from soil into soil solution with a drop in the Eh value. The data obtained in this study should be helpful to assess the long-lived {sup 129}I (half life: 1.57 x l0{sup 7} yr) pathway related to the fuel cycle. (author)

  5. Trace Detection of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents in Wastewater and Plants by Luminescent UIO-67(Hf) and Evaluating the Bioaccumulation of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao; Yan, Bing

    2018-04-17

    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OPCWAs) are a group of organic pollutants characterized by high toxicity and chemical stability, and they are very difficult to be degraded. The trace quality of OPCWAs in water and food will cause great harm to the human body. Therefore, the detection of OPCWAs is a difficult challenge, which has become the research hotspot over the world. In this work, a Hf-based luminescent metal-organic framework (Eu@1) is prepared, and the reactivity of Hf 12 results in a methanephosphonic acid (MPA)-induced luminescence quenching and the charge transfer from MPA to Hf(IV) and generated exciplexes which are responsible for this quenching effect. The excellent performance of Eu@1 in the detection of MPA, with its finer selectivity, high sensitivity (LOD = 0.4 ppm), and large linear range (10 -7 to 10 -3 M), is encouraging for application in wastewater detection. Importantly, MPA is a pollutant that can be absorbed by plants and causes the bioaccumulation effect, and thus, the detection of MPA in real plant samples is a purposeful topic. Eu@1 also achieved satisfactory results in actual plant sample testing, and the bioaccumulation of MPA in onions, turnips, and cabbages is determined via our sensor. This fabricated detector provides a feasible path for the detection of ppm-level OPCWAs in a complex environment, which will help humans to avoid OPCWA-contaminated foods.

  6. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi. D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth and development. These plants are easily available and are affordable to the majority of poor women living in slums of the city dwellers and those who live in villages. Due to lack of knowledge, money, palatability issues, improper storage and consumption irregularities the expectant mothers in this category do not consume prescribed prenatal nutrients, affecting the mother and the foetus. Though prescribed prenatal nutrients are still very essential, same from the food sources have many benefits like they are from the complex mixture of many phytochemicals which act synergistically and provide known and unknown benefits to them. Apart from this, most of the plants listed here can be easily grown in pots or plots near their homes, manuring with kitchen wastes and without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Plants that provide all the prenatal nutrients and easily accessible for daily consumption by the pregnant women at an affordable cost in developing countries are Cowpea, Tomatoes, Turnip greens, Garlic, Wheat, Drumstick leaves, Cauliflower, purslane and Guava fruits.

  7. Acid resistance and response to pH-induced stress in two Lactobacillus plantarum strains with probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šeme, H; Gjuračić, K; Kos, B; Fujs, Š; Štempelj, M; Petković, H; Šušković, J; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Kosec, G

    2015-01-01

    Two new Lactobacillus plantarum strains, KR6-DSM 28780 and M5 isolated from sour turnip and traditional dried fresh cheese, respectively, were evaluated for species identity, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to gastrointestinal conditions and adaptive response to low pH. Resistance mechanisms involved in the adaptation to acid-induced stress in these two strains were investigated by quantitative PCR of the atpA, cfa1, mleS and hisD genes. In addition to absence of antibiotic resistance, the two L. plantarum strains showed excellent survival rates at pH values as low as 2.4. Adaptive response to low pH was clearly observed in both strains; strain KR6 was superior to M5, as demonstrated by its ability to survive during 3 h incubation at pH 2.0 upon adaptation to moderately acidic conditions. In contrast, acid adaptation did not significantly affect the survival rate during simulated passage through the gastrointestinal tract. In both strains, induction of histidine biosynthesis (hisD) was upregulated during the acid adaptation response. In addition, significant upregulation of the cfa1 gene, involved in modulation of membrane fatty acid composition, was observed during the adaptation phase in strain KR6 but not in strain M5. Cells adapted to moderately acidic conditions also showed a significantly increased viability after the lyophilisation procedure, a cross-protection phenomenon providing additional advantage in probiotic application.

  8. A plant small polypeptide is a novel component of DNA-binding protein phosphatase 1-mediated resistance to plum pox virus in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, María José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Navarrete-Gómez, Marisa; Daniel, Jacques; Granot, David; Vera, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    DNA-binding protein phosphatases (DBPs) have been identified as a novel class of plant-specific regulatory factors playing a role in plant-virus interactions. NtDBP1 from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was shown to participate in transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to virus infection in compatible interactions, and AtDBP1, its closest relative in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has recently been found to mediate susceptibility to potyvirus, one of the most speciose taxa of plant viruses. Here, we report on the identification of a novel family of highly conserved small polypeptides that interact with DBP1 proteins both in tobacco and Arabidopsis, which we have designated DBP-interacting protein 2 (DIP2). The interaction of AtDIP2 with AtDBP1 was demonstrated in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and AtDIP2 was shown to functionally interfere with AtDBP1 in yeast. Furthermore, reducing AtDIP2 gene expression leads to increased susceptibility to the potyvirus Plum pox virus and to a lesser extent also to Turnip mosaic virus, whereas overexpression results in enhanced resistance. Therefore, we describe a novel family of conserved small polypeptides in plants and identify AtDIP2 as a novel host factor contributing to resistance to potyvirus in Arabidopsis.

  9. Biochemical and genetic functional dissection of the P38 viral suppressor of RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iki, Taichiro; Tschopp, Marie-Aude; Voinnet, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Phytoviruses encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract the plant antiviral silencing response, which relies on virus-derived small interfering (si)RNAs processed by Dicer RNaseIII enzymes and subsequently loaded into ARGONAUTE (AGO) effector proteins. Here, a tobacco cell-free system was engineered to recapitulate the key steps of antiviral RNA silencing and, in particular, the most upstream double-stranded (ds)RNA processing reaction, not kinetically investigated thus far in the context of plant VSR studies. Comparative biochemical analyses of distinct VSRs in the reconstituted assay showed that in all cases tested, VSR interactions with siRNA duplexes inhibited the loading, but not the activity, of antiviral AGO1 and AGO2. Turnip crinkle virus P38 displayed the additional and unique property to bind both synthetic and RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase-generated long dsRNAs, and inhibited the processing into siRNAs. Single amino acid substitutions in P38 could dissociate dsRNA-processing from AGO-loading inhibition in vitro and in vivo, illustrating dual-inhibitory strategies discriminatively deployed within a single viral protein, which, we further show, are bona fide suppressor functions that evolved independently of the conserved coat protein function of P38. © 2017 Iki et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. Conjoined use of EM and NMR in RNA structure refinement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gong

    Full Text Available More than 40% of the RNA structures have been determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR technique. NMR mainly provides local structural information of protons and works most effectively on relatively small biomacromolecules. Hence structural characterization of large RNAs can be difficult for NMR alone. Electron microscopy (EM provides global shape information of macromolecules at nanometer resolution, which should be complementary to NMR for RNA structure determination. Here we developed a new energy term in Xplor-NIH against the density map obtained by EM. We conjointly used NMR and map restraints for the structure refinement of three RNA systems—U2/U6 small-nuclear RNA, genome-packing motif (Ψ(CD2 from Moloney murine leukemia virus, and ribosome-binding element from turnip crinkle virus. In all three systems, we showed that the incorporation of a map restraint, either experimental or generated from known PDB structure, greatly improves structural precision and accuracy. Importantly, our method does not rely on an initial model assembled from RNA duplexes, and allows full torsional freedom for each nucleotide in the torsion angle simulated annealing refinement. As increasing number of macromolecules can be characterized by both NMR and EM, the marriage between the two techniques would enable better characterization of RNA three-dimensional structures.

  11. Structure of Cowpea mottle virus: a consensus in the genus Carmovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jiyuan; Schmidt, Timothy; Chase, Elaine; Bozarth, Robert F.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) is a T = 3 virus that belongs to Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMoV determined to a resolution of 7.0 A. The structures and sequences of three Carmoviruses, CPMoV, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), and Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) have been compared to TBSV from the Tombusvirus genus. CPMoV, TCV, and CarMV all have a deletion in βC strand in the S domain relative to TBSV that may be distinctive to the genus. Although CPMoV has an elongated C-terminus like TBSV, it does not interact with the icosahedrally related P domain as observed in TBSV. In CPMoV, the termini of A and B interact with the icosahedrally related shell domains of A and C, respectively, to form a chain of interactions around the 5-fold axes. The C subunit terminus does not, however, interact with the B subunit because of quasi-equivalent differences in the P domain orientations

  12. Quantification of polyacetylenes in apiaceous plants by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maike; Mühleis, Andrea; Conrad, Jürgen; Leitenberger, Martin; Beifuss, Uwe; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2011-01-01

    Polyacetylenes are known for their biofunctional properties in a wide range of organisms. In the present study, the most frequently occurring polyacetylenes, i.e. falcarinol, falcarindiol, and falcarindiol-3-acetate, were determined in six genera of the Apiaceae family. For this purpose, a straightforward and reliable method for the screening and quantification of the polyacetylenes using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and mass spectrometric detection without tedious sample clean-up has been developed. Peak assignment was based on retention times, UV spectra, and mass spectral data. Quantification was carried out using calibration curves of authentic standards isolated from turnip-rooted parsley and Ligusticum mutellina, respectively. The references were unambiguously identified by Fourier transform-IR (FT-IR) spectroscopy, GC-MS, HPLC-MSn in the positive ionization mode, and 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of falcarindiol-3-acetate in Anthriscus sylvestris and Pastinaca sativa has been reported for the first time. The data revealed great differences in the polyacetylene contents and varying proportions of individual compounds in the storage roots of Apiaceous plants. The results of the present study may be used as a suitable tool for authenticity control and applied to identify novel sources devoid or particularly rich in polyacetylenes, thus facilitating breeding programs for the selective enrichment and depletion of these plant secondary metabolites, respectively.

  13. Metagenomic detection of viral pathogens in Spanish honeybees: co-infection by Aphid Lethal Paralysis, Israel Acute Paralysis and Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Granberg

    Full Text Available The situation in Europe concerning honeybees has in recent years become increasingly aggravated with steady decline in populations and/or catastrophic winter losses. This has largely been attributed to the occurrence of a variety of known and "unknown", emerging novel diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that colonies often can harbour more than one pathogen, making identification of etiological agents with classical methods difficult. By employing an unbiased metagenomic approach, which allows the detection of both unexpected and previously unknown infectious agents, the detection of three viruses, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV, Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV, and Lake Sinai Virus (LSV, in honeybees from Spain is reported in this article. The existence of a subgroup of ALPV with the ability to infect bees was only recently reported and this is the first identification of such a strain in Europe. Similarly, LSV appear to be a still unclassified group of viruses with unclear impact on colony health and these viruses have not previously been identified outside of the United States. Furthermore, our study also reveals that these bees carried a plant virus, Turnip Ringspot Virus (TuRSV, potentially serving as important vector organisms. Taken together, these results demonstrate the new possibilities opened up by high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis to study emerging new diseases in domestic and wild animal populations, including honeybees.

  14. The interaction of soybean reticulon homology domain protein (GmRHP) with Soybean mosaic virus encoded P3 contributes to the viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Lu, Lu; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Xingxing; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-15

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a member of the Potyvirus genus, is a prevalent and devastating viral pathogen in soybean-growing regions worldwide. Potyvirus replication occurs in the 6K2-induced viral replication complex at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites. Potyvirus-encoded P3 is also associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and is as an essential component of the viral replication complex, playing a key role in viral replication. This study provides evidence that the soybean (Glycine max) reticulon homology domain protein (designated as GmRHP) interacts with SMV-P3 by using a two-hybrid yeast system to screen a soybean cDNA library. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay further confirmed the interaction, which occurred on the cytomembrane, endoplasmic reticulum and cytoskeleton in Nicotiana benthamiana cells. The transient expression of GmRHP can promote the coupling of Turnip mosaic virus replication and cell-to-cell movement in N. benthamiana. The interaction between the membrane protein SMV-P3 and GmRHP may contribute to the potyvirus infection, and GmRHP may be an essential host factor for P3's involvement in potyvirus replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consequences of Intraspecific Competition and Environmental Variation for Selection in the Mustard Sinapsis arvensis: Contrasting Ecological and Evolutionary Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M L; Thiede, D A; Roy, B A

    2004-12-01

    Alternative models of plant life-history evolution differ in their views of how abiotic stress and competition interact to shape the evolution of plant life-history traits. To address this debate, which crosses traditional boundaries between community ecology and population biology, we grew wild turnip families from three selection histories in a field experiment in which we manipulated conspecific density and sun exposure. Hot spring conditions caused neutral shading to reduce drought stress, resulting in a greater mean and variance for lifetime fertility at low density and greater intensity of competition at high density. The variance in relative fitness among individuals or families was least in partial shade at low density. Prior selection under shade stress in the greenhouse reduced lifetime fitness in the less stressful partial-shade treatment under field conditions. Patterns of selection and predicted trait evolution were more similar between high and low densities than between the two light environments. Partial shade favored the proliferation of large leaves early in development, especially at high density. Selection in the stressful full-sun treatment favored reduced pathogen susceptibility at both densities and early flowering at low density. Because direct selection on traits changed principally in magnitude rather than in direction, genetic correlations for fitness were generally positive between light and density treatments. Greater intraspecific competition led to more rapid predicted trait evolution in the partial-shade environment but not in the stressful full-sun treatment.

  16. Establishment of three new genera in the family Geminiviridae: Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus

    KAUST Repository

    Varsani, Arvind

    2014-03-22

    The family Geminiviridae includes plant-infecting circular single-stranded DNA viruses that have geminate particle morphology. Members of this family infect both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants and have a nearly global distribution. With the advent of new molecular tools and low-cost sequencing, there has been a significant increase in the discovery of new geminiviruses in various cultivated and non-cultivated plants. In this communication, we highlight the establishment of three new genera (Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus) to accommodate various recently discovered geminiviruses that are highly divergent and, in some cases, have unique genome architectures. The genus Becurtovirus has two viral species, Beet curly top Iran virus (28 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps) and Spinach curly top Arizona virus (1 isolate; unknown vector), whereas the genera Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus each have a single assigned species: Eragrostis curvula streak virus (6 isolates; unknown vector) and Turnip curly top virus (20 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps), respectively. Based on analysis of all of the genome sequences available in public databases for each of the three new genera, we provide guidelines and protocols for species and strain classification within these three new genera. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  17. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular-Assisted Pollen Grain Analysis Reveals Spatiotemporal Origin of Long-Distance Migrants of a Noctuid Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong; Guo, Jianglong; Fu, Xiaowei; Liu, Yongqiang; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Hou, Youming; Wu, Kongming

    2018-02-13

    Pollen grains are regularly used as markers to determine an insect's movement patterns or host (plant) feeding behavior, yet conventional morphology-based pollen grain analysis (or palynology) encounters a number of important limitations. In the present study, we combine conventional analytical approaches with DNA meta-barcoding to identify pollen grains attached to migrating adults of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Northeast China. More specifically, pollen grains were dislodged from 2566 A. segetum long-distance migrants captured on Beihuang Island (Bohai Sea) and identified to many (plant) species level. Pollen belonged to 26 families of plants, including Fagaceae, Oleaceae, Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Pinaceae and Rosaceae, including common species such as Citrus sinensis , Olea europaea , Ligustrum lucidum , Robinia pseudoacacia , Castanopsis echinocarpa , Melia azedarach and Castanea henryi . As the above plants are indigenous to southern climes, we deduce that A. segetum forage on plants in those locales prior to engaging in northward spring migration. Our work validates the use of DNA-assisted approaches in lepidopteran pollination ecology research and provides unique and valuable information on the adult feeding range and geographical origin of A. segetum . Our findings also enable targeted (area-wide) pest management interventions or guide the future isolation of volatile attractants.

  19. Characteristics of fatty acid composition of lipids in higher plant vacuolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, S P; Konenkina, T A; Salyaev, R K

    2000-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of vacuolar membrane lipids from plant storage tissues and their genesis have been studied. A high content of unsaturated fatty acids (up to 77%) was observed in lipids of these membranes. Linoleic acid prevailed in vacuolar lipids of carrot and red beet (54.2 and 44.2%, respectively). Linolenic acid prevailed in vacuolar lipids of garden radish and turnip (39.7 and 33.9%, respectively). Regarding saturated fatty acids, vacuolar lipids of garden radish, carrot, and red beet contained predominantly palmitic acid (up to 20-24%). Unsaturated fatty acids, petroselinic (C18: 1omega12), cis-vaccenic (C18: 1omega7), hexatrien-7,-10,-13-oic (C16:3omega3) and others, were observed in vacuolar lipids of roots. These acids are usually synthesized in chloroplasts, and their presence in vacuolar lipids can be associated either with the transport of metabolites to the vacuole, or with endocytosis during vacuolar formation in the plant cell. The specific features of fatty acid composition of tonoplast lipids apparently are closely related to the tonoplast unique fluidity and mobility required for running osmotic processes in the cell and for forming transport protein assemblies.

  20. Cap- and initiator tRNA-dependent initiation of TYMV polyprotein synthesis by ribosomes: evaluation of the Trojan horse model for TYMV RNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Daiki; Dreher, Theo W

    2007-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RNA directs the translation of two overlapping open reading frames. Competing models have been previously published to explain ribosome access to the downstream polyprotein cistron. The Trojan horse model, based on cell-free experiments, proposes noncanonical cap-independent initiation in which the 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) functionally replaces initiator tRNA, and the valine bound to the TLS becomes cis-incorporated into viral protein. The initiation coupling model, based on in vivo expression and ribosome toe-printing studies, proposes a variation of canonical leaky scanning. Here, we have re-examined the wheat germ extract experiments that led to the Trojan horse model, incorporating a variety of controls. We report that (1) translation in vitro from the polyprotein AUG of TYMV RNA is unchanged after removal of the 3' TLS but is stimulated by the presence of a 5'-cap; (2) the presence of free cap analog or edeine (which interferes with initiation at the ribosomal P site and its tRNA(i) (Met) involvement) inhibits translation from the polyprotein AUG; (3) the toe-prints of immediately post-initiation ribosomes on TYMV RNA are similar with and without an intact TLS; and (4) significant deacylation of valyl-TYMV RNA in wheat germ extract can complicate the detection of cis-incorporation. These results favor the initiation coupling model.

  1. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  2. RNA virus interference via CRISPR/Cas13a system in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Aman, Rashid

    2018-01-04

    CRISPR/Cas systems confer immunity against invading nucleic acids and phages in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR/Cas13a (known previously as C2c2) is a class 2 type VI-A ribonuclease capable of targeting and cleaving single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules of the phage genome. Here, we employ CRISPR/Cas13a to engineer interference with an RNA virus, Turnip Mosaic Virus (TuMV), in plants.CRISPR/Cas13a produces interference against green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing TuMV in transient assays and stable overexpression lines of Nicotiana benthamiana. CRISPR RNA (crRNAs) targeting the HC-Pro and GFP sequences exhibit better interference than those targeting other regions such as coat protein (CP) sequence. Cas13a can also process pre-crRNAs into functional crRNAs.Our data indicate that CRISPR/Cas13a can be used for engineering interference against RNA viruses, providing a potential novel mechanism for RNA-guided immunity against RNA viruses and for other RNA manipulations in plants.

  3. Survey of Viruses Present in Radish Fields in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Chung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2014 nationwide survey in radish fields investigated the distribution of common viruses and possible emerging viruses. Radish leaves with virus-like symptoms were collected and 108 samples assayed by RT-PCR using specific primers for Radish mosaic virus (RaMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV; 47 samples were TuMV positive, and RaMV and CMV were detected in 3 and 2 samples, respectively. No samples showed double infection of TuMV/RaMV, or RaMV/CMV, but two double infections of TuMV/CMV were detected. TuMV isolates were sorted by symptom severity, and three isolates (R007-mild; R041 and R065-severe selected for BLAST and phylogenetic analysis, which indicated that the coat protein (CP of these isolates (R007, R041, and R065 have approx. 98-99% homology to a previously reported TuMV isolate. RaMV CP showed approx. 99% homology to a previously reported isolate, and the CMV CP is identical to a previously reported Korean isolate (GenBank : GU327368. Three isolates of TuMV showing different pathogenicity (degree of symptom severity will be valuable to study determinants of pathogenicity.

  4. Zinc and selenium levels in selected and ethnic/regional foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolinsky, I.; Lane, H.W.; Warren, D.C.; Whaley, B.S. (Univ. of Houston, TX (USA))

    Zinc and/or selenium contents of 73 foods, many of them regional favorites, were reported. Trace element concentrations of foods were determine on homogenates and expressed in terms of portion size (common serving size) and 100 g wet weight. Zinc analysis was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry; selenium was monitored spectrofluorometrically. On a 100-g wet-weight basis, some of the better sources of zinc included cheddar and Swiss cheese, wheat crackers, and granola bar; among ethnic/regional foods, beef burrito, chili, cornbread, enchiladas, okar, shrimp gumbo, pecan pie, and turnip greens provide from 0.8 to 1.5 mg of zinc/portion size. Among the best sources of selenium were foods prepared with or milk products and local favorites including burrito, chicken enchilada, Gulf Coast red drum fish, shrimp gumbo, and taco. No foods analyzed were outstanding zinc sources, i.e. a food(s) that would provide a significant amount of the daily zinc requirement; in contrast, several foods were outstanding selenium sources.

  5. Assessment of the potential health risks associated with the aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead content in selected fruits and vegetables grown in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Johann M R; Fung, Leslie A Hoo; Grant, Charles N

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen Jamaican-grown food crops - ackee ( Blighia sapida ), banana ( Musa acuminate ), cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ), carrot ( Daucus carota ), cassava ( Manihot esculenta ), coco ( Xanthosoma sagittifolium ), dasheen ( Colocasia esculenta ), Irish potato ( Solanum tuberosum ), pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ), sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum ), sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ), tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) and turnip ( Brassica rapa ) - were analysed for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The fresh weight mean concentrations in these food crops (4.25-93.12 mg/kg for aluminium; 0.001-0.104 mg/kg for arsenic; 0.015-0.420 mg/kg for cadmium; 0.003-0.100 mg/kg for lead) were used to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), hazard index (HI) and target cancer risk (TCR) for arsenic, associated with dietary exposure to these potentially toxic elements. Each food type had a THQ and HI risk from exposure to a single or multiple potentially toxic elements from the same food. The TCR for arsenic in these foods were all below 1 × 10 -4 , the upper limit used for acceptable cancer risk. There is no significant health risk to the consumer associated with the consumption of these Jamaican-grown food crops.

  6. Growth and {sup 137}Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aung, Han Phyo [United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Aye, Yi Swe [Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hitoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, 321-8505 (Japan); Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea, E-mail: skimura@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different {sup 137}Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of {sup 137}Cs concentration and higher {sup 137}Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different {sup 137}Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna > turnip > mustard > radish. TF values of {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher {sup 137}Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. - Highlights: • PGPR inoculation did not enhance plant biomass of tested plants. • PGPR inoculation resulted in higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plants. • Komatsuna that had larger root volume showed higher {sup 137}Cs TF from soil to plants. • Soil with high SOM and Al-vermiculite caused larger {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants.

  7. Pioneers in infection control-Joseph Lister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, S W B

    2003-12-01

    Joseph Lister is one of the pioneers of Infection Control. Not only did he reduce the incidence of wound infection (usually fatal pre-Lister) by the introduction of antiseptic surgery using carbolic acid, but also he was the first to apply Pasteur's principles to humans. He showed that urine could be kept sterile after boiling in swan-necked flasks. He was the first person to isolate bacteria in pure culture (Bacillus lactis) using liquid cultures containing either Pasteur's solution of turnip infusion and a special syringe to dilute the inoculum and so can be considered a co-founder of medical microbiology with Koch, who later isolated bacteria on solid media. Lister also pioneered the use of catgut and rubber tubing for wound drainage. His life can be split into five periods: 1844-1853, London: first period; 1853-1860, Edinburgh: first period; 1860-1869, Glasgow (where he developed his 'antiseptic system'); 1869-1877, Edinburgh: second period; 1877-1900, London: second period.

  8. Effect of type and level of dietary fibre supplements in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharib, Sorial A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both experimental and clinical studies have indicated that a novel source of dietary fibres is potentially hypolipidemic. In the present study, turnip, sugar beet, cabbage and fenugreek green leaves were used as natural new sources of dietary fibres, to examine their effects on nutritional parameters and lipid metabolism in rats fed for 8 weeks comparing with a control diet (fibre-free control. Chemical analyses of the 4 plants revealed that there are differences between the ratios of soluble and insoluble non - starch polysaccharides (NSP and their monomers constituents. Higher levels of uronic acid were present in soluble fibre (NSP in all fibre sources than that of insoluble one. Generally, highly significant decrease in the weight gain and food intake of the rats fed the 4 experimental diets after 8 weeks feeding comparing with those fed control diet. Rats fed turnip diet exhibited a highly significant decrease in all the nutritional parameters through the feeding period. Rats fed a diet supplemented with sugar beet fibre, have a highly significant decrease in the value of weight gain, food intake and Dapp over the feeding period. Sugar beet, cabbage and fenugreek green fibre-containing diets had lowering effect on serum total lipid, total cholesterol, LDL-C (except sugar beet and triglycerides levels than that of control diet fed rats. Supplemented the diet with turnip fibre had only lowering effect on serum triglycerides over the feeding period. Hepatic total lipid and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower when rats fed cabbage and fenugreek green fiber-containing diets. Highly significant decrease in the level of triglycerides was achieved in the liver of rats fed turnip fibre supplemented diet comparing with the experimental period (8 weeks.Estudios clínicos y experimentales han indicado que nuevas fuentes de fibras dietéticas son potencialmente hipolipídicas. En el presente estudio nabo, remolacha, col y fenogreco verde

  9. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-01-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana

  10. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  11. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (Pbiopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  12. Evaluation of plant species for use in the control of acid sulfated soils in Paipa, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Angélica Bernal Figueroa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acid sulfated soils are characterized by high amounts of iron and sulfur, which in presence of air are oxidized and form sulfuric horizons extremely acidic, generating environmental changes ranging from water pollution to problems associated with fertility and crop production, among others. This research was conducted in order to identify suitable plant species to control the acidity of these soils in the town of Paipa, Boyacá, Colombia. A completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments and 3 replications was implemented in potting shed; there, the response of Beta vulgaris L. (forage beet, Brassica rapa L. (forage turnip and Raphanus sativus L. (forage radish on the acidity of sulfated acid soil, contrasted with a non-sulfated soil, was evaluated, after correction with liming. To assess the effects, pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3 cmolc/kg were measured in the two types of soil before and after seeding ; the agronomic response of plants in each treatment was determined at the end of the growing season (120 days after seeding . On acid sulfated soils, species B. rapa, R. sativus and B. vulgaris along with the complementary use of liming as corrective induced a reduction in exchangeable acidity; B. rapa and R. sativus showed better growth potential and resistance, while B. vulgaris was affected in height and root diameter.

  13. The IRE1/bZIP60 pathway and bax inhibitor 1 suppress systemic accumulation of potyviruses and potexviruses in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaguancela, Omar Arias; Zúñiga, Lizbeth Peña; Arias, Alexis Vela

    2016-01-01

    that regulates cell death in response to environmental assaults. The potyvirus 6K2 and potexvirus TGB3 proteins are known to reside in the ER, serving, respectively, as anchors for the viral replicase and movement protein complex. This study used green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Turnip mosaic virus (Tu...... genes into plant cells activated bZIP60 and BI-1 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, N. benthamiana, and S. tuberosum. Homozygous ire1a-2, ire1b-4, and ire1a-2/ire1b-4 mutant Arabidopsis plants were inoculated with TuMV-GFP or PlAMV-GFP. PlAMV accumulates to a higher level in ire1a-2 or ire1a-2/ire1b-4...... mutant plants than in ire1b-4 or wild-type plants. TuMV-GFP accumulates to a higher level in ire1a-2, ire1b-4, or ire1a-2/ire1b-4 compared with wild-type plants, suggesting that both isoforms contribute to TuMV-GFP infection. Gene silencing was used to knock down bZIP60 and BI-1 expression in N...

  14. Contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with geohelmints eggs on organic farms in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłapeć, Teresa; Borecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with zoonotic parasite eggs on organic and conventional farms in south-eastern Poland. To evaluate the contamination with eggs of zoonotic parasites, examinations were conducted on 8 conventional and 11 organic farms in south-eastern Poland from May-October in 2008 and 2009. The following fruit and vegetables were selected for the experiment: strawberry, leek, onion, carrot, zucchini, beetroot, parsley, potatoes, celery, rhubarb, lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, pumpkin, young beetroot leaves, cauliflower, French beans, turnip, fennel and sorrel. A total of 187 samples of vegetables, fruits and soil were examined by means of a modified flotation method according to Quinn et al. (1980). Contamination with Ascaris, Trichuris and Toxocara eggs was found, with a higher number of positive samples revealed on conventional (34.7%), compared to organic farms (18.9%). The level of contamination in soil samples from conventional farms was higher (88.5% positive samples), than of those from organic farms (32.8%). Of the 15 geohelmints eggs, positive samples were found in vegetables: 9 Toxocara eggs, 4 Ascaris eggs and 2 Trichuris eggs. No geohelmints eggs were observed in the strawberry samples. The consumption of vegetables and fruits contaminated with the eggs of parasites may be the cause of parasitoses in humans. Stricter sanitary standards on farms of all types may limit the incidence of parasitic zoonoses.

  15. An overlapping essential gene in the Potyviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Betty Y-W; Miller, W Allen; Atkins, John F; Firth, Andrew E

    2008-04-15

    The family Potyviridae includes >30% of known plant virus species, many of which are of great agricultural significance. These viruses have a positive sense RNA genome that is approximately 10 kb long and contains a single long ORF. The ORF is translated into a large polyprotein, which is cleaved into approximately 10 mature proteins. We report the discovery of a short ORF embedded within the P3 cistron of the polyprotein but translated in the +2 reading-frame. The ORF, termed pipo, is conserved and has a strong bioinformatic coding signature throughout the large and diverse Potyviridae family. Mutations that knock out expression of the PIPO protein in Turnip mosaic potyvirus but leave the polyprotein amino acid sequence unaltered are lethal to the virus. Immunoblotting with antisera raised against two nonoverlapping 14-aa antigens, derived from the PIPO amino acid sequence, reveals the expression of an approximately 25-kDa PIPO fusion product in planta. This is consistent with expression of PIPO as a P3-PIPO fusion product via ribosomal frameshifting or transcriptional slippage at a highly conserved G(1-2)A(6-7) motif at the 5' end of pipo. This discovery suggests that other short overlapping genes may remain hidden even in well studied virus genomes (as well as cellular organisms) and demonstrates the utility of the software package MLOGD as a tool for identifying such genes.

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Iranian soft rot bacteria isolates from different hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool REZAEI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During 2005–2006, 42 soft rot bacterial strains were isolated from the infected tubers of potato, roots of carrot, sugar beet and turnip, and the leaves of lettuce and cabbage with soft rot symptoms in Iran. The isolates were rod-shaped, motile with peritrichous flagella, gram negative, facultative anaerobe, oxidase and urease negative and they rotted potato tuber slices. Of the 42 isolates, 20 were identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc, 6 as P. carotovorum subsp. odoriferum (Pco, 4 as P. betavasculorum (Pb and 12 strains as Dickeya dadantii (Dda. PCR amplification of fingerprints of repetitive bacterial DNA elements using the REP, ERIC and BOX primers differentiated the soft rot bacteria to the species and subspecieslevel. Strains of Pcc and Dda were phenotypically and genotypically highly variable, but Pb and Pco strains had low variability. REP-PCR was found to be a promising genotypic tool for the rapid and reliable speciation and typing of soft rot bacteria.

  17. Cold hardiness research on agricultural and horticultural crops in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LINDÉN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an overview of cold hardiness research conducted on agricultural and horticultural crops, as well as on amenity plants in Finland. Inadequate freezing tolerance and/or winter hardiness often prevents introduction of new species and cultivars to Finland. Field observations on winter hardiness and more recently the results from laboratory freezing tests, have assisted breeders to select hardy genotypes. Research approaches for agricultural crops have evolved from observations on winter and frost damage to studies on molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation and freezing injury. The results of experiments on survival of winter cereals, grasses and clovers and frost tolerance of potato and turnip rape are discussed. The studies conducted on horticultural crops, including apple, strawberry, raspberry, currants, blueberry, sea buckthorn, perennial herbs as well as on ornamental trees and shrubs have included field evaluations of cultivars, or selections for winter hardiness, and studies on the effects of cultural management practices on winter survival. During the last decade detailed studies including controlled freezing tests have provided tools to assist in explanation of the underlying mechanisms of cold hardiness also in horticultural plants. ;

  18. Application of game theory to the interaction between plant viruses during mixed infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Susana; Elena, Santiago F

    2009-11-01

    Natural mixed infections of plant viruses are frequent, often leading to unpredictable variations in symptoms, infectivity, accumulation and/or vector transmissibility. Cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus (CaMV) has often been found in mixed infections with turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) in plants of the genus Brassica. This study addressed the effect of mixed infection on infectivity, pathogenicity and accumulation of CaMV and TuMV in Arabidopsis thaliana plants inoculated mechanically with cDNA infectious clones. In singly infected plants, TuMV accumulation was approximately 8-fold higher than that of CaMV. In co-infected plants, there was 77 % more TuMV accumulation compared with single infections, whilst the accumulation of CaMV was 56 % lower. This outcome describes a biological game in which TuMV always plays the winner strategy, leading to the competitive exclusion of CaMV. However, the infectivity of each virus was not affected by the presence of the other, and no symptom synergism was observed.

  19. Multiple virus resistance using artificial trans-acting siRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingyun; Cheng, Xiaofei; Cai, Jianyu; Zhan, Linlin; Wu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Qi; Wu, Xiaoyun

    2016-02-01

    Plant TAS gene encoded trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs) regulate the expression of target mRNAs by guiding their cleavage at the sequence complementary region as microRNAs. Since one TAS transcript is cleaved into multiple ta-siRNAs in a phased manner, TAS genes may be engineered to express multiple artificial ta-siRNAs (ata-siRNAs) that target multiple viruses at several distinct genomic positions. To test this hypothesis, the Arabidopsis TAS3a gene was engineered to express ata-siRNAs targeting the genome of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing these ata-siRNAs showed high level of resistance to both viruses. These results suggest that plant TAS genes can be modified to express artificial ta-siRNAs to confer multiple virus resistance and could have broad applications for future development in virus resistance strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A simple method for the multi-elemental analysis of organic fertilizer by slurry sampling and total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Luciene V; Nascentes, Clésia C

    2016-01-15

    A simple and fast method for the multi-elemental determination of 18 inorganic constituents (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb) in organic fertilizers employing slurry sampling and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is presented. A 2(3) factorial design with a central point was employed to optimize the slurry sampling procedure. The internal standard and instrumental conditions were optimized by univariate studies. The selectivity of the method to determining Se, As, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd was assessed. The accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of four standard reference materials (SRM). The recoveries varied from 72% to 114%. For most of the elements, good agreement was achieved between the certified value and the value measured in the SRM. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) ranged from 0.5% to 14%. The evaluated method was applied to the determination of analytes in the press cake of palm, castor, curcas, sunflower, fodder turnip, white lupin, rapeseed and pequi, and their potential to be used as organic fertilizer was evaluated in accordance with Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ATIVIDADE ALELOPÁTICA DE EXTRATOS DE PLANTAS DE COBERTURA SOBRE SOJA, PEPINO E ALFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSELI VIVIANE DITZEL NUNES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy can be defined as any effect , direct or indirect, beneficial or harmful, a plant on the other, through the release of chemical compounds into the environment. Thus, this study aimed at evaluat- ing, in the laboratory, allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts from cover crops as canola (Brassica napus L. var, crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. and forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% concentrations. The plants used in aqueous extracts were collected during their flowering period of each studied species. Germination tests were performed on seeds gerbox, fresh and dry seedlings biomass, root and shoots seedlings length. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD in factorial (5x5 with four replicates per treatment. According to these results, it can be concluded that the tested extracts showed allelopathic effect on seedlings of lettuce, cucumber and soybean on almost all parameters, but for soybean germination and dry mass percentage, this effect was not significant. The sunn hemp extract, despite concentration, contributed the most to increased germination and seedling growth. However, linseed extract showed opposite effect for these parameters in 100% concentrations.

  2. CODEX-compliant eleven organophosphorus pesticides screening in multiple commodities using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Zi-Ye; Wang, Yu-Ting; Tsoi, Yeuk-Ki; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2013-01-15

    A headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (HS-SPME-GC-MS, hereafter abbreviated as "SPME") method was developed for dedicated organophosphorus (OP) pesticides assessment in multiple vegetable and fruit commodities. Specific extraction variables were optimised to achieve harmonised extraction performance of eleven OPs in a great span of seven characteristic commodities cataloged in Codex Alimentarius Commission. Comprehensive validation study confirmed analytical robustness of the SPME treatment in turnip, green cabbage, French beans, eggplant, apple, nectarine and grapes. Based on range-specific evaluation, extraction of individual OPs was characterised by sub-ppb level sensitivity and a wide 0.01-2.5 mg L(-1) dynamic range. Effective sample clean-up afforded precise quantification (0.5-10.9% R.S.D.) within a 70-120% recovery range at the MRL levels specified for individual commodities. Compared to conventional methods currently used, the SPME treatment developed here is quick, accurate, and relatively environmental friendly; it represents an attractive, practical way to deliver international standards in OP screening routines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Xylem traits, leaf longevity and growth phenology predict growth and mortality response to defoliation in northern temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jane R

    2017-09-01

    Defoliation outbreaks are biological disturbances that alter tree growth and mortality in temperate forests. Trees respond to defoliation in many ways; some recover rapidly, while others decline gradually or die. Functional traits such as xylem anatomy, growth phenology or non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) storage could explain these responses, but idiosyncratic measures used by defoliation studies have frustrated efforts to generalize among species. Here, I test for functional differences with published growth and mortality data from 37 studies, including 24 tree species and 11 defoliators from North America and Eurasia. I synthesized data into standardized variables suitable for numerical models and used linear mixed-effects models to test the hypotheses that responses to defoliation vary among species and functional groups. Standardized data show that defoliation responses vary in shape and degree. Growth decreased linearly or curvilinearly, least in ring-porous Quercus and deciduous conifers (by 10-40% per 100% defoliation), whereas growth of diffuse-porous hardwoods and evergreen conifers declined by 40-100%. Mortality increased exponentially with defoliation, most rapidly for evergreen conifers, then diffuse-porous, then ring-porous species and deciduous conifers (Larix). Goodness-of-fit for functional-group models was strong (R2c = 0.61-0.88), if lower than species-specific mixed-models (R2c = 0.77-0.93), providing useful alternatives when species data are lacking. These responses are consistent with functional differences in leaf longevity, wood growth phenology and NSC storage. When defoliator activity lags behind wood-growth, either because xylem-growth precedes budburst (Quercus) or defoliator activity peaks later (sawflies on Larix), impacts on annual wood-growth will always be lower. Wood-growth phenology of diffuse-porous species and evergreen conifers coincides with defoliation and responds more drastically, and lower axial NSC storage makes them

  4. How common is ecological speciation in plant-feeding insects? A 'Higher' Nematinae perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Tommi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological speciation is a process in which a transiently resource-polymorphic species divides into two specialized sister lineages as a result of divergent selection pressures caused by the use of multiple niches or environments. Ecology-based speciation has been studied intensively in plant-feeding insects, in which both sympatric and allopatric shifts onto novel host plants could speed up diversification. However, while numerous examples of species pairs likely to have originated by resource shifts have been found, the overall importance of ecological speciation in relation to other, non-ecological speciation modes remains unknown. Here, we apply phylogenetic information on sawflies belonging to the 'Higher' Nematinae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae to infer the frequency of niche shifts in relation to speciation events. Results Phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of DNA sequence data show that the diversification of higher nematines has involved frequent shifts in larval feeding habits and in the use of plant taxa. However, the inferred number of resource shifts is considerably lower than the number of past speciation events, indicating that the majority of divergences have occurred by non-ecological allopatric speciation; based on a time-corrected analysis of sister species, we estimate that a maximum of c. 20% of lineage splits have been triggered by a change in resource use. In addition, we find that postspeciational changes in geographic distributions have led to broad sympatry in many species having identical host-plant ranges. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that the importance of niche shifts for the diversification of herbivorous insects is at present implicitly and explicitly overestimated. In the case of the Higher Nematinae, employing a time correction for sister-species comparisons lowered the proportion of apparent ecology-based speciation events from c. 50-60% to around 20%, but such corrections are

  5. Vegetable species for phytoextraction of boron, copper, lead, manganese and zinc from contaminated soil Espécies vegetais na fitoextração de boro, cobre, chumbo, manganês e zinco de solo contaminado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive option to remove metal from contaminated soil since it is a simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly procedure. To better examine the phytoremediation potential of kenaf (Hybiscus canabinnus, mustard (Brassica juncea, turnip (Raphunus sativus and amaranth (Amaranthus crentus plants, a greenhouse experiment was performed in which these species were grown on a soil contaminated with Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb and B. The translocation, the bioconcentration and the removal index, the transference factor and the time to reach 50% of element removal from soil, among other indicators, were used in order to identify a hyperaccumulator. Kenaf plants were more tolerant to the conditions tested, with the highest dry matter production and no visual toxicity symptoms. Amaranth would be the species chosen to remediate the soil under field conditions as it presented the higher indexes for decontamination of Zn and Mn and was also able to remove B. Turnip showed the best results for Pb removal. All species tested were able to remove B from soil. In spite, none of the plant species tested could be characterized as a hyperaccumulator.A fitorremediação é uma opção atraente na remoção de solos contaminados com metais por ser uma técnica simples, de baixo custo e ambientalmente aceitável. O potencial de fitorremediação da kenaf (Hybiscus canabinnus, mostarda (Brassica juncea, rabanete (Raphunus sativus and amaranto (Amaranthus crentus foram examinadas num experimento usando solo contaminado por Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb e B. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos, cultivando as quatro espécies até o florescimento. Os índices de translocação, bioconcentração e remoção, o fator de transferência e o tempo necessário para atingir a remoção de 50% do elemento do solo, entre outros indicadores, foram empregados na tentativa de identificar uma espécie hiperacumuladora. A kenaf foi a espécie mais tolerante nas condições empregadas

  6. Fitomassa e relação C/N em consórcios de sorgo e milho com espécies de cobertura Biomass and C/N ratio in intercrops of sorghum and maize with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Claudeir Gomes da Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a produtividade de fitomassa, o teor e acúmulo de nitrogênio (N, e a relação carbono/nitrogênio (C/N de monocultivos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor e milho (Zea mays e de seus consórcios com guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, tremoço branco (Lupinus albus, girassol (Helianthus annuus e nabo-forrageiro (Raphanus sativus, manejados em diferentes estádios. O experimento foi conduzido de março a julho de 2008, em Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média, no sistema plantio direto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, e parcelas subdivididas, constituído pelos tratamentos: monocultivos de sorgo e milho e seus respectivos consórcios com guandu-anão, crotalária, girassol, nabo-forrageiro e tremoço branco, nas parcelas; e épocas de corte, aos 60, 90 e 120 dias após a semeadura nas subparcelas. Consórcios de sorgo e milho com outras espécies superaram expressivamente a produtividade de fitomassa de seus monocultivos que ainda acumularam menos N e apresentaram maiores relações C/N na fitomassa. Para aumentar a produtividade de fitomassa, a melhor época de corte é aos 120 dias após a semeadura das culturas de cobertura. O corte aos 90 dias após a semeadura propicia o maior acúmulo de N e as menores relações C/N.The objective of this work was to quantify the biomass production, the content and accumulation of nitrogen (N and the carbon/nitrogen (C/N relation in monocultures of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and corn (Zea mays, and intercrops with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea, white lupine (Lupinus albus, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and turnip forage (Raphanus sativus, managed in different stages. The experiment was carried out from March to July 2008, in a Haplic Acrisol, medium texture, under no-tillage. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates and split plots with the

  7. Functional replacement of Wheat streak mosaic virus HC-Pro with the corresponding cistron from a diverse array of viruses in the family Potyviridae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, Drake C.; French, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Wheat streak mosaic virus strain Sidney 81 (WSMV-Sidney 81) was systematically replaced with the corresponding cistron derived from four strains of WSMV (Type, TK1, CZ, and El Batan 3), the tritimovirus Oat necrotic mottle virus (ONMV), the rymoviruses Agropyron mosaic virus (AgMV) and Hordeum mosaic virus (HoMV), or the potyviruses Tobacco etch virus (TEV) and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). These HC-Pro proteins varied in amino acid sequence identity shared with HC-Pro of WSMV-Sidney 81 from high (strains of WSMV at ∼86-99%) to moderate (ONMV at 70%) to low (rymoviruses and potyviruses at ∼15-17%). Surprisingly, all chimeric viral genomes examined were capable of systemic infection of wheat upon inoculation with RNA transcripts produced in vitro. HC-Pro replacements derived from tritimoviruses did not alter host range relative to WSMV-Sidney 81, as each of these chimeric viruses was able to systemically infect wheat, oat, and corn line SDp2. These results indicate that differences in host range among tritimoviruses, including the inability of ONMV to infect wheat or the inability of WSMV strains Type and El Batan 3 to infect SDp2 corn, are not determined by HC-Pro. In contrast, all chimeric viruses bearing HC-Pro replacements derived from rymoviruses or potyviruses were unable to infect SDp2 corn and oat. Collectively, these results indicate that HC-Pro from distantly related virus species of the family Potyviridae are competent to provide WSMV-Sidney 81 with all functions necessary for infection of a permissive host (wheat) and that virus-host interactions required for systemic infection of oat and SDp2 corn are more stringent. Changes in symptom severity or mechanical transmission efficiency observed for some chimeric viruses further suggest that HC-Pro affects virulence in WSMV

  8. Genetic dissection of leaf development in Brassica rapa using a genetical genomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Wang, Huange; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, Ke; Hou, Xilin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-03-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene Brassica rapa KIP-related protein2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; Brassica rapa Erecta_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; Brassica rapa Longifolia1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, Brassica rapa flowering locus C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa.

  9. Genetic Dissection of Leaf Development in Brassica rapa Using a Genetical Genomics Approach1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Wang, Huange; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, Ke; Hou, Xilin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene BRASSICA RAPA KIP-RELATED PROTEIN2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; BRASSICA RAPA ERECTA_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; BRASSICA RAPA LONGIFOLIA1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, BRASSICA RAPA FLOWERING LOCUS C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa. PMID:24394778

  10. Multiple copies of eukaryotic translation initiation factors in Brassica rapa facilitate redundancy, enabling diversification through variation in splicing and broad-spectrum virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellist, Charlotte F; Qian, Wei; Jenner, Carol E; Moore, Jonathan D; Zhang, Shujiang; Wang, Xiaowu; Briggs, William H; Barker, Guy C; Sun, Rifei; Walsh, John A

    2014-01-01

    Recessive strain-specific resistance to a number of plant viruses in the Potyvirus genus has been found to be based on mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its isoform, eIF(iso)4E. We identified three copies of eIF(iso)4E in a number of Brassica rapa lines. Here we report broad-spectrum resistance to the potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) due to a natural mechanism based on the mis-splicing of the eIF(iso)4E allele in some TuMV-resistant B. rapa var. pekinensis lines. Of the splice variants, the most common results in a stop codon in intron 1 and a much truncated, non-functional protein. The existence of multiple copies has enabled redundancy in the host plant's translational machinery, resulting in diversification and emergence of the resistance. Deployment of the resistance is complicated by the presence of multiple copies of the gene. Our data suggest that in the B. rapa subspecies trilocularis, TuMV appears to be able to use copies of eIF(iso)4E at two loci. Transformation of different copies of eIF(iso)4E from a resistant B. rapa line into an eIF(iso)4E knockout line of Arabidopsis thaliana proved misleading because it showed that, when expressed ectopically, TuMV could use multiple copies which was not the case in the resistant B. rapa line. The inability of TuMV to access multiple copies of eIF(iso)4E in B. rapa and the broad spectrum of the resistance suggest it may be durable. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The tandem repeated organization of NB-LRR genes in the clubroot-resistant CRb locus in Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Niwa, Tomohisa; Kato, Takeyuki; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2017-04-01

    To facilitate prevention of clubroot disease, a major threat to the successful cultivation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), we bred clubroot-resistant (CR) cultivars by introducing resistance genes from CR turnips via conventional breeding. Among 11 CR loci found in B. rapa, we identified CRb in Chinese cabbage cultivar 'CR Shinki' as a single dominant gene for resistance against Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype group 3, against which the stacking of Crr1 and Crr2 loci was not effective. However, the precise location and pathotype specificity of CRb have been controversial, because CRa and Rcr1 also map near this locus. Previously, our fine-mapping study revealed that CRb is located in a 140-kb genomic region on chromosome A03. Here, we determined the nucleotide sequence of an approximately 64-kb candidate region in the resistant line; this region contains six open reading frames (ORFs) similar to NB-LRR encoding genes that are predicted to occur in tandem with the same orientation. Among the six ORFs present, only four on the genome of the resistant line showed a strong DNA sequence identity with each other, and only one of those four could confer resistance to P. brassicae isolate No. 14 of the pathotype group 3. These results suggest that these genes evolved through recent gene duplication and uneven crossover events that could lead to the acquisition of clubroot resistance. The DNA sequence of the functional ORF was identical to that of the previously cloned CRa gene; thus, we showed that the independently identified CRb and CRa are one and the same clubroot-resistance gene.

  12. Quantifying the Stress Responses of Brassica Rapa Genotypes, With Experimental Drought in Two Nitrogen Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickerson, J. L.; Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Aston, T.; Ewers, B. E.; Weinig, C.

    2014-12-01

    In a greenhouse study designed to quantify and compare stress responses of four genotypes of Brassica rapa, broccolette (bro), cabbage (cab), turnip (tur), and oil, leaf water potential and net CO2 assimilations were measured. Individuals from each genotype, grown either with high or low nitrogen, were exposed to experimental drought of the same duration. One hypothesis was that the genotypes would differ significantly in their responses to periodic drought. The other hypothesis was that the nitrogen treatment versus no nitrogen treatment would play a significant role in the stress responses during drought. It would be expected that the nitrogen treated would have greater dry leaf mass. A LI-6400 XT portable photosynthesis system was used to obtain A/Ci curves (net CO2 assimilation rate versus substomatal CO2) for each treatment group. Predawn and midday water potentials were obtained throughout the hydrated and drought periods using a Model 670 pressure chamber. The dry leaf mass was significantly greater among the high nitrogen group versus the low nitrogen group for each genotype. Nitrogen and genotype were both determinants in variation of water potentials and net CO2 assimilation. Bro and cab genotypes with high nitrogen showed the highest net CO2 assimilation rates during hydration, but the assimilation rates dropped to the lowest during droughts. The water potentials for bro and cab were lower than values for tur and oil. Nitrogen treated genotypes had lower water potentials, but higher net CO2 assimilation rates. Bayesian ecophysiological modeling with the TREES model showed significant differences in trait expression, quantified in terms of differences in model parameter posteriors, among the four genotypes.

  13. An antiviral defense role of AGO2 in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagger J W Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Argonaute (AGO proteins bind to small-interfering (siRNAs and micro (miRNAs to target RNA silencing against viruses, transgenes and in regulation of mRNAs. Plants encode multiple AGO proteins but, in Arabidopsis, only AGO1 is known to have an antiviral role.To uncover the roles of specific AGOs in limiting virus accumulation we inoculated turnip crinkle virus (TCV to Arabidopsis plants that were mutant for each of the ten AGO genes. The viral symptoms on most of the plants were the same as on wild type plants although the ago2 mutants were markedly hyper-susceptible to this virus. ago2 plants were also hyper-susceptible to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, confirming that the antiviral role of AGO2 is not specific to a single virus. For both viruses, this phenotype was associated with transient increase in virus accumulation. In wild type plants the AGO2 protein was induced by TCV and CMV infection.Based on these results we propose that there are multiple layers to RNA-mediated defense and counter-defense in the interactions between plants and their viruses. AGO1 represents a first layer. With some viruses, including TCV and CMV, this layer is overcome by viral suppressors of silencing that can target AGO1 and a second layer involving AGO2 limits virus accumulation. The second layer is activated when the first layer is suppressed because AGO2 is repressed by AGO1 via miR403. The activation of the second layer is therefore a direct consequence of the loss of the first layer of defense.

  14. Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution and Estimation of Dlmetal Values in Vegetables Impacted by Translocation and Geological Location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmeen, K.; Saeed, I.; Ambreen, S.; Jahangir, S.; Tahiri, I. A.; Rehman, A.U.; Waseem, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals contamination in food consumables especially in vegetables is primarily due to multiple environmental factors and a matter of serious public health concern. The presented study scrutinized the heavy metals level and estimation of daily dietary intake of six main root vegetables; potato, yam, radish, turnip, beet and carrot, which are widely consumed on regular basis by community. Data was collected from three major cities of Pakistan: Karachi, Rawalpindi and Peshawar. Average heavy metals concentration in vegetables were found in order of Fe>Cu>Pb>Cd (93.62, 32.16, 11.74, 0.94) mg.kg/sup -1/ and the daily intake metals (DI metal) of root vegetables were estimated 0.0527 mg d/sup -1/, 0.018 mg d/sup -1/, 0.503 μg d/sup -1/, 6.580 μg d/sup -1/ for Fe, Cu, Cd and Pb respectively. This study highlights two main possible sources of heavy metals contamination in vegetables namely the urban area cultivation and vegetables obtained by long distance sources. The values of these metals ingestion were below the recommended maximum tolerable level that presently enforced in world anticipated by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives (1999), hence are safe to eat yet the risk of excessive ingestion of heavy metals from root vegetables cannot be ignored. In view of this, there is need to develop legislations against malpractices and to design new regulations for translocation of vegetables and training of agribusiness personals. (author)

  15. How Language Affects Children’s Use of Derivational Morphology in Visual Word and Pseudoword Processing: Evidence from a Cross-Language Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine eCasalis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing readers have been shown to rely on morphemes in visual word recognition across several naming, lexical decision and priming experiments. However, the impact of morphology in reading is not consistent across studies with differing results emerging not only between but also within writing systems. Here, we report a cross-language experiment involving the English and French languages, which aims to compare directly the impact of morphology in word recognition in the two languages. Monolingual French-speaking and English-speaking children matched for grade level (Part 1 and for age (Part 2 participated in the study. Two lexical decision tasks (one in French, one in English featured words and pseudowords with exactly the same structure in each language. The presence of a root (R+ and a suffix ending (S+ was manipulated orthogonally, leading to four possible combinations in words (R+S+: e.g. postal; R+S-: e.g. turnip; R-S+: e.g. rascal; and R-S-: e.g. bishop and in pseudowords (R+S+: e.g. pondal; R+S-: e.g. curlip; R-S+: e.g. vosnal; and R-S-: e.g. hethop. Results indicate that the presence of morphemes facilitates children’s recognition of words and impedes their ability to reject pseudowords in both languages. Nevertheless, effects extend across accuracy and latencies in French but are restricted to accuracy in English, suggesting a higher degree of morphological processing efficiency in French. We argue that the inconsistencies found between languages emphasise the need for developmental models of word recognition to integrate a morpheme level whose elaboration is tuned by the productivity and transparency of the derivational system.

  16. Proximate composition, minerals and vitamins content of selected vegetables grown in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, J.A.; Arif, M.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, F.; Amin-ur-Rrahma; Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    Ten vegetables namely Pot purslane, Spinach, Turnip, Garlic, Mustard (Sarson), Radish, Bitter gourd, Lady finger, Bath sponge and Brinjal were analyzed for their proximate composition, vitamin and mineral contents to evaluate their importance in human nutrition. The results showed that almost all vegetables contain appreciable amount of essential nutrients. The maximum content of moisture, carbohydrate, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash recorded in these vegetables was (92.50 %, 26.88 %, 5.0%, 0.40%, 1.4% and 1.9%), respectively, with a minimum content (66.80 %, 3.91 %, 0.7%, 0.08%, 0.4% and 0.38%), respectively. Maximum concentration of macro minerals K, Ca, Mg, and Na, observed was (400, 210, 109, and 55) mg/100 g, respectively, with a minimum concentration (26, 15, 17, and 10) mg/100 g, respectively. Maximum concentration of micro minerals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr observed was (29, 0.33, 3.05, 1.70, and 0.36) mg/100 g with a minimum concentration (2, 0.05, 0.43, 0.21, and 0.06) mg/100 g, respectively. Maximum concentration of water soluble vitamins i.e. thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid recorded was (0.280, 0.190, 0.69, and 65) mg/100 g with a minimum concentration (0.011, 0.015, 0.23, and 4.00) mg/100 g, respectively. From this study it can be concluded that consumption of vegetables in different combinations could provide a reasonable daily recommended amount of essential nutrients for the maintenance of healthy life and normal body functioning. (author)

  17. Determinação de paracetamol em produtos farmacêuticos usando um biossensor de pasta de carbono modificado com extrato bruto de abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Iolanda Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of several vegetables such as peach (Prunus persica, yam (Alocasia macrorhiza, manioc (Manihot utilissima, artichoke (Cynara scolymus L, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., turnip (Brassica campestre ssp. rapifera, horseradish (Armoracia rusticana and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo were investigated as the source of peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7. Among those, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo crude extract was found to be the best one. This enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyses the oxidation of paracetamol to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine which the electrochemical reduction back to paracetamol was obtained at a peak potential of fraction three-quarters0.10V. A cyclic voltammetric study was performed by scanning the potential from + 0.5 to fraction three-quarters 0.5 V. The recovery of paracetamol from two samples ranged from 97.3 to 106% and a rectilinear calibration curve for paracetamol concentration from 1.2x10-4 to 2.5x10-3 mol L-1 (r=0.9965 were obtained. The detection limit was 6.9x10-5 mol L-1 and the relative standard deviation was less than 1.1% for a solution containing 2.5x10-3 mol L-1 paracetamol and 2.0x10-3 mol L-1 hydrogen peroxide (n=12. The results obtained for paracetamol in pharmaceutical products using the proposed biosensor and Pharmacopoeial procedures are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  18. A chronic plant test for the assessment of contaminated soils. Part 2. Testing of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junker, T.; Roembke, J. [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim (Germany); Kalsch, W.

    2006-06-15

    Background and scope. A new chronic plant test system which is based on experiences with various acute plant tests (e.g. published by OECD or ISO) and existing north American plant-life-cycle bioassays was standardised in a project sponsored by the German government. Characteristic properties of the test system, which can be performed either with Brassica rapa (turnip rape) or Avena sativa (oat), are described in part 1 of this mini-series. Methods. This new test was used to assess the effects of natural soil samples contaminated with TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) or PAHs (poly-aromatic hydrocarbons). The soils were tested after taken from the field as well as after being remediated. Different control and reference soils were used to evaluate the test results. In addition, they were compared with the results of tests in which either TNT or Pyrene were spiked to field and standard soils (see part 1 of this mini-series). Results. All contaminated soils showed clear effects in the chronic plant test (usually B. rapa was more sensitive than A. sativa). LUFA 2.2 standard soil and OECD artificial soil are well-suited as control and mixture substrates, while reference soils collected at uncontaminated sites were several times as phytotoxic. In most of the latter cases, soil properties could be identified as the main cause of these effects (e.g. the pH value). While the sensitivity of the reproduction and biomass endpoints did not differ much in general, it is recommended to measure different endpoints (i.e. biomass and reproduction) due to the different mode-of-action of contaminants. In the case of TNT, a good agreement between the results of single chemical tests and tests with TNT-contaminated soils was found (due to the minimal effects of Pyrene, the same statement is not possible for PAHs). (orig.)

  19. In vitro evaluation, in vivo quantification, and microbial diversity studies of nutritional strategies for reducing enteric methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Louvandini, Helder; Sallam, Sobhy Mohamed Abdallah Hassan; Bueno, Ives Cláudio da Silva; Tsai, Siu Mui; Figueira, Antonio Vargas de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study nutritive strategies for lessening the CH(4) formation associated to ruminant tropical diets. In vitro gas production technique was used for evaluating the effect of tannin-rich plants, essential oils, and biodiesel co-products on CH(4) formation in three individual studies and a small chamber system to measure CH(4) released by sheep for in vivo studies was developed. Microbial rumen population diversity from in vitro assays was studied using qPCR. In vitro studies with tanniniferous plants, herbal plant essential oils derived from thyme, fennel, ginger, black seed, and Eucalyptus oil (EuO) added to the basal diet and cakes of oleaginous plants (cotton, palm, castor plant, turnip, and lupine), which were included in the basal diet to replace soybean meal, presented significant differences regarding fermentation gas production and CH(4) formation. In vivo assays were performed according to the results of the in vitro assays. Mimosa caesalpineaefolia, when supplemented to a basal diet (Tifton-85 hay Cynodon sp, corn grain, soybean meal, cotton seed meal, and mineral mixture) fed to adult Santa Ines sheep reduced enteric CH(4) emission but the supplementation of the basal diet with EuO did not affect (P > 0.05) methane released. Regarding the microbial studies of rumen population diversity using qPCR with DNA samples collected from the in vitro trials, the results showed shifts in microbial communities of the tannin-rich plants in relation to control plant. This research demonstrated that tannin-rich M. caesepineapholia, essential oil from eucalyptus, and biodiesel co-products either in vitro or in vivo assays showed potential to mitigate CH(4) emission in ruminants. The microbial community study suggested that the reduction in CH(4) production may be attributed to a decrease in fermentable substrate rather than to a direct effect on methanogenesis.

  20. The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Zolfaghari, B; Mirdamadi, M

    2013-07-01

    Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract.

  1. Radium-226 and calcium uptake by crops grown in mixtures of sand and cay tailings from phosphate mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Million, J.B.; Sartain, J.B.; Gonzalez, R.X.; Carrier, W.D. III

    1994-01-01

    Radium-226 is a naturally occurring radionuclide found in reclaimed clay and sand tailing from phosphate mining. Field studies were conducted to investigate the effects of sand/clay ratio (SCR), Ca supplement and organic amendments on the 226 Ra concentration in turnip, banana pepper, cabbage, yellow squash, mustard, and alfalfa. For vegetables, treatment effects included SCR (2:1, 4:1, 6:1, and 8:1), phosphogypsum (PG) 0,22, and 134 Mg ha -1 , and peat 0,100, and 200 Mg ha -1 . For alfalfa grown in a 1:1 SCR mixture, treatments included organic amendments (control, peat, sewage slude, sawdust, composted sewage sludge, composted garbage and humate) applied at 44.8 Mg ha -1 (2.2 Mg ha -1 for humate). Plant 226 Ra concentration tended to be higher in the 4:1 than in the 2:1 SCR mix but this depended on the crop an d the season. Organic amendments and PG had no effect (p 226 Ra concentration in vegetables and alfalfa. Mean 226 Ra concentration in plant tissues ranged from 3.4 Bq kg -1 in banana pepper fruit to 31.1 Bq kg -1 . A quadratic relationship based on 631 observations was observed between 226 Ra and Ca concentration in plant tissues. The 226 Ra/Ca ratio in plant tissues ranged from 0.85 to 2.13 kBq 226 Ra kg -1 Ca and decreased with increasing plant 226 Ra. Results indicated that wide differences in plant 226 Ca concentration were related more to differences in plant Ca levels than to soil factors. 21 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  2. High throughput phenotyping for aphid resistance in large plant collections

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    Chen Xi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phloem-feeding insects are among the most devastating pests worldwide. They not only cause damage by feeding from the phloem, thereby depleting the plant from photo-assimilates, but also by vectoring viruses. Until now, the main way to prevent such problems is the frequent use of insecticides. Applying resistant varieties would be a more environmental friendly and sustainable solution. For this, resistant sources need to be identified first. Up to now there were no methods suitable for high throughput phenotyping of plant germplasm to identify sources of resistance towards phloem-feeding insects. Results In this paper we present a high throughput screening system to identify plants with an increased resistance against aphids. Its versatility is demonstrated using an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag mutant line collection. This system consists of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer and the circulative virus Turnip yellows virus (TuYV. In an initial screening, with one plant representing one mutant line, 13 virus-free mutant lines were identified by ELISA. Using seeds produced from these lines, the putative candidates were re-evaluated and characterized, resulting in nine lines with increased resistance towards the aphid. Conclusions This M. persicae-TuYV screening system is an efficient, reliable and quick procedure to identify among thousands of mutated lines those resistant to aphids. In our study, nine mutant lines with increased resistance against the aphid were selected among 5160 mutant lines in just 5 months by one person. The system can be extended to other phloem-feeding insects and circulative viruses to identify insect resistant sources from several collections, including for example genebanks and artificially prepared mutant collections.

  3. Next-Generation Sequencing and Genome Editing in Plant Virology

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    Ahmed Hadidi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21-24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant virology including, but not limited to, discovery of novel viruses and viroids as well as detection and identification of those pathogens already known, analysis of genome diversity and evolution, and study of pathogen epidemiology. The genome engineering editing method, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas9 system has been successfully used recently to engineer resistance to DNA geminiviruses (family, Geminiviridae by targeting different viral genome sequences in infected Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis plants. The DNA viruses targeted include tomato yellow leaf curl virus and merremia mosaic virus (begomovirus; beet curly top virus and beet severe curly top virus (curtovirus; and bean yellow dwarf virus (mastrevirus. The technique has also been used against the RNA viruses zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus and turnip mosaic virus (potyvirus and cucumber vein yellowing virus (ipomovirus, family, Potyviridae by targeting the translation initiation genes eIF4E in cucumber or Arabidopsis plants. From these recent advances of major importance, it is expected that NGS and CRISPR-Cas technologies will play a significant role in the very near future in advancing the field of plant virology and connecting it with other related fields of biology.Keywords: Next-generation sequencing, NGS, plant virology, plant viruses, viroids, resistance to plant viruses by CRISPR-Cas9

  4. Assessment of the potential health risks associated with the aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead content in selected fruits and vegetables grown in Jamaica

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    Johann M.R. Antoine

    Full Text Available Thirteen Jamaican-grown food crops − ackee (Blighia sapida, banana (Musa acuminate, cabbage (Brassica oleracea, carrot (Daucus carota, cassava (Manihot esculenta, coco (Xanthosoma sagittifolium, dasheen (Colocasia esculenta, Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum, pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and turnip (Brassica rapa − were analysed for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The fresh weight mean concentrations in these food crops (4.25–93.12 mg/kg for aluminium; 0.001–0.104 mg/kg for arsenic; 0.015–0.420 mg/kg for cadmium; 0.003–0.100 mg/kg for lead were used to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI, target hazard quotient (THQ, hazard index (HI and target cancer risk (TCR for arsenic, associated with dietary exposure to these potentially toxic elements. Each food type had a THQ and HI < 1 indicating no undue non-carcinogenic risk from exposure to a single or multiple potentially toxic elements from the same food. The TCR for arsenic in these foods were all below 1 × 10−4, the upper limit used for acceptable cancer risk. There is no significant health risk to the consumer associated with the consumption of these Jamaican-grown food crops. Keywords: Risk assessment, Heavy metals, Target hazard quotient, Target cancer risk, Hazard index, Food, Jamaican crops, Estimated daily intake

  5. A new application of monolithic supports: the separation of viruses from one another.

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    Ruščić, J; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, I; Žnidarič, M Tušek; Kolundžija, S; Slana, A; Barut, M; Ravnikar, M; Krajačić, M

    2015-04-03

    The emergence of next-generation "deep" sequencing has enabled the study of virus populations with much higher resolutions. This new tool increases the possibility of observing mixed infections caused by combinations of plant viruses, which are likely to occur more frequently than previously thought. The biological impact of co-infecting viruses on their host has yet to be determined and fully understood, and the first step towards reaching this goal is the separation and purification of individual species. Ion-exchange monolith chromatography has been used successfully for the purification and concentration of different viruses, and number of them have been separated from plant homogenate or bacterial and eukaryotic lysate. Thus, the question remained as to whether different virus species present in a single sample could be separated. In this study, anion-exchange chromatography using monolithic supports was optimized for fast and efficient partial purification of three model plant viruses: Turnip yellow mosaic virus, Tomato bushy stunt virus, and Tobacco mosaic virus. The virus species, as well as two virus strains, were separated from each other in a single chromatographic experiment from an artificially mixed sample. Based on A260/280 ratios, we were able to attribute specific peaks to a certain viral morphology/structure (icosahedral or rod-shaped). This first separation of individual viruses from an artificially prepared laboratory mixture should encourage new applications of monolithic chromatographic supports in the separation of plant, bacterial, or animal viruses from all kinds of mixed samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. NEW INCOMING ACCESSIONS OF BRASSICA RAPA L. INTO THE VIR PLANT COLLECTION

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    A. M. Artemieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crops of Brassica rapa L. species are varieties such as pak-choi, tatsoi, wutacai, tsoisum, mizuna, mibuna, brokkoletto and Japanese leafy turnips Komatsuna, Kurona, Hiroshimana, Shirona, Mana, which are all characterized by  early-ripening,  high  productivity,  presence of valuable biochemical compounds and relatively simple growing requirements. The nappa cabbage is widespread and cultivated everywhere in the world as open field and greenhouse crop. Other varieties are grown locally, namely brokkoletto is grown in Italy, whereas other mentioned varieties are mostly cultivated in the Southeast Asian countries, where population uses them for different processing technologies. There is the nappa cabbage that is mostly cultivated, particularly for industrial production  in Russia. The Chinese cabbage (pak choi, Japanese cabbage, Japanese mustard  spinach  or  Komatsuna  are  not  very widespread and practically unknown crop. However, vegetable growers are interested in using new cole crops, and gardeners know about values of related varieties of nappa cabbage in the group of Asian cole crops. The analysis of incoming genetic accessions of Brassica rapa L. crops that have been included into the VIR plant collection is given. All  botanical  subspecies  and  varieties of  leafy varieties have been taken for the study. The detailed description of new for Russia varieties, such as purple, brokkoletto, rosette pakchoi as well as well as types of cultivars that haven’t still included into State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russian Federation are given. According to  research results obtained at Pushkin VIR laboratories (Saint-Petersburg the  initial  breeding  accessions  have been selected to  be  sources of  such characteristics as productivity,  early-ripening, disease resistance and valuable biochemical compounds.

  7. Mind the Roots: Phenotyping Below-Ground Crop Diversity and Its Influence on Final Yield

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    Nieters, C.; Guadagno, C. R.; Lemli, S.; Hosseini, A.; Ewers, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in global climate patterns and water regimes are having profound impacts on worldwide crop production. An ever-growing population paired with increasing temperatures and unpredictable periods of severe drought call for accurate modeling of future crop yield. Although novel approaches are being developed in high-throughput, above-ground image phenotyping, the below-ground plant system is still poorly phenotyped. Collection of plant root morphology and hydraulics are needed to inform mathematical models to reliably estimate yields of crops grown in sub-optimal conditions. We used Brassica rapa to inform our model as it is a globally cultivated crop with several functionally diverse cultivars. Specifically, we use 7 different accessions from oilseed (R500 and Yellow Sarson), leafy type (Pac choi and Chinese cabbage), a vegetable turnip, and two Wisconsin Fast Plants (Imb211 and Fast Plant self-compatible), which have shorter life cycles and potentially large differences in allocation to roots. Bi-weekly, we harvested above and below-ground biomass to compare the varieties in terms of carbon allocation throughout their life cycle. Using WinRhizo software, we analyzed root system length and surface area to compare and contrast root morphology among cultivars. Our results confirm that root structural characteristics are crucial to explain plant water use and carbon allocation. The root:shoot ratio reveals a significant (p physiological traits such as gas exchange, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll a fluorescence. A thorough analysis of the root system will clarify carbon dynamics and hydraulics at the whole-plant level, improving final yield predictions.

  8. Ageratum enation virus—A Begomovirus of Weeds with the Potential to Infect Crops

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    Tahir, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W.

    2015-01-01

    Samples of two Ageratum conyzoides, one Sonchus oleraceus and one turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) exhibiting virus-like symptoms were collected from Pakistan and Nepal. Full-length begomovirus clones were obtained from the four plant samples and betasatellite clones from three of these. The begomovirus sequences were shown to be isolates of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) with greater than 89.1% nucleotide sequence identity to the 26 AEV sequences available in the databases. The three betasatellite sequences were shown to be isolates of Ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB) with greater than 90% identity to the 18 AYLCB sequences available in the databases. The AEV sequences were shown to fall into two distinct strains, for which the names Nepal (consisting of isolates from Nepal, India, and Pakistan—including the isolates identified here) and India (isolates occurring only in India) strains are proposed. For the clones obtained from two AEV isolates, with their AYLCB, infectivity was shown by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, Solanum lycopersicon and A. conyzoides. N. benthamiana plants infected with AEV alone or betasatellite alone showed no symptoms. N. benthamiana plants infected with AEV with its associated betasatellite showed leaf curl symptoms. The findings show that AEV is predominantly a virus of weeds that has the capacity to infect crops. AYLCB appears to be the common partner betasatellite of AEV and is associated with diseases with a range of very different symptoms in the same plant species. The inability to satisfy Koch’s postulates with the cloned components of isolate SOL in A. conyzoides suggests that the etiology may be more complex than a single virus with a single betasatellite. PMID:25674770

  9. Ageratum enation virus-a begomovirus of weeds with the potential to infect crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W

    2015-02-10

    Samples of two Ageratum conyzoides, one Sonchus oleraceus and one turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) exhibiting virus-like symptoms were collected from Pakistan and Nepal. Full-length begomovirus clones were obtained from the four plant samples and betasatellite clones from three of these. The begomovirus sequences were shown to be isolates of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) with greater than 89.1% nucleotide sequence identity to the 26 AEV sequences available in the databases. The three betasatellite sequences were shown to be isolates of Ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB) with greater than 90% identity to the 18 AYLCB sequences available in the databases. The AEV sequences were shown to fall into two distinct strains, for which the names Nepal (consisting of isolates from Nepal, India, and Pakistan-including the isolates identified here) and India (isolates occurring only in India) strains are proposed. For the clones obtained from two AEV isolates, with their AYLCB, infectivity was shown by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, Solanum lycopersicon and A. conyzoides. N. benthamiana plants infected with AEV alone or betasatellite alone showed no symptoms. N. benthamiana plants infected with AEV with its associated betasatellite showed leaf curl symptoms. The findings show that AEV is predominantly a virus of weeds that has the capacity to infect crops. AYLCB appears to be the common partner betasatellite of AEV and is associated with diseases with a range of very different symptoms in the same plant species. The inability to satisfy Koch's postulates with the cloned components of isolate SOL in A. conyzoides suggests that the etiology may be more complex than a single virus with a single betasatellite.

  10. A new virus discovered by immunocapture of double-stranded RNA, a rapid method for virus enrichment in metagenomic studies.

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    Blouin, Arnaud G; Ross, Howard A; Hobson-Peters, Jody; O'Brien, Caitlin A; Warren, Ben; MacDiarmid, Robin

    2016-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies enable the rapid identification of viral infection of diseased organisms. However, despite a consistent decrease in sequencing costs, it is difficult to justify their use in large-scale surveys without a virus sequence enrichment technique. As the majority of plant viruses have an RNA genome, a common approach is to extract the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) replicative form, to enrich the replicating virus genetic material over the host background. The traditional dsRNA extraction is time-consuming and labour-intensive. We present an alternative method to enrich dsRNA from plant extracts using anti-dsRNA monoclonal antibodies in a pull-down assay. The extracted dsRNA can be amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by next-generation sequencing. In our study, we have selected three distinct plant hosts: Māori potato (Solanum tuberosum), rengarenga (Arthropodium cirratum) and broadleaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius) representing a cultivated crop, a New Zealand-native ornamental plant and a weed, respectively. Of the sequence data obtained, 31-74% of the reads were of viral origin, and we identified five viruses including Potato virus Y and Potato virus S in potato; Turnip mosaic virus in rengarenga (a new host record); and in the dock sample Cherry leaf roll virus and a novel virus belonging to the genus Macluravirus. We believe that this new assay represents a significant opportunity to upscale virus ecology studies from environmental, primary industry and/or medical samples. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Seed tolerance to deterioration in arabidopsis is affected by virus infection.

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    Bueso, Eduardo; Serrano, Ramón; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A

    2017-07-01

    Seed longevity is the period during which the plant seed is able to germinate. This property is strongly influenced by environment conditions experienced by seeds during their formation and storage. In the present study we have analyzed how the biotic stress derived from the infection of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) affects seed tolerance to deterioration measuring germination rates after an accelerated aging treatment. Arabidopsis wild type plants infected with AMV and CMV rendered seeds with improved tolerance to deterioration when compared to the non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, CaMV infection generated seeds more sensitive to deterioration. No seeds were obtained from TuMV infected plants. Similar pattern of viral effects was observed in the double mutant athb22 athb25, which is more sensitive to accelerated seed aging than wild type. However, we observed a significant reduction of the seed germination for CMV (65% vs 55%) and healthy (50% vs 30%) plants in these mutants. The seed quality differences were overcomed using the A. thaliana athb25-1D dominant mutant, which over accumulated gibberellic acid (GA), except for TuMV which generated some siliques with low seed tolerance to deterioration. For AMV and TuMV (in athb25-1D), the seed quality correlated with the accumulation of the messengers of the gibberellin 3-oxidase family, the mucilage of the seed and the GA1. For CMV and CaMV it was not a good correlation suggesting that other factors are affecting seed viability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

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    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  13. Properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea L. in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, T A; Taiwo, M A; Thottappilly, G A; Shoyinka, S A; Proll, E; Rabenstein, F

    1998-06-01

    A sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in Amuwo Odofin, Tejuoso, and Abule Ado, Lagos, Nigeria. The virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae families. It failed to infect several other species of the Aizoaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Tiliaceae families. The virus was transmitted in a non-persistent manner by Aphis spiraecola and Toxoptera citricidus but not by eight other aphid species tested. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds of C. argentae varieties. The viral coat protein had a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of about 30.2 K. Electron microscopy of purified virus preparations revealed flexuous rod shaped particles of about 750 nm in length. Serological studies were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and Western blot analysis. The virus reacted positively with an universal potyvirus group monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and MoAb P-3-3H8 raised against peanut stripe potyvirus. It also reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against several potyviruses including asparagus virus-1 (AV-1), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), plum pox virus (PPV), soybean mosaic virus (SoyMV), lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and beet mosaic virus (BMV) in at least one of the serological assays used. On the basis of host range, mode of transmission, and available literature data, the celosia virus seems to be different from potyviruses previously reported to infect vegetables in Nigeria. The name celosia mosaic virus (CIMV) has been proposed for this virus.

  14. How language affects children's use of derivational morphology in visual word and pseudoword processing: evidence from a cross-language study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, Séverine; Quémart, Pauline; Duncan, Lynne G

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers have been shown to rely on morphemes in visual word recognition across several naming, lexical decision and priming experiments. However, the impact of morphology in reading is not consistent across studies with differing results emerging not only between but also within writing systems. Here, we report a cross-language experiment involving the English and French languages, which aims to compare directly the impact of morphology in word recognition in the two languages. Monolingual French-speaking and English-speaking children matched for grade level (Part 1) and for age (Part 2) participated in the study. Two lexical decision tasks (one in French, one in English) featured words and pseudowords with exactly the same structure in each language. The presence of a root (R+) and a suffix ending (S+) was manipulated orthogonally, leading to four possible combinations in words (R+S+: e.g., postal; R+S-: e.g., turnip; R-S+: e.g., rascal; and R-S-: e.g., bishop) and in pseudowords (R+S+: e.g., pondal; R+S-: e.g., curlip; R-S+: e.g., vosnal; and R-S-: e.g., hethop). Results indicate that the presence of morphemes facilitates children's recognition of words and impedes their ability to reject pseudowords in both languages. Nevertheless, effects extend across accuracy and latencies in French but are restricted to accuracy in English, suggesting a higher degree of morphological processing efficiency in French. We argue that the inconsistencies found between languages emphasize the need for developmental models of word recognition to integrate a morpheme level whose elaboration is tuned by the productivity and transparency of the derivational system.

  15. Extraction of RNA from fresh, frozen, and lyophilized tuber and root tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G N Mohan; Iyer, Suresh; Knowles, N Richard

    2007-03-07

    A method for isolating transcriptionally competent RNA from fresh, frozen, and lyophilized plant storage tissues containing high levels of starch and phenolics is described. The protocol avoids the use of guanidium salts, which often lead to the formation of a viscous gel during extraction of high starch-containing tissues, and instead uses a borate-Tris buffer in combination with high concentrations of NaCl, Na2SO3, and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the extraction medium. RNA was extracted from fresh, frozen, and lyophilized tissues of potato tubers, storage roots of sweet potato, radish, and turnip, and rhizomes of ginger. The yield of RNA from potato tubers averaged 281 microg g fresh weight(-1) and 1584 microg g dry weight(-1) from frozen and lyophilized samples, respectively. A260/A230 ratios of potato RNA extracts were 2.2 or greater, indicating minimal contamination by polyphenols and carbohydrates. Similarly, A260/A280 ratios exceeded 1.9, demonstrating minimal contamination of the RNA by tuber protein. While A260/A280 ratios of extracts from the other plant species were somewhat lower than those for potato (average = 1.56 and 1.80 for fresh and lyophilized samples, respectively), A260/A230 ratios averaged more than 2.0, and the RNA extracted from fresh and lyophilized samples of all species was intact, as demonstrated by denaturing agarose-formaldehyde gel electrophoresis. The protocol yielded RNA suitable for downstream molecular applications involving reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from all five species. Transcriptionally competent RNA was also recovered from lyophilized potato tuber tissue stored for 6 years (ambient temperature) by a simple modification to the protocol involving extraction in cold acetone. Lyophilization can thus be used to preserve RNA in high starch- and phenolic-containing plant tissues for studies on gene expression.

  16. Intoxicação por larvas de Perreyia flavipes em bovinos na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul Perreyia flavipes larvae poisoning in cattle in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Mauro P. Soares

    2008-03-01

    enlarged with increased lobular pattern, the mesenteric lymph nodes were edematous and Peyer patches of the small gut were depressed. Petechial hemorrhages and ecchymosis were observed in the mesentery and abomasum. On histologic examination the liver showed centrolobular or massive necrosis. Hemosiderosis and necrosis of the germinative centers of lymph nodes, white pulp of the spleen and Peyer patches were also observed. The poisoning occurred probably due to an intense drought in October-December 2005, when the insect stayed as a cocoon underground. The dry conditions probably avoided a higher number of adult sawflies to emerge from the cocoons, what resulted in greater egg production. The large amount of decaying grass due to almost normal rain fall during summer seemed to have provided favorable environmental conditions for the development of larvae in winter.

  17. Spontaneous poisoning by larvae of Perreyia flavipes (Pergidae in sheep Intoxicação espontânea por larvas de Perreyia flavipes (Pergidae em ovinos

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    Djeison Lutier Raymundo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a flock of 175 Texel sheep 25 animals died after consumption of a sawfly larvae subsequently identified as Perreyia flavipes. The disease occurred in June-July 2006 on a farm located in the county of Encruzilhada do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Although there were 11 cattle in the same paddock, none of them was affected. High numbers of compact masses containing up to 150 larvae were scattered in the paddock where the animals were grazing. Most affected sheep showed severe apathy during 24-36 h before death, but weakness, muscular tremors and depression were also observed. Necropsy was performed on six sheep and the main macroscopic lesions were hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissues, endocardium, gallbladder wall, and abomasal mucosa. In all animals was found hydrothorax, hydropericardium, ascites, and mild jaundice. Edema in the abomasal folds, mesentery, perirenal tissues, and gallbladder wall were also seen. The livers were yellowish with disseminated pinpoint hemorrhages in the parenchyma and had an enhanced lobular pattern. Perreyia flavipes larval body fragments and heads were found in the forestomach contents of the six sheep. Feces were scant, dry and formed balls coated by mucus and streaks of blood. Similar contents were also present at the end of the cecum. Prominent microscopic lesions included severe and diffuse periacinar or massive necrosis of hepatocytes associated with multifocal random hemorrhages. Diffuse necrosis of lymphoid follicles in lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, lymphoid depletion and necrosis in germinative centers of the spleen, and diffuse vacuolization in the renal tubular epithelia were also seen.Vinte e cinco ovinos Texel de um rebanho de 175 morreram após ingerirem larvas posteriormente identificadas como Perreyia flavipes. A doença ocorreu em Junho e Julho de 2006, em uma propriedade localizada em Encruzilhada do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul. Embora houvesse também 11 bovinos no mesmo potreiro, nenhum

  18. Nutrient cycling potential of camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz.) as a cover crop in the US Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Marisol; Samarappuli, Dulan

    2017-04-01

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize-soybean-wheat cropping systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the agronomic performance and nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina in comparison with other common cover crops. Experiments were conducted in Fargo, ND in 2015 and 2016, and in Prosper, ND in 2015. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. The main plot was the sowing date and the subplot were camelina cultivars as well as other common cover crops in the area. Sowing dates were targeted to 15 August and September 1, although the final dates varied slightly each year. Biomass yield, N content of the biomass N uptake and P uptake was evaluated. Winter camelina N and P uptake ranged between 21 and 30.5 kg N ha-1 and 3.4 to 5.3 kg P ha-1. The nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina was similar to other cover crops although slightly lower than turnip (Brassica rapa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars which had significantly higher P uptake than winter camelina and the other cover crops in the study. An evaluation of spring regrowth and cover indicated that only rye, winter camelina, and pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) survived the winter, although a few plants of triticale (x Trticosecale Witt.) and rape were found on a few plots. Because of the high variability on the plots there were no significant differences among the surviving cover crops on soil coverage. The soil coverage for rye cultivars was 25 and 35% and for camelina cv. Bison was 27%.In 2016, biomass yield was not significant for sowing date, cultivars, or their interaction. Winter camelina cultivars biomass yield fluctuated between 1.15 and 2.33 Mg dry matter ha-1 on the first sowing

  19. Are there indications of climate change induced increases in variability of major field crops in the northernmost European conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PELTONEN-SAINIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As the northern hemisphere will experience the greatest increases in temperature and indications of climatic change are already visible in the north (in the 2000s average temperatures exceeded the long-term mean, we sought to establish if there are already signs of increased variability in yield and quality of the major field crops grown under the northernmost European growing conditions: spring and winter cereals (barley Hordeum vulgare L., oat Avena sativa L., wheat Triticum aestivum L., rye Secale cereale L., spring rapeseed (turnip rape Brassica rapa L., oilseed rape B. napus L., pea (Pisum sativum L. and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. We used long-term yield datasets of FAO for Finland (1960s to date and MTT Agrifood Research Finland (MTT Official Variety Trial datasets on yield and quality of major field crops in Finland since the 1970s. Yield variability was exceptionally high in the 1980s and 1990s, but previously and subsequently national yields were clearly more stable. No progressive increase in yield variability was recorded. No marked and systematic changes in variability of quality traits were recorded, except for rapeseed, which exhibited reduced variability in seed chlorophyll content. This may at least partly attribute to the differences in intensity of input use and thereby responsiveness of the crops before and after 1980 and 1990 decades. We also noted that in the 2000s average temperatures were higher than in earlier decades and this was the case for all months of the growing season except June, which represents, however, the most critical phase for yield determination in most of the field crops in Finland. Also in the 2000s precipitation increased in the first three months of the growing season and thereafter decreased, but without signs of significantly increased numbers of heavy showers (extreme rain events. Hence, in general constant, increased average temperatures during the growing seasons of the 2000s were identified

  20. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 8} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn{sup 2+}, which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band ({approx} 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe{sup 3+} present in the goethite at g {approx} 2, and in the seeds

  1. Nuclear data for fusion: Validation of typical pre-processing methods for radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, T.; Sublet, J.C.; Morgan, L.; Leadbeater, T.W.

    2015-01-01

    show how this discrepancy propagates through to varying levels of simulation complexity. Simulations were run with Turnip-MC and the ENDF-B/VII.1 library in an effort to define a new systematic error for this range of applications. Alternative representations of differential and double differential distributions are explored in addition to their impact on computational efficiency and relevant simulation results.

  2. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), and ferrihydrite (Fe 5 HO 8 · 4H 2 O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn 2+ , which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band (∼ 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe 3+ present in the goethite at g ∼ 2, and in the seeds exist free radicals at g = 2:004, at room temperature

  3. Comparison of Navigation-Related Brain Regions in Migratory versus Non-Migratory Noctuid Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv de Vries

    2017-09-01

    are found in the detailed wiring characteristics of the neural circuits underlying navigation—differences that are only accessible through detailed physiological and ultrastructural investigations. The presented results aid this task in two ways. First, the identified differences in neuropil volumes serve as promising initial targets for electrophysiology. Second, the new standard atlases provide an anatomical reference frame for embedding all functional data obtained from the brains of the Bogong and the Turnip moth.

  4. Nutrient and Organic Carbon Losses, Enrichment Rate, and Cost of Water Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil erosion from water causes loss of nutrients and organic carbon, enriches the environment outside the erosion site, and results in costs. The no-tillage system generates increased nutrient and C content in the topsoil and, although it controls erosion, it can produce a more enriched runoff than in the conventional tillage system. This study was conducted in a Humic Cambisol in natural rainfall from 1997 to 2012 to quantify the contents and total losses of nutrients and organic C in soil runoff, and to calculate the enrichment rates and the cost of these losses. The treatments evaluated were: a soil with a crop, consisting of conventional tillage with one plowing + two harrowings (CT, minimum tillage with one chisel plowing + one harrowing (MT, and no tillage (NT; and b bare soil: one plowing + two harrowings (BS. In CT, MT, and NT, black oat, soybean, vetch, corn, turnip, and black beans were cultivated. Over the 15 years, 15.5 Mg ha-1 of limestone, 525 kg ha-1 of N (urea, 1,302 kg ha-1 of P2O5 (triple superphosphate, and 1,075 kg ha-1 of K2O (potassium chloride were used in the soil. The P, K, Ca, Mg, and organic C contents in the soil were determined and also the P, K, Ca, and Mg sediments in the runoff water. From these contents, the total losses, the enrichment rates (ER, and financial losses were calculated. The NT increased the P, K, and organic C contents in the topsoil. The nutrients and organic C content in the runoff from NT was greater than from CT, showing that NT was not a fully conservationist practice for soil. The linear model y = a + bx fit the data within the level of significance (p≤0.01 when the values of P, K, and organic C in the sediments from erosion were related to those values in the soil surface layer. The nutrient and organic C contents were higher in the sediments from erosion than in the soil where the erosion originated, generating values of ER>1 for P, K, and organic C. The value of the total losses

  5. The Deterioration of Morocco’s Vegetable Crop Genetic Diversity: An Analysis of the Souss-Massa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Alan Walters

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop domestication and breeding efforts during the last half-century in developed countries has significantly reduced the genetic diversity in all major vegetable crops grown throughout the world. This includes developing countries such as Morocco, in which more than 90% of all farms are less than 10 ha in size, which are generally maintained by subsistence farmers who try to maximize crop and animal productivity on a limited land area. Near Agadir, in the remote Anti-Atlas mountain areas of the Souss-Massa region, many small landowner vegetable growers are known to still utilize crop populations (landraces. Thus, an assessment of the current status of vegetable landraces was made in this mountainous region of Southwestern Morocco during 2014. This assessment indicated that a significant loss of vegetable crop landraces has occurred in the last 30 years in this region of Morocco. Although many vegetable crops are still maintained as landrace populations by small subsistence farmers in remote areas in the Souss-Massa region, only 31% of these farmers cultivated landraces and saved seed in the villages assessed, with the average farmer age cultivating landraces being 52 years old. Moreover, the approximated loss of vegetable crop landraces over the last 30 years was an astounding 80 to 90%. Vegetable crops notably lost during this time period included carrot (Daucus carota, fava beans (Vicia faba, melon (Cucumis melo, pea (Pisum sativum, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon. The most significant loss was tomato as no landraces of this crop were found in this region. The vegetable crop landraces that are still widely grown included carrot, melon, onion (Allium cepa, turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa, and watermelon, while limited amounts of eggplant (Solanum melongea, fava bean, pea, pepper (Capsicum annuum, and pumpkin (Cucurbita moshata and C. maxima were found. This recent genetic deterioration will have a profound

  6. EFFECTS OF DOUBLE CROPPING WITH SOYBEAN ON SOIL PENETRATION RESISTANCE UNDER NO-TILLAGE CONTRIBUIÇÃO DE SAFRINHAS EM SUCESSÃO À CULTURA DA SOJA EM PLANTIO DIRETO SOBRE A RESISTÊNCIA À PENETRAÇÃO DO SOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liovando Marciano da Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was objectified to evaluate the resistance to the penetration of the soil in area as seven successions of cultures, involving the double cropping cultures: corn, soybean, pearl millet, sunflower, sorghum, oat and turnip fodder, with the culture of the soybean, in no-tillage, driven for three years (1994-1996, in the Foundation experimental area of Higher education de Rio Verde, in the municipal district of Rio Verde, Goiás. In the last year, in the between cultures of double cropping it measured the resistance to the penetration in the soil in different layers between 0 and 30 depth cm, using penetrographer. Significant interaction was observed between successions of cultures and depths in the profile of the soils for the appraised characteristic. The successions that include pearl millet and sorghum reduce the penetration of the soil to 15 cm of depth bought to the sunflower. In this depth the soil offered tendency the largest resistance to the penetration in all the appraised treatments.

    KEY-WORDS: Physics of the soil; soil in the cerrado; metropenetrography.

    Objetivou-se avaliar a resistência à penetração do solo em área com sete sucessões de culturas, envolvendo as seguintes culturas de safrinhas: milho, soja, milheto, girassol, sorgo, aveia e nabo forrageiro, com a cultura da soja, no sistema plantio direto, conduzidas durante três anos (1994-1996, na área experimental da Fundação de Ensino Superior de Rio Verde, no município de Rio Verde, Goiás. No último ano, na entressafra de culturas de safrinha e cultura de verão mediu-se a resistência à penetração no solo em diferentes camadas entre 0 e 30 cm de profundidade, utilizando-se penetrógrafo. Observou-se interação significativa entre sucessões de culturas e profundidades no perfil do

  7. Composição mineral de diversas hortaliças Mineral composition of several vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. C. Furlani

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer, na época normal de colheita, as quantidades de matéria seca acumuladas, as concentrações dos elementos essenciais às plantas, mais as de cobalto, alumínio e sódio na matéria fresca e seca de 50 cultivares de hortaliças num total de 35 espécies. As amostras, normalmente constituídas de produtos da colheita, foram na sua maioria procedentes da região de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo e separadas em: melancia - em casca + polpa branca, polpa vermelha e semente; melão - em casca + polpa e semente; ervilha - em vagem e grão; berinjela - em fruto e pedúnculo; couve-flor - em folha e inflorescência; beterraba, cenoura, nabo e rabanete - em folha e raiz; alcachofra - em folha + caule e inflorescência. Das demais hortaliças foram utilizados o fruto todo, as folhas ou os bulbos sem separação. Verificou-se que as leguminosas extraíram maiores quantidades de N, P, K, Mg, Cu, Mo, Zn e Co; as tuberosas, de Cl, Fe e Mn; as amarilidáceas, de S, B e Al; as folhosas, de Ca e Na. As cucurbitáceas extraíram menores quantidades da maioria dos nutrientes.This work reports the dry matter accumulation, the nutrient, Co, Al and Na - concentrations, and the removal of nutrients and Co, Al and Na per metric ton of fresh material of 35 species of vegetables by the harvest. The samples mostly came from the region of Campinas, State of São Paulo and consisted of the products removed from the field, fractioned in their several parts: watermelon in epicarp + white pulp, red pulp and seeds; eggplant in fruit and stalk; melon in epicarp + pulp and seeds; pea in shell and seeds; cauliflower in leaf and inflorescence; sugar beet, carrot, turnip and radish in leaf and root; artichoke in leaf + stalk and inflorescence. The whole fruit was utilized in the case of edible fruit bearing vegetables; the leaves in the case of the leafy vegetables; and the bulbous root in the case of the iffy-like vegetables. In general, the leguminous

  8. Checking the detail in retail: Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on vegetables sold across different counters in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utaaker, Kjersti Selstad; Kumar, Anil; Joshi, Himanshu; Chaudhary, Suman; Robertson, Lucy J

    2017-12-18

    Fresh produce has been recognized as a vehicle of infection for protozoan parasites, particularly Cryptosporidium, and, to a lesser extent, Giardia. For both parasites, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have been documented. Although documented outbreaks tend to be from industrialized countries, contamination of fresh produce with these parasites is a global issue. In developing countries, infections with these parasites are often endemic in the community, and basic infrastructure and hygiene measures may be inadequate, thus the likelihood of contamination of fresh produce with these parasites may be higher. Realization of the importance of this transmission route comes against a backdrop of raw salads and more Western culinary habits gaining a foothold, and fresh produce being encouraged as part of the diet due to their associated health benefits. However, if consumption of uncooked fresh produce is going to increase its market sector in India, it is important that it is safe. In this study, various types of fresh produce obtained from three types of vendors in Chandigarh, a major city in Northern India, were analyzed for contamination with Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using a method that has been previously validated in inter-laboratory spiking experiments. A total of 284 samples of different fresh produce items were analyzed, obtained from the different retailers situated in different societal layers of the city. The overall prevalence of contamination of fresh produce with these parasites was just under 11%, with 6% of the vegetables contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 5% with Giardia cysts. Contaminated vegetables included turnip, cabbage, carrot, chili, coriander, cucumber, radishes, and tomatoes. Molecular analyses identified contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis of Assemblage A and Assemblage D, indicating that contamination from animals may be of relevance. Although the prevalence of contamination is

  9. Efeito de diferentes coberturas vegetais e sistemas de preparo do solo na produção da cultura da soja = Effect of different vegetal coverings and soil tillage systems on soybean crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Adilmar Prestes Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o desempenho da soja sob a influência de cobertura vegetal e de manejo do solo em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Utilizaram-se aveia, nabo, ervilhaca, ervilha, milheto e tremoço. Avaliaram-se altura e densidade de plantas, altura de inserção de vagens, número de vagens, produtividade, massa de mil grãos, teor de água, densidade e resistência do solo à penetração. O sistema semeadura direta teve maior altura de inserção de vagens, quantidade de vagens, altura de plantas, teor de água e densidade do solo. Maiores valores de resistência do solo à penetração foram verificados no preparo convencional, porém obteve-se maior produtividade. As coberturas e os sistemas de preparo influenciaram na produtividade das plantas de soja. As coberturas vegetaispromoveram melhorias no solo com redução da compactação em algumas camadas do solo. O consórcio aveia/ervilhaca mostrou-se uma técnica de manejo inadequada para as condições às quais o solo foi submetido. O consórcio aveia/milheto mostrou ser uma opção viável de cobertura de solo antecessora à soja. A semeadura direta mostrou ser técnica demanejo adequado para o tipo de solo estudado.This study evaluated the performance of the soybean under the influence of vegetal covering and soil management in Red Latosol dystrofic. Oats, turnip, hairy vetch, pea, millet and lupine were used. The study evaluated height and density of plants, height of insertion in string beans, number of string beans, productivity, athousand grain mass, water contend, bulk density and soil resistance to penetration. The no-tillage system had greater height of insertion of string beans, amount of string beans, height of plants, water contend and soil bulk density. Greater values of soil resistance topenetration were verified in the tillage, though higher productivity was observed. The coverings and the soil tillage systems influenced the productivity of soybean plants. The

  10. Avaliação da libertação de azoto a partir de correctivos orgânicos utilizando membranas de troca aniónica e um medidor de clorofila SPAD-502 Nitrogen release from organic amendments assessed by using anion exchange membranes and the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pereira

    2009-01-01

    senescência por falta de azoto.Results from pot experiments where anion exchange membranes (MTA were inserted into the soil to monitor soil nitrate levels over time, and the plant N nutritional status assessed with a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter, are reported in this work. Maize was grown in the summer season and turnip and rye in the winter period. Maize was sown on June 5, 2004, and turnip and rye on September 23, 2004. The plants were subjected to the following treatments: Nutrisoil (Nut; Beiraadubo (Bei; Phenix (Phe; Vegethumus (Veg; cow manure (EB; chestnut fruit bark (CC; ammonium nitrate (NA; and control treatment, without N fertilization (T. Two weeks after the maize was sown, soil nitrate levels extracted by MTA ranged between 18.9 and 239.0 mg L-1 in the CC and Bei treatments, respectively. In the first week of August mean soil nitrate values ranged between 12.9 and 52.3 mg L-1 in the CC and Bei treatments. In September, the last sampling date, mean soil nitrate levels were found to be in the range of 9.7 and 67.9 mg L-1 in the CC and Nut treatments. Relationships between MTA and SPAD results with dry matter yield and N uptake were established. The MTA were able to differentiate well as the organic amendments released their N during the season and this aspect influenced N uptake and plant growth. SPAD readings were also a good index of plant N nutritional status. SPAD values were linearly related with dry matter yield and N uptake. In this study, where the pots were managed to avoid nitrate leaching and denitrification, winter grown species recovered the residual N of maize fertilization. At the end of experiment the plants showed senescent leaves with deep N deficiency symptoms.

  11. Sustentabilidade de sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas em solos de várzea no Sul do Brasil Crop rotations sustainability and successions systems in tilled plain areas in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Jesus Vernetti Junior

    2009-09-01

    [nabo x soja x arroz (PD] apresentam, respectivamente, a maior e a menor sustentabilidade entre aqueles sistemas em que a cultura da soja participa; (c o sistema S5 [campo nativo x soja x arroz (SC] apresenta o menor índice de sustentabilidade; (d o sistema S8 [Consórcio x milho x arroz (PD] apresenta a melhor distribuição e o melhor equilíbrio entre as diversas perspectivas de sustentabilidade consideradas; (e o sistema S10 [campo nativo x milho x arroz (SC] tem pior desempenho, no que se refere à sustentabilidade entre os que incluem o milho; (f o sistema de PD confere maior sustentabilidade às sucessões de cultura.The quantitative analysis with different types of indicators is crucial in determining the sustainability of crop succession. This study aimed to appraise that in tilled plain areas. The research was carried out in Pelotas, RS, Brazil at Embrapa Clima Temperado research area. The treatments consisted of successions of winter and spring-summer crops species for five years, followed by two years of fallow and three years of rice cropping. The spring-summer crops were corn and soybean, besides rice; the winter crops were cereals, leguminous pastures, mixtures species, turnip and native grass species. Seeding was performed either by no-till (NT or conventional (CT. The experiment was planned in a split-plot randomized blocks design with three replications, where the summer crops occupied the plots, while the winter's species were allocated to the subplots. The parameters measured were transformed into index to standardize the variables, each one in relation to the better measurement behavior, and arranged in four categories of analysis: (a Agronomics indices (dry weight and grain yield; (b Environmental indicators (soil fertility; (c Energy Indicators (gain and energy efficiency; d Economic Indicators (profitability and gross value of production. Through harmonic average rates calculated for each indicator, comparisons to the crop succession were then

  12. Chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephant grass silage with biodiesel industry co-products Composição química e características fermentativas de silagens de capim elefante contendo coprodutos da indústria do biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco van Cleef

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of three concentrations (3, 6, and 9% of forage turnip (Raphanus sativus and physic nut (Jatropha curcas cakes on dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen contents, in vitro dry matter digestibility, pH values and concentrations of N-NH3 in elephant grass silages. It was used an entirely randomized design in factorial arrangement [(2×3+1]. Experimental PVC silos were used and ensiled material was kept for 62 days. The addition of cakes increased the dry matter contents (PObjetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição de três concentrações (3, 6, e 9% das tortas de nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus e de pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas sobre os teores de matéria seca, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, lignina, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, valores de pH e concentrações de N-NH3 em silagens de capim-elefante. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial [(2×3+1]. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC e o material ensilado permaneceu por 62 dias. A adição das tortas proporcionou aumento nos teores de matéria seca (P<0,05. As frações fibrosas foram diminuídas (P<0,05 com a inclusão das tortas no momento da ensilagem do capim e os teores de PB aumentados (P<0,05. A torta de nabo forrageiro proporcionou a manutenção dos valores de pH e de N-NH3 em níveis ideais e a de pinhão manso, adicionada a 9%, elevou esses valores (P<0,05. A DIVMS foi diminuída (P<0,05 quando as tortas foram adicionadas. As tortas de nabo forrageiro e pinhão manso podem ser utilizadas em pequenas quantidades na ensilagem do capim-elefante por melhorarem as características químicas e fermentativas

  13. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and of Casearia sylvestris Sw. on cropsEfeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e de Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is characterized by the harmful or benefic effects caused by secondary metabolites, that are produced by plants, microorganisms or fungi and are released in the environment, on the development of natural biological systems or implemented ones. This study aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and wild coffee (Casearia sylvestris Sw. on the germination and initial development of mustard (Brassica campestris L., cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. italica, kale (Brassica pekinensis L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. grand rapids, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, turnip (Brassica rapa L., rucola (Eruca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.. Six concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 100% and compared to control (distilled water, with five replicates of each concentration, being ten seeds of each crop distributed in each replicate. The aqueous extracts of E. globulus and C. sylvestris reduced significantly the percentage of seed germination, the index of germination speed and the initial growth of the above ground part and roots of all cultivated species, being the reduction of these parameters higher with the increment of the aqueous extracts concentration, which led to thicker and atrophied roots with a higher number of absorbent hairs. Therefore, the results indicate an existence of allelopathic potential of E. globulus and C. sylvestris.A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos que metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas, microrganismos ou fungos liberados no ambiente exercem sobre o desenvolvimento de sistemas biológicos naturais ou implantados. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Sw. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de

  14. Adubação verde e nitrogenada na cultura do trigo em plantio direto Green manure and nitrogen fertilization in the spring wheat under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Viola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pouco se sabe sobre os benefícios do cultivo de adubos verdes sobre o desempenho da cultura do trigo, cultivada em sucessão e, até que ponto, pode substituir ou reduzir a adubação nitrogenada mineral. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a produção e decomposição de matéria seca bem como o acúmulo e liberação de nutrientes de plantas de cobertura de solo (nabo forrageiro, ervilhaca comum, ervilha forrageira, tremoço e feijoeiro e quantificar seus efeitos sobre o desempenho da cultura do trigo, cultivada em sucessão, sob diferentes doses de adubação nitrogenada (sem adição de nitrogênio, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1. O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Pato Branco (PR, em duas safras agrícolas, em sistema de plantio direto. O nabo forrageiro e o tremoço acumularam as maiores quantidades de cálcio e potássio. A ervilha forrageira e o nabo forrageiro destacam-se pela produção de matéria seca, acúmulo de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, bem como pela decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio para a cultura do trigo em estádios fenológicos de maior demanda deste nutriente. A relação C/N (superior a 40 dos restos culturais do milho e feijoeiro não possibilitou equilíbrio entre os processos de mineralização e imobilização. Os adubos verdes promoveram acréscimos significativos na produtividade de grãos em comparação ao pousio. Houve resposta do trigo à aplicação de nitrogênio mineral, e esta foi dependente da planta de cobertura antecessora.There are few studies about the benefits of green manure on wheat performance grown in succession as source of nitrogen. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the dry matter production and nutrient accumulation in wheat and the dry matter decomposition and nutrient release of cover crops forage turnip, common vetch, forage pea, lupine and bean and quantify their effects over wheat crop performance sown in succession under different nitrogen rates (without

  15. Physical properties of a humic cambisol under tillage and cropping systems after twelve years Atributos físicos e carbono orgânico de um cambissolo húmico dob sistemas de preparo e cultivo após doze anos

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    Andréia Patrícia Andrade

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the basis underlying the food production chain and it is fundamental to improve and conserve its productive capacity. Imbalanced exploitation can degrade agricultural areas physical, chemical and biologically. The objective of this study was to evaluate some soil physical properties and their relation with organic carbon contents of a Humic Dystrudept under conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT, for 12 years in rotation (r and succession (s cropping systems. The experiment was carried out in Lages, SC (latitude 27 º 49 ' S and longitude 50 º 20 ' W, 937 m asl, using crop sequences of bean-fallow-maize-fallow-soybean in conventional tillage rotation; maize-fallow in conventional tillage succession; bean-oat-maize-turnip-soybean-vetch in no-tillage rotation; and maize-vetch in no-tillage succession. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10, and 10-20 cm. The following properties were analyzed: soil density, porosity, aggregate stability, degree of flocculation, water retention, infiltration, mechanical strength, and total organic carbon. Soil aggregation in the surface layer (0-5 cm was better in the no-tillage than the conventional system, related to higher microporosity, organic carbon contents and water retention capacity, indicating that a periodical tillage of this soil is unnecessary. Infiltration was highest in no-tillage with crop succession.O solo é a base da cadeia produtiva de alimentos, por isso tornam-se necessárias a conservação e manutenção de sua capacidade produtiva. Muitas áreas exploradas de forma incorreta podem apresentar degradação física, química e biológica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar alguns atributos físicos e suas relações com os teores de carbono orgânico de um Cambissolo Húmico alumínico nos sistemas de preparo convencional (PC e semeadura direta (SD, após 12 anos com rotação (r

  16. Adubação verde e nitrogenada na cultura do trigo em plantio direto Green manure and nitrogen fertilization in the spring wheat under no-tillage

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    Ricardo Viola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pouco se sabe sobre os benefícios do cultivo de adubos verdes sobre o desempenho da cultura do trigo, cultivada em sucessão e, até que ponto, pode substituir ou reduzir a adubação nitrogenada mineral. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a produção e decomposição de matéria seca bem como o acúmulo e liberação de nutrientes de plantas de cobertura de solo (nabo forrageiro, ervilhaca comum, ervilha forrageira, tremoço e feijoeiro e quantificar seus efeitos sobre o desempenho da cultura do trigo, cultivada em sucessão, sob diferentes doses de adubação nitrogenada (sem adição de nitrogênio, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1. O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Pato Branco (PR, em duas safras agrícolas, em sistema de plantio direto. O nabo forrageiro e o tremoço acumularam as maiores quantidades de cálcio e potássio. A ervilha forrageira e o nabo forrageiro destacam-se pela produção de matéria seca, acúmulo de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, bem como pela decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio para a cultura do trigo em estádios fenológicos de maior demanda deste nutriente. A relação C/N (superior a 40 dos restos culturais do milho e feijoeiro não possibilitou equilíbrio entre os processos de mineralização e imobilização. Os adubos verdes promoveram acréscimos significativos na produtividade de grãos em comparação ao pousio. Houve resposta do trigo à aplicação de nitrogênio mineral, e esta foi dependente da planta de cobertura antecessora.There are few studies about the benefits of green manure on wheat performance grown in succession as source of nitrogen. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the dry matter production and nutrient accumulation in wheat and the dry matter decomposition and nutrient release of cover crops forage turnip, common vetch, forage pea, lupine and bean and quantify their effects over wheat crop performance sown in succession under different nitrogen rates (without

  17. Input of dry matter by roots and shoots of summer cover cropsAporte de matéria seca por raízes e parte aérea de plantas de cobertura de verão

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    Cristiane de Conti Medina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of using cover crops or green manures are already well known, but little is known about the contribution of the root system of these plants in the stock of organic matter in the soil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter, carbon and nitrogen supply by above ground parts and roots (down to 1.0 m deep of cover crop plants (Jack-bean – Canavalia ensiformis; velvet bean – Stizolobium niveum Kuntze; Crotalaria juncea L.; and millet – Pennisetum americanum, in sequence of corn – turnip – oat plus vetch. Trenches were dug and roots samplings were collected at seven depths (0-0.10; 0.10-0.20; 0.20-0.30; 0.30-0.40; 0.40-0, 60; 0.60-0.80; and 0.80-1.00 m. The experimental design was randomized blocks and the results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. Despite millet presented the highest dry mass input (3.58 Mg ha-1 from above ground part (AGP, its C contribution from root system (RS was lower than C. juncea, because AGP/RS millet relation was 1.46 while this value for C. juncea was 0.75. Among the evaluated green manures, the roots of C. juncea contribute the most carbon (1.40 Mg ha-1 than the others, while the roots of velvet bean contribute the largest amount of nitrogen (72.38 kg ha-1 to the soil.As vantagens do uso de plantas de cobertura ou adubos verdes nos sistemas de produção já são bem conhecidas, mas pouco se sabe sobre a contribuição do sistema radicular dessas plantas no estoque de matéria orgânica do solo em profundidades maiores que 0,30 m, nas quais têm sido relatados maiores efeitos do manejo do solo, principalmente em regiões de clima tropical e subtropical. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os aportes de matéria seca, C e N e a densidade de comprimento radicular até 1,0 m de profundidade de plantas de cobertura de verão (feijão-de-porco, mucuna cinza, Crotalaria juncea e milheto, bem como a profundidade efetiva das raízes e a relação parte aérea/sistema radicular (PA/SR, em

  18. Propriedades físicas do solo sob preparo convencional e semeadura direta em rotação e sucessão de culturas, comparadas às do campo nativo Physical soil properties of conventional tillage and no-tillage, in crop rotation and succession, compared with natural pasture

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    I. Bertol

    2004-02-01

    sustentabilidade da semeadura direta no que se refere à estabilidade dos agregados em água. Os sistemas de cultivo não influenciaram as propriedades físicas do solo.In soils with naturally favorable characteristics for cultivation, conventional tillage degrades the physical soil properties, since this management system causes the rupture of aggregates, soil compaction, and eliminates soil cover. No-tillage, on the other hand, maintains soil cover and improves physical properties, but consolidates the surface layer. Our study was conducted on a Haplumbrept soil, from May 1995 to April 2001. Five soil tillage treatments were used: conventional tillage crop rotation (CTR, conventional tillage crop succession (CTS, no-tillage crop rotation (NTR, no-tillage crop succession (NTS, and natural pasture (NP, in four replications each. The crop sequences were bean/fallow/maize/fallow/soybean/fallow in CTR, maize/fallow/maize/fallow/maize/fallow in CTS, bean/oat/maize/turnip/soybean/vetch in NTR and maize/vetch/maize/vetch/maize/vetch in NTS. Soil density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, organic carbon, and water aggregate stability (MWD were evaluated in April 2001 for the soil layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, and 20-30 cm. In the 0-10 cm layer, soil density was higher in no-tillage than conventional tillage and natural pasture, while macroporosity, total porosity, and the macroporosity/total porosity relation was higher in conventional tillage in the mean for cropping systems, in this layer. Organic carbon, MWD, and sensibility index for MWD means of layers and tillage systems were higher in no-tillage and natural pasture than in conventional tillage.